Sample records for vibdv three-week-old specific

  1. Maternal Food Restriction during Pregnancy and Lactation Adversely Affect Hepatic Growth and Lipid Metabolism in Three-Week-Old Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Lee


    Full Text Available Maternal malnutrition influences the early development of foetal adaptive changes for survival. We explored the effects of maternal undernutrition during gestation and lactation on hepatic growth and function. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal or a food-restricted (FR diet during gestation and/or lactation. We performed analyses of covariance (adjusting for the liver weight/body weight ratio to compare hepatic growth and lipid metabolism among the offspring. Maternal FR during gestation triggered the development of wide spaces between hepatic cells and increased the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in three-week-old male offspring compared with controls (both p < 0.05. Offspring nursed by FR dams exhibited wider spaces between hepatic cells and a lower liver weight/body weight ratio than control offspring, and increased mTOR expression (p < 0.05. Interestingly, the significant decrease in expression of lipogenic-related genes was dependent on carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein, despite the increased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1 (p < 0.05. This study demonstrated increased expression of key metabolic regulators (mTOR and SREBP1, alterations in lipid metabolism, and deficits in hepatic growth in the offspring of FR-treated dams.

  2. Mineral retention in three-week-old piglets fed goat and cow milk infant formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutherfurd, S.M.; Darragh, A.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Prosser, C.G.; Lowry, D.


    Goat milk and cow milk are commonly used in infant formula preparations and, as such, understanding the nutritional characteristics of infant formulas made from these milks is important. In this study, a goat milk infant formula was compared with an adapted (whey-enhanced) cow milk infant formula

  3. Obstructive choledocholithiasis requiring intervention in a three week old neonate: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay E. Peters


    Full Text Available The discovery of cholelithiasis in neonates is often incidental, however obstructing common bile duct stones are rare. Herein we report the case of a 3 week old neonate who presented with obstructive choledocholithiasis. The patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics and ursodeoxycholic acid but did not improve. He was therefore taken to surgery for cholecystectomy and stone extraction. The operation was successful and his transaminases and bilirubin levels declined. Trials of conservative management can be attempted in asymptomatic infants with choledocholithiasis. However, failure of the stone to pass or ongoing signs of cholecystitis should be met with operative intervention to remove the obstruction.

  4. Specific Phobias (United States)

    ... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Specific phobias Treatment More information on specific phobias A specific ... psychotherapy. Return to top More information on Specific phobias Explore other publications and websites Phobias (Copyright © Mayo ...

  5. Specificity of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GoorhuisBrouwer, SM; WijnbergWilliams, BJ


    In children with specific language impairment (SLI) their problems are supposed to be specifically restricted to language. However, both on a theoretical basis as well as on a practical basis it is often difficult to make a sharp distinction between specific and nonspecific language disorders. In a

  6. How specific are specific phobias? (United States)

    Hofmann, S G; Lehman, C L; Barlow, D H


    To study the generality of fears among specific phobic individuals and controls, 31 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of specific phobia (natural environmental type: n = 13; blood-injection-injury type: n = 10; and situational type: n = 8) and 33 never mentally ill control subjects participated in an interview and questionnaire study. Based on subjects' fear ratings on the Fear Survey Schedule, subjects were classified as either positive or negative with regard to fear categories that correspond to the five diagnostic subtypes of specific phobia. Phobics showed overall a more generalized form of fear than controls. Furthermore, situational fears were more common among specific phobics who did not meet criteria for specific phobia, situational type, than among controls. These results add to the literature on the functional relationship among different fears and suggest that specific phobias are not as "specific" as is implied by the current diagnostic system.

  7. Specifying Specification. (United States)

    Paulo, Norbert


    This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.

  8. Specific Dyslexia. (United States)

    Naidoo, Sandhya

    The investigation reported in this volume attempts to clarify some issues relating to the existence, nature, and causes of specific dyslexia. Based on an extended study of 98 boys of at least average intelligence with severe reading and spelling problems, the report provides detailed data relating to their developmental and perinatal histories,…

  9. HRT Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M


    In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.

  10. Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

  11. Urine specific gravity test (United States)

    ... Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  12. Phobia - simple/specific (United States)

    Anxiety disorder - phobia ... Specific phobias are a type of anxiety disorder in which a person may feel extremely anxious or has a ... when exposed to the object of fear. Specific phobias are a common mental disorder. Common phobias include ...

  13. Experiences with effects specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Barlach, Anders


    workshops with effects specification with management and end-users and an agile development process including prototypes configured from the effects specifications. We describe the project and the effects-specification process through which effects were related to the system design and instruments...... for measuring effects were designed. The project is analyzed and lessons learned are discussed....

  14. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.


    A specification theory combines notions of specifications and implementations with a satisfaction relation, a refinement relation, and a set of operators supporting stepwise design. We develop a specification framework for real-time systems using Timed I/O Automata as the specification formalism......, with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar...

  15. How specific is specific self-efficacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine; Makransky, Guido; Vang, Maria Louison


    Self-efficacy is an important and much used construct in psychology and social science studies. The validity of the measurements used is not always sufficiently evaluated. The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the self-efficacy subscale of The Motivated...... academic learning self-efficacy (SAL-SE) and specific academic exam self-efficacy (SAE-SE), each scale being measurement invariant relative to age, Gender, admission method and specific course targeted. Furthermore, significant and relevant differences between the SAL-SE and SAE-SE scores dependent...... on university and admission method were found, and these results were replicated with two further samples. The SAL-SE and SAE-SE scales hold promise for more detailed studies of student self-efficacy....

  16. Screening for Specific Phobias (United States)

    ... and Conceptions Generalized Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder Agoraphobia Social Anxiety Disorder Specific Phobias Depression Symptoms Depression Treatment and Management Bipolar Disorder Stress Suicide and Prevention ...

  17. Comparing Formal Specification Languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Lopez de Mantaras, R.; Malec, J.; Treur, J.

    This paper presents a comparison between eight specification languages discussed during the Workshop on Formal Specification Techniques for Complex Reasoning Systems held in Vienna during the ECAI'92 conference. The languages as discussed here possess many important common characteristics, but also

  18. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Johansson, Michael

    project place- specific computing is explored through design oriented research. This article reports six pilot studies where design students have designed concepts for place-specific computing in Berlin (Germany), Cape Town (South Africa), Rome (Italy) and Malmö (Sweden). Background and arguments...... for place-specific computing as a genre of interaction design are described. A total number of 36 design concepts designed for 16 designated zones in the four cities are presented. An analysis of the design concepts is presented indicating potentials, possibilities and problems as directions for future...

  19. Other Specific Populations (United States)

    ... Misuse and Abuse Prevention of Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Recovery and Recovery Support School and Campus Health Specific Populations State and Local Government Partnerships Suicide Prevention Trauma and Violence Tribal Affairs Underage Drinking ...

  20. specific low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CET) and behavioural graded activity. (BGA) has not been fully established to inform the preference in clinical practice. Objective: To compare CET and BGA on the treat- ment outcome of chronic non-specific low back pain.

  1. Specific Genetic Disorders (United States)

    Skip to main content Specific Genetic Disorders Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding ...

  2. Construction and material specification (United States)


    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  3. [Specific phobias in women]. (United States)

    Reggers, J; Ansseau, M


    Specific phobias are common, leading to a high level of suffering and disability when subjects have to face the phobic stimulus. According to the epidemiologic survey of Liège, one fifth of the population exhibits some phobic disorder during lifetime. Women are more affected than men (2:1). This article reviews definitions, etiopathogeny and treatments of specific phobias, and tries to explain the reasons why the trouble is more frequent in women.

  4. Test Equipment Specifications Transistor


    Didiek Andiana Ramadan; Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI Drs. Linga Hermanto, MMSI


    In this paper, we design a test apparatus Transistor Specification. Specification is atype of transistor is a transistor and common emitter current reinforcement value ( βDC ). The system will provide information in the form of an LED display emits greenlight when the tested types of NPN transistor and the second LED emits blue lightwhen the tested types of PNP transistors.To test the value of β, whose value is proportional to the display used by the collectorcurrent Ic.

  5. Place-Specific Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn


    An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design based on the proliferation of wireless infrastructures, developments in digital media, and a ‘spatial turn’ in computing. In this article, place-specific computing is suggested as a genre of interaction design...... that addresses the shaping of interactions among people, place-specific resources and global socio-technical networks, mediated by digital technology, and influenced by the structuring conditions of place. The theoretical grounding for place-specific computing is located in the meeting between conceptions...... of place in human geography and recent research in interaction design focusing on embodied interaction. Central themes in this grounding revolve around place and its relation to embodiment and practice, as well as the social, cultural and material aspects conditioning the enactment of place. Selected...

  6. Lidar base specification (United States)

    Heidemann, Hans Karl


    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications. Prompted by a growing appreciation for the wide applicability and inherent value of lidar, a USGS-led consortium of Federal agencies commissioned a National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) study in 2010 to quantify the costs and benefits of a national lidar program. A 2012 NEEA report documented a substantial return on such an investment, defined five Quality Levels (QL) for elevation data, and recommended an 8-year collection cycle of Quality Level 2 (QL2) lidar data as the optimum balance of benefit and affordability. In response to the study, the USGS–NGP established the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) in 2013 as the interagency vehicle through which the NEEA recommendations could be realized. Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  7. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  8. Implementing Specification Freedoms. (United States)


    Sheila Coyazo for editing the final draft. Portions of this report appeared in a paper of the same name published in Science of Computer Programming [21...University of Edinburgh, Technical Report DAI 54, 1978. 21. Feather, M. S., and P. E. London, "Implementing specification freedoms," Science of Computer Programming 2

  9. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    imperative programs as well as externally by formulas in an interval logic, and even in a combination of the two styles.Verification among the different specification styles is illustrated by a number of experiments using a small distributed data base as a common example. Also, experiments are made...

  10. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter


    Currently, cities across the Northern European region are actively redeveloping their former industrial harbours. Indeed, harbours areas are essential in the long-term transition from industrial to information and experience societies; harbours are becoming sites for new businesses and residences...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  11. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  12. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.


    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  13. Testing abstract behavioral specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y.H. Wong; R. Bubel (Richard); F.S. de Boer (Frank); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M. Gómez-Zamalloa; R Haehnle; K. Meinke; M.A. Sindhu


    htmlabstractWe present a range of testing techniques for the Abstract Behavioral Specification (ABS) language and apply them to an industrial case study. ABS is a formal modeling language for highly variable, concurrent, component-based systems. The nature of these systems makes them susceptible to

  14. Sport-specific balance. (United States)

    Zemková, Erika


    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  15. Specificity in LSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas N. Huckin


    Full Text Available The defining feature of our field is the teaching and use of language for specific purposes. Not surprisingly, this has led to a debate over just how specific those purposes should be. The debate is longstanding, stirred initially by Hutchinson and Waters' classic 1980 article, 'ESP at the Crossroads' and reinvigorated most recently by Hyland (2002, who argues that the field has drifted away from specificity, becoming too generalized and diffuse. This paper lays out the arguments on both sides and then stakes out a position that draws from each of them. While agreeing with some of Hyland's criticisms of the 'wide-angle' position (for example, that generalized LSP can fail to appreciate the distinct linguistic and rhetorical features of specialized discourses, the paper criticizes his 'narrow-angle' position as well by pointing out that it can easily lead to a teacher-centered prescriptivism and to an overly rigid focus on certain forms and tasks at the expense of others. Furthermore, such an approach fails to prepare students for the unpredictable new forms of communication that await them in their professional careers. In general, a teachercentered approach, no matter how specific, is unlikely to have the pedagogical effectiveness of a student-centered approach, especially in heterogeneous classes. Specificity, it is argued, must ultimately be supplied by the student, not by the teacher, for it is the student more than the LSP teacher who is in the process of becoming an insider and whose interests are best served by becoming an astute analyst of the specialist discourse. The teacher's role should be that of facilitator, instructing students in analytic strategies, both rhetorical and textual. The paper concludes with a number of illustrations in how this can be done, drawing especially on work in genre study.

  16. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  17. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  18. Manpower Management Specification


    Spurná, Hana


    TITLE: Manpower Management Specification AUTHOR: Hana Spurná DEPARTMENT: The School Management Center SUPERVISOR: Mgr.Irena Lhotková, PhD. Abstract: (angl.) The final thesis deals with the issue of leadership management by means of selected examples from literature, documents, internet, study of opinions and questions of both international and Czech experts in the field of leadership management and finally by means of analysis of the term leadership management with focus on development and ta...


    Horn, F.L.; Binns, J.E.


    Apparatus for continuously and automatically measuring and computing the specific heat of a flowing solution is described. The invention provides for the continuous measurement of all the parameters required for the mathematical solution of this characteristic. The parameters are converted to logarithmic functions which are added and subtracted in accordance with the solution and a null-seeking servo reduces errors due to changing voltage drops to a minimum. Logarithmic potentiometers are utilized in a unique manner to accomplish these results.

  20. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William


    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  1. Task Specific Tremors. (United States)

    Friedman, Joseph H


    A patient reported bilateral hand tremors when writing but not with other tasks. These "task specific" tremors are considered subcategories of essential tremor. Primary writing tremor, in which the tremor occurs only with writing, is probably the most common. The important teaching point is that the "standard" tremor assessment, watching the patient holding a sustained posture and touching his finger to the examiner's and then back to the nose is not adequate. Patients should be tested doing the activity that causes them the most difficulty.

  2. [Pregnancy-specific dermatoses]. (United States)

    Soutou, B; Aractingi, S


    Pregnancy-specific dermatoses include polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and impetigo herpetiformis are not real pregnancy-specific dermatoses but they are important to know considering the fetal and maternal risks. Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy is a pruritic disease that usually occurs in primiparous women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Atopic eczema of pregnancy is still controversial as an entity covering conditions with eczematous lesions, prurigo, or folliculitis, and inconstantly associated with a personal history of atopy. Skin biopsy with direct immunofluorescence or search for serum anti-BPAg1 (180kD) NC16a antibodies is mandatory in pruritic dermatoses of pregnancy in order to rule out pemphigoid gestationis. Serum bile salts levels should be tested whenever a generalized pruritus develops during pregnancy in order to rule out intrahepatic cholestasis. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Disease specific protein corona (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.


    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  4. Cylinder Test Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Catanach; Larry Hill; Herbert Harry; Ernest Aragon; Don Murk


    The purpose of the cylinder testis two-fold: (1) to characterize the metal-pushing ability of an explosive relative to that of other explosives as evaluated by the E{sub 19} cylinder energy and the G{sub 19} Gurney energy and (2) to help establish the explosive product equation-of-state (historically, the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation). This specification details the material requirements and procedures necessary to assemble and fire a typical Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) cylinder test. Strict adherence to the cylinder. material properties, machining tolerances, material heat-treatment and etching processes, and high explosive machining tolerances is essential for test-to-test consistency and to maximize radial wall expansions. Assembly and setup of the cylinder test require precise attention to detail, especially when placing intricate pin wires on the cylinder wall. The cylinder test is typically fired outdoors and at ambient temperature.

  5. A specific hygiene hypothesis. (United States)

    Shunsheng Han, Cliff


    Allergic diseases have reached epidemic proportions in Western populations in the last several decades. The hygiene hypothesis proposed more than twenty years ago has helped us to understand the epidemic and has been verified with numerous studies. However, translational measures deduced from these studies to prevent allergic diseases have not proven effective. Recent studies on immigrants' allergies and any potential association between oral infection and allergic diseases prompt me to propose a specific hygiene hypothesis to explain how oral hygiene practices might have contributed to the uprising of hay fever, the most common allergic disease. The historic oral hygiene level in US is closely associated with the emerging allergic epidemic. Future studies to test the hypothesis are needed and verification of the hypothesis can potentially yield highly effective measures to prevent allergic diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Steam generator specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)


    This paper describes some of the recent trends in steam generator designs and how engineers should develop specifications for them. Purchasing a steam generator based on standard designs available in the form of tabular data or based on square feet of surface can lead to a poor selection as will be explained later. Several aspects such as emissions, steam parameters, special plant requirements can affect the design and configuration of steam generators. A custom designed steam generator is the best choice as it has several advantages over standard design. Also, to arrive at the optimum design one has to consider not only the initial costs but also the operating costs. Going by thumb rules or misleading and outdated surface area norms should be avoided.

  7. Linking specification to differentiation (United States)

    zur Lage, Petra I; Simpson, T Ian


    Much of developmental biology is concerned with the processes by which cells become committed to particular fates in a regulated fashion, whereas cell biology addresses, among other things, the variety of differentiated forms and functions that cells can acquire. One open question is how the regulators of the former process lead to attainment of the latter. “High-level” regulators of cell fate specification include the proneural factors, which drive cells to commit as precursors in the sensory nervous system. Recent research has concentrated on the gene expression events downstream of proneural factor function. Here we summarize this research and describe our own research that has provided clear links between a proneural factor, atonal and the cell biological program of ciliogenesis, which is a central aspect of sensory neuron differentiation. PMID:21558799

  8. Genotype Specification Language. (United States)

    Wilson, Erin H; Sagawa, Shiori; Weis, James W; Schubert, Max G; Bissell, Michael; Hawthorne, Brian; Reeves, Christopher D; Dean, Jed; Platt, Darren


    We describe here the Genotype Specification Language (GSL), a language that facilitates the rapid design of large and complex DNA constructs used to engineer genomes. The GSL compiler implements a high-level language based on traditional genetic notation, as well as a set of low-level DNA manipulation primitives. The language allows facile incorporation of parts from a library of cloned DNA constructs and from the "natural" library of parts in fully sequenced and annotated genomes. GSL was designed to engage genetic engineers in their native language while providing a framework for higher level abstract tooling. To this end we define four language levels, Level 0 (literal DNA sequence) through Level 3, with increasing abstraction of part selection and construction paths. GSL targets an intermediate language based on DNA slices that translates efficiently into a wide range of final output formats, such as FASTA and GenBank, and includes formats that specify instructions and materials such as oligonucleotide primers to allow the physical construction of the GSL designs by individual strain engineers or an automated DNA assembly core facility.

  9. ADANS database specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  10. Site-specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.E. Mohamed


    Full Text Available In order to quantify the near-surface seismic properties (P- and S-wave velocities, and the dynamic elastic properties with respect to the depth at a specific area (6th of October club, we conducted a non-invasive and low cost active seismic survey. The primary wave velocity is determined by conducting a P-wave shallow seismic refraction survey. The dispersive characteristics of Rayleigh type surface waves were utilized for imaging the shallow subsurface layers by estimating the 1D (depth and 2D (depth and surface location shear wave velocities. The reliability of the Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW depends on the accurate determination of phase velocities for horizontally traveling fundamental mode Rayleigh waves. Consequently, the elastic properties are evaluated empirically. The Vs30 (average shear wave velocity down to 30 m depth, which is obtained from the MASW technique, plays a critical role in evaluating the site response of the upper 30 m depth. The distribution of the obtained values of Vs30 through the studied area demonstrates site classes of C and D, according to the NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program and IBC (International Building Code standards.

  11. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Netikšienė


    Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  12. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification


    Benmohammed, M.; S. Merniz


    Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is t...

  13. The Order Specification Decoupling Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars


    This paper discusses the important issue in build-to-order production of separating innovative long term engineering processes from day-to-day variant specification processes, i.e. the processes creating specifications such as bill-of-materials, drawings, text descriptions, routings etc. The paper...... proposes and discusses the term Order Specification Decoupling Line (OSDL), which is to be used to explain the separation of industrial specifications into some information created prior to order acquisition and some information created during order acquisition and order fulfillment. For instance one may...... find some welding specifications or product descriptions which are standard for every order, while there may be other specifications, such as bill-of-materials and drawings, which are customized. Through a use of this concept it becomes possible to discuss different levels of OSDL and different variant...

  14. Age-specific serum prostate specific antigen ranges among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena P. Petrashchuk


    Full Text Available  The article is about a problem of the English language for specific (professional purposes. Language for specific purposes is being analysed in comparison with the General Language. Oral proficiency interview is being described as an effective tool of oral proficiency measurement. Regarding high reliability of the test results, the ways to validate the oral proficiency interview as a part of oral test in English for specific purposes aimed are proposed.

  16. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment]. (United States)

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja


    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  17. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.


    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  18. Standard technical specifications, Westinghouse Plants: Specifications. Volume 1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse plants. Revision 1 incorporates the cumulative changes to Revision 0, which was published in September 1992. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, specifically the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG), NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993 (58 FR 39132). Licensees are encouraged to upgrade their technical specifications consistent with those criteria and conforming, to the extent practical and consistent with the licensing basis for the facility, to Revision 1 to the improved STS. The Commission continues to place the highest priority on requests for complete conversions to the improved STS. Licensees adopting portions of the improved STS to existing technical specifications should adopt all related requirements, as applicable, to achieve a high degree of standardization and consistency.

  19. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Estefanía


    This book addresses patient-specific modeling. It integrates computational modeling, experimental procedures, imagine clinical segmentation and mesh generation with the finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine and bioengineering. Specific areas of interest include cardiovascular problems, ocular and muscular systems and soft tissue modeling. Patient-specific modeling has been the subject of serious research over the last seven years and interest in the area is continually growing and this area is expected to further develop in the near future.

  20. Cell-specific precursor processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Bundgaard, Jens R


    in different cells and tissues therefore requires control of biogenesis and secretion in order to avoid interference with the function of a specific hormonal peptide from a particular endocrine cell. Several mechanisms are involved in such control, one of them being cell-specific processing of prohormones....... The following pages present four examples of such cell-specific processing and the implications of the phenomenon for the use of peptide hormones as markers of diseases. Notably, sick cells - not least the neoplastic cells - often process prohormones in a manner different from that of the normal endocrine cells....

  1. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B


    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward

  2. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva


    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  3. Autonomic Fuselet Specification and Composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Peter H


    ... model for its business logic, and to perform workflow composition from a goal and specifications to executable model in a manner that enables feedback mechanisms that can assess and adapt the process...

  4. CCL22-specific T Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Hansen, Morten


    Tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages produce the chemokine CCL22, which attracts regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment, decreasing anticancer immunity. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting CCL22-expressing cells by activating specific T cells. We...... analyzed the CCL22 protein signal sequence, identifying a human leukocyte antigen A2- (HLA-A2-) restricted peptide epitope, which we then used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) to expand populations of CCL22-specific T cells in vitro. T cells recognizing an epitope derived from...... the signal-peptide of CCL22 will recognize CCL22-expressing cells even though CCL22 is secreted out of the cell. CCL22-specific T cells recognized and killed CCL22-expressing cancer cells. Furthermore, CCL22-specific T cells lysed acute monocytic leukemia cells in a CCL22 expression-dependent manner. Using...

  5. XML specifications DanRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now......XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now...

  6. A Domain Specific DSP Processor


    Tell, Eric


    This thesis describes the design of a domain specific DSP processor. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part gives some theoretical background, describes the different steps of the design process (both for DSP processors in general and for this project) and motivates the design decisions made for this processor. The second part is a nearly complete design specification. The intended use of the processor is as a platform for hardware acceleration units. Support for this has howe...

  7. mREST Interface Specification (United States)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John


    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  8. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information (United States)

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah


    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences.

  9. CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossakowski, Till; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Sannella, Donald


    CASL is an expressive specification language that has been designed to supersede many existing algebraic specification languages and provide a standard. CASL consists of several layers, including basic (unstructured) specifications, structured specifications and architectural specifications...

  10. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, J. (ed.)


    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  11. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.


    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  12. Age‑specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age‑specific serum PSA level among healthy Nigerian men is higher than the value previously described for whites and American blacks. 6. Nigerian Journal of Surgery. Jan‑Jun 2016 | Volume 22 | Issue 1. Figure 1: Histogram showing the distribution of the serum PSA in the population. METHODS. The serum PSA levels of ...

  13. Compiler writing system detail design specification. Volume 1: Language specification (United States)

    Arthur, W. J.


    Construction within the Meta language for both language and target machine specification is reported. The elements of the function language as a meaning and syntax are presented, and the structure of the target language is described which represents the target dependent object text representation of applications programs.

  14. Case Based Specifications – reusing specifications, programs and proofs


    Monahan, Rosemary; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid P.


    Many software verification tools use the design-by-contract approach to annotate programs with assertions so that tools, such as compilers, can generate the proof obligations required to verify that a program satisfies its specification. Theorem provers and SMT solvers are then used to, often automatically, discharge the proof obligations that have been generated.

  15. Are action-specific effects on perception action-specific?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; van der Kamp, J.


    Golf players who hit more often estimate the hole to be bigger and baseball players who bat more successfully show the same effect. This intriguing relationship between perception and performance is referred to as "action-specific perception". Empirical evidence for this phenomenon has been reported

  16. Action-specific effects underwater. (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K; Schuck, Donald M; Taylor, J Eric T


    Action-specific effects on perception are apparent in terrestrial environments. For example, targets that require more effort to walk, jump, or throw to look farther away than when the targets require less effort. Here, we examined whether action-specific effects would generalize to an underwater environment. Instead, perception might be geometrically precise, rather than action-specific, in an environment that is novel from an evolutionary perspective. We manipulated ease to swim by giving participants swimming flippers or taking them away. Those who estimated distance while wearing the flippers judged underwater targets to be closer than did participants who had taken them off. In addition, participants with better swimming ability judged the targets to be closer than did those with worse swimming ability. These results suggest perceived distance underwater is a function of the perceiver's ability to swim to the targets.

