Sample records for vibrated granular matter

  1. The minimization of mechanical work in vibrated granular matter. (United States)

    Clewett, James P D; Wade, Jack; Bowley, R M; Herminghaus, Stephan; Swift, Michael R; Mazza, Marco G


    Experiments and computer simulations are carried out to investigate phase separation in a granular gas under vibration. The densities of the dilute and the dense phase are found to follow a lever rule and obey an equation of state. Here we show that the Maxwell equal-areas construction predicts the coexisting pressure and binodal densities remarkably well, even though the system is far from thermal equilibrium. This construction can be linked to the minimization of mechanical work associated with density fluctuations without invoking any concept related to equilibrium-like free energies.

  2. Mathematical models of granular matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale


    Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.

  3. Noise and diffusion of a vibrated self-propelled granular particle. (United States)

    Walsh, Lee; Wagner, Caleb G; Schlossberg, Sarah; Olson, Christopher; Baskaran, Aparna; Menon, Narayanan


    Granular materials are an important physical realization of active matter. In vibration-fluidized granular matter, both diffusion and self-propulsion derive from the same collisional forcing, unlike many other active systems where there is a clean separation between the origin of single-particle mobility and the coupling to noise. Here we present experimental studies of single-particle motion in a vibrated granular monolayer, along with theoretical analysis that compares grain motion at short and long time scales to the assumptions and predictions, respectively, of the active Brownian particle (ABP) model. Our results show that despite the unique relation between noise and propulsion, a variety of granular particles are correctly described by the ABP model. Additionally, our scheme of analysis for validating the inputs and outputs of the model can be applied to other granular and non-granular active systems.

  4. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan


    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  5. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.


    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  6. Patterns of granular convection and separation in narrow vibration bed

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    Liu Chuanping


    Full Text Available Granular convection/separation of single and binary component particles are studied in a narrow vibration bed, respectively. With filling the single light particles (molecular sieve beads, the bed exhibits five different states successively by increasing the vibration frequency f from 15Hz to 70 Hz (vibration strength Γ>3, as the global convection, symmetrical heap, unsymmetrical heap, local convection and pseudo solid. Comparatively, the granular bed of the single heavy particles (steel beads is only in pseudo solid state at the above vibration condition. By filling binary component particles (molecular sieve and same size steel beads instead of the single component, the bed shows similar convection state with that of the single molecular sieve beads, and the heavy steel beads are aggregated in the centre of convention roll as a core. Varying the initial distribution of binary component particles, the final convection and separation are not influenced, although the aggregation process of steel beads changes.

  7. Vertical motion of particles in vibration-induced granular capillarity

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    Fan Fengxian


    Full Text Available When a narrow tube inserted into a static container filled with particles is subjected to vertical vibration, the particles rise in the tube, much resembling the ascending motion of a liquid column in a capillary tube. To gain insights on the particle dynamics dictating this phenomenon – which we term granular capillarity – we numerically investigate the system using the Discrete Element Method (DEM. We reproduce the dynamical process of the granular capillarity and analyze the vertical motion of the individual particles in the tube, as well as the average vertical velocities of the particles. Our simulations show that the height of the granular column fluctuates in a periodic or period-doubling manner as the tube vibrates, until a steady-state (capillary height is reached. Moreover, our results for the average vertical velocity of the particles in the tube at different radial positions suggest that granular convection is one major factor underlying the particle-based dynamics that lead to the granular capillarity phenomenon.

  8. Hydrodynamics of an open vibrated granular system

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    Brey, J. Javier; Ruiz-Montero, M. J.; Moreno, F.


    Using the hydrodynamic description and molecular dynamics simulations, the steady state of a fluidized granular system in the presence of gravity is studied. For an open system, the density profile exhibits a maximum, while the temperature profile goes through a minimum at high altitude, beyond that the temperature increases with the height. The existence of the minimum is explained by the hydrodynamic equations if the presence of a collisionless boundary layer is taken into account. The energy dissipated by interparticle collisions is also computed. A good agreement is found between theory and simulation. The relationship with previous works is discussed.

  9. Granular dampers for the reduction of vibrations of an oscillatory saw (United States)

    Heckel, Michael; Sack, Achim; Kollmer, Jonathan E.; Pöschel, Thorsten


    Instruments for surgical and dental application based on oscillatory mechanics submit unwanted vibrations to the operator's hand. Frequently the weight of the instrument's body is increased to dampen its vibration. Based on recent research regarding the optimization of granular damping we developed a prototype granular damper that attenuates the vibrations of an oscillatory saw twice as efficiently as a comparable solid mass.


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    The authors study experimentally statistical properties of the opening times of knots in vertically vibrated granular chains. Our measurements are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with a theoretical model involving three random walks interacting via hard core exclusion in one spatial dimension. In particular, the knot survival probability follows a universal scaling function which is independent of the chain length, with a corresponding diffusive characteristic time scale. Both the large-exit-time and the small-exit-time tails of the distribution are suppressed exponentially, and the corresponding decay coefficients are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values.

  11. Granular Media-Based Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor (United States)

    Dillon, Robert P.; Davis, Gregory L.; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Borgonia, John Paul C.; Kahn, Daniel L.; Boechler, Nicholas; Boechler,, Chiara


    and vibration suppression device is composed of statically compressed chains of spherical particles. The device superimposes a combination of dissipative damping and dispersive effects. The dissipative damping resulting from the elastic wave attenuation properties of the bulk material selected for the granular media is independent of particle geometry and periodicity, and can be accordingly designed based on the dissipative (or viscoelastic) properties of the material. For instance, a viscoelastic polymer might be selected where broadband damping is desired. In contrast, the dispersive effects result from the periodic arrangement and geometry of particles composing a linear granular chain. A uniform (monatomic) chain of statically compressed spherical particles will have a low-pass filter effect, with a cutoff frequency tunable as a function of particle mass, elastic modulus, Poisson fs ratio, radius, and static compression. Elastic waves with frequency content above this cutoff frequency will exhibit an exponential decay in amplitude as a function of propagation distance. System design targeting a specific application is conducted using a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental techniques to appropriately select the particle radii, material (and thus elastic modulus and Poisson fs ratio), and static compression to satisfy estimated requirements derived for shock and/or vibration protection needs under particular operational conditions. The selection of a chain of polymer spheres with an elastic modulus .3 provided the appropriate dispersive filtering effect for that exercise; however, different operational scenarios may require the use of other polymers, metals, ceramics, or a combination thereof, configured as an array of spherical particles. The device is a linear array of spherical particles compressed in a container with a mechanism for attachment to the shock and/or vibration source, and a mechanism for attachment to the article requiring

  12. The glass and jamming transitions in dense granular matter (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Candelier, Raphaël; Dauchot, Olivier


    Everyday life tells us that matter acquires rigidity either when it cools down, like lava flows which turn into solid rocks, or when it is compacted, like tablets simply formed by powder compression. As suggested by these examples, solidification is not the sole privilege of crystals but also happens for disordered media such as glass formers, granular media, foams, emulsions and colloidal suspensions. Fifteen years ago the "Jamming paradigm" emerged to encompass in a unique framework the glass transition and the emergence of yield stress, two challenging issues in modern condensed matter physics. One must realize how bold this proposal was, given that the glass transition is a finite temperature transition governing the dynamical properties of supercooled liquids, while Jamming is essentially a zero temperature, zero external stress and purely geometric transition which occurs when a given packing of particles reaches the maximum compression state above which particles start to overlap. More recently, the observation of remarkable scaling properties on the approach to jamming led to the conjecture that this zero temperature "critical point" could determine the properties of dense particle systems within a region of the parameter space to be determined, which in principle could include thermal and stressed systems. Fifteen years of intense theoretical and experimental work later, what have we learned about Jamming and glassy dynamics? In this paper, we discuss these issues in the light of the experiments we have been conducting with vibrated grains.

  13. Granular flows down inclined and vibrated planes: influence of basal friction (United States)

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine


    We present an experimental study about granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. The results of the flow properties highlight the existence of two distinct regimes: (i) a gravity-driven regime at large angles where scaling laws are in agreement with those reported in the literature for non-vibrating granular flows and (ii) a vibration-driven regime at small angles where no flow occurs without applied vibrations. The flow in this regime is well described by a vibrationinduced activated process. We also propose an empirical law to capture the evolution of the thickness of the deposits as a function of the vibration intensity and the inclination angle.

  14. Localization and instability in sheared granular materials: Role of friction and vibration (United States)

    Kothari, Konik R.; Elbanna, Ahmed E.


    Shear banding and stick-slip instabilities have been long observed in sheared granular materials. Yet, their microscopic underpinnings, interdependencies, and variability under different loading conditions have not been fully explored. Here we use a nonequilibrium thermodynamics model, the Shear Transformation Zone theory, to investigate the dynamics of strain localization and its connection to stability of sliding in sheared, dry, granular materials. We consider frictional and frictionless grains as well as the presence and absence of acoustic vibrations. Our results suggest that at low and intermediate strain rates, persistent shear bands develop only in the absence of vibrations. Vibrations tend to fluidize the granular network and delocalize slip at these rates. Stick-slip is observed only for frictional grains, and it is confined to the shear band. At high strain rates, stick-slip disappears and the different systems exhibit similar stress-slip response. Changing the vibration intensity, duration or time of application alters the system response and may cause long-lasting rheological changes. We analyze these observations in terms of possible transitions between rate strengthening and rate weakening response facilitated by a competition between shear-induced dilation and vibration-induced compaction. We discuss the implications of our results on dynamic triggering, quiescence, and strength evolution in gouge-filled fault zones.

  15. Stick-slip instabilities in sheared granular flow: The role of friction and acoustic vibrations. (United States)

    Lieou, Charles K C; Elbanna, Ahmed E; Langer, J S; Carlson, J M


    We propose a theory of shear flow in dense granular materials. A key ingredient of the theory is an effective temperature that determines how the material responds to external driving forces such as shear stresses and vibrations. We show that, within our model, friction between grains produces stick-slip behavior at intermediate shear rates, even if the material is rate strengthening at larger rates. In addition, externally generated acoustic vibrations alter the stick-slip amplitude, or suppress stick-slip altogether, depending on the pressure and shear rate. We construct a phase diagram that indicates the parameter regimes for which stick-slip occurs in the presence and absence of acoustic vibrations of a fixed amplitude and frequency. These results connect the microscopic physics to macroscopic dynamics and thus produce useful information about a variety of granular phenomena, including rupture and slip along earthquake faults, the remote triggering of instabilities, and the control of friction in material processing.

  16. Vibrational dephasing in matter-wave interferometers (United States)

    Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Röpke, R.; Chang, W. T.; Hwang, I. S.; Günther, A.; Stibor, A.


    Matter-wave interferometry is a highly sensitive tool to measure small perturbations in a quantum system. This property allows the creation of precision sensors for dephasing mechanisms such as mechanical vibrations. They are a challenge for phase measurements under perturbing conditions that cannot be perfectly decoupled from the interferometer, e.g. for mobile interferometric devices or vibrations with a broad frequency range. Here, we demonstrate a method based on second-order correlation theory in combination with Fourier analysis, to use an electron interferometer as a sensor that precisely characterizes the mechanical vibration spectrum of the interferometer. Using the high spatial and temporal single-particle resolution of a delay line detector, the data allows to reveal the original contrast and spatial periodicity of the interference pattern from ‘washed-out’ matter-wave interferograms that have been vibrationally disturbed in the frequency region between 100 and 1000 Hz. Other than with electromagnetic dephasing, due to excitations of higher harmonics and additional frequencies induced from the environment, the parts in the setup oscillate with frequencies that can be different to the applied ones. The developed numerical search algorithm is capable to determine those unknown oscillations and corresponding amplitudes. The technique can identify vibrational dephasing and decrease damping and shielding requirements in electron, ion, neutron, atom and molecule interferometers that generate a spatial fringe pattern on the detector plane.

  17. Effective potentials in a bidimensional vibrated granular gas (United States)

    Velázquez-Pérez, Stephanie; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri


    We present a numerical study of the spatial correlations of a quasi-two-dimensional granular fluid kept in a nonstatic steady state via vertical shaking. The simulations explore a wide range of vertical accelerations, restitution coefficients, and packing fractions, always staying below the crystallization limit. From the simulations we obtain the relevant pair distribution functions (PDFs), and effective potentials for the interparticle interaction are extracted from these PDFs via the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the Percus-Yevick closure. The correlations in the granular structures originating from these effective potentials are checked against the originating PDF using standard Monte Carlo simulations, and we find in general an excellent agreement. The resulting effective potentials show an increase of the spatial correlation at contact with the decreasing values of the restitution coefficient, and a tendency of the potentials to display deeper wells for more dissipative dynamics. A general exception to this trend appears for a range of values of the forcing, which depends on the restitution coefficient, but not on the density, where resonant bouncing increases correlations, resulting in deeper potential wells. The nature of these resonances is explored and shown to be the result of synchronization in the parabolic flights of the particles.

  18. Dynamical behavior of granular matter in low gravity (diamagnetic levitation)

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    Brooks, J.S. E-mail:; Cothern, J.A


    We report studies on the dynamics of macroscopic particles in a low-gravity 'magnetic levitation' environment. In a real sense, this allows the investigation of new states of granular matter. Particle ensembles (rods, spheres, or grains) can be held in a weak confining potential due to diamagnetic forces in a high-field-resistive magnet. In such a case 'kT' is not zero, and assemblies of particles undergo ergodic processes to find the lowest configurational ground state. This new area presents unique problems for video data acquisition and mathematical descriptions of the complex dynamic motions, interactions, and configurations of single and multiple particle assemblies. Three examples of such processes are presented.

  19. Time-resolved dynamics of granular matter by random laser emission. (United States)

    Folli, Viola; Ghofraniha, Neda; Puglisi, Andrea; Leuzzi, Luca; Conti, Claudio


    Because of the huge commercial importance of granular systems, the second-most used material in industry after water, intersecting the industry in multiple trades, like pharmacy and agriculture, fundamental research on grain-like materials has received an increasing amount of attention in the last decades. In photonics, the applications of granular materials have been only marginally investigated. We report the first phase-diagram of a granular as obtained by laser emission. The dynamics of vertically-oscillated granular in a liquid solution in a three-dimensional container is investigated by employing its random laser emission. The granular motion is function of the frequency and amplitude of the mechanical solicitation, we show how the laser emission allows to distinguish two phases in the granular and analyze its spectral distribution. This constitutes a fundamental step in the field of granulars and gives a clear evidence of the possible control on light-matter interaction achievable in grain-like system.

  20. An experimental study of ultrasonic vibration and the penetration of granular material (United States)

    Firstbrook, David; Worrall, Kevin; Timoney, Ryan; Suñol, Francesc; Gao, Yang


    This work investigates the potential use of direct ultrasonic vibration as an aid to penetration of granular material. Compared with non-ultrasonic penetration, required forces have been observed to reduce by an order of magnitude. Similarly, total consumed power can be reduced by up to 27%, depending on the substrate and ultrasonic amplitude used. Tests were also carried out in high-gravity conditions, displaying a trend that suggests these benefits could be leveraged in lower gravity regimes. PMID:28293134

  1. Isochoric ideality in jammed random packings of non-spherical granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrylyuk, A.V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269067590; van der Haar, M.A.; Rossi, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410376; Wouterse, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841390; Philipse, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073532894


    Randomly packed particles in granular matter, ubiquitous in nature and industry, usually defy simple predictions for the optimal amorphous packing density because jammed granules are strongly correlated. While mixing different granular shapes seems to be a further complication, we discovered in

  2. The self-propulsion of a helix in granular matter (United States)

    Valdes, Rogelio; Angeles, Veronica; de La Calleja, Elsa; Zenit, Roberto


    The effect of the shape of helicoidal on the displacement of magnetic robots in granular media is studied experimentally. We quantify the influences of three main parameters of the shape of the helicoidal swimmers: body diameter, step, and the angle. We compare the experimental measurements with an empirically modified resistive force theory prediction that accounts for the static friction coefficient of the particles of the granular material, leading to good agreement. Comparisons are also made with the granular resistive force theory proposed by Goldman and collaborators. We found an optimal helix angle to produce movement and determined a relationship between the swimmer size and speed.

  3. Do granular systems obey statistical mechanics? A review of recent work assessing the applicability of equilibrium theory to vibrationally excited granular media (United States)

    Windows-Yule, C. R. K.


    Driven granular media — assemblies of discrete, macroscopic elements exposed to a source of mechanical energy — represent inherently out-of-equilibrium systems. Although granular media are ubiquitous in both nature and industry, due to their dissipative nature and resultant complex behaviors they remain startlingly poorly understood as compared to classical, thermodynamic systems. Nonetheless, in recent years it has been observed that the behaviors of granular media can, under certain circumstances, closely resemble those of equilibrium systems. One of the most important contemporary questions in the field of granular physics is whether these similarities are merely superficial, or whether the parallels run deep enough that the behaviors of these nonequilibrium systems can in fact be successfully captured using analogs to existing theoretical models developed for classical systems. In this review, we draw together the findings of a variety of recent studies where this question has been addressed, comparing and contrasting the results and conclusions presented. We focus our attention on vibrated and vibrofluidized granular beds, which provide a canonical system representative of various equilibrium and nonequilibrium physical systems, and whose simple dynamics offer a valuable testing ground for exploring the fundamental physics of the granular state.

  4. Separation of binary granular mixtures under vibration and differential magnetic levitation force. (United States)

    Catherall, A T; López-Alcaraz, P; Sánchez, P; Swift, Michael R; King, P J


    The application of both a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient to a diamagnetic or paramagnetic material can produce a vertical force that acts in concert with the force of gravity. We consider a binary granular mixture in which the two components have different magnetic susceptibilities and therefore experience different effective forces of gravity when subjected to an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Under vertical vibration, such a mixture may rapidly separate into regions almost pure in the two components. We investigate the conditions for this behavior, studying the speed and completeness of separation as a function of differential effective gravity and the frequency and amplitude of vibration. The influence of the cohesive magnetic dipole-dipole interactions on the separation process is also investigated. In our studies insight is gained through the use of a molecular dynamics simulation model.

  5. Phase-coexisting patterns, horizontal segregation, and controlled convection in vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures (United States)

    Ansari, Istafaul Haque; Rivas, Nicolas; Alam, Meheboob


    We report patterns consisting of coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous states [for example, a granular gas co-existing with (i) bouncing bed, (ii) undulatory subharmonic waves, and (iii) Leidenfrost-like states] in experiments on vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures in a Hele-Shaw cell. Most experiments have been carried out with equimolar binary mixtures of glass and steel balls of same diameter by varying the total layer height (F ) for a range of shaking acceleration (Γ ). All patterns as well as the related phase diagram in the (Γ ,F ) plane have been reproduced via molecular dynamics simulations of the same system. The segregation of heavier and lighter particles along the horizontal direction is shown to be the progenitor of such phase-coexisting patterns as confirmed in both experiment and simulation. At strong shaking we uncover a partial convection state in which a pair of convection rolls is found to coexist with a Leidenfrost-like state. The crucial role of the relative number density of two species on controlling the buoyancy-driven granular convection is demonstrated. The onset of horizontal segregation can be explained in terms of an anisotropic diffusion tensor.

  6. Modified inelastic bouncing ball model for describing the dynamics of granular materials in a vibrated container (United States)

    Balista, Junius André F.; Saloma, Caesar


    We show that at the onset of convection, the acceleration of a confined granular material is not necessarily equal to that of its vibrated container. Convection happens when the material is able to counter the downward gravitational pull and accelerates at a rate that is equal to the gravitational acceleration g. We modify the Inelastic Bouncing Ball Model and incorporate the transmissibility parameter Tr which measures the efficiency that the external force driving the container is transmitted to the material itself. For a specified Tr value, the material is represented by an inelastic bouncing ball with a time-of-flight T(Γ ;Tr) where Γ =A0ω2 / g, is the dimensionless container acceleration, and A0 and ω are the driving amplitude and angular frequency, respectively. For a given Γ-range, the T(Γ ;Tr) curve provides the bifurcation diagram of the perturbed material and a family of bifurcation diagrams is generated for a set of Tr values. We illustrate that Tr is useful in rationalizing experimental results produced by confined granular materials that is subjected to a range of applied force magnitudes. For the same physical set-up, the force transmission efficiency from the container to the grains may not remain constant as the force strength is varied. The efficiency is also affected by the presence or absence of air in the vibrated container.

  7. Development of Approaches to Creation of Active Vibration Control System in Problems of the Dynamics for Granular Media

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    Khomenko Andrei P.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the development of mathematical models and evaluation criteria of the vibration field in the dynamic interactions of the elements of the vibrational technological machines for the processes of vibrational strengthening of long-length parts with help of a steel balls working medium. The study forms a theoretical understanding of the modes of motions of material particles in interaction with a vibrating surface of the working body of the vibration machine. The generalized approach to the assessment of the dynamic quality of the work of vibrating machines in multiple modes of tossing, when the period of free flight of particles is a multiple of the period of the surface oscillations of the working body, is developed in the article. For the correction of vibration field of the working body, the characteristics of dynamic interactions of granular elements of the medium are taken into account using original sensors. The sensors that can detect different particularities of interaction of the granular medium elements at different points of the working body are proposed to evaluate the deviation from a homogeneous and one-dimensional mode of vibration field. Specially developed sensors are able to register interactions between a single granule, a system of granules in filamentous structures, and multipoint interactions of the elements in a close-spaced cylindrical structure. The system of regularization of the structure of vibration fields based on the introduction of motion translation devices is proposed using the multi-point sensor locations on the working body. The article refers to analytical approaches of the theory of vibration displacements. For the experimental data assessment, the methods of statistical analysis are applied. It is shown that the peculiar features of the motion of granular medium registered by the sensors can be used to build active control systems of field vibration.

  8. Recent advances in understanding deformation and flow of granular matter

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    Mesarović Siniša Đ.


    Full Text Available By means of graph theory, we analyze the changes in topology of a granular assembly during deformation. The elementary mechanism of diffuse deformation consists of intermittent flips. We show that dilatancy is the direct result of: an increasing number of flips, and, elastic relaxation of particles upon flips. Both are dependent on particles' elastic potential energy prior to flip and after the flip. The latter is the result of non uniform distribution of interparticle forces in force chains. Next, we consider shear bands in granular materials. Formation of shear bands is accompanied by accompanied by massive rolling of particle. Since rolling is constrained by neighbors, a characteristic rolling correlation length appears. The transmission of rotations in a particular direction depends on the strength of the force chain branches in the direction of propagation and across. The maximum propagation distance is comparable to observed widths of shear bands. Finally, we turn to the question of vortex formation within shear bands and argue that vortex pattern minimizes the dissipation/resistance in granular fluid.

  9. Liquid effect on the vibration of granular media in cylindrical cavities (United States)

    Guzman, Enrique; Zenit, Roberto


    The study of the interactions of granular media with liquid phases is important both, from the academic applied points of view. A particularly interesting problem concerns the dispersion of the granular phase into the liquid phase. To this end, a series of experiments are being conducted in order to determine the conditions under which such dispersion takes place. The experimental apparatus consists of a short transparent cylinder (LvD) with its axis oriented in a horizontal position. The cavity is completely filled with liquid and a prescribed number of glass spheres forms a deposit layer at the bottom. The cylinder, which is initially at rest, is set into a vertical vibrating state of motion by means of an external actuator. While the amplitude of the excitation remains fixed, its frequency is swept (continously) from 5Hz to 15Hz. Synchronized high speed imaging is then used to identify the frequency at which the stratified-to-dispersed transition occurs. Preliminary results clearly indicate the essential role played by the properties of the liquid (i.e. density, viscosity and superficial tension) and of the spheres (i.e. size and number) during the process. The objective of the study is to determine the conditions required to produce appropriate dispersions for different combinations of liquids and spheres.


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    Johan Debayle


    Full Text Available An image analysis method has been developed in order to compute the velocity field of a granular medium (sand grains, mean diameter 600 μm submitted to different kinds of mechanical stresses. The differential method based on optical flow conservation consists in describing a dense motion field with vectors associated to each pixel. A multiscale, coarse-to-fine, analytical approach through tailor sized windows yields the best compromise between accuracy and robustness of the results, while enabling an acceptable computation time. The corresponding algorithmis presented and its validation discussed through different tests. The results of the validation tests of the proposed approach show that the method is satisfactory when attributing specific values to parameters in association with the size of the image analysis window. An application in the case of vibrated sand has been studied. An instrumented laboratory device provides sinusoidal vibrations and enables external optical observations of sand motion in 3D transparent boxes. At 50 Hz, by increasing the relative acceleration G, the onset and development of two convective rolls can be observed. An ultra fast camera records the grain avalanches, and several pairs of images are analysed by the proposed method. The vertical velocity profiles are deduced and allow to precisely quantify the dimensions of the fluidized region as a function of G.

  11. "Lock in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter (United States)

    Clement, Cecile; Sanchez-Colina, Gustavo; Alonso-Llanes, Laciel; Martinez-Roman, Etien; Batitsta-Leyva, Alfo-Jose; Toussaint, Renaud; Altshuler, Ernesto


    molecular dynamic algorithm to confirm or not this assumption. We modelized a granular bed with particles of the same size than the one used in the experiments. Because we have access to the velocity of every particles we can quantify the dynamic of each layers of the granular medium and find its "jammed" boundary. Reference [1] G Sánchez-Colina, L Alonso-Llanes, E Martínez, AJ Batista-Leyva, C Clement, C Fliedner, R Toussaint, and E Altshuler. Note :"lock-in accelerometry" to follow sink dynamics in shaken granular matter. Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(12) :126101, 2014.

  12. Structural changes in wet granular matter due to drainage

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    Nair Prapanch


    Full Text Available Unsaturated wet granular media are usually modelled using force laws based on analytical and empirical results of liquid bridge forces between pairs of grains. These models make ad-hoc assumptions on the liquid volume present in the bridges and its distribution. The force between grains and rupture criterion of the bridge are a function of this assumed volume of liquid, in addition to other parameters like contact angle of the liquid, geometry of the grains and the inter grain distance. To study the initial volume and morphology of liquid bridges, hydrodynamic simulation of dynamic effects leading to formation of liquid bridges at grain scale are indispensable. We use a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics algorithm to simulate the hydrodynamics of the evolution of the free surface using a novel freesurface-capillary model, inspired by the molecular basis of surface tension. We present validations for the model and simulations of formation and rupture of liquid bridges.

  13. Experimental and Simulation Analysis for the Impact of a Two-Link Chain with Granular Matter

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    Eliza A. Banu


    Full Text Available The resistance force of the granular matter is modeled as a linear superposition of a static (quadratic depth-dependent resistance force and a dynamic (quadratic velocity-dependent frictional force. The impact is defined from the moment the end point of the system comes in contact with the granular matter surface until the vertical linear velocity of the end point is zero. The variables of interest are the final depth at the end of the penetration phase and the stopping time. The results for a two-link kinematic chain with two points of contact were compared to the results obtained by applying the resistance force formulation developed to corresponding CAD simulation models. The results revealed that the final displacement increases with initial velocity, while the stopping time decreases. The sensitivity to the initial velocity was studied and an improvement to the resistance force formulated as a result. A series of expressions are proposed for the resistance force coefficients.

  14. A community-detection based approach to identification of inhomogeneities in granular matter (United States)

    Navakas, Robertas; Džiugys, Algis; Peters, Bernhard


    Interparticle interactions in granular matter are commonly represented by appropriate graphs, therefore, inhomogeneities in granular matter can be possibly reflected by community structure in the respective graphs. Approaches and algorithms for community detection are being actively developed and the achievements in this area can be utilized for analysis of granular systems, where bridging the gap from microscopic configuration to macroscopic phenomena is of great interest. Here, we analyse applicability of graph community detection algorithms for identification of inhomogeneities of particle parameter distribution in granular matter, in order to explore the relevance of the selected approach in general. As an example application, we analyse identification of temperature distribution inhomogeneities in a simulated packed bed of fuel particles on a moving grate. We build a graph based on particle parameter similarity from the particle temperature data, available from Discrete Element/Particle Modelling, and the problem of identification of particle temperature inhomogeneities is thereby made equivalent to community detection in graphs. We apply a number of well-known community detection algorithms: Edge Betweenness, Walktrap, Infomap, Label Propagation, Spinglass and compare the resulting partitions. We apply this approach to a number of graphs, corresponding to different particle configurations, in order to identify regularities characteristic of partitions produced by different algorithms. We propose a procedure for additional postprocessing of the partitions in order to improve the quality of clusterization. In addition, we apply two alternative algorithms (not related to community detection in graphs) to identify particle distribution inhomogeneities. We also introduce a parameter to evaluate the cluster structure in particle systems.

  15. Segregation of a binary granular mixture in a vibrating sawtooth base container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobarakabadi, Shahin; Adrang, Neda; Habibi, Mehdi; Oskoee, Ehsan Nedaaee


    Abstract.: A granular mixture of identical particles of different densities can be segregated when the system is shaken. We present an efficient method of continuously segregating a flow of randomly mixed identical spherical particles of different densities by shaking them in a

  16. Effects of ozonation and temperature on biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.


    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. Removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and oxygen

  17. Effects of ozonation and temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter in biological granular activated carbon filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Aa, L.T.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Van Dijk, J.C.


    Four pilot (biological) granular activated carbon ((B)GAC) filters were operated to quantify the effects of ozonation and water temperature on the biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in (B)GAC filters. The removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and

  18. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev


    Evaporative lithography using latex particle templates is a novel approach for the self-assembly of suspension-dispersed nanoparticles into ordered microwire networks. The phenomenon that drives the self-assembly process is the propagation of a network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films vertical to the substrate, which are formed during the evaporation of the liquid from the suspension. The stability of the foam films and thus the liquid bridge network stability are due to the presence of a small amount of surfactant in the evaporating solution. We show that the same type of foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge network can also propagate in 3D clusters of spherical particles, which has important implications for the understanding of wet granular matter. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Stochastic stresses in granular matter simulated by dripping identical ellipses into plane silo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    A two-dimensional silo pressure model-problem is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. A plane silo container is filled by a granular matter consisting of congruent elliptic particles dropped one by one into the silo. A suitable energy absorbing contact force mechanism is activatedduring...... proposed by Janssen in 1895. The stochastic Janssen factor model is shown to be fairly consistentwith the observations from which the mean and the intensity of the white noise is estimated by the method of maximumlikelihood using the properties of the gamma-distribution. Two wall friction coefficients...... of the two fields. Thefirst is estimated by fitting the exponential expectation function for theaverage normal stress in the horizontal cross-sections to the observed sample function by the principle of least square.Knowing these, in total four, estimated parameter values, the stochastic model determines...

  20. Segregation of a binary granular mixture in a vibrating sawtooth base container. (United States)

    Mobarakabadi, Shahin; Adrang, Neda; Habibi, Mehdi; Oskoee, Ehsan Nedaaee


    A granular mixture of identical particles of different densities can be segregated when the system is shaken. We present an efficient method of continuously segregating a flow of randomly mixed identical spherical particles of different densities by shaking them in a quasi-two-dimensional container with a sawtooth-shaped base. Using numerical simulation we study the effect of direction of shaking (horizontal/vertical), geometry of the sawtooth, and the friction coefficient between the grains and the container walls on the segregation quality. Finally by performing experiments on the same system we compare our simulation results with the experimental results. The good agreement between our simulation and experiment indicates the validity of our simulation approach and will provide a practical way for granular segregation in industrial applications.

  1. Spatiotemporal patterns in reaction-diffusion system and in a vibrated granular bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinney, H.L.; Lee, K.J.; McCormick, W.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    Experiments on a quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system reveal transitions from a uniform state to stationary hexagonal, striped, and rhombic spatial patterns. For other reactor conditions lamellae and self-replicating spot patterns are observed. These patterns form in continuously fed thin gel reactors that can be maintained indefinitely in well-defined nonequilibrium states. Reaction-diffusion models with two chemical species yield patterns similar to those observed in the experiments. Pattern formation is also being examined in vertically oscillated thin granular layers (typically 3-30 particle diameters deep). For small acceleration amplitudes, a granular layer is flat, but above a well-defined critical acceleration amplitude, spatial patterns spontaneously form. Disordered time-dependent granular patterns are observed as well as regular patterns of squares, stripes, and hexagons. A one-dimensional model consisting of a completely inelastic ball colliding with a sinusoidally oscillating platform provides a semi-quantitative description of most of the observed bifurcations between the different spatiotemporal regimes.

  2. Submicron and Nanoparticulate Matter Removal by HEPA-Rated Media Filters and Packed Beds of Granular Materials (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Agui, J. H.; Vijayakimar, R


    Contaminants generated aboard crewed spacecraft by diverse sources consist of both gaseous chemical contaminants and particulate matter. Both HEPA media filters and packed beds of granular material, such as activated carbon, which are both commonly employed for cabin atmosphere purification purposes have efficacy for removing nanoparticulate contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. The phenomena associated with particulate matter removal by HEPA media filters and packed beds of granular material are reviewed relative to their efficacy for removing fine (less than 2.5 micrometers) and ultrafine (less than 0.01 micrometers) sized particulate matter. Considerations are discussed for using these methods in an appropriate configuration to provide the most effective performance for a broad range of particle sizes including nanoparticulates.

  3. On the occurrence of polygon-shaped patterns in vibrated cylindrical granular beds. (United States)

    Lu, G; Third, J R; Köhl, M H; Müller, C R


    We report experimental observations of polygon-shaped patterns formed in a vertically vibrated bed of circular cross-section. A phase map is determined, showing that the polygon pattern is established for Γ = A(2πf)(2)/g is > or approximately equal to 10. The sensitivity of the polygon structure to bed parameters was tested by studying beds of different particle sizes and fill levels. It was hypothesized that the polygon pattern observed in cylindrical beds is the corresponding pattern to the formation of arches in square-shaped beds. The close relationship between these two patterns was demonstrated by two observations: i) the radii of the arches of a corresponding square bed and the inner radius of the cylindrical bed were found to be very similar and ii) the boundary lengths of the two patterns were in good agreement.

  4. Analysis of the Angle of Maximal Stability and Flow Regime Transitions in Different Proportions of Bi-phasic Granular Matter Mixtures (United States)

    Maquiling, Joel Tiu; Visaga, Shane Marie

    This study investigates the dependence of the critical angle θc of stability on different mass ratios γ of layered bi-phasic granular matter mixtures and on the critical angle of its mono-disperse individual components. It also aims to investigate and explain regime transitions of granular matter flowing down a tilted rough inclined plane. Critical angles and flow regimes for a bi-phasic mixture of sago spheres and bi-phasic pepper mixture of fine powder and rough spheres were observed and measured using video analysis. The critical angles θc MD of mono-disperse granular matter and θc BP of biphasic granular matter mixtures were observed and compared. All types of flow regimes and a supramaximal critical angle of stability exist at mass ratio γ = 0.5 for all biphasic granular matter mixtures. The θc BP of sago spheres was higher than the θc MD of sago spheres. Moreover, the θc BP of the pepper mixture was in between the θc MD of fine pepper and θc MD of rough pepper spheres. Comparison of different granular material shows that θc MD is not simply a function of particle diameter but of particle roughness as well. Results point to a superposition mechanism of the critical angles of biphasic sphere mixtures.

  5. Tunable Passive Vibration Suppressor (United States)

    Boechler, Nicholas (Inventor); Dillon, Robert Peter (Inventor); Daraio, Chiara (Inventor); Davis, Gregory L. (Inventor); Shapiro, Andrew A. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Kahn, Daniel Louis (Inventor)


    An apparatus and method for vibration suppression using a granular particle chain. The granular particle chain is statically compressed and the end particles of the chain are attached to a payload and vibration source. The properties of the granular particles along with the amount of static compression are chosen to provide desired filtering of vibrations.

  6. Does size matter? Elasticity of compressed suspensions of colloidal- and granular-scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menut, P.; Seiffert, S.; Sprakel, J.H.B.; Weitz, D.A.


    We investigate the mechanics of dense packing of very small, colloidal-scale, and larger, granular-scale microgel particles. At low particle concentration, thermally induced Brownian motion of the particles is important for the colloidal-scale systems; in contrast, such Brownian motion is irrelevant

  7. Effect of granular activated carbon concentration on the content of organic matter and salt, influencing E. coli activity and survival in fluidized bed disinfection reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Ribeiro, A.F.M.M.R.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.


    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is used in water treatment systems, typically to remove pollutants such as natural organic matter, volatile organic compounds, chlorine, taste, and odor. GAC is also used as a key component of a new technology that combines a fluidized bed reactor with radio frequency

  8. Experimental study of shear rate dependence in perpetually sheared granular matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sophie Yang


    Full Text Available We study the shear behaviour of various granular materials by conducting novel perpetual simple shear experiments over four orders of magnitude of relatively low shear rates. The newly developed experimental apparatus employed is called “3D Stadium Shear Device” which is an extended version of the 2D Stadium Shear Device [1]. This device is able to provide a non-radial dependent perpetual shear flow and a nearly linear velocity profile between two oppositely moving shear walls. Using this device, we are able to test a large variety of granular materials. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the device on glass beads (diameter 1 mm, 3 mm, and 14 mm and rice. We particularly focus on studying these materials at very low inertial number I ranging from 10−6 to 10−2. We find that, within this range of I, the friction coefficient μ of glass beads has no shear rate dependence. A particularly appealing observation comes from testing rice, where the attainment of critical state develops under much longer duration than in other materials. Initially during shear we find a value of μ similar to that found for glass beads, but with time this value decreases gradually towards the asymptotic critical state value. The reason, we believe, lies in the fact that rice grains are strongly elongated; hence the time to achieve the stable μ is primarily controlled by the time for particles to align themselves with respect to the shear walls. Furthermore, the initial packing conditions of samples also plays a role in the evolution of μ when the shear strain is small, but that impact will eventually be erased after sufficient shear strain.

  9. Monodisperse elastic shells: a 3D study of jammed granular matter and microencapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.


    This thesis focusses on two, admittedly rather different, applications of spherical elastic shells. First in the field of microencapsulation as a smart container to encapsulate and release functional materials. Second, in jammed matter research as a model system to probe the microstructure and

  10. Bifurcations of new multi soliton solutions of the van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular matter via six different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianchen Lu

    Full Text Available In this article, we study one of the most popular models in nature and also industrial which is the van der Waals normal form for the fluidized granular matter. Understanding of static and dynamic property for these kinds of the models is very important in many aspects of industrial from pharmaceuticals to civil engineering and also some basic physical phenomena like those studied in geophysics. This model explains the phase separation phenomenon. We apply six different methods for this model to obtained the traveling and solitary wave solutions. We make the comparison between obtained solutions with each of them and also with obtained solutions with different methods. Keywords: The van der Waals normal form for fluidized granular matter, Modified simple equation method, The improved mapping approach and variable separation method, Traveling wave solutions, Solitary wave solutions, Mathematical physics

  11. Research on Risk Evaluation of Transnational Power Networking Projects Based on the Matter-Element Extension Theory and Granular Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Li


    Full Text Available In project management, risk assessment is crucial for stakeholders to identify the risk factors during the whole life cycle of the project. A risk evaluation index system of a transnational networking project, which provides an effective way for the grid integration of clean electricity and the sustainable development of the power industry, is constructed in this paper. Meanwhile, a combination of granular computing and order relation analysis (G1 method is applied to determine the weight of each indicator and the matter-element extension evaluation model is also employed to seek the global optimal decision during the risk assessment. Finally, a case study is given to validate the index system and evaluation model established in this paper by assessing two different investment schemes of a transnational high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission project. The result shows that the comprehensive risk level of Scheme 1 is “Low” and the level of Scheme 2 is “General”, which means Scheme 1 is better for the stakeholders from the angle of risk control. The main practical significance of this paper lies in that it can provide a reference and decision support for the government’s power sectors, investment companies and other stakeholders when carrying out related activities.