  17. Methylation-Specific PCR Unraveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks


    Full Text Available Methylation‐specific PCR (MSP is a simple, quick and cost‐effective method to analyze the DNA methylation status of virtually any group of CpG sites within a CpG island. The technique comprises two parts: (1 sodium bisulfite conversion of unmethylated cytosine's to uracil under conditions whereby methylated cytosines remains unchanged and (2 detection of the bisulfite induced sequence differences by PCR using specific primer sets for both unmethylated and methylated DNA. This review discusses the critical parameters of MSP and presents an overview of the available MSP variants and the (clinical applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Vasilica ROTARU


    Full Text Available In this paper we have analyzed the specific characteristics of the energy markets in general and the products transacted, in particular. Due to its unique features, electricity, one of the most important products for the economic development of a country, has brought challenges to the organization of a liberalized market to be transacted on. The paper also offers a view on the evolution of the supply and demand on the energy market in the last past years, along with a forecast analysis. The last part of the paper offers a presentation of the specific steps taken in the deregulation of the energy market process.

  19. High specific heat superconducting composite (United States)

    Steyert, Jr., William A.


    A composite superconductor formed from a high specific heat ceramic such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium-aluminum oxide and a conventional metal conductor such as copper or aluminum which are insolubly mixed together to provide adiabatic stability in a superconducting mode of operation. The addition of a few percent of insoluble gadolinium-aluminum oxide powder or gadolinium oxide powder to copper, increases the measured specific heat of the composite by one to two orders of magnitude below the K. level while maintaining the high thermal and electrical conductivity of the conventional metal conductor.

  20. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  1. LOTOS specification style for OSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, K.J.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Bolognesi, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Vissers, C.A.


    The architecture of OSI is used to derive guidelines for writing LOTOS specifications of distributed systems. In particular, the architectural concepts that underlie service and protocol designs are examined in detail. For each of these concepts a representation in LOTOS is given. Examples are

  2. 75 FR 25127 - Operations Specifications (United States)


    ... formal operators: The proposal would administrative process for a provide an administrative appeals... benefits to foreign air carriers and foreign persons by creating an administrative appeals process. The FAA... action is necessary to update the process for issuing operations specifications, and it will establish a...

  3. Manufacturer Usage Description Specification Implementation


    Srinivasan, Kaushik


    Manufacturer Usage Description Specification (MUDS) is aframework under RFC development that aims to automate Internet access control rules for IoT devices . These access controls prevent malicious IoT devices from attacking other devices and also protect the IoT devices from being attacked by other devices.We are implementing this framework and trying to improve its security.

  4. Is sexual victimization gender specific?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin


    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...

  5. Specificity of Cardiovascular Endurance Training. (United States)

    Riley, Calberth B., Jr.; Johnson, James H.

    This study determined the specificity of cardiovascular endurance training on a bicycle ergometer. Eighteen male subjects were tested on a heart rate response test of 150 beats per minute on a bicycle ergometer at the pace of 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) and at 160 beats per minute at 60 and 80 rpm, with the resistance equal to the force of…

  6. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  7. 76 FR 7482 - Operations Specifications (United States)


    ...: There is no formal operators: The final rule provides administrative process for a an administrative... administrative appeals process, the rule may result in some benefits to foreign air carriers and foreign persons... will apply for operations specifications. Furthermore, it creates an administrative appeals process...

  8. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications (United States)

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez


    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  9. Component-Specific Usability Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.P.; Haakma, R.; Bouwhuis, D.G.


    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis carried out on the results of six experiments to support the claim that component-specific usability measures are on average statistically more powerful than overall usability measures when comparing different versions of a part of a system. An

  10. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.


    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  11. Niche-specific cognitive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.


    Related species with different diets are predicted to rely on different cognitive strategies: those best suited for locating available and appropriate foods. Here we tested two predictions of the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis in bats, which suggests that predatory species should......, these would interfere with their subsequent learning of a spatial memory task. We trained free-flying Myotis nattereri to approach palatable and unpalatable insect prey suspended below polystyrene objects. Experimentally naive bats learned to associate different objects with palatable and unpalatable prey...... the niche-specific cognitive strategies hypothesis and suggest that for gleaning and clutter-resistant aerial hawking bats, learning to associate shape with food interferes with subsequent spatial memory learning....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Jernot


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the estimation of the specific connectivity of a stationary random set in IRd. It turns out that the "natural" estimator is only asymptotically unbiased. The example of a boolean model of hypercubes illustrates the amplitude of the bias produced when the measurement field is relatively small with respect to the range of the random set. For that reason unbiased estimators are desired. Such an estimator can be found in the literature in the case where the measurement field is a right parallelotope. In this paper, this estimator is extended to apply to measurement fields of various shapes, and to possess a smaller variance. Finally an example from quantitative metallography (specific connectivity of a population of sintered bronze particles is given.

  13. Technical specifications, Hanford production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.D. [comp.


    These technical specifications are applicable to the eight operating production reactor facilities, B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE, and KW. Covered are operating and performance restrictions and administrative procedures. Areas covered by the operating and performance restrictions are reactivity, reactor control and safety elements, power level, temperature and heat flux, reactor fuel loadings, reactor coolant systems, reactor confinement, test facilities, code compliance, and reactor scram set points. Administrative procedures include process control procedures, training programs, audits and inspections, and reports and records.

  14. Functional Specificity of Ras Isoforms (United States)

    Castellano, Esther; Santos, Eugenio


    H-ras, N-ras, and K-ras are canonical ras gene family members frequently activated by point mutation in human cancers and coding for 4 different, highly related protein isoforms (H-Ras, N-Ras, K-Ras4A, and K-Ras4B). Their expression is nearly ubiquitous and broadly conserved across eukaryotic species, although there are quantitative and qualitative differences of expression depending on the tissue and/or developmental stage under consideration. Extensive functional studies have determined during the last quarter century that these Ras gene products are critical components of signaling pathways that control eukaryotic cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. However, because of their homology and frequent coexpression in various cellular contexts, it remained unclear whether the different Ras proteins play specific or overlapping functional roles in physiological and pathological processes. Initially, their high degree of sequence homology and the observation that all Ras isoforms share common sets of downstream effectors and upstream activators suggested that they were mostly redundant functionally. In contrast, the notion of functional specificity for each of the different Ras isoforms is supported at present by an increasing body of experimental observations, including 1) the fact that different ras isoforms are preferentially mutated in specific types of tumors or developmental disorders; 2) the different transforming potential of transfected ras genes in different cell contexts; 3) the distinct sensitivities exhibited by the various Ras family members for modulation by different GAPs or GEFs; 4) the demonstration that different Ras isoforms follow distinct intracellular processing pathways and localize to different membrane microdomains or subcellular compartments; 5) the different phenotypes displayed by genetically modified animal strains for each of the 3 ras loci; and 6) the specific transcriptional networks controlled by each isoform in different

  15. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn De Munter


    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  16. ROS signalling - specificity is required

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian M; Sweetlove, Lee J


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not ha...... and regulate source-specific genes and in this way contribute to retrograde ROS signalling during oxidative stress. Likewise, unmodified peptides deriving from the breakdown of redundant proteins could help coordinate organellar and nuclear gene expression......Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production increases in plants under stress. ROS can damage cellular components, but they can also act in signal transduction to help the cell counteract the oxidative damage in the stressed compartment. H2O2 might induce a general stress response, but it does not have...... the required specificity to selectively regulate nuclear genes required for dealing with localized stress, e.g. in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we argue that peptides deriving from proteolytic breakdown of oxidatively damaged proteins have the requisite specificity to act as secondary ROS messengers...

  17. Stage-specific cancer incidence (United States)

    Chefo, Solomon; Tsodikov, Alex


    SUMMARY Early detection of prostate cancer using the prostate-specific antigen test led to a sharp spike in the incidence of the disease accompanied by an equally sharp improvement in patient prognoses as evaluated at the point of advanced diagnosis. Observed outcomes represent age at diagnosis and stage, a categorical prognostic variable combining the actual stage and the grade of tumor. The picture is summarized by the stage-specific cancer incidence that represents a joint survival-multinomial response regressed on factors affecting the unobserved history of the disease before diagnosis (mixture). Fitting the complex joint mixed model to large population data is a challenge. We develop a stable and structured MLE approach to the problem allowing for the estimates to be obtained iteratively. Factorization of the likelihood achieved by our method allows us to work with only a fraction of the model dimension at a time. The approach is based on generalized self-consistency and the quasi-EM algorithm used to handle the mixed multinomial part of the response through Poisson likelihood. The model provides a causal link between the screening policy in the population and the stage-specific incidence. PMID:19452568

  18. Mutational remodeling of enzyme specificity. (United States)

    Bone, R; Agard, D A


    With the advent of genetic engineering techniques has come the ability to modify proteins as desired. Given this stunning capability, the question remains what residues should be altered, and how should they be changed to achieve a particular specificity pattern. The goals of such modifications are likely to fall into either of two categories: probing the function of a protein or attempting to alter its properties. In either case, our understanding of the consequences of a mutation, as ascertained by our ability to predict the results, is currently quite limited. The problem is extraordinarily complex; our understanding of how to calculate the energetics involved is still incomplete, and we are just beginning to accumulate experimental data which may help guide us. On the positive side, theoretical methods are now being developed and refined that should prove useful in the drive to engineer enzyme specificity. What may be most important at this juncture is to expand the experimental database interrelating sequence, function, and structure. That is, there should be a concerted effort to combine functional analysis of mutant proteins with structural analysis. Only from this combined examination of the effects of mutations can sufficient data be accumulated to test and improve both qualitative and quantitative approaches or methods for remodeling enzyme specificity.

  19. 100 Areas water treatment specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greninger, A.B.


    This memorandum discussed review of the data from tests using alum in the treatment of pile process water, and using activated silica as a coagulant aid during period of low water temperature, which shows that this method should be substituted for the present method of treating pile process water in all 100 Areas. It was recommended that the water treatment procedures and specifications attached to this memorandum be initiated as standard practice in all 100 Areas as soon as it is possible to make the necessary equipment modifications and installations.

  20. Specific test to Canoe Polo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alacid Cárceles


    Full Text Available The creation of specific test or batteries of test are contributing to increase the knowledge of the sportsmen/women and to achieve the maximum sports performance. From the analysis of the characteristics of a sport like canoe polo, the aim of this paper is to propose a battery of test for canoe polo, as well as the method to carry out it. The battery of test is composed by the following test: throwing a ball of 3 kg; 15 m test; 5 x 10 m test; 20 x 20 m test; and finally driving in zigzag.

  1. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL


    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  2. Functional neuroimaging in specific phobia. (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Piccirilli, Massimo; Savoja, Valeria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Manfredi, Giovanni; Angeletti, Gloria; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo


    Specific phobias (SPs) are common, with lifetime prevalence estimates of 10%. Our current understanding of their pathophysiology owes much to neuroimaging studies, which enabled us to construct increasingly efficient models of the underlying neurocircuitry. We provide an updated, comprehensive review and analyze the relevant literature of functional neuroimaging studies in specific phobias. Findings are presented according to the functional neuroanatomy of patients with SPs. We performed a careful search of the major medical and psychological databases by crossing SP with each neuroimaging technique. Functional neuroimaging, mostly using symptom provocation paradigms, showed abnormal activations in brain areas involved in emotional perception and early amplification, mainly the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, and insula. The insula, thalamus and other limbic/paralimbic structures are particularly involved in SPs with prominent autonomic arousal. Emotional modulation is also impaired after exposure to phobic stimuli, with abnormal activations reported for the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and visual cortices. Other cortices and the cerebellum also appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. Functional neuroimaging identified neural substrates that differentiate SPs from other anxiety disorders and separate SP subtypes from one another; the results support current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic subtyping of SPs. Functional neuroimaging shows promise as a means of identifying treatment-response predictors. Improvement in these techniques may help in clarifying the neurocircuitry underlying SP, for both research and clinical-therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Are psychic disorders specifically human?]. (United States)

    Brüne, M


    The multifaceted question of whether psychiatric disorders are specific to human beings can not simply be answered "yes" or "no". Tackling the question can nevertheless be important because many symptoms characteristic of human psychiatric disorders can be found in behaviourally abnormal animals. From this perspective therefore the answer must be "no". Research into the environmental causes of such symptoms, for example in our closest extant relatives, the nonhuman primates, can potentially contribute to the prevention of human psychiatric disorders. Moreover, research into animal models of psychiatric disorders has made great progress in terms of both aetiology and (pharmaco-) therapeutic options. Even though the applicability of findings to human disorders is contested, it is hardly ever questioned. In any event, is there anything specific to humans that animal models can not express and that render studies of human experience and behaviour indispensible? The answer can only be "yes" because human experience and behaviour have evolved in a species-typical way. Accordingly, future multidisciplinary research should be thoroughly grounded in the natural sciences, preferably adopting a structure after Tinbergen's four "W" questions on ontogeny, mechanism, phylogeny, and adaptive value.

  4. Atom-specific surface magnetometry (United States)

    Sirotti, Fausto; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio


    A powerful atom-specific surface magnetometry can be based on efficient measurements of magnetic dichroism in l>~0 core level photoemission. The temperature dependence M(T) of the Fe(100) surface magnetization was obtained from the photoemission magnetic asymmetry of 3p core levels, providing the measure of the surface exchange coupling via the spin-wave stiffness and of the surface critical exponent. Beyond the magnetic order the photoemission dichroism allows us to derive the energy splitting of the magnetic sublevels of the photoexcited core hole. Fe 3p photoemission dichroism probes directly the magnetic moment changes of iron atoms at Fe(100) surfaces as a function of structural disorder or sulfur segregation. The appearance of dichroism in the 2p photoemission of segregated sulfur atoms in the c(2×2)S/Fe(100) superstructure measures the magnetic-moment transfer and shows the possibility of investigating surface magnetochemistry in a very direct way.

  5. Software requirements: definition and specification. (United States)

    Chevlin, D H; Jorgens, J


    The software requirements specification is the single most important document in the software development process. It provides the basis for development as well as for validation. The SRS needs to include adequate definition of all requirements without specifying implementation or project management issues. The SRS should be completed early in the development process. However, it is very likely that changes will occur during the development life cycle. This is not an excuse for approving and releasing the current version of the SRS. When changes occur, the SRS must be revised. In any case, the concept is to deal with the current, approved version of the SRS. Ultimately, the SRS should include all the information needed to proceed into the design phase of software development.

  6. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages. (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B


    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition.

  7. Task-specific style verification (United States)

    Pataki, Norbert; Cséri, Tamás; Szügyi, Zalán


    Programming antipatterns are commonly used patterns that make the code unnecessary complex and unmaintainable. However, beginner programmers such as students, often use them. Usage of antipatterns should be eliminated from source code. Many antipatterns can be detected at compilation-time with an appropriate parser tool. In this paper we argue for a new lint-like tool that does detect typical programming antipatterns, and it is extensible to task-specific verifications. This tool mainly developed to evaluate students' programs, however it can be used in industrial projects as well. Our approach based on pattern matching on abstract syntax tree provided by Clang parser. We present our description language that specifies the antipatterns.

  8. Collagenase specificity in chondrosarcoma metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Scully


    Full Text Available The treatment of some mesenchymal malignancies has made significant gains over the past few decades with the development of effective systemic therapies. In contrast, the treatment of chondrosarcoma has been limited to surgical resection, with the most significant prognostic indicators being surgical margins and histologic grade. We have reported that MMP-1/TIMP-1 gene expression serves to prognosticate for tumor recurrence in this group of patients. This led to the hypothesis that collagenase activity facilitates cell egression from the cartilaginous matrix. In the current study we examine the specificity of collagenase gene expression in archival human chondrosarcoma samples using semi-quantitative PCR. Messenger RNA was affinity extracted and subject to reverse transcription. The subsequent cDNA was amplified using novel primers and quantitated by densitometry. Ratios of gene expression were constructed and compared to disease-free survival. The data demonstrate that the significance of the MMP-1/TIMP-1 ratio as a predictor of recurrence is confirmed with a larger number of patients. Neutrophil collagenase or MMP-8 was observed in only 5 of 29 samples. Collagenase-3 or MMP-13 was observed in all samples but the level did not correlate with disease-free survival. Since the collagenases have similar activity for fibrillar collagens and cleave the peptide in the same location, post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms may account for the observed specificity. The determination of the MMP-1/TIMP-1 gene expression ratio not only serves to identify those patients at risk for recurrence but may also serve as a novel therapeutic avenue as an adjunct to surgical resection.

  9. Eternity Variables to Prove Simulation of Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.


    Simulations of specifications are introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. A specification implements another specification if and only if there is a simulation from the first one to

  10. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces (United States)

    Auernheimer, Brent


    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  11. The Specificity Principle in Acculturation Science. (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H


    The specificity principle in acculturation science asserts that specific setting conditions of specific people at specific times moderate specific domains in acculturation by specific processes. Our understanding of acculturation depends critically on what is studied where, in whom, how, and when. This article defines, explains, and illustrates the specificity principle in acculturation science. Research hypotheses about acculturation can be more adequately tested, inconsistencies and discrepancies in the acculturation literature can be satisfactorily resolved, acculturation interventions can be tailored to be more successful, and acculturation policies can be brought to new levels of effectiveness if the specificity principle that governs acculturation science is more widely recognized.

  12. Are specific emotions narrated differently? (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara


    Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.

  13. Atom-specific surface magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirotti, F.; Panaccione, G. [Laboratoire pour l`Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, MESR, F-91405 Orsay (France); Rossi, G. [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, Zuerich CH-8093 (Switzerland)


    A powerful atom-specific surface magnetometry can be based on efficient measurements of magnetic dichroism in {ital l}{gt}0 core level photoemission. The temperature dependence M({ital T}) of the Fe(100) surface magnetization was obtained from the photoemission magnetic asymmetry of 3{ital p} core levels, providing the measure of the surface exchange coupling via the spin-wave stiffness and of the surface critical exponent. Beyond the magnetic order {l_angle}M{r_angle} the photoemission dichroism allows us to derive the energy splitting of the magnetic sublevels of the photoexcited core hole. Fe 3{ital p} photoemission dichroism probes directly the magnetic moment changes of iron atoms at Fe(100) surfaces as a function of structural disorder or sulfur segregation. The appearance of dichroism in the 2{ital p} photoemission of segregated sulfur atoms in the {ital c}(2{times}2)S/Fe(100) superstructure measures the magnetic-moment transfer and shows the possibility of investigating surface magnetochemistry in a very direct way.

  14. Specificities of sustainable tourism planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso


    Full Text Available In the past two decades, companies have been mentioning achievement of sustainability in their activities as a target of companies, governments and non-profit organizations, although measuring the degree to which an organization conducts its activities in a sustainable manner, can be very difficult. Sustainable tourism development requires a process of planning and management that will unite the interests of various stakeholders in a sustainable and strategic way. It requires an understanding of the meaning of sustainable development and guiding values for promoting sustainable tourism. The paper points to the importance of cross-sector partnerships and the roles of different stakeholders in the planning of sustainable tourism projects. Special importance is given to the community of which a willingness to understand the impacts of tourism industry is expected, as well as various procedures of engagement in participatory planning, consensus building and conflict resolution among all stakeholders. The aim of this research is to find an optimal model of planning of sustainable tourism projects that would take into consideration the interests of all stakeholders and reflect the specificities imposed by the acceptance of the concept of sustainable development by all participants in the project.

  15. EMF recommendations specific for children? (United States)

    Pölzl, Christiane


    When discussing health risks for children due to electromagnetic fields it is crucial to translate scientific knowledge both into adequate protection and precautionary measures for the general public and, more particularly into specific recommendations for children. It is often aimed at influencing health-related attitudes and behaviour by means of information about health affecting behaviour, health risk factors, and health promoting possibilities. Children have to be treated differently from adults in addressing their ability and willingness to modify behaviour and their competence to comprehend cognitively the sense of behavioural recommendations. Research has shown that adults can be motivated to adjust their own behaviour in order to protect their children or to be role models for their children. Hence one way to modify children's behaviour is to address the parents and care persons. Generally education in the family, the social environment and in peer groups, nursery school and at school plays an important role in forming and influencing individual behaviour. The age of the target group has also to be taken into consideration. An important question is how to deal with scientific uncertainties when expressing EMF recommendations for children. Accentuating scientific uncertainties may under certain circumstances raise risk awareness. This can be an intended effect. But the expression of scientific uncertainties can also lead to unintended consequences in parent's behaviour or even senseless dealing with the respective EMF source. The paper points out relevant aspects of risk communication regarding EMF and children and suggests how recommendations for children might be designed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pushouts of Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nickl, Friederike


    This paper investigates the existence of pushouts in the category of order-sorted algebraic specifications and specification morphism. As a main result it is shown that the existence can be guarantied by imposing certain conditions on the specification morphisms. This result is important as the p......This paper investigates the existence of pushouts in the category of order-sorted algebraic specifications and specification morphism. As a main result it is shown that the existence can be guarantied by imposing certain conditions on the specification morphisms. This result is important...

  17. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  18. Equivalence of recursive specifications in process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Poorten (Alf); Y.S. Usenko (Yaroslav)


    textabstractWe define an equivalence relation on recursive specifications in process algebra that is model-independent and does not involve an explicit notion of solution. Then we extend this equivalence to the specification language $mu$CRL.

  19. Peptide binding specificity of the chaperone calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, N.; Duus, K.; Jorgensen, C.S.


    Calreticulin is a molecular chaperone with specificity for polypeptides and N-linked monoglucosylated glycans. In order to determine the specificity of polypeptide binding, the interaction of calreticulin with polypeptides was investigated using synthetic peptides of different length and composit...

  20. Mistletoes as parasites: Host specificity and speciation. (United States)

    Norton, D A; Carpenter, M A


    Recent research on parasite evolution has highlighted the importance of host specialization in speciation, either through host-switching or cospeciation. Many parasites show common patterns of host specificity, with higher host specificity where host abundance is high and reliable, phylogenetically conservative host specificity, and formation of races on or in different host species. Recent advances in our understanding of host specificity and speciation patterns in a variety of animal parasites provides valuable insights into the evolutionary biology of mistletoes.

  1. Optical Specifications And Tolerances For Large Optics (United States)

    Parks, Robert E.


    The term "large" has specific implications about types of optics and their uses. In this paper large optics are defined and figure, beauty, and blank characteristics are specified with tolerances for each. Because it is useless to discuss specifications for properties that cannot be measured, tests for each specification are described. The specification of a large optic takes far more thought and insight than is the case for small optics because of the high cost and demanding applications of large optics.

  2. Some Approaches for Integration of Specification Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth


    It is often useful to apply several specification techniques within the same software development project. This raises the question how specification techniques can be integrated. In this presentation we give three different examples of how this can be done. In the first example, we summarise how...... the wide-spectrum approach has been used in the RAISE Specification Language (RSL) to integrate algebraic and model-oriented, applicative and imperative, and sequential and concurrent specification...

  3. 37 CFR 1.125 - Substitute specification. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitute specification. 1... § 1.125 Substitute specification. (a) If the number or nature of the amendments or the legibility of... thereof, be rewritten. (b) Subject to § 1.312, a substitute specification, excluding the claims, may be...

  4. Genre-Specific Semantic Video Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Worring, M.


    In many applications, we find large video collections from different genres where the user is often only interested in one or two specific video genres. So, when users are querying the system with a specific semantic concept, they are likely aiming a genre specific instantiation of this concept.

  5. Task-specific dystonia : pathophysiology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadnicka, Anna; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Parees, Isabel; Meppelink, Anne; Butler, Katherine; Edwards, Mark

    Task-specific dystonia is a form of isolated focal dystonia with the peculiarity of being displayed only during performance of a specific skilled motor task. This distinctive feature makes task-specific dystonia a particularly mysterious and fascinating neurological condition. In this review, we

  6. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women (United States)

    Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea H.; Becker, Eni S.


    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results Women with specific phobia had a twofold increase in odds of developing any anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, and any somatoform disorder during 17 months, compared to women without specific phobia. Except for depression, these associations persisted after adjustment for all comorbid mental disorders. Conclusions Specific phobia thus appears to be a risk factor for a variety of problems. The result further underpins the necessity for early intervention for specific phobia to prevent later mental health problems. PMID:19888542

  7. Using Abduction to Evolve Inconsistent Requirements Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Nuseibeh


    Full Text Available Requirements specifications are often inconsistent. Inconsistencies may arise because multiple conflicting requirements are embodied in these specifications, or because the specifications themselves are in a transient stage of evolutionary development. In this paper we argue that such inconsistencies, rather than being undesirable, are actually useful drivers for changing the requirements specifications in which they arise. We present a formal technique to reason about inconsistency handling changes. Our technique is an adaptation of logical abduction - adapted to generate changes that address some specification inconsistencies, while leaving others. We represent our specifications in quasi-classical (QC logic - an adaptation of classical logic that allows continued reasoning in the presence of inconsistency. The paper develops a sound algorithm for automating our abductive reasoning technique and presents illustrative examples drawn from a library system case study.

  8. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth


    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent speci...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs. Finally, a case study illustrates specification and verification methods in RAISE.......This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  9. Improved material specifications for unsealed roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P


    Full Text Available of the specifications. This paper describes some of the recent developments regarding implementation of the specifications and a calibration of the specifications for use with the equiva- lent British Standard test methods. Geological materials The original... research used a factorial design with geo- logical material type, climate, traffic and road geo- metrics as the factors. The geological material factor made use of the engineering geological classification of materials developed by Weinert (1980...

  10. Treatment options for the specific phobias


    Jarnail Singh; Janardhan Singh


    Specific phobias are among the most common psychological problems both in men and women. For treatment of specific phobias, exposure-based therapy is the first choice followed by cognitive therapy, relaxation techniques and short-term pharmacotherapy. Long-term pharmacotherapy for specific phobias, is associated with adverse drug reactions and drug abuse, thus not a reasonable choice for long-term symptom control. Glucocorticoids and d-cycloserine (DCS) cause fear reduction when used in combi...

  11. Map Specifications and Exchange of Geographical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul


    Specifications for Technical Maps 1993 – 99 are described giving an overview of the specification structure including the object description of the latest version: TK99.The technical map specifications are related to the standards for topographical maps - especially the TOP10DK standard. Common o...... object definitions are essential for the standards. Technical as well as topographical map information is exchangeable through the Danish developed “Standard for Exchange of Digital Map Information”, known as the DSFL-format....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hadi Waryanto


    Full Text Available Sistem Informasi Sarana dan Prasarana (SINAPRA merupakan bagian dari beberapa sistem informasi yang dipakai oleh Univeristas Negeri Yogyakarta. SINAPRA merupakan salah satu sistem yang akan dikembangkan dalam Sistem Informasi Terpadu (SIPADU. Software Requirements Specification SINAPRA merupakan acuan teknis developer dalam mengembangkan sistem untuk tahap selanjutnya. Software Requirements Specification SINAPRA dikembangkan menggunakan model WSU-TC CptS 322  dengan berbasis sistem informasi terpadu UNY Kata Kunci : Software Requirements Specification, WSU-TC CptS 322, SINAPRA

  13. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth


    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs....

  14. A Real-Time Specification Patterns Language


    Abid, Nouha; Dal Zilio, Silvano; Le Botlan, Didier


    We propose a real-time extension to the patterns specification language of Dwyer et al. Our contributions are twofold. First, we provide a formal patterns specification language that is simple enough to ease the specification of requirements by non-experts and rich enough to express general temporal constraints commonly found in reactive systems, such as compliance to deadlines, bounds on the worst-case execution time, etc. For each pattern, we give a precise definition based on three differe...

  15. Embedded systems specification and design languages

    CERN Document Server

    Villar, Eugenio


    This book is the latest contribution to the Chip Design Languages series and it consists of selected papers presented at the Forum on Specifications and Design Languages (FDL'07), in September 2007. The book represents the state-of-the-art in research and practice, and it identifies new research directions. It highlights the role of specification and modelling languages, and presents practical experiences with specification and modelling languages.

  16. Site-specific ground response analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. GovindaRaju; G. V. Ramana; C. HanumanthaRao; T. G. Sitharam


    ... modifications to the underlying motion. We highlight the engineering importance of site-specific ground response analysis and difficulties faced in conducting a complete ground response analysis...

  17. Towards a theory of product design specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    The product design specification is an important element in a product development project because it defines the target to be met. One requirement on the product design specification is to articulate and communicate the aspects, which makes the product attractive seen from the users' viewpoint......, which express the customers¿ need and perception of value. In this paper we will scrutinize this assumption. We outline the roles and tasks of the product design specification in order to identify the requirements on a theory of product design specifications and we identify existing theory elements...

  18. Prevalence and specific psychosocial factors associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and specific psychosocial factors associated with substance use and psychiatric morbidity among patients with HIV infection at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto State, Nigeria.

  19. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)


    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  20. Sequence harmony: : detecting functional specificity from alignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, K Anton; Pirovano, Walter; Krab, Klaas; Heringa, Jaap

    Multiple sequence alignments are often used for the identification of key specificity-determining residues within protein families. We present a web server implementation of the Sequence Harmony (SH) method previously introduced. SH accurately detects subfamily specific positions from a multiple

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.


    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  2. Motorcycle Education Curriculum Specifications. Final Report. (United States)

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report contains specifications for a motorcycle safety education curriculum designed to reduce the incidence and severity of motorcycle accidents. The specifications prescribe objectives, prerequisites, methods, materials, equipment, facilities, and proficiency measures for six units of instruction: (1) basic riding skills, (2) street riding…

  3. PCR specific for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, L.; Jones, S.C.P.; Angen, Øystein


    , but the method has liminations, for example, cross-reactions between serotypes 3, 6, and 8. This study describes the development of a serotype 3-specific PCR, based on the capsule locus, which can be used in a multiplex format with the organism's specific gene apxIV. The PCR test was evaluated on 266 strains...

  4. Specific skills and social competence in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, M.T.; van Nieuwenhuizen, C.J.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Slooff, C.J.; Louwerens, J.W.


    Generalization of skills is a major problem in social skills training for schizophrenic patients. Assessment of skills is mostly not based on objective indices of specific skill deficits. The results of this study show that global competence of schizophrenics can be differentiated from specific


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Generalization of skills is a major problem in social skills training for schizophrenic patients. Assessment of skills is mostly not based on objective indices of specific skill deficits. The results of this study show that global competence of schizophrenics can be differentiated from specific

  6. Determining the specific electric resistance of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad' ko, V.Ia.


    Data are presented on perfecting the method of laboratory determination of the specific electric resistance of a rock formation. The average error in determining the specific electric resistance of the core at various locations is no more than two percent with low resistance values (2-5 ohms).

  7. Immunochemical characterization of platelet-specific alloantigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.; van Leeuwen, E. F.; Veenboer, G. J.; Tetteroo, P. A.; von dem Borne, A. E.


    Immunoprecipitation was performed with platelet-specific alloantisera (anti-Zwa, -Zwb, -Baka and antiserum Luc) and 125I-labelled platelets of a panel of donors typed for these platelet-specific alloantigens. This was done by sensitization of intact, radiolabelled platelets with the antisera,

  8. Specific and social phobias in ICD-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmelkamp, P.M.G.


    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current status of research with respect to specific phobias and social phobia as defined in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV, and to provide op- tions for their classification in the ICD-11. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV identify three main classes of phobias: specific

  9. Specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine wood (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin


    In the range of 333 K to 413 K, the specific heat of ovendry loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood was expressed by a linear function of temperature. No relationship was detected with specific gravity, growth rate, or distance from the pith; nor were differences found between earlywood and latewood.

  10. Specific vulnerability of substantia nigra compacta neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, M.P.; Giovanni, G.; Di Matteo, V.; Esposito, E.


    The specific loss of substantia nigra compacta (SNc) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been the main driving force in initiating research efforts to unravel the apparent SNc-specific vulnerability. Initially, metabolic constraints due to high dopamine turnover have been the main focus in the

  11. Location specific forecasting of maximum and minimum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Statistical bias correction; location specific forecast; DMO; Numerical Weather Prediction; maximum and minimum temperature forecast. Abstract. The output from Global Forecasting System (GFS) T574L64 operational at India Meteorological Department (IMD), New Delhi is used for obtaining location specific quantitative ...

  12. Graphical And Textual Notations In Formal Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bove, Rocco; Dipoppa, Giovanni; Groven, Arne-Kristian; Sivertsen, Terje


    The present report describes the current status of the co-operative project between ENEA and the OECD Halden Reactor Project on graphical and formal methods for software specification. The aim of this project is to contribute to a clarification of the relationship between graphical descriptions and formal specifications, and to provide guidelines for how they can be combined in order to utilize the strengths of' each approach. The overall aim of such a combination is to improve the formal basis of graphical descriptions and make formal specifications more generally comprehensible. The research reported includes the application of the IPTES technology on the APRM case example, an approach to the translation of Petri nets into algebraic specification, and the specification of real-time distributed systems using time-extended LOTOS. (author)

  13. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama


    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  14. T cells specific for lipid antigens. (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro


    Lipid-specific T cells are important participants in human immune responses. Recognition of lipid antigens contributes to host defense against pathogens that can cause debilitating diseases, including mycobacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. Lipid-specific T cells also play important roles in various autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis, and in tumor surveillance. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lipid-reactive T-cell functions will enable the development of novel therapies across a wide range of diseases. In recent years, our laboratory has investigated lipid antigen specificities, mechanisms of lipid antigen presentation, molecular interaction of lipid antigens with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, and the pathogenic and regulatory functions of lipid-specific T cells in a variety of disease settings. In this review, we present recent data that illustrate the critical role played by lipid-specific immune responses in host protection, with a particular focus on human studies.

  15. Validating Avionics Conceptual Architectures with Executable Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Fischer


    Full Text Available Current avionics systems specifications, developed after conceptual design, have a high degree of uncertainty. Since specifications are not sufficiently validated in the early development process and no executable specification exists at aircraft level, system designers cannot evaluate the impact of their design decisions at aircraft or aircraft application level. At the end of the development process of complex systems, e. g. aircraft, an average of about 65 per cent of all specifications have to be changed because they are incorrect, incomplete or too vaguely described. In this paper, a model-based design methodology together with a virtual test environment is described that makes complex high level system specifications executable and testable during the very early levels of system design. An aircraft communication system and its system context is developed to demonstrate the proposed early validation methodology. Executable specifications for early conceptual system architectures enable system designers to couple functions, architecture elements, resources and performance parameters, often called non-functional parameters. An integrated executable specification at Early Conceptual Architecture Level is developed and used to determine the impact of different system architecture decisions on system behavior and overall performance.

  16. The HIV-Specific Advance Directive (United States)

    Singer, Peter A; Thiel, Elaine C; Salit, Irving; Flanagan, William; Naylor, C. David


    OBJECTIVE To determine whether persons living with HIV find a disease-specific advance directive more acceptable than a generic directive. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial. SETTING HIV consumer organization and hospital-based HIV clinic. PARTICIPANTS Volunteer sample of persons with HIV. INTERVENTIONS The disease-specific HIV Living Will, the generic Centre for Bioethics Living Will, or both. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Of 101 participants who received both advance directives, 78 (77.2%) preferred the disease-specific HIV Living Will and 23 (22.8%) preferred the generic Centre for Bioethics Living Will (p < .001). Most participants who preferred the HIV Living Will did so because it was more specific or relevant to their situation. CONCLUSIONS Persons living with HIV prefer a disease-specific to a generic advance directive. They should be offered a disease-specific advance directive. Our findings should also encourage investigators to develop and evaluate disease-specific advance directives in other clinical settings. PMID:9436891

  17. Allele-specific gene expression in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Krivtsova


    Full Text Available Recent large-scale genomic studies established the occurrence of multiple DNA sequence variants in genomes of healthy individuals that differ from the reference sequence. Among these variants mostly represented by germline single nucleotide polymorphisms disease-related alleles are detected including alleles which are associated with monogenic disorders, and putative deleterious genetic variants. Apart from functional significance of a particular variant and of a gene harboring it, the penetrance of these allelic variants depends on their expression level and can be determined by preferential expression of a particular allele, or allele-specific expression. It is estimated that 20–30 % of genes present in the human genome display allelic bias in a tissue-specific manner. Allele-specific expression is defined by a range of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms including cis-regulatory polymorphisms, allele-specific binding of transcription factors, allele-specific DNA methylation and regulation through non-coding RNA.Although the data on the issue are scarce, allele-specific expression has been reported to be implicated in several hereditary disorders including benign and malignant tumors of the large intestine. Recent studies that estimate allele-specific expression incidence in tumors and identify wide range of genes displaying allelic imbalance indicate that allele-specific expression might play a significant role in carcinogenesis. Eventually, estimation of transcriptional rate of allelic variants which cause dysfunction of oncogenes and tumor suppressors may prove to be essential for rational choice of antitumor therapeutic strategy. In this review, we outline the main concepts and mechanisms of allele-specific expression and the data on allelic imbalance in tumors.

  18. Mining software specifications methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, David


    An emerging topic in software engineering and data mining, specification mining tackles software maintenance and reliability issues that cost economies billions of dollars each year. The first unified reference on the subject, Mining Software Specifications: Methodologies and Applications describes recent approaches for mining specifications of software systems. Experts in the field illustrate how to apply state-of-the-art data mining and machine learning techniques to address software engineering concerns. In the first set of chapters, the book introduces a number of studies on mining finite

  19. Dot probe performance in two specific phobias. (United States)

    Wenzel, A; Holt, C S


    The present study applied MacLeod, Mathews & Tata's (1986) dot probe attentional deployment methodology to individuals with specific phobias. Attentional deployment towards spider-related, blood-related, positive, negative, and neutral words was examined. Individuals with either spider phobia (N = 13) or blood/injury phobia (N = 14) and non-anxious controls (N = 14) completed the dot probe attentional deployment task. Individuals with specific phobias did not demonstrate an attentional bias towards phobia-related stimuli relevant to their particular fears. Semantic-based information processing paradigms may not be sufficiently potent to demonstrate biased performance towards threatening stimuli in individuals with mild specific phobias who are otherwise healthy.

  20. Autoethnographic Mother-Writing: Advocating Radical Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty Sotirin


    Full Text Available In considering the similarities between "momoirs"--popular memoirs written by mothers about motherhood experiences--and evocative autoethnographic mother-writing, I argue that differentiating these two forms of intimate observation and personal narrative requires a rethinking of autoethnographic practice. Specifically, I draw on the work of Gilles Deleuze to advocate for a radical specificity in autoethnographic writing. Thinking the autoethnographic narrative in terms of specificities and differences encourages us to think creatively about personal experiences and cultural relations beyond what is shared and communicable.

  1. Specifications in early conceptual design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    In early conceptual design the design team is working in an uncertain situation, where the understanding of a need is limited and not much is known about the solution space. In this situation the design team has to both analyse need and explore solution space. Thus, the team has to formulate design...... the structure and content of design specifications during early ideation activities, where initial design specifications are formulated and a product idea is synthesised. We have analysed specification documents of 19 teams of novice designers. Our analysis indicates that a productive product design...

  2. Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson


    Full Text Available Several factors contribute to scholastic backwardness in children. Causes include specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills, low intelligence, chronic illnesses, family dysfunction, social problems, attention deficits, and emotional disorders. Children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills experience significant impairment in the acquisition of reading, writing and mathematical skills. If not remedied at the earliest, these children are at risk of developing severe stress related disorders. There is high comorbidity of behaviour disorders and emotional disorders in these children. Hence early intensive remedial education is essential in the management of children with specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills.

  3. Therapeutic Gene Editing Safety and Specificity. (United States)

    Lux, Christopher T; Scharenberg, Andrew M


    Therapeutic gene editing is significant for medical advancement. Safety is intricately linked to the specificity of the editing tools used to cut at precise genomic targets. Improvements can be achieved by thoughtful design of nucleases and repair templates, analysis of off-target editing, and careful utilization of viral vectors. Advancements in DNA repair mechanisms and development of new generations of tools improve targeting of specific sequences while minimizing risks. It is important to plot a safe course for future clinical trials. This article reviews safety and specificity for therapeutic gene editing to spur dialogue and advancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Introduction to Test Specification in FQL (United States)

    Holzer, Andreas; Tautschnig, Michael; Schallhart, Christian; Veith, Helmut

    In a recent series of papers, we introduced a new framework for white-box testing which aims at a separation of concerns between test specifications and test generation engines. We believe that establishing a common language for test criteria will have similar benefits to testing as temporal logic had to model checking and SQL had to databases. The main challenge was to find a specification language which is expressive, simple, and precise. This paper gives an introduction to the test specification language FQL and its tool environment.

  5. Isothermal Gravitational Segregation: Algorithms and Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsson, Snorri; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    New algorithms for calculating the isothermal equilibrium state of reservoir fluids under the influence of gravity are presented. Two types of specifications are considered: the specification of pressure and composition at a reference depth; and the specification of the total overall content...... of the reservoir, along with the reservoir geometry. It is shown how both types of calculations can be performed in an efficient and robust manner using volume-based thermodynamics. The new method makes it possible to evaluate the influence of reservoir geometry and gravity segregation on the hydrocarbon reserves...

  6. PD-L1-specific T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten


    -specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune responses...

  7. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report III, Volume 2. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Report III, Volume 2 contains those specifications numbered K through Y, as follows: Specifications for Compressors (K); Specifications for Piping (L); Specifications for Structures (M); Specifications for Insulation (N); Specifications for Electrical (P); Specifications for Concrete (Q); Specifications for Civil (S); Specifications for Welding (W); Specifications for Painting (X); and Specifications for Special (Y). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available for the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors.

  8. Physician Fee Schedule Carrier Specific Files (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has condensed all 56 Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) carrier specific pricing files into one zip file. It is...

  9. UPC Language Specifications V1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UPC Consortium


    UPC is an explicitly parallel extension to the ISO C 99Standard. UPC follows the partitioned global address space programming model. This document is the formal specification for the UPC language syntax and semantics.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition

  11. Slicing AADL Specifications for Model Checking (United States)

    Odenbrett, Maximilian; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas


    To combat the state-space explosion problem in model checking larger systems, abstraction techniques can be employed. Here, methods that operate on the system specification before constructing its state space are preferable to those that try to minimize the resulting transition system as they generally reduce peak memory requirements. We sketch a slicing algorithm for system specifications written in (a variant of) the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). Given a specification and a property to be verified, it automatically removes those parts of the specification that are irrelevant for model checking the property, thus reducing the size of the corresponding transition system. The applicability and effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by analyzing the state-space reduction for an example, employing a translator from AADL to Promela, the input language of the SPIN model checker.

  12. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What ... the PSA test for prostate cancer screening? Detecting prostate cancer early may not reduce the chance of ...

  13. 2nd Generation ELT Performance Specification Development (United States)

    Stimson, Chad M.


    NASA Search And Rescue is supporting RTCA SC-229 with research and recommendations for performance specifications for the 2nd generation of emergency locator transmitters. Areas for improvement and methods for collecting data will be presented.

  14. Scintimammography (Breast Specific Gamma Imaging-BSGI) (United States)

    ... is scintimammography? Scintimammography, also known as nuclear medicine breast imaging, is an examination that may be used to ... as Breast Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) or Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI). Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  15. Host specificity in phylogenetic and geographic space. (United States)

    Poulin, Robert; Krasnov, Boris R; Mouillot, David


    The measurement of host specificity goes well beyond counting how many host species can successfully be used by a parasite. In particular, specificity can be assessed with respect to how closely related the host species are, or whether a parasite exploits the same or different hosts across its entire geographic range. Recent developments in the measurement of biodiversity offer a new set of analytical tools that can be used to quantify the many aspects of host specificity. We describe here the multifaceted nature of host specificity, summarize the indices available to measure its different facets one at a time or in combination, and discuss their implications for parasite evolution and disease epidemiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humprey, Monica


    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  17. Clustering context-specific gene regulatory networks. (United States)

    Ramesh, Archana; Trevino, Robert; VON Hoff, Daniel D; Kim, Seungchan


    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) learned from high throughput genomic data are often hard to visualize due to the large number of nodes and edges involved, rendering them difficult to appreciate. This becomes an important issue when modular structures are inherent in the inferred networks, such as in the recently proposed context-specific GRNs.(12) In this study, we investigate the application of graph clustering techniques to discern modularity in such highly complex graphs, focusing on context-specific GRNs. Identified modules are then associated with a subset of samples and the key pathways enriched in the module. Specifically, we study the use of Markov clustering and spectral clustering on cancer datasets to yield evidence on the possible association amongst different tumor types. Two sets of gene expression profiling data were analyzed to reveal context-specificity as well as modularity in genomic regulations.

  18. Analyzing Security-Enhanced Linux Policy Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archer, Myla


    NSA's Security-Enhanced (SE) Linux enhances Linux by providing a specification language for security policies and a Flask-like architecture with a security server for enforcing policies defined in the language...

  19. 30 CFR 22.7 - Specific requirements. (United States)


    ... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS PORTABLE METHANE DETECTORS § 22.7 Specific requirements. (a) Design. In the... mixtures, and by the general behavior of the equipment during the investigation. (b) Safety against...

  20. Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will prototype a specification editing and discovery tool (SPEEDY) for C/C++ that will assist software developers with modular formal verification tasks...

  1. Modal Specifications for Probabilistic Timed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Han


    Full Text Available Modal automata are a classic formal model for component-based systems that comes equipped with a rich specification theory supporting abstraction, refinement and compositional reasoning. In recent years, quantitative variants of modal automata were introduced for specifying and reasoning about component-based designs for embedded and mobile systems. These respectively generalize modal specification theories for timed and probabilistic systems. In this paper, we define a modal specification language for combined probabilistic timed systems, called abstract probabilistic timed automata, which generalizes existing formalisms. We introduce appropriate syntactic and semantic refinement notions and discuss consistency of our specification language, also with respect to time-divergence. We identify a subclass of our models for which we define the fundamental operations for abstraction, conjunction and parallel composition, and show several compositionality results.

  2. Performance evaluation and specification of trackless tack. (United States)


    Several trackless tack products have come to market in Texas; however, there are currently no specifications to : ensure the products have trackless properties and adequate bond strength. The objectives of this project were to : (1) evaluate the trac...

  3. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  4. Characterization of specific random amplified polymorphic (RAPD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAGATCCTTTGCCACACTGA-3') and Udtg4 (5'- CGTACCTGCCAA CATA ACAG - 3') were successfully designed and could be applied as a diagnostic marker in detection of catechin content production of gambier plant. Keywords: Gambier, RAPD, specific ...

  5. 16 CFR 1212.15 - Specifications. (United States)


    ...-resistant features. (2) A detailed description of all dimensions, force requirements, or other features that.... The product specification shall include the following information: (1) A complete description of the...-resistant features. ...

  6. Finding Specification Pages from the Web (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Torisawa, Kentaro

    This paper presents a method of finding a specification page on the Web for a given object (e.g., ``Ch. d'Yquem'') and its class label (e.g., ``wine''). A specification page for an object is a Web page which gives concise attribute-value information about the object (e.g., ``county''-``Sauternes'') in well formatted structures. A simple unsupervised method using layout and symbolic decoration cues was applied to a large number of the Web pages to acquire candidate attributes for each class (e.g., ``county'' for a class ``wine''). We then filter out irrelevant words from the putative attributes through an author-aware scoring function that we called site frequency. We used the acquired attributes to select a representative specification page for a given object from the Web pages retrieved by a normal search engine. Experimental results revealed that our system greatly outperformed the normal search engine in terms of this specification retrieval.

  7. Site specific agreement : Lake Mason Wetland (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The site-specific agreement describes purpose and scope of the partnership between Ducks Unlimited, Inc. and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to manage wetlands for...

  8. Metadata Extraction and Search Interfaces - Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demidova, Elena; Zenz, Gideon; Olmedilla, Daniel


    The Metadata Extraction and Search Interfaces offer a framework which allows for crawling specific knowledge resources and extraction their metadata. Furthermore, extracted metadata can be made persistently available for search using Metadata Extraction Listener and Search Interfaces of the

  9. Cdc42-mediated tubulogenesis controls cell specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Sand, Fredrik Wolfhagen; Greiner, Thomas Uwe


    Understanding how cells polarize and coordinate tubulogenesis during organ formation is a central question in biology. Tubulogenesis often coincides with cell-lineage specification during organ development. Hence, an elementary question is whether these two processes are independently controlled......, or whether proper cell specification depends on formation of tubes. To address these fundamental questions, we have studied the functional role of Cdc42 in pancreatic tubulogenesis. We present evidence that Cdc42 is essential for tube formation, specifically for initiating microlumen formation and later...... for maintaining apical cell polarity. Finally, we show that Cdc42 controls cell specification non-cell-autonomously by providing the correct microenvironment for proper control of cell-fate choices of multipotent progenitors. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data...

  10. Process Specification for Eddy Current Inspection (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay


    This process specification establishes the minimum requirements for eddy current inspection of flat surfaces, fastener holes, threaded fasteners and seamless and welded tubular products made from nonmagnetic alloys such as aluminum and stainless steel.

  11. Development of industrial variant specification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    With globalisation and increased competition industrial companies must be prepared to satisfy individual customer needs and still stay competitive with regards to lead times, quality, and prices. These factors require companies to be better prepared to handle specification activities during order...... and the challenge of understanding the variant specification tasks and the connections between variant specification, product development, sales, manufacturing, and information technology. The present thesis seeks to meet this challenge with a procedure, concepts and tools. This is done through an extensive answer...... acquisition and order fulfilment, i.e. the creation of drawings, bill-of-materials, routings, product descriptions, quote letters etc. The present thesis is rooted in the assumption that variant specification systems supporting the cross-functional processes of order acquisition and order fulfilment must...

  12. Educational Specifications for Special Education Facility. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Educational specifications for an educational facility are detailed in the report. Space requirements, daily schedules, and equipment (for the aurally, visually, intellectually, emotionally, learning, and motor disabled) are discussed and diagrams are provided. (CD)

  13. Modular specification of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inal, Recep


    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notatio...... is presented through a top-level specification of requirements for a simple air traffic monitoring system, and reasoning is illustrated by a refinement towards a design...

  14. The NOPAL Language Specification and User Manual. (United States)


    to validate UUT (Unit Under Test) design test point availability, and packaging. The system is referred to as NOPAL , an acronym for Non-procedural...Operational Performance Analysis Language. Non-proceduralness is the essential feature of the NOPAL language; in that test modules are specified...Specification, and ATE Specification. For each NOPAL statement, its EBNF definition, syntax diagram and examples are provided. (Author)

  15. Language translation, doman specific languages and ANTLR (United States)

    Craymer, Loring; Parr, Terence


    We will discuss the features of ANTLR that make it an attractive tool for rapid developement of domain specific language translators and present some practical examples of its use: extraction of information from the Cassini Command Language specification, the processing of structured binary data, and IVL--an English-like language for generating VRML scene graph, which is used in configuring the server.

  16. Steps in Modular Specifications for Concurrent Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Rocha Pinto, Pedro; Dinsdale-Young, Thomas; Gardner, Philippa


    The specification of a concurrent program module is a difficult problem. The specifications must be strong enough to enable reasoning about the intended clients without reference to the underlying module implementation. We survey a range of verification techniques for specifying concurrent modules......, in particular highlighting four key concepts: auxiliary state, interference abstraction, resource ownership and atomicity. We show how these concepts combine to provide powerful approaches to specifying concurrent modules....

  17. Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles


    Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

  18. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.


    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  19. Specification and estimation of heterogeneous risk preference


    Guan, Zhengfei; Wu, Feng


    In this paper we specify and estimate producers’ risk preference using farm data. We allow heterogeneous risk preference across individuals and propose a specification to model the heterogeneity. We base farmers’ decision making on a utility maximization framework and incorporate both market and production risk in farmers’ decision making. We do not assume any specific utility function or distribution of risk. The empirical application to farm level production data shows that risk preference ...