  12. Granular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu


    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing ...... on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture....

  13. Density profiles of granular gases studied by molecular dynamics and Brownian bridges (United States)

    Peñuñuri, F.; Montoya, J. A.; Carvente, O.


    Despite the inherent frictional forces and dissipative collisions, confined granular matter can be regarded as a system in a stationary state if we inject energy continuously. Under these conditions, both the density and the granular temperature are, in general, non-monotonic variables along the height of the container. In consequence, an analytical description of a granular system is hard to conceive. Here, by using molecular dynamics simulations, we measure the packing fraction profiles for a vertically vibrating three-dimensional granular system in several gaseous-like stationary states. We show that by using the Brownian bridge concept, the determined packing fraction profiles can be reproduced accurately and give a complete description of the distribution of the particles inside the simulation box.

  14. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S


    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  15. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11


    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  16. The Universe, the ‘body’ of God. About the vibration of matter to God’s command or The theory of divine leverages into matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin


    Full Text Available The link between seen and unseen, matter and spirit, flesh and soul was always presumed, but never clarified enough, leaving room for debates and mostly controversies between the scientific domains and theologies of a different type; how could God, who is immaterial, have created the material world? Therefore, the logic of obtaining a result on this concern (would be is first to see how religions have always seen the ratio between divinity and matter/universe. In this part, the idea of a world personality is implied by many, so that nature itself was transformed into a person ; others have seen within the universe/the world a Spirit ruling all, connecting all and bending all to God’s commands. In a way or another, every culture has gifted the universe/nature with the capability of ruling all, seeing everything and controlling, even determining facts by connecting all together with a Great Spirit. What is this Great Spirit of all and where it resides? With the analogy of human body in relation to his Spirit we will try to figure out a place or vehicle for the Spirit to dwell the body, and the Great Spirit the matter. The Christianity names this linkage between God and matter as ‘the (uncreated grace of God’, which indwells matter and helps the Creator move and transform things. Is there any scientific argument to sustain such assertion? Can we argue somehow that God’s voice makes matter vibrate from within the way it can recombine primer elements into giant stars to the human body? If so, what should be the ratio between theology and science on this issue and with these assertions? How could God command to matter to bring things and beings out of it and what were the material leverages that was supposed to be operated to accomplish His will? However, if we can assume that God resides in the universe – as a whole, His body, or as in its very fabric – can we also figure out how is this even possible, without transforming our explanation

  17. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich


    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  18. Numerical generalized vibration density of states evaluation for inelastic neutron scattering in solid matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kazmianec, V; Aranghel, D


    A computational method for improved evaluation of the generalized vibration density of states (GVDS) is proposed. It is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FPT) technique and gives the possibility for more precise analyses of the neutron double differential scattering cross section. The method was applied to zirconium hydride investigation. The results were presented for ZrH sub 1 sub . sub 6 U sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 2 sample at various temperatures on time-of-flight (TOF) Spectrometry at IBR-2 reactor of JINR-Dubna and were compared to GVDS values obtained by traditional single-phonon approximation method

  19. Signatures of field induced spin polarization of neutron star matter in seismic vibrations of paramagnetic neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Bastrukov, S I; Podgainy, D V; Weber, F


    A macroscopic model of the dissipative magneto-elastic dynamics of viscous spin polarized nuclear matter is discussed in the context of seismic activity of a paramagnetic neutron star. The source of the magnetic field of such a star is attributed to Pauli paramagnetism of baryon matter promoted by a seed magnetic field frozen into the star in the process of gravitational collapse of a massive progenitor. Particular attention is given to the effect of shear viscosity of incompressible stellar material on the timing of non-radial torsional magneto-elastic pulsations of the star triggered by starquakes. By accentuating the fact that this kind of vibration is unique to the seismology of a paramagnetic neutron star we show that the high-frequency modes decay faster than the low-frequency modes. The obtained analytic expressions for the period and relaxation time of this mode, in which the magnetic susceptibility and viscosity enter as input parameters, are then quantified by numerical estimates for these parameter...

  20. Granular media : flow & agitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksman, Joshua Albert


    This thesis is about weakly driven granular flows and suspensions. Chapter 1 is an overview of the current knowledge of slow granular flows in so-called split-bottom geometries, which in essence consist of a disk rotating at the bottom of a container. In chapter 2 we study dry granular flows in this

  1. Granular temperature measured experimentally in a shear flow by acoustic energy (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie; Brodsky, Emily E.


    Granular temperature may control high-speed granular flows, yet it is difficult to measure in laboratory experiments. Here we utilize acoustic energy to measure granular temperature in dense shear flows. We show that acoustic energy captures the anticipated behavior of granular temperature as a function of grain size in quartz sand shear flows. We also find that granular temperature (through its proxy acoustic energy) is nearly linearly proportional to inertial number, and dilation is proportional to acoustic energy raised to the power 0.6 ±0.2 . This demonstrates the existence of a relationship between granular temperature and dilation. It is also consistent with previous results on dilation due to externally imposed vibration, thus showing that internally and externally induced vibrations have identical results on granular shear flows.

  2. Granular hydrodynamics and pattern formation in vertically oscillated granular disk layers (United States)

    Carrillo, Jos? A.; P?Schel, Thorsten; Salue?A, Clara

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate numerically that certain hydrodynamic systems, derived from inelastic kinetic theory, give fairly good descriptions of rapid granular flows even if they are way beyond their supposed validity limits. A numerical hydrodynamic solver is presented for a vibrated granular bed in two dimensions. It is based on a highly accurate shock capturing state-of-the-art numerical scheme applied to a compressible Navier-Stokes system for granular flow. The hydrodynamic simulation of granular flows is challenging, particularly in systems where dilute and dense regions occur at the same time and interact with each other. As a benchmark experiment, we investigate the formation of Faraday waves in a two-dimensional thin layer exposed to vertical vibration in the presence of gravity. The results of the hydrodynamic simulations are compared with those of event-driven molecular dynamics and the overall quantitative agreement is good at the level of the formation and structure of periodic patterns. The accurate numerical scheme for the hydrodynamic description improves the reproduction of the primary onset of patterns compared to previous literature. To our knowledge, these are the first hydrodynamic results for Faraday waves in two-dimensional granular beds that accurately predict the wavelengths of the two-dimensional standing waves as a function of the perturbation's amplitude. Movies are available with the online version of the paper.

  3. Noise and diffusion in vibrated self-propelled particles (United States)

    Walsh, Lee; Schlossberg, Sarah; Baskaran, Aparna; Menon, Narayanan

    Active-matter systems are often modeled in the lab by studying the two-dimensional dynamics of granular particles driven by vibration in the third dimension. If the vibrational noise is rectified by the shape of the particle, the resulting motion of the particle shows directed motion superimposed on diffusion. We use particles designed for polar motion along a body axis as well as others that break isotropy in various ways. The long-term motion is typically theoretically modeled by a Langevin equation that encodes a self-propulsion velocity along the body axis as well as uncorrelated rotational and translational noise, all of which are treated as independent parameters. For a dilute system of granular tiles confined to a horizontal plane and vertically vibrated, we measure the long-time single-particle dynamics as well as the short-time distributions of translational and rotational motion. From these we characterize the different correlation functions that determine the noise and test the assumptions of the conventional Langevin dynamics used for self-propelled particles.

  4. Self-assembly of granular crystals (United States)

    Shattuck, Mark


    Acoustic meta-materials are engineered materials with the ability to control, direct, and manipulate sound waves. Since the 1990s, several groups have developed acoustic meta-materials with novel capabilities including negative index materials for acoustic super-lenses, phononic crystals with acoustic band gaps for wave guides and mirrors, and acoustic cloaking device. Most previous work on acoustic meta-materials has focused on continuum solids and fluids. In contrast, we report on coordinated computational and experimental studies to use macro-self-assembly of granular materials to produce acoustic meta-materials. The advantages of granular acoustic materials are three-fold: 1) Microscopic control: The discrete nature of granular media allows us to optimize acoustic properties on both the grain and network scales. 2) Tunability: The speed of sound in granular media depends strongly on pressure due to non-linear contact interactions and contact breaking. 3) Direct visualization: The macro-scale size of the grains enables visualization of the structure and stress propagation within granular assemblies. We report simulations and experiments of vibrated particles that form a variety of self-assembled ordered structures in two- and three-dimensions. In the simplest case of mono-disperse spheres, using a combination of pressure and vibration we produce crystals with long-range order on the scale of 100's of particles. Using special particle shapes that form ``lock and key'' structures we are able to make binary crystals with prescribed stoichiometries. We discuss the mechanical properties of these structures and methods to create more complicated structures.

  5. Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems (United States)

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical

  6. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Effect of stimulated emission on the distribution of CO molecules over vibrational levels (United States)

    Grigorian, G. M.; Kochetov, I. V.


    The vibrational distribution function (VDF) of CO molecules is measured in the presence and absence of generation in a CO laser pumped by a longitudinal dc discharge. Kinetic equations for the VDF and the Boltzmann equation for the energy distribution function of electrons are solved simultaneously in a theoretical model. A comparison of the experimental and calculated lasing spectra and VDF demonstrates their good agreement. By introducing an absorbing cell with different gases (NO, C2H4, CO2, C6H6) into a resonator, the influence of selection of laser lines on the lasing spectrum and the VDF of CO molecules is studied. It is shown experimentally that the population of CO molecules at vibrational levels involved in lasing and at higher levels strongly decreases and the VDF at lower levels changes insignificantly. It is demonstrated that the VDF shape of CO molecules at high vibrational levels can be changed by introducing intracavity absorption.

  7. Granular gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, Nikolai


    While there is not yet any general theory for granular materials, significant progress has been achieved for dilute systems, also called granular gases. The contributions in this book address both the kinetic approach one using the Boltzmann equation for dissipative gases as well as the less established hydrodynamic description. The last part of the book is devoted to driven granular gases and their analogy with molecular fluids. Care has been taken so as to present the material in a pedagogical and self-contained way and this volume will thus be particularly useful to nonspecialists and newcomers to the field.

  8. Drag force in a cold or hot granular medium (United States)

    Seguin, A.; Gondret, P.


    We measure experimentally and analyze the resisting force exerted by a bidimensional packing of small disks on a larger intruder disk dragged horizontally at constant velocity V0. Depending on the vibration level of the packing that leads to a granular "cold" or "hot" packing, two force regimes are observed. At low vibration level ("cold" granular medium), the drag force F does not depend on V0, whereas for high vibrations ("hot" granular medium), the drag force increases linearly with V0. Both regimes can be understood by the balance of two "granular temperatures" that can be defined in the system: a bulk temperature Tb imposed by the external vibration to the overall packing and a local temperature T0 induced by the own motion of the intruder disk in its vicinity. All experimental data obtained for different sizes and velocities of the intruder disk are shown to be governed by the temperature ratio T0/Tb . A critical velocity V0 c, above which the system switches from "hot" to "cold," can be obtained in this frame. Finally, we discuss how these two "viscous" regimes should be followed by an inertial regime where the drag force F should increase as V0 2 at high enough velocity values, for V0 greater than a critical value V0 i corresponding to high enough Reynolds or Froude number.

  9. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane (United States)

    Sonar, Prasad; Sharma, Ishan; Singh, Jayant


    Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  10. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  11. Nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals (United States)

    Chong, C.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Daraio, C.


    The study of granular crystals, which are nonlinear metamaterials that consist of closely packed arrays of particles that interact elastically, is a vibrant area of research that combines ideas from disciplines such as materials science, nonlinear dynamics, and condensed-matter physics. Granular crystals exploit geometrical nonlinearities in their constitutive microstructure to produce properties (such as tunability and energy localization) that are not conventional to engineering materials and linear devices. In this topical review, we focus on recent experimental, computational, and theoretical results on nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals. Such structures—which include traveling solitary waves, dispersive shock waves, and discrete breathers—have fascinating dynamics, including a diversity of both transient features and robust, long-lived patterns that emerge from broad classes of initial data. In our review, we primarily discuss phenomena in one-dimensional crystals, as most research to date has focused on such scenarios, but we also present some extensions to two-dimensional settings. Throughout the review, we highlight open problems and discuss a variety of potential engineering applications that arise from the rich dynamic response of granular crystals.

  12. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.


    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  13. Dynamical regimes and stability of circular granular ratchets. (United States)

    Müller, Patric; Gallas, Jason A C; Pöschel, Thorsten


    Ratchets are simple mechanical devices which combine spatial asymmetry and nonequilibrium to produce counterintuitive transport of particles. The operation and properties of linear ratchets have already been extensively explored. However, very little is known about circular granular ratchets, startling devices able to convert vertical vibrations into rotations of the device. Here, we report results of systematic numerical investigations of the operational characteristics of circular granular ratchets. Several distinct behaviors are identified and explained in terms of the inner flow fields of the ratchet. All dynamical regimes found are robust and should not be difficult to observe in laboratory experiments.

  14. Granular Cell Tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ultrastructure and immunochemical staining. 4 strongly suggest Schwann cell derivation . hyperplasia at the edges of the tumor. Necrosis within the tumor was absent, no mitosis was. Granular cell tumors are seldom diagnosed identified in the section and the edges of the accurately clinically. The lesion in this case was.

  15. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael


    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  16. Spatiotemporally resolved granular acoustics (United States)

    Owens, Eli; Daniels, Karen


    Acoustic techniques provide a non-invasive method of characterizing granular material properties; however, there are many challenges in formulating accurate models of sound propagation due to the inherently heterogeneous nature of granular materials. In order to quantify acoustic responses in space and time, we perform experiments in a photoelastic granular material in which the internal stress pattern (in the form of force chains) is visible. We utilize two complementary methods, high-speed imaging and piezoelectric transduction, to provide particle-scale measurements of the amplitude of the acoustic wave. We observe that the average wave amplitude is largest within particles experiencing the largest forces. The force-dependence of this amplitude is in qualitative agreement with a simple Hertzian-like model for contact area. In addition, we investigate the power spectrum of the propagating signal using the piezoelectric sensors. For a Gaussian wave packet input, we observe a broad spectrum of transmitted frequencies below the driving frequency, and we quantify the characteristic frequencies and corresponding length scales of our material as the system pressure is varied.

  17. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R


    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  18. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the

  19. Wide and Universal Shear Zones In Granular Materials (United States)

    Fenistein, Denis; van Hecke, Martin


    We present experiments in which wide and universal shear zones are created in the bulk of granular material. The modification of a Couette cell whose bottom is split at a given radius allows the observation of bulk shear zones that strongly contrat the usual picture of granular matter flow where narrow particle-dependent shear bands are localized at a boundary. We focuss on the description of the universal Gaussian strain rate profiles. The position and width of the shear zones appear to be uncorrelated and can be tuned by the experimental geometry and the particle properties. 1 Fenistein & Van Hecke, Nature 425, 256 (2003)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of granular materials (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf


    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important tools to screen humans in medicine; virtually every modern hospital is equipped with a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tomograph. The potential of NMR in 3D imaging tasks is by far greater, but there is only "a handful" of MRI studies of particulate matter. The method is expensive, time-consuming, and requires a deep understanding of pulse sequences, signal acquisition, and processing. We give a short introduction into the physical principles of this imaging technique, describe its advantages and limitations for the screening of granular matter, and present a number of examples of different application purposes, from the exploration of granular packing, via the detection of flow and particle diffusion, to real dynamic measurements. Probably, X-ray computed tomography is preferable in most applications, but fast imaging of single slices with modern MRI techniques is unmatched, and the additional opportunity to retrieve spatially resolved flow and diffusion profiles without particle tracking is a unique feature.

  1. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    The majority of today’s systems increasingly require sophisticated data management as they need to store and to query large amounts of data for analysis and reporting purposes. In order to keep more “detailed” data available for longer periods, “old” data has to be reduced gradually to save space...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  2. Patterning of a cohesionless granular layer under pure shear (United States)

    Alarcón, Héctor; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco


    The response of a thin layer of granular material to an external pure shear imposed at its base is investigated. The experiments show that, even for noncohesive materials, the resulting deformation of the material is inhomogeneous. Indeed, a novel smooth pattern, consisting of a periodic modulation of the shear deformation of the free surface, is revealed by an image-correlation technique. These observations are in contrast with the previous observation of the fracture pattern in cohesive granular materials subjected to stretching. For cohesive materials, the instability is due to the weakening of the material which results from the rupture of capillary bridges that bond the grains to one another. For noncohesive materials, the rupture of the capillary bridges cannot be invoked anymore. We show that the instability results from the decrease of friction on shearing. PACS: 89.75.Kd: Pattern formation in complex systems; 83.60.Uv: Rheology: fracture; 45.70.Qj: Pattern formation in granular matter

  3. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rohit Kumar


    Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.

  4. Advanced Granular System Modeling Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceports of the future will utilize new granular materials in unique applications including insulation for cryogenic tanks and Lunar regolith processing for usable...

  5. Effect of particle shape on the efficiency of granular dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourtavakoli Hamzeh


    Full Text Available Granular dampers, containers partially filled with granular material, are often applied for attenuating mechanical vibrations in a broad range of systems. However, the role of the particle shape on the performance of the damper has remained largely uncertain and is investigated here by means of particle-based simulations. It is found that, for large excitation amplitudes (collect-and-collide regime, particle shape nearly does not affect the damper’s performance. For low excitation amplitudes (gas-like regime, a dependence on the average dissipated energy per cycle on the particle shape is found. In this regime, the spherical particle geometry leads to the highest damper’s efficiency.

  6. Granular compaction by fluidization (United States)

    Tariot, Alexis; Gauthier, Georges; Gondret, Philippe


    How to arrange a packing of spheres is a scientific question that aroused many fundamental works since a long time from Kepler's conjecture to Edward's theory (S. F. Edwards and R.B.S Oakeshott. Theory of powders. Physica A, 157: 1080-1090, 1989), where the role traditionally played by the energy in statistical problems is replaced by the volume for athermal grains. We present experimental results on the compaction of a granular pile immersed in a viscous fluid when submited to a continuous or bursting upward flow. An initial fluidized bed leads to a well reproduced initial loose packing by the settling of grains when the high enough continuous upward flow is turned off. When the upward flow is then turned on again, we record the dynamical evolution of the bed packing. For a low enough continuous upward flow, below the critical velocity of fluidization, a slow compaction dynamics is observed. Strikingly, a slow compaction can be also observed in the case of "fluidization taps" with bursts of fluid velocity higher than the critical fluidization velocity. The different compaction dynamics is discussed when varying the different control parameters of these "fluidization taps".

  7. Granular Superconductors and Gravity (United States)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron


    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  8. Active matter (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram


    The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.

  9. DUNE - a granular flow code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slone, D M; Cottom, T L; Bateson, W B


    DUNE was designed to accurately model the spectrum of granular. Granular flow encompasses the motions of discrete particles. The particles are macroscopic in that there is no Brownian motion. The flow can be thought of as a dispersed phase (the particles) interacting with a fluid phase (air or water). Validation of the physical models proceeds in tandem with simple experimental confirmation. The current development team is working toward the goal of building a flexible architecture where existing technologies can easily be integrated to further the capability of the simulation. We describe the DUNE architecture in some detail using physics models appropriate for an imploding liner experiment.

  10. Adsorption of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether on Granular Zeolites: Batch and Column Studies (United States)

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A.; Thompson, Robert W.


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on MTBE adsorption was evaluated. Batch adsorption experiments determined that ZSM-5 was the most effective granular zeolite for MTBE adsorption. Further equilibrium and kinetic experiments verified that granular ZSM-5 is superior to CS-1240 and CCA in removing MTBE from water. No competitive-adsorption effects between NOM and MTBE were observed for adsorption to granular ZSM-5 or CS-1240, however there was competition between NOM and MTBE for adsorption onto the CCA granules. Fixed-bed adsorption experiments for longer run times were performed using granular ZSM-5. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was used to analyze the breakthrough data. PMID:20153106

  11. Acoustic waves in granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouraille, O.J.P.; Luding, Stefan


    Dynamic simulations with discrete elements are used to obtain more insight into the wave propagation in dense granular media. A small perturbation is created on one side of a dense, static packing and examined during its propagation until it arrives at the opposite side. The influence of

  12. Acoustic measurement of the granular density of state (United States)

    Owens, Eli; Daniels, Karen


    Measurements of the vibrational density of states (DOS) in glasses reveal that an excess number of low-frequency modes, as compared to the Debye scaling seen in crystalline materials, is associated with a loss of mechanical rigidity. An excess number of modes have also been observed experimentally in colloids and in simulations of idealized granular materials near the jamming point. However, there have not been any experimental measurements in an athermal granular system. We experimentally probe the material by mimicking thermal motion with acoustic waves, thereby allowing us to measure a DOS like quantity by analogy with conventional solid state techniques. Our system is made up of two dimensional photoelastic disks which allow visualization of the internal force structure, and a voice coil driver provides a white noise signal to excite a broad spectrum of vibrations. The sound is then detected with piezoelectric sensors embedded inside a subset of the particles. These measurements give us the particle velocities, from which we are able to compute a DOS by taking the Fourier transform of the velocity autocorrelation function. We measure this DOS as a function of the confining pressure and degree of disorder and find that the peak in the density of states shifts to higher frequency as the system pressure is increased.

  13. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pedrycz


    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  14. Monitoring vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiryaki, B. [Hacettepe University (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    The paper examines the prediction and optimisation of machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Underground studies were carried out at the Middle Anatolian Lignite Mine, between 1993 and 1997. Several shearer drums with different pick lacing arrangements were designed and tested on double-ended ranging longwall shearers employed at the mine. A computer program called the Vibration Analysis Program (VAP) was developed for analysing machine vibrations in longwall shearers. Shearer drums that were tested underground, as well as some provided by leading manufacturers, were analyzed using these programs. The results of the experiments and computer analyses are given in the article. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Vibrational Diver (United States)

    Kozlov, Victor; Ivanova, Alevtina; Schipitsyn, Vitalii; Stambouli, Moncef


    The paper is concerned with dynamics of light solid in cavity with liquid subjected to rotational vibration in the external force field. New vibrational phenomenon - diving of a light cylinder to the cavity bottom is found. The experimental investigation of a horizontal annulus with a partition has shown that under vibration a light body situated in the upper part of the layer is displaced in a threshold manner some distance away from the boundary. In this case the body executes symmetric tangential oscillations. An increase of the vibration intensity leads to a tangential displacement of the body near the external boundary. This displacement is caused by the tangential component of the vibrational lift force, which appears as soon as the oscillations lose symmetry. In this case the trajectory of the body oscillatory motion has the form of a loop. The tangential lift force makes stable the position of the body on the inclined section of the layer and even in its lower part. A theoretical interpretation has been proposed, which explains stabilization of a quasi-equilibrium state of a light body near the cavity bottom in the framework of vibrational hydromechanics.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L


    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of

  17. Granular rheology in zero gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossis, G [LPMC UMR 6622, Universite de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Grasselli, Y [EAI Tech CERAM, Rue A Einstein, BP 085, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); Volkova, O [LPMC UMR 6622, Universite de Nice, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)


    We present an experimental investigation on the rheological behaviour of model granular media made of nearly elastic spherical particles. The experiments are performed in a cylindrical Couette geometry and the experimental device is placed inside an aeroplane undergoing parabolic flights to cancel the effect of gravity. The corresponding curves, shear stress versus shear rate, are presented, and a comparison with existing theories is proposed. The quadratic dependence on the shear rate is clearly shown, and the behaviour as a function of the solid volume fraction of particles exhibits a power law function. It is shown that theoretical predictions overestimate the experimental results. We observe, at intermediate volume fractions, the formation of rings of particles regularly spaced along the height of the cell. The differences observed between experimental results and theoretical predictions are discussed and related to the structures formed in the granular medium submitted to the external shear.

  18. Stress Response of Granular Systems (United States)

    Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul


    We develop a framework for stress response in two dimensional granular media, with and without friction, that respects vector force balance at the microscopic level. We introduce local gauge degrees of freedom that determine the response of contact forces between constituent grains on a given, disordered, contact network, to external perturbations. By mapping this response to the spectral properties of the graph Laplacian corresponding to the underlying contact network, we show that this naturally leads to spatial localization of forces. We present numerical evidence for localization using exact diagonalization studies of network Laplacians of soft disk packings. Finally, we discuss the role of other constraints, such as torque balance, in determining the stability of a granular packing to external perturbations.

  19. The Effects of Acoustic Waves on Stick Slip Behavior in Sheared Granular Media and Their Implications for Earthquake Recurrence and Dynamic Triggering (United States)

    Johnson, P. A.; Marone, C.; Gomberg, J.; Savage, H.; Knuth, M.; Behringer, B.; Carpenter, B.


    To better understand the physics of dynamic triggering and the influence of dynamic stressing on earthquake recurrence, we are conducting laboratory studies of stick slip in granular media with and without applied acoustic vibrations. In our 3-D experiments, glass beads are used to simulate granular fault zone wear material, sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient or continuous perturbations by acoustic waves. We observe both instantaneous and delayed triggering when vibration is applied. Vibrations also cause significant disruption in the recurrence rate. The effects of vibration are observed for many major-event cycles after vibrations cease, indicating a strain memory in the granular material. Vibration-induced disruption of periodic stick slip is linked to failure of granular force chains. In 2-D experiments we are applying photoelastic discs in stick slip measurements in order to visualize the evolution of the force chain network. Photoelastic measurements provide insight into failure, and in particular small adjustments in the force chains network that presage failure. Our results should lead to a new understanding of the importance of seismic energy on earthquake physics and more generally, we anticipate that it will have broad impact on unexpected material failure induced by moderate-amplitude elastic waves, including avalanches, landslide and failure of incipient damage in solids.

  20. Sound simulaton of granular materials


    Marko, Matej


    Title: Sound simulation of granular materials Author: Matej Marko Department: Department of Software and Computer Science Education Supervisor: doc. Ing. Jaroslav Křivánek Ph.D., Department of Software and Computer Science Education Abstract: In recent years, methods for simulating sounds of solid objects, fluids, fire and cloth have been developed. These methods extend existing methods for simulation of the visual behaviour of the respective phenomena and add physically based sounds that cor...

  1. Paediatric laryngeal granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Ayuba


    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour (GCT affecting the larynx is not common, especially in children. Most cases are apt to be confused with respiratory papilloma and may even be mistaken for a malignant neoplasia. We present a case of laryngeal GCT in a 12-year-old child to emphasize that the tumour should be regarded in the differential of growths affecting the larynx in children.

  2. Impact Compaction of a Granular Material (United States)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Todd, Steve; Grady, Dennis


    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Although, the mechanical behavior of granular materials have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of these materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This paper describes how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure the compaction process for granular materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modelling. The experimental technique relies on a gas-gun driven plunger system to generate a compaction wave through a volume of granular material. This volume of material has been redundantly instrumented along the bed length to track the progression of the compaction wave, and the piston displacement is measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Using the gathered experimental data along with the initial material tap density, a granular material equation of state can be determined.

  3. Microbial activity in granular activated carbon filters in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezev, A.


    The investigations described are carried out to analyse the microbiological processes in relation to the GAC characteristics and the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in Granular Activated Carbon filters (GACFs) in water treatment. The main goal of the study was to obtain a qualitative

  4. In-Situ Regeneration of Saturated Granular Activated Carbon by an Iron Oxide Nanocatalyst (United States)

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) can remove trace organic pollutants and natural organic matter (NOM) from industrial and municipal waters. This paper evaluates an iron nanocatalyst approach, based on Fenton-like oxidation reactions, to regenerate spent GAC within a packed bed con...

  5. Incremental stress and microstructural response of granular soils under undrained axisymmetric compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Nishant; Luding, Stefan; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Soga, K.; Kumar, K; Biscontin, G.; Kuo, M.


    The influence of the micromechanics on the response of stress and fabric on strain is an essential part of a constitutive model for granular matter, because it contains the information of how different deformation paths (history) affect the actual mechanical state of the system. Here, we study a

  6. Exploiting pattern transformation to tune phononic band gaps in a two-dimensional granular crystal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.; Luding, Stefan; Bertoldi, Katia


    The band structure of a two-dimensional granular crystal composed of silicone rubber and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cylinders is investigated numerically. This system was previously shown to undergo a pattern transformation with uniaxial compression by Göncü et al. [Soft Matter 7, 2321 (2011)].

  7. Enhanced micropolar model for wave propagation in granular materials (United States)

    Merkel, Aurélien; Luding, Stefan


    In the description of material elastic behavior, the classical theory of elasticity consists of a macroscopic material description. The material is not described at the micro-level by considering the displacement of the different particles in interaction, but is described as a continuum by considering macroscopic quantities as stress and strain. The classical elasticity theory can be viewed as first gradient of the displacement field approximation of the solid state theory and is valid in the long wavelength limit. Granular media, due to their micro-inhomogeneous character, are not well described by the standard continuum theory of elasticity. By contrast to classical continua where the sizes of the vibrating particles are assumed to be negligible compared to the distance between the particles, the sizes of the particles in a granular assembly are comparable to the distance between neighbors. In addition, considering the sliding, torsion and rolling resistances at the level of the contacts between the particles, a consistent description of the elasticity of a granular medium needs to take into account the rotational degrees of freedom of each individual particle. The elastic behavior of crystalline structures of monodisperse beads can be efficiently described by a discrete model, where the displacement and rotation of each individual bead are taken into account. Nevertheless, the discrete model can be solved analytically only for well-know regular crystalline structure, the case of a random assembly of beads is too complex for large systems. A continuum formulation is more suitable for random assemblies of beads different from the ideal crystalline case. The generalization of the classical elasticity theory accounting for the rotational degrees of freedom of point bodies is known as the Cosserat or micropolar theory. In this work, the vibration properties of a face-centered cubic structure of monodisperse granular crystal are predicted using a discrete model as

  8. Effects of acoustic waves on stick-slip in granular media and implications for earthquakes (United States)

    Johnson, P.A.; Savage, H.; Knuth, M.; Gomberg, J.; Marone, Chris


    It remains unknown how the small strains induced by seismic waves can trigger earthquakes at large distances, in some cases thousands of kilometres from the triggering earthquake, with failure often occurring long after the waves have passed. Earthquake nucleation is usually observed to take place at depths of 10-20 km, and so static overburden should be large enough to inhibit triggering by seismic-wave stress perturbations. To understand the physics of dynamic triggering better, as well as the influence of dynamic stressing on earthquake recurrence, we have conducted laboratory studies of stick-slip in granular media with and without applied acoustic vibration. Glass beads were used to simulate granular fault zone material, sheared under constant normal stress, and subject to transient or continuous perturbation by acoustic waves. Here we show that small-magnitude failure events, corresponding to triggered aftershocks, occur when applied sound-wave amplitudes exceed several microstrain. These events are frequently delayed or occur as part of a cascade of small events. Vibrations also cause large slip events to be disrupted in time relative to those without wave perturbation. The effects are observed for many large-event cycles after vibrations cease, indicating a strain memory in the granular material. Dynamic stressing of tectonic faults may play a similar role in determining the complexity of earthquake recurrence. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. Effects of acoustic waves on stick-slip in granular media and implications for earthquakes. (United States)

    Johnson, Paul A; Savage, Heather; Knuth, Matt; Gomberg, Joan; Marone, Chris


    It remains unknown how the small strains induced by seismic waves can trigger earthquakes at large distances, in some cases thousands of kilometres from the triggering earthquake, with failure often occurring long after the waves have passed. Earthquake nucleation is usually observed to take place at depths of 10-20 km, and so static overburden should be large enough to inhibit triggering by seismic-wave stress perturbations. To understand the physics of dynamic triggering better, as well as the influence of dynamic stressing on earthquake recurrence, we have conducted laboratory studies of stick-slip in granular media with and without applied acoustic vibration. Glass beads were used to simulate granular fault zone material, sheared under constant normal stress, and subject to transient or continuous perturbation by acoustic waves. Here we show that small-magnitude failure events, corresponding to triggered aftershocks, occur when applied sound-wave amplitudes exceed several microstrain. These events are frequently delayed or occur as part of a cascade of small events. Vibrations also cause large slip events to be disrupted in time relative to those without wave perturbation. The effects are observed for many large-event cycles after vibrations cease, indicating a strain memory in the granular material. Dynamic stressing of tectonic faults may play a similar role in determining the complexity of earthquake recurrence.

  10. Defining and testing a granular continuum element


    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.


    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of a mesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discrete particles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granular materials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealing inhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cage breaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM) simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granular element" can indeed ...

  11. Robophysical study of jumping dynamics on granular media (United States)

    Aguilar, Jeffrey; Goldman, Daniel I.


    Characterizing forces on deformable objects intruding into sand and soil requires understanding the solid- and fluid-like responses of such substrates and their effect on the state of the object. The most detailed studies of intrusion in dry granular media have revealed that interactions of fixed-shape objects during free impact (for example, cannonballs) and forced slow penetration can be described by hydrostatic- and hydrodynamic-like forces. Here we investigate a new class of granular interactions: rapid intrusions by objects that change shape (self-deform) through passive and active means. Systematic studies of a simple spring-mass robot jumping on dry granular media reveal that jumping performance is explained by an interplay of nonlinear frictional and hydrodynamic drag as well as induced added mass (unaccounted by traditional intrusion models) characterized by a rapidly solidified region of grains accelerated by the foot. A model incorporating these dynamics reveals that added mass degrades the performance of certain self-deformations owing to a shift in optimal timing during push-off. Our systematic robophysical experiment reveals both new soft-matter physics and principles for robotic self-deformation and control, which together provide principles of movement in deformable terrestrial environments.

  12. Evaluation of GLUT-1 in the granular cell tumour and congenital granular cell epulis. (United States)

    Souto, Giovanna Ribeiro; Caldeira, Patrícia Carlos; Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; Andrade Marigo, Helenicede; Souza, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machadode; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves


    The glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) protein is a useful marker for perineurial cells. Because of the possible neuroectodermal histogenesis of the granular cell tumour and congenital granular cell epulis, the aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of GLUT-1 protein in granular cell tumour and congenital granular cell epulis to aid in clarifying their histogenesis. The protocol of this study was approved by the Committee of Bioethics in Research at Universidade Federal Minas Gerais. Six cases of granular cell tumour and three cases of congenital granular cell epulis were submitted to immunohistochemistry for GLUT-1 and S-100 using the streptavidin-biotin standard protocol. Five cases of granular cell tumour were located on the tongue and one case on the upper lip. All cases of congenital granular cell epulis were observed in the alveolar ridge of newborns. All lesions evaluated proved to be immunonegative for GLUT-1. S-100 was found to be positive in all granular cell tumours and negative in congenital granular cell epulis. Neither granular cell tumour nor congenital granular cell epulis is directly related to perineurial cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Vibrating minds

    CERN Document Server


    Ed Witten is one of the leading scientists in the field of string theory, the theory that describes elementary particles as vibrating strings. This week he leaves CERN after having spent a few months here on sabbatical. His wish is that the LHC will unveil supersymmetry.

  14. Attribute Reduction and Information Granularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-hong Wang


    Full Text Available In the view of granularity, this paper analyzes the influence of three attribute reducts on an information system, finding that the possible reduct and m - decision reduct will make the granule view coarser, while discernible reduct will not change the granule view. In addition, we investigate the combination of reducts from two partial information systems in parallel or in incremental data mining and urge that the union of partial possible reducts can be regarded as a possible reduct for union of partial information systems.

  15. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P


    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  16. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu


    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  17. Universality and criticality of a second-order granular solid-liquid-like phase transition. (United States)

    Castillo, Gustavo; Mujica, Nicolás; Soto, Rodrigo


    We experimentally study the critical properties of the nonequilibrium solid-liquid-like transition that takes place in vibrated granular matter. The critical dynamics is characterized by the coupling of the density field with the bond-orientational order parameter Q(4), which measures the degree of local crystallization. Two setups are compared, which present the transition at different critical accelerations as a result of modifying the energy dissipation parameters. In both setups five independent critical exponents are measured, associated to different properties of Q(4): the correlation length, relaxation time, vanishing wavenumber limit (static susceptibility), the hydrodynamic regime of the pair correlation function, and the amplitude of the order parameter. The respective critical exponents agree in both setups and are given by ν(⊥)=1,ν(∥)=2,γ=1,η≈0.6-0.67, and β=1/2, whereas the dynamical critical exponent is z=ν(∥)/ν(⊥)=2. The agreement on five exponents is an exigent test for the universality of the transition. Thus, while dissipation is strictly necessary to form the crystal, the path the system undergoes toward the phase separation is part of a well-defined universality class. In fact, the local order shows critical properties while density does not. Being the later conserved, the appropriate model that couples both is model C in the Hohenberg and Halperin classification. The measured exponents are in accord with the nonequilibrium extension to model C if we assume that α, the exponent associated in equilibrium to the specific heat divergence but with no counterpart in this nonequilibrium experiment, vanishes.

  18. The distribution of saturated clusters in wetted granular materials (United States)

    Li, Shuoqi; Hanaor, Dorian; Gan, Yixiang


    The hydro-mechanical behaviour of partially saturated granular materials is greatly influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of liquid within the media. The aim of this paper is to characterise the distribution of saturated clusters in granular materials using an optical imaging method under different water drainage conditions. A saturated cluster is formed when a liquid phase fully occupies the pore space between solid grains in a localized region. The samples considered here were prepared by vibrating mono-sized glass beads to form closely packed assemblies in a rectangular container. A range of drainage conditions were applied to the specimen by tilting the container and employing different flow rates, and the liquid pressure was recorded at different positions in the experimental cell. The formation of saturated clusters during the liquid withdrawal processes is governed by three competing mechanisms arising from viscous, capillary, and gravitational forces. When the flow rate is sufficiently large and the gravity component is sufficiently small, the viscous force tends to destabilize the liquid front leading to the formation of narrow fingers of saturated material. As the water channels along these liquid fingers break, saturated clusters are formed inside the specimen. Subsequently, a spatial and temporal distribution of saturated clusters can be observed. We investigated the resulting saturated cluster distribution as a function of flow rate and gravity to achieve a fundamental understanding of the formation and evolution of such clusters in partially saturated granular materials. This study serves as a bridge between pore-scale behavior and the overall hydro-mechanical characteristics in partially saturated soils.

  19. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.


    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  20. Granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maten, van der J; Blaauwgeers, JL; Sutedja, G.; Kwa, HB; Postmus, P.E.; Wagenaar, SS


    OBJECTIVE: To describe the population-based incidence and clinical characteristics of granular cell tumors of the tracheobronchial tree. METHODS: All newly registered tracheobronchial granular cell tumors in the Dutch Network and National Database for Pathology for 10 consecutive years (1990-1999)

  1. NIAC Phase II Orbiting Rainbows Granular Imager (United States)

    Basinger, Scott A.; Palacios, David; Quadrelli, Marco B.; Swartzlander, Grover A., Jr.; Peng, XiaoPeng; Artusio, Alexandra; Arumugam, Darmin D.