  20. Convolutional-Code-Specific CRC Code Design


    Lou, Chung-Yu; Daneshrad, Babak; Wesel, Richard D.


    Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) codes check if a codeword is correctly received. This paper presents an algorithm to design CRC codes that are optimized for the code-specific error behavior of a specified feedforward convolutional code. The algorithm utilizes two distinct approaches to computing undetected error probability of a CRC code used with a specific convolutional code. The first approach enumerates the error patterns of the convolutional code and tests if each of them is detectable. Th...

  1. Autobiographical memory specificity in dissociative identity disorder. (United States)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes


    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a specific event from memory located in time and place. Previous studies of overgeneral memory have not included patients with dissociative disorders. These patients are interesting to consider, as they are hypothesized to have the ability to selectively compartmentalize information linked to negative emotions. This study examined avoidance and overgeneral memory in patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID; n = 12). The patients completed the autobiographical memory test (AMT). Their performance was compared with control groups of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients (n = 26), healthy controls (n = 29), and DID simulators (n = 26). Specifically, we compared the performance of separate identity states in DID hypothesized to diverge in the use of avoidance as a coping strategy to deal with negative affect. No significant differences in memory specificity were found between the separate identities in DID. Irrespective of identity state, DID patients were characterized by a lack of memory specificity, which was similar to the lack of memory specificity found in PTSD patients. The converging results for DID and PTSD patients add empirical evidence for the role of overgeneral memory involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  2. Patient-Specific Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurement. (United States)

    Liu, Jiankun; Cheng, Hao-Min; Chen, Chen-Huan; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Moslehpour, Mohsen; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna


    Most automatic cuff blood pressure (BP) measurement devices are based on oscillometry. These devices estimate BP from the envelopes of the cuff pressure oscillations using fixed ratios. The values of the fixed ratios represent population averages, so the devices may only be accurate in subjects with normal BP levels. The objective was to develop and demonstrate the validity of a patient-specific oscillometric BP measurement method. The idea of the developed method was to represent the cuff pressure oscillation envelopes with a physiologic model, and then estimate the patient-specific parameters of the model, which includes BP levels, by optimally fitting it to the envelopes. The method was investigated against gold standard reference BP measurements from 57 patients with widely varying pulse pressures. A portion of the data was used to optimize the patient-specific method and a fixed-ratio method, while the remaining data were used to test these methods and a current office device. The patient-specific method yielded BP root-mean-square-errors ranging from 6.0 to 9.3 mmHg. On an average, these errors were nearly 40% lower than the errors of each existing method. The patient-specific method may improve automatic cuff BP measurement accuracy. A patient-specific oscillometric BP measurement method was proposed and shown to be more accurate than the conventional method and a current device.

  3. Standardized Technical Specifications for Westinghouse PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Standard Technical Specification (STS) has been structured for the broadest possible use on Westinghouse plants currently being reviewed for an Operating License. Accordingly, the document contains specifications applicable to plants (1) with either 3 or 4 loops and (2) with and without loop stop valves. In addition, four separate and discrete containment specification sections are provided for each of the following containment types: Atmospheric, Ice Condenser, Sub-Atmospheric, and Dual. Optional specifications are provided for those features and systems which may be included in individual plant designs but are not generic in their scope of application. Alternate specifications are provided in a limited number of cases to cover situations where alternate specification requirements are necessary on a generic basis because of design differences. The format of the STS addresses the categories required by 10 CFR 50 and consists of six sections covering the areas of: Definitions, Safety Limits and Limiting Safety System Settings, Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements, Design Features, and Administrative Controls.

  4. Specific discharge variability in a boreal landscape (United States)

    Lyon, Steve W.; Nathanson, Marcus; Spans, André; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Temnerud, Johan; Bishop, Kevin H.; Seibert, Jan


    Specific discharge variations within a mesoscale catchment were studied on the basis of three synoptic sampling campaigns. These were conducted during stable flow conditions within the Krycklan catchment study area in northern Sweden. During each campaign, about 80 individual locations were measured for discharge draining from catchment areas ranging between 0.12 and 67 km2. These discharge samplings allowed for the comparison between years within a given season (September 2005 versus September 2008) and between seasons within a given year (May 2008 versus September 2008) of specific discharge across this boreal landscape. There was considerable variability in specific discharge across this landscape. The ratio of the interquartile range (IQR) defined as the difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles of the specific discharges to the median of the specific discharges ranged from 37% to 43%. Factor analysis was used to explore potential relations between landscape characteristics and the specific discharge observed for 55 of the individual locations that were measured in all three synoptic sampling campaigns. Percentage wet area (i.e., wetlands, mires, and lakes) and elevation were found to be directly related to the specific discharge during the drier September 2008 sampling while potential annual evaporation was found to be inversely related. There was less of a relationship determined during the wetter post spring flood May 2008 sampling and the late summer rewetted September 2005 sampling. These results indicate the ability of forests to "dry out" parts of the catchment over the summer months while wetlands "keep wet" other parts. To demonstrate the biogeochemical implications of such spatiotemporal variations in specific discharge, we estimate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exports with available data for the May 2008 and September 2008 samplings using both the spatially variable observed specific discharges and the spatially constant catchment average

  5. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)


    A multi-institutional project known as D-TEC (short for “Domain- specific Technology for Exascale Computing”) set out to explore technologies to support the construction of Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) to map application programs to exascale architectures. DSLs employ automated code transformation to shift the burden of delivering portable performance from application programmers to compilers. Two chief properties contribute: DSLs permit expression at a high level of abstraction so that a programmer’s intent is clear to a compiler and DSL implementations encapsulate human domain-specific optimization knowledge so that a compiler can be smart enough to achieve good results on specific hardware. Domain specificity is what makes these properties possible in a programming language. If leveraging domain specificity is the key to keep exascale software tractable, a corollary is that many different DSLs will be needed to encompass the full range of exascale computing applications; moreover, a single application may well need to use several different DSLs in conjunction. As a result, developing a general toolkit for building domain-specific languages was a key goal for the D-TEC project. Different aspects of the D-TEC research portfolio were the focus of work at each of the partner institutions in the multi-institutional project. D-TEC research and development work at Rice University focused on on three principal topics: understanding how to automate the tuning of code for complex architectures, research and development of the Rosebud DSL engine, and compiler technology to support complex execution platforms. This report provides a summary of the research and development work on the D-TEC project at Rice University.

  6. Producing specific milks for speciality cheeses. (United States)

    Bertoni, G; Calamari, L; Maianti, M G


    Protected denomination of origin (PDO) cheeses have distinctive sensorial characteristics. They can be made only from raw milk possessing specific features, which is processed through the 'art' of the cheesemaker. In general, the distinctive sensorial traits of PDO cheese cannot be achieved under different environmental-production conditions for two main reasons: (1) some milk features are linked to specific animal production systems; (2) cheese ripening is affected by the interaction between milk (specific) and the traditional technology applied to the transformation process (non-specific). Also, the environment for a good ripening stage can be quite specific and not reproducible. With reference to milk, factors of typicality are species and/or breed, pedoclimatic conditions, animal management system and feeding. Other factors that influence cheese quality are milk treatments, milk processing and the ripening procedures. The technology applied to most cheeses currently known as PDO utilizes only raw milk, rennet and natural lactic acid bacteria, so that milk must be, at its origin, suitable for processing. The specific milk characteristics that ensure a high success rate for PDO cheeses are high protein content and good renneting properties, appropriate fat content with appropriate fatty acid composition and the presence of chemical flavours originating from local feeds. Moreover, an appropriate microflora is also of major importance. The factors that contribute to achieving milk suitable for transformation into PDO cheese are genetics, age, lactation stage, season and climate, general management and health conditions, milking and particularly feeding, which affect nutrient availability, endocrine response and health status, and also the presence of microbes and chemical substances which enrich or reduce the milk-cheese quality. Many of these factors are regulated by the Producer Associations. However, the secret of the success of PDO cheeses is the combination of

  7. Statistical considerations in setting product specifications. (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Tsong, Yi; Shen, Meiyu


    According to ICH Q6A (1999), a specification is defined as a list of tests, references to analytical procedures, and appropriate acceptance criteria, which are numerical limits, ranges, or other criteria for the tests described. For drug products, specifications usually consist of test methods and acceptance criteria for assay, impurities, pH, dissolution, moisture, and microbial limits, depending on the dosage forms. They are usually proposed by the manufacturers and subject to the regulatory approval for use. When the acceptance criteria in product specifications cannot be pre-defined based on prior knowledge, the conventional approach is to use data from a limited number of clinical batches during the clinical development phases. Often in time, such acceptance criterion is set as an interval bounded by the sample mean plus and minus two to four standard deviations. This interval may be revised with the accumulated data collected from released batches after drug approval. In this article, we describe and discuss the statistical issues of commonly used approaches in setting or revising specifications (usually tighten the limits), including reference interval, (Min, Max) method, tolerance interval, and confidence limit of percentiles. We also compare their performance in terms of the interval width and the intended coverage. Based on our study results and review experiences, we make some recommendations on how to select the appropriate statistical methods in setting product specifications to better ensure the product quality.

  8. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.


    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  9. Formal specification level concepts, methods, and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Soeken, Mathias


    This book introduces a new level of abstraction that closes the gap between the textual specification of embedded systems and the executable model at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Readers will be enabled to operate at this new, Formal Specification Level (FSL), using models which not only allow significant verification tasks in this early stage of the design flow, but also can be extracted semi-automatically from the textual specification in an interactive manner.  The authors explain how to use these verification tasks to check conceptual properties, e.g. whether requirements are in conflict, as well as dynamic behavior, in terms of execution traces. • Serves as a single-source reference to a new level of abstraction for embedded systems, known as the Formal Specification Level (FSL); • Provides a variety of use cases which can be adapted to readers’ specific design flows; • Includes a comprehensive illustration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, along with examples of how to i...

  10. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli


    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  11. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults (United States)

    Pachana, Nancy A; Woodward, Rana M; Byrne, Gerard JA


    Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults. PMID:18044196

  12. Emergency Medicine Gender-specific Education. (United States)

    Ashurst, John V; McGregor, Alyson J; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Quinn, Shawn M; Rosenau, Alex M; Goyke, Terrence E; Roth, Kevin R; Greenberg, Marna R


    The 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference has taken the first step in identifying gender-specific care as an area of importance to both emergency medicine (EM) and research. To improve patient care, we need to address educational gaps in this area concurrent with research gaps. In this article, the authors highlight the need for sex- and gender-specific education in EM and propose guidelines for medical student, resident, and faculty education. Specific examples of incorporating this content into grand rounds, simulation, bedside teaching, and journal club sessions are reviewed. Future challenges and strategies to fill the gaps in the current education model are also described. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  13. Testing Library Specifications by Verifying Conformance Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel; Hyland, Ralph


    Formal specifications of standard libraries are necessary when statically verifying software that uses those libraries. Library specifications must be both correct, accurately reflecting library behavior, and useful, describing library behavior in sufficient detail to allow static verification...... of client programs. Specication and verification researchers regularly face the question of whether the library specications we use are correct and useful, and we have collectively provided no good answers. Over the past few years we have created and refined a software engineering process, which we call...... the Formal CTD Process (FCTD), to address this problem. Although FCTD is primarily targeted toward those who write Java libraries (or specifications for existing Java libraries) using the Java Modeling Language (JML), its techniques are broadly applicable. The key to FCTD is its novel usage of library...

  14. Transactions in domain-specific information systems (United States)

    Zacek, Jaroslav


    Substantial number of the current information system (IS) implementations is based on transaction approach. In addition, most of the implementations are domain-specific (e.g. accounting IS, resource planning IS). Therefore, we have to have a generic transaction model to build and verify domain-specific IS. The paper proposes a new transaction model for domain-specific ontologies. This model is based on value oriented business process modelling technique. The transaction model is formalized by the Petri Net theory. First part of the paper presents common business processes and analyses related to business process modeling. Second part defines the transactional model delimited by REA enterprise ontology paradigm and introduces states of the generic transaction model. The generic model proposal is defined and visualized by the Petri Net modelling tool. Third part shows application of the generic transaction model. Last part of the paper concludes results and discusses a practical usability of the generic transaction model.

  15. [Sex-specific aspects of addiction]. (United States)

    Albayrak, O; Krug, S; Scherbaum, N


    Addictive diseases such as alcoholism, nicotine or opiate addiction show sex-specific characteristics. These apply to epidemiological data, the psychosocial conditions for the development of the addiction,the symptoms, possible consequences for pregnancy and breastfeeding, the course of the addiction, as well as its treatment. As a whole, men are more frequently substance-dependent than women. This is true for all types of addiction and for each individual substance - with the exception of benzodiazepines and analgesics to which women are equally or more frequently dependent. Moreover, women have a different consumption pattern from men. Epidemiological surveys on illegal drugs frequently do not present sex-specific data. There also is still a great need for research in regards to sex-specific therapeutic strategies.

  16. Specific Immunosuppression by Immunotoxins Containing Daunomycin (United States)

    Diener, E.; Diner, U. E.; Sinha, A.; Xie, S.; Vergidis, R.


    Daunomycin, when conjugated with a targeting antigen by an acid-sensitive spacer, remains inactive at the intravascular pH of 7 but becomes active after cleavage within the acidic lysosomal environment of the target cell. This observation made it possible to construct cytocidal compounds that caused antigen-specific suppression of murine lymphocyte function. When daunomycin was coupled to the hapten conjugate of ovalbumin by an acid-sensitive cis-aconityl group, it caused hapten-specific impairment of immunocompetence in murine B lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the response by T lymphocytes to concanavalin A in vitro was selectively eliminated by a conjugate between daunomycin plus the acid-sensitive spacer and a monoclonal antibody specific for T cells.

  17. Computational network design from functional specifications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi Han


    Connectivity and layout of underlying networks largely determine agent behavior and usage in many environments. For example, transportation networks determine the flow of traffic in a neighborhood, whereas building floorplans determine the flow of people in a workspace. Designing such networks from scratch is challenging as even local network changes can have large global effects. We investigate how to computationally create networks starting from only high-level functional specifications. Such specifications can be in the form of network density, travel time versus network length, traffic type, destination location, etc. We propose an integer programming-based approach that guarantees that the resultant networks are valid by fulfilling all the specified hard constraints and that they score favorably in terms of the objective function. We evaluate our algorithm in two different design settings, street layout and floorplans to demonstrate that diverse networks can emerge purely from high-level functional specifications.

  18. Forum on specification and Design Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Maehne, Torsten


    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the sixteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which was held in September 2013 in Paris, France. FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems. • Covers applications of formal methods for specification, verification and debug; • Includes embedded analog and mixed-signal system design; • Enables model-driven engineering for embedded systems design and development.

  19. CASL- The Common Algebraic Specification Language- Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne


    This Summary is the basis for the Design Proposal [LD97b] for CASL, the Common Algebraic Specification Language, prepared by the Language Design Task Group of CoFI, the Common Framework Initiative. It gives the abstract syntax, and informally describes its intended semantics. It is accompanied...... by the Rationale for CoFI [CoF97], the Rationale for the Proposed Design of CASL [LD97c], a draft of the Formal Semantics of CASL [Sem97c], and proposals for Concrete Syntax, with Examples of how CASL specifications might look [KB97][VBC97][Mos97a]. Version 0.97 of the CASL Design Proposal was submitted...... for approval to the sponsoring IFIP Working Group on Foundations of System Specification, WG 1.3. It received tentative approval, together with a referees' report recommending the reconsideration of some elements of the design [IFI97]; a response has already been made [LD97a]. The present version...

  20. Specific detection of proteins using Nanomechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Wright, V.A.; Guthy, C.


    Rapid, sensitive and inexpensive analysis of biological molecules is vital to many fundamental problems in molecular biology. Nanomechanical resonators are of great interest for such applications. The use of these devices for the analysis of protein mixtures would however require the immobilization...... of probes onto their surfaces in order to enable the specificity of the detection. Such nanoresonator-based specific detection of proteins is here reported using streptavidin as target system, and immobilized biotin as probe. Nanomechanical resonators resistant to stiction were first realized from silicon...... carbonitride using a novel fabrication method. Vapor-phase deposition of mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane was performed, and an added mass of 2.22 +/- 0.07 fg/mu m(2) was measured. This linker molecule was used to attach biotin onto the devices, enabling the specific detection of streptavidin. A mass of 3.6 fg...

  1. Mode specificity in unimolecular reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, B.A.


    Theoretical studies on mode specificity in unimolecular reaction dynamics are presented, based on essentially exact quantum mechanical methods, a semi-classical multichannel branching model, and classical trajectory methods. The principal aim is to discover the relevant factors governing whether a unimolecular system exhibits mode specificity in its individual state rate constants, i.e., whether quasi-degenerate metastable states decay with significantly different rates. Model studies of two nonlinearly coupled oscillators (one of which can dissociate) demonstrate the effects of various features of potential energy surfaces on the character of the rates (e.g., degeneracy of modes, reaction path curvature, frequency modulation, etc.). These results and those obtained for the Henon-Heiles potential energy surface indicate and apparent absence of correlation between the quasi-periodic/ergodic motion of classical mechanics and the mode specific/statistical behavior of the unimolecular rate constants.

  2. Kant's epigenesis: specificity and developmental constraints. (United States)

    Demarest, Boris


    In this paper, I argue that Kant adopted, throughout his career, a position that is much more akin to classical accounts of epigenesis, although he does reject the more radical forms of epigenesis proposed in his own time, and does make use of preformationist sounding terms. I argue that this is because Kant (1) thinks of what is pre-formed as a species, not an individual or a part of an individual; (2) has no qualm with the idea of a specific, teleological principle or force underlying generation, and conceives of germs and predispositions as specific constraints on such a principle or force. Neither of these conceptions of what is "preformed", I argue, is in strict opposition to classical epigenesis. I further suggest that Kant's lingering use of preformationist terminology is due to (1) his belief that this is required to account for the specificity of the specific generative force; (2) his resistance towards the unrestricted plasticity of the generative force in radical epigenesis, which violates species-fixism; and (3) his insistence on the internal, organic basis of developmental plasticity and variation within species. I conclude by suggesting that this terminological and interpretative peculiarity is partly due to a larger shift in the natural philosophical concerns surrounding the debate on epigenesis and preformation. Specifically, it is a sign that the original reasons for resisting epigenesis, namely its use of specific, teleological principles and its commitment to the natural production of biological structure, became less of a concern, whereas unrestricted plasticity and its undermining of fixism became a real issue, thereby also becoming the focal point of the debate.

  3. Disease specific productivity of american cancer hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery A Goldstein

    Full Text Available Research-oriented cancer hospitals in the United States treat and study patients with a range of diseases. Measures of disease specific research productivity, and comparison to overall productivity, are currently lacking.Different institutions are specialized in research of particular diseases.To report disease specific productivity of American cancer hospitals, and propose a summary measure.We conducted a retrospective observational survey of the 50 highest ranked cancer hospitals in the 2013 US News and World Report rankings. We performed an automated search of PubMed and for published reports and registrations of clinical trials (respectively addressing specific cancers between 2008 and 2013. We calculated the summed impact factor for the publications. We generated a summary measure of productivity based on the number of Phase II clinical trials registered and the impact factor of Phase II clinical trials published for each institution and disease pair. We generated rankings based on this summary measure.We identified 6076 registered trials and 6516 published trials with a combined impact factor of 44280.4, involving 32 different diseases over the 50 institutions. Using a summary measure based on registered and published clinical trails, we ranked institutions in specific diseases. As expected, different institutions were highly ranked in disease-specific productivity for different diseases. 43 institutions appeared in the top 10 ranks for at least 1 disease (vs 10 in the overall list, while 6 different institutions were ranked number 1 in at least 1 disease (vs 1 in the overall list.Research productivity varies considerably among the sample. Overall cancer productivity conceals great variation between diseases. Disease specific rankings identify sites of high academic productivity, which may be of interest to physicians, patients and researchers.

  4. [Development of domain specific search engines]. (United States)

    Takai, T; Tokunaga, M; Maeda, K; Kaminuma, T


    As cyber space exploding in a pace that nobody has ever imagined, it becomes very important to search cyber space efficiently and effectively. One solution to this problem is search engines. Already a lot of commercial search engines have been put on the market. However these search engines respond with such cumbersome results that domain specific experts can not tolerate. Using a dedicate hardware and a commercial software called OpenText, we have tried to develop several domain specific search engines. These engines are for our institute's Web contents, drugs, chemical safety, endocrine disruptors, and emergent response for chemical hazard. These engines have been on our Web site for testing.

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  6. Clojure for domain-specific languages

    CERN Document Server

    Kelker, Ryan D


    An example-oriented approach to develop custom domain-specific languages.If you've already developed a few Clojure applications and wish to expand your knowledge on Clojure or domain-specific languages in general, then this book is for you. If you're an absolute Clojure beginner, then you may only find the detailed examples of the core Clojure components of value. If you've developed DSLs in other languages, this Lisp and Java-based book might surprise you with the power of Clojure.

  7. Engineered waste-package-system design specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

  8. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B


    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...

  9. Domain Specific Language Support for Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) offer an attractive path to Exascale software since they provide expressive power through appropriate abstractions and enable domain-specific optimizations. But the advantages of a DSL compete with the difficulties of implementing a DSL, even for a narrowly defined domain. The DTEC project addresses how a variety of DSLs can be easily implemented to leverage existing compiler analysis and transformation capabilities within the ROSE open source compiler as part of a research program focusing on Exascale challenges. The OSU contributions to the DTEC project are in the area of code generation from high-level DSL descriptions, as well as verification of the automatically-generated code.

  10. Photomask specifications for high energy physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pindo, M


    Planar technologies used for radiation detector fabrication imply an extensive use of photomasks whose characteristics are critical in determining final detector performance. Compatibly with their manufacturing process, photomasks must satisfy the application-specific requirements dictated both by wafer manufacturers and detector final users. The design and realization of microstrip and pixel detectors, widely used in high energy physics experiments, ask for intensive scientific effort, advanced technology and important economical investments. Photomask specification definition is one of the fundamental steps to optimize detector fabrication processes and fulfill experimental requirements at the most appropriate cost.

  11. From UML Specification into FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bazydlo


    Full Text Available In the paper a method of using the Unified Modeling Language for specification of digital systems, especially logic controllers, is presented. The proposed method is based mainly on the UML state machine diagrams and uses Hierarchical Concurrent Finite State Machines (HCFSMs as a temporary model. The paper shows a way to transform the UML diagrams, expressed in XML language, to the form that is acceptable by reconfigurable FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The UML specification is used to generate an effective program in Hardware Description Languages (HDLs, especially Verilog.

  12. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration. (United States)

    Marlow, Florence


    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration.

  13. Standard specification for agencies performing nondestructive testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification covers minimum requirements for agencies performing nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 When using this specification to assess the capability of, or to accredit NDT agencies, Guide E 1359 shall be used as a basis for the survey. It can be supplemented as necessary with more detail in order to meet the auditor's specific needs. 1.3 This specification can be used as a basis to evaluate testing or inspection agencies, or both, and is intended for use for the qualifying or accrediting, or both, of testing or inspection agencies, public or private. 1.4 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combination thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to...

  14. Iron addition to soil specifically stabilized lignin (United States)

    Steven J. Hall; Whendee L. Silver; Vitaliy I. Timokhin; Kenneth E. Hammel


    The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical...

  15. 50 CFR 648.200 - Specifications. (United States)


    ... estimates of recruitment; virtual population analysis results and other estimates of stock size; sea... received from the Commission, and publish notification in the Federal Register proposing 3-year... published in the Federal Register. If the final specification amounts differ from those recommended by the...

  16. Autobiographical memory specificity in dissociative identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, Rafaële J. C.; Wessel, Ineke; Hermans, Dirk; van Minnen, Agnes

    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Open-flow respirometry was used to measure the magnitude of specific dynamic action (SDA), the maximum rate ... The different terms used for SDA ..... 19.90. Ingredients (g/kg diet). Casein. 600. 200. 200. 200. L-cystine. 9. 3. 3. 3. Corn starch. 112. 315. 72.8. 0. Maltodextrin. 35. 35. 100. 125. Sucrose. 147. 350.

  18. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy


    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  19. Location specific forecasting of maximum and minimum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    But, accurate forecasting of surface param- eters, particularly maximum and minimum tem- peratures over India, is a difficult task due to. Keywords. Statistical bias correction; location specific forecast; DMO; Numerical Weather Prediction; maximum and minimum temperature forecast. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 123, No. 5, July 2014 ...

  20. Specificity of cognitive distortions to antisocial behaviours. (United States)

    Barriga, Alvaro Q; Hawkins, Mark A; Camelia, Carl R T


    Cognitive distortions have long been posited to facilitate antisocial behaviours, but the specificity of such distortions has rarely been studied. To replicate findings of specificity between particular cognitions and externalizing or internalizing behaviours; to test for specificity of relationship between particular cognitions and different types of externalizing behaviours. The participants were 239 male youths aged 10 to 19 years (mean (M) = 14.22, standard deviation (SD) = 1.64) from schools on the island of Curaçao. Their cognitive distortions and problem behaviours were investigated through self-report. Results In controlled analyses, self-serving cognitive distortions were associated with externalizing behaviours whereas self-debasing cognitive distortions were associated with internalizing behaviours. Within the externalizing domain, self-serving distortions with overt behavioural referents were linked to aggressive behaviour while self-serving distortions with covert behavioural referents were linked to delinquent behaviour. Within the aggression domain, distortions with opposition-defiance referents related to verbal aggression whereas distortions with physical aggression referents related to physically aggressive behaviour. The degree of cognitive-behavioural specificity documented by this study was remarkable. The observed pattern suggests that cognitive interventions designed for externalizing versus internalizing behaviours should differ in therapeutic approach.