    In this paper, we present some ideas regarding the optics and imaging aspects of granular spacecraft. Granular spacecraft are complex systems composed of a spatially disordered distribution of a large number of elements, for instance a cloud of grains in orbit. An example of application is a spaceborne observatory for exoplanet imaging, where the primary aperture is a cloud instead of a monolithic aperture.

  2. Design approach for granular emulsion mixes (GEMS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, JE


    Full Text Available Granular Emulsion Mixes (GEMS) are used in a wide range or road applications, ranging from low volume roads in developing areas to freeways in developing urban areas. In this paper a dual design approach for granular emulsion mixes (GEMS...

  3. Self-organization of granular media in airborne ultrasonic fields (United States)

    Bobrovskaya, A. I.; Stepanenko, D. A.; Minchenya, V. T.


    The article presents results of experimental and theoretical studies of behaviour of granular media (powder materials) in airborne ultrasonic field created by flexurally-vibrating ring-shaped waveguide with resonant frequency in the range 20-40 kHz. Experiments show that action of acoustic radiation forces results in formation of ordered structures in the form of ultrathin walls (monolayers) with number corresponding to the number of ring nodal points. Action of secondary radiation forces (König forces) results in formation of collateral (secondary) walls situated nearby primary walls. Experimental observations are compared with results of modelling of acoustic radiation force field inside the ring by means of COMSOL Multiphysics and MathCad software. Results of the studies can be used in development of devices for ultrasonic separation and concentration of particles as well as for formation of ordered monolayers from spherical particles.

  4. Traffic and Granular Flow’05

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, Thorsten; Kühne, Reinhart; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich


    The conference series Tra?c and Granular Flow has been established in 1995 and has since then been held biannually. At that time, the investigation of granular materials and tra?c was still somewhat exotic and was just starting to become popular among physicists. Originally the idea behind this conference series was to facilitate the c- vergence of the two ?elds, inspired by the similarities of certain phenomena and the use of similar theoretical methods. However, in recent years it has become clear that probably the di?erences between the two systems are much more interesting than the similarities. Nevertheless, the importance of various interrelations among these ?elds is still growing. The workshop continues to o?er an opportunity to stimulate this interdisciplinary research. Over the years the spectrum of topics has become much broader and has included also problems related to topics ranging from social dynamics to - ology. The conference manages to bring together people with rather di?erent background, r...

  5. PRN 2001-2: Acute Toxicity Data Requirements For Granular Pesticide Products, Including Those With Granular Fertilizers in the Product. (United States)

    This PR Notice announces guidance intended to streamline the acute toxicity review and classification process for certain granular pesticide products, including those products that contain granular fertilizers.

  6. Suitability of granular carbon as an anode material for sediment microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, Jan B.A.; Blondeel, Evelyne; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering; Tennison, Steve R. [Mast Carbon International Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: Sediment microbial fuel cells (S-MFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices that are able to oxidize organic matter directly into harvestable electrical power. The flux of organic matter into the sediment is rather low; therefore, other researchers have introduced plants for a continuous supply of organic matter to the anode electrode. Until now only interconnected materials have been considered as anode materials in S-MFCs. Here, granular carbon materials were investigated for their suitability as an anode material in S-MFCs. Materials and methods: Laboratory microcosms with eight different electrode materials (granules, felts and cloths) were examined with controlled organic matter addition under brackish conditions. Current density, organic matter removal and microbial community composition were monitored using 16S rRNA gene PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The main parameters investigated were the influence of the amount of electrode material applied to the sediment, the size of the granular material and the electrode configuration. Results and discussion: Felt material had an overall superior performance in terms of current density per amount of applied electrode material; felt and granular anode obtained similar current densities (approx. 50-60 mA m{sup -2}), but felt materials required 29 % less material to be applied. Yet, when growing plants, granular carbon is more suited because it is considered to restore, upon disturbance, the electrical connectivity within the anode compartment. Small granules (0.25-0.5 mm) gave the highest current density compared to larger granules (1-5 mm) of the same material. Granules with a rough surface had a better performance compared to smooth granules of the same size. The different granular materials lead to a selection of distinct microbial communities for each material, as shown by DGGE. Conclusions: Granular carbon is suitable as an anode material for S-MFCs. This opens the possibility

  7. Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes (United States)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko


    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran

  8. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.


    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  9. Lift on side by side intruders of various geometries within a granular flow (United States)

    Acevedo-Escalante, M. F.; Caballero-Robledo, G. A.


    Obstacles within fluids have been widely used in engineering and in physics to study hydrodynamic interactions. In granular matter, objects within a granular flow have helped to understand fundamental features of drag and lift forces. In our group, we have studied numerically the flow mediated interaction between two static disks within a vertical granular flow in a two-dimensional container where the flow velocity and the distance between obstacles were varied. Attractive and repulsive forces were found depending on flow velocity and separation between intruders. The simulations evidenced a relationship between the average flow velocity in a specific section ahead of the obstacles and the attractive-repulsive lift. On the other hand, it was showed that the lift force on an object dragged within a granular medium depends on the shape of the intruder. Here we present experimental results of the interaction between two side-by-side intruders of different shapes within a vertical granular flow. We built a quasi-two-dimensional container in which we placed the intruders and using load cells we measured lift and drag forces during the discharge process for different flow velocities.

  10. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy. DATES... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010...

  11. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by § 133.144...

  12. On inconsistency in frictional granular systems (United States)

    Alart, Pierre; Renouf, Mathieu


    Numerical simulation of granular systems is often based on a discrete element method. The nonsmooth contact dynamics approach can be used to solve a broad range of granular problems, especially involving rigid bodies. However, difficulties could be encountered and hamper successful completion of some simulations. The slow convergence of the nonsmooth solver may sometimes be attributed to an ill-conditioned system, but the convergence may also fail. The prime aim of the present study was to identify situations that hamper the consistency of the mathematical problem to solve. Some simple granular systems were investigated in detail while reviewing and applying the related theoretical results. A practical alternative is briefly analyzed and tested.

  13. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.


    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  14. Granular-relational data mining how to mine relational data in the paradigm of granular computing ?

    CERN Document Server

    Hońko, Piotr


    This book provides two general granular computing approaches to mining relational data, the first of which uses abstract descriptions of relational objects to build their granular representation, while the second extends existing granular data mining solutions to a relational case. Both approaches make it possible to perform and improve popular data mining tasks such as classification, clustering, and association discovery. How can different relational data mining tasks best be unified? How can the construction process of relational patterns be simplified? How can richer knowledge from relational data be discovered? All these questions can be answered in the same way: by mining relational data in the paradigm of granular computing! This book will allow readers with previous experience in the field of relational data mining to discover the many benefits of its granular perspective. In turn, those readers familiar with the paradigm of granular computing will find valuable insights on its application to mining r...

  15. Urban vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Knudsen, L.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


      lab   studies   in   that   we   found   a   decreased   detection   rate   in   busy   environments.   Here   we   test   with   a   much   larger   sample   and   age   range,   and   contribute   with   the   first   vibration  sensitivity  testing  outside  the  lab  in  an  urban   public...

  16. Experiments using non-intrusive particle tracing techniques for granular chute flows. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.; Fischer, I.S.


    The objective of this contract was to develop a system capable of non-intrusively tracking the motion of an individual particle for the study of granular flows down inclined chutes. The result of the project is a system capable of following the three-dimensional translational and rotational motion of an individual particle embedded with a flowing granular material. The basic system consists of a sphere embedded with three orthogonal transmitters emitting at different frequencies which induce voltages in an antenna array surrounding the flow regime. Analysis of the induced voltage signals within the framework of a derived model yields both the position and orientation of the sphere. Tests were performed in a small scale model chute as well as in a cylindrical vibrated granular bed, which clearly demonstrates the capability of the system. As a result of discussions at meetings held semi-annually for the Granular Flow Advanced Research Objectives (GFARO) contractors, it was deemed necessary to pursue an additional experimental program as part of this contract related to the measurement of sphere collision properties. The outcome of the work (reported in Appendix C) is the determination of certain properties which are needed for use in computer simulations and theory.

  17. Granular activated algae for wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Tiron, O; Bumbac, C; Patroescu, I V; Badescu, V R; Postolache, C


    The study used activated algae granules for low-strength wastewater treatment in sequential batch mode. Each treatment cycle was conducted within 24 h in a bioreactor exposed to 235 μmol/m²/s light intensity. Wastewater treatment was performed mostly in aerobic conditions, oxygen being provided by microalgae. High removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved (86-98%) in the first hours of the reaction phase, during which the indicator's removal rate was 17.4 ± 3.9 mg O₂/g h; NH(4)(+) was removed during organic matter degradation processes with a rate of 1.8 ± 0.6 mg/g h. After almost complete COD removal, the (O⁺) remaining in the liquor was removed through nitrification processes promoted by the increase of the liquor's oxygen saturation (O₂%), the transformation rate of NH4(+) into NO(3)(-) increasing from 0.14 ± 0.05 to 1.5 ± 0.4 mg NH4(+)/g h, along with an O₂% increase. A wide removal efficiency was achieved in the case of PO(4)(3)(-) (11-85%), with the indicator's removal rate being 1.3 ± 0.7 mg/g h. In the provided optimum conditions, the occurrence of the denitrifying activity was also noticed. A large pH variation was registered (5-8.5) during treatment cycles. The granular activated algae system proved to be a promising alternative for wastewater treatment as it also sustains cost-efficient microalgae harvesting, with microalgae recovery efficiency ranging between 99.85 and 99.99% after granules settling with a velocity of 19 ± 3.6 m/h.

  18. Granular cell tumor of the urinary bladder


    Bedir, Recep; Yılmaz, Rukiye; Özdemir, Oğuzhan; Uzun, Hakkı


    Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are extremely rare neoplasms of the bladder. In the literature, there are only a few reported cases. We present a GCT case with clinical, radiological, histomorphological, immünohistochemical findings and its differential diagnosis.

  19. Sliding through a superlight granular medium. (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C


    We explore the penetration dynamics of an intruder in a granular medium composed of expanded polystyrene spherical particles. Three features distinguish our experiment from others studied so far in granular physics: (a) the impact is horizontal, decoupling the effects of gravity and the drag force; (b) the density of the intruder rho(i) is up to 350 times larger than the density of the granular medium rho(m); and (c) the way the intruder moves through the material, sliding at the bottom of the column with small friction. Under these conditions we find that the final penetration D scales with (rho(i)/rho(m)) and the drag force Fd and D saturate with the height of the granular bed.

  20. Helical Locomotion in a Granular Medium (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Ibarra, Alejandro; Melo, Francisco


    The physical mechanisms that bring about the propulsion of a rotating helix in a granular medium are considered. A propulsive motion along the axis of the rotating helix is induced by both symmetry breaking due to the helical shape, and the anisotropic frictional forces undergone by all segments of the helix in the medium. Helix dynamics is studied as a function of helix rotation speed and its geometrical parameters. The effect of the granular pressure and the applied external load were also investigated. A theoretical model is developed based on the anisotropic frictional force experienced by a slender body moving in a granular material, to account for the translation speed of the helix. A good agreement with experimental data is obtained, which allows for predicting the helix design to propel optimally within granular media. These results pave the way for the development of an efficient sand robot operating according to this mode of locomotion.

  1. Granular materials flow like complex fluids (United States)

    Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Jindong; Xia, Chengjie; Li, Zhifeng; Dong, Haipeng; Zhang, Ang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie


    Granular materials such as sand, powders and foams are ubiquitous in daily life and in industrial and geotechnical applications. These disordered systems form stable structures when unperturbed, but in the presence of external influences such as tapping or shear they `relax', becoming fluid in nature. It is often assumed that the relaxation dynamics of granular systems is similar to that of thermal glass-forming systems. However, so far it has not been possible to determine experimentally the dynamic properties of three-dimensional granular systems at the particle level. This lack of experimental data, combined with the fact that the motion of granular particles involves friction (whereas the motion of particles in thermal glass-forming systems does not), means that an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics of granular materials is lacking. Here we use X-ray tomography to determine the microscale relaxation dynamics of hard granular ellipsoids subject to an oscillatory shear. We find that the distribution of the displacements of the ellipsoids is well described by a Gumbel law (which is similar to a Gaussian distribution for small displacements but has a heavier tail for larger displacements), with a shape parameter that is independent of the amplitude of the shear strain and of the time. Despite this universality, the mean squared displacement of an individual ellipsoid follows a power law as a function of time, with an exponent that does depend on the strain amplitude and time. We argue that these results are related to microscale relaxation mechanisms that involve friction and memory effects (whereby the motion of an ellipsoid at a given point in time depends on its previous motion). Our observations demonstrate that, at the particle level, the dynamic behaviour of granular systems is qualitatively different from that of thermal glass-forming systems, and is instead more similar to that of complex fluids. We conclude that granular materials can relax

  2. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors (United States)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey


    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  3. Universality of slip avalanches in flowing granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.V.; Lörincz, K.A.; Uhl, J.T.; Dahmen, K.A.; Schall, P.


    The search for scale-bridging relations in the deformation of amorphous materials presents a current challenge with tremendous applications in material science, engineering and geology. While generic features in the flow and microscopic dynamics support the idea of a universal scaling theory of

  4. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A


    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  5. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) (United States)


    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  6. Microfluidics of soft granular gels (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    Microfluidic methods for encapsulating cells and particles typically involve drop making with two immiscible fluids. The main materials constraint in this approach is surface tension, creating inherent instability between the two fluids. We can eliminate this instability by using miscible inner and outer phases. This is achieved by using granular micro gels which are chemically miscible but physically do not mix. These microgels are yield stress materials, so they flow as solid plugs far from shear gradients, and fluidize where gradients are generated - near an injection nozzle for example. We have found that tuning the yield stress of the material by varying polymer concentration, device performance can be controlled. The solid like behavior of the gel allows us to produces infinitely stable jets that maintain their integrity and configuration over long distances and times. These properties can be combined and manipulated to produce discrete particulate bunches of an inner phase, flowing inside of an outer phase, well enough even to print a Morse code message suspended within flow chambers about a millimeter in diameter moving at millimeters a second.

  7. Discrete Element Modeling of Complex Granular Flows (United States)

    Movshovitz, N.; Asphaug, E. I.


    Granular materials occur almost everywhere in nature, and are actively studied in many fields of research, from food industry to planetary science. One approach to the study of granular media, the continuum approach, attempts to find a constitutive law that determines the material's flow, or strain, under applied stress. The main difficulty with this approach is that granular systems exhibit different behavior under different conditions, behaving at times as an elastic solid (e.g. pile of sand), at times as a viscous fluid (e.g. when poured), or even as a gas (e.g. when shaken). Even if all these physics are accounted for, numerical implementation is made difficult by the wide and often discontinuous ranges in continuum density and sound speed. A different approach is Discrete Element Modeling (DEM). Here the goal is to directly model every grain in the system as a rigid body subject to various body and surface forces. The advantage of this method is that it treats all of the above regimes in the same way, and can easily deal with a system moving back and forth between regimes. But as a granular system typically contains a multitude of individual grains, the direct integration of the system can be very computationally expensive. For this reason most DEM codes are limited to spherical grains of uniform size. However, spherical grains often cannot replicate the behavior of real world granular systems. A simple pile of spherical grains, for example, relies on static friction alone to keep its shape, while in reality a pile of irregular grains can maintain a much steeper angle by interlocking force chains. In the present study we employ a commercial DEM, nVidia's PhysX Engine, originally designed for the game and animation industry, to simulate complex granular flows with irregular, non-spherical grains. This engine runs as a multi threaded process and can be GPU accelerated. We demonstrate the code's ability to physically model granular materials in the three regimes

  8. Polaromonas and Hydrogenophaga species are the predominant bacteria cultured from granular activated carbon filters in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magic-Knezev, A.; Wullings, B.A.; Kooij, van der D.


    AIM: Identification of the predominating cultivable bacteria in granular activated carbon (GAC) filters used in a variety of water treatment plants for selecting representative strains to study the role of bacteria in the removal of dissolved organic matter. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates

  9. Numerical analysis of granular soil fabrics (United States)

    Torbahn, L.; Huhn, K.


    grain shapes. So, ideal round or stick- and plate-shaped grains were utilized to represent natural silts or clays to test two end-members. To quantify texture influences on soil strength, physical parameters, e.g. soil resistance, were calculated during deformation process. Furthermore, fabric analysis during shear reveals new information on detailed pore space regarding distribution and shape of voids. For this, a three-dimensional visualization of pore space is realized with the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) that allows the volume calculation and hence a quantification of single voids with progressive deformation. As a result, imaging of particle contact distribution and particle orientations within samples show significant changes with ongoing strain such as strong variations in material fabric and particle re-organization and therewith significant structural changes. These findings confirm that in general grain shape and its factor of soil fabric is not negligible for soil resistance and hence soil strength. This is notably affected by the deformation behavior of granular matter. With the broad investigation of the three most important factors that specify fabric behavior, this study attains a comprehensive view evaluating the impact of fabric on soil strength.

  10. [Fertility and Environmental Impacts of Urban Scattered Human Feces Used as Organic Granular Fertilizer for Leaf Vegetables]. (United States)

    Lü, Wen-zhou; Qiao, Yu-xiang; Yu, Ning; Shi, Rong-hua; Wang, Guang-ming


    The disposal of urban scattered human feces has become a difficult problem for the management of modern city. In present study, the scattered human feces underwent the collection, scum removal, flocculation and dehydration, finally became the granular fertilizer; the effects of the ratio of fertilizer to soil on the growth of the pakchoi and the quality of soil and leaching water were evaluated, and the feasibility of granular fertilizer manuring the pakchoi was discussed by pot experiments. The results showed that the granular fertilizer significantly enhanced the production of the pakchoi which were not polluted by the intestinal microorganisms under the experiment conditions; meanwhile, at the proper ratio of fertilizer to soil, the concentration of these microorganisms in the leaching water was lower than that in the control check. Chemical analyses of soil revealed that the nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matters in soil became much richer in all treatments. In addition, the granular fertilizer improved the physical- chemical properties of soil, including raising the level of soil porosity and reducing the volume weight of soil. Application of granular fertilizer won't pollute the soil or leaching water; instead, it can also prevent nitrogen, potassium and intestinal microorganisms from leaching inio ground water at the proper ratio of granular fertilizer to soil.

  11. Axisymmetric collapses of granular columns (United States)

    Lube, Gert; Huppert, Herbert E.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Hallworth, Mark A.


    Experimental observations of the collapse of initially vertical columns of small grains are presented. The experiments were performed mainly with dry grains of salt or sand, with some additional experiments using couscous, sugar or rice. Some of the experimental flows were analysed using high-speed video. There are three different flow regimes, dependent on the value of the aspect ratio a {=} h_i/r_i, where h_i and r_i are the initial height and radius of the granular column respectively. The differing forms of flow behaviour are described for each regime. In all cases a central, conically sided region of angle approximately 59(°) , corresponding to an aspect ratio of 1.7, remains undisturbed throughout the motion. The main experimental results for the final extent of the deposit and the time for emplacement are systematically collapsed in a quantitative way independent of any friction coefficients. Along with the kinematic data for the rate of spread of the front of the collapsing column, this is interpreted as indicating that frictional effects between individual grains in the bulk of the moving flow only play a role in the last instant of the flow, as it comes to an abrupt halt. For a {reach r_infty is given by t_infty {=} 3(h_i/g)(1/2} {=} 3(r_i/g)({1/2}a^{1/2)) , where g is the gravitational acceleration. The insights and conclusions gained from these experiments can be applied to a wide range of industrial and natural flows of concentrated particles. For example, the observation of the rapid deposition of the grains can help explain details of the emplacement of pyroclastic flows resulting from the explosive eruption of volcanoes.

  12. Particle Damping with Granular Materials for Multi Degree of Freedom System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Inoue


    Full Text Available A particle damper consists of a bed of granular materials moving in cavities within a multi degree-of-freedom (MDOF structure. This paper deals with the damping effects on forced vibrations of a MDOF structure provided with the vertical particle dampers. In the analysis, the particle bed is assumed to be a single mass, and the collisions between the granules and the cavities are completely inelastic, i.e., all energy dissipation mechanisms are wrapped into zero coefficient of restitution. To predict the particle damping effect, equations of motion are developed in terms of equivalent single degree-of-freedom (SDOF system and damper mass with use made of modal approach. In this report, the periodic vibration model comprising sustained contact on or separation of the damper mass from vibrating structure is developed. A digital model is also formulated to simulate the damped motion of the physical system, taking account of all vibration modes. Numerical and experimental studies are made of the damping performance of plural dampers located at selected positions throughout a 3MDOF system. The experimental results confirm numerical prediction that collision between granules and structures is completely inelastic as the contributing mechanism of damping in the vertical vibration. It is found that particle dampers with properly selected mass ratios and clearances effectively suppress the resonance peaks over a wide frequency range.

  13. The cooperativity length in simple shear of dry granular media (United States)

    Ries, Alexander; Brendel, Lothar; Wolf, Dietrich E.


    The local flow rule and the cooperativity length are the crucial ingredients of non-local rheology of granular matter. Once they are known as functions of the stress ratio, one can predict steady-state flow in arbitrarily complex geometries. We show how these functions can most easily be extracted from simulated velocity profiles for three-dimensional simple shear. The critical behaviour at the yield threshold and its rounding by finite size effects are discussed. The simple shear is simulated with smooth frictional walls, which provide the spatial inhomogeneity necessary to determine the cooperativity length. They also allow for slip, so that the particle velocity at the wall adjusts itself according to the stress ratio and is sensitive to the bulk yield.

  14. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves


    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  15. Reversibility in locomotion in granular media (United States)

    Savoie, William; Goldman, Daniel


    A recent study of a self-deforming robot [Hatton et al., PRL, 2013] demonstrated that slow movement in dry granular media resembles locomotion in low Re fluids, in part because inertia is dominated by friction. The study indicated that granular swimming was kinematically reversible, a surprise because yielding in granular flow is irreversible. To investigate if reciprocal motions lead to net displacements in granular swimmers, in laboratory experiments, we study the locomotion of a robotic ``scallop'' consisting of a square body with two flipper-like limbs controlled to flap forward and backward symmetrically (a flap cycle). The body is constrained by linear bearings to allow motion in only one dimension. We vary the the flapping frequency f, the body/flipper burial depth d, and the number of flaps N in a deep bed of 6 mm diameter plastic spheres. Over a range of f and d, the N = 1 cycle produces net translation of the body; however for large N, a cycle produces no net translation. We conclude that symmetric strokes in granular swimming are irreversible at the onset of self-deformation, but become asymptotically reversible. work supported by NSF and ARL.

  16. Image Superresolution Reconstruction via Granular Computing Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbing Liu


    Full Text Available The problem of generating a superresolution (SR image from a single low-resolution (LR input image is addressed via granular computing clustering in the paper. Firstly, and the training images are regarded as SR image and partitioned into some SR patches, which are resized into LS patches, the training set is composed of the SR patches and the corresponding LR patches. Secondly, the granular computing (GrC clustering is proposed by the hypersphere representation of granule and the fuzzy inclusion measure compounded by the operation between two granules. Thirdly, the granule set (GS including hypersphere granules with different granularities is induced by GrC and used to form the relation between the LR image and the SR image by lasso. Experimental results showed that GrC achieved the least root mean square errors between the reconstructed SR image and the original image compared with bicubic interpolation, sparse representation, and NNLasso.

  17. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie


    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  18. Rheological Modeling of Macro Viscous Flows of Granular Suspension of Regular and Irregular Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pellegrino


    Full Text Available This paper refers to complex granular-fluid mixtures involved into geophysical flows, such as debris and hyper-concentrated flows. For such phenomena, the interstitial fluids play a role when they are in the viscous regime. Referring to experiments on granular-fluid mixture carried out with pressure imposed annular shear cell, we study the rheological behaviour of dense mixture involving both spheres and irregular-shaped particles. For the case of viscous suspensions with irregular grains, a significant scatter of data from the trend observed for mixtures with spherical particles was evident. In effect, the shape of the particles likely plays a fundamental role in the flow dynamics, and the constitutive laws proposed by the frictional theory for the spheres are no longer valid. Starting from the frictional approach successfully applied to suspension of spheres, we demonstrate that also in case of irregular particles the mixture rheology may be fully characterized by the two relationships involving friction coefficient µ and volume concentration Ф as a function of the dimensionless viscous number Iv. To this goal, we provided a new consistent general model, referring to the volume fraction law and friction law, which accounts for the particle shape. In this way, the fitting parameters reduce just to the static friction angle µ1, and the two parameters, k and fs related to the grain shape. The resulting general model may apply to steady fully developed flows of saturated granular fluid mixture in the viscous regime, no matter of granular characteristics.

  19. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics


    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  20. Scaling behavior of immersed granular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarsid L.


    Full Text Available The shear behavior of granular materials immersed in a viscous fluid depends on fluid properties (viscosity, density, particle properties (size, density and boundary conditions (shear rate, confining pressure. Using computational fluid dynamics simulations coupled with molecular dynamics for granular flow, and exploring a broad range of the values of parameters, we show that the parameter space can be reduced to a single parameter that controls the packing fraction and effective friction coefficient. This control parameter is a modified inertial number that incorporates viscous effects.

  1. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  2. Scaling behavior of immersed granular flows (United States)

    Amarsid, L.; Delenne, J.-Y.; Mutabaruka, P.; Monerie, Y.; Perales, F.; Radjai, F.


    The shear behavior of granular materials immersed in a viscous fluid depends on fluid properties (viscosity, density), particle properties (size, density) and boundary conditions (shear rate, confining pressure). Using computational fluid dynamics simulations coupled with molecular dynamics for granular flow, and exploring a broad range of the values of parameters, we show that the parameter space can be reduced to a single parameter that controls the packing fraction and effective friction coefficient. This control parameter is a modified inertial number that incorporates viscous effects.

  3. Tracing Thermal Creep Through Granular Media (United States)

    Steinpilz, Tobias; Teiser, Jens; Koester, Marc; Schywek, Mathias; Wurm, Gerhard


    A temperature gradient within a granular medium at low ambient pressure drives a gas flow through the medium by thermal creep. We measured the resulting air flow for a sample of glass beads with particle diameters between 290 μ m and 420 μ m for random close packing. Ambient pressure was varied between 1 Pa and 1000 Pa. The gas flow was quantified by means of tracer particles during parabolic flights. The flow varies systematically with pressure between 0.2 cm/s and 6 cm/s. The measured flow velocities are in quantitative agreement to model calculations that treat the granular medium as a collection of linear capillaries.

  4. Periodic Traveling Waves in Diatomic Granular Chains (United States)

    Betti, Matthew; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.


    We study bifurcations of periodic traveling waves in diatomic granular chains from the anti-continuum limit, when the mass ratio between the light and heavy beads is zero. We show that every limiting periodic wave is uniquely continued with respect to the mass ratio parameter, and the periodic waves with a wavelength larger than a certain critical value are spectrally stable. Numerical computations are developed to study how this solution family is continued to the limit of equal mass ratio between the beads, where periodic traveling waves of homogeneous granular chains exist.

  5. Granular contact dynamics using mathematical programming methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Huang, J.


    A class of variational formulations for discrete element analysis of granular media is presented. These formulations lead naturally to convex mathematical programs that can be solved using standard and readily available tools. In contrast to traditional discrete element analysis, the present...... is developed and it is concluded that the associated sliding rule, in the context of granular contact dynamics, may be viewed as an artifact of the time discretization and that the use of an associated flow rule at the particle scale level generally is physically acceptable. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  6. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order of...

  7. Vibration considerations for cryogenic tanks using glass bubbles insulation (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy John; Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared P.


    The use of glass bubbles as an efficient and practical thermal insulation system hasbeen previously demonstrated in cryogenic storage tanks. One such example is a spherical,vacuum-jacketed liquid hydrogen vessel of 218,000 liter capacity where the boiloff rate hasbeen reduced by approximately 50 percent. Further applications may include non-stationarytanks such as mobile tankers and tanks with extreme duty cycles or exposed to significantvibration environments. Space rocket launch events and mobile tanker life cycles representtwo harsh cases of mechanical vibration exposure. A number of bulk fill insulationmaterials including glass bubbles, perlite powders, and aerogel granules were tested forvibration effects and mechanical behavior using a custom design holding fixture subjectedto random vibration on an Electrodynamic Shaker. The settling effects for mixtures ofinsulation materials were also investigated. The vibration test results and granular particleanalysis are presented with considerations and implications for future cryogenic tankapplications.

  8. Particle characterization of pressed granular HMX (United States)

    Burnside, N. J.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.; Skidmore, C. B.


    It is widely accepted that particle size and morphology in granular beds of HE plays a large role in combustion and detonation events. This work reports the characteristics of coarse granular HMX (Class A) at a range of densities from stock density to 95% TMD. We report measurements of the particle size distribution of original granular HMX, as well as the size distribution of pressed (higher density) samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures are presented and are found to be useful in interpreting the size distribution measurements of the granular HMX, as well as in helping to more fully characterize the state of the particles. We find that the particle size distribution changes significantly with pressing. Particles are observed to be highly fractured and damaged, especially at higher pressed densities. Also, we have found that sample preparation can significantly affect size distribution measurements. In particular, even short duration ultra-sonic or "sonication" treatment can have a significant effect on the measured size distributions of pressed HMX samples. Surface area measured by gas absorption is found to be much larger than inferred from light scattering.

  9. Mechanical properties of wet granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournier, Z.; Geromichalos, D.; Herminghaus, S.; Kohonen, M.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Scheel, M.; Schulz, M.


    We elaborate on the impact of liquids upon the mechanical properties of granular materials. We find that most of the experimental and simulation results may be accounted for by a simple model assuming frictionless, spherical grains, with a hysteretic attractive interaction between neighbouring

  10. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot


    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  11. Structure and cluster formation in granular media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The two most important phenomena at the basis of granular media are excluded volume and dissipation. The former is captured by the hard sphere model and is responsible for, e.g., crystallization, the latter leads to interesting structures like clusters in non-equilibrium dynamical, freely cooling states. The freely cooling ...

  12. Computer modelling of granular material microfracturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malan, DF


    Full Text Available . The current work is aimed at extending these results to include intra- and transgranular fracturing. Numerical experiments have been carried out to simulate these micro fractures in granular media using a boundary-element computer code DIGS (Discontinuity...

  13. Congenital granular cell lesion in newborn mandible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 6, 2011 ... Congenital granular cell lesion (CGCL) is a rare non-neoplastic lesion found in newborns also known as Neumann's tumor. This benign lesion occurs predominantly in females mostly as a single mass. The histogenesis and natural history of the lesion remains obscure. It arises from the mucosa of the ...

  14. Contact models for very loose granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan; Eberhard, Peter


    One challenge of todays research on particle systems is the realistic simulation of granular materials consisting of many thousands of particles with peculiar contact interactions. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD, also called discrete element method, DEM) is introduced for the simulation of

  15. Basic properties of solitary waves in granular crystals (United States)

    Hasan, M. Arif; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    We consider a chain of lightly contacting identical spherical elastic granules and provide explicit analytical expressions to fully characterize solitary waves (SWs) that may be generated in the chain by an impact or an applied shock force. These SWs consist of individual packages of linear momentum/energy transmitted across the granules through Hertzian contacts. They are nonlinear translational waves (involving no vibrations) that propagate through the granular chain without distortion, i.e., without any temporal evolution in shape or size. In particular, we focus on a fully-formed SW and provide analytical expressions for the associated peak value as well as the time variation of the granules' displacement, velocity, acceleration, and compressive contact force acting across any two contacting granules. In addition, by considering a SW as an ;effective particle;, we provide explicit analytical expressions for its linear momentum, total energy, equivalent (or effective) mass and effective velocity. All of the above mentioned results are shown to depend only on the peak value of the SW's contact force and the properties of the granules, i.e., their diameter, density, and elastic moduli. Then we provide a simple recipe to calculate the peak value of the SW's contact force in terms of a given shock force. Finally, we check by numerical simulations the accuracy of the analytical predictions.

  16. Experimental Measurements of the Density of States for a Granular Crystal (United States)

    Bertrand, Thibault; O'Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.

    The vibrational density of states relates the structure and dynamics of materials. Several previous experimental studies have measured the density of states in colloidal glasses and identified an abundance of low energy collective excitations that give rise to anomalous behavior for the shear modulus. However, very few measurements of the density of states have been performed for driven granular materials. We report experimental investigations of the vibrational density of states of a quasi-2D uniformly heated granular crystal below the jamming density. We find that over the range of packing fractions we consider particles do not escape from their cages over the timescale of the measurements. We measure the density of states in two ways: from the power spectrum of the velocity autocorrelation function and the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of particle displacements. We compare the experimental measurements of the density of states to results obtained from similar measurements on 2D and quasi-2D hard sphere simulations. W. M. Keck Foundation Science and Engineering Grant.

  17. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We make music by causing strings, membranes, or air columns to vibrate. Engineers design safe structures by control- ling vibrations. I will describe to you a very simple vibrating system and the mathematics needed to analyse it. The ideas were born in the work of Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and I begin by quot-.

  18. Energy Content & Spectral Energy Representation of Wave Propagation in a Granular Chain (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rohit; Luding, Stefan


    A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Studying the energy as well as spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing for the study of internal structure of solids. Wave propagation through granular materials is often accompanied by energy attenuation which is quantified by Quality factor and this parameter has often been used to characterize material properties, hence, determining the Quality factor (energy attenuation parameter) can also help in determining the properties of the material [3], studied experimentally in [2]. The study of Energy content (Kinetic, Potential and Total Energy) of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain can assist in understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder as a function of propagation distance. The spectral analysis of the energy signal can assist in understanding dispersion as well as attenuation due to scattering in different frequencies (scattering attenuation). The selection of one-dimensional granular chain also helps in studying only the P-wave attributes of the wave and removing the influence of shear or rotational waves. Granular chains with different mass distributions have been studied, by randomly selecting masses from normal, binary and uniform distributions and the standard deviation of the distribution is considered as the disorder parameter, higher standard deviation means higher disorder and lower standard deviation means lower disorder [1]. For obtaining macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been invoked. Instead of analyzing deformation-, velocity- or stress

  19. Time Granularity Transformation of Time Series Data for Failure Prediction of Overhead Line (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Zhu, Wenbing; Yao, Jinxia; Gu, Chao; Bai, Demeng; Wang, Kun


    In this paper, we give an approach of transforming time series data with different time granularities into the same plane, which is the basis of further association analysis. We focus on the application of overhead line tripping. First all the relative state variables with line tripping are collected into our big data platform. We collect line account, line fault, lightning, power load and meteorological data. Second we respectively pre-process the five kinds of data to guarantee the integrality of data and simplicity of analysis. We use a representation way combining the aggregated representation and trend extraction methods, which considers both short term variation and long term trend of time sequence. Last we use extensive experiments to demonstrate that the proposed time granularity transformation approach not only lets multiple variables analysed on the same plane, but also has a high prediction accuracy and low running time no matter for SVM or logistic regression algorithm.

  20. Feasibility of granular bed filtration of an aerosol of ultrafine metallic particles including a pressure drop regeneration system. (United States)

    Bémer, D; Wingert, L; Morele, Y; Subra, I


    A process for filtering an aerosol of ultrafine metallic particles (UFP) has been designed and tested, based on the principle of a multistage granular bed. The filtration system comprised a succession of granular beds of varying thickness composed of glass beads of different diameters. This system allows the pressure drop to be regenerated during filtration ("on-line" mode) using a vibrating probe. Tests monitoring the pressure drop were conducted on a "10-L/min" low airflow rate device and on a "100-m(3)/hr" prototype. Granular bed unclogging is automated on the latter. The cyclic operation and filtration performances are similar to that of filter medium-based industrial dust collectors. Filtration of ultrafine metallic particles generated by different industrial processes such as arc welding, metal cutting, or spraying constitutes a difficult problem due to the high filter clogging properties of these particles and to the high temperatures generally encountered. Granular beds represent an advantageous means of filtering these aerosols with difficult properties.

  1. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers (United States)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira; Koyama, Tomohiro; Li, Rui


    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas.

  2. Vibration analysis of cryocoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaru, Takayuki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Koyama, Tomohiro; Rui Li [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The vibrations of Gifford-McMahon (GM) and pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers were measured and analyzed. The vibrations of the cold-stage and cold-head were measured separately to investigate their vibration mechanisms. The measurements were performed while maintaining the thermal conditions of the cryocoolers at a steady state. We found that the vibration of the cold-head for the 4 K PT cryocooler was two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the 4 K GM cryocooler. On the other hand, the vibration of the cold-stages for both cryocoolers was of the same order of magnitude. From a spectral analysis of the vibrations and a simulation, we concluded that the vibration of the cold-stage is caused by an elastic deformation of the pulse tubes (or cylinders) due to the pressure oscillation of the working gas. (Author)

  3. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong


    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  4. Slow creep in soft granular packings. (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S


    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  5. Mathematics and Mechanics of Granular Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, James M


    Granular or particulate materials arise in almost every aspect of our lives, including many familiar materials such as tea, coffee, sugar, sand, cement and powders. At some stage almost every industrial process involves a particulate material, and it is usually the cause of the disruption to the smooth running of the process. In the natural environment, understanding the behaviour of particulate materials is vital in many geophysical processes such as earthquakes, landslides and avalanches. This book is a collection of current research from some of the major contributors in the topic of modelling the behaviour of granular materials. Papers from every area of current activity are included, such as theoretical, numerical, engineering and computational approaches. This book illustrates the numerous diverse approaches to one of the outstanding problems of modern continuum mechanics.

  6. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh


    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  7. Compaction of granular material inside confined geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjy eMarks


    Full Text Available In both nature and the laboratory, loosely packed granular materials are often compacted inside confined geometries. Here, we explore such behaviour in a quasi-two dimensional geometry, where parallel rigid walls provide the confinement. We use the discrete element method to investigate the stress distribution developed within the granular packing as a result of compaction due to the displacement of a rigid piston. We observe that the stress within the packing increases exponentially with the length of accumulated grains, and show an extension to current analytic models which fits the measured stress. The micromechanical behaviour is studied for a range of system parameters, and the limitations of existing analytic models are described. In particular, we show the smallest sized systems which can be treated using existing models. Additionally, the effects of increasing piston rate, and variations of the initial packing fraction, are described.

  8. Understanding soft condensed matter via modeling and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, An-Chang


    All living organisms consist of soft matter. For this reason alone, it is important to be able to understand and predict the structural and dynamical properties of soft materials such as polymers, surfactants, colloids, granular matter and liquids crystals. To achieve a better understanding of soft matter, three different approaches have to be integrated: experiment, theory and simulation. This book focuses on the third approach - but always in the context of the other two.

  9. Mechanical Wave Propagation within Nanogold Granular Crystals


    Zheng, Bowen; Xu, Jun


    We computationally investigate the wave propagation characteristics of nanoscopic granular crystals composed of one-dimensionally arrayed gold nanoparticles using molecular dynamics simulation. We examine two basic configurations, i.e. homogeneous lattices and diatomic lattices with mass-mismatch. We discover that homogeneous lattices of gold nanospheres support weakly dissipative and highly localized solitary wave at 300 K, while diatomic lattices have a good tuning ability of transmittance ...