  1. Domain-specific knowledge as playful interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela


    the design process of Prime Slaughter, to move further in developing a general approach in developing games, aimed at effectively conveying knowledge from a specific domain. Hence this paper will discuss the past design process, as a concrete case, and then formulate a theoretical framework, based...

  2. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity (United States)

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.


    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  3. Specificity of haemostasis abnormalities for vascular phenotypes. (United States)

    Lowe, G D; Haverkate, F


    Atherothrombosis is a systemic disease, hence it is difficult to prove the specificity of haemostasis abnormality for any single vascular phenotype. Associations between haemostatic variables and any given phenotype, e.g. (vascular) dementia, should be interpreted with caution, given the overlaps of vascular disease phenotypes, risk factors, and haemostatic variables.

  4. Chromosome number9 specific repetitive DNA sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joste, N.E.; Cram, L.S.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Jones, M.; Longmire, J.; Robinson, T.; Moyzis, R.K.


    Human repetitive DNA libraries have been constructed and various recombinant DNA clones isolated that are likely candidates for chromosome specific sequences. The first clone tested (pHuR 98; plasmid human repeat 98) was biotinylated and hybridized to human chromosomes in situ. The hybridized recombinant probe was detected with fluoresceinated avidin, and chromosomes were counter-stained with either propidium iodide or distamycin-DAPI. Specific hybridization to chromosome band 9q1 was obtained. The localization was confirmed by hybridizing radiolabeled pHuR 98 DNA to human chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry. Various methods, including orthogonal field pulsed gel electrophoresis analysis indicate that 75 kilobase blocks of this sequence are interspersed with other repetitive DNA sequences in this chromosome band. This study is the first to report a human repetitive DNA sequence uniquely localized to a specific chromosome. This clone provides an easily detected and highly specific chromosomal marker for molecular cytogenetic analyses in numerous basic research and clinical studies.

  5. A Specification Language for Organisational Performance Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, V.N.; Treur, J.


    A specification language for performance indicators and their relations and requirements is presented and illustrated for a case study in logistics. The language can be used in different forms, varying from informal, semiformal, graphical to formal. A software environment has been developed that

  6. Nomogram for estimating specific consanguinity risks (United States)

    Cruz-Coke, Ricardo


    This paper describes a nomogram to estimate the chance of consanguinity for specific autosomal recessive diseases, taking into account the gene frequencies (q) of the recessive alleles and the coefficient of inbreeding (F) of the family of the proband. PMID:7108917

  7. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.


    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  8. 9 CFR 590.100 - Specific exemptions. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 590.100 Section 590.100 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG... employees; (f) (g) The processing in nonofficial plants, including but not limited to bakeries, restaurants...

  9. 7 CFR 57.100 - Specific exemptions. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 57.100 Section 57.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... processing in nonofficial plants, including but not limited to bakeries, restaurants, and other food...

  10. Isotope specific arbitrary material flow meter (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Post, John C.; Jones, Edwin


    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  11. Ultrahigh Specific Impulse Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne Charmeau; Brandon Cunningham; Samim Anghaie


    Research on nuclear thermal propulsion systems (NTP) have been in forefront of the space nuclear power and propulsion due to their design simplicity and their promise for providing very high thrust at reasonably high specific impulse. During NERVA-ROVER program in late 1950's till early 1970's, the United States developed and ground tested about 18 NTP systems without ever deploying them into space. The NERVA-ROVER program included development and testing of NTP systems with very high thrust (~250,000 lbf) and relatively high specific impulse (~850 s). High thrust to weight ratio in NTP systems is an indicator of high acceleration that could be achieved with these systems. The specific impulse in the lowest mass propellant, hydrogen, is a function of square root of absolute temperature in the NTP thrust chamber. Therefor optimizing design performance of NTP systems would require achieving the highest possible hydrogen temperature at reasonably high thrust to weight ratio. High hydrogen exit temperature produces high specific impulse that is a diret measure of propellant usage efficiency.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 1, 2016 ... FRENCH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: THE GATEWAY TO EMPLOYMENT. OPPORTUNITIES FOR NIGERIAN GRADUATES. Nwabueze Joe Obinaju. &. Chukwunonso Hyacinth Muotoo. Abstract. For some years now, accessing jobs after graduation has become a serious issue for Nigerian graduates, their ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Golubova


    Full Text Available Specificity in development of construction industry of the Republic of Belarus determines  character of competition on the construction market, forms a pricing, marketing and product policy of building companies. Construction represents itself as a highly developed complex where interaction of business entities is of rather complicated multilateral character.

  14. Site-specific codon bias in bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.M.; Smith, N.H. [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)


    Sequences of the gapA and ompA genes from 10 genera of enterobacteria have been analyzed. There is strong bias in codon usage, but different synonymous codons are preferred at different sites in the same gene. Site-specific preference for unfavored codons is not confined to the first 100 codons and is usually manifest between two codons utilizing the same tRNA. Statistical analyses, based on conclusions reached in an accompanying paper, show that the use of an unfavored codon at a given site in different genera is not due to common descent and must therefore be caused either by sequence-specific mutation or sequence-specific selection. Reasons are given for thinking that sequence-specific mutation cannot be responsible. We are unable to explain the preference between synonymous codons ending in C or T, but synonymous choice between A and G at third sites is largely explained by avoidance of AG-G (where the hyphen indicates the boundary between codons). We also observed that the preferred codon for proline in Enterobacter cloacea has changed from CCG to CCA. 27 refs., 7 tabs.

  15. Formal Specification of Real-Time Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groven, Arne-Kristian


    This report presents the results of a study on formal specification of real-time distributed control systems. Emphasis has been but on the ability to describe both system architecture, system functionality and timed system behaviour inside the same formal framework. A timed extension of the ISO standardized formal description language LOTOS (ISO 8807), called TE-LOTOS, has been used for describing the timed behaviour. The functionality can be described in LOTOS, which is a subset of the timed extension. A graphical notation has been used for describing system architecture, transformable to a subset of LOTOS. This methodology has been used to specify a test example, a steam-boiler control system. Modularization of the specification is an important issue. This is achieved by isolating the time-dependent aspect in one part of the specification, and the system functionality in another. This modularization facilitates the separation of general aspect from the more specific aspects. This is demonstrated by comparison with another type of control systems, the APRM system (HWR-397). (author)

  16. Preliminary Anthropometric Specification for Land Vehicles (United States)


    worked for QinetiQ and BAE Systems in the UK. He has provided Human Factors expertise to numerous procurement programs and currently leads the...specification be updated when sufficient data becomes available for the female Army population. 4. It is recommended that the intergenerational change in

  17. 14 CFR 23.1397 - Color specifications. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color specifications. 23.1397 Section 23.1397 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... greater than 0.002. (b) Aviation green— x is not greater than 0.440−0.320y; x is not greater than y−0.170...

  18. TAL effectors specificity stems from negative discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile I M Wicky

    Full Text Available Transcription Activator-Like (TAL effectors are DNA-binding proteins secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria that interfere with native cellular functions by binding to plant DNA promoters. The key element of their architecture is a domain of tandem-repeats with almost identical sequences. Most of the polymorphism is located at two consecutive amino acids termed Repeat Variable Diresidue (RVD. The discovery of a direct link between the RVD composition and the targeted nucleotide allowed the design of TAL-derived DNA-binding tools with programmable specificities that revolutionized the field of genome engineering. Despite structural data, the molecular origins of this specificity as well as the recognition mechanism have remained unclear. Molecular simulations of the recent crystal structures suggest that most of the protein-DNA binding energy originates from non-specific interactions between the DNA backbone and non-variable residues, while RVDs contributions are negligible. Based on dynamical and energetic considerations we postulate that, while the first RVD residue promotes helix breaks--allowing folding of TAL as a DNA-wrapping super-helix--the second provides specificity through a negative discrimination of matches. Furthermore, we propose a simple pharmacophore-like model for the rationalization of RVD-DNA interactions and the interpretation of experimental findings concerning shared affinities and binding efficiencies. The explanatory paradigm presented herein provides a better comprehension of this elegant architecture and we hope will allow for improved designs of TAL-derived biotechnological tools.

  19. 10 CFR 50.36 - Technical specifications. (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Applications for... operation of the facility. When a limiting condition for operation of a nuclear reactor is not met, the... technical specifications as specified in § 50.4. (6) Decommissioning. This paragraph applies only to nuclear...

  20. Social-psychological specific of individual adaptation


    Olga Ovsyanik


    There is analyzing of specific of social-psychological adaptation person by model of adaptation. Structure model of adaptation of women of our age group, which was named “adaptation complex” was made by theoretic analyzes of problem of adaptation adult.

  1. Early Language Milestones and Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    Rudolph, Johanna M.; Leonard, Laurence B.


    Delayed appearance of early language milestones can be one of the first signs of a developmental disorder. In this study, we investigated how well late acquisition of language milestones predicted an outcome of specific language impairment (SLI). The sample included 150 children (76 SLI), aged 4 to 7 years old. Milestone information was collected…

  2. Processing Binding Relations in Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard G.; Hestvik, Arild; Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Almodovar, Diana


    Purpose: This sentence processing experiment examined the abilities of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language development (TD) to establish relations between pronouns or reflexives and their antecedents in real time. Method: Twenty-two children with SLI and 24 age-matched children with TD (7;3-10;11…

  3. ESP: Teaching English for Specific Purposes. (United States)

    Schleppegrell, Mary; Bowman, Brenda

    This manual is a guide to the development of an instructional program in English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Step-by-step procedures for assessing student needs, setting achievable goals, designing a program, and selecting appropriate materials and activities for the classroom are outlined. The four language skills (listening, reading, speaking,…

  4. VSAT networks in India - Specifications and applications (United States)

    Ghose, A. K.


    This paper describes briefly the evolution of VSATs in India, including the existing and proposed networks and their applications. The salient specifications of the various types of VSATs are described. Some of the VSATs under advanced stages of development as well as those to be used in proposed networks due for implementation soon are also covered.

  5. Methodes for identification of specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Maleki Shahmahmood


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impiarment (SLI is one of the most prevalent developmental language disorders its diagnosis is a problematic issue among researchers and clinicians because of the heterogeneity of language profiles in the affected population and overlapping with other developmental language disorders. The aim of this study was to review the suggested diagnostic criteria for this disorder, controversies about these criteria and identify the most accurate diagnostic methods.Methods: Published article from 1980 to 2012 in bibliographic and publisher databases including Pubmed, Google scholar, Cochran library, Web of Science, ProQuest, Springer, Oxford, Science direct, Ovid, Iran Medex and Magiran about the diagnostic methods for discriminating preschoool children with specific language impiarment from normal developing children were reviewd in this article. These keywords were used for research: “specific language impairment”, “SLI”, “diagnosis or identification”, “standardized tests”, and “tests for language development”.Conclusion: The results of this study show inspite of agreement of researchers and clinicians about exclusionary criteria as one basic part of the diagnosis of specific language impiarment , there is no consensus about the other part, inclusionary criteria. Different studies used different inclusionary criteria which can be divided to categories of clincal judgment, discrepancy-based criteria, standardized testing, clinical markers and markers from spontaneous speech samples. Advantages, disadvantages, and clinical applicability of each diagnostic method are discussed in this article.

  6. Specific Language Impairment at Adolescence: Avoiding Complexity (United States)

    Tuller, Laurice; Henry, Celia; Sizaret, Eva; Barthez, Marie-Anne


    This study explores complex language in adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) with the aim of finding out how aspects of language characteristic of typical syntactic development after childhood fare and, in particular, whether there is evidence that individuals with SLI avoid using structures whose syntactic derivation involves…

  7. Metabolomics: Developing a chemical specific fingerprint (United States)

    Putnam, Joel G.


    We combine cell assays and metabolomics to create a powerful tool, which emerges to elevate the identification of new control chemicals. We combined the use of bigheaded carp fry cell line with metabolite profiling to describe the dose response to thiram. Thiram is a registered pesticide commonly used as a fungicide in the field or as a seed protectant and is known to be toxic to fish. Seven concentrations of thiram were used to dose bighead carp fry cells and silver carp fry cells. We identified 700 metabolomic markers and 41 of those markers exhibited a dose response to thiram in the bighead carp fry cells. We identified 1590 metabolomic markers with 205 of those markers exhibited a dose response to thiram in the silver carp fry cells. When the metabolites of both cell lines are compared using volcano plots, 16 metabolomic markers were identified as significant. A smaller subset of metabolites indicate that a thiram specific metabolomic fingerprint exists that is not species specific, but instead toxin specific. Application of toxin fingerprints (toxin specific but species independent metabolites) can be used to address the cause of ecological significant events, such as mass fish kills.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the purification of a lactose specific lectin from the saline extract of the seeds of Erythrina senegalensis and presents the data regarding its physicochemical properties. The lectin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 and affinity chromatography on ...

  9. Item-Specific Gender Differences in Confidence. (United States)

    Foote, Chandra J.

    Very little research has been performed which examines gender differences in confidence in highly specified situations. More generalized studies consistently suggest that women are less confident than men (i.e. Sadker and Sadker, 1994). The few studies of gender differences in item-specific conditions indicate that men tend to be more confident in…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2000 ... Background: In Nigeria, with a rising incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM), there are ... Objective: To assess the prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders and ..... Suleiman T.G., Ohaeri J.U., Lawal R.A., Haruna A.T. and Orija.

  11. Specificity of peptidases secreted by filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Hamin Neto, Youssef Ali Abou; da Rosa Garzon, Nathália Gonsales; Pedezzi, Rafael; Cabral, Hamilton


    Peptidases are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds, yielding proteins and peptides. Enzymes in this class also perform several other functions, regulating the activation or inactivation of target substrates via proteolysis. Owing to these functions, peptidases have been extensively used in industrial and biotechnological applications. Given their potential functions, it is important to optimize the use of these enzymes, which requires determination of the specificity of each peptidase. The peptidase specificity must be taken into account in choosing a peptidase to catalyze the available protein source within the desired application. The specificity of a peptidase defines the profile of enzyme-substrate interactions, and for this the catalytic site and the arrangement of the amino acid residues involved in peptide bond cleavage need to be known. The catalytic sites of peptidases may be composed of several subsites that interact with amino acid residues for proteolysis. Filamentous fungi produce peptidases with varying specificity, and here we provide a review of those reported to date and their potential applications.

  12. Generic Hypermedia Structure and Presentation Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rutledge (Lloyd); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); L. Hardman (Lynda); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick)


    textabstractWe consider the generic hypermedia structure of a document to be a means of representing the document that allows it to be processed into a wide variety of presentations. Representing a document in this manner requires additional specification and resources to render it into any

  13. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  14. Mycorrhizal diversity and specificity in Lecanorchis (Orchidaceae). (United States)

    Okayama, Masanari; Yamato, Masahide; Yagame, Takahiro; Iwase, Koji


    Lecanorchis is a nonphotosynthetic plant genus in Vanilloideae, Orchidaceae. Because of the distribution of many Lecanorchis taxa in various climate conditions, we hypothesized that mycorrhizal diversity and specificity are different among the different taxa of Lecanorchis. In the present study, identities of mycorrhizal fungi were examined for 90 individuals of 10 Lecanorchis taxa at 26 sites from Niigata to Okinawa Prefectures in Japan. Phylogenetic analyses of Lecanorchis taxa based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) divided the examined Lecanorchis taxa into three groups, groups A, B, and C. ITS rDNA sequences suggested that fungi associating with Lecanorchis were ectomycorrhiza-forming fungi in Lactarius, Russula, Atheliaceae, and Sebacina, with Lactarius and Russula dominant. Our results suggested some degree of mycorrhizal specialization among Lecanorchis taxa. Interestingly, the Lecanorchis group C had some specific relationships with Lactarius, whereas less specificity was found in the relationships with Russula. However, observed specificity results may be biased by geographic opportunity, and we suggest further research to assess whether Lecanorchis species are limited to the associations we observed.

  15. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella


    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  16. 40 CFR 86.1413 - Fuel specifications. (United States)


    ..., the Administrator may substitute Otto-cycle test fuel, as described in § 86.113-94(a)(1). (3) Test Option 3: Use Otto-cycle test fuel as specified in the table in § 86.113-94(a)(1). ... Trucks; Certification Short Test Procedures § 86.1413 Fuel specifications. (a) The test fuel to be used...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1513 - Fuel specifications. (United States)


    ... Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel specifications. 86.1513 Section... Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas...

  18. 46 CFR 171.120 - Specific applicability. (United States)


    ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Watertight Integrity Above the Margin Line § 171.120 Specific applicability. Each vessel that is 100 gross tons or more must comply with § 171.122 and each vessel under 100 gross tons must comply with § 171.124. ...

  19. Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Dissociative Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, R.J.C.; Wessel, I.; Hermans, D.; Minnen, A. van


    A lack of adequate access to autobiographical knowledge has been related to psychopathology. More specifically, patients suffering from depression or a history of trauma have been found to be characterized by overgeneral memory, in other words, they show a relative difficulty in retrieving a

  20. Group specific component in serum and otosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Vase, P; Thymann, M


    An earlier Swedish study suggested a positive association between otosclerosis and the group-specific component GC*1F marker. We investigated the distribution of GC subtypes in 101 Danish patients with otosclerosis who all had surgery performed in the county of Funen. Compared to 1674 Danish...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IgA +IgG and IgA + IgM + IgG combination gave 74.4% and 84.6% sensitivity respectively with the same level of specificity. Fifty-five percent of culture positive subjects were found to be MTB complex positive by routine biochemical tests, while 40% through PATHOZYME TB COMPLEX PLUS kit (high positive (H+)) values).

  2. Dancing in Place: Site-Specific Work (United States)

    Metal-Corbin, Josie


    In her lecture the 2012 NDA Scholar/Artist, Josie Metal-Corbin, chronicles four decades of working with artists, educators, librarians, and scientists. The kinetic language of dance and the visual impact of specific environments provide provocative opportunities for collaboration, wherein the site becomes the framework or map for the dance design.…

  3. 40 CFR 35.936-13 - Specifications. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specifications. 35.936-13 Section 35.936-13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... which are readily available through competitive procurement, or through standard or proven production...

  4. [Specific and nonspecific skin manifestations in leukemia]. (United States)

    Büchner, St A


    The cutaneous manifestations of leukemias are conventionally divided into nonspecific benign lesions and specific malignant lesions. Specific lesions (leukemia cutis) are localized or disseminated infiltrations of the skin by malignant leukemic cells which may involve all layers of the skin. The clinical appearance of leukemia cutis is variable and may range from papules and nodules to a generalized cutaneous eruption and erythroderma. The histopathologic examination of the skin lesion is essential for diagnosis of leukemia cutis. Specific skin lesions are usually observed in patients with an aggressive clinical course and are associated with a poor prognosis. However, an overall survival of patients with specific skin lesions of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is significantly better, as compared with other types of leukemia. Rarely, skin lesions containing leukemic cells are present before evidence of leukemia cutis can be detected in the peripheral blood and bone marrow (aleukemic leukaemia cutis). Leukemic skin lesions should be differentiated from numerous nonspecific lesions, which may be present in up to 80% of all patients with leukemia.

  5. Body-Specific Representations of Spatial Location (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Gardony, Aaron; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Taylor, Holly A.


    The body specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) posits that the way in which people interact with the world affects their mental representation of information. For instance, right- versus left-handedness affects the mental representation of affective valence, with right-handers categorically associating good with rightward areas and bad with…

  6. The Specification and Modeling of Computer Security (United States)


    Computer security models are specifications designed, among other things, to limit the damage caused by Trojan Horse programs such as computer... computer security modeling in general, the Bell and LaPadula model in particular, and the limitations of the model. Many of the issues raised are of

  7. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte (United States)

    Swoboda, C.A.


    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  8. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihis


    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.

  9. Standard of materials specifications, their implementation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard of materials specifications, their implementation and enforcement on building construction projects in Nigeria. ... helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the ...

  10. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael


    Canine coagulation factor VII (FVII) deficiency can be hereditary or acquired and may cause life threatening bleeding episodes if untreated. FVII procoagulant activity can be measured by FVII activity (FVII:C), but assays for measurement of canine specific FVII antigen (FVII:Ag) have not been...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Fabrychna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the author’s interpretation of the process of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teacher of English in the Master’s program. The goal of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation development is to determine the logical sequence of educational activities of the teacher as the organizer of the educational process and students as its members. English and Ukrainian texts on methods of foreign languages and cultures teaching are defined as the object of study. Learning activities aimed at the development of student teachers of English profession specific competence in bilateral translation and Translation Proficiency Language Portfolio for Student Teachers of English are suggested as teaching tools. The realization of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teachers of English in the Master’s program is suggested within the module topics of the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language»: Globalization; Localization; Education; Work; The role of new communication technologies in personal and professional development. We believe that the amount of time needed for efficient functioning of the model is 48 academic hours, which was determined by calculating the total number of academic hours allotted for the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language» in Ukrainian universities. Peculiarities of the model realization as well as learning goals and content of class activities and home self-study work of students are outlined.

  12. Specification and Configuration of Customized Complex Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Shafahi, M.


    This paper addresses the design of an information system for specification of complex configured products, such as the solar power plants or large intelligent buildings, which by nature are designed, constructed, installed, operated, and maintained through virtual consortium of enterprises. In other

  13. Prospects for site specific weed management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Rasmussen, Jesper; Pedersen, Søren Marcus


    Research on Site Specific Weed Management (SSWM) started in the late 80's. Since that moment, considerable research has been conducted on different aspects of SSWM, from fundamental studies on the spatial ecology of weeds to the applied development and testing of new technologies for weed detection...

  14. 29 CFR 1956.10 - Specific criteria. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific criteria. 1956.10 Section 1956.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) STATE PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  15. A specific attentional bias in suicide attempters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Strohbach, D.; Rinck, M.


    Selective attention in patients after an attempted suicide was investigated to find out whether a specific attentional bias for suicide-related materials exists and to clarify the possible role of emotions in the bias. Thirty-one patients who had previously attempted to commit suicide and 31 control

  16. Are videogame training gains specific or general?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Oei


    Full Text Available Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames. Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the action videogames because the action videogames and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-action videogames to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in action videogames, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking, rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision. In non-action videogames, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g, Tetris. In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning. Thus, the common demands hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in action videogames, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  17. URPD: a specific product primer design tool. (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Yeh; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Hong


    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. URPD (yoUR Primer Design), a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq), UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA) and genetic algorithm (GA) primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at

  18. URPD: a specific product primer design tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Li-Yeh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. Findings URPD (yoUR Primer Design, a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq, UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA and genetic algorithm (GA primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. Conclusions URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at

  19. Hand Specific Representations in Language Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMoody-Triantis


    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition argue that language comprehension involves sensory-motor re-enactments of the actions described. However, the degree of specificity of these re-enactments as well as the relationship between action and language remains a matter of debate. Here we investigate these issues by examining how hand-specific information (left or right hand is recruited in language comprehension and action execution. An fMRI study tested right-handed participants in two separate tasks that were designed to be as similar as possible to increase sensitivity of the comparison across task: an action execution go/no-go task where participants performed right or left hand actions, and a language task where participants read sentences describing the same left or right handed actions as in the execution task. We found that language-induced activity did not match the hand-specific patterns of activity found for action execution in primary somatosensory and motor cortex, but it overlapped with pre-motor and parietal regions associated with action planning. Within these pre-motor regions, both right hand actions and sentences elicited stronger activity than left hand actions and sentences - a dominant hand effect -. Importantly, both dorsal and ventral sections of the left pre-central gyrus were recruited by both tasks, suggesting different action features being recruited. These results suggest that (a language comprehension elicits motor representations that are hand-specific and akin to multimodal action plans, rather than full action re-enactments; and (b language comprehension and action execution share schematic hand-specific representations that are richer for the dominant hand, and thus linked to previous motor experience.

  20. Are videogame training gains specific or general? (United States)

    Oei, Adam C; Patterson, Michael D


    Many recent studies using healthy adults document enhancements in perception and cognition from playing commercial action videogames (AVGs). Playing action games (e.g., Call of Duty, Medal of Honor) is associated with improved bottom-up lower-level information processing skills like visual-perceptual and attentional processes. One proposal states a general improvement in the ability to interpret and gather statistical information to predict future actions which then leads to better performance across different perceptual/attentional tasks. Another proposal claims all the tasks are separately trained in the AVGs because the AVGs and laboratory tasks contain similar demands. We review studies of action and non-AVGs to show support for the latter proposal. To explain transfer in AVGs, we argue that the perceptual and attention tasks share common demands with the trained videogames (e.g., multiple object tracking (MOT), rapid attentional switches, and peripheral vision). In non-AVGs, several studies also demonstrate specific, limited transfer. One instance of specific transfer is the specific enhancement to mental rotation after training in games with a spatial emphasis (e.g., Tetris). In contrast, the evidence for transfer is equivocal where the game and task do not share common demands (e.g., executive functioning). Thus, the "common demands" hypothesis of transfer not only characterizes transfer effects in AVGs, but also non-action games. Furthermore, such a theory provides specific predictions, which can help in the selection of games to train human cognition as well as in the design of videogames purposed for human cognitive and perceptual enhancement. Finally this hypothesis is consistent with the cognitive training literature where most post-training gains are for tasks similar to the training rather than general, non-specific improvements.

  1. Hepatocyte specific expression of human cloned genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, R.


    A large number of proteins are specifically synthesized in the hepatocyte. Only the adult liver expresses the complete repertoire of functions which are required at various stages during development. There is therefore a complex series of regulatory mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of the differentiated state and for the developmental and physiological variations in the pattern of gene expression. Human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B display a pattern of gene expression similar to adult and fetal liver, respectively; in contrast, cultured fibroblasts or HeLa cells do not express most of the liver specific genes. They have used these cell lines for transfection experiments with cloned human liver specific genes. DNA segments coding for alpha1-antitrypsin and retinol binding protein (two proteins synthesized both in fetal and adult liver) are expressed in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B, but not in HeLa cells or fibroblasts. A DNA segment coding for haptoglobin (a protein synthesized only after birth) is only expressed in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 but not in Hep3B nor in non hepatic cell lines. The information for tissue specific expression is located in the 5' flanking region of all three genes. In vivo competition experiments show that these DNA segments bind to a common, apparently limiting, transacting factor. Conventional techniques (Bal deletions, site directed mutagenesis, etc.) have been used to precisely identify the DNA sequences responsible for these effects. The emerging picture is complex: they have identified multiple, separate transcriptional signals, essential for maximal promoter activation and tissue specific expression. Some of these signals show a negative effect on transcription in fibroblast cell lines.

  2. Digital PET compliance to EARL accreditation specifications. (United States)

    Koopman, Daniëlle; Groot Koerkamp, Maureen; Jager, Pieter L; Arkies, Hester; Knollema, Siert; Slump, Cornelis H; Sanches, Pedro G; van Dalen, Jorn A


    Our aim was to evaluate if a recently introduced TOF PET system with digital photon counting technology (Philips Healthcare), potentially providing an improved image quality over analogue systems, can fulfil EANM research Ltd (EARL) accreditation specifications for tumour imaging with FDG-PET/CT. We have performed a phantom study on a digital TOF PET system using a NEMA NU2-2001 image quality phantom with six fillable spheres. Phantom preparation and PET/CT acquisition were performed according to the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines. We made list-mode ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) TOF PET reconstructions, with default settings, three voxel sizes (4 × 4 × 4 mm(3), 2 × 2 × 2 mm(3) and 1 × 1 × 1 mm(3)) and with/without point spread function (PSF) modelling. On each PET dataset, mean and maximum activity concentration recovery coefficients (RCmean and RCmax) were calculated for all phantom spheres and compared to EARL accreditation specifications. The RCs of the 4 × 4 × 4 mm(3) voxel dataset without PSF modelling proved closest to EARL specifications. Next, we added a Gaussian post-smoothing filter with varying kernel widths of 1-7 mm. EARL specifications were fulfilled when using kernel widths of 2 to 4 mm. TOF PET using digital photon counting technology fulfils EARL accreditation specifications for FDG-PET/CT tumour imaging when using an OSEM reconstruction with 4 × 4 × 4 mm(3) voxels, no PSF modelling and including a Gaussian post-smoothing filter of 2 to 4 mm.



    Hazir Salihu; Dardan Dehari


    On the basis of the number of 62 entities aged 15-16 years, male gender, address space is composed of the locomotive and the space of ten tests. Factorial procedures are addressed in all basic and specific locomotives, together as results have gained 3 dimensions latency: - Factor of specific speed and accuracy; - Factor complex locomotive specific typical for game and basketball; - Factor of speed and explosive force to the upper extremity. Such a mix of factors, may be justi...

  4. Nanoparticles for Site Specific Genome Editing (United States)

    McNeer, Nicole Ali

    Triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) can be used to coordinate the recombination of short 50-60 by "donor DNA" fragments into genomic DNA, resulting in site-specific correction of genetic mutations or the introduction of advantageous genetic modifications. Site-specific gene editing in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) could result in treatment or cure of inherited disorders of the blood such as beta-thalassemia. Gene editing in HSPCs and differentiated T cells could help combat HIV/AIDs by modifying receptors, such as CCR5, necessary for R5-tropic HIV entry. However, translation of genome modification technologies to clinical practice is limited by challenges in intracellular delivery, especially in difficult-to-transfect hematolymphoid cells. In vivo gene editing could also provide novel treatment for systemic monogenic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor. Here, we have engineered biodegradable nanoparticles to deliver oligonucleotides for site-specific genome editing of disease-relevant genes in human cells, with high efficiency, low toxicity, and editing of clinically relevant cell types. We designed nanoparticles to edit the human beta-globin and CCR5 genes in hematopoietic cells. We show that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles can delivery PNA and donor DNA for site-specific gene modification in human hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo in NOD-scid IL2rgammanull mice. Nanoparticles delivered by tail vein localized to hematopoietic compartments in the spleen and bone marrow of humanized mice, resulting in modification of the beta-globin and CCR5 genes. Modification frequencies ranged from 0.005 to 20% of cells depending on the organ and cell type, without detectable toxicity. This project developed highly versatile methods for delivery of therapeutics to hematolymphoid cells and hematopoietic stem cells, and will help to

  5. Determination of specificity influencing residues for key transcription factor families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Garde, Christian; Stormo, Gary D.


    Transcription factors (TFs) are major modulators of transcription and subsequent cellular processes. The binding of TFs to specific regulatory elements is governed by their specificity. Considering the gap between known TFs sequence and specificity, specificity prediction frameworks are highly...

  6. Drug delivery by organ-specific immunoliposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Kazuo; Mori, Atsuhide; Hunag, Leaf (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry); Kennel, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))


    Monoclonal antibodies highly specific to the mouse pulmonary endothelial cells were conjugated to liposomes. The resulting immunoliposomes showed high levels of lung accumulation when injected intravenously into mice. Optimal target binding and retention were achieved if the lipid composition included ganglioside GM{sub 1} to reduce the uptake of immunoliposomes by the reticuloendothelial system. Details of the construction and optimization of these organ-specific immunoliposomes are reviewed. The drug delivery potential of this novel liposome system was demonstrated in an experimental pulmonary metastasis model. Immunoliposomes containing a lipophilic prodrug of deoxyfluorouridine effectively prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. This and other therapeutic applications of the immunoliposomes are discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Cell-Specific Aptamers as Emerging Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Meyer


    Full Text Available Aptamers are short nucleic acids that bind to defined targets with high affinity and specificity. The first aptamers have been selected about two decades ago by an in vitro process named SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Since then, numerous aptamers with specificities for a variety of targets from small molecules to proteins or even whole cells have been selected. Their applications range from biosensing and diagnostics to therapy and target-oriented drug delivery. More recently, selections using complex targets such as live cells have become feasible. This paper summarizes progress in cell-SELEX techniques and highlights recent developments, particularly in the field of medically relevant aptamers with a focus on therapeutic and drug-delivery applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markitantova Natal'ya Konstantinovna


    Full Text Available Improvement of conductors of electric energy and signals is considered by the authors. The subject of the research consists in cable conductors, and their improvement is analyzed on the macro-level. The authors have derived the final formula designated for the calculation of the value of the specific electric resistance of bimetallic conductors. MathCAD-14 software was employed to perform the calculations. The analysis of dependencies derived by the authors allowed the authors to make the conclusion that the thinner the copper layer, the higher the specific electric resistance of the bimetallic conductor. Moreover, the authors succeeded in making a quantitative presentation of the aforementioned characteristic, which is a relevant contribution into its further systemic analysis.

  9. Is syntactic working memory language specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Kljajević


    Full Text Available One question that has emerged from recent studies on sentence processing pertains to the nature of a specific cognitive mechanism implicated in maintenance of unintegrated syntactic information in ongoing sentence processing. In addition to evidence from language, recent research on musical syntax has suggested that processing of musical sequences may require a similar cognitive mechanism. In this paper evidence is discussed for the implication of syntactic working memory (SWM in processing of language and musical syntax, arithmetic sequences, as well as in complex motor movements used with a specific expressive purpose. The idea is that an anticipatory structure-building component governs interpretation in each of these domains by processing relevant integrations within sequences of structurally dependent elements. The concept of SWM is anchored in representational modularity and the shared syntactic integration resources hypothesis, and empirically supported by neurophysiological and neuroimaging evidence.

  10. Cause-specific mortality after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae


    We investigated cause-specific mortality in relation to age, sex, stroke severity, and cardiovascular risk factor profile in the Copenhagen Stroke Study cohort with 10 years of follow-up. In a Copenhagen community, all patients admitted to the hospital with stroke during 1992-1993 (n = 988) were...... registered on admission. Evaluation included stroke severity, computed tomography scan, and a cardiovascular risk profile. Cause of death within 10 years according to death certificate information was classified as stroke, heart/arterial disease, or nonvascular disease. Competing-risks analyses were...... performed by cause-specific Cox regression after multiple imputation of missing data, assuming that values were missing at random. Death was due to stroke in 310 patients (31%), to heart/arterial disease in 209 patients (21%), and to nonvascular diseases in 289 patients (29%); 180 patients were still alive...

  11. Towards Dynamic Contrast Specific Ultrasound Tomography (United States)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo


    We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics. Moreover, a linear relation between CPD values and ultrasound second-harmonic intensity was measured (coefficient of determination = 0.87). DCS-UST can find clinical applications as a diagnostic method for breast cancer localization, adding important features to multi-parametric ultrasound tomography of the breast.

  12. Risk based technique for improving technical specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I. S.; Jae, M. S.; Kim, B. S.; Hwang, S. W.; Kang, K. M.; Park, S. S.; Yu, Y. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this study is to develop the systematic guidance for reviewing the documents associated with the changes of technical specifications. The work done in this fiscal year is the following : surveys in TS requirements, TS improvements and TS regulations in foreign countries as well as Korea, surveys on the state-of-the-art of RITSs and their use in Korea, development of a decision-making framework for both the licensee and the regulation agency, description of risk measures, assessment methodology on STI/AOT, and adverse effects caused by periodic maintenance, which are explained in appendix. The results of this study might contribute to enhancing the quality of the current technical specifications and contribute to preparing the risk informed regulation program using the decision-making framework developed in this study.

  13. [Asthmatic exacerbations: specific features in children]. (United States)

    Carsin, A; Pham-Thi, N


    Asthma concerns more than 10% of 10-year-old children. Despite the similarities between adult and childhood asthma, the pediatric population presents some specific characteristics, notably in relation to exacerbations. Asthma in the newborn infant is a specific entity, the definition of which has recently been officially recognized. In exacerbations, the most important trigger factors are respiratory virus infections, the strain having prognostic importance. The indoor and outdoor environments are risk factors, particularly high levels of atmospheric pollution. Nutrients seem to play a prognostic role through vitamin D or food allergy. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide and examination of induced sputum may help in diagnosis and adjustment of treatment but these tools are not yet effective as predictive factors in asthma exacerbations. Prevention, early management and continued education of children and their families remain the best methods to improve asthma control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Firm-Specific Foreign Exchange Exposure Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Brodin, Danielle


    -financial firms and find limited consistency in the detected exchange rate exposures when altering methodology in terms of observation frequency and choice of market index. The results put a question mark to the validity of the stock market approach for exchange rate exposure identification at the firm......Previous studies have used the stock market approach to find the aggregate number of (firms with) foreign exchange exposures in a given country, region, or industry. Methodologies have differed in many aspects but two of the most basic differences relate to observation frequency and the choice...... of market index. Aggregate numbers have been shown to be (marginally) sensitive to the methodology employed. However, a corporate manager, an investor, or a stock analyst following a specific firm is not interested in the sensitivity on an aggregated level but on a firm-specific level. If the results...

  15. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials (United States)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  16. Intrafamilial phenotypic variability of Specific Language Impairment. (United States)

    Bartha-Doering, Lisa; Regele, Sabrina; Deuster, Dirk; Seidl, Rainer; Bogdanova, Nadja; Röpke, Albrecht; Wieacker, Peter; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette


    We investigated language functions in 32 members of a four generation family with several members affected by Specific Language Impairment with an extensive language test battery in order to determine the prevalence, overlap, and homogeneity of linguistic deficits within one pedigree. In sum, one fourth of all family members tested fulfilled the criteria of Specific Language Impairment. Despite of some similarities in language abilities, different combinations of language deficits were observed, and individual language profiles varied substantially. Thus, though there is a high prevalence of language deficits in this family which raises the likelihood of a genetic origin of these deficits, and though all affected study participants displayed selective linguistic deficits with normal non-verbal functioning, language testing showed considerable variance in overlap and homogeneity of linguistic deficits. Thus, even in one genetic population, an underlying linguistic disorder manifests itself in different language abilities to a variant degree. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Specificity of economic and social nature tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabanjuk Oleg Vasil'evich


    Full Text Available The article considers a number of factors specific to the tourism industry: a multiplier effect, a kind of method of generating working capital, specific "invisible exports", the factor most risky activities, the principle of direct and inverse transformation, and others. The data of experts of the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO on tourism as an indicator of welfare. It is emphasized along with the economic function of tourism on the social dimension of tourism in its mass phenomenon. The paper highlights the main problems and shortcomings of tourism as a complex socio-economic system; analysis of theoretical approaches to periodization of tourism that reflects the genesis of approaches regarding the nature of tourism; The factors of external and internal tourism development, made their ranking to measure the relationship between the measurement periods allocated for tourism development using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

  18. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory. (United States)

    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane


    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  19. Atopy and cause-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, T; Husemoen, L L N; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk


    .98). CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We found no statistically significant association between atopy and all-cause mortality. However, atopy was associated with a significantly higher risk of dying from mental and behavioural disorders and gastrointestinal diseases, particularly liver diseases, and a lower risk......BACKGROUND: Atopy is the familial or personal propensity to develop immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against common environmental allergens and is associated with high risk of allergic disease. It has been proposed that atopy may have effects on risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association of atopy with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We included a total of 14 849 individuals from five Danish population-based cohorts with measurements of atopy defined as serum-specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens. Participants were...

  20. The Econometric Procedures of Specific Transaction Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszyń Mariusz


    Full Text Available The paper presents the econometric procedures of identifying specific transactions, in which atypical conditions or attributes may occur. These procedures are based on studentized and predictive residuals of the accordingly specified econometric models. The dependent variable is a unit transactional price, and explanatory variables are both the real properties’ attributes and accordingly defined artificial binary variables. The utility of the proposed method has been verified by means of a real market data base. The proposed procedures can be helpful during the property valuation process, making it possible to reject real properties that are specific (both from the point of view of the transaction conditions and the properties’ attributes and, consequently, to select an appropriate set of similar attributes that are essential for the valuation process.

  1. The specific targeting of immune regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald


    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme that is implicated in suppressing T-cell immunity in many settings including cancer. In recent years, we have described spontaneous CD8(+) as well as CD4(+) T-cell reactivity against IDO in the tumor microenvironment of different......-inflammatory signals, and IDO-based immunotherapy may consequently be synergistic with additional immunotherapy. In this regard, we have shown that the presence of IDO-specific T cells boosted immunity against CMV and tumor antigens by eliminating IDO(+) suppressive cells and changing the regulatory microenvironment...... cancer patients as well as in the peripheral blood of both cancer patients and to a lesser extent in healthy donors. We have demonstrated that IDO-reactive CD8(+) T cells were peptide-specific, cytotoxic effector cells, which are able to recognize and kill IDO-expressing cells including tumor cells...

  2. Specific xerostomia during Urbach-Wiethe disease. (United States)

    Disdier, P; Harlé, J R; Andrac, L; Swiader, L; Weiller, P J


    We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who had suffered from a typical Urbach-Wiethe disease since childhood and who complains of progressive mouth and ocular dryness since the age of 54 years. Xerostomia was severe with very poor salivation and was associated with a slight keratoconjunctivitis sicca. A specific lipoid proteinosis was evidenced in salivary glands (lower lip biopsy) with a PAS-positive hyalin-like deposit around vessels, capillaries and salivary gland canaliculi. An ultrastructural study showed the typical aspect of multilamination of the basal lamina of capillary vessels. Dysphonia and hoarseness are commonly found in Urbach-Wiethe disease, but, to our knowledge, a specific xerostomia has never been reported.

  3. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B


    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  4. Xylem tissue specification, patterning, and differentiation mechanisms. (United States)

    Schuetz, Mathias; Smith, Rebecca; Ellis, Brian


    Vascular plants (Tracheophytes) have adapted to a variety of environments ranging from arid deserts to tropical rainforests, and now comprise >250,000 species. While they differ widely in appearance and growth habit, all of them share a similar specialized tissue system (vascular tissue) for transporting water and nutrients throughout the organism. Plant vascular systems connect all plant organs from the shoot to the root, and are comprised of two main tissue types, xylem and phloem. In this review we examine the current state of knowledge concerning the process of vascular tissue formation, and highlight important mechanisms underlying key steps in vascular cell type specification, xylem and phloem tissue patterning, and, finally, the differentiation and maturation of specific xylem cell types.

  5. Site-specific weed control technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Søgaard, Henning Tangen; Kudsk, Per


    Site-specific weed control technologies are defined as machinery or equipment embedded with technologies that detect weeds growing in a crop and, taking into account predefined factors such as economics, takes action to maximise the chances of successfully controlling them. In the article, we...... describe the basic parts of site specific weed control technologies, comprising of weed sensing systems, weed management models and precision weed control implements. A review of state-of-the-art technologies shows that several weed sensing systems and precision implements have been developed over the last...... two decades, though barriers prevent their breakthrough. Most important among these is the lack of a truly robust weed recognition method, owing to mutual shading among plants and limitations in the capacity of highly accurate spraying and weeding apparatuses.   Another barrier is the lack...

  6. Photoreceptor cell fate specification in vertebrates (United States)

    Brzezinski, Joseph A.; Reh, Thomas A.


    Photoreceptors – the light-sensitive cells in the vertebrate retina – have been extremely well-characterized with regards to their biochemistry, cell biology and physiology. They therefore provide an excellent model for exploring the factors and mechanisms that drive neural progenitors into a differentiated cell fate in the nervous system. As a result, great progress in understanding the transcriptional network that controls photoreceptor specification and differentiation has been made over the last 20 years. This progress has also enabled the production of photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells, thereby aiding the development of regenerative medical approaches to eye disease. In this Review, we outline the signaling and transcription factors that drive vertebrate photoreceptor development and discuss how these function together in gene regulatory networks to control photoreceptor cell fate specification. PMID:26443631

  7. One-session treatment for specific phobias. (United States)

    Ost, L G


    A rapid and effective treatment for specific phobias, in which the treatment is done in one single session, is described in detail. The treatment method consists of a combination of exposure in vivo and modeling. The short- and long-term outcome for a consecutive series of 20 patients are reported. Mean treatment time was 2.1 h and at follow-up after an average of 4 yr 90% were much improved or completely recovered.

  8. On emotion specificity in decision making


    Marcel Zeelenberg; Rob M. A. Nelissen; Seger M. Breugelmans; Rik Pieters


    We present a motivational account of the impact of emotion on decision making, termed the feeling-is-for-doing approach. We first describe the psychology of emotion and argue for a need to be specific when studying emotion's impact on decision making. Next we describe what our approach entails and how it relates emotion, via motivation to behavior. Then we offer two illustrations of our own research that provide support for two important elements in our reasoning. We end with specifying four ...

  9. Learning LM Specificity for Ganglion Cells (United States)

    Ahumada, Albert J.


    Unsupervised learning models have been proposed based on experience (Ahumada and Mulligan, 1990;Wachtler, Doi, Lee and Sejnowski, 2007) that allow the cortex to develop units with LM specific color opponent receptive fields like the blob cells reported by Hubel and Wiesel on the basis of visual experience. These models used ganglion cells with LM indiscriminate wiring as inputs to the learning mechanism, which was presumed to occur at the cortical level.

  10. Atomization of broad specification aircraft fuels (United States)

    Skifstad, J. G.; Lefebvre, A. H.


    The atomization properties of liquid fuels for the potential use in aircraft gas turbine engines are discussed. The significance of these properties are addressed with respect to the ignition and subsequent combustion behavior of the fuel spray/air mixture. It is shown that the fuel properties which affect the atomization behavior (viscosity, surface tension, and density) are less favorable for the broad specification fuels as compared to with those for conventional fuels.

  11. Specific language impairment as systemic developmental disorders


    Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle


    International audience; Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a disorder characterised by slow, abnormal language development.Most children with this disorder do not present any other cognitive or neurological deficits. Thereare many different pathological developmental profiles and switches from one profile to another oftenoccur. An alternative would be to consider SLI as a generic name covering three developmental languagedisorders: developmental verbal dyspraxia, linguistic dysphasia, and ...

  12. Automatic program generation from specifications using PROLOG (United States)

    Pelin, Alex; Morrow, Paul


    An automatic program generator which creates PROLOG programs from input/output specifications is described. The generator takes as input descriptions of the input and output data types, a set of transformations and the input/output relation. Abstract data types are used as models for data. They are defined as sets of terms satisfying a system of equations. The tests, the transformations and the input/output relation are also specified by equations.

  13. Behavioural effects of caffeine: the specificity hypothesis


    Snowden, Wendy


    This thesis argues that caffeine use offered a survival advantage to our ancestors and that moderate use continues to offer modern humans benefits. Caffeine ingestion, through the blocking of adenosine receptors, elicits broad elements of the mammalian threat response, specifically from the ‘flight or fight’ and ‘tend and befriend’ repertoires of behaviour: in effect, caffeine hijacks elements of the stress response. If the effects of caffeine had been discovered recently, rather than being a...

  14. Domain Specific Languages for Interactive Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus

    This dissertation shows how domain specific languages may be applied to the domain of interactive Web services to obtain flexible, safe, and efficient solutions. We show how each of four key aspects of interactive Web services involving sessions, dynamic creation of HTML/XML documents, form field......, , that supports virtually all aspects of the development of interactive Web services and provides flexible, safe, and efficient solutions....

  15. Sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality


    Paul D. Loprinzi; Meghan K. Edwards; Eveleen Sng; Ovuokerie Addoh


    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of accelerometer-assessed sedentary behavior and residual-specific mortality. Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5536), with follow-up through 2011. Sedentary behavior was objectively measured over 7 days via accelerometry. Results: When expressing sedentary behavior as a 60 min/day increase, the hazard ratio across the models ranged from 1.07-1.40 (P < 0...

  16. Firm-Specific Training and Contract Length.


    Cantor, Richard


    Wages subject to continuous renegotiations provide inefficient incentives for the creation of firm-specific human capital if training requires both firm investment and worker effort. Noncontingent career-long, fixed-wage contracts do not induce efficient levels of training because they award all the quasi-rents from training to the firm, leaving no incentive for trainee effort. Intermediate-length, fixed-wage contracts with known expiration dates can improve training incentives. During the li...

  17. Performance specifications for proton medical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W.T.; Staples, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Renner, T.R.; Singh, R.P.; Nyman, M.A.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.K.; Petti, P.L.; Alonso, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kubo, H.; Verhey, L.J. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine; Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine


    Performance specifications of technical components of a modern proton radiotherapy facility are presented. The technical items specified include: the accelerator; the beam transport system including rotating gantry; the treatment beamline systems including beam scattering, beam scanning, and dosimetric instrumentation; and an integrated treatment and accelerator control system. Also included are treatment ancillary facilities such as diagnostic tools, patient positioning and alignment devices, and treatment planning systems. The facility specified will accommodate beam scanning enabling the three-dimensional conformal therapy deliver .

  18. Geometrical product specifications. Datums and coordinate systems (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Ivleva, I. A.; Zlatkina, O. Y.


    The work is devoted to the relevant topic such as the technical products quality improvement due to the geometrical specifications accuracy. The research purpose is to ensure the quality indicators on the basis of the systematic approach to the values normalization and geometrical specifications accuracy in the workpiece coordinate systems in the process of design. To achieve the goal two tasks are completed such as the datum features classification according to the number of linear and angular freedom degrees constraints, called the datums informativeness, and the rectangular coordinate systems identification, materialized by workpiece datums sets. The datum features informativeness characterizes the datums functional purpose to limit product workpiece linear and angular degrees of freedom. The datum features informativeness numerically coincides with the kinematic pairs classes and couplings in mechanics. The datum features informativeness identifies the coordinate system without the location redundancy. Each coordinate plane of a rectangular coordinate system has different informativeness 3 + 2 + 1. Each coordinate axis also has different informativeness 4+2+Θ (zero). It is possible to establish the associated workpiece position with three linear and three angular coordinates relative to two axes with the informativeness 4 and 2. is higher, the more informativeness of the coordinate axis or a coordinate plane is, the higher is the linear and angular coordinates accuracy, the coordinate being plotted along the coordinate axis or plane. The systematic approach to the geometrical products specifications positioning in coordinate systems is the scientific basis for a natural transition to the functional dimensions of features position - coordinating dimensions and the size of the features form - feature dimensions of two measures: linear and angular ones. The products technical quality improving is possible due to the coordinate systems introduction materialized by

  19. Testing of Badminton-Specific Endurance. (United States)

    Madsen, Christian M; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars


    Madsen, CM, Højlyng, M, and Nybo, L. Testing of badminton-specific endurance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2582-2590, 2016-In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance (B-ENDURANCE) test was developed and tested in elite (n = 17) and skilled (n = 9) badminton players and in age-matched physically active men (nonbadminton players; n = 8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility was evaluated in 9 badminton players. The B-ENDURANCE test is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton-specific actions toward the 4 corners of the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence, he must, in a randomized order, complete 8 actions as dictated by the computer, providing the audiovisual input and verifying that the appropriate sensor is activated within the allocated time. Recovery time between each sequence is 10 seconds throughout the test, but the time to complete each sequence is gradually decreased until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo. The B-ENDURANCE test performance for elite players was better (p ≤ 0.05) compared with the skilled players and nonbadminton players. In addition, the B-ENDURANCE test performance correlated (r = 0.8 and p badminton-specific endurance but at least 1 familiarization trial is recommended if the test is used for evaluation of longitudinal changes, e.g., tracking training effects.