  10. Mechanics of Granular Materials Test Cell (United States)


    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown from all three sides by its video camera during STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  11. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware (United States)


    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  12. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Cell (United States)


    One of three Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) test cells after flight on STS-79 and before impregnation with resin. Note that the sand column has bulged in the middle, and that the top of the column is several inches lower than the top of the plastic enclosure. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  13. Mechanics of Granular Materials-3 (MGM-3) (United States)

    Sture, Stein; Alshibi, Khalid; Guynes, Buddy (Technical Monitor)


    Scientists are going to space to understand how earthquakes and other forces disturb grains of soil and sand. They will examine how the particle arrangement and structure of soils, grains and powders are changed by external forces and gain knowledge about the strength, stiffness and volume changes properties of granular materials at low pressures. The Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment uses the microgravity of orbit to test sand columns under conditions that cannot be obtained in experiments on Earth. Research can only go so far on Earth because gravity-induced stresses complicate the analysis and change loads too quickly for detailed analysis. This new knowledge will be applied to improving foundations for buildings, managing undeveloped land, and handling powdered and granular materials in chemical, agricultural, and other industries. NASA wants to understand the way soil behaves under different gravity levels so that crews can safely build habitats on Mars and the Moon. Future MGM experiments will benefit from extended tests aboard the International Space Station, including experiments under simulated lunar and Martian gravity in the science centrifuge.

  14. Small solar system bodies as granular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestroffer Daniel


    Full Text Available Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining. In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  15. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Eissa


    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  16. Accretion Dynamics on Wet Granular Materials (United States)

    Saingier, Guillaume; Sauret, Alban; Jop, Pierre


    Wet granular aggregates are common precursors of construction materials, food, and health care products. The physical mechanisms involved in the mixing of dry grains with a wet substrate are not well understood and difficult to control. Here, we study experimentally the accretion of dry grains on a wet granular substrate by measuring the growth dynamics of the wet aggregate. We show that this aggregate is fully saturated and its cohesion is ensured by the capillary depression at the air-liquid interface. The growth dynamics is controlled by the liquid fraction at the surface of the aggregate and exhibits two regimes. In the viscous regime, the growth dynamics is limited by the capillary-driven flow of liquid through the granular packing to the surface of the aggregate. In the capture regime, the capture probability depends on the availability of the liquid at the saturated interface, which is controlled by the hydrostatic depression in the material. We propose a model that rationalizes our observations and captures both dynamics based on the evolution of the capture probability with the hydrostatic depression.

  17. Small solar system bodies as granular systems (United States)

    Hestroffer, Daniel; Campo Bagatín, Adriano; Losert, Wolfgang; Opsomer, Eric; Sánchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Staron, Lydie; Taberlet, Nicolas; Yano, Hajime; Eggl, Siegfried; Lecomte, Charles-Edouard; Murdoch, Naomi; Radjai, Fahrang; Richardson, Derek C.; Salazar, Marcos; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Tanga, Paolo


    Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs) are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining). In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  18. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  19. The role of fluid viscosity in an immersed granular collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Geng Chao


    Full Text Available Instabilities of immersed slopes and cliffs can lead to catastrophic events that involve a sudden release of huge soil mass. The scaled deposit height and runout distance are found to follow simple power laws when a granular column collapses on a horizontal plane. However, if the granular column is submerged in a fluid, the mobility of the granular collapse due to high inertia effects will be reduced by fluid-particle interactions. In this study, the effects of fluid viscosity on granular collapse is investigated qualitatively by adopting a numerical approach based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and discrete element method (DEM. It is found that the granular collapse can be dramatically slowed down due to the presence of viscous fluids. For the considered granular configuration, when the fluid viscosity increases. the runout distance decreases and the final deposition shows a larger deposit angle.

  20. Simulation of granular and gas-solid flows using discrete element method (United States)

    Boyalakuntla, Dhanunjay S.


    In recent years there has been increased research activity in the experimental and numerical study of gas-solid flows. Flows of this type have numerous applications in the energy, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals process industries. Typical applications include pulverized coal combustion, flow and heat transfer in bubbling and circulating fluidized beds, hopper and chute flows, pneumatic transport of pharmaceutical powders and pellets, and many more. The present work addresses the study of gas-solid flows using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and discrete element simulation methods (DES) combined. Many previous studies of coupled gas-solid flows have been performed assuming the solid phase as a continuum with averaged properties and treating the gas-solid flow as constituting of interpenetrating continua. Instead, in the present work, the gas phase flow is simulated using continuum theory and the solid phase flow is simulated using DES. DES treats each solid particle individually, thus accounting for its dynamics due to particle-particle interactions, particle-wall interactions as well as fluid drag and buoyancy. The present work involves developing efficient DES methods for dense granular flow and coupling this simulation to continuum simulations of the gas phase flow. Simulations have been performed to observe pure granular behavior in vibrating beds. Benchmark cases have been simulated and the results obtained match the published literature. The dimensionless acceleration amplitude and the bed height are the parameters governing bed behavior. Various interesting behaviors such as heaping, round and cusp surface standing waves, as well as kinks, have been observed for different values of the acceleration amplitude for a given bed height. Furthermore, binary granular mixtures (granular mixtures with two particle sizes) in a vibrated bed have also been studied. Gas-solid flow simulations have been performed to study fluidized beds. Benchmark 2D

  1. Thermal collapse of a granular gas under gravity


    Volfson, Dmitri; Meerson, Baruch; Tsimring, Lev S.


    Free cooling of a gas of inelastically colliding hard spheres represents a central paradigm of kinetic theory of granular gases. At zero gravity the temperature of a freely cooling homogeneous granular gas follows a power law in time. How does gravity, which brings inhomogeneity, affect the cooling? We combine molecular dynamics simulations, a numerical solution of hydrodynamic equations and an analytic theory to show that a granular gas cooling under gravity undergoes thermal collapse: it co...

  2. Granular computing analysis and design of intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrycz, Witold


    Information granules, as encountered in natural language, are implicit in nature. To make them fully operational so they can be effectively used to analyze and design intelligent systems, information granules need to be made explicit. An emerging discipline, granular computing focuses on formalizing information granules and unifying them to create a coherent methodological and developmental environment for intelligent system design and analysis. Granular Computing: Analysis and Design of Intelligent Systems presents the unified principles of granular computing along with its comprehensive algo

  3. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad


    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  4. Electromagnetic phenomena in granular flows in the laboratory and dusty plasmas in geophysics and astrophysics (United States)

    Lathrop, Daniel; Eiskowitz, Skylar; Rojas, Ruben


    In clouds of suspended particles, collisions electrify particles and the clouds produce electric potential differences over large scales. This is seen in the atmosphere as lightning in thunderstorms, thundersnow, dust storms, and volcanic ash plumes, but it is a general phenomena in granular systems. The electrification process is not well understood. To investigate the relative importance of particle material properties and collective phenomena in granular and atmospheric electrification, we used several tabletop experiments that excite particle-laden flows. Various electromagnetic phenomena ensue. Measured electric fields result from capacitive and direct charge transfer to electrodes. These results suggest that while particle properties do matter (as previous investigations have shown), macroscopic electrification of granular flows is somewhat material independent and large-scale collective phenomena play a major role. As well, our results on charge separation and Hall effects suggest a very different view of the dynamics of clouds, planetary rings, and cold accretion disks in proto-planetary systems. We gratefully acknowledge past funding from the Julian Schwinger Foundation as well as the Ph.D. work of Freja Nordsiek.

  5. Microgravity Experiments to Evaluate Electrostatic Forces in Controlling Cohesion and Adhesion of Granular Materials (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Weislogel, M.; Jacobson, T.


    The bulk behavior of dispersed, fluidized, or undispersed stationary granular systems cannot be fully understood in terms of adhesive/cohesive properties without understanding the role of electrostatic forces acting at the level of the grains themselves. When grains adhere to a surface, or come in contact with one another in a stationary bulk mass, it is difficult to measure the forces acting on the grains, and the forces themselves that induced the cohesion and adhesion are changed. Even if a single gain were to be scrutinized in the laboratory, it might be difficult, perhaps impossible, to define the distribution and character of surface charging and the three- dimensional relationship that charges (electrons, holes) have to one another. The hypothesis that we propose to test in microgravity (for dielectric materials) is that adhesion and cohesion of granular matter are mediated primarily by dipole forces that do not require the presence of a net charge; in fact, nominally electrically neutral materials should express adhesive and cohesive behavior when the neutrality results from a balance of positive and negative charge carriers. Moreover, the use of net charge alone as a measure of the electrical nature of grain-to-grain relationships within a granular mass may be misleading. We believe that the dipole forces arise from the presence of randomly-distributed positive and negative fixed charge carriers on grains that give rise to a resultant dipole moment. These dipole forces have long-range attraction. Random charges are created whenever there is triboelectrical activity of a granular mass, that is, whenever the grains experience contact/separation sequences or friction. Electrostatic forces are generally under-estimated for their role in causing agglomeration of dispersed grains in particulate clouds, or their role in affecting the internal frictional relationships in packed granular masses. We believe that electrostatic, in particular dipole-mediated processes

  6. Segregation induced fingering instabilities in granular avalanches (United States)

    Woodhouse, Mark; Thornton, Anthony; Johnson, Chris; Kokelaar, Pete; Gray, Nico


    It is important to be able to predict the distance to which a hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. snow slab avalanches, debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) might travel, as this information is vital for accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In the high solids fraction regions of these flows the large particles commonly segregate to the surface, where they are transported to the margins to form bouldery flow fronts. In many natural flows these bouldery margins experience a much greater frictional force, leading to frontal instabilities. These instabilities create levees that channelize the flow vastly increasing the run-out distance. A similar effect can be observed in dry granular experiments, which use a combination of small round and large rough particles. When this mixture is poured down an inclined plane, particle size segregation causes the large particles to accumulate near the margins. Being rougher, the large particles experience a greater friction force and this configuration (rougher material in front of smoother) can be unstable. The instability causes the uniform flow front to break up into a series of fingers. A recent model for particle size-segregation has been coupled to existing avalanche models through a particle concentration dependent friction law. In this talk numerical solutions of this coupled system are presented and compared to both large scale experiments carried out at the USGS flume and more controlled small scale laboratory experiments. The coupled depth-averaged model captures the accumulation of large particles at the flow front. We show this large particle accumulation at the head of the flow can lead to the break-up of the initially uniform front into a series of fingers. However, we are unable to obtain a fully grid-resolved numerical solution; the width of the fingers decreases as the grid is refined. By considering the linear stability of a steady, fully-developed, bidisperse granular layer it is shown that

  7. Nanofiltration and granular activated carbon treatment of perfluoroalkyl acids. (United States)

    Appleman, Timothy D; Dickenson, Eric R V; Bellona, Christopher; Higgins, Christopher P


    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are of concern because of their persistence in the environment and the potential toxicological effects on humans exposed to PFAAs through a variety of possible exposure routes, including contaminated drinking water. This study evaluated the efficacy of nanofiltration (NF) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in removing a suite of PFAAs from water. Virgin flat-sheet NF membranes (NF270, Dow/Filmtec) were tested at permeate fluxes of 17-75 Lm(-2)h(-1) using deionized (DI) water and artificial groundwater. The effects of membrane fouling by humic acid on PFAA rejection were also tested under constant permeate flux conditions. Both virgin and fouled NF270 membranes demonstrated >93% removal for all PFAAs under all conditions tested. GAC efficacy was tested using rapid small-scale columns packed with Calgon Filtrasorb300 (F300) carbon and DI water with and without dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM effects were also evaluated with F600 and Siemens AquaCarb1240C. The F300 GAC had water for up to 125,000 bed volumes (BVs). When DOM was present, >20% breakthrough of all PFAAs by 10,000 BVs was observed for all carbons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A performance -based method for granular based method for granular -paste mix design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornahad, H.; Koenders, E.A.B.


    In this paper a performance-based method for the design of granular-paste mixtures will be proposed. Focus will be on the selection and proportioning of constituents to produce a mixture with a pre-defined shape holding ability. Shape holding ability of mixtures will be characterized by the shape

  9. Random matrix theory approach to vibrations near the jamming transition (United States)

    Beltukov, Y. M.


    It has been shown that the dynamical matrix M describing harmonic oscillations in granular media can be represented in the form M = AA T, where the rows of the matrix A correspond to the degrees of freedom of individual granules and its columns correspond to elastic contacts between granules. Such a representation of the dynamical matrix makes it possible to estimate the density of vibrational states with the use of the random matrix theory. The found density of vibrational states is approximately constant in a wide frequency range ω- < ω < ω+, which is determined by the ratio of the number of degrees of freedom to the total number of contacts in the system, which is in good agreement with the results of the numerical experiments.

  10. Model Indepedent Vibration Control


    Yuan, Jing


    A NMIFC system is proposed for broadband vibration control. It has two important features. Feature F1 is that the NMIFC is stable without introducing any invasive effects, such as probing signals or controller perturbations, into the vibration system; feature F2 is

  11. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 4th edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  12. Vibration Theory, Vol. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present textbook has been written based on previous lecture notes for a course on stochastic vibration theory that is being given on the 9th semester at Aalborg University for M. Sc. students in structural engineering. The present 2nd edition of this textbook on linear stochastic vibration...

  13. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus


    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  14. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer (United States)


    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  15. Mechanical vibration and shock analysis, sinusoidal vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Christian


    Everything engineers need to know about mechanical vibration and one authoritative reference work! This fully updated and revised 3rd edition addresses the entire field of mechanical vibration and shock as one of the most important types of load and stress applied to structures, machines and components in the real world. Examples include everything from the regular and predictable loads applied to turbines, motors or helicopters by the spinning of their constituent parts to the ability of buildings to withstand damage from wind loads or explosions, and the need for cars to m

  16. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors (United States)

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey


    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  17. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  18. Assessing granular pit construction from larval Neuroptera (United States)

    Shea, Nicholas; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.; Loudon, Catherine; Steeples, Don W.


    Antlion larvae, Myrmeleon carolinus, build cone-shaped pits in dry sand for prey capture. The surface of these pits are prone to avalanches that can depend upon the physical properties of the sand in the local environment. The antlion larvae are observed to be capable of assessing both sand depth and particle size. In a polydisperse granular environment, the antlion demonstrates the ability to sort the sand by size in a dynamic manner. An imaging technique is developed to investigate the potential role of air viscosity on the pit construction process.

  19. Granular contact dynamics with particle elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhoft, K.; Huang, J.; da Silva, M. V.


    A granular contact dynamics formulation for elastically deformable particles is detailed. The resulting scheme bears some similarity to traditional molecular dynamics schemes in that the consideration of a finite elastic contact stiffness implies the possibility for inter-particle penetration....... However, in contrast to traditional molecular dynamics schemes, there are no algorithmic repercussions from operating with a large or, in the extreme case infinite, contact stiffness. Indeed, the algorithm used-a standard second-order cone programming solver-is independent of the particle scale model...

  20. Gravity-driven dense granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors report and analyze the results of numerical studies of dense granular flows in two and three dimensions, using both linear damped springs and Hertzian force laws between particles. Chute flow generically produces a constant density profile that satisfies scaling relations suggestive of a Bagnold grain inertia regime. The type for force law has little impact on the behavior of the system. Failure is not initiated at the surface, consistent with the absence of surface flows and different principal stress directions at vs. below the surface.

  1. Rolling friction on a granular medium (United States)

    de Blasio, Fabio Vittorio; Saeter, May-Britt


    We present experimental results for the rolling of spheres on a granular bed. We use two sets of glass and steel spheres with varying diameters and a high-speed camera to follow the motion of the spheres. Despite the complex phenomena occurring during the rolling, the results show a friction coefficient nearly independent of the velocity (0.45-0.5 for glass and 0.6-0.65 for steel). It is found that for a given sphere density, the large spheres reach a longer distance, a result that may also help explain the rock sorting along natural stone accumulations at the foot of mountain slopes.

  2. Granular jamming transitions for a robotic mechanism (United States)

    Jiang, Allen; Aste, Tomaso; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha


    The jamming transitions for granules growing field of interest in robotics for use in variable stiffness mechanisms. However, the traditional use of air pressure to control the jamming transition requires heavy vacuums, reducing the mobility of the robot. Thus, we propose the use of water as a hydraulic fluid to control the transition between free and clustered granules. This paper presents comparative studies that show that a hydraulic granular jammed finger joint can both achieve the same stiffness level and maintain the same hysteresis level of a pneumatic system, with only a small volume of fluid.

  3. Sensors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Andreas Alexander


    The CMS experiment is currently developing high granularity calorimeter endcapsfor its HL-LHC upgrade. The design foresees silicon sensors as the active material for the high radiation region close to the beampipe. Regions of lower radiation are additionally equipped with plastic scintillator tiles. This technology is similar to the calorimeter prototypes developed in the framework of the Linear Collider by the CALICE collaboration. The current status of the silicon sensor development is presented. Results of single diode measurements are shown as well as tests of full 6-inch hexagonal sensor wafers. A short summary of test beam results concludes the article.

  4. Collapse of granular media subjected to wetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Korchi Fatima Zahra


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the collapse of granular materials subjected to wetting action. For soils, the collapse potential depends on several parameters such as liquid limit, matric suction, compactness, initial water content and the amount of fine particles. The effect of grain size, which plays a key role in the rearrangement of grains, remains little studied and poorly understood. To investigate the capillary origin of the collapse phenomenon, we present an experimental study on macroscopic and local scales. Our results show the effect of grain size and water content on collapse.

  5. Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular


    Bryla, D R; Machado, RMA


    Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil nitrogen during establishment of highbush blueberry David R. Bryla1* and Rui M. A. Machado2 1 Horticultural Crops Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Corvallis, OR, USA 2 Departamento de Fitotecnia, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Universidade de Évora, Évora, Portugal A 2-year study was done to co...

  6. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric


    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  7. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick


    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  8. Some problems of control of dynamical conditions of technological vibrating machines (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. K.; Lapshin, V. L.; Eliseev, A. V.


    The possibility of control of dynamical condition of the shakers that are designed for vibration treatment of parts interacting with granular media is discussed. The aim of this article is to develop the methodological basis of technology of creation of mathematical models of shake tables and the development of principles of formation of vibrational fields, estimation of their parameters and control of the structure vibration fields. Approaches to build mathematical models that take into account unilateral constraints, the relationships between elements, with the vibrating surface are developed. Methods intended to construct mathematical model of linear mechanical oscillation systems are used. Small oscillations about the position of static equilibrium are performed. The original method of correction of vibration fields by introduction of the oscillating system additional ties to the structure are proposed. Additional ties are implemented in the form of a mass-inertial device for changing the inertial parameters of the working body of the vibration table by moving the mass-inertial elements. The concept of monitoring the dynamic state of the vibration table based on the original measuring devices is proposed. Estimation for possible changes in dynamic properties is produced. The article is of interest for specialists in the field of creation of vibration technology machines and equipment.

  9. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David


    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  10. Rheology of dry, partially saturated and wet granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakpour, M.


    This thesis is dedicated to the study of the rheology of dry, wet and partially saturated granular materials. Granular media, suspensions, emulsions, polymers and gels are ubiquitous in the chemical and materials processing industry, and despite their very different appearance, the rheology and

  11. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K


    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  12. 21 CFR 133.144 - Granular and stirred curd cheese. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular and stirred curd cheese. 133.144 Section... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.144 Granular and stirred curd cheese. (a) Description. (1...

  13. Granular cell tumour of the larynx - A case report | Appiah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the case due to the rarity of the laryngeal granular cell tumour and the need to highlight the importance of taking deep biopsies. If biopsies are superficial, an inexperienced pathologist would mistake it for well differentiated carcinoma. Keywords: Granular cell tumour, larynx, cordectomy, laryngofissure ...

  14. Granular Cell Tumor Of The Esophagus: An Unusual Cause Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report an uncommon case of dysphagia caused by a granular cell tumor in a 38 year old black female. Previously documented granular cell tumors are reported as being small and treated endoscopically. This is probably the largest reported in literature and possibly the fi rst documented in the West African subregion.

  15. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  16. Granular Fountains: Convection Cascade in a Compartementalized Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Roger M.; van der Weele, J.P.; Reimann, Peter


    This paper extends the two-compartment granular fountain [D. van der Meer, P. Reimann, K. van der Weele, and D. Lohse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 184301 (2004)] to an arbitrary number of compartments: The tendency of a granular gas to form clusters is exploited to generate spontaneous convective currents,

  17. Micro-macro and jamming transition in granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Nishant


    Granular materials are prevalent ubiquitously in nature and everyday life. They are commonly used as raw materials in various industries; their processing, handling and storage is far from understood, posing many open challenges for scientific community. Granular materials behave in a different


    Granular graphite is a potential electrode material for the electrochemical remediation of refractory chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, the use of granular graphite can complicate the experimental results. On one hand, up to 99% of TCE was re...

  19. Probing slow dynamics of consolidated granular multicomposite materials by diffuse acoustic wave spectroscopy. (United States)

    Tremblay, Nicolas; Larose, Eric; Rossetto, Vincent


    The stiffness of a consolidated granular medium experiences a drop immediately after a moderate mechanical solicitation. Then the stiffness rises back toward its initial value, following a logarithmic time evolution called slow dynamics. In the literature, slow dynamics has been probed by macroscopic quantities averaged over the sample volume, for instance, by the resonant frequency of vibrational eigenmodes. This article presents a different approach based on diffuse acoustic wave spectroscopy, a technique that is directly sensitive to the details of the sample structure. The parameters of the dynamics are found to depend on the damage of the medium. Results confirm that slow dynamics is, at least in part, due to tiny structural rearrangements at the microscopic scale, such as inter-grain contacts.

  20. Wrinkles, folds, and plasticity in granular rafts (United States)

    Jambon-Puillet, Etienne; Josserand, Christophe; Protière, Suzie


    We investigate the mechanical response of a compressed monolayer of large and dense particles at a liquid-fluid interface: a granular raft. Upon compression, rafts first wrinkle; then, as the confinement increases, the deformation localizes in a unique fold. This characteristic buckling pattern is usually associated with floating elastic sheets, and as a result, particle laden interfaces are often modeled as such. Here, we push this analogy to its limits by comparing quantitative measurements of the raft morphology to a theoretical continuous elastic model of the interface. We show that, although powerful to describe the wrinkle wavelength, the wrinkle-to-fold transition, and the fold shape, this elastic description does not capture the finer details of the experiment. We describe an unpredicted secondary wavelength, a compression discrepancy with the model, and a hysteretic behavior during compression cycles, all of which are a signature of the intrinsic discrete and frictional nature of granular rafts. It suggests also that these composite materials exhibit both plastic transition and jamming dynamics.

  1. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigators (United States)


    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment at the University of Colorado at Boulder include Tawnya Ferbiak (software engineer), Susan Batiste (research assistant), and Christina Winkler (graduate research assistant). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  2. Mechanics of Granular Materials labeled hardware (United States)


    Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) flight hardware takes two twin double locker assemblies in the Space Shuttle middeck or the Spacehab module. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: NASA/MSFC).

  3. Mechanic of Granular Materials (MGM) Investigator (United States)


    Key persornel in the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment are Mark Lankton (Program Manager at University Colorado at Boulder), Susan Batiste (research assistance, UCB), and Stein Sture (principal investigator). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  4. Normal stresses in shear thickening granular suspensions. (United States)

    Pan, Zhongcheng; de Cagny, Henri; Habibi, Mehdi; Bonn, Daniel


    When subjected to shear, granular suspensions exhibit normal stresses perpendicular to the shear plane but the magnitude and sign of the different components of the normal stresses are still under debate. By performing both oscillatory and rotational rheology measurements on shear thickening granular suspensions and systematically varying the particle diameters and the gap sizes between two parallel-plates, we show that a transition from a positive to a negative normal stress can be observed. We find that frictional interactions which determine the shear thickening behavior of suspensions contribute to the positive normal stresses. Increasing the particle diameters or decreasing the gap sizes leads to a growing importance of hydrodynamic interactions, which results in negative normal stresses. We determine a relaxation time for the system, set by both the pore and the gap sizes, that governs the fluid flow through the inter-particle space. Finally, using a two-fluid model we determine the relative contributions from the particle phase and the liquid phase.

  5. Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)


    Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

  6. Granular Impact at High Mach Number (United States)

    Clark, Abe; Zhang, Yue; Kondic, Lou; Behringer, R. P.


    How do dynamic stresses propagate in granular material after a high-speed impact? This occurs often in natural and industrial processes. Stress propagation in a granular material is controlled by the inter-particle force law, f, in terms of particle deformation, δ, often given by f ~δα , with α > 1 . This means that a linear wave description is invalid when dynamic stresses are large compared to the original confining pressure. With high-speed video and photoelastic grains with varying stiffness, we experimentally study how forces propagate following an impact and explain the results in terms of the nonlinear force law (we measure α ~ 1 . 4). The spatial structure of the forces and the propagation speed, vf, depend on a dimensionless parameter, M' =tcv0 / d , where v0 is the intruder speed at impact, d is the grain diameter, and tc is a binary collision time between grains with relative speed v0. For M' sound speed. For larger M', the force response has a 2D character, and forces propagate faster than predicted by d /tc due to collective stiffening of a packing. Funded by DTRA, under Grant No. HDTRA1-10-0021.

  7. Three-phase fracturing in granular material (United States)

    Campbell, James; Sandnes, Bjornar


    There exist numerous geo-engineering scenarios involving the invasion of a gas into a water-saturated porous medium: in fracking, this may occur during the fracking process itself or during subsequent gas penetration into propant beds; the process is also at the heart of carbon dioxide sequestration. We use a bed of water-saturated glass beads confined within a Hele-Shaw cell as a model system to illuminate these processes. Depending on packing density, injection rate and other factors, air injected into this system may invade in a broad variety of patterns, including viscous fingering, capillary invasion, bubble formation and fracturing. Here we focus primarily on the latter case. Fracturing is observed when air is injected into a loosely packed bed of unconsolidated granular material. Our approach allows us to image the complete fracture pattern as it forms, and as such to study both the topographical properties of the resulting pattern (fracture density, braching frequency etc) and the dynamics of its growth. We present an overview of the fracturing phenomenon within the context of pattern formation in granular fluids as a whole. We discuss how fracturing arises from an interplay between frictional, capillary and viscous forces, and demonstrate the influence of various parameters on the result.

  8. Transformation around intruders in granular media (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Merceron, Aymeric; Sauret, Alban


    Sintering, glass melting and other industrially relevant processes turn batches of grains into homogeneous products. Such processes involve coupled chemical and physical transformations of the granular packing. For sake of simplicity, we study how local evolutions on grains (volume decreases for example) entail mechanical rearrangements in the overall pile. Inert bidisperse metallic disks are mixed and confined in a vertical 2D cell. At the bottom of this set-up, initial intruders (one or two) have been previously set and mechanically linked to a linear motorized jack. While we quasi-statically pull the intruder(s) downward out of the cell at constant speed and constant liberated surface, we tracked the surrounding granular packing. Events largely distributed both spatially and temporally occur around intruders. We focus on the influence of the distance between the intruders on the local dynamic of the packing. We compare the distribution of the size of the event and their frequency as function of the relative position of the intruder, as a function of their radius. We show that their influence decreases rapidly. At short distance the mechanical perturbation induced by one intruder can destabilize the packing around the other.

  9. Transformation around intruders in granular media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jop Pierre


    Full Text Available Sintering, glass melting and other industrially relevant processes turn batches of grains into homogeneous products. Such processes involve coupled chemical and physical transformations of the granular packing. For sake of simplicity, we study how local evolutions on grains (volume decreases for example entail mechanical rearrangements in the overall pile. Inert bidisperse metallic disks are mixed and confined in a vertical 2D cell. At the bottom of this set-up, initial intruders (one or two have been previously set and mechanically linked to a linear motorized jack. While we quasi-statically pull the intruder(s downward out of the cell at constant speed and constant liberated surface, we tracked the surrounding granular packing. Events largely distributed both spatially and temporally occur around intruders. We focus on the influence of the distance between the intruders on the local dynamic of the packing. We compare the distribution of the size of the event and their frequency as function of the relative position of the intruder, as a function of their radius. We show that their influence decreases rapidly. At short distance the mechanical perturbation induced by one intruder can destabilize the packing around the other.

  10. Spatio-structural granularity of biological material entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Lars


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the continuously increasing demands on knowledge- and data-management that databases have to meet, ontologies and the theories of granularity they use become more and more important. Unfortunately, currently used theories and schemes of granularity unnecessarily limit the performance of ontologies due to two shortcomings: (i they do not allow the integration of multiple granularity perspectives into one granularity framework; (ii they are not applicable to cumulative-constitutively organized material entities, which cover most of the biomedical material entities. Results The above mentioned shortcomings are responsible for the major inconsistencies in currently used spatio-structural granularity schemes. By using the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO as a top-level ontology and Keet's general theory of granularity, a granularity framework is presented that is applicable to cumulative-constitutively organized material entities. It provides a scheme for granulating complex material entities into their constitutive and regional parts by integrating various compositional and spatial granularity perspectives. Within a scale dependent resolution perspective, it even allows distinguishing different types of representations of the same material entity. Within other scale dependent perspectives, which are based on specific types of measurements (e.g. weight, volume, etc., the possibility of organizing instances of material entities independent of their parthood relations and only according to increasing measures is provided as well. All granularity perspectives are connected to one another through overcrossing granularity levels, together forming an integrated whole that uses the compositional object perspective as an integrating backbone. This granularity framework allows to consistently assign structural granularity values to all different types of material entities. Conclusions The here presented framework provides a spatio

  11. An experimental, theoretical and event-driven computational study of narrow vibrofluidised granular materials (United States)

    Thornton, Anthony; Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David; Luding, Stefan


    We review simulations, experiments and a theoretical treatment of vertically vibrated granular media. The systems considered are confined in narrow quasi-two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional (column) geometries, where the vertical extension of the container is much larger than one or both horizontal lengths. The additional geometric constraint present in the column setup frustrates the convection state that is normally observed in wider geometries. We start by showing that the Event Driven (ED) simulation method is able to accurately reproduce the previously experimentally determined phase-diagram for vibrofludised granular materials. We then review two papers that used ED simulations to study narrow quasi-one-dimensional systems revealing a new phenomenon: collective oscillations of the grains with a characteristic frequency that is much lower than the frequency of energy injection. Theoretical work was then undertaken that is able to accurately predict the frequency of such an oscillation and Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) experiments were undertaken to provide the first experimental evidence of this new phenomenon. Finally, we briefly discuss ongoing work to create an open-source version of this ED via its integration in the existing open-source package MercuryDPM (link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="">http://MercuryDPM.orglink>); which has many advanced features that are not found in other codes.

  12. Structure and magnetic properties of granular NiZn-ferrite - SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Adriana Silva de


    Full Text Available Granular systems composed by nanostructured magnetic materials embedded in a non-magnetic matrix present unique physical properties that depend crucially on their nanostructure. In this work, we have studied the structural and magnetic properties of NiZn-ferrite nanoparticles embedded in SiO2, a granular system synthesized by sol-gel processing. Samples with ferrite volumetric fraction x ranging from 6% to 78% were prepared, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Our results show the formation of pure stoichiometric NiZn-ferrite in the SiO2 matrix for x < 34%. Above these fraction, our samples presented also small amounts of Fe2O3. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed the superparamagnetic behaviour of the ferrimagnetic NiZn-ferrite nanoparticles. The combination of different ferrite concentration and heat treatments allowed the obtaintion of samples with saturation magnetization between 1.3 and 68 emu/g and coercivity ranging from 0 to 123 Oe, value which is two orders of magnitude higher than the coercivity of bulk NiZn-ferrite.

  13. Research on Network Scanning Strategy Based on Information Granularity (United States)

    Qin, Futong; Shi, Pengfei; Du, Jing; Cheng, Ruosi; Zhou, Yunyan


    As the basic mean to obtain the information of the targets network, network scanning is often used to discover the security risks and vulnerabilities existing on the network. However, with the development of network technology, the scale of network is more and more large, and the network scanning efficiency put forward higher requirements. In this paper, the concept of network scanning information granularity is proposed, and the design method of network scanning strategy based on information granularity is proposed. Based on single information granularity and hybrid information granularity, four network scanning strategies were designed and verified experimentally. Experiments show that the network scanning strategies based on hybrid information granularity can improve the efficiency of network scanning.

  14. A Malignant Granular Cell Tumor Excised with Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crowe


    Full Text Available Malignant granular cell tumors are extremely rare, aggressive neoplasms displaying rapid growth and frequent associated metastatic disease. Excision and evaluation for metastatic disease are mandatory. We present a 54-year-old patient with a malignant granular cell tumor, treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Cutaneous granular cell tumors are uncommon neoplasms, likely of perineural origin. Most follow a benign and uneventful course, with wide local excision being the treatment of choice (Enzinger, 1988. The malignant granular cell tumor is an extremely rare, aggressive variant, which provides a diagnostic challenge and management dilemma, especially with early presentation when it may be mistaken for other entities. There is also controversy regarding surgical management and follow-up of both benign and malignant granular cell tumors.

  15. Critical phenomenon of granular flow on a conveyor belt. (United States)

    De-Song, Bao; Xun-Sheng, Zhang; Guang-Lei, Xu; Zheng-Quan, Pan; Xiao-Wei, Tang; Kun-Quan, Lu


    The relationship between the granular wafer movement on a two-dimensional conveyor belt and the size of the exit together with the velocity of the conveyor belt has been studied in the experiment. The result shows that there is a critical speed v(c) for the granular flow when the exit width d is fixed (where d=R/D, D being the diameter of a granular wafers). When vv(c), the flow rate Q is described as Q=Crho(v)(beta)(d-k)(3/2). These are the effects of the interaction among the granular wafers and the change of the states of the granular flow due to the changing of the speed or the exit width d.

  16. Mechanism and structure of subsurface explosions in granular media (United States)

    Lai, Shuyue; Houim, Ryan W.; Oran, Elaine S.


    Numerical simulations are performed to study the effects of proposed subsurface explosions for ejecting low-density regolith (that is, layers of rocky, granular material covering bedrock) from the surface of asteroids and comets. The numerical model solves two sets of coupled Euler equations, one for the gaseous phase and one for the granular phase, and is valid for a wide range of particle volume fractions. The specific conditions simulate an explosion in which the regolith, here a granular-gas mixture, consists of spherical particles with diameters of 1 μ m and the gas above and inside of the particle layer is at 10 Pa and 100 K. A preliminary one-dimensional computation describes the structure of a granular shock formed from a spherical explosion. The two-dimensional axisymmetric calculations show that the explosion creates a cavity in the granular phase, and this cavity expands radially until it breaks through the surface. A blast wave is created during the explosion, initiating the particle motions and forming a granular shock. The particles accumulate behind the granular shock to form a region with high particle volume fractions. An increase in gas-phase velocity at the contact surface is due to a sudden reduction of gas-phase volume, which is called the "nozzling effect." A weak shock in the gas phase is induced by the granular shock, which propagates radially. As the initial particle volume fraction increases, the propagation velocity of the granular shock increases. It is shown that there is a power-law relation between the explosion radius and time, and that this result is consistent with the blast-wave theory. At lower background temperatures, the velocities of both phases decrease, and this leads to more compact structures in the granular phase.

  17. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  18. Comparison of two online flocculation monitoring techniques for predicting turbidity removal by granular media filtration. (United States)

    Ball, T; Carrière, A; Barbeau, B


    Particulate matter removal in drinking water treatment via direct granular filtration requires specific flocculation conditions (a process typically termed 'high energy flocculation'). Predicting filtered water turbidity based on flocculated water characteristics remains difficult. This study has sought to establish a relationship between filtered water turbidity and the flocculated water characteristics. Flocculation oflow-turbidity raw water was evaluated online using a Photometric Dispersion Analyser (PDA) and a Dynamic Particle Analyser in a modified jar test followed by a bench-scale anthracite filter. Coagulants used were alum, PASS100 and ferric sulphate, in addition to a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) cationic polymer. They were dosed in warm and cold waters, and flocculated with intensities (G) from 0 to 100 s(-1). Of the two instruments selected to analyse flocculation performance, the Dynamic Particle Analyser was shown to be the most sensitive, detecting small changes in floc growth kinetics and even floc growth under low flocculation conditions which remained undetected by the PDA. Floc size was shown to be insufficient in predicting particulate matter removal by direct granular filtration as measured by turbidity, although a threshold d(v) value (50 microm) could be identified for the test conditions evaluated in this project, above which turbidity was systematically lower than 0.2 NTU.

  19. Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer (United States)

    Hammer, Paul


    Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…

  20. Electrostatics of Granular Material (EGM): Space Station Experiment (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Sauke, T.; Farrell, W.


    Aggregates were observed to form very suddenly in a lab-contained dust cloud, transforming (within seconds) an opaque monodispersed cloud into a clear volume containing rapidly-settling, long hair-like aggregates. The implications of such a "phase change" led to a series of experiments progressing from the lab, to KC-135, followed by micro-g flights on USML-1 and USML-2, and now EGM slated for Space Station. We attribute the sudden "collapse" of a cloud to the effect of dipoles. This has significant ramifications for all types of cloud systems, and additionally implicates dipoles in the processes of cohesion and adhesion of granular matter. Notably, there is the inference that like-charged grains need not necessarily repel if they are close enough together: attraction or repulsion depends on intergranular distance (the dipole being more powerful at short range), and the D/M ratio for each grain, where D is the dipole moment and M is the net charge. We discovered that these ideas about dipoles, the likely pervasiveness of them in granular material, the significance of the D/M ratio, and the idea of mixed charges on individual grains resulting from tribological processes --are not universally recognized in electrostatics, granular material studies, and aerosol science, despite some early seminal work in the literature, and despite commercial applications of dipoles in such modern uses as "Krazy Glue", housecleaning dust cloths, and photocopying. The overarching goal of EGM is to empirically prove that (triboelectrically) charged dielectric grains of material have dipole moments that provide an "always attractive" intergranular force as a result of both positive and negative charges residing on the surfaces of individual grains. Microgravity is required for this experiment because sand grains can be suspended as a cloud for protracted periods, the grains are free to rotate to express their electrostatic character, and Coulombic forces are unmasked. Suspended grains

  1. Rebound of a confined granular material: combination of a bouncing ball and a granular damper. (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Dorbolo, S


    A ball dropped over a solid surface bounces several times before a complete stop. The bouncing can be reduced by introducing a liquid into the ball; however, the first rebound remains largely unaffected by the fluid. Granular materials can also work as dampers. We investigated the rebound of a container partially filled with a given mass of grains mi. During the collision, the kinetic energy of the container is partially transferred to the grains, the rebound is damped, and the fast energy dissipation through inter-particle collisions and friction decreases the bouncing time dramatically. For grain-filled cylinders, a completely inelastic collision (zero rebound) is obtained when mi ≥ 1.5εomc, where εo and mc are the coefficient of restitution and mass of the empty container. For grain-filled spheres, the first rebound is almost undamped, but the second collision is completely inelastic if mi ≫ mc. These findings are potentially useful to design new granular damping systems.

  2. Vibrations and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    About this textbook An ideal text for students that ties together classical and modern topics of advanced vibration analysis in an interesting and lucid manner. It provides students with a background in elementary vibrations with the tools necessary for understanding and analyzing more complex...... dynamical phenomena that can be encountered in engineering and scientific practice. It progresses steadily from linear vibration theory over various levels of nonlinearity to bifurcation analysis, global dynamics and chaotic vibrations. It trains the student to analyze simple models, recognize nonlinear...... phenomena and work with advanced tools such as perturbation analysis and bifurcation analysis. Explaining theory in terms of relevant examples from real systems, this book is user-friendly and meets the increasing interest in non-linear dynamics in mechanical/structural engineering and applied mathematics...