  20. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Pachana


    Full Text Available Nancy A Pachana1, Rana M Woodward1, Gerard JA Byrne21School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 2School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults.Keywords: anxiety, phobia, older adults, cognitive behavioral therapy

  1. Specificity of the autologous neutralizing antibody response. (United States)

    Moore, Penny L; Gray, Elin S; Morris, Lynn


    It has long been known that autologous neutralizing antibodies (AnAbs) exert pressure on the envelope of HIV, resulting in neutralization escape. However, recently, progress has been made in uncovering the precise targets of these potent early antibodies. AnAbs primarily target variable regions of the HIV-1 envelope, explaining the strain-specificity of these antibodies. Despite high neutralizing potential and cross-reactivity, anti-V3 antibodies do not contribute to autologous neutralization. The V1V2 is commonly immunogenic in early HIV-1 and simian human immunodeficiency virus infections, though the nature of these epitopes remains to be determined. In subtype C viruses, the C3 region is a neutralization target, possibly as a result of its more exposed and amphipathic structure. Autologous neutralization appears to be mediated by very few AnAb specificities that develop sequentially suggesting the possibility of immunological hierarchies for both binding and neutralizing antibodies. The role of AnAbs in preventing superinfection and in restricting virus replication is reexamined in the context of recent data. New studies have greatly contributed toward our understanding of the specificities mediating autologous neutralization and highlighted potential vulnerabilities on transmitted viruses. However, the contribution of AnAbs to the development of neutralization breadth remains to be characterized.

  2. Specificity of Intramembrane Protein–Lipid Interactions (United States)

    Contreras, Francesc-Xabier; Ernst, Andreas Max; Wieland, Felix; Brügger, Britta


    Our concept of biological membranes has markedly changed, from the fluid mosaic model to the current model that lipids and proteins have the ability to separate into microdomains, differing in their protein and lipid compositions. Since the breakthrough in crystallizing membrane proteins, the most powerful method to define lipid-binding sites on proteins has been X-ray and electron crystallography. More recently, chemical biology approaches have been developed to analyze protein–lipid interactions. Such methods have the advantage of providing highly specific cellular probes. With the advent of novel tools to study functions of individual lipid species in membranes together with structural analysis and simulations at the atomistic resolution, a growing number of specific protein–lipid complexes are defined and their functions explored. In the present article, we discuss the various modes of intramembrane protein–lipid interactions in cellular membranes, including examples for both annular and nonannular bound lipids. Furthermore, we will discuss possible functional roles of such specific protein–lipid interactions as well as roles of lipids as chaperones in protein folding and transport. PMID:21536707

  3. Site-Specific PEGylation of Therapeutic Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Dozier


    Full Text Available The use of proteins as therapeutics has a long history and is becoming ever more common in modern medicine. While the number of protein-based drugs is growing every year, significant problems still remain with their use. Among these problems are rapid degradation and excretion from patients, thus requiring frequent dosing, which in turn increases the chances for an immunological response as well as increasing the cost of therapy. One of the main strategies to alleviate these problems is to link a polyethylene glycol (PEG group to the protein of interest. This process, called PEGylation, has grown dramatically in recent years resulting in several approved drugs. Installing a single PEG chain at a defined site in a protein is challenging. Recently, there is has been considerable research into various methods for the site-specific PEGylation of proteins. This review seeks to summarize that work and provide background and context for how site-specific PEGylation is performed. After introducing the topic of site-specific PEGylation, recent developments using chemical methods are described. That is followed by a more extensive discussion of bioorthogonal reactions and enzymatic labeling.

  4. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions? (United States)

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula


    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  5. Measuring Offence-Specific Forgiveness in Marriage: The Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale (MOFS) (United States)

    Paleari, F. Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D.


    Three studies involving 328 married couples were conducted to validate the Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale, a new measure assessing offence-specific forgiveness for marital transgressions. The studies examined the dimensionality; internal consistency; and discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the new measure. The final…

  6. Phonological Processing Deficits in Specific Reading Disability and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different? (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne


    The aim of this study was to determine if phonological processing deficits in specific reading disability (SRD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are the same or different. In four separate analyses, a different combination of reading and spoken language measures was used to divide 73 children into three subgroups: poor readers with average…

  7. A systematic review on diagnostic procedures for specific language impairment: The sensitivity and specificity issues. (United States)

    Shahmahmood, Toktam Maleki; Jalaie, Shohreh; Soleymani, Zahra; Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Nemati, Parvin


    Identification of children with specific language impairment (SLI) has been viewed as both necessity and challenge. Investigators and clinicians use different tests and measures for this purpose. Some of these tests/measures have good psychometric properties, but it is not sufficient for diagnostic purposes. A diagnostic procedure can be used for identification a specific population with confidence only when its sensitivity and specificity are acceptable. In this study, we searched for tests/measures with predefined sensitivity and specificity for identification of preschool children with SLI from their typically developing peers. A computerized search in bibliographic databases from 2000 to August 2015 was performed with the following keywords: "specific language impairment" or SLI" and "primary language impairment" or 'PLI' with at least one of the followings: "diagnosis," "identification," "accuracy," "sensitivity," and "specificity." In addition, the related citations and reference lists of the selected articles were considered. The results of reviewing 23 included studies show that the index measures used in studies vary in accuracy with the sensitivity ranging from 16% to 100% and the specificity ranging from 14% to 100%. These varieties in sensitivity and specificity of different tests/measures confirm the necessity of attention to the diagnostic power of tests/measures before their use as diagnostic tool. Further, the results indicate there are some promising tests/measures that the available evidence supports their performances in the diagnosis of SLI in preschool-aged children, yet the place of a reference standard for the diagnosis of SLI is vacant among investigations.

  8. Specific and non-specific symptoms of colorectal cancer and contact to general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Søndergaard, Jens


    , were randomly selected in the general population and invited to participate in an internet-based survey. Items regarding experience of specific and non-specific alarm symptoms of colorectal cancer within the preceding 4 weeks and contact to GP were included. RESULTS: A total of 49706 subjects completed...

  9. Gender difference in the non-specific and specific immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, M; Heineman, MJ; Faas, MM; Bouman, Annechien

    PROBLEM: The purpose of this present ex vivo study is to get insight in the sex differences of the basic non-specific and specific immune response. METHOD OF STUDY: Intracellular types 1 and 2 cytokine production by stimulated male and female lymphocytes and monocytes in a whole blood preparation

  10. Measles virus-specific murine T cell clones: characterization of fine specificity function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Vries (Petra); J.P.M. Versteeg-van Oosten (José); I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); S.A. Langeveld (Sacha); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons)


    textabstractMeasles virus (MV)-specific murine helper T cell clones (Thy-1.2+, CD4+, CD8-) were generated from mice immunized with MV-infected mouse brain homogenate by limiting dilution and in vitro stimulation of spleen cells with UV-inactivated MV Ag. The protein specificity of 7 out of 37 stable

  11. Do Specific Types of Networking Predict Specific Mobility Outcomes? A Two-Year Prospective Study (United States)

    Wolff, Hans-Georg; Moser, Klaus


    Previous research has established a general relation between networking and career outcomes, as postulated by theories on protean careers and career self management. We suggest that specific facets of networking behavior differentially affect specific career mobility outcomes over time. In a 2-year prospective study, we examined the impact of six…

  12. Pathogen specific carbohydrate antigen microarrays: a chip for detection of Salmonella O-antigen specific antibodies. (United States)

    Blixt, Ola; Hoffmann, Julia; Svenson, Stefan; Norberg, Thomas


    A Salmonella O-antigen microarray was developed by covalent coupling of oligosaccharide antigens specific for serogroups Salmonella enterica sv. Paratyphi (group A), Typhimurium (group B) and Enteritidis (group D). Antibodies were correctly detected in sera from patients with culture verified salmonellosis. High serogroup-specificity was seen with the disaccharide antigens. With the larger antigens, containing the backbone sequence Manalpha1-2Rhaalpha1-2Gal (MRG), common backbone-specific antibodies (O-antigen 12) were also detected. This is "proof of principle" that pathogen-specific carbohydrate antigen microarrays constitute a novel technology for rapid and specific serological diagnosis in either individual patients or larger sero-epidemiological and vaccine studies.

  13. Four Specific Hapten Conformations Dominating Antibody Specificity: Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis for Quinolone Immunoassay. (United States)

    Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Lanteng; Lu, Lanlan; Shen, Xing; Huang, Xin-An; Liu, Yingju; Sun, Xiulan; Wang, Zhanhui; Eremin, Sergei Alexandrovich; Sun, Yuanming; Xu, Zhenlin; Lei, Hongtao


    Antibody-based immunoassay methods have been important tools for monitoring drug residues in animal foods. However, because of limited knowledge about the quantitative structure-activity relationships between a hapten and its resultant antibody specificity, antibody production with the desired specificity is still a huge challenge. In this study, the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) was analyzed in accordance with the cross-reactivity of quinolone drugs reacting with the antibody raised by pipemidic acid as the immunizing hapten and compared with the reported cross-reactivity data and their hapten structures. It was found that the specificity of a quinolone antibody was strongly related to the conformation of the hapten used and that hapten conformations shaped like the letters "I", "P", and "Φ" were essential for the desired high specificity with low cross-reactivity, but that the hapten conformation shaped like the letter "Y" led to an antibody with broad specificity and high cross-reactivity. Almost all of the antibodies against quinolones could result from these four hapten conformations. It was first found that the concrete conformations dominated the specificity of the antibody to quinolone, which will be of significance for the accurate hapten design, predictable antibody specificity, and better understanding the recognition mechanism between haptens and the antibodies for immunoassays.

  14. Persistence and evolution of allergen-specific IgE repertoires during subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (United States)

    Levin, Mattias; King, Jasmine J.; Glanville, Jacob; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Looney, Timothy J.; Hoh, Ramona A.; Mari, Adriano; Andersson, Morgan; Greiff, Lennart; Fire, Andrew Z.; Boyd, Scott D.; Ohlin, Mats


    Background Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment with proven long-term curative potential in allergic disease. Allergen-specific IgE is the causative agent of allergic disease, and antibodies contribute to SIT, but the effects of SIT on aeroallergen-specific B cell repertoires are not well understood. Objective To characterize the IgE sequences expressed by allergen-specific B cells, and track the fate of these B cell clones during SIT. Methods We have used high-throughput antibody gene sequencing and identification of allergen-specific IgE using combinatorial antibody fragment library technology to analyze immunoglobulin repertoires of blood and nasal mucosa of aeroallergen-sensitized individuals before and during the first year of subcutaneous SIT. Results Of 52 distinct allergen-specific IgE heavy chains from eight allergic donors, 37 were also detected by high-throughput antibody gene sequencing of blood, nasal mucosa, or both sample types. The allergen-specific clones had increased persistence, higher likelihood of belonging to clones expressing other switched isotypes, and possibly larger clone size than the rest of the IgE repertoire. Clone members in nasal tissue showed close mutational relationships. Conclusion Combining functional binding studies, deep antibody repertoire sequencing, and information on clinical outcomes in larger studies may in the future aid assessment of SIT mechanisms and efficacy. PMID:26559321

  15. Formal specification is an experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorner, D. [Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)


    Traditionally, abstract models of large, complex systems have been given in free-form mathematics, combining - often in ad-hoc, not formally supported ways - notions from the disciplines of partial differential equations, functional analysis, mathematical statistics, etc. Such models have been very useful for assimilation of information, analysis (investigation), and prediction (simulation). These models have, however, usually not been helpful in deriving computer representations of the modelled systems - for the purposes of computerized monitoring and control, Computing science, concerned with how to construct objects that can exist within the computer, offers ways of complementing, and in some cases, replacing or combining traditional mathematical models. Formal, model-, as well as property-oriented, specifications in the styles of denotational (respectively, algebraic semantics) represent major approaches to such modelling. In this expository, discursive paper we illustrate what we mean by model-oriented specifications of large, complex technological computing systems. The three modelling examples covers the introvert programming methodological subject of SDEs: software development environments, the distributed computing system subject of wfs`s: (transaction) work flow systems, and the extrovert subject of robots: robotics! the thesis is, just as for mathematical modelling, that we can derive much understanding, etc., from experimentally creating such formally specified models - on paper - and that we gain little in additionally building ad-hoc prototypes. Our models are expressed in a model-oriented style using the VDM specification language Meta-IV In this paper the models only reflect the {open_quotes}data modelling{close_quotes} aspects. We observe that such data models are more easily captured in the model-oriented siyle than in the algebraic semantics property-oriented style which originally was built of the abstraction of operations. 101 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Binding specificity of Escherichia coli trigger factor (United States)

    Patzelt, Holger; Rüdiger, Stefan; Brehmer, Dirk; Kramer, Günter; Vorderwülbecke, Sonja; Schaffitzel, Elke; Waitz, Andreas; Hesterkamp, Thomas; Dong, Liying; Schneider-Mergener, Jens; Bukau, Bernd; Deuerling, Elke


    The ribosome-associated chaperone trigger factor (TF) assists the folding of newly synthesized cytosolic proteins in Escherichia coli. Here, we determined the substrate specificity of TF by examining its binding to 2842 membrane-coupled 13meric peptides. The binding motif of TF was identified as a stretch of eight amino acids, enriched in basic and aromatic residues and with a positive net charge. Fluorescence spectroscopy verified that TF exhibited a comparable substrate specificity for peptides in solution. The affinity to peptides in solution was low, indicating that TF requires ribosome association to create high local concentrations of nascent polypeptide substrates for productive interaction in vivo. Binding to membrane-coupled peptides occurred through the central peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) domain of TF, however, independently of prolyl residues. Crosslinking experiments showed that a TF fragment containing the PPIase domain linked to the ribosome via the N-terminal domain is sufficient for interaction with nascent polypeptide substrates. Homology modeling of the PPIase domain revealed a conserved FKBP(FK506-binding protein)-like binding pocket composed of exposed aromatic residues embedded in a groove with negative surface charge. The features of this groove complement well the determined substrate specificity of TF. Moreover, a mutation (E178V) in this putative substrate binding groove known to enhance PPIase activity also enhanced TF's association with a prolyl-free model peptide in solution and with nascent polypeptides. This result suggests that both prolyl-independent binding of peptide substrates and peptidyl-prolyl isomerization involve the same binding site. PMID:11724963

  17. A Content Specification for Business Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Bajaj


    Full Text Available Business process modeling is an essential prerequisite to business process reengineering (BPR, and workflow management (WFM. Process models have been traditionally used to model software processes, and many business process models are adaptations of these process models. Using these process models to represent business processes results in two problems. First, since these process models usually represent different perspectives of systems (or in this case, businesses the user needs to integrate multiple existing models to completely represent the business processes. This reduces the ease of use, and leads to a lower acceptance by users. Second, business processes contain concepts not found in software processes (e.g., physical objects, roles, etc.. Traditional process models cannot represent these new concepts, and hence traditional process models model business processes inadequately. These two problems can be easily solved if a comprehensive business process model exists, that models all perspectives of a business process, and that allows representation of these new concepts. As a first step towards this goal, we propose a content specification that would need to be satisfied by such a business process model. The primary contribution of this work is a comprehensive content specification for a business process model that will solve the two problems listed above. This content specification also serves as a framework to analyze process models in detail, and to compare them based on their content (i.e., what concepts they model and the degree to which they model each aspect of a business process (i.e., how much of a business process they model.

  18. Modality-specificity of selective attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jamieson Stewart


    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT, the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA, and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL. These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. Results: The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled ‘general attention’. The third component was labeled ‘auditory attention’, as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as ‘spatial orienting’ and ‘spatial conflict’, respectively – they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT and TAiL attend-location task – all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location. Conclusions: These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  19. Life long care contract: Some specific characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Dušan


    Full Text Available This paper deals with one of the most complex legal issues of contemporary Serbian law. Since it is a complex legal work, in the first place we have specified the chronology of legal regulation of the contract of lifelong care, and dealt with this term as a contract of law of obligations. Conducting legal analysis of the term of the contract, we determined that it was a contract that was nominated, bilaterally obligated and onerous, that it was concluded with regard to the special properties of individuals, that it was the contract with the permanent execution of obligations and that it was formal contract. In doing so, we noted its specificity in relation to the above characteristics, and that was the objective of this paper. Also, we discussed about the lifelong care representing a specific obligation of the provider, while the dependents specific obligations relates to the obligation that ownership of certain matters or any other rights will be after his death transferred to the provider. Also, in this paper we discussed succession of rights to give and receive support in the event of death of the provider. In studying the meaning and scope of this legal institute legal method was used in the analysis of legal norms by which it was regulated. In interpreting the law, we applied the grammatical interpretation, historical interpretation and target interpretation. Examining the positive law (de lege lata we dealed with future law (de ledge of this legal institute. Results of the research lead to the conclusion that in this contract there are obligations of complex content, which are constantly changing, so to speak, from day to day, and so not even the greatest jurists - legislators, judges, legal writers, legal practitioners or contractors are able to predict them all.

  20. The programming language HAL: A specification (United States)


    HAL accomplishes three significant objectives: (1) increased readability, through the use of a natural two-dimensional mathematical format; (2) increased reliability, by providing for selective recognition of common data and subroutines, and by incorporating specific data-protect features; (3) real-time control facility, by including a comprehensive set of real-time control commands and signal conditions. Although HAL is designed primarily for programming on-board computers, it is general enough to meet nearly all the needs in the production, verification and support of aerospace, and other real-time applications.

  1. Orientation specific deposition of mesoporous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kjellman


    Full Text Available We present a protocol for a facile orientation specific deposition of plate-like mesoporous SBA-15 silica particles onto a surface (mesopores oriented normal to surface. A drop of an aqueous dispersion of particles is placed on the surface and water vaporizes under controlled relative humidity. Three requirements are essential for uniform coverage: particle dispersion should not contain aggregates, a weak attraction between particles and surface is needed, and evaporation rate should be low. Aggregates are removed by stirring/sonication. Weak attraction is realized by introducing cationic groups to the surface. Insight into the mechanisms of the so-called coffee stain effect is also provided.

  2. Optimization Specifications for CUDA Code Restructuring Tool

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Ayaz


    In this work we have developed a restructuring software tool (RT-CUDA) following the proposed optimization specifications to bridge the gap between high-level languages and the machine dependent CUDA environment. RT-CUDA takes a C program and convert it into an optimized CUDA kernel with user directives in a configuration file for guiding the compiler. RTCUDA also allows transparent invocation of the most optimized external math libraries like cuSparse and cuBLAS enabling efficient design of linear algebra solvers. We expect RT-CUDA to be needed by many KSA industries dealing with science and engineering simulation on massively parallel computers like NVIDIA GPUs.

  3. A brain-specific transcription activator. (United States)

    Korner, M; Rattner, A; Mauxion, F; Sen, R; Citri, Y


    We have identified a DNA binding protein, named BETA, that interacts with the same (B) transcriptional regulatory sequence as the known transcription factor NF-kappa B. BETA is found only in gray matter throughout the brain, and not in a variety of other rat tissues. Two binding sites for BETA are present adjacent to the promoter of the rat proenkephalin gene. Transfection of primary brain cultures that express BETA, with a reporter gene driven by the SV40 promoter linked to BETA DNA binding sites, results in transcriptional activation. We infer that BETA is a brain-specific transcription activator.

  4. Collimator specification for LHC upgrade parameters

    CERN Document Server

    EuCARD, Collaboration


    The WP8 of EuCARD aims at the design of more advanced materials and collimators, with the aim to allow for higher beam power in state of the art accelerator facilities like LHC and FAIR. As a first step, feasible collimators to advance the performance reach need to be specified. Deliverable 8.1.2 concerned the specification of an advanced collimator for the Large Hadron Collider LHC. It had been completed in month 17 of the project (Aug 2010) and is now reported officially here. A first prototype has been constructed by time of writing this report and is being tested with beam.

  5. On the specific heat of carbon steels


    Umino, Saburo


    The results of the pre:lent investigation may be summarized as follows: (1) The heat content of carbon steels at high temperatures was determined by the mixture method, while the oxidation of the specimen was prevented by passing a purified hydrogen gas through the furnace. The specimens were twelve kinds of steels with different carbon contents from 0.09 % to 2.84 % and the range of temperature was 23~250°C. (2) According to A. Meuthen, the specific heat is constant below the A1 point, but t...

  6. Species-specific challenges in dog cloning. (United States)

    Kim, G A; Oh, H J; Park, J E; Kim, M J; Park, E J; Jo, Y K; Jang, G; Kim, M K; Kim, H J; Lee, B C


    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is now an established procedure used in cloning of several species. SCNT in dogs involves multiple steps including the removal of the nuclear material, injection of a donor cell, fusion, activation of the reconstructed oocytes and finally transfer to a synchronized female recipient. There are therefore many factors that contribute to cloning efficiency. By performing a retrospective analysis of 2005-2012 published papers regarding dog cloning, we define the optimum procedure and summarize the specific feature for dog cloning. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    An important aspect of Internet security is the security of cryptographic protocols that it deploys. We need to make sure that such protocols achieve their goals, whether in isolation or in composition, i.e., security protocols must not suffer from any aw that enables hostile intruders to break...... called SPS (Security Protocol Specification) language, that enables users, without requiring deep expertise in formal models from them, to specify a wide range of real-world protocols in a simple and intuitive way. Thus, SPS allows users to verify their protocols using different tools, and generate...

  8. An introduction to programming with specifications

    CERN Document Server


    A feature of modern advanced computing is the functional approach to programming. In this book, the authors present an introduction to the mathematics which underline functional programming, emphasizing the understanding of definition and specification--a prerequisite of good programming and problem solving with a computer. The book is self-contained, requiring a low level of mathematical sophistication and may be used as an introduction to the mathematics of programming.Provides an introduction to the functional approach to programming**Emphasizes the problem to be solved, not the pro

  9. Universality and Specificity in Protein Fluctuation Dynamics (United States)

    Copperman, J.; Dinpajooh, M.; Beyerle, E. R.; Guenza, M. G.


    We investigate the universal scaling of protein fluctuation dynamics with a site-specific diffusive model of protein motion, which predicts an initial subdiffusive regime in the configurational relaxation. The long-time dynamics of proteins is controlled by an activated regime. We argue that the hierarchical free energy barriers set the time scales of biological processes and establish an upper limit to the size of single protein domains. We find it compelling that the scaling behavior for the protein dynamics is in close agreement with the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling exponents.

  10. Growth arrest specific protein (GAS) 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, T N; Rasmussen, Morten; Jaksch, C A M


    Aims/hypothesis Maternal low-protein (LP) diet during gestation results in a reduced beta cell mass in the offspring at birth and this may hamper the ability to adapt to high-energy food and sedentary lifestyle later in life. To investigate the biology behind the LP-offspring phenotype, this study...... using RNA microarray and quantitative PCR. The role of a differentially expressed gene, growth arrest specific protein 6 (GAS6), was evaluated in vitro using neonatal rat islets. Results The mRNA level of Gas6, known to be mitogenic in other tissues, was reduced in LP offspring. The mRNA content of Mafa...

  11. On emotion specificity in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Zeelenberg


    Full Text Available We present a motivational account of the impact of emotion on decision making, termed the feeling-is-for-doing approach. We first describe the psychology of emotion and argue for a need to be specific when studying emotion's impact on decision making. Next we describe what our approach entails and how it relates emotion, via motivation to behavior. Then we offer two illustrations of our own research that provide support for two important elements in our reasoning. We end with specifying four criteria that we consider to be important when studying how feeling guides our everyday doing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Ponyavina


    Full Text Available The article presents methodological and methodical bases of research relevant specifics of Internet marketing conducted by Russian companies in the Interenet. The paper is focused on the research of the leading Russian online publications, their practices and characteristics. This work dwells on the comparison of competitiveness with adjacent categories. It is established that the development of information technologies, among which one of the key places has taken the Internet, the emergence and rapid growth of e-Commerce became the basis for the emergence of a new trend in the modern concept of relationship marketing - Internet marketing.

  13. GMSEC Interface Specification Document 2016 March (United States)

    Handy, Matthew


    The GMSEC Interface Specification Document contains the standard set of defined messages. Each GMSEC standard message contains a GMSEC Information Bus Header section and a Message Contents section. Each message section identifies required fields, optional fields, data type and recommended use of the fields. Additionally, this document includes the message subjects associated with the standard messages. The system design of the operations center should ensure the components that are selected use both the API and the defined standard messages in order to achieve full interoperability from component to component.

  14. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Freimuth, Marilyn; Forster, Myriam; Ames, Susan L.


    Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena. PMID:21909314

  15. EMI Execution Service Specification 1.0

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, B. (JUELICH); Smirnova, O (Lund University); Konstantinov, A. (Oslo University); Skou Andersen, M. (University of Copenhagen); Riedel, M. (JUELICH); Memon, A.S. (JUELICH); Memon, M.S. (JUELICH); Zangrando, L. (INFN); Sgaravatto, M. (INFN); Frizziero, E. (INFN)


    This document provides the interface specification, including related data models such as state model, activity description, resource and activity information, of an execution service, matching the needs of the EMI production middleware stack composed of ARC, gLite and UNICORE components. This service therefore is referred to as the EMI Execution Service (or “ES” for short). This document is a continuation of the work previously known as the GENEVA, then AGU (“ARC, gLite UNICORE”), then PGI execution service.

  16. EMI Execution Service (EMI-ES) Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, B


    This document provides the interface specification, including related data models such as state model, activity description, resource and activity information, of an execution service, matching the needs of the EMI production middleware stack composed of ARC, gLite and UNICORE components. This service therefore is referred to as the EMI Execution Service (or “ES” for short). This document is a continuation of the work previously know as the GENEVA, then AGU (“ARC, gLite UNICORE”), then PGI execution service. As a starting point, the v0.42 of the “PGI Execution Service Specification” (doc15839) was used.

  17. Specification for dispersed fuel-cell generator (United States)

    Handley, L. M.; Cohen, R.


    A general description and performance definition for a standard 11-mw fuel cell power plant designed for electric utility dispersed-generation applications are provided. Additional features available at the option of the purchaser are also described. The power plant can operate singly or grouped with other power plants to produce larger mutli-megawatt power stations. A 33-mw station is discussed as representative of multiple power plant installations. The power plant specification defines power rating, heat rate, fuels, operating modes, siting characteristics, and available options. A general description included in the attachments covers equipment, typical site arrangement, auxiliary subsystems, maintenance, fuel flexibility, and general fluid and electrical schematics.