  3. Regulation of aerobic granular sludge reformulation after granular sludge broken: effect of poly aluminum chloride (PAC). (United States)

    Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Fukun; Chen, Yiping; Kuschk, Peter; Wang, Xiaochang


    The present study focuses on the effect of poly aluminum chloride (PAC) on the re-formation of aerobic granular sludge after its rupture. The morphological changes, physical characteristics such as SVI, mechanical strength and surface properties of aerobic granular sludge during the re-formation process of broken granules were investigated. Moreover, components (protein (PN), polysaccharides (PS)) and distributions (soluble, loosely-bound (LB), tightly-bound (TB)) of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in sludge flocs were taken into consideration. It was found that the effect of charge neutralization and bridging induced by PAC treatment improved the surface properties of sludge, the re-formed granules had a larger size, more compact structure and that the removal performance of pollutants after chemical coagulation had improved. The results of correlation analysis demonstrated that PN in EPS correlated well with the surface characteristics and settling ability of sludge flocs, and PAC treatment strengthened the influence, further accelerated the reformation of granular sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-Yu; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Lan


    Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM), we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder) into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary) and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed), we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  5. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chuan-Yu


    Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  6. Charging of highly resistive granular metal films (United States)

    Orihuela, M. F.; Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Colchero, J.; Palacios-Lidón, E.; Grenet, T.; Delahaye, J.


    We have used the scanning Kelvin probe microscopy technique to monitor the charging process of highly resistive granular thin films. The sample is connected to two leads and is separated by an insulator layer from a gate electrode. When a gate voltage is applied, charges enter from the leads and rearrange across the sample. We find very slow processes with characteristic charging times exponentially distributed over a wide range of values, resulting in a logarithmic relaxation to equilibrium. After the gate voltage has been switched off, the system again relaxes logarithmically slowly to the new equilibrium. The results cannot be explained with diffusion models, but most of them can be understood with a hopping percolation model, in which the localization length is shorter than the typical site separation. The technique is very promising for the study of slow phenomena in highly resistive systems and will be able to estimate the conductance of these systems when direct macroscopic measurement techniques are not sensitive enough.

  7. Pneumatic fractures in Confined Granular Media (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Turkaya, Semih


    We will present our ongoing study of the patterns formed when air flows into a dry, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. This is an optically transparent system consisting of two glass plates separated by 0.5 to 1 mm, containing a packing of dry 80 micron beads in between. The cell is rectangular and has an air-permeable boundary (blocking beads) at one short edge, while the other three edges are completely sealed. The granular medium is loosely packed against the semi-permeable boundary and fills about 80 % of the cell volume. This leaves an empty region at the sealed side, where an inlet allows us to set and maintain the air at a constant overpressure (0.1 - 2 bar). For the air trapped inside the cell to relax its overpressure it has to move through the deformable granular medium. Depending on the applied overpressure and initial density of the medium, we observe a range of different behaviors such as seepage through the pore-network with or without an initial compaction of the solid, formation of low density bubbles with rearrangement of particles, granular fingering/fracturing, and erosion inside formed channels/fractures. The experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera at a framerate of 1000 images/s and a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels. We use various image processing techniques to characterize the evolution of the air invasion patterns and the deformations in the surrounding material. The experiments are similar to deformation processes in porous media which are driven by pore fluid overpressure, such as mud volcanoes and hydraulic or pneumatic (gas-induced) fracturing, and the motivation is to increase the understanding of such processes by optical observations. In addition, this setup is an experimental version of the numerical models analyzed by Niebling et al. [1,2], and is useful for comparison with their results. In a directly related project [3], acoustic emissions from the cell plate are recorded during

  8. Capturing gas in soft granular media (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Jeremy; Xu, Feng; Lee, Sungyon


    Bubble migration through soft granular materials involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This process is relevant to a variety of natural and industrial systems, from fluidized-bed reactors to the migration and venting of biogenic gas in sediments. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air into a quasi-2D, liquid-saturated packing of soft particles and measuring the morphology of the bubbles as they invade and then rise due to buoyancy. By systematically varying the confining stress, we show that the competition between buoyancy, capillarity, and elasticity leads to complex bubble-migration dynamics that transition from fluidization to pathway opening to pore invasion, with a strong and surprising impact on the amount of air trapped in the system. The authors are grateful for support from the Royal Society (IE150885), the John Fell Oxford University Press Research Fund, and the Maurice Lubbock Memorial Fund.

  9. Granular neural networks, pattern recognition and bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sankar K; Ganivada, Avatharam


    This book provides a uniform framework describing how fuzzy rough granular neural network technologies can be formulated and used in building efficient pattern recognition and mining models. It also discusses the formation of granules in the notion of both fuzzy and rough sets. Judicious integration in forming fuzzy-rough information granules based on lower approximate regions enables the network to determine the exactness in class shape as well as to handle the uncertainties arising from overlapping regions, resulting in efficient and speedy learning with enhanced performance. Layered network and self-organizing analysis maps, which have a strong potential in big data, are considered as basic modules,. The book is structured according to the major phases of a pattern recognition system (e.g., classification, clustering, and feature selection) with a balanced mixture of theory, algorithm, and application. It covers the latest findings as well as directions for future research, particularly highlighting bioinf...

  10. Multiple impacts in dissipative granular chains

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Ngoc Son


    The extension of collision models for single impacts between two bodies, to the case of multiple impacts (which take place when several collisions occur at the same time in a multibody system) is a challenge in Solid Mechanics, due to the complexity of such phenomena, even in the frictionless case. This monograph aims at presenting the main multiple collision rules proposed in the literature. Such collisions typically occur in granular materials, the simplest of which are made of chains of aligned balls. These chains are used throughout the book to analyze various multiple impact rules which extend the classical Newton (kinematic restitution), Poisson (kinetic restitution) and Darboux-Keller (energetic or kinetic restitution) approaches for impact modelling. The shock dynamics in various types of chains of aligned balls (monodisperse, tapered, decorated, stepped chains) is carefully studied and shown to depend on several parameters: restitution coefficients, contact stiffness ratios, elasticity coefficients (...

  11. Emotional Granularity and Borderline Personality Disorder (United States)

    Suvak, Michael K.; Litz, Brett T.; Sloan, Denise M.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Hofmann, Stefan G.


    This study examined the affective dysregulation component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) from an emotional granularity perspective, which refers to the specificity in which one represents emotions. Forty-six female participants meeting criteria for BPD and 51 female control participants without BPD and Axis I pathology completed tasks that assessed the degree to which participants incorporated information about valence (pleasant–unpleasant) and arousal (calm–activated) in their semantic/conceptual representations of emotions and in using labels to represent emotional reactions. As hypothesized, participants with BPD emphasized valence more and arousal less than control participants did when using emotion terms to label their emotional reactions. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:21171723

  12. Cotunneling and polaronic effect in granular systems (United States)

    Ioselevich, A. S.; Sivak, V. V.


    We theoretically study the conductivity in arrays of metallic grains due to the variable-range multiple cotunneling of electrons with short-range (screened) Coulomb interaction. The system is supposed to be coupled to random stray charges in the dielectric matrix that are only loosely bounded to their spatial positions by elastic forces. The flexibility of the stray charges gives rise to a polaronic effect, which leads to the onset of Arrhenius-type conductivity behavior at low temperatures, replacing conventional Mott variable-range hopping. The effective activation energy logarithmically depends on temperature due to fluctuations of the polaron barrier heights. We present the unified theory that covers both weak and strong polaron effect regimes of hopping in granular metals and describes the crossover from elastic to inelastic cotunneling.

  13. Nano-granular texture of cement hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannidou Katerina


    Full Text Available Mechanical behavior of concrete crucially depends on cement hydrates, the “glue” of cement. The design of high performance and more environmentally friendly cements demands a deeper understanding of the formation of the multiscale structure of cement hydrates, when they precipitate and densify. We investigate the precipitation and setting of nano-grains of cement hydrates using a combination of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics numerical simulations and study their texture from nano up to the micron scale. We characterize the texture of cement hydrates using the local volume fraction distribution, the pore size distribution, the scattering intensity and the chord length distribution and we compare them with experiments. Our nano-granular model provides cement structure with realistic texture and mechanics and can be further used to investigate degradation mechanisms.

  14. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.


    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  15. Thermal energy storage in granular deposits (United States)

    Ratuszny, Paweł


    Energy storage technology is crucial for the development of the use of renewable energy sources. This is a substantial constraint, however it can, to some extent, be solved by storing energy in its various forms: electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal. This article presents the results of research in thermal properties of granular deposits. Correlation between temperature changes in the stores over a period of time and their physical properties has been studied. The results of the research have practical application in designing thermal stores based on bulk materials and ground deposits. Furthermore, the research results are significant for regeneration of the lower ground sources for heat pumps and provide data for designing ground heat exchangers for ventilation systems.

  16. Rheology of U-Shaped Granular Particles (United States)

    Hill, Matthew; Franklin, Scott

    We study the response of cylindrical samples of U-shaped granular particles (staples) to extensional loads. Samples elongate in discrete bursts (events) corresponding to particles rearranging and re-entangling. Previous research on samples of constant cross-sectional area found a Weibullian weakest-link theory could explain the distribution of yield points. We now vary the cross-sectional area, and find that the maximum yield pressure (force/area) is a function of particle number density and independent of area. The probability distribution function of important event characteristics -- the stress increase before an event and stress released during an event -- both fall of inversely with magnitude, reminiscent of avalanche dynamics. Fourier transforms of the fluctuating force (or stress) scales inversely with frequency, suggesting dry friction plays a role in the rearrangements. Finally, there is some evidence that dynamics are sensitive to the stiffness of the tensile testing machine, although an explanation for this behavior is unknown.

  17. Information granularity, big data, and computational intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shyi-Ming


    The recent pursuits emerging in the realm of big data processing, interpretation, collection and organization have emerged in numerous sectors including business, industry, and government organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather monitoring, intelligence gathering, quickly outpace the capacities of traditional techniques and tools of data analysis. The 3V (volume, variability and velocity) challenges led to the emergence of new techniques and tools in data visualization, acquisition, and serialization. Soft Computing being regarded as a plethora of technologies of fuzzy sets (or Granular Computing), neurocomputing and evolutionary optimization brings forward a number of unique features that might be instrumental to the development of concepts and algorithms to deal with big data. This carefully edited volume provides the reader with an updated, in-depth material on the emerging principles, conceptual underpinnings, algorithms and practice of Computational Intelligenc...

  18. Viscoinertial regime of immersed granular flows (United States)

    Amarsid, L.; Delenne, J.-Y.; Mutabaruka, P.; Monerie, Y.; Perales, F.; Radjai, F.


    By means of extensive coupled molecular dynamics-lattice Boltzmann simulations, accounting for grain dynamics and subparticle resolution of the fluid phase, we analyze steady inertial granular flows sheared by a viscous fluid. We show that, for a broad range of system parameters (shear rate, confining stress, fluid viscosity, and relative fluid-grain density), the frictional strength and packing fraction can be described by a modified inertial number incorporating the fluid effect. In a dual viscous description, the effective viscosity diverges as the inverse square of the difference between the packing fraction and its jamming value, as observed in experiments. We also find that the fabric and force anisotropies extracted from the contact network are well described by the modified inertial number, thus providing clear evidence for the role of these key structural parameters in dense suspensions.

  19. Software digitizer for high granular gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, Y; Boudry, V


    A sampling calorimeter using gaseous sensor layers with digital readout [1] is near perfect for ``Particle Flow Algorithm'' [2,3] approach, since it is homogeneous over large surfaces, robust, cost efficient, easily segmentable to any readout pad dimension and size and almost insensitive to neutrons. Monte-Carlo (MC) programs such as GEANT4 [4] simulate with high precision the energy deposited by particles. The sensor and electronic response associated to a pad are calculated in a separate ``digitization'' process. We develop a general method for simulating the pad response using the spatial information from a simulation done at high granularity. The digitization method proposed here has been applied to gaseous detectors including Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPC) and MicroMegas, and validated on test beam data. Experimental observable such as pad multiplicity and mean number of hits at different thresholds have been reproduced with high precision.

  20. Autoimmune manifestations in large granular lymphocyte leukemia. (United States)

    Bockorny, Bruno; Dasanu, Constantin A


    Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia features a group of indolent lymphoproliferative diseases that display a strong association with various autoimmune conditions. Notwithstanding, these autoimmune conditions have not been comprehensively characterized or systematized to date. As a result, their clinical implications remain largely unknown. The authors offer a comprehensive review of the existing literature on various autoimmune conditions documented in the course of T-cell LGL (T-LGL) leukemia. Though some of them are thought be secondary to the LGL leukemia, others could be primary and might even play a role in its pathogenesis. A considerable clinico-laboratory overlap between T-LGL leukemia associated with rheumatoid arthritis and Felty's syndrome suggests that they are just different eponyms for the same clinical entity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.


    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  2. Incorporation of velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and particle surface friction into kinetic theory for modeling granular flow cooling (United States)

    Duan, Yifei; Feng, Zhi-Gang


    Kinetic theory (KT) has been successfully used to model rapid granular flows in which particle interactions are frictionless and near elastic. However, it fails when particle interactions become frictional and inelastic. For example, the KT is not able to accurately predict the free cooling process of a vibrated granular medium that consists of inelastic frictional particles under microgravity. The main reason that the classical KT fails to model these flows is due to its inability to account for the particle surface friction and its inelastic behavior, which are the two most important factors that need be considered in modeling collisional granular flows. In this study, we have modified the KT model that is able to incorporate these two factors. The inelasticity of a particle is considered by establishing a velocity-dependent expression for the restitution coefficient based on many experimental studies found in the literature, and the particle friction effect is included by using a tangential restitution coefficient that is related to the particle friction coefficient. Theoretical predictions of the free cooling process by the classical KT and the improved KT are compared with the experimental results from a study conducted on an airplane undergoing parabolic flights without the influence of gravity [Y. Grasselli, G. Bossis, and G. Goutallier, Europhys. Lett. 86, 60007 (2009), 10.1209/0295-5075/86/60007]. Our results show that both the velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and the particle surface friction are important in predicting the free cooling process of granular flows; the modified KT model that integrates these two factors is able to improve the simulation results and leads to better agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Granular flow over inclined channels with linear contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Tunuguntla, D R; Thornton, A R; Bokhove, O


    We consider dry granular flow down an inclined chute with a localised contraction theoretically and numerically. The flow regimes are predicted through a novel extended one-dimensional hydraulic theory. A discrete particle method validated empirical constitutive law is used to close this one-dimensional asymptotic model. The one-dimensional model is verified by solving the two-dimensional shallow granular equations through discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DGFEM). For supercritical flows, the one-dimensional asymptotic theory surprisingly holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel.

  4. Drag force scaling for penetration into granular media. (United States)

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki; Durian, Douglas J


    Impact dynamics is measured for spherical and cylindrical projectiles of many different densities dropped onto a variety non-cohesive granular media. The results are analyzed in terms of the material-dependent scaling of the inertial and frictional drag contributions to the total stopping force. The inertial drag force scales similar to that in fluids, except that it depends on the internal friction coefficient. The frictional drag force scales as the square-root of the density of granular medium and projectile, and hence cannot be explained by the combination of granular hydrostatic pressure and Coulomb friction law. The combined results provide an explanation for the previously observed penetration depth scaling.

  5. Partial nitritation of stored source-separated urine by granular activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. (United States)

    Chen, Liping; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Tian, Xiujun; Yao, Song; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Yao, Qian; Peng, Dangcong


    The combination of partial nitritation (PN) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been proposed as an ideal process for nitrogen removal from source-separated urine, while the high organic matters in urine cause instability of single-stage PN-anammox process. This study aims to remove the organic matters and partially nitrify the nitrogen in urine, producing an ammonium/nitrite solution suitable for anammox. The organic matters in stored urine were used as the electron donors to achieve 40% total nitrogen removal in nitritation-denitrification process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Granular aggregates were observed and high mixed liquor suspended solids (9.5 g/L) were maintained in the SBR. Around 70-75% ammonium was oxidized to nitrite under the volumetric loading rates of 3.23 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m(3) d) and 1.86 kg N/(m(3) d), respectively. The SBR produced an ammonium/nitrite solution free of biodegradable organic matters, with a NO2(-)-N:NH4(+)-N of 1.24 ± 0.13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization images showed that Nitrosomonas-like ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, accounting for 7.2% of total bacteria, located in the outer layer (25 μm), while heterotrophs distributed homogeneously throughout the granular aggregates. High concentrations of free ammonia and nitrous acids in the reactor severely inhibited the growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, resulting in their absence in the granular sludge. The microbial diversity analysis indicated Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum, in which Pseudomonas was the most abundant genus.

  6. Development of vibrational analysis for detection of antisymmetric shells

    CERN Document Server

    Esmailzadeh-Khadem, S; Rezaee, M


    In this paper, vibrational behavior of bodies of revolution with different types of structural faults is studied. Since vibrational characteristics of structures are natural properties of system, the existence of any structural faults causes measurable changes in these properties. Here, this matter is demonstrated. In other words, vibrational behavior of a body of revolution with no structural faults is analyzed by two methods of I) numerical analysis using super sap software, II) Experimental model analysis, and natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained. Then, different types of cracks are introduced in the structure, and analysis is repeated and the results are compared. Based on this study, one may perform crack detection by measuring the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the samples and comparing with reference information obtained from the vibration analysis of the original structure with no fault.

  7. When Matter Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, Damien A.; Vikman, Alexander


    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe: Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions -- to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  8. Investigation of granular impact using positron emission particle tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.


    We present results from an experimental study of granular impact using a combination of high-speed video and positron emission particle tracking (PEPT). The PEPT technique exploits the annihilation of photons from positron decay to determine the position of tracer particles either inside a small granular bed or attached to the object which impacts the bed. We use dense spheres as impactors and the granular beds are comprised of glass beads which are fluidised to achieve a range of different initial packing states. For the first time, we have simultaneously investigated both the trajectory of the sphere, the motion of particles in a 3-D granular bed and particles which jump into the resultant jet, which arises from the collapse of the cavity formed by the impacting sphere.

  9. The Regeneration of Granular Activated Carbon Using Hydrothermal Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sufnarski, Michael


    The economic feasibility of using granular activated carbon (GAC) to remove organic contaminants from industrial and municipal wastewater is contingent upon its reuse during multiple adsorption-regeneration cycles (Van Vliet, 1991...

  10. Massive granular cell ameloblastoma with dural extension and atypical morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Raghunath


    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are rare histologically benign, locally aggressive tumors arising from the oral ectoderm that occasionally reach a gigantic size. Giant ameloblastomas are a rarity these days with the advent of panoramic radiography in routine dental practice. Furthermore, the granular cell variant is an uncommon histological subtype of ameloblastoma where the central stellate reticulum like cells in tumor follicles is replaced by granular cells. Although granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA is considered to be a destructive tumor with a high recurrence rate, the significance of granular cells in predicting its biologic behavior is debatable. However, we present a rare case of giant GCA of remarkable histomorphology showing extensive craniofacial involvement and dural extension that rendered a good prognosis following treatment.

  11. Immunoglobulins in granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H U; Bojsen-Møller, M; Schrøder, H D


    Three patients with granular corneal dystrophy Groenouw type I underwent corneal grafting, and cryostat sections of the corneal buttons were examined immunohistochemically for immunoglobulins. Positive results were obtained for IgG, Kappa-, and Lambda chains with immunofluorescence technique. The...

  12. Cobalt toxicity in anaerobic granular sludge: influence of chemical speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartacek, J.; Fermoso, F.G.; Baldo-Urrutia, A.M.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.


    The influence of cobalt speciation on the toxicity of cobalt to methylotrophic methanogenesis in anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The cobalt speciation was studied with three different media that contained varying concentrations of complexing ligands [carbonates, phosphates and

  13. Penetration of spherical projectiles into wet granular media. (United States)

    Birch, S P D; Manga, M; Delbridge, B; Chamberlain, M


    We measure experimentally the penetration depth d of spherical particles into a water-saturated granular medium made of much smaller sand-sized grains. We vary the density, size R, and velocity U of the impacting spheres, and the size δ of the grains in the granular medium. We consider velocities between 7 and 107 m/s, a range not previously addressed, but relevant for impacts produced by volcanic eruptions. We find that d∝R(1/3)δ(1/3)U(2/3). The scaling with velocity is similar to that identified in previous, low-velocity collisions, but it also depends on the size of the grains in the granular medium. We develop a model, consistent with the observed scaling, in which the energy dissipation is dominated by the work required to rearrange grains along a network of force chains in the granular medium.

  14. The strength of liquid bridges in random granular materials. (United States)

    Grof, Zdenek; Lawrence, Christopher J; Stepánek, Frantisek


    The strength of capillary bridges in randomly packed granular media was analyzed by means of computer simulations. A novel simulation method, based on the tracking of moving interfaces, has been implemented and used for determining the equilibrium shape of capillary bridges in a granular medium under a range of liquid saturations and solid-phase geometry. The net force acting on each grain due to the capillary bridges was evaluated, as well as the aggregate force acting between two wet granular media during their separation in the normal directions. The simulation results are consistent with previous experimental observations and reveal interesting phenomena such as the existence of a maximum in the tensile strength of a wet granular medium as function of liquid saturation.

  15. Extraction of structural extracellular polymeric substances from aerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felz, S.; Al-zuhairy, S.H.K.; Aarstad, Olav Andreas; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Lin, Y.


    To evaluate and develop methodologies for the extraction of gel-forming extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), EPS from aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was extracted using six different methods (centrifugation, sonication, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), formamide with sodium hydroxide

  16. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On...

  17. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, M.K.; Kleerebezem, R.; Strous, M.; Chandran, K.; Loosdrecht, M.C. van


    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation

  18. Force distribution in a granular medium under dynamic loading (United States)

    Danylenko, Vyacheslav A.; Mykulyak, Sergiy V.; Polyakovskyi, Volodymyr O.; Kulich, Vasyl V.; Oleynik, Ivan I.


    Force distribution in a granular medium subjected to an impulse loading is investigated in experiment and computer simulations. An experimental technique is developed to measure forces acting on individual grains at the bottom of the granular sample consisting of steel balls. Discrete element method simulation also is performed under conditions mimicking those in experiment. Both theory and experiment display exponentially decaying maximum force distributions at the bottom of the sample in the range of large forces. In addition, the simulations also reveal exponential force distribution throughout the sample and uncover correlation properties of the interparticle forces during dynamic loading of the granular samples. Simulated time dependence of coordination number, orientational order parameter, correlation radius, and force distribution clearly demonstrates the nonequilibrium character of the deformation process in a granular medium under impulse loading.

  19. An Emotional Agent Model Based on Granular Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu


    Full Text Available Affective computing has a very important significance for fulfilling intelligent information processing and harmonious communication between human being and computers. A new model for emotional agent is proposed in this paper to make agent have the ability of handling emotions, based on the granular computing theory and the traditional BDI agent model. Firstly, a new emotion knowledge base based on granular computing for emotion expression is presented in the model. Secondly, a new emotional reasoning algorithm based on granular computing is proposed. Thirdly, a new emotional agent model based on granular computing is presented. Finally, based on the model, an emotional agent for patient assistant in hospital is realized, experiment results show that it is efficient to handle simple emotions.

  20. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang


    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Water flow exchange characteristics in coarse granular filter media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe


    constitutes a scientific gap. This study investigates the impact of particle size distribution (considering materials with multiple particle sizes) and irrigation rate on the overall specific surface area related elution velocity distribution in porous granular media. The elution measurements performed...

  2. Granular drag and the kinetics of jamming (United States)

    Brzinski, Theodore A., III

    The first part of this thesis focuses on the study of the force exerted by a granular packing on an intruder. During impact, this force can be described by the linear combination of an inertial drag and a rate-independent frictional force that is proportional to depth. We measure the torque acting on a rod rotated perpendicular to its axis in a granular bed at steady state, and demonstrate that the resisting force is of the same form, though smaller. We then alter the hydrostatic loading on the bed by generating a homogenized airflow through the bed, and show that for horizontal motion the frictional force is due to friction acting at gravity-loaded contacts. Next we directly measure the force acting on quasistatically, vertically lowered intruders under two sets of varied conditions. First we vary the shape of the projectile in order to alter the fraction of the projectile surface that moves parallel vs perpendicular to the medium, and find that the frictional force acts primarily normal to the intruder surface. Second, we alter the hydrostatic loading as above, and confirm that gravity-loading of the grains sets the magnitude of the resisting force for quasi-static vertical motion as well. Finally, we consider the case of impact onto wet grains. We conduct conventional impact experiments wherein a spherical projectile impacts onto a granular packing with a known impact speed. We vary the liquid, impact speed, and degree of saturation, and find that the penetration depth is decreased for all wetting fractions, and that the penetration depth has a non-monotonic dependence on liquid saturation. In the fully saturated case, we recover the same scaling of penetration depth with geometry, impact speed and packing density as in the dry case, though the penetrations are shallower, suggesting a hydrodynamic contribution to the net stopping force. The second part of this thesis focuses on the kinetics of the jamming transition. In particular, we observe a dispersion of

  3. Assessing continuum postulates in simulations of granular flow


    Rycroft, Chris


    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of a mesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discrete particles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granular materials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealing inhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cage breaking. Here, we analyze large-scale three-dimensional Discrete-Element Method (DEM) simulations of different granular flows and show that an approximate "gra...

  4. Pneumatic fractures in confined granular media (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Turquet, Antoine L.; Mâløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.


    We perform experiments where air is injected at a constant overpressure Pin, ranging from 5 to 250 kPa, into a dry granular medium confined within a horizontal linear Hele-Shaw cell. The setup allows us to explore compacted configurations by preventing decompaction at the outer boundary, i.e., the cell outlet has a semipermeable filter such that beads are stopped while air can pass. We study the emerging patterns and dynamic growth of channels in the granular media due to fluid flow, by analyzing images captured with a high speed camera (1000 images/s). We identify four qualitatively different flow regimes, depending on the imposed overpressure, ranging from no channel formation for Pin below 10 kPa, to large thick channels formed by erosion and fingers merging for high Pin around 200 kPa. The flow regimes where channels form are characterized by typical finger thickness, final depth into the medium, and growth dynamics. The shape of the finger tips during growth is studied by looking at the finger width w as function of distance d from the tip. The tip profile is found to follow w (d ) ∝dβ , where β =0.68 is a typical value for all experiments, also over time. This indicates a singularity in the curvature d2d /d w2˜κ ˜d1 -2 β , but not of the slope d w /d d ˜dβ -1 , i.e., more rounded tips rather than pointy cusps, as they would be for the case β >1 . For increasing Pin, the channels generally grow faster and deeper into the medium. We show that the channel length along the flow direction has a linear growth with time initially, followed by a power-law decay of growth velocity with time as the channel approaches its final length. A closer look reveals that the initial growth velocity v0 is found to scale with injection pressure as v0∝Pin3/2 , while at a critical time tc there is a cross-over to the behavior v (t ) ∝t-α , where α is close to 2.5 for all experiments. Finally, we explore the fractal dimension of the fully developed patterns. For

  5. Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol (United States)

    Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő


    In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.

  6. Bumblebee vibration activated foraging


    Su, Dan Kuan-Nien


    The ability use vibrational signals to activate nestmate foraging is found in the highly social bees, stingless bees and honey bees, and has been hypothesized to exist in the closely related, primitively eusocial bumble bees. We provide the first strong and direct evidence that this is correct. Inside the nest, bumble bee foragers produce brief bursts of vibration (foraging activation pulses) at 594.5 Hz for 63±26 ms (velocityRMS=0.46±0.02mm/s, forceRMS=0.8±0.2 mN. Production of these vibrati...

  7. Man-Induced Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard


    concerned with spectator-induced vertical vibrations on grandstands. The idea is to use impulse response analysis and base the load description on the load impulse. If the method is feasable, it could be used in connection with the formulation of requirements in building codes. During the last two decades...... work has been done on the measurement of the exact load functions and related reponse analysis. A recent work using a spectral description has been performed by Per-Erik Erikson and includes a good literature survey. Bachmann and Ammann give a good overview of vibrations caused by human activity. Other...

  8. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S


    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  9. From particle segregation to the granular clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambiotte, R. [Physique Statistique, Plasmas et Optique Non-lineaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, Code Postal 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail:; Salazar, J.M. [Universite De Bougogne-LRRS UMR-5613 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, 9 Av. Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Brenig, L. [Physique Statistique, Plasmas et Optique Non-lineaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, Code Postal 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail:


    Recently several authors studied the segregation of particles for a system composed of mono-dispersed inelastic spheres contained in a box divided by a wall in the middle. The system exhibited a symmetry breaking leading to an overpopulation of particles in one side of the box. Here we study the segregation of a mixture of particles composed of inelastic hard spheres and fluidized by a vibrating wall. Our numerical simulations show a rich phenomenology: horizontal segregation and periodic behavior. We also propose an empirical system of ODEs representing the proportion of each type of particles and the segregation flux of particles. These equations reproduce the major features observed by the simulations.

  10. The evolution of microstructures, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of AZ80 joints using ultrasonic vibration assisted welding process (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Jiansheng


    The evolution of microstructures, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of AZ80 joints using an ultrasonic vibration assisted welding process is investigated. The results show that, with ultrasonic vibration treatment, a reliable AZ80 joint without defects is obtained. The coarsening α-Mg grains are refined to about 83.5  ±  3.3 µm and the continuous β-Mg17Al12 phases are broken to granular morphology, owing to the acoustic streaming effect and the cavitation effect evoked by ultrasonic vibration. Both immersion and electrochemical test results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the AZ80 joint welded with ultrasonic vibration is improved, attributed to microstructure evolution. With ultrasonic power of 900 W, the maximum tensile strength of an AZ80 specimen is 261  ±  7.5 MPa and fracture occurs near the heat affected zone of the joint.

  11. Multiscale Phenomena in the Solid-Liquid Transition State of a Granular Material: Analysis and Modelling of Dense Granular Materials (United States)


    of graduating undergraduates funded by a DoD funded Center of Excellence grant for Education , Research and Engineering: The number of undergraduates...granular materials and it is an important advance to the development of micropolar continua .” (Impact factor 1.330) [13] * Tordesillas, A, Walker...complexity of granular materials with Vector Calculus” Australasian Journal of Engineering Education 15 (2) pp 85-94. ISSN 1324-5821. I take a colleague

  12. Particle interactions in granular Co films (abstract) (United States)

    Tsoukatos, A.; Wan, H.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.


    The interparticle interactions of hcp-Co particles embedded in silica (SiO2) and boron nitride (BN) matrices have been studied via isothermal remanence curve measurements. The films were prepared by a combination of dc/rf magnetron sputtering. The strength of the interaction fields was varied as a function of metal content (xv) and temperature. The average particle size was kept below 10 nm for all the samples investigated. The volumetric fraction of Co was varied between 0.035 and 0.66. Henkel plots (normalized Mr vs Md plots) showed that in hcp granular Co the interactions are negative, i.e., they have the tendency to destabilize the saturation state. Switching field distribution (SFD) plots showed a decreased width with increasing xv and temperature. In the low metal volume fraction specimens, magnetizing and demagnetizing SFD curves indicate that the dominant interactions are dipolar in origin due to the fact that they nearly overlap. However, as xv increases, the presence of exchange interactions is also evident. A detailed discussion of these studies will be presented in an effort to determine the interaction mechanisms controlling the magnetic behavior of these films as compared to existing theoretical models.

  13. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayani Naila


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  14. Friction law and hysteresis in granular materials (United States)

    DeGiuli, E.; Wyart, M.


    The macroscopic friction of particulate materials often weakens as the flow rate is increased, leading to potentially disastrous intermittent phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. We theoretically and numerically study this phenomenon in simple granular materials. We show that velocity weakening, corresponding to a nonmonotonic behavior in the friction law, μ(I), is present even if the dynamic and static microscopic friction coefficients are identical, but disappears for softer particles. We argue that this instability is induced by endogenous acoustic noise, which tends to make contacts slide, leading to faster flow and increased noise. We show that soft spots, or excitable regions in the materials, correspond to rolling contacts that are about to slide, whose density is described by a nontrivial exponent θs. We build a microscopic theory for the nonmonotonicity of μ(I), which also predicts the scaling behavior of acoustic noise, the fraction of sliding contacts χ, and the sliding velocity, in terms of θs. Surprisingly, these quantities have no limit when particles become infinitely hard, as confirmed numerically. Our analysis rationalizes previously unexplained observations and makes experimentally testable predictions.

  15. Friction law and hysteresis in granular materials. (United States)

    DeGiuli, E; Wyart, M


    The macroscopic friction of particulate materials often weakens as the flow rate is increased, leading to potentially disastrous intermittent phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. We theoretically and numerically study this phenomenon in simple granular materials. We show that velocity weakening, corresponding to a nonmonotonic behavior in the friction law, [Formula: see text], is present even if the dynamic and static microscopic friction coefficients are identical, but disappears for softer particles. We argue that this instability is induced by endogenous acoustic noise, which tends to make contacts slide, leading to faster flow and increased noise. We show that soft spots, or excitable regions in the materials, correspond to rolling contacts that are about to slide, whose density is described by a nontrivial exponent [Formula: see text] We build a microscopic theory for the nonmonotonicity of [Formula: see text], which also predicts the scaling behavior of acoustic noise, the fraction of sliding contacts [Formula: see text], and the sliding velocity, in terms of [Formula: see text] Surprisingly, these quantities have no limit when particles become infinitely hard, as confirmed numerically. Our analysis rationalizes previously unexplained observations and makes experimentally testable predictions.

  16. Anisotropic particles strengthen granular pillars under compression (United States)

    Harrington, Matt; Durian, Douglas J.


    We probe the effects of particle shape on the global and local behavior of a two-dimensional granular pillar, acting as a proxy for a disordered solid, under uniaxial compression. This geometry allows for direct measurement of global material response, as well as tracking of all individual particle trajectories. In general, drawing connections between local structure and local dynamics can be challenging in amorphous materials due to lower precision of atomic positions, so this study aims to elucidate such connections. We vary local interactions by using three different particle shapes: discrete circular grains (monomers), pairs of grains bonded together (dimers), and groups of three bonded in a triangle (trimers). We find that dimers substantially strengthen the pillar and the degree of this effect is determined by orientational order in the initial condition. In addition, while the three particle shapes form void regions at distinct rates, we find that anisotropies in the local amorphous structure remain robust through the definition of a metric that quantifies packing anisotropy. Finally, we highlight connections between local deformation rates and local structure.

  17. Acoustic signals generated in inclined granular flows (United States)

    Tan, Danielle S.; Jenkins, James T.; Keast, Stephen C.; Sachse, Wolfgang H.


    Spontaneous avalanching in specific deserts produces a low-frequency sound known as "booming." This creates a puzzle, because avalanches down the face of a dune result in collisions between sand grains that occur at much higher frequencies. Reproducing this phenomenon in the laboratory permits a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms for the generation of such lower frequency acoustic emissions, which may also be relevant to other dry granular flows. Here we report measurements of low-frequency acoustical signals, produced by dried "sounding" sand (sand capable of booming in the desert) flowing down an inclined chute. The amplitude of the signal diminishes over time but reappears upon drying of the sand. We show that the presence of this sound in the experiments may provide supporting evidence for a previously published "waveguide" explanation for booming. Also, we propose a model based on kinetic theory for a sheared inclined flow in which the flowing layer exhibits "breathing" modes superimposed on steady shearing. The predicted oscillation frequency is of a similar order of magnitude as the measurements, indicating that small perturbations can sustain oscillations of a low frequency. However, the frequency is underestimated, which indicates that the stiffness has been underestimated. Also, the model predicts a discrete spectrum of frequencies, instead of the broadband spectrum measured experimentally.

  18. Granular gas in a periodic lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorbolo, S; Brandenbourger, M; Damanet, F; Dister, H; Ludewig, F; Terwagne, D; Lumay, G; Vandewalle, N, E-mail: [GRASP, Departement de Physique B5, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)


    Glass beads are placed in the compartments of a horizontal square grid. This grid is then vertically shaken. According to the reduced acceleration {Gamma} of the system, the granular material exhibits various behaviours. By counting the number of beads in each compartment after shaking, it is possible to define three regimes. At low accelerations, the grains remain in their compartment, and the system is frozen. For very large accelerations, the grains bounce out of the compartments and behave as a 'binomial gas': the system is homogeneous. For intermediate accelerations, grains form clusters, i.e. grains gather in some particular compartments. In that regime, the probability for a bead to escape from a site depends on the number of beads contained in the concerned compartment. The escape probability has been measured with respect to the number of beads in a compartment. Above a given number of beads, the beads remain trapped in the compartment. A basic numerical model reproduces some of the results and allows us to explore the dependence on the initial conditions.

  19. Granular media filtration: old process, new thoughts. (United States)

    Lawler, D F; Nason, J A


    The design of granular media filters has evolved over many years so that modern filters have larger media sizes and higher filtration velocities than in earlier times. The fundamental understanding of filtration has also improved over time, with current models that account reasonably for all characteristics of the media, the suspension and the filter operation. The methodology for design, however, has not kept pace with these improvements; current designs are based on pilot plants, past experience, or a simple guideline (the ratio of the bed depth to media grain size). We propose that design should be based universally on a characteristic removal length, with the provision of a bed depth that is some multiple of that characteristic length. This characteristic removal length is calculated using the most recent (and most complete) fundamental model and is based on the particle size with the minimum removal efficiency in a filter. The multiple of the characteristic length that yields the required bed depth has been calibrated to existing, successful filters.

  20. Modeling of interaction effects in granular systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hilo, M; Al-Rsheed, A


    Interaction effects on the magnetic behavior of granular solid systems are examined using a numerical model which is capable of predicting the field, temperature and time dependence of magnetization. In this work, interaction effects on the temperature dependence of time viscosity coefficient S(T) and formation of minor hysteresis loops have been studied. The results for the time- and temperature dependence of remanence ratio have showed that the distribution of energy barriers f(DELTA E) obtained depend critically on the strength and nature of interactions. These interactions-based changes in f(DELTA E) can easily give a temperature-independent behavior of S(T) when these changes give a 1/DELTA E behavior to the distribution of energy barriers. Thus, conclusions about macroscopic quantum tunneling must be carefully drawn when the temperature dependence of S(T) is used to probe for MQT effects. For minor hysteresis effects, the result shows that for the non-interacting case, no minor hysteresis loops occur an...

  1. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, N.


    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  2. Heterogeneous Dynamics of Coupled Vibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Jansen, Thomas I. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Schoenlein, RW; Corkum, P; DeSilvestri, S; Nelson, KA; Riedle, E


    Frequency-dependent dynamics of coupled stretch vibrations of a water molecule are revealed by 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. These are caused by non-Gaussian fluctuations of the environment around the individual OH stretch vibrations.

  3. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  4. Dynamic X-ray radiography reveals particle size and shape orientation fields during granular flow. (United States)

    Guillard, François; Marks, Benjy; Einav, Itai


    When granular materials flow, the constituent particles segregate by size and align by shape. The impacts of these changes in fabric on the flow itself are not well understood, and thus novel non-invasive means are needed to observe the interior of the material. Here, we propose a new experimental technique using dynamic X-ray radiography to make such measurements possible. The technique is based on Fourier transformation to extract spatiotemporal fields of internal particle size and shape orientation distributions during flow, in addition to complementary measurements of velocity fields through image correlation. We show X-ray radiography captures the bulk flow properties, in contrast to optical methods which typically measure flow within boundary layers, as these are adjacent to any walls. Our results reveal the rich dynamic alignment of particles with respect to streamlines in the bulk during silo discharge, the understanding of which is critical to preventing destructive instabilities and undesirable clogging. The ideas developed in this paper are directly applicable to many other open questions in granular and soft matter systems, such as the evolution of size and shape distributions in foams and biological materials.

  5. Performance of an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor fed with wastewaters contaminated with Zn2+. (United States)

    Marques, Ana P G C; Duque, Anouk F; Bessa, Vânia S; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L


    The main aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor (AGS-SBR) receiving water streams supplied with different loads of Zn(2+) (50 and 100 mg L(-1)) during an operation of 866 cycles (ca. 109 days). When the metal was not fed, chemical oxygen demand (COD), PO4(3-) and NH4(+) were efficiently removed, with efficiencies of 56, 23 and 72% respectively. DGGE profiles showed that Zn(2+) supply negatively affected the bacterial diversity and community structure of the granules. Consequently, the shock loadings with Zn(2+), particularly at the higher levels (100 mg L(-1)), affected the nutrient removal in the AGS-SBR, although the reactor still generally complied with admissible legal values concerning organic matter, nitrogen and Zn. Simultaneous removal of PO4(3-) and TSS in such conditions needs further refining but the application of aerobic granular SBR in the treatment of Zn(2+) contaminated wastewaters seems viable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations (United States)

    Dolgin, Benjamin P.


    New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.

  7. Ship Vibration Design Guide (United States)


    Frachtschiffen," Werft Reederie Hafen, 1925. 4-21 Noonan, E. F. "Vibration Considerations for 120,000 CM LNG Ships," NKF: Preliminary Report No. 7107, 25...Ship Response to Ice - A Second Season by C. Daley, J. W. St. John, R. Brown, J. Meyer , and I. Glen 1990 SSC-340 Ice Forces and Ship Response to Ice

  8. Compact Vibration Damper (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)


    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  9. Vibrations and Eigenvalues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The vibrating string problem is the source of much mathematicsand physics. This article describes Lagrange's formulationof a discretised version of the problem and its solution.This is also the first instance of an eigenvalue problem. Author Affiliations. Rajendra Bhatia1. Ashoka University, Rai, Haryana 131 029, India.

  10. Blade Vibration Measurement System (United States)

    Platt, Michael J.


    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  11. Vibration Sensitive Keystroke Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopatka, M.; Peetz, M.-H.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.


    We present a novel method for performing non-invasive biometric analysis on habitual keystroke patterns using a vibration-based feature space. With the increasing availability of 3-D accelerometer chips in laptop computers, conventional methods using time vectors may be augmented using a distinct

  12. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina


    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  13. Understanding the discrete element method simulation of non-spherical particles for granular and multi-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matuttis, Hans-Georg


    Gives readers a more thorough understanding of DEM and equips researchers for independent work and an ability to judge methods related to simulation of polygonal particles Introduces DEM from the fundamental concepts (theoretical mechanics and solidstate physics), with 2D and 3D simulation methods for polygonal particlesProvides the fundamentals of coding discrete element method (DEM) requiring little advance knowledge of granular matter or numerical simulationHighlights the numerical tricks and pitfalls that are usually only realized after years of experience, with relevant simple experiment

  14. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    matter and that it must be of some exotic type. Before we discuss the evidences for dark matter in clusters of galaxies, let us point out that it is not just spiral galaxies which are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the strongest. Other types of galaxies, like elliptical galaxies, are often seen to ...

  15. Multiscale characterisation of diffuse granular failure (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Pucilowski, Sebastian; Sibille, Luc; Nicot, François; Darve, Félix


    We study the evolution of structure inside a deforming, cohesionless granular material undergoing failure in the absence of strain localisation - so-called diffuse failure. The spatio-temporal evolution of the basic building blocks for self-organisation (i.e. force chains and minimal contact cycles) reveals direct insights into the structural origins of failure. Irrespective of failure mode, self-organisation is governed by the cooperative behaviour of truss-like 3-cycles providing lateral support to column-like force chains. The 3-cycles, which are initially in scarce supply, form a minority subset of the minimal contact cycle bases. At large length-scales (i.e. sample size), these structures are randomly dispersed, and remain as such while their population progressively falls as loading proceeds. Bereft of redundant constraints from the 3-cycles, the force chains are initially just above the isostatic state, a condition that progressively worsens as the sample dilates. This diminishing capacity for redistribution of forces without incurring physical rearrangements of member particles renders the force chains highly prone to buckling. A multiscale analysis of the spatial patterns of force chain buckling reveals no clustering or localisation with respect to the macroscopic scale. Temporal patterns of birth-and-death of 3-cycles and 3-force chains provide unambiguous evidence that significant structural reorganisations among these building blocks drive rheological behaviour at all stages of the loading history. The near-total collapse of all structural building blocks and the spatially random distribution of force chain buckling and 3-cycles hint at a possible signature of diffuse failure.

  16. Torsional shear flow of granular materials: shear localization and minimum energy principle (United States)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick


    The rheological properties of granular matter submitted to torsional shear are investigated numerically by means of discrete element method. The shear cell is made of a cylinder filled by grains which are sheared by a bumpy bottom and submitted to a vertical pressure which is applied at the top. Regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the system. The effects of the (i) the applied pressure, (ii) sidewall friction, and (iii) angular velocity are investigated. A model, based on the purely local μ (I)-rheology and a minimum energy principle is able to capture the effect of the two former quantities but unable to account the effect of the latter. Although, an ad hoc modification of the model allows to reproduce all the numerical results, our results point out the need for an alternative rheology.

  17. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro

  18. Measurements of granular flow dynamics with high speed digital images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jingeol [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    The flow of granular materials is common to many industrial processes. This dissertation suggests and validates image processing algorithms applied to high speed digital images to measure the dynamics (velocity, temperature and volume fraction) of dry granular solids flowing down an inclined chute under the action of gravity. Glass and acrylic particles have been used as granular solids in the experiment. One technique utilizes block matching for spatially averaged velocity measurements of the glass particles. This technique is compared with the velocity measurement using an optic probe which is a conventional granular flow velocity measurement device. The other technique for measuring the velocities of individual acrylic particles is developed with correspondence using a Hopfield network. This technique first locates the positions of particles with pattern recognition techniques, followed by a clustering technique, which produces point patterns. Also, several techniques are compared for particle recognition: synthetic discriminant function (SDF), minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter, modified minimum average correlation energy (MMACE) filter and variance normalized correlation. The author proposes an MMACE filter which improves generalization of the MACE filter by adjusting the amount of averaged spectrum of training images in the spectrum whitening stages of the MACE filter. Variance normalized correlation is applied to measure the velocity and temperature of flowing glass particles down the inclined chute. The measurements are taken for the steady and wavy flow and qualitatively compared with a theoretical model of granular flow.

  19. Phenomenological theory of magnetoelectric coupling in granular multiferroics (United States)

    Udalov, O. G.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Beloborodov, I. S.


    We study the coupling between the ferroelectric polarization and the magnetization of a granular ferromagnetic film using a phenomenological model of a combined multiferroic system consisting of a granular ferromagnetic film placed above a ferroelectric (FE) layer. The coupling is due to the screening of the Coulomb interaction in the granular film by the FE layer. Below the FE Curie temperature, the magnetization has a hysteresis as a function of the electric field. Below the magnetic ordering temperature, the polarization has a hysteresis as a function of the magnetic field. We study the magnetoelectric coupling for weak and strong spatial dispersion of the FE layer. The effect of mutual influence decreases with increasing spatial dispersion of the FE layer. For weak dispersion, the strongest coupling occurs in the vicinity of the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. For strong dispersion, the situation is the opposite. We study the magnetoelectric coupling as a function of the distance between the FE layer and the granular film. For large distances, the coupling decays exponentially due to the exponential decrease of the electric field produced by the oscillating charges in the granular ferromagnetic film.

  20. Long runout landslides: a solution from granular mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav eParez


    Full Text Available Large landslides exhibit surprisingly long runout distances compared to a rigid body sliding from the same slope, and the mechanism of this phenomena has been studied for decades. This paper shows that the observed long runouts can be explained quite simply via a granular pile flowing downhill, while collapsing and spreading, without the need for frictional weakening that has traditionally been suggested to cause long runouts. Kinematics of the granular flow is divided into center of mass motion and spreading due to flattening of the flowing mass. We solve the center of mass motion analytically based on a frictional law valid for granular flow, and find that center of mass runout is similar to that of a rigid body. Based on the shape of deposits observed in experiments with collapsing granular columns and numerical simulations of landslides, we derive a spreading length Rf~V^1/3. Spreading of a granular pile, leading to a deposit angle much lower than the angle of repose or the dynamic friction angle, is shown to be an important, often dominating, contribution to the total runout distance, accounting for the long runouts observed for natural landslides.

  1. Effects of Moving Side Walls on Confined Granular Packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chand


    Full Text Available Granular materials have numerous industrial and geophysical applications. However, many phenomenon exhibited by granular media are not yet fully explained. Nowadays simulation has emerged as an important tool to investigate the complex properties exhibited by granular media. The influence of side walls movement of a granular column is investigated by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The evolution of stress profile and deflection of vertical stresses is due to different bead sizes, coefficient of friction between grains and confining wall is investigated by using large-scale discrete element MD simulations in 3D. In such a configuration, it is found that apparent mass systemically increases with the increase in diameter of granules. As soon as the wall stops moving, the column attains equilibrium. The stress profiles are in good agreement with the Janssen form for high friction coefficient, while some deviations remain for smaller values of friction coefficient. The wall movement augments the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. The results indicate the variation in shielding of vertical stresses in granular column; it can be attributed to the fiction between the beads and the confining walls of the container.

  2. Acetate-triggered granular sludge floatation in methanogenic bioreactors. (United States)

    Wang, Shanquan; Liang, Zhiwei


    Methanogenic granular sludge from anaerobic bioreactors plays a primary role in treatment of various high-strength industrial wastewaters. The common problem of sludge floatation can lead to washout of granules from the reactor and severely affect reactor performance. However, an understanding of the specific key trigger-factors and appropriate control strategies for granular sludge floatation remains elusive. In this study, the concentration of acetate, rather than that of other volatile fatty acids (VFAs, i.e. propionate and butyrate) and granular sludge properties, was identified to be positively, linearly correlated with the amount of floating granules. The number of floating granules on propionate (18 ± 6) or butyrate-containing (34 ± 13) wastewater was comparable with that of non-VFA control wastewater (30.5 ± 7.5), and much lower than that of acetate-containing wastewater (80.5 ± 10.5). A scenario of excessive acetate-triggered granular sludge floatation is proposed based on these results as well as on the microbial community profile and spatial distribution, porous structure of granules, and impacts of operational parameters. Two new strategies, acetate-depletion and co-substrate addition, effectively reduced the number of floating granules by 28.5% and 51.6%, respectively. These results deepen our understanding of granular sludge floatation in methanogenic bioreactors and provide effective strategies to control sludge floatation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Linear and nonlinear dynamics of isospectral granular chains (United States)

    Chaunsali, R.; Xu, H.; Yang, J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.


    We study the dynamics of isospectral granular chains that are highly tunable due to the nonlinear Hertz contact law interaction between the granular particles. The system dynamics can thus be tuned easily from being linear to strongly nonlinear by adjusting the initial compression applied to the chain. In particular, we introduce both discrete and continuous spectral transformation schemes to generate a family of granular chains that are isospectral in their linear limit. Inspired by the principle of supersymmetry in quantum systems, we also introduce a methodology to add or remove certain eigenfrequencies, and we demonstrate numerically that the corresponding physical system can be constructed in the setting of one-dimensional granular crystals. In the linear regime, we highlight the similarities in the elastic wave transmission characteristics of such isospectral systems, and emphasize that the presented mathematical framework allows one to suitably tailor the wave transmission through a general class of granular chains, both ordered and disordered. Moreover, we show how the dynamic response of these structures deviates from its linear limit as we introduce Hertzian nonlinearity in the chain and how nonlinearity breaks the notion of linear isospectrality.

  4. Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Peggy (University of Tulsa)


    Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.

  5. High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad


    shows an example of this capability where the Brazil Nut problem is simulated: as the container full of granular material is vibrated, the large ball slowly moves upwards. This capability was expanded to account for anchors of different shapes and penetration velocities, interacting with granular soils.

  6. Vibration Attenuation of Plate Using Multiple Vibration Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Izzuddin


    Full Text Available Vibrations are undesired phenomenon and it can cause harm, distress and unsettling influence to the systems or structures, for example, aircraft, automobile, machinery and building. One of the approach to limit this vibration by introducing passive vibration absorber attached to the structure. In this paper, the adequacy of utilizing passive vibration absorbers are investigated. The vibration absorber system is designed to minimize the vibration of a thin plate fixed along edges. The plate’s vibration characteristics, such as, natural frequency and mode shape are determined using three techniques: theoretical equations, finite element (FE analysis and experiment. The results demonstrate that the first four natural frequencies of fixed-fixed ends plate are 48, 121, 193 and 242 Hz, and these results are corroborated well with theoretical, FE simulation and experiment. The experiment work is further carried out with attached single and multiple vibration absorbers onto plate by tuning the absorber’s frequency to match with the excitation frequency. The outcomes depict that multiple vibration absorbers are more viable in lessening the global structural vibration.

  7. Compliant contact versus rigid contact: A comparison in the context of granular dynamics (United States)

    Pazouki, Arman; Kwarta, Michał; Williams, Kyle; Likos, William; Serban, Radu; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Negrut, Dan


    We summarize and numerically compare two approaches for modeling and simulating the dynamics of dry granular matter. The first one, the discrete-element method via penalty (DEM-P), is commonly used in the soft matter physics and geomechanics communities; it can be traced back to the work of Cundall and Strack [P. Cundall, Proc. Symp. ISRM, Nancy, France 1, 129 (1971); P. Cundall and O. Strack, Geotechnique 29, 47 (1979), 10.1680/geot.1979.29.1.47]. The second approach, the discrete-element method via complementarity (DEM-C), considers the grains perfectly rigid and enforces nonpenetration via complementarity conditions; it is commonly used in robotics and computer graphics applications and had two strong promoters in Moreau and Jean [J. J. Moreau, in Nonsmooth Mechanics and Applications, edited by J. J. Moreau and P. D. Panagiotopoulos (Springer, Berlin, 1988), pp. 1-82; J. J. Moreau and M. Jean, Proceedings of the Third Biennial Joint Conference on Engineering Systems and Analysis, Montpellier, France, 1996, pp. 201-208]. The DEM-P and DEM-C are manifestly unlike each other: They use different (i) approaches to model the frictional contact problem, (ii) sets of model parameters to capture the physics of interest, and (iii) classes of numerical methods to solve the differential equations that govern the dynamics of the granular material. Herein, we report numerical results for five experiments: shock wave propagation, cone penetration, direct shear, triaxial loading, and hopper flow, which we use to compare the DEM-P and DEM-C solutions. This exercise helps us reach two conclusions. First, both the DEM-P and DEM-C are predictive, i.e., they predict well the macroscale emergent behavior by capturing the dynamics at the microscale. Second, there are classes of problems for which one of the methods has an advantage. Unlike the DEM-P, the DEM-C cannot capture shock-wave propagation through granular media. However, the DEM-C is proficient at handling arbitrary grain

  8. Good vibrations. [Hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, P.


    The latest developments in the Voith Turbine Control and Automation System (VTLS), which couples digital control technology to hydropower plant equipment, are described. Prominent among these is the vibration diagnostics module for hydraulic turbines. It provides machine-specific diagnostic logic for a vibration monitoring and analysis system. Of the two other VTLS modules described, the operation module optimizes the control of a power plant with three or more turbines by considering the individual properties of each in turn, recommending which should be run, and how, in order to partition the load for a required power output. The cavitation module is a diagnostic system which enables the limits of operation of the turbines to be extended to bands just outside those determined by cavitation calculations. (3 figures). (UK)

  9. Hierarchical modular granular neural networks with fuzzy aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Daniela


    In this book, a new method for hybrid intelligent systems is proposed. The proposed method is based on a granular computing approach applied in two levels. The techniques used and combined in the proposed method are modular neural networks (MNNs) with a Granular Computing (GrC) approach, thus resulting in a new concept of MNNs; modular granular neural networks (MGNNs). In addition fuzzy logic (FL) and hierarchical genetic algorithms (HGAs) are techniques used in this research work to improve results. These techniques are chosen because in other works have demonstrated to be a good option, and in the case of MNNs and HGAs, these techniques allow to improve the results obtained than with their conventional versions; respectively artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms.

  10. Liquidity crisis, granularity of the order book and price fluctuations (United States)

    Cristelli, M.; Alfi, V.; Pietronero, L.; Zaccaria, A.


    We introduce a microscopic model for the dynamics of the order book to study how the lack of liquidity influences price fluctuations. We use the average density of the stored orders (granularity g) as a proxy for liquidity. This leads to a Price Impact Surface which depends on both volume ω and g. The dependence on the volume (averaged over the granularity) of the Price Impact Surface is found to be a concave power law function g ˜ ωδ with δ ≈ 0.59. Instead the dependence on the granularity is φ(ω,g|ω) ˜ gα with α ≈ -1, showing a divergence of price fluctuations in the limit g → 0. Moreover, even in intermediate situations of finite liquidity, this effect can be very large and it is a natural candidate for understanding the origin of large price fluctuations.

  11. Flowability of granular materials with industrial applications - An experimental approach (United States)

    Torres-Serra, Joel; Romero, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ferran, Antonio; Caba, Joan; Arderiu, Xavier; Padullés, Josep-Manel; González, Juanjo


    Designing bulk material handling equipment requires a thorough understanding of the mechanical behaviour of powders and grains. Experimental characterization of granular materials is introduced focusing on flowability. A new prototype is presented which performs granular column collapse tests. The device consists of a channel whose design accounts for test inspection using visualization techniques and load measurements. A reservoir is attached where packing state of the granular material can be adjusted before run-off to simulate actual handling conditions by fluidisation and deaeration of the pile. Bulk materials on the market, with a wide range of particle sizes, can be tested with the prototype and the results used for classification in terms of flowability to improve industrial equipment selection processes.

  12. Antigenic heterogeneity in granular cell ameloblastoma: an immunohistochemical study. (United States)

    Ramya, Ramadoss; Sudheerkanth, Peddanna Kondamari; Eapen, Cherian; Alex, Varghese Kumaranthara; Rajkumar, Krishnan; Rajashree, Padmanaban


    Nature of granular cells in granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA) has always invoked considerable interest. The present study aims at antigenic characterization in five such cases with a panel of markers. Tissue specimens of five patients with GCA were fixed in buffered formalin and later embedded in paraffin wax. Blocks were sliced into 3 µ thick sections for immunohistochemical analysis using a panel of markers CD68, Bcl2, S100, p53, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), vimentin and desmin. All five cases were strongly positive for cytokeratin and CD68. S100 was negative in three cases and showed a mild positivity in two cases. Bcl2, p53, vimentin and desmin were negative in all the five cases. This study presents a heterogenous nature of the granular cells; however, further validation is required with a larger sample size.

  13. Blending liquid into a flowing dry granular material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saingier Guillaume


    Full Text Available We study experimentally the growth dynamics of a horizontal wet granular aggregate produced by accretion when a dry granular jet impacts a wet substrate. The tomographic imaging demonstrates that the wet aggregate is fully saturated and its cohesion is related to the capillary suction due to the pressure drop at the liquid/air interface. We highlight that the accretion process is characterized by two different growth dynamics depending on the hydrostatic depression in the material. At low depression, the growth dynamics exibits a “diffusive” regime whereas the dynamics becomes linear for higher depressions. A competition between the viscous displacement of the fluid into the granular material and the sticking dynamics is proposed to understand the transition in the growth velocity.

  14. Membrane fouling control in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) using granular materials. (United States)

    Iorhemen, Oliver Terna; Hamza, Rania Ahmed; Tay, Joo Hwa


    Membrane fouling is considered the major limitation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper provides an overview on fouling mitigation in MBRs using granular materials. Adsorbents addition extends filtration period, improves critical flux as well as sludge properties (increased flocs size, reduced soluble EPS, improved dewaterability). However, determination of optimal dosages of adsorbents is needed to balance cost savings from fouling mitigation versus cost of adsorbents and sludge handling. The abrasion from granular media reduces cake layer formation, extends membrane filtration period, increases flux (∼20-30%), and reduces aeration intensity by 50%. Finding appropriate aeration intensity and optimum dose for different media is critical for full-scale application. Granular sludge substantially reduces fouling in MBRs; but, optimal operational conditions for long-term granule stability are required. Quorum quenching (QQ) mitigates biofouling (energy savings ∼27-40%). Cost savings from QQ need assessment against the production and application of QQ approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pickin’ up good vibrations

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    In preparation for the civil engineering work on the HL-LHC, vibration measurements were carried out at the LHC’s Point 1 last month. These measurements will help evaluate how civil engineering work could impact the beam, and will provide crucial details about the site’s geological make-up before construction begins.   A seismic truck at Point 1 generated wave-like vibrations measured by EN/MME. From carrying out R&D to produce state-of-the-art magnets to developing innovative, robust materials capable of withstanding beam impact, the HL-LHC is a multi-faceted project involving many groups and teams across CERN’s departments. It was in this framework that the project management mandated CERN's Mechanical and Materials Engineering (EN/MME) group to measure the propagation of vibrations around Point 1. Their question: can civil engineering work for the HL-LHC – the bulk of which is scheduled for LS2 – begin while the LHC is running? Alth...

  16. Micromechanical Study of fabric evolution in quasi-static deformation of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.


    In micromechanical studies of granular materials, relations are investigated between macro-level, continuum characteristics and micro-level, (inter) particle characteristics. For quasi-static deformation of granular materials, the fabric tensor is an important micromechanical characteristic that

  17. Compaction processes in granular beds composed of different particle sizes (United States)

    Lowe, C. A.; Greenaway, M. W.


    A piston impacting a granular bed will cause the material to compact; the strength of a granular bed is significant during weak impact relating to piston speeds of 100m/s. The strength associated with the granular structure is described as the intergranular stress; this is the resistance of a granular bed to compaction which can be measured by carefully constructing experiments. The compaction process may then be modeled by solving a hyperbolic system of equations that utilizes these data to close the system. The compaction behavior of a porous material is particle-size dependent; to accurately describe the response of two granular beds that may be of different particle sizes and distributions, it is essential that the intergranular stress is derived for each particle bed. This work uses recent compaction experiments to derive intergranular stress curves for prepressed conventional HMX material that is of nonuniform distribution with a mean diameter of 40μm and a microfine HMX of more uniform distribution of mean diameter speed and extent of compaction can be simply determined through the solution of a quadratic equation. Following this, the assumption is relaxed allowing changes in solid-phase density; a complicated equation of state makes the use of numerical methods mandatory. The speed of steady-state waves in HMX due to low impact compaction can be determined within 2% accuracy using the simple closed solution based on solid incompressibility, which is a function of the initial material porosity and density, piston speed, and the intergranular stress of the granular bed. This analysis reveals the difference between the weak impact response of a coarse nonuniform bed and a fine almost uniform granular bed that are initially loaded to 75% of the theoretical maximum density. The fine particle beds have increased resistance to compaction meaning that the extent of compaction is reduced and the speed of compaction waves are faster. The long-term objective of this

  18. Motility of small nematodes in wet granular media

    CERN Document Server

    Juarez, G; Sznitman, J; Arratia, P E


    The motility behavior of the \\textit{Caenorhabditis elegans} is investigated in wet granular medium as a function of area density ($\\phi$) and dispersity. Surprisingly, the locomotion speed increases in granular media compared to free swimming. The surrounding structure of the medium leads to enhanced undulatory propulsion due to its ability to sustain a finite shear stress and convert lateral force into forward motion. For $\\phi > 0.55$, the nematode is observed to change its gate from swimming to crawling in polydisperse media \\textit{only}. This highlights the subtle difference in local structure between media.

  19. Granular cell tumor masquerading as a chalazion: a case report. (United States)

    Scruggs, Ryan T; Black, Evan H


    Granular cell tumors were first described in the 1920s and since then have been commonly found throughout the body. They are rarely found in periorbital, orbital, and ocular structures. The authors present a patient with a 2-year history of a lesion that had been previously excised as a presumed chalazion without pathologic analysis. The lesion recurred, and histopathological analysis following complete resection revealed a granular cell tumor. This case is an example of a rare periocular tumor. Although only an isolated case, it provides support for the recommendation that excised lesions be sent to pathologic study, particularly those with an atypical clinical course.

  20. Gingival Granular Cell Tumor of the Newborn: A Case Report and Review of Literature


    Adalat HASANOV; Jamal MUSAYEV; Binnur ÖNAL; Chingiz RAHİMOV; Ismayil FARZALIYEV


    The etiology and histogenesis of granular cell tumor are still debated. Granular cell tumor of the newborn is considered to be a different entity than the adult form of this lesion with different immunohistochemical features. We present a case of a rare gingival granular cell tumor in a newborn and review the literature. Gingival granular cell tumor must be clinically differentiated from teratoma, congenital dermoid cyst, congenital fibrosarcoma, hemangioma, lymphangioma, leiomyoma, rhabdomyo...

  1. Artificial granularity in two-dimensional arrays of nanodots fabricated by focused-electron-beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrati, F; Sachser, R; Huth, M [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Strauss, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biophysik, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 3, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Andrusenko, I; Gorelik, T; Kolb, U [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Welderweg 11, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Abt. Kristallographie, Goethe-Universitaet, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    We have prepared 2D arrays of nanodots embedded in an insulating matrix by means of focused-electron-beam-induced deposition using the W(CO){sub 6} precursor. By varying the deposition parameters, i.e. the electron beam current and energy and the raster constant, we obtain an artificial granular material with tunable electrical properties. The analysis of the temperature dependence of the conductivity and of the current-voltage characteristic suggests that the transport mechanism is governed by electron tunneling between artificial grains. In order to understand the nature of the granularity and thus the microstructural origin of the electronic transport behavior, we perform TEM and micro-Raman investigations. Independent of the deposition parameters, TEM measurements show that the dots are constituted of amorphous tungsten carbide clusters embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Micro-Raman spectra show two peaks, around 690 and 860 cm{sup -1} associated with the W-C stretching modes. Higher frequency peaks give information on the composition of the matrix. In particular, we measure a peak at about 1290 cm{sup -1}, which is associated with sp{sup 3} carbon bonds. Furthermore we detect the so-called D and G peaks, at about 1350 and 1560 cm{sup -1}, associated with the vibration modes of the sp{sup 2} carbon bonds. The analysis of the position of the peaks and of their relative intensity suggests that the composition of the matrix is between nanocrystalline graphite and amorphous carbon.

  2. The effect of whole-body resonance vibration in a porcine model of spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Chak, Jason; Dressler, Dan; Manouchehri, Neda; Okon, Elena B; Anderson, Lisa M; Melnyk, Angela D; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K


    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a potential stressor to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during pre-hospital transportation. However, the effect that such vibration has on the acutely injured spinal cord is largely unknown, particularly in the frequency domain of 5 Hz in which resonance of the spine occurs. The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences of resonance vibration on the injured spinal cord. Using our previously characterized porcine model of SCI, we subjected animals to resonance vibration (5.7±0.46 Hz) or no vibration for a period of 1.5 or 3.0 h. Locomotor function was assessed weekly and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to assess different inflammatory and injury severity markers. Spinal cords were evaluated histologically to quantify preserved white and gray matter. No significant differences were found between groups for CSF levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lL-8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were lower in the resonance vibration group, compared with the non-vibrated control group. Spared white matter tissue was increased within the vibrated group at 7 d post-injury but this difference was not apparent at the 12-week time-point. No significant difference was observed in locomotor recovery following resonance vibration of the spine. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to resonance vibration for 1.5 or 3 h following SCI in our porcine model is not detrimental to the functional or histological outcomes. Our observation that a 3.0-h period of vibration at resonance frequency induces modest histological improvement at one week post-injury warrants further study.

  3. Active Matter Chaos (United States)

    Egolf, David A.; Banigan, Edward J.; Dawson, Charles

    Recently, researchers demonstrated that a model of soft, polydisperse, non-aligning, self-propelled particles in two dimensions exhibits a transition from a liquid-like state to a ``frozen'' glassy state as the density is increased or the propulsion speed is decreased. Here we analyze the two states and the transition between them using nonlinear dynamical techniques. We find that the largest Lyapunov exponent indicates that the transition is a dynamical transition from a chaotic liquid state to a non-chaotic glassy state and that this transition is characterized by dynamical time and length scales that diverge as power laws. Near the transition, we also find that cooperative rearrangements of particles are anticipated by an increase in the finite-time exponent and a localization of the Lyapunov vector to the particles that will be involved in the rearrangement. Our results, in conjunction with similar previous results for granular matter, suggest the broad applicability of nonlinear dynamical techniques for exploring glassy and jamming transitions in a variety of media.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich


    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  5. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith


    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  6. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  7. Analysis of micro vibration in gas film of aerostatic guide way based on molecule collision theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shao Hua


    Full Text Available Micro vibration of the aerostatic guide way has a significant impact on its dynamic characteristics and stability, which limits the development of pneumatic component. High pressure gas molecules have been collided with the supporting surface and the internal surface of the throttle during the flow process. Variable impulse of the surfaces aside for the gas film are affected by the changes of impulse which formed irregular impact force in horizontal and vertical direction. Micro-vibration takes place based on the natural frequency of the system and its frequency doubling. In this paper, the vibration model was established to describe the dynamic characteristics of the gas film, and the formation mechanism of micro vibration in the film is defined. Through the simulation analysis and experimental comparison, formation mechanism of the micro vibration in the gas film is confirmed. It was proposed that the micro vibration of gas film can be produced no matter whether there is a gas chamber or not in the throttle. Under the same conditions, the micro vibration of the guide way with air chamber is greater than that without any chamber. The frequency points of the vibration peaks are almost the same, as well as the vibration pattern in the frequency domain.

  8. Near-field infrared vibrational dynamics and tip-enhanced decoherence. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoji G; Raschke, Markus B


    Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy can reveal the dynamics of vibrational excitations in matter. In its conventional far-field implementation, however, it provides only limited insight into nanoscale sample volumes due to insufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity. Here, we combine scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) with femtosecond infrared vibrational spectroscopy to characterize the coherent vibrational dynamics of a nanoscopic ensemble of C-F vibrational oscillators of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The near-field mode transfer between the induced vibrational molecular coherence and the metallic scanning probe tip gives rise to a tip-mediated radiative IR emission of the vibrational free-induction decay (FID). By increasing the tip–sample coupling, we can enhance the vibrational dephasing of the induced coherent vibrational polarization and associated IR emission, with dephasing times up to T2(NF) is approximately equal to 370 fs in competition against the intrinsic far-field lifetime of T2(FF) is approximately equal to 680 fs as dominated by nonradiative damping. Near-field antenna-coupling thus provides for a new way to modify vibrational decoherence. This approach of ultrafast s-SNOM enables the investigation of spatiotemporal dynamics and correlations with nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution.

  9. Destabilization of confined granular packings due to fluid flow (United States)

    Monloubou, Martin; Sandnes, Bjørnar


    Fluid flow through granular materials can cause fluidization when fluid drag exceeds the frictional stress within the packing. Fluid driven failure of granular packings is observed in both natural and engineered settings, e.g. soil liquefaction and flowback of proppants during hydraulic fracturing operations. We study experimentally the destabilization and flow of an unconsolidated granular packing subjected to a point source fluid withdrawal using a model system consisting of a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing a water-grain mixture. The fluid is withdrawn from the cell at a constant rate, and the emerging flow patterns are imaged in time-lapse mode. Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), we show that the granular flow gets localized in a narrow channel down the center of the cell, and adopts a Gaussian velocity profile similar to those observed in dry grain flows in silos. We investigate the effects of the experimental parameters (flow rate, grain size, grain shape, fluid viscosity) on the packing destabilization, and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed complex flow behaviour.

  10. Transient granular shock waves and upstream motion on a staircase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weele, J.P.; Kanellopoulos, Giorgos; Tsiavos, Christos; van der Meer, Roger M.


    A granular cluster, placed on a staircase setup, is brought into motion by vertical shaking. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the system goes through three phases. After a rapid initial breakdown of the cluster, the particle stream organizes itself in the form of a shock wave moving down the

  11. General scaling relations for locomotion in granular media (United States)

    Slonaker, James; Motley, D. Carrington; Zhang, Qiong; Townsend, Stephen; Senatore, Carmine; Iagnemma, Karl; Kamrin, Ken


    Inspired by dynamic similarity in fluid systems, we have derived a general dimensionless form for locomotion in granular materials, which is validated in experiments and discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The form instructs how to scale size, mass, and driving parameters in order to relate dynamic behaviors of different locomotors in the same granular media. The scaling can be derived by assuming intrusion forces arise from resistive force theory or equivalently by assuming the granular material behaves as a continuum obeying a frictional yield criterion. The scalings are experimentally confirmed using pairs of wheels of various shapes and sizes under many driving conditions in a common sand bed. We discuss why the two models provide such a robust set of scaling laws even though they neglect a number of the complexities of granular rheology. Motivated by potential extraplanetary applications, the dimensionless form also implies a way to predict wheel performance in one ambient gravity based on tests in a different ambient gravity. We confirm this using DEM simulations, which show that scaling relations are satisfied over an array of driving modes even when gravity differs between scaled tests.

  12. Electrokinetic copper and iron migration in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virkutyte, J.; Sillanpää, M.J.; Lens, P.N.L.


    The application of low-level direct electric current (0.15 mA cm¿2) as an electrokinetic technique to treat copper-contaminated mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The sludge was obtained from a full scale UASB reactor treating paper-mill wastewater and was artificially


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 1, 2015 ... neuroectodermal origin as demonstrated by immunophenotypic and ultrastructural evidence.1. These tumours occur commonly in the tongue though they can occur in any part of the body. Granular cell tumours (GCTs) may be benign or malignant though the latter versions are rare (2% of all such tumours).

  14. Prediction of maximum dry density of local granular fills | Worku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a relation. developed to predict maximum dry density (MDD) in terms of the solid density and the gradation coefficients that characterize the grain size distribution of locally employed granular fill materials. For this purpose, two geologically different soils commonly used as selected fill materials are ...

  15. Mechanics of Granular Materials : Constitutive Behavior and Pattern Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.


    From pharmaceutical to mining or traveling desert dunes to earthquakes, granular materials are at the heart of many industries and natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of the machines handling them or, constructing safer buildings requires a critical understanding of their behavior. However,

  16. Force Statistics and Correlations in Dense Granular Packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, M.K; Luding, Stefan; Pöschel, Thorsten


    In dense, static, polydisperse granular media under isotropic pressure, the probability density and the correlations of particle-wall contact forces are studied. Furthermore, the probability density functions of the populations of pressures measured with different sized circular pressure cells are

  17. Granular cell tumor with orbital involvement in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Fabiano [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia; Iyeyasu, Josie Naomi; Carvalho, Keila Monteiro de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Oftalmo-Otorrinolaringologia; Altemani, Albina Messias [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Anatomia Patologica


    The authors report a rare case of granular cell tumor in the left medial rectus muscle of a seven-year-old boy. Clinical, pathologic and radiologic findings of the present case are described and a brief literature review is undertaken. (author)

  18. Micromechanical bounds for the elastic moduli of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Rothenburg, L.


    This study deals with bounds for the effective elastic moduli of granular materials in terms of micromechanical parameters. The case considered is that of two-dimensional isotropic assemblies of non-rotating particles with bonded contacts and a linear elastic contact constitutive relation. Based on

  19. The dechlorination of cyclodiene pesticides by methanogenic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baczynski, T.H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Knipscheer, P.


    Cyclodiene pesticides: aldrin, isodrin, dieldrin and endrin were dechlorinated by methanogenic granular sludge in spiked batch tests. Initial pesticides concentration was 7 or 9 mg1(-1). Two monodechlorinated analogues were formed during the conversions of aldrin and isodrin. Dieldrin was

  20. Anaerobic granular sludge : characterization, and factors affecting its functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphenaar, P.A.


    Many UASB reactors are designed in such a fashion that the presence of granular sludge is necessary for a proper purification process. For achieving an optimum wastewater purification with such reactors, knowledge of the factors that determine the growth, retention and disintegration of

  1. Impact Response of Granular Material at Global and Meso Scales (United States)


    Technical 3. OATES COVERED (From- To) 1~·2012 2S-03-20091o 07-04-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa, CONTRACT NUMBER Impact Response of Granular Material... Digest (MTT), 2012 IEEE MTT-S International, submitted May 2012. Hwun Park and Weinong Chen, 2012, “Piezoelectric gages to measure three

  2. Shear jamming in granular experiments without basal friction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, H.; Dijksman, J.A.; Behringer, R.P.


    Jammed states of frictional granular systems can be induced by shear strain at densities below the isostatic jamming density $(\\\\phi_c)$ . It remains unclear, however, how much friction affects this so-called shear jamming. Friction appears in two ways in this type of experiment: friction between

  3. Multi-scale methods for multi-component granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Ogarko, V.; Luding, Stefan


    In this paper we review recent progress made to understand granular chutes flow using multi-scale modeling techniques. We introduce the discrete particle method (DPM) and explain how to construct continuum fields from discrete data in a way that is consistent with the macroscopic concept of mass and

  4. Influence of polydispersity on micromechanics of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reza Shaebani, M.; Madadi, M.; Luding, Stefan; de Wolf, Ilja


    We study the effect of polydispersity on the macroscopic physical properties of granular packings in two and three dimensions. A mean-field approach is developed to approximate the macroscale quantities as functions of the microscopic ones. We show that the trace of the fabric and stress tensors are

  5. Sound wave propagation in weakly polydisperse granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouraille, O.J.P.; Luding, Stefan


    Dynamic simulations of wave propagation are performed in dense granular media with a narrow polydisperse size-distribution and a linear contact-force law. A small perturbation is created on one side of a static packing and its propagation, for both P- and S-waves, is examined. A size variation

  6. Granular computing in decision approximation an application of rough mereology

    CERN Document Server

    Polkowski, Lech


    This book presents a study in knowledge discovery in data with knowledge understood as a set of relations among objects and their properties. Relations in this case are implicative decision rules and the paradigm in which they are induced is that of computing with granules defined by rough inclusions, the latter introduced and studied  within rough mereology, the fuzzified version of mereology. In this book basic classes of rough inclusions are defined and based on them methods for inducing granular structures from data are highlighted. The resulting granular structures are subjected to classifying algorithms, notably k—nearest  neighbors and bayesian classifiers. Experimental results are given in detail both in tabular and visualized form for fourteen data sets from UCI data repository. A striking feature of granular classifiers obtained by this approach is that preserving the accuracy of them on original data, they reduce  substantially the size of the granulated data set as well as the set of granular...

  7. Modelling of Granular Materials Using the Discrete Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per


    With the Discrete Element Method it is possible to model materials that consists of individual particles where a particle may role or slide on other particles. This is interesting because most of the deformation in granular materials is due to rolling or sliding rather that compression of the gra...

  8. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A matrix composed of polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) mixed with different concentration ratios of the granular strontium chloride (SrCl2.6H2O) were prepared by casting technique method at room temperature (about 30°C). The electric and dielectric properties such as a.c. electrical conductivity by a conventional method, using ...

  9. Pesticide Removal by Combined Ozonation and Granular Activated Carbon Filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlandini, E.


    This research aimed to idendfy and understand mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effect of ozonation on removal of pesdcides and other micropoUutants by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) filtradon. This allows optimization of the combination of these two processes, termed Biological Activated

  10. Impact of high saline wastewaters on anaerobic granular sludge functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.; Rio, del A.; Lier, van J.B.


    Three UASB reactors were operated at different salinity levels in order to assess the effects on the granular sludge properties. High levels of activity inhibition were observed at sodium concentrations over 7 g Na+/L, which resulted in low applicable organic loading rates and VFA accumulation in

  11. Practical experiences with granular activated carbon (GAC) at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Practical experiences with granular activated carbon (GAC) at the Rietvlei Water Treatment Plant. ... Frequently moving the entire GAC inventory from the filters to an off-site regeneration plant and back requires significant operational effort and contributes a major part of the total cost of the GAC system. A number of ...

  12. Interface stability of granular filter structures under currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, H.J.; Hoffmans, G.; Dorst, K.; Van de Sande, S.


    Granular filters are used for protection of structures against scour and erosion. For a proper functioning it is necessary that the interfaces between the filter structure, the subsoil and the water flowing above the filter structure are stable. Stability means that there is no transport of subsoil


    Electrochemical dechlorination of TCE was conducted in a glass column using granular graphite as electrodes. A constant voltage of 15 volt was applied resulting in 60-62 mA of current. Approximately 4-6% of the TCE was dechlorinated. Among the reduced TCE, more than 95% was compl...

  14. Friction dependence of shallow granular flows from discrete particle simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Luding, Stefan; Bokhove, Onno


    A shallow-layer model for granular flows is completed with a closure relation for the macroscopic bed friction or basal roughness obtained from micro-scale discrete particle simulations of steady flows. We systematically vary the bed friction by changing the contact friction coefficient between

  15. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J. [Fluids Laboratory for Aeronautical and Industrial Research (FLAIR), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Leontini, J. S. [Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Lo Jacono, D. [Institut de Mécanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), CNRS, UPS and Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)


    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  16. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.


    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  17. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...

  18. Describing Matter (United States)

    Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon


    This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…

  19. Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge transfer processes in H+ + O2 collisions at collision energy 23 eV ... The Fritz Haber Research Centre and The Department of Physical Chemisry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 91904; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of ...

  20. Pattern Formation inside a Rotating Cylinder Partially Filled with Liquid and Granular Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Dyakova


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the experimental study of the dynamics of liquid and granular medium in a rapidly rotating horizontal cylinder. In the cavity frame gravity field performs rotation and produces oscillatory liquid flow, which is responsible for the series of novel effects; the problem corresponds to “vibrational mechanics”—generation of steady flows and patterns by oscillating force field. The paper presents the initial results of experimental study of a novel pattern formation effect which is observed at the interface between fluid and sand and which takes the form of ripples extended along the axis of rotation. The initial results of experimental research of a novel effect of pattern formation at the interface between fluid and sand in the form of ripples extended along the axis of rotation are presented. The spatial period of the patterns is studied in dependence on liquid volume, viscosity, and rotation rate. The experimental study of long time dynamics of pattern formation manifests that regular ripples transform into a series of dunes within a few minutes or dozens of minutes. The variety of patterns is determined by the interaction of two types of liquid flows induced by gravity: oscillatory and steady azimuthal flows near the sand surface.

  1. Literature survey on anti-vibration gloves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sampson, E


    Full Text Available ............................................................................................................... 1 2. HAND ARM VIBRATION SYNDROME (HAVS).......................................................... 2 2.1 Hand-arm vibration................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 2.2 Human Response to vibration...

  2. Paraqueratose granular: relato de seis casos em crianças Granular parakeratosis: a report of six cases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Giraldi


    Full Text Available A paraqueratose granular é alteração da queratinização, primeiramente descrita em adultos, caracterizada por pápulas e placas hiperqueratósicas nas áreas intertriginosas. Os autores descrevem seis casos de paraqueratose granular em crianças. Um paciente apresentava lesões nas regiões glúteas, dois em ambas as axilas e região cervical (apresentações inéditas na literatura. Três pacientes apresentavam lesões em pregas inguinais. Realizam também revisão da literatura e discutem a possível etiologia dessa rara dermatose.Granular parakeratosis is an alteration of keratinization that was first described in adults. It is characterized by hiperkeratotic plaques and papules in intertriginous areas. The authors describe six cases of granular parakeratosis in children. One patient had lesions on the buttocks; two children presented papules in both axillae and cervical region (presentations never described before in the literature. The remaining three patients presented with lesions in the inguinal folds. Review of the literature and discussion on the pathogenesis of this rare dermatosis are presented.

  3. Dynamics of breaking arches under a constant vibration (United States)

    Guerrero, Bruno; Lozano, Celia; Zuriguel, Iker; Garcimartín, Angel


    Granular flow through an orifice can be suddenly halted by the formation of arches in the vicinity of the outlet, which are stable under the action of gravity. They may be broken when an external driving (for instance, vibration) is applied. With the aim of shedding light on the dynamics of arch destruction, we built an experiment consisting of a vertical two-dimensional silo filled with monodisperse beads, to which a constant vibration is applied. It was previously found that an important parameter to predict the robustness of the arch is the angle between consecutive beads. We focus on long-enduring arches and study the angles among the beads along time. We have found that in many cases the dynamics of the largest angle determines the breaking of the arch; it does not only determine where the "weakest link" is, but also the process that leads to the final destabilization. This is interesting because it can provide information about whether the flow will resume in a well-defined time or not, which is especially useful for industrial processes that have to constantly deal with the possible emergence of clogs.

  4. Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates (United States)


    VIBRATIONAL SENSING IN MARINE INVERTEBRATES Peter A. Jumars School of Oceanography University of Washington Box 357940 Seattle, WA 98195-7940 (206...DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vibrational Sensing in Marine Invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  5. Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....

  6. Skew scattering dominated anomalous Hall effect in Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang


    We investigated the mechanism(s) of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic granular materials by fabricating 100-nm-thick thin films of Cox(MgO)100-x with a Co volume fraction of 34≤x≤100 using co-sputtering at room temperature. We measured the temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) and anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) from 5 K to 300 K in all samples. We found that when x decreases from 100 to 34, the values of ρxx and ρAHE respectively increased by about four and three orders in magnitude. By linearly fitting the data, obtained at 5 K, of anomalous Hall coefficient (Rs) and of ρxx to log(Rs)~γlog(ρxx), we found that our results perfectly fell on a straight line with a slope of γ= 0.97±0.02. This fitting value of γ in Rsρxxγ clearly suggests that skew scattering dominated the AHE in this granular system. To explore the effect of the scattering on the AHE, we performed the same measurements on annealed samples. We found that although both ρxx and ρAHE significantly reduced after annealing, the correlation between them was almost the same, which was confirmed by the fitted value, γ=0.99±0.03. These data strongly suggest that the AHE originates from the skew scattering in Co-MgO granular thin films no matter how strong the scatterings of electrons by the interfaces and defects is. This observation may be of importance to the development of spintronic devices based on MgO.

  7. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A


    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  8. The origins of vibration theory (United States)

    Dimarogonas, A. D.


    The Ionian School of natural philosophy introduced the scientific method of dealing with natural phenomena and the rigorous proofs for abstract propositions. Vibration theory was initiated by the Pythagoreans in the fifth century BC, in association with the theory of music and the theory of acoustics. They observed the natural frequency of vibrating systems and proved that it is a system property and that it does not depend on the excitation. Pythagoreans determined the fundamental natural frequencies of several simple systems, such as vibrating strings, pipes, vessels and circular plates. Aristoteles and the Peripatetic School founded mechanics and developed a fundamental understanding of statics and dynamics. In Alexandrian times there were substantial engineering developments in the field of vibration. The pendulum as a vibration, and probably time, measuring device was known in antiquity, and was further developed by the end of the first millennium AD.

  9. Plasmatocytes from the moth Pseudoplusia includens induce apoptosis of granular cells. (United States)

    Pech; Strand


    The primary immune response toward internal parasites and other large foreign objects that enter the insect hemocoel is encapsulation. Prior studies indicated that granular cells and plasmatocytes are the two hemocyte types required for capsule formation by the moth Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Capsules formed by P. includens also have a defined architecture with primarily granular cells attaching directly to the target, multiple layers of plasmatocytes adhering to this inner layer of granular cells, and a monolayer of granular cells attaching to the capsule periphery. Dye-exclusion assays indicated that granular cells die shortly after attaching to the capsule periphery, leaving a basal lamina-like layer around the capsule. In examining the mechanisms underlying granular cell death, we found that culture medium preconditioned by plasmatocytes induced apoptosis of granular cells. Characteristics of plasmatocyte-induced apoptosis included condensation of chromatin, cell surface blebbing and fragmentation of nuclear DNA. Plasmatocyte-conditioned medium did not induce apoptosis of other hemocyte types, and medium conditioned by other hemocyte types did not induce apoptosis of granular cells. The adhesive state of granular cells and plasmatocytes also affected levels of apoptosis. Conditioned medium from spread plasmatocytes induced higher levels of granular cell apoptosis than medium conditioned by unspread plasmatocytes. Reciprocally, spread granular cells underwent significantly higher rates of apoptosis than unspread granular cells in medium conditioned by spread plasmatocytes. In situ analysis indicated that granular cells on the periphery of capsules also undergo apoptosis. Collectively, our results suggest that spread plasmatocytes release one or more factors that induce apoptosis of granular cells, and that this response is important in the final phases of capsule formation.

  10. A first course in vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Samiullah, Mohammad


    This book builds on introductory physics and emphasizes understanding of vibratory motion and waves based on first principles. The book is divided into three parts. Part I contains a preliminary chapter that serves as a review of relevant ideas of mechanics and complex numbers. Part II is devoted to a detailed discussion of vibrations of mechanical systems. This part covers a simple harmonic oscillator, coupled oscillators, normal coordinates, beaded string, continuous string, standing waves, and Fourier series. Part II ends with a presentation of stationary solutions of driven finite systems. Part III is concerned with waves. Here, the emphasis is on the discussion of common aspects of all types of waves. The applications to sound, electromagnetic, and matter waves are illustrated. The book also includes examples from water waves and electromagnetic waves on a transmission line. The emphasis of the book is to bring out the similarities among various types of waves. The book includes treatment of reflection a...

  11. Vibration-assisted machining of single crystal (United States)

    Zahedi, S. A.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.


    Vibration-assisted machining offers a solution to expanding needs for improved machining, especially where accuracy and precision are of importance, such as in micromachining of single crystals of metals and alloys. Crystallographic anisotropy plays a crucial role in determining on overall response to machining. In this study, we intend to address the matter of ultra-precision machining of material at the micron scale using computational modelling. A hybrid modelling approach is implemented that combines two discrete schemes: smoothed particle hydrodynamics and continuum finite elements. The model is implemented in a commercial software ABAQUS/Explicit employing a user-defined subroutine (VUMAT) and used to elucidate the effect of crystallographic anisotropy on a response of face centred cubic (f.c.c.) metals to machining.

  12. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel


    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  13. Antimatter Matters

    CERN Multimedia



    This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.

  14. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity. (United States)

    Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V


    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.

  15. Vibration response of misaligned rotors (United States)

    Patel, Tejas H.; Darpe, Ashish K.


    Misalignment is one of the common faults observed in rotors. Effect of misalignment on vibration response of coupled rotors is investigated in the present study. The coupled rotor system is modelled using Timoshenko beam elements with all six dof. An experimental approach is proposed for the first time for determination of magnitude and harmonic nature of the misalignment excitation. Misalignment effect at coupling location of rotor FE model is simulated using nodal force vector. The force vector is found using misalignment coupling stiffness matrix, derived from experimental data and applied misalignment between the two rotors. Steady-state vibration response is studied for sub-critical speeds. Effect of the types of misalignment (parallel and angular) on the vibration behaviour of the coupled rotor is examined. Along with lateral vibrations, axial and torsional vibrations are also investigated and nature of the vibration response is also examined. It has been found that the misalignment couples vibrations in bending, longitudinal and torsional modes. Some diagnostic features in the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of torsional and longitudinal response related to parallel and angular misalignment have been revealed. Full spectra and orbit plots are effectively used to reveal the unique nature of misalignment fault leading to reliable misalignment diagnostic information, not clearly brought out by earlier studies.

  16. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)


    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  17. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Blaising, J-J; Drancourt, C; Espargilière, A; Gaglione, R; Geffroy, N; Karyotakis, Y; Prast, J; Vouters, G; Francis, K; Repond, J; Smith, J; Xia, L; Baldolemar, E; Li, J; Park, S T; Sosebee, M; White, A P; Yu, J; Mikami, Y; Goto, N K Watson T; Mavromanolakis, G; Thomson, M A; Yan, D R Ward W; Benyamna, M; Cârloganu, C; Fehr, F; Gay, P; Manen, S; Royer, L; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J-Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U; David, D; Fabbri, R; Falley, G; Gadow, K; Garutti, E; Göttlicher, P; Günter, C; Karstensen, S; Krivan, F; Lucaci-Timoce, A-I; Lu, S; Lutz, B; Marchesini, I; Meyer, N; Morozov, S; Morgunov, V; Reinecke, M; Sefkow, F; Smirnov, P; Terwort, M; Vargas-Trevino, A; Wattimena, N; Wendt, O; Feege, N; Haller, J; Richter, S; Eckert, J Samson P; Kaplan, A; Schultz-Coulon, H-Ch; Shen, W; Stamen, R; Tadday, A; Bilki, B; Norbeck, E; Onel, Y; Wilson, G W; Kawagoe, K; Uozumi, S; Ballin, J A; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A -M; Yilmaz, H S; Zorba, O; Bartsch, V; Postranecky, M; Warren, M; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Alamillo, E Calvo; Fouz, M -C; Puerta-Pelayo, J; Balagura, V; Bobchenko, B; Chadeeva, M; Danilov, M; Epifantsev, A; Markin, O; Mizuk, R; Novikov, E; Rusinov, V; Tarkovsky, E; Soloviev, Y; Kozlov, V; Buzhan, P; Dolgoshein, B; Ilyin, A; Kantserov, V; Kaplin, V; Karakash, A; Popova, E; Smirnov, S; Frey, A; Kiesling, C; Seidel, K; Simon, F; Soldner, C; Weuste, L; Bonis, J; Bouquet, B; Callier, S; Cornebise, P; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F; Faucci Giannelli, M; Fleury, J; Guilhem, G; Li, H; Martin-Chassard, G; Richard, F; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R; Raux, L; Seguin-Moreau, N; Wicek, F; Anduze, M; Boudry, V; Brient, J-C; Jeans, D; Mora de Freitas, P; Musat, G; Reinhard, M; Ruan, M; Videau, H; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J; Cvach, J; Gallus, P; Havranek, M; Janata, M; Kvasnicka, J; Lednicky, D; Marcisovsky, M; Polak, I; Popule, J; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Ruzicka, P; Sicho, P; Smolik, J; Vrba, V; Zalesak, J; Belhorma, B; Ghazlane, H; Kotera, K; Nishiyama, M; Takeshita, T; Tozuka, S


    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described.

  18. Particle Showers in a Highly Granular Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank


    The CALICE collaboration has constructed highly granular electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter prototypes to evaluate technologies for the use in detector systems at a future Linear Collider. The hadron calorimeter uses small scintillator cells individually read out with silicon photomultipliers. The system with 7608 channels has been successfully operated in beam tests at DESY, CERN and Fermilab since 2006, and represents the first large scale tests of these devices in high energy physics experiments. The unprecedented granularity of the detector provides detailed information of the properties of hadronic showers, which helps to constrain hadronic shower models through comparisons with model calculations. We will discuss results on longitudinal and lateral shower profiles compared to a variety of different shower models, and present studies of the energy reconstruction of hadronic showers using software compensation techniques.

  19. Central granular cell odontogenic tumor: Report of an unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Madan


    Full Text Available Central granular cell odontogenic tumor (CGCOT is an unusual benign odontogenic neoplasm characterized by the presence of granular cells associated with apparently inactive odontogenic epithelium. These tumors tend to occur in the posterior mandible and usually present as well-defined unilocular or multilocular radiolucent lesions. So far, only <40 cases of CGCOT have been described in the literature under various terminologies. Though these tumors were not considered as distinct entity in the recent WHO classification of odontogenic tumors, long-term follow-up is recommended as malignant counterpart of CGCOT has already been reported. The main aim of this article is to report an additional case of CGCOT to the literature, occurring in a 73-year-old male.

  20. Revisiting Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane


    In this article, we revisit Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows. The oblique collision between a particle and a flat wall is analyzed by adopting the classic rigid-body theory and a more realistic semianalytical model. Based on the kinetic granular theory, the input parameter for the partial-slip boundary conditions, specularity coefficient, which is not measurable in experiments, is then interpreted as a function of the particle-wall restitution coefficient, the frictional coefficient, and the normalized slip velocity at the wall. An analytical expression for the specularity coefficient is suggested for a flat, frictional surface with a low frictional coefficient. The procedure for determining the specularity coefficient for a more general problem is outlined, and a working approximation is provided.

  1. Freely cooling granular gases with short-ranged attractive potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Eric; Subramaniam, Shankar, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Multiphase Flow Research, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)


    We treat the case of an undriven gas of inelastic hard-spheres with short-ranged attractive potentials via an extension of the pseudo-Liouville operator formalism. New evolution equations for the granular temperature and coordination number are obtained. The granular temperature exhibits deviation from both Haff’s law and the case of long-ranged potentials. We verify this departure using soft-sphere discrete element method simulations. Excellent agreement is found for the duration of the simulation even beyond where exclusively binary collisions are expected. Simulations show the emergence of strong spatial-velocity correlations on the length scale of the last peak in the pair-correlation function but do not show strong correlations beyond this length scale. We argue that molecular chaos may remain an adequate approximation if the system is modelled as a Smoluchowski type equation with aggregation and break-up processes.

  2. LInear stability analysis of granular Taylor-Couette flow (United States)

    Alam, Meheboob


    The linear stability analysis of the circular Couette flow of granular materials is carried out in the rapid shear regime. The kinetic-theory based continuum models, with a separate balance equation for granular/fluctuation energy, is employed, and the underlying rheological model is likely to be valid for a range of density from the dilute to dense regime. The steady base state equations for the case of rotating inner cylinder and stationary outer cylinder are solved numerically; it is found that the inelastic dissipation can make the flow radially inhomogeneous even in the narrow-gap limit. The linear stability equations are solved using spectral collocation method. The onset of Taylor-like vortices and the effects of inelastic dissipation and compressibility on them are analysed.

  3. Drag Force in a Gas Fluidized Granular Bed (United States)

    Brzinski, T. A.; Durian, D. J.


    We use a rheometer to measure the torque acting on a rotating bar in a bed of gas-fluidized glass beads. We vary rotation rate from .001-10rps, vary depth from 1-10 cm, and increase the fluidizing gas flow from no flow well into the fluidized regime. We observe that at high rotation rates the drag is roughly proportional to velocity squared. At low rates we can rescale the measured torque by depth, and observe a collapse of the data. These results agree with the predictions of a granular drag force model which has proven effective in predicting granular impact dynamics. The model consists of an inertial drag term, which is depth-independent and scales as velocity squared, and a frictional drag term, which is independent of rate and varies linearly with depth. We find, as expected, that while the frictional term is airflow-dependent the inertial term is uncoupled from the fluidization.

  4. Pulmonary strongyloidiasis associated CD3+ large granular lymphocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Muhammad


    Full Text Available We report a case of pulmonary strongyloidiasis in a patient with large granular lymphocytosis. He was on short-term high dose immunosuppressant therapy. A 77-year-old white male presented to the emergency room with fever and shortness of breath for 10 days. The patient had been diagnosed about 3 months prior to this presentation with "large granular lymphocytosis" (LGL after a workup for pancytopenia. Methotrexate and prednisone had been started 1 month ago for the treatment of LGL. Five days prior to the current presentation, he had been started on moxifloxacin as an outpatient but got progressively worse and came to an emergency room. Bronchial washings (bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated numerous filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient was treated with ivermectin and improved. Pulmonary strongyloidiasis should be considered in the differential if X-ray findings show a interstitial or alveolar pattern and if the patient has visited the endemic areas, even in the remote past.

  5. Granular filters for water treatment: heterogeneity and diagnostic tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose

    Rapid granular filters are the most commonly used filters in drinking water treatment plants and are the focus of this PhD study. They are usually constructed with sand, anthracite, activated carbon, garnet sand, and ilmenite and have filtration rates ranging from 3 to 15 m/h. Filters are often...... the last barrier against disinfection resistant protozoan pathogens and this has led to increased regulation of the filtration process. To be able to produce high-quality filtrate in a constant and reliable manner while meeting stricter drinking water guideline values, it is important to be able...... to optimize the design and operation of filters. However, the operation of the filtration process is considered to be easy and the design and control of filters are still based on empirical values, rules of thumb, simple guidelines, or past experience To optimize the use of granular filters, it is necessary...

  6. The Reserch of Granular Computing Applied in Image Mosaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Ping


    Full Text Available Based on the existing image mosaic technology, this paper introduces the granular computing, and obtains a simplified new algorithm. The image mosaic executed by this algorithm at first establishes correlation model on the basis of granular computing theory, and obtains edge map of each image needing mosaic. The new calculation method is used to calculate gradient of in different columns of edge map, to obtain the feature point coordinates with the maximum gradient; meanwhile, all feature points of two images are matched with each other, to acquire the best matching point. In addition, the error-correcting mechanism is introduced in the matching process, which is used to delete feature points with matching error. The correlation calculation is carried out for the matching pixels acquired by the above processing, to get the feature transformational matrix between two images.

  7. Compaction of granular materials composed of deformable particles (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Hai; Nezamabadi, Saeid; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Radjai, Farhang


    In soft particle materials such as metallic powders the particles can undergo large deformations without rupture. The large elastic or plastic deformations of the particles are expected to strongly affect the mechanical properties of these materials compared to hard particle materials more often considered in research on granular materials. Herein, two numerical approaches are proposed for the simulation of soft granular systems: (i) an implicit formulation of the Material Point Method (MPM) combined with the Contact Dynamics (CD) method to deal with contact interactions, and (i) Bonded Particle Model (BPM), in which each deformable particle is modeled as an aggregate of rigid primary particles using the CD method. These two approaches allow us to simulate the compaction of an assembly of elastic or plastic particles. By analyzing the uniaxial compaction of 2D soft particle packings, we investigate the effects of particle shape change on the stress-strain relationship and volume change behavior as well as the evolution of the microstructure.

  8. Schema Design Alternatives for Multi-Granular Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    Data warehousing is widely used in industry for reporting and analysis of huge volumes of data at different levels of detail. In general, data warehouses use standard dimensional schema designs to organize their data. However, current data warehousing schema designs fall short in their ability...... to model the multi-granular data found in various real-world application domains. For example, modern farm equipment in a field produces massive amounts of data at different levels of granularity that has to be stored and queried. A study of the commonly used data warehousing schemas exposes the limitation...... solutions to design the time dimension tables and four solutions to design the fact tables. Moreover, each of these solutions is evaluated in different combinations of the time dimension and the fact tables based on a real world farming case study....

  9. Pressure dependence of the electrical transport in granular materials. (United States)

    Creyssels, M; Laroche, C; Falcon, E; Castaing, B


    We report on systematic measurements of the electrical resistance of one- and three-dimensional (1D and 3D) metallic and oxidized granular materials under uni-axial compression. Whatever the dimension of the packing, the resistance follows a power law versus the pressure ([Formula: see text]), with an exponent [Formula: see text] much larger than the ones expected either with elastic or plastic contact between the grains. A simple model based on a statistical description of the micro-contacts between two grains is proposed. It shows that the strong dependence of the resistance on the pressure applied to the granular media is a consequence of large variabilities and heterogeneities present at the contact surface between two grains. Then, the effect of the three-dimensional structure of the packing is investigated using a renormalization process. This allows to reconcile two extreme approaches of a 3D lattice of widely distributed resistances: the effective medium and the percolation theories.

  10. DEM simulation of granular flows in a centrifugal acceleration field (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Peng, Chong; Wu, Wei


    The main purpose of mass-flow experimental models is abstracting distinctive features of natural granular flows, and allow its systematic study in the laboratory. In this process, particle size, space, time, and stress scales must be considered for the proper representation of specific phenomena [5]. One of the most challenging tasks in small scale models, is matching the range of stresses and strains among the particle and fluid media observed in a field event. Centrifuge modelling offers an alternative to upscale all gravity-driven processes, and it has been recently employed in the simulation of granular flows [1, 2, 3, 6, 7]. Centrifuge scaling principles are presented in Ref. [4], collecting a wide spectrum of static and dynamic models. However, for the case of kinematic processes, the non-uniformity of the centrifugal acceleration field plays a major role (i.e., Coriolis and inertial effects). In this work, we discuss a general formulation for the centrifugal acceleration field, implemented in a discrete element model framework (DEM), and validated with centrifuge experimental results. Conventional DEM simulations relate the volumetric forces as a function of the gravitational force Gp = mpg. However, in the local coordinate system of a rotating centrifuge model, the cylindrical centrifugal acceleration field needs to be included. In this rotating system, the centrifugal acceleration of a particle depends on the rotating speed of the centrifuge, as well as the position and speed of the particle in the rotating model. Therefore, we obtain the formulation of centrifugal acceleration field by coordinate transformation. The numerical model is validated with a series of centrifuge experiments of monodispersed glass beads, flowing down an inclined plane at different acceleration levels and slope angles. Further discussion leads to the numerical parameterization necessary for simulating equivalent granular flows under an augmented acceleration field. The premise of

  11. Tissue vibration in prolonged running. (United States)

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Stirling, Lisa M; Federolf, Peter; Nigg, Benno M


    The impact force in heel-toe running initiates vibrations of soft-tissue compartments of the leg that are heavily dampened by muscle activity. This study investigated if the damping and frequency of these soft-tissue vibrations are affected by fatigue, which was categorized by the time into an exhaustive exercise. The hypotheses were tested that (H1) the vibration intensity of the triceps surae increases with increasing fatigue and (H2) the vibration frequency of the triceps surae decreases with increasing fatigue. Tissue vibrations of the triceps surae were measured with tri-axial accelerometers in 10 subjects during a run towards exhaustion. The frequency content was quantified with power spectra and wavelet analysis. Maxima of local vibration intensities were compared between the non-fatigued and fatigued states of all subjects. In axial (i.e. parallel to the tibia) and medio-lateral direction, most local maxima increased with fatigue (supporting the first hypothesis). In anterior-posterior direction no systematic changes were found. Vibration frequency was minimally affected by fatigue and frequency changes did not occur systematically, which requires the rejection of the second hypothesis. Relative to heel-strike, the maximum vibration intensity occurred significantly later in the fatigued condition in all three directions. With fatigue, the soft tissue of the triceps surae oscillated for an extended duration at increased vibration magnitudes, possibly due to the effects of fatigue on type II muscle fibers. Thus, the protective mechanism of muscle tuning seems to be reduced in a fatigued muscle and the risk of potential harm to the tissue may increase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular vibrations the theory of infrared and Raman vibrational spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E Bright; Cross, Paul C


    Pedagogical classic and essential reference focuses on mathematics of detailed vibrational analyses of polyatomic molecules, advancing from application of wave mechanics to potential functions and methods of solving secular determinant.

  13. 1/f Noise in Ceramic Superconductors and Granular Resistors


    Takagi, Keiji; Mizunami, Toru; Okayama, Hideyuki; Shiyuan, Yang


    The authors have measured the current noise in some components of granular structure. The samples are ceramic superconductors, carbon-black graft-polymer resistors, and positive temperature coefficient(PTe) ceramics. All noise spectra are of the 1/! type. The temperature dependence of the noise level is measured and compared with the temperature dependence of the resistance, It is shown that in these components the temperature coefficient of the resistance is related to the noise level as pre...

  14. Approach to failure in porous granular materials under compression


    Kun Ferenc (1966-) (fizikus); Varga Imre; Lennartz-Sassinek, Sabine; Main, Ian G.


    We investigate the approach to catastrophic failure in a model porous granular material undergoing uniaxial compression. A discrete element computational model is used to simulate both the micro-structure of the material and the complex dynamics and feedbacks involved in local fracturing and the production of crackling noise. Under strain-controlled loading micro-cracks initially nucleate in an uncorrelated way all over the sample. As loading proceeds the damage localizes into a narrow damage...

  15. INVITED ARTICLE: Towards dense, realistic granular media in 2D (United States)

    Luding, Stefan


    The development of an applicable theory for granular matter—with both qualitative and quantitative value—is a challenging prospect, given the multitude of states, phases and (industrial) situations it has to cover. Given the general balance equations for mass, momentum and energy, the limiting case of dilute and almost elastic granular gases, where kinetic theory works perfectly well, is the starting point. In most systems, low density co-exists with very high density, where the latter is an open problem for kinetic theory. Furthermore, many additional nonlinear phenomena and material properties are important in realistic granular media, involving, e.g.: (i) multi-particle interactions and elasticity (ii) strong dissipation, (iii) friction, (iv) long-range forces and wet contacts, (v) wide particle size distributions and (vi) various particle shapes. Note that, while some of these issues are more relevant for high density, others are important for both low and high densities; some of them can be dealt with by means of kinetic theory, some cannot. This paper is a review of recent progress towards more realistic models for dense granular media in 2D, even though most of the observations, conclusions and corrections given are qualitatively true also in 3D. Starting from an elastic, frictionless and monodisperse hard sphere gas, the (continuum) balance equations of mass, momentum and energy are given. The equation of state, the (Navier-Stokes level) transport coefficients and the energy-density dissipation rate are considered. Several corrections are applied to those constitutive material laws—one by one—in order to account for the realistic physical effects and properties listed above.

  16. A depth integrated model for dry geophysical granular flows (United States)

    Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne


    Granular flows are rapid to very rapid flows, made up of dry sediment (rock and snow avalanches) or mixture of water and sediment (debris flows). They are among the most dangerous and destructive natural phenomena and the definition of run-out scenarios for risk assessment has received wide interest in the last decades. Nowadays there are many urbanized mountain areas affected by these phenomena, which cause several properties damages and loss of lives. The numerical simulation is a fundamental step to analyze these phenomena and define the runout scenarios. For this reason, a depth-integrated model is developed to analyze the case of dry granular flows, representative of snow avalanches or rock avalanches. The model consists of a two-phase mathematical description of the flow motion: it is similar to the solid transport equations but substantially different since there is no water in this case. A set of partial differential equations is obtained and written in the form of a hyperbolic system. The numerical solution is computed through a path-conservative SPH (Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics) scheme, in the two dimensional case. Appropriate closure relations are necessary, with respect to the concentration C and the shear stress at the bed τ0. In first approximation, it is possible to derive a formulation for the two closure relations from appropriate rheological models (Bagnold theory and dense gas analogy). The model parameters are determined by means of laboratory tests on dry granular material and the effectiveness of the closure relation verified through a comparison with the experimental results. In particular, the experimental investigation aims to reproduce two case of study for dry granular material: the dam-break test problem and the stationary motion with changes in planimetry. The experiments are carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the University of Trento, by means of channels with variable slope and variable shape. The mathematical model will

  17. Avoid heat transfer equipment vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.


    Tube bundles in heat exchangers, boilers, superheaters and heaters are often subject to vibration and noise problems. Vibration can lead to tube thinning and wear, resulting in tube failures. Excessive noise can be a problem to plant operating personnel. Large gas pressure drop across the equipment is also a side effect, which results in large operating costs. With the design checks presented in this paper, one can predict during design if problems associated with noise and vibration are likely to occur in petroleum refineries.

  18. Uso de cloruro de sodio en bases granulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Javier Reyes Ortiz


    Full Text Available El propósito de está investigación realizada por la Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, fue determinar el efecto en las propiedades mecánicas que tiene introducir NaCl industrial en bases granulares con granulometría del Instituto Nacional de Vías – INVIAS. La incidencia en las propiedades de la base granular se determinaron a partir de los ensayos de CBR, compresión simple y compresión diametral. La investigación inicia con la caracterización del material granular y el NaCl, posteriormente con la determinación de la humedad óptima mediante el ensayo proctor modificado para el material en estado virgen y con adición de NaCl, y finaliza con la ejecución de los ensayos mecánicos de las muestras modificadas y vírgenes. Dentro de los resultados obtenidos se determinó un incremento de la resistencia (CBR de 9 veces para una adición del 15% de NaCl; un aumento en la resistencia a la compresión de 100% para el porcentaje de 8% de NaCl y un descenso de la resistencia a tracción para todos los porcentajes de adición.

  19. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)


    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  20. Structural evolution of a granular medium during simultaneous penetration (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Carreón, Yojana J. P.; Moctezuma, R. E.


    Typically, fluidized beds are granular systems composed of solid particles through which a fluid flows. They are relevant to a wide variety of disciplines such as physics, chemistry, engineering, among others. Generally, the fluidized beds are characterized by different flow regimes such as particulate, bubbling, slugging, turbulent, fast fluidization, and pneumatic conveying. Here, we report the experimental study of the structural evolution of a granular system due to simultaneous penetration of intruders in the presence of an upward airflow. We found that the granular medium evolves from the static state to the turbulent regime showing the coexistence of three regions in different flow regimes. Interestingly, the cooperative dynamic of intruders correlate with the formation of such regions. As a non-invasive method, we use lacunarity and fractal dimension to quantitatively describe the patterns arising within the system during the different stages of the penetration process. Finally, we found that our results would allow us to relate the evolution of the visual patterns appearing in the process with different physical properties of the system.

  1. Effective Thermal Expansion Property of Consolidated Granular Materials. (United States)

    Küçük, Gülşad; Gonzalez, Marcial; Cuitiño, Alberto M


    Thermally-assisted compaction of granular materials is of keen interest in many engineering applications. A proper estimation of the material behavior of compacted granular materials is contingent upon the knowledge of microstructure formation, which is highly dependent on the bulk material properties and processing conditions, during the deformation stage. Originating from the pair interactions between particles, the macroscopic properties are obtained using various homogenization techniques and postulating continuum constitutive laws. While pioneers in this field have laid fundamental groundwork regarding effective medium descriptions, there exists a discrepancy between discrete and continuum level solutions. In our previous work, we elaborated a Particle Mechanics Approach (PMA) that integrates thermal contact and Hertzian deformation models to understand the thermo-mechanically-coupled consolidation problem. We also considered the analogous problem from the perspective of the conventional Continuum Mechanics Approach (CMA). In this study, following the multi-scale modeling framework, we propose an effective thermal expansion coefficient for the thermally-assisted compaction of granular materials.

  2. Microscopic dissipation in a cohesionless granular jet impact. (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas


    Sufficiently fine granular systems appear to exhibit continuum properties, though the precise continuum limit obtained can be vastly different depending on the particular system. In the present paper the continuum limit of an unconfined, dense granular flow is investigated. To do this a two-dimensional dense cohesionless granular jet impinging upon a target is used as a test system. This is simulated via a time-step-driven hard-sphere method and apply a mean-field theoretical approach to connect the macroscopic flow with the microscopic material parameters of the grains. It is observed that the flow separates into a cone with an interior cone angle determined by the conservation of momentum and the dissipation of energy. From the cone angle a dimensionless quantity A-B that characterizes the flow is extracted. This quantity is found to depend both on whether or not a dead zone, i.e., a stationary region near the target, is present and on the value of the coefficient of dynamic friction. A theory is presented for the scaling of A-B with the coefficient of friction that suggests that dissipation is primarily a perturbative effect in this flow rather than the source of qualitatively different behavior.

  3. Mechanics of binary crushable granular assembly through discrete element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghuram Karthik Desu


    Full Text Available The mechanical response of a granular system is not only influenced by the bulk material properties but also on various factors due to it’s discrete nature. The factors like topology, packing fraction, friction between particles, particle size distribution etc. influence the behavior of granular systems. For a reliable design of such systems like fusion breeder units comprising of pebble beds, it is essential to understand the various factors influencing the response of the system. Mechanical response of a binary assembly consisting of crushable spherical pebbles is studied using Discrete Element Method (DEM which is based on particle–particle interactions. The influence of above mentioned factors on the macroscopic stress–strain response is investigated using an in-house DEM code. Furthermore, the effect of these factors on the damage in the assembly is investigated. This present investigation helps in understanding the macroscopic response and damage in terms of microscopic factors paving way to develop a unified prediction tool for a binary crushable granular assembly.

  4. Erosion and deposition processes in surface granular flows (United States)

    Trinh, T.; Boltenhagen, P.; Delannay, R.; Valance, A.


    We report on experiments aiming at characterizing erosion and deposition processes on a tilted granular bed. We investigate the existence of the neutral angle, that is, the critical angle at which erosion exactly balances accretion after the passage of a granular avalanche of a finite mass. Experiments show in particular that the neutral angle depends on both avalanche mass and shape but is rather insensitive to the bed length. This result strongly suggests that the effective friction between the static and mobile granular phases cannot be taken as an intrinsic property that is only material dependent but should be considered a flow-dependent property. Interestingly, for a given avalanche mass, the net erosion rate increases linearly with the angular deviation from the neutral angle. We also compare our data with the predictions of the erosion-deposition model introduced by Bouchaud, Cates, Ravi Prakash, and Edwards (BCRE) [J. Phys. I 4, 1283 (1994), 10.1051/jp1:1994195]. We show that the predictions drawn from the modified version of the BCRE model proposed by Boutreux and de Gennes, in which the local erosion rate between the static and mobile phases is independent of the flow thickness, are in remarkable agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Invariants of nonlinearity in the phononic characteristics of granular chains. (United States)

    Ganesh, R; Gonella, S


    In this work, we analyze the phononic characteristics of wave motion in precompressed monoatomic and diatomic granular chains, with emphasis on the evolving spatial features of wave packets. A Taylor series expansion of the governing equations is considered to approximate the granular chain with the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain. Within this approximation, the envelope modulation of the first-order features of the wave profile is monitored and the characteristics of this modulation are determined by studying the evolution of one of the distinctive features of the spatial profile. A set of constants that describe the quantitative effects of nonlinearity on the response are determined for monoatomic and diatomic chains and interpreted as invariants of quadratic nonlinearity. The universality of these invariants is verified by constructing inverse problems to estimate the contact power law from the wave response of granular chains with arbitrary nonlinear force interaction. The imposed power law is recovered exactly from numerical simulations for a number of considered scenarios, paving the way for inverse characterization of nonlinearity from experimental data.

  6. Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm spectral optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Kaluzny, Bartlomiej J; Szkulmowska, Anna; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Bajraszewski, Tomasz; Wawrocka, Anna; Krawczynski, Maciej R; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Wojtkowski, Maciej


    Spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT) is a new imaging technique that can provide high-resolution tomograms much faster and with higher sensitivity than conventional Time domain (TdOCT) systems. Its usefulness in producing cross-sectional imaging of different corneal pathologies in vivo has already been presented. The aim of this case report is to show 830-nm SOCT findings in granular corneal dystrophy. A 48-year-old woman with granular corneal dystrophy was examined with a slit-lamp, confocal microscope (Confoscan 4) and a prototype SOCT instrument constructed at the Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland. A genetic examination showed a mutation of arginine 555-to-tryptophan (Arg555Trp) in the TGFBI gene that confirmed the clinical diagnosis. SOCT tomograms showed multiple hyperreflective changes throughout the corneal stroma that corresponded to hyaline deposits. Precise and objective assessment of the localization, size, shape, and light scattering properties of the pathologic changes was possible. Three-dimensional rendering of the acquired data allowed a comprehensive evaluation of the deposits in the central cornea. SOCT (830 nm) provides clinically valuable 2- and 3-dimensional assessments of pathomorphologic changes in granular corneal dystrophy in vivo.

  7. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L


    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  8. 14 CFR 33.63 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.63 Section 33.63 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.63 Vibration. Each engine... because of vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  9. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components that...

  10. 14 CFR 33.33 - Vibration. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration. 33.33 Section 33.33 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.33 Vibration. The... vibration and without imparting excessive vibration forces to the aircraft structure. ...

  11. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.43 Section 33.43... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.43 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics...

  12. 49 CFR 178.819 - Vibration test. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.819 Section 178.819... Testing of IBCs § 178.819 Vibration test. (a) General. The vibration test must be conducted for the... vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample IBC, selected at random, must be filled and closed as for...

  13. Rectangular Parallelepiped Vibration in Plane Strain State


    Hanckowiak, Jerzy


    In this paper we present a vibration spectrum of a homogenous parallelepiped (HP) under the action of volume and surface forces resulting from the exponent displacements entering the Fourier transforms. Vibration under the action of axial surface tractions and the free vibration are described separately. A relationship between the high frequency vibration and boundary conditions (BC) is also considered.

  14. Numerical Simulations of Granular Physics in the Solar System (United States)

    Ballouz, Ronald


    Granular physics is a sub-discipline of physics that attempts to combine principles that have been developed for both solid-state physics and engineering (such as soil mechanics) with fluid dynamics in order to formulate a coherent theory for the description of granular materials, which are found in both terrestrial (e.g., earthquakes, landslides, and pharmaceuticals) and extra-terrestrial settings (e.g., asteroids surfaces, asteroid interiors, and planetary ring systems). In the case of our solar system, the growth of this sub-discipline has been key in helping to interpret the formation, structure, and evolution of both asteroids and planetary rings. It is difficult to develop a deterministic theory for granular materials due to the fact that granular systems are composed of a large number of elements that interact through a non-linear combination of various forces (mechanical, gravitational, and electrostatic, for example) leading to a high degree of stochasticity. Hence, we study these environments using an N-body code, pkdgrav, that is able to simulate the gravitational, collisional, and cohesive interactions of grains. Using pkdgrav, I have studied the size segregation on asteroid surfaces due to seismic shaking (the Brazil-nut effect), the interaction of the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample-return mission sampling head, TAGSAM, with the surface of the asteroid Bennu, the collisional disruptions of rubble-pile asteroids, and the formation of structure in Saturn's rings. In all of these scenarios, I have found that the evolution of a granular system depends sensitively on the intrinsic properties of the individual grains (size, shape, sand surface roughness). For example, through our simulations, we have been able to determine relationships between regolith properties and the amount of surface penetration a spacecraft achieves upon landing. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that this relationship also depends on the strength of the local gravity. By comparing our

  15. Numerical simulations in granular matter: The discharge of a 2D silo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One final ingredient needs to be added: representing static friction with a fic- titious spring has the disadvantage of introducing tangential oscillations in the system. In order to damp them one needs to put some dissipation in this tangential interaction. Following the linear-spring dash-pot model one needs to add to (22).

  16. Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials


    Biggerstaff, Janet M.


    The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss facto...

  17. Vibration Theory, Vol. 1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    The present collection of MATLAB exercises has been published as a supplement to the textbook, Svingningsteori, Bind 1 and the collection of exercises in Vibration theory, Vol. 1A, Solved Problems. Throughout the exercise references are made to these books. The purpose of the MATLAB exercises...... is to give a better understanding of the physical problems in linear vibration theory and to surpress the mathematical analysis used to solve the problems. For this purpose the MATLAB environment is excellent....

  18. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes


    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  19. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)


    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  20. Improved Predictions for Geotechnical Vibrations


    Macijauskas, Darius


    In urban areas where the infrastructure is dense and construction of new structures is near existing and sensitive buildings, frequently vibrations, caused by human activities, occur. Generated waves in the soil may adversely affect surrounding buildings. These vibrations have to be predicted a priori by using currently available knowledge of the soil dynamics. Current research, conducted by Deltares research institute, showed that the reliability of methods for prediction of m...

  1. Stress analysis of vibrating pipelines (United States)

    Zachwieja, Janusz


    The pipelines are subject to various constraints variable in time. Those vibrations, if not monitored for amplitude and frequency, may result in both the fatigue damage in the pipeline profile at high stress concentration and the damage to the pipeline supports. If the constraint forces are known, the system response may be determined with high accuracy using analytical or numerical methods. In most cases, it may be difficult to determine the constraint parameters, since the industrial pipeline vibrations occur due to the dynamic effects of the medium in the pipeline. In that case, a vibration analysis is a suitable alternative method to determine the stress strain state in the pipeline profile. Monitoring the pipeline vibration levels involves a comparison between the measured vibration parameters and the permissible values as depicted in the graphs for a specific pipeline type. Unfortunately, in most cases, the studies relate to the petrochemical industry and thus large diameter, long and straight pipelines. For a pipeline section supported on both ends, the response in any profile at the entire section length can be determined by measuring the vibration parameters at two different profiles between the pipeline supports. For a straight pipeline section, the bending moments, variable in time, at the ends of the analysed section are a source of the pipe excitation. If a straight pipe section supported on both ends is excited by the bending moments in the support profile, the starting point for the stress analysis are the strains, determined from the Euler-Bernoulli equation. In practice, it is easier to determine the displacement using the experimental methods, since the factors causing vibrations are unknown. The industrial system pipelines, unlike the transfer pipelines, are straight sections at some points only, which makes it more difficult to formulate the equation of motion. In those cases, numerical methods can be used to determine stresses using the

  2. Viscoelasticity of new generation thermoplastic polyurethane vibration isolators (United States)

    Bek, Marko; Betjes, Joris; von Bernstorff, Bernd-Steffen; Emri, Igor


    This paper presents the analysis of pressure dependence of three thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) materials on vibration isolation. The three TPU Elastollan® materials are 1190A, 1175A, and 1195D. The aim of this investigation was to analyze how much the performance of isolation can be enhanced using patented Dissipative bulk and granular systems technology. The technology uses granular polymeric materials to enhance materials properties (without changing its chemical or molecular composition) by exposing them to "self-pressurization," which shifts material energy absorption maxima toward lower frequencies, to match the excitation frequency of dynamic loading to which a mechanical system is exposed. Relaxation experiments on materials were performed at different isobaric and isothermal states to construct mastercurves, the time-temperature-pressure interrelation was modeled using the Fillers-Moonan-Tschoegl model. Dynamic material functions, related to isolation stiffness and energy absorption, were determined with the Schwarzl approximation. An increase in stiffness and energy absorption at selected hydrostatic pressure, compared to its stiffness and energy absorption at ambient conditions, is represented with κk(p, ω), defining the increase in stiffness and κd(p, ω), defining the increase in energy absorption. The study showed that close to the glassy state, moduli of 1190A and 1195D are about 6-9 times higher compared to 1175A, whereas their properties at ambient conditions are, for all practical purposes, the same. TPU 1190A turns out to be most sensitive to pressure: at 300 MPa its properties are shifted for 5.5 decades, while for 1195D and 1175A this shift is only 3.5 and 1.5 decades, respectively. In conclusion, the stiffness and energy absorption of isolation may be increased with pressure for about 100 times for 1190A and 1195D and for about 10 times for 1175A.

  3. Example study for granular bioreactor stratification: Three-dimensional evaluation of a sulfate-reducing granular bioreactor (United States)

    Hao, Tian-Wei; Luo, Jing-Hai; Su, Kui-Zu; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R.; Chi, Kun; Chen, Guang-Hao


    Recently, sulfate-reducing granular sludge has been developed for application in sulfate-laden water and wastewater treatment. However, little is known about biomass stratification and its effects on the bioprocesses inside the granular bioreactor. A comprehensive investigation followed by a verification trial was therefore conducted in the present work. The investigation focused on the performance of each sludge layer, the internal hydrodynamics and microbial community structures along the height of the reactor. The reactor substratum (the section below baffle 1) was identified as the main acidification zone based on microbial analysis and reactor performance. Two baffle installations increased mixing intensity but at the same time introduced dead zones. Computational fluid dynamics simulation was employed to visualize the internal hydrodynamics. The 16S rRNA gene of the organisms further revealed that more diverse communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acidogens were detected in the reactor substratum than in the superstratum (the section above baffle 1). The findings of this study shed light on biomass stratification in an SRB granular bioreactor to aid in the design and optimization of such reactors.

  4. Pickering emulsifiers based on hydrophobically modified small granular starches - Part I: Manufacturing and physico-chemical characterization. (United States)

    Marefati, A; Wiege, B; Haase, N U; Matos, M; Rayner, M


    Small granular starches from rice, quinoa and amaranth were hydrophobized by esterification with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) in an aqueous alkaline slurry to obtain series of modified starches at defined intervals (i.e. 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4, 3.0%). The physical and the physico-chemical properties of the starch particles were characterized by proximate analysis including protein level, amylose level and dry matter. The shape and size of the starch granules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light scattering. The gelatinization properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. The degree of modification was determined by titration with NaOH. With regard to the emulsion formulation and in order to assess the emulsifying capacity of the small granular starches, the effect of starch type, degree of modification and starch concentration on the resulting emulsion droplet size were evaluated by light scattering and optical microscopy. Emulsifying properties were found to depend on the degree of substitution, size of the granules and the starch to oil ratio of the formulation. Quinoa starch granules, in general, had the best emulsifying capacity followed by amaranth and rice. However, in higher starch concentrations (>400mg/mL oil) and adequate levels of OSA (3.0%) amaranth performed best, having the smallest size of starches studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated expanded granular sludge bed and sequential batch reactor treating beet sugar industrial wastewater and recovering bioenergy. (United States)

    Justo, Ambuchi John; Junfeng, Liu; Lili, Shan; Haiman, Wang; Lorivi, Moirana Ruth; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Xiangtong, Zhou; Yujie, Feng


    The exponential rise in energy demand vis-à-vis depletion of mineral oil resources has accelerated recovery of bioenergy from organic waste. In this study, a laboratory-scale anaerobic (An)/aerobic (Ar) system comprising of expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) was constructed to treat beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 1665 mg L(-1) while harnessing methane gas. The EGSB reactor generated methane at the rate of 235 mL/g COD added, with considerably higher than previously reported methane content of 86 %. Meanwhile, contaminants were successfully reduced in the combined An/Ar system, realizing a removal rate of more than 71.4, 97.3, 97.7, and 99.3 % of organic matter as total phosphorus, total nitrogen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and soluble COD, respectively. Microbial community analysis showed that the bacterial genus Clostridium sp. and archaeal genus Methanosaeta sp. dominated the EGSB reactor, while Rhodobacter sp. dominance was observed in the SBR. The obtained experimental results indicate that the integration of expanded granular sludge bed and sequential batch reactor in treating BSIW obtained competitively outstanding performance.

  6. Vibrational modes of nanolines (United States)

    Heyliger, Paul R.; Flannery, Colm M.; Johnson, Ward L.


    Brillouin-light-scattering spectra previously have been shown to provide information on acoustic modes of polymeric lines fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Finite-element methods for modeling such modes are presented here. These methods provide a theoretical framework for determining elastic constants and dimensions of nanolines from measured spectra in the low gigahertz range. To make the calculations feasible for future incorporation in inversion algorithms, two approximations of the boundary conditions are employed in the calculations: the rigidity of the nanoline/substrate interface and sinusoidal variation of displacements along the nanoline length. The accuracy of these approximations is evaluated as a function of wavenumber and frequency. The great advantage of finite-element methods over other methods previously employed for nanolines is the ability to model any cross-sectional geometry. Dispersion curves and displacement patterns are calculated for modes of polymethyl methacrylate nanolines with cross-sectional dimensions of 65 nm × 140 nm and rectangular or semicircular tops. The vibrational displacements and dispersion curves are qualitatively similar for the two geometries and include a series of flexural, Rayleigh-like, and Sezawa-like modes. This paper is a contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  7. Benign granular-cell tumor of the breast: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Meenal Jagannathan, MD(RD, DMRD, DNB(RD, FRCR


    Full Text Available Granular-cell tumor is an uncommon cause of breast mass in premenopausal women that presents as a painless chronic lump. It mimics infiltrating carcinoma clinically and radiologically. Granular-cell tumor is usually benign, and the treatment is wide local excision. Definitive pre-operative diagnosis helps to avoid unnecessary mastectomy. We present clinical, mamographic, and sonographic characteristics of a benign granular-cell tumor of the breast in a 57-year-old woman.

  8. Benign granular-cell tumor of the breast: Case report and literature review. (United States)

    Jagannathan, Devi Meenal


    Granular-cell tumor is an uncommon cause of breast mass in premenopausal women that presents as a painless chronic lump. It mimics infiltrating carcinoma clinically and radiologically. Granular-cell tumor is usually benign, and the treatment is wide local excision. Definitive pre-operative diagnosis helps to avoid unnecessary mastectomy. We present clinical, mamographic, and sonographic characteristics of a benign granular-cell tumor of the breast in a 57-year-old woman.

  9. Simultaneous Transplantation of Limbal Stem Cells May Reduce Recurrences of Granular Dystrophy After Corneal Transplantation


    Lang, Stefan J.; Eberwein, Philipp; Reinshagen, Helga; Reinhard, Thomas; Sundmacher, Rainer


    Abstract To present 2 cases with long-term relapse-free intervals only after limbo-keratoplasty but not after conventional penetrating keratoplasty in granular dystrophy. Retrospective review of the patient charts and photographs taken during long-term follow-up of 2 cases with granular dystrophy, in which 1 eye received penetrating keratoplasty and the fellow eye received penetrating limbo-keratoplasty. In the first patient, 1 eye showed extensive recurrence of granular deposits 17 years aft...

  10. Granular cell ameloblastoma : A case report with a brief note on review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Arora


    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are tumours of odontogenic epithelial origin with varied microscopic patterns that occur either singly or in combination. Granular cell pattern is rarely seen in ameloblastoma, and is characterised by nests of large eosinophilic granular cells. This article describes a case of granular cell ameloblastoma in a 29 year old male patient with clinical, radiology and histological findings along with a short on review of literature.

  11. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  12. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence usually originates from the lowest excited electronic state (singlet) irrespective of the excitation and hence, the fluorescence spectrum of a molecule is characterized by a single band. However, what makes DMABN a very special molecule is that it exhibits dual fluorescence (i.e. emission of. Molecule Matters.

  13. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  14. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Carbon Dioxide: Molecular States and Beyond. T P Radhakrishnan. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 88-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. S-100 Negative Granular Cell Tumor (So-called Primitive Polypoid Non-neural Granular Cell Tumor) of the Oral Cavity. (United States)

    Rawal, Yeshwant B; Dodson, Thomas B


    Four cases of cutaneous S-100 negative granular cell tumor were described in 1991. Until now, only 3 cases of oral involvement have been documented in English literature. Two additional cases of oral S-100 negative granular cell tumor are described. Immunohistochemical markers were applied to exclude other lesions that may show the presence of granular cells. The clinical findings were correlated with the histopathological and immunohistochemical features to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis. S-100 negative granular cell tumors are erythematous polypoid masses commonly mistaken for granulation tissue or a pyogenic granuloma. Any part of the oral cavity may be affected. Histopathologically, the lesions consist of sheets, nests, and fascicles of granular cells that are S-100 negative. The granular cells are non-reactive to SMA, HMB45, Melan A, and CD163. The intracytoplasmic granules are diffusely and strongly positive to NKI/C3. The cell lineage of the S-100 negative granular cell tumor is obscure. Absence of staining with CD163 excludes a histiocytic lineage. Absence of staining with S-100 excludes a neural origin. Absence of staining with S-100 and key melanoma markers HMB45 and Melan A also excludes a melanocytic origin. In this context, positive reactivity with NKI/C3 is indicative of presence of intracytoplasmic lysosomal granules only. Greater awareness of this lesion in the oral cavity will result in better characterization of its biologic potential.

  19. Evaluation of hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove


    樹野, 淳也; 前田, 節雄; 横田, 和樹; 平, 雄一郎


    Many kinds of the anti-vibration glove have been developed for reducing hand-arm vibration during the operation with vibration tools. International standard ISO 10819 evaluates the physical effect of gloves' vibration transmissibility but not evaluates the physiological effect of human hands. Thus, in this paper, we proposed the evaluation using the temporary threshold shift of vibrotactile perception threshold to evaluate the hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove. We per...

  20. Calculation of hydraulic conductivities and capillary rise in peat soils from bulk density and solid matter volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, G.W.


    Recently it was demonstrated how unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of soils can be calculated from granular composition and organic matter content (BLOEMEN, 1980a). This type of calculations has to be restricted to mineral soils because the capillary properties of organic soils will not be

  1. Anaerobic treatment of agro-industrial wastewaters for COD removal in expanded granular sludge bed bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abumalé Cruz-Salomón


    Full Text Available Untreated agro-industrial wastewaters are undesirable in the aquatic environment due to the presence of high organic matter contents. However, they may constitute a large potential for biogas production. The present investigation is focused on three laboratory-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB bioreactors, continuously operated for 60 d under mesophilic condition with the aim of exploring the feasibility of treating three most significant agro-industrial wastewaters in Chiapas, Mexico (i.e., cheese whey, vinasse, and coffee-processing wastewater. The EGSB bioreactors were operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 6 d under stable conditions (i.e., buffer index (BI of 0.31, 0.34, and 0.03, generating a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency of 91, 74, and 96% with an average methane production of 340, 245, and 300 mL/g COD∙d for cheese whey, vinasse, and coffee-processing wastewater, respectively. According to the obtained results, the EGSB bioreactors could be a sustainable alternative to simultaneously solve the environmental problems and to produce bioenergy.

  2. Combined treatment of retting flax wastewater using Fenton oxidation and granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair I. Abou-Elela


    Full Text Available The process of retting flax produces a huge amount of wastewater which is characterized with bad unpleasant smell and high concentration of organic materials. Treatment of such waste had always been difficult because of the presence of refractory organic pollutants such as lignin. In this study, treatment of retting wastewater was carried out using combined system of Fenton oxidation process followed by adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC. The effects of operating condition on Fenton oxidation process such as hydrogen peroxide and iron concentration were investigated. In addition, kinetic study of the adsorption process was elaborated. The obtained results indicated that degradation of organic matters follows a pseudo-first order reaction with regression coefficient of 0.98. The kinetic model suggested that the rate of reaction was highly affected by the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the results indicated that the treatment module was very efficient in removing the organic and inorganic pollutants. The average percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solid (TSS, oil, and grease was 98.60%, 86.60%, and 94.22% with residual values of 44, 20, and 5 mg/L, respectively. The treated effluent was complying with the National Regulatory Standards for wastewater discharge into surface water or reuse in the retting process.

  3. UV-activated persulfate oxidation and regeneration of NOM-Saturated granular activated carbon. (United States)

    An, Dong; Westerhoff, Paul; Zheng, Mengxin; Wu, Mengyuan; Yang, Yu; Chiu, Chao-An


    A new method of ultraviolet light (UV) activated persulfate (PS) oxidation was investigated to regenerate granular activated carbon (GAC) in drinking water applications. The improvements in iodine and methylene blue numbers measured in the GAC after ultraviolet- (UV) activated persulfate suggested that the GAC preloaded with natural organic matter (NOM) was chemically regenerated. An experimental matrix for UV-activated persulfate regeneration included a range of persulfate doses and different UV wavelengths. Over 87% of the initial iodine number for GAC was restored under the optimum conditions, perfulfate dosage 60 g/L and UV exposure 1.75 × 10(4) mJ/cm(2). The persulfate dosages had little effect on the recovery of the methylene blue number, which was approximately 65%. Persulfate activation at 185 nm was superior to activation at 254 nm. UV activation of persulfate in the presence of GAC produced acid, lowering the solution pH. Higher persulfate concentrations and UV exposure resulted in greater GAC regeneration. Typical organic and inorganic byproducts (e.g., benzene compounds and sulfate ions) were measured as a component of treated water quality safety. This study provides a proof-of-concept that can be used to optimize pilot-scale and full-scale UV-activated persulfate for regeneration of NOM-saturated GAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stress distribution retrieval in granular materials: A multi-scale model and digital image correlation measurements (United States)

    Bruno, Luigi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Gentile, Francesco


    The promise of nanotechnology lies in the possibility of engineering matter on the nanoscale and creating technological interfaces that, because of their small scales, may directly interact with biological objects, creating new strategies for the treatment of pathologies that are otherwise beyond the reach of conventional medicine. Nanotechnology is inherently a multiscale, multiphenomena challenge. Fundamental understanding and highly accurate predictive methods are critical to successful manufacturing of nanostructured materials, bio/mechanical devices and systems. In biomedical engineering, and in the mechanical analysis of biological tissues, classical continuum approaches are routinely utilized, even if these disregard the discrete nature of tissues, that are an interpenetrating network of a matrix (the extra cellular matrix, ECM) and a generally large but finite number of cells with a size falling in the micrometer range. Here, we introduce a nano-mechanical theory that accounts for the-non continuum nature of bio systems and other discrete systems. This discrete field theory, doublet mechanics (DM), is a technique to model the mechanical behavior of materials over multiple scales, ranging from some millimeters down to few nanometers. In the paper, we use this theory to predict the response of a granular material to an external applied load. Such a representation is extremely attractive in modeling biological tissues which may be considered as a spatial set of a large number of particulate (cells) dispersed in an extracellular matrix. Possibly more important of this, using digital image correlation (DIC) optical methods, we provide an experimental verification of the model.

  5. Subglacial sediment mechanics investigated by computer simulation of granular material (United States)

    Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Larsen, N. K.; Siegfried, M. R.; Beem, L.; Suckale, J.


    The mechanical properties of subglacial sediments are known to directly influence the stability of ice streams and fast-moving glaciers, but existing models of granular sediment deformation are poorly constrained. In addition, upscaling to generalized mathematical models is difficult due to the mechanical nonlinearity of the sediment, internal porosity changes during deformation, and associated structural and kinematic phase transitions. In this presentation, we introduce the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for particle-scale granular simulation. The DEM is fully coupled with fluid dynamics. The numerical method is applied to better understand the mechanical properties of the subglacial sediment and its interaction with meltwater. The computational approach allows full experimental control and offers insights into the internal kinematics, stress distribution, and mechanical stability. During confined shear with variable pore-water pressure, the sediment changes mechanical behavior, from stick, to non-linear creep, and unconstrained failure during slip. These results are contrary to more conventional models of plastic or (non-)linear viscous subglacial soft-bed sliding. Advection of sediment downstream is pressure dependent, which is consistent with theories of unstable bed bump growth. Granular mechanics prove to significantly influence the geometry and hydraulic properties of meltwater channels incised into the subglacial bed. Current models assume that channel bed erosion is balanced by linear-viscous sediment movement. We demonstrate how channel flanks are stabilized by the sediment frictional strength. Additionally, sediment liquefaction proves to be a possible mechanism for causing large and episodic sediment transport by water flow. Though computationally intense, our coupled numerical method provides a framework for quantifying a wide range of subglacial sediment-water processes, which are a key unknown in our ability to model the future evolution of ice

  6. Electrical transport properties in Co nanocluster-assembled granular film (United States)

    Zhang, Qin-Fu; Wang, Lai-Sen; Wang, Xiong-Zhi; Zheng, Hong-Fei; Liu, Xiang; Xie, Jia; Qiu, Yu-Long; Chen, Yuanzhi; Peng, Dong-Liang


    A Co nanocluster-assembled granular film with three-dimensional cross-connection paralleled conductive paths was fabricated by using the plasma-gas-condensation method in a vacuum environment. The temperature-dependent longitudinal resistivity and anomalous Hall effect of this new type granular film were systematically studied. The longitudinal resistivity of the Co nanocluster-assembled granular film first decreased and then increased with increasing measuring temperature, revealing a minimum value at certain temperature, T min . In a low temperature region ( T insulator-type behavior. The thermal fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction progressively increased with increasing temperature, which led to a decrease in the longitudinal resistivity. In a high temperature region, the TCR showed a metallic-type behavior, which was primarily attributed to the temperature-dependent scattering. Different from the longitudinal resistivity behavior, the saturated anomalous Hall resistivity increased monotonically with increasing measuring temperature. The value of the anomalous Hall coefficient ( R S ) reached 2.3 × 10-9 (Ω cm)/G at 300 K, which was about three orders of magnitude larger than previously reported in blocky single-crystal Co [E. N. Kondorskii, Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 977 (1974)]. Interestingly, the scaling relation ( ρx y A ∝ ρx x γ ) between saturated anomalous Hall resistivity ( ρx y A ) and longitudinal resistivity ( ρ x x ) was divided into two regions by T min . However, after excluding the contribution of tunneling, the scaling relation followed the same rule. The corresponding physical mechanism was also proposed to explain these phenomena.

  7. Phosphorus removal characteristics of granular and flocculent sludge in SBR. (United States)

    Li, Xing; Gao, Dawen; Liang, Hong; Liu, Lin; Fu, Yuan


    Aerobic granulation technology has become a novel biotechnology for wastewater treatment. However, the distinct properties and characteristics of phosphorus removal between granules and flocculent sludge are still sparse in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. Two identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated to compare phosphorus removal performance with granular sludge (R1) and flocculate activated sludge (R2). Results indicated that the start-up period was shorter in R2 than R1 for phosphorus removal, which made R2 reach the steady-state condition on day 21, while R1 was on day 25, and R2 released and took up more phosphorus than R1. As a result, the phosphorus removal was around 90% in R2 while 80% in R1 at the steady-state system. The special phosphorus release rate and special phosphorus uptake rate were 8.818 mg P/g volatile suspended solids (VSS)/h and 9.921 mg P/g VSS/h in R2, which were consistently greater than those (0.999 and 3.016 mg P/g VSS/h) in R1. The chemical oxygen demand removal in two reactors was similar. The granular SBR had better solid-separation performance and higher removal efficiency of NH (4) (+) -N than flocculent SBR. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragment analysis revealed that the diversity and the level of phosphorus-accumulating bacteria in flocculent sludge were much more than those in the granular sludge.

  8. The electrical conductance growth of a metallic granular packing (United States)

    Jakšić, Zorica M.; Cvetković, Milica; Šćepanović, Julija R.; Lončarević, Ivana; Budinski-Petković, Ljuba; Vrhovac, Slobodan B.


    We report on measurements of the electrical conductivity on a two-dimensional packing of metallic disks when a stable current of 1 mA flows through the system. At low applied currents, the conductance σ is found to increase by a pattern σ( t) = σ ∞ - Δσ E α [ - ( t/ τ) α ], where E α denotes the Mittag-Leffler function of order α ∈ (0,1). By changing the inclination angle θ of the granular bed from horizontal, we have studied the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration g e ff = gsin θ on the relaxation features of the conductance σ( t). The characteristic timescale τ is found to grow when effective gravity g e ff decreases. By changing both the distance between the electrodes and the number of grains in the packing, we have shown that the long term resistance decay observed in the experiment is related to local micro-contacts rearrangements at each disk. By focusing on the electro-mechanical processes that allow both creation and breakdown of micro-contacts between two disks, we present an approach to granular conduction based on subordination of stochastic processes. In order to imitate, in a very simplified way, the conduction dynamics of granular material at low currents, we impose that the micro-contacts at the interface switch stochastically between two possible states, "on" and "off", characterizing the conductivity of the micro-contact. We assume that the time intervals between the consecutive changes of state are governed by a certain waiting-time distribution. It is demonstrated how the microscopic random dynamics regarding the micro-contacts leads to the macroscopic observation of slow conductance growth, described by an exact fractional kinetic equations.

  9. Evolution of network architecture in a granular material under compression. (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Lia; Puckett, James G; Daniels, Karen E; Bassett, Danielle S


    As a granular material is compressed, the particles and forces within the system arrange to form complex and heterogeneous collective structures. Force chains are a prime example of such structures, and are thought to constrain bulk properties such as mechanical stability and acoustic transmission. However, capturing and characterizing the evolving nature of the intrinsic inhomogeneity and mesoscale architecture of granular systems can be challenging. A growing body of work has shown that graph theoretic approaches may provide a useful foundation for tackling these problems. Here, we extend the current approaches by utilizing multilayer networks as a framework for directly quantifying the progression of mesoscale architecture in a compressed granular system. We examine a quasi-two-dimensional aggregate of photoelastic disks, subject to biaxial compressions through a series of small, quasistatic steps. Treating particles as network nodes and interparticle forces as network edges, we construct a multilayer network for the system by linking together the series of static force networks that exist at each strain step. We then extract the inherent mesoscale structure from the system by using a generalization of community detection methods to multilayer networks, and we define quantitative measures to characterize the changes in this structure throughout the compression process. We separately consider the network of normal and tangential forces, and find that they display a different progression throughout compression. To test the sensitivity of the network model to particle properties, we examine whether the method can distinguish a subsystem of low-friction particles within a bath of higher-friction particles. We find that this can be achieved by considering the network of tangential forces, and that the community structure is better able to separate the subsystem than a purely local measure of interparticle forces alone. The results discussed throughout this study

  10. Intermittent Granular Dynamics at a Seismogenic Plate Boundary (United States)

    Meroz, Yasmine; Meade, Brendan J.


    Earthquakes at seismogenic plate boundaries are a response to the differential motions of tectonic blocks embedded within a geometrically complex network of branching and coalescing faults. Elastic strain is accumulated at a slow strain rate on the order of 10-15 s-1 , and released intermittently at intervals >100 yr , in the form of rapid (seconds to minutes) coseismic ruptures. The development of macroscopic models of quasistatic planar tectonic dynamics at these plate boundaries has remained challenging due to uncertainty with regard to the spatial and kinematic complexity of fault system behaviors. The characteristic length scale of kinematically distinct tectonic structures is particularly poorly constrained. Here, we analyze fluctuations in Global Positioning System observations of interseismic motion from the southern California plate boundary, identifying heavy-tailed scaling behavior. Namely, we show that, consistent with findings for slowly sheared granular media, the distribution of velocity fluctuations deviates from a Gaussian, exhibiting broad tails, and the correlation function decays as a stretched exponential. This suggests that the plate boundary can be understood as a densely packed granular medium, predicting a characteristic tectonic length scale of 91 ±20 km , here representing the characteristic size of tectonic blocks in the southern California fault network, and relating the characteristic duration and recurrence interval of earthquakes, with the observed sheared strain rate, and the nanosecond value for the crack tip evolution time scale. Within a granular description, fault and blocks systems may rapidly rearrange the distribution of forces within them, driving a mixture of transient and intermittent fault slip behaviors over tectonic time scales.

  11. Evolution of network architecture in a granular material under compression (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle

    As a granular material is compressed, the particles and forces within the system arrange to form complex and heterogeneous collective structures. However, capturing and characterizing the dynamic nature of the intrinsic inhomogeneity and mesoscale architecture of granular systems can be challenging. Here, we utilize multilayer networks as a framework for directly quantifying the evolution of mesoscale architecture in a compressed granular system. We examine a quasi-two-dimensional aggregate of photoelastic disks, subject to biaxial compressions through a series of small, quasistatic steps. Treating particles as network nodes and inter-particle forces as network edges, we construct a multilayer network for the system by linking together the series of static force networks that exist at each strain step. We then extract the inherent mesoscale structure from the system by using a generalization of community detection methods to multilayer networks, and we define quantitative measures to characterize the reconfiguration and evolution of this structure throughout the compression process. To test the sensitivity of the network model to particle properties, we examine whether the method can distinguish a subsystem of low-friction particles within a bath of higher-friction particles. We find that this can be done by considering the network of tangential forces, and that the community structure is better able to separate the subsystem than consideration of the local inter-particle forces alone. The results discussed throughout this study suggest that these novel network science techniques may provide a direct way to compare and classify data from systems under different external conditions or with different physical makeup. National Science Foundation (BCS-1441502, PHY-1554488, and BCS-1631550).

  12. Particle ID Studies in a Highly Granular Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reichelt, Christian Günther


    CERN Summer Student Report: Highly granular hadronic calorimeters optimized for the Particle Flow Paradigm are being developed for future linear colliders. A new algorithm for identifying shower starts has been developed for analyses of data from the CALICE tungsten DHCAL prototype. The new algorithm improves the linearity between the reconstructed and generated interaction layers in Monte Carlo simulations, and it is applied as part of the particle identification of muons and pions. Additionally, the effective nuclear interaction length for pions in the DHCAL is estimated by analysing the distribution of interaction layers.

  13. Scaling of wet granular flows in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarray Ahmed


    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the effect of capillary forces and particle size on wet granular flows and we propose a scaling methodology that ensures the conservation of the bed flow. We validate the scaling law experimentally by using different size glass beads with tunable capillary forces. The latter is obtained using mixtures of ethanol-water as interstitial liquid and by increasing the hydrophobicity of glass beads with an ad-hoc silanization procedure. The scaling methodology in the flow regimes considered (slipping, slumping and rolling yields similar bed flow for different particle sizes including the angle of repose that normally increases when decreasing the particle size.

  14. New superconductors from granular to high T$_{c}$

    CERN Document Server

    Deutscher, Guy


    How new are the high Tc superconductors, as compared to the conventional low Tc ones? In what sense are these oxides different from regular metals in their normal state? How different is the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity from the well-known electron-phonon interaction that explains so well superconductivity in metals and alloys? What are the implications of the new features of the high Tc oxides for their practical applications? This book aims to give some answers to those questions, drawing particularly on similarities between the high Tc oxides and granular superconductors, which also present a maximum of their critical temperature near the metal-insulator transition.

  15. [Granular cell tumor: an infrequent cause of dysphonia in childhood]. (United States)

    Lassaletta Atienza, L; Alonso García, S; Villafruela, M A; Martínez Tello, F J; Alvarez Vicent, J J


    Granular cell tumors (GCT) are rare and usually benign tumors whose histogenesis is debated. The skin, subcutaneous tissues, and mucosae of the head and neck are areas of predilection for GCT. Laryngeal involvement is uncommon, but may create diagnostic and therapeutic problems when it occurs. Laryngeal GCT are decidedly uncommon in children, only 17 cases having been reported in the literature. A case of GCT of the larynx in an 11-year-old girl is reported. The presenting symptom was hoarseness. The macroscopic tumor and hoarseness disappeared after chemotherapy (EVAIA) for Ewing sarcoma of the knee.

  16. Comparison of two highly granular hadronic calorimeter concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubueser, Coralie


    The CALICE collaboration develops hadron calorimeter technologies with high granularity for future electron-positron linear colliders. These technologies differ in active material, granularity and their readout and thus their energy reconstruction schemes. The Analogue Hadron Calorimeter (AHCAL), based on scintillator tiles with Silicon Photomultiplier readout, measures the signal amplitude of the energy deposition in the cells of at most 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} size. The Digital, Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) based, HCAL (DHCAL) detects hits above a certain threshold by firing pad sensors of 1 x 1 cm{sup 2}. A 2 bit readout is provided by the, also RPC based, Semi-Digital HCAL (SDHCAL), which counts hits above three different thresholds per 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} pad. All three calorimeter concepts have been realised in 1 m{sup 3} prototypes with interleaved steel absorber and tested at various test beams. The differences in active medium, granularity and readout have different impacts on the energy resolution and need to be studied independently. This analysis concentrates on the comparison between these technologies by investigating the impact of the different energy reconstruction schemes on the energy resolution of the AHCAL testbeam data and simulation. Additionally, a so-called software compensation algorithm is developed to weight hits dependent on their energy content and correct for the difference in the response to the electromagnetic and hadronic sub-showers (e/h≠1) and thus reduce the influence of fluctuations in the π{sup 0} generation. The comparison of the energy resolutions revealed that it is mandatory for the AHCAL with 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} cell size to have analogue signal readout, to apply the software compensation algorithm and thus achieve the best possible energy resolution. The effect of the granularity is studied with a simulation of the AHCAL with 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} cell size, and it has been found that to achieve the best possible energy resolution the semi

  17. Superparamagnetism in melt-spun CuCo granular samples (United States)

    Hickey, B. J.; Howson, M. A.; Musa, S. O.; Tomka, G. J.; Rainford, B. D.; Wiser, N.


    We have studied the magnetic properties of a melt-spun granular sample of Cu 87Co 13. The Cu matrix contains very fine particles of Co, having a bimodal distribution of sizes: 'larger' particles ( ˜ 300 Å) and very much smaller particles ( < 15 Å) with the latter exhibiting superparamagnetism. The magnetisation data indicate a spread of sizes for the smaller superparamagnetic particles, ranging from individual Co atoms up to clusters of more than 100 atoms of Co. Assuming a simple distribution of particle sizes, we calculated the magnetic field dependence of the magnetisation of the superparamagnetic particles and find excellent agreement with experiment.

  18. Design and Prototyping of a High Granularity Scintillator Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutshi, Vishnu [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics


    A novel approach for constructing fine-granularity scintillator calorimeters, based on the concept of an Integrated Readout Layer (IRL) was developed. The IRL consists of a printed circuit board inside the detector which supports the directly-coupled scintillator tiles, connects to the surface-mount SiPMs and carries the necessary front-end electronics and signal/bias traces. Prototype IRLs using this concept were designed, prototyped and successfully exposed to test beams. Concepts and implementations of an IRL carried out with funds associated with this contract promise to result in the next generation of scintillator calorimeters.

  19. Nonlinear resonances and energy transfer in finite granular chains. (United States)

    Lydon, Joseph; Theocharis, Georgios; Daraio, Chiara


    In the present work we test experimentally and compute numerically the stability and dynamics of harmonically driven monoatomic granular chains composed of an increasing number of particles N(N=1-50). In particular, we investigate the inherent effects of dissipation and finite size on the evolution of bifurcation instabilities in the statically compressed case. The findings of the study suggest that the nonlinear bifurcation phenomena, which arise due to finite size, can be useful for efficient energy transfer away from the drive frequency in transmitted waves.

  20. Implicit integration of plasticity models for granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahadi, A.; Krenk, Steen


    A stress integration algorithm for granular materials based on fully implicit integration with explicit updating is presented. In the implicit method the solution makes use of the gradient to the potential surface at the final stress state which is unknown. The final stress and hardening parameters...... of the integration algorithm are illustrated by simulating both drained and undrained triaxial tests on sand. The algorithm is developed in a standard format which can be implemented in several general purpose finite element codes. It has been implemented as an ABAQUS subroutine, and a traditional geotechnical...