  18. Fragrance allergens in 'specific' cosmetic products. (United States)

    Nardelli, Andrea; Drieghe, Jacques; Claes, Lieve; Boey, Lies; Goossens, An


    Together with preservative agents, fragrance components are the most important sensitizing culprits in cosmetic products. To identify the nature of the fragrance ingredients responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from specific cosmetic products. Between 2000 and 2009, positive patch test reactions or positive usage tests with the patients' own cosmetic products, were recorded using a standardised form. Of the 806 cosmetic records, corresponding to 485 patient files, 344 concerned reactions to fragrance ingredients that according to the label were present ('Presence Confirmed' [PC n = 301]) or suspected to be present ('Presence Not Confirmed' [PNC n = 376]) in the causal cosmetic products used, which belonged to 15 different categories, toilet waters/fine perfumes being the most frequent. Geraniol in fragrance mix I (FM I) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) in FM II were the most frequent PC, and together with hydroxycitronellal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) the most frequent PNC ingredients in the causal cosmetic products. Limonene was the most frequent PC confirmed fragrance allergen. This study not only underlines the usefulness of fragrance-ingredient labelling in order to identify the causal allergen(s) present in specific cosmetic products, but may also provide information on trends in the actual use of sensitizing fragrance ingredients in them. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Taxon- and Site-Specific Melatonin Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland


    Full Text Available Melatonin is catabolized both enzymatically and nonenzymatically. Nonenzymatic processes mediated by free radicals, singlet oxygen, other reactive intermediates such as HOCl and peroxynitrite, or pseudoenzymatic mechanisms are not species- or tissue-specific, but vary considerably in their extent. Higher rates of nonenzymatic melatonin metabolism can be expected upon UV exposure, e.g., in plants and in the human skin. Additionally, melatonin is more strongly nonenzymatically degraded at sites of inflammation. Typical products are several hydroxylated derivatives of melatonin and N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK. Most of these products are also formed by enzymatic catalysis. Considerable taxon- and site-specific differences are observed in the main enzymatic routes of catabolism. Formation of 6-hydroxymelatonin by cytochrome P450 subforms are prevailing in vertebrates, predominantly in the liver, but also in the brain. In pineal gland and non-mammalian retina, deacetylation to 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT plays a certain role. This pathway is quantitatively prevalent in dinoflagellates, in which 5-MT induces cyst formation and is further converted to 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid, an end product released to the water. In plants, the major route is catalyzed by melatonin 2-hydroxylase, whose product is tautomerized to 3-acetamidoethyl-3-hydroxy-5-methoxyindolin-2-one (AMIO, which exceeds the levels of melatonin. Formation and properties of various secondary products are discussed.

  20. Arginine specific aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus brevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Nandan


    Full Text Available The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria contribute to the development of flavor during the ripening of cheese through the generation of short peptides and free amino acids, which directly or indirectly act as flavor precursors. Newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB as well as those procured from culture collection centers were screened for the production of various substrate specific aminopeptidases. Among all the strains screened, L. brevis (NRRL B-1836 was found to produce quantifiable amount of intracellular arginine specific aminopeptidase (EC The productivity of arginine aminopeptidase in 5 L fermentor was 36 IU/L/h. The Luedeking and Piret model was tested for intracellular production of aminopeptidase and the data seemed to fit well, as the correlation coefficient was 0.9964 for MRS. The αAP and βAP was 0.4865 and 0.0046, respectively in MRS medium indicating that the yield was predominantly depended on growth. The culture produced lactic acid and also tolerated pH 2.0-3.0 and 0.3-0.5% bile salts, the most important probiotic features.

  1. Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt


    Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.

  2. Organ-specific biomarkers in lupus. (United States)

    Wu, Haijing; Zeng, Jinrong; Yin, Jinghua; Peng, Qiao; Zhao, Ming; Lu, Qianjin


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex and highly heterogeneous disease, which affects multiple organs, including joints, skin, kidneys, heart, hematopoietic system, and nerve system. While the etiopathogenesis of SLE still remains unclear, genetic susceptibilities and aberrant epigenetic modifications are believed to be involved. For precision therapy, it is necessary to assess accurately and objectively organ involvements and disease activity, which is difficult by current clinical laboratory tests. Biomarkers, which are a biologic, genetic, epigenetic or a chemical characteristic and conveniently detectable, serve as measures of disease diagnosis, activity, prognosis, and manifestation prediction, thereby providing instruction for individualized therapy. In addition, biomarkers differ according to different manifestations, since the disease activity index and treatments vary significantly. For example, unlike other non-renal SLE, lupus nephritis requires significant immunosuppressive drugs. Over the past decades, the research on biomarkers in lupus has been strengthened and numerous promising biomarkers have been identified at levels of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics. In this review, we summarize the conventional and novel biomarkers in the tissue-specific manner, and discuss their roles in specific organ diagnosis, future manifestation prediction, disease activity assessment and their correlation with histology results. By doing so, it aims to shed a light on individualized treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Water technology for specific water usage. (United States)

    Frimmel, Fritz H


    Water is the basis for life and culture. In addition to the availability of water its quality has become a major issue in industrialized areas and in developing countries as well. Water usage has to be seen as part of the hydrological cycle. As a consequence water management has to be sustainable. The aim of the contribution is to give water usage oriented quality criteria and to focus on the technical means to achieve them. Water is used for many purposes, ranging from drinking and irrigation to a broad variety of technical processes. Most applications need specific hygienic, chemical and/or physical properties. To meet these demands separation and reaction principles are applied. The reuse of water and the application of water treatment with little or no waste and by-product formation is the way to go. Membrane separation and advanced oxidation including catalytic reactions are promising methods that apply natural processes in sustainable technical performance. Thus elimination of specific water constituents (e.g. salts and metals, microorganisms) and waste water cleaning (e.g. pollutants, nutrients and organic water) can be done efficiently. Learning from nature and helping nature with appropriate technology is a convincing strategy for sustainable water management.

  4. Specification of the fineness of coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, B.P. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Specifications for the size distribution of coal ash usually consider one size, for example the mass retained on a 45{mu}m sieve, and ignore the general particle distribution. This over-simplified approach had tended to persist because alternative parameters, such as specific surface obtained from air permeability tests as used for cements, have been found to be even more unsatisfactory. However, if the size distribution is determined satisfactorily using modern techniques then it can be shown that a suitable parameter for the size distribution can be a valuable aid in characterising the material. The paper reviews the reasons for the deficiencies in the earlier tests for determining the fineness of PFA and then describes a technique for specifying PFA fineness which overcomes the problems associated with the above. The application of a suitable grading parameter for PFA is illustrated by reference to mix design for PFA concrete. Only by reference to the relevant characteristics of all the constituents of the concrete is it possible to design for a required property in the resulting concrete with any reasonable accuracy. A comprehensive method of mix design capable of accommodating different cements and PFAs as well as different fine and coarse aggregates and entrained air contents is outlined and it is seen that similar grading parameters can also be utilised for the aggregates to facilitate proportioning of constituents to achieve a required concrete workability in terms of Vebe time. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Autoantibodies in SLE: Specificities, Isotypes and Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dema


    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is characterized by a wide spectrum of auto-antibodies which recognize several cellular components. The production of these self-reactive antibodies fluctuates during the course of the disease and the involvement of different antibody-secreting cell populations are considered highly relevant for the disease pathogenesis. These cells are developed and stimulated through different ways leading to the secretion of a variety of isotypes, affinities and idiotypes. Each of them has a particular mechanism of action binding to a specific antigen and recognized by distinct receptors. The effector responses triggered lead to a chronic tissue inflammation. DsDNA autoantibodies are the most studied as well as the first in being characterized for its pathogenic role in Lupus nephritis. However, others are of growing interest since they have been associated with other organ-specific damage, such as anti-NMDAR antibodies in neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations or anti-β2GP1 antibodies in vascular symptomatology. In this review, we describe the different auto-antibodies reported to be involved in SLE. How autoantibody isotypes and affinity-binding to their antigen might result in different pathogenic responses is also discussed.

  6. Clinical outcome measures of specific immunotherapy. (United States)

    Pfaar, Oliver; Anders, Clemens; Klimek, Ludger


    To provide an overview of clinical parameters generally used for monitoring the clinical efficacy of specific immunotherapy (SIT) in clinical trials. In particular, it focuses on primary and secondary outcome measurements and reviews the advantages and disadvantages of each method. In 2007, the World Allergy Organization defined the severity of symptoms and the need for concomitant medication as primary endpoint parameters in clinical outcome measures of SIT. Furthermore, it was stated that the symptom score should always be combined with the rescue medication score. The 'quality of life' is usually used as a secondary outcome measure in clinical trials on SIT. In clinical trials on SIT, several clinical parameters are commonly used to provide evidence of the clinical efficacy of the therapy. These parameters should include a measurement of symptoms and of the use of concomitant medications, which represent the 'primary outcome' parameters. Both physician-rated and patient self-rate scores have been implemented in clinical studies. Furthermore, disease-unspecific (generic) and disease-specific questionnaires for evaluating the quality of life are widely used and partially validated as 'secondary outcome' parameters. This review provides an overview on the different methods to measure the clinical outcome of SIT and points out the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  7. Sensory specific satiety: More than 'just' habituation? (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M


    Sensory specific satiety (SSS) describes the decline in pleasantness associated with a food as it is eaten relative to a food that has not been eaten (the 'eaten' and 'uneaten' foods, respectively). The prevailing view is that SSS is governed by habituation. Nevertheless, the extent to which SSS results solely from this 'low-level' process remains unclear. Three experiments were conducted to explore the hypothesis that 'top-down' cognitive activity affects the expression of SSS; specifically, we manipulated participants' expectations about whether or not they would have access to alternative test foods (uneaten foods) after consuming a test meal (eaten food). This manipulation was motivated by 'Commodity Theory,' which describes the relative increase in value of a commodity when it becomes unavailable. We tested the hypothesis that a decline in the pleasantness and desire to eat the eaten food is exaggerated when uneaten foods are unavailable to participants. None of our findings supported this proposition - we found no evidence that SSS is dependent on top-down processes associated with the availability of other uneaten test foods. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Forum on Specifications and Design Languages 2012

    CERN Document Server


    This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the fifteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which was held in September 2012 at Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.  FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems.  ·         Covers Assertion Based Design, Verification & Debug; ·         Includes language-based modeling and design techniques for embedded systems; ·         Covers design, modeling and verification of mixed physical domain and mixed signal systems that include significant analog parts in electrical and non-electrical domains; ·         Includes formal and semi-formal system level design methods fo...

  9. CLP application to nanomaterials: a specific aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandrelli


    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing some relevant aspects related to the classification, labelling and packaging of nanomaterials. Concerns have been raised about potential adverse effects to humans or the environment as result of impacts of nanomaterials. The new Regulation (EC no. 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP does not contain any specific definition or provision related to nanomaterials nevertheless they are covered by the definition of substance set in the Regulation. It is recognized that different particle sizes or forms of the same substance can have different classification. Thus, if substances are placed on the market both at nanoscale and as bulk, a separate classification and labelling may be required if the available data on the intrinsic properties indicate a difference in hazard class between the two forms. CLP Regulation requires the manufacturer or importer to ensure that the information used to classify relates to the forms or physical states in which the substance is placed on the market and in which it can reasonably be expected to be used. Moreover, CLP demands testing relating to physical hazards to be performed if such information is missing or not adequate to conclude on classification. Further developments of the CLP guidance documents and implementation tools are needed in order to cover nanomaterials more specifically.

  10. A computational imaging target specific detectivity metric (United States)

    Preece, Bradley L.; Nehmetallah, George


    Due to the large quantity of low-cost, high-speed computational processing available today, computational imaging (CI) systems are expected to have a major role for next generation multifunctional cameras. The purpose of this work is to quantify the performance of theses CI systems in a standardized manner. Due to the diversity of CI system designs that are available today or proposed in the near future, significant challenges in modeling and calculating a standardized detection signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to measure the performance of these systems. In this paper, we developed a path forward for a standardized detectivity metric for CI systems. The detectivity metric is designed to evaluate the performance of a CI system searching for a specific known target or signal of interest, and is defined as the optimal linear matched filter SNR, similar to the Hotelling SNR, calculated in computational space with special considerations for standardization. Therefore, the detectivity metric is designed to be flexible, in order to handle various types of CI systems and specific targets, while keeping the complexity and assumptions of the systems to a minimum.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis. (United States)

    Terho, P


    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  12. Non-specific low back pain. (United States)

    Maher, Chris; Underwood, Martin; Buchbinder, Rachelle


    Non-specific low back pain affects people of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Management guidelines endorse triage to identify the rare cases of low back pain that are caused by medically serious pathology, and so require diagnostic work-up or specialist referral, or both. Because non-specific low back pain does not have a known pathoanatomical cause, treatment focuses on reducing pain and its consequences. Management consists of education and reassurance, analgesic medicines, non-pharmacological therapies, and timely review. The clinical course of low back pain is often favourable, thus many patients require little if any formal medical care. Two treatment strategies are currently used, a stepped approach beginning with more simple care that is progressed if the patient does not respond, and the use of simple risk prediction methods to individualise the amount and type of care provided. The overuse of imaging, opioids, and surgery remains a widespread problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Auditory processing in specific language disorder]. (United States)

    Idiazábal-Aletxa, M A; Saperas-Rodríguez, M


    Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child has difficulty in producing or understanding spoken language for no apparent reason. The diagnosis in made when language development is out of keeping with other aspects of development, and possible explanatory causes have been excluded. During the last years neurosciences have approached to the study of SLI. The ability to process two or more rapidly presented, successive, auditory stimuli is believed to underlie successful language acquisition. It has been proposed that SLI is the consequence of low-level abnormalities in auditory perception. Too, children with SLI show a specific deficit in automatic discrimination of syllables. Electrophysiological methods may reveal underlying immaturity or other abnormality of auditory processing even when behavioural thresholds look normal. There is much controversy about the role of such deficits in causing their language problems, and it has been difficult to establish solid, replicable findings in this area because of the heterogeneity in the population and because insufficient attention has been paid to maturational aspects of auditory processing.

  14. Evolution and Development of Effective Feedstock Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold Gresham; Rachel Emerson; Amber Hoover; Amber Miller; William Bauer; Kevin Kenney


    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blend stocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. The 2012 feedstock logistics milestone demonstrated that for high-yield areas that minimize the transportation distances of a low-density, unstable biomass, we could achieve a delivered cost of $35/ton. Based on current conventional equipment and processes, the 2012 logistics design is able to deliver the volume of biomass needed to fulfill the 2012 Renewable Fuel Standard’s targets for ethanol. However, the Renewable Fuel Standard’s volume targets are continuing to increase and are expected to peak in 2022 at 36 billion gallons. Meeting these volume targets and achieving a national-scale biofuels industry will require expansion of production capacity beyond the 2012 Conventional Feedstock Supply Design Case to access diverse available feedstocks, regardless of their inherent ability to meet preliminary biorefinery quality feedstock specifications. Implementation of quality specifications (specs), as outlined in the 2017 Design Case – “Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels” (in progress), requires insertion of deliberate, active quality controls into the feedstock supply chain, whereas the 2012 Conventional Design only utilizes passive quality controls.

  15. On Properties of Policy-Based Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Margheri


    Full Text Available The advent of large-scale, complex computing systems has dramatically increased the difficulties of securing accesses to systems' resources. To ensure confidentiality and integrity, the exploitation of access control mechanisms has thus become a crucial issue in the design of modern computing systems. Among the different access control approaches proposed in the last decades, the policy-based one permits to capture, by resorting to the concept of attribute, all systems' security-relevant information and to be, at the same time, sufficiently flexible and expressive to represent the other approaches. In this paper, we move a step further to understand the effectiveness of policy-based specifications by studying how they permit to enforce traditional security properties. To support system designers in developing and maintaining policy-based specifications, we formalise also some relevant properties regarding the structure of policies. By means of a case study from the banking domain, we present real instances of such properties and outline an approach towards their automatised verification.

  16. Neural correlates of specific musical anhedonia. (United States)

    Martínez-Molina, Noelia; Mas-Herrero, Ernest; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Zatorre, Robert J; Marco-Pallarés, Josep


    Although music is ubiquitous in human societies, there are some people for whom music holds no reward value despite normal perceptual ability and preserved reward-related responses in other domains. The study of these individuals with specific musical anhedonia may be crucial to understand better the neural correlates underlying musical reward. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that musically induced pleasure may arise from the interaction between auditory cortical networks and mesolimbic reward networks. If such interaction is critical for music-induced pleasure to emerge, then those individuals who do not experience it should show alterations in the cortical-mesolimbic response. In the current study, we addressed this question using fMRI in three groups of 15 participants, each with different sensitivity to music reward. We demonstrate that the music anhedonic participants showed selective reduction of activity for music in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), but normal activation levels for a monetary gambling task. Furthermore, this group also exhibited decreased functional connectivity between the right auditory cortex and ventral striatum (including the NAcc). In contrast, individuals with greater than average response to music showed enhanced connectivity between these structures. Thus, our results suggest that specific musical anhedonia may be associated with a reduction in the interplay between the auditory cortex and the subcortical reward network, indicating a pivotal role of this interaction for the enjoyment of music.

  17. Site-Specific Carbon Isotopes in Organics (United States)

    Piasecki, A.; Eiler, J. M.


    Natural organic molecules exhibit a wide range of internal site-specific isotope variation (i.e., molecules with same isotopic substitution type but different site). Such variations are generally unconstrained by bulk isotopic measurements. If known, site-specific variations might constrain temperatures of equilibrium, mechanisms of formation or consumption reactions, and possibly other details. For example, lipids can exhibit carbon isotope differences of up to 30‰ between adjacent carbon sites as a result of fractionations arising during decarboxylation of pyruvate and other steps in lipid biosynthesis(1). We present a method for site-specific carbon isotope analysis of propane, based on high-resolution, multi-collector gas source mass spectrometry, using a novel prototype instrument - the Thermo MAT 253 Ultra. This machine has an inlet system and electron bombardment ion source resembling those in conventional stable isotope gas source mass spectrometers, and the energy filter, magnet, and detector array resembling those in multi-collector ICPMS and TIMS. The detector array has 7 detector positions, 6 of which are movable, and each of which can collect ions with either a faraday cup (read through amplifiers ranging from 107-1012 ohms) or an SEM. High mass resolving power (up to 27,000, MRP = M/dM definition) is achieved through a narrow entrance slit, adjustable from 250 to 5 μm. Such resolution can cleanly separate isobaric interferences between isotopologues of organic molecules having the same cardinal mass (e.g., 13CH3 and 12CH2D). We use this technology to analyze the isotopologues and fragments of propane, and use such data to solve for the site-specific carbon isotope fractionation. By measuring isotopologues of both the one-carbon (13CH3) and the two-carbon (13C12CH4) fragment ion, we can solve for both bulk δ13C and the difference in δ13C between the terminal and central carbon position. We tested this method by analyzing mixtures between natural

  18. Chemical and radiochemical specifications - PWR power plants; Specifications chimiques et radiochimiques - Centrales REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzmann, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)


    Published by EDF this document gives the chemical specifications of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) nuclear power plants. Among the chemical parameters, some have to be respected for the safety. These parameters are listed in the STE (Technical Specifications of Exploitation). The values to respect, the analysis frequencies and the time states of possible drops are noticed in this document with the motion STE under the concerned parameter. (A.L.B.)

  19. Bank-specific, industry-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability


    Athanasoglou, Panayiotis; Brissimis, Sophocles; Delis, Matthaios


    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of bank-specific, industry-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) hypothesis. To account for profit persistence, we apply a GMM technique to a panel of Greek banks that covers the period 1985-2001. The estimation results show that profitability persists to a moderate extent, indicating that departures from perfectly competiti...

  20. A Computational Model of Semantic Memory Impairment: Modality- Specificity and Emergent Category-Specificity (United States)


    living things only when know.ledge is probed verbally . A /A 1 ii t A computational model of semantic memory impairment: Modality-specificity and...can account for a recent observation of impaired knowledge of living thngs only when knowledge is probed verbally . 3 How is semantic memory organized...just one modality (e.g. visual or auditory agnosia) or impaired manipulation of objects with specific uses, despite intact recognition of them ( apraxia

  1. Standard technical specifications: Combustion engineering plants. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Combustion Engineering Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS.

  2. Standard technical specifications: General Electric plants, BWR/4. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  3. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt


    care, whereas permanent exclusion is favoured for other programs, e.g. child allowances given to children in country of origin. These findings support the thesis of program-specific welfare chauvinism and point to a political space for pragmatic adjustments of current EU rules. The article also finds......The article investigates how welfare chauvinism differs across various social benefits and services. The case is Danes’ attitudes towards granting social rights to Eastern European workers. For some programs a clear majority favours giving social rights immediately on arrival, e.g. rights to health...... similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  4. Accessing Specific Peptide Recognition by Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming

    Molecular recognition is at the basis of all processes for life, and plays a central role in many biological processes, such as protein folding, the structural organization of cells and organelles, signal transduction, and the immune response. Hence, my PhD project is entitled “Accessing Specific....... Totally, 5.8×1011 possible molecular interactions could be assessed from a single screen. Several hits were isolated and the sequences obtained by MS-MS. Some of pairs showed nM range binding, which is equivalent to many protein-protein interactions. (chapter 6) Finally, to study molecular entanglement...... important for life science. β-hairpin tags are proteinogenic amino acid tags, which enablesv the introduction of the individual peptides into proteins by simple genetic fusion followed by a recombinant expression. (chapter 7) Hence, β-hairpin tags were used to purify over-expressed EGFP from lysed cell....

  5. Procedural specificity in laparoscopic simulator training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Flemming; Sørensen, Jette Led; Konge, Lars


    BACKGROUND: The use of structured curricula for minimally invasive surgery training is becoming increasingly popular. However, many laparoscopic training programs still use basic skills and isolated task training, despite increasing evidence to support the use of training models with higher...... functional resemblance, such as whole procedural modules. In contrast to basic skills training, procedural training involves several cognitive skills such as elements of planning, movement integration, and how to avoid adverse events. The objective of this trial is to investigate the specificity...... of procedural practice in laparoscopic simulator training. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomised single-centre educational superiority trial. Participants are 96 surgical novices (medical students) without prior laparoscopic experience. Participants start by practicing a series of basic skills tasks to a predefined...

  6. Modelling enzyme reaction mechanisms, specificity and catalysis. (United States)

    Mulholland, Adrian J


    Modern modelling methods can now give uniquely detailed understanding of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, including the analysis of mechanisms and the identification of determinants of specificity and catalytic efficiency. A new field of computational enzymology has emerged that has the potential to contribute significantly to structure-based design and to develop predictive models of drug metabolism and, for example, of the effects of genetic polymorphisms. This review outlines important techniques in this area, including quantum-chemical model studies and combined quantum-mechanics and molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Some recent applications to enzymes of pharmacological interest are also covered, showing the types of problems that can be tackled and the insight they can give.

  7. Education and Cause-specific Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Helene; Lange, Theis; Osler, Merete


    BACKGROUND: Differential exposures to behavioral risk factors have been shown to play an important mediating role on the education-mortality relation. However, little is known about the extent to which educational attainment interacts with health behavior, possibly through differential...... vulnerability. METHODS: In a cohort study of 76,294 participants 30 to 70 years of age, we estimated educational differences in cause-specific mortality from 1980 through 2009 and the mediating role of behavioral risk factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and body mass index). With the use...... of marginal structural models and three-way effect decomposition, we simultaneously regarded the behavioral risk factors as intermediates and clarified the role of their interaction with educational exposure. RESULTS: Rate differences in mortality comparing participants with low to high education were 1...

  8. Task-specific microextractions using ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qichao; Anderson, Jared L. [University of Toledo, Department of Chemistry, Toledo, OH (United States)


    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been the focus of many scientific investigations including the field of analytical microextractions. ILs have many advantages over traditional organic solvents making them excellent candidates as extraction media for a variety of microextraction techniques. Many physical properties of ILs can be varied, and the structural design and make-up can be tuned to impart desired functionality for enhancement of analyte extraction selectivity, efficiency, and sensitivity. This paper provides a brief overview of ionic liquids and highlights trends in three important sample-preparation techniques, namely, single drop microextraction, solid-phase microextraction, and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction in terms of performing task-specific extractions using these highly versatile solvents. (orig.)

  9. Player-Specific Conflict Handling Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Hondrou


    Full Text Available This paper presents an ontology that leads the player of a serious game - regarding conflict handling - to the educative experience from which they will benefit the most. It provides a clearly defined tree of axioms that maps the player’s visually manifested affective cues and emotional stimuli from the serious game to conflict handling styles and proposes interventions. The importance of this ontology lies in the fact that it promotes natural interaction (non-invasive methods and at the same time makes the game as player-specific as it can be for its educational goal. It is an ontology that can be adapted to different educational theories and serve various educational purposes.

  10. Sandia Data Archive (SDA) file specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ao, Tommy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Sandia Data Archive (SDA) format is a specific implementation of the HDF5 (Hierarchal Data Format version 5) standard. The format was developed for storing data in a universally accessible manner. SDA files may contain one or more data records, each associated with a distinct text label. Primitive records provide basic data storage, while compound records support more elaborate grouping. External records allow text/binary files to be carried inside an archive and later recovered. This report documents version 1.0 of the SDA standard. The information provided here is sufficient for reading from and writing to an archive. Although the format was original designed for use in MATLAB, broader use is encouraged.

  11. Morphing patient-specific musculoskeletal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, John; Galibarov, Pavel E.; Al-Munajjed, Amir

    the generic model differs significantly from the patient in question. The scenario therefore entails two sets of data: (i) a generic musculoskeletal model representing a single (average) individual, and (ii) a set of 3-D medical imaging data, typically in the form of a DICOM file obtained from CT, MRI...... of dozens of man-years. Healthy humans differ significantly in size, shape and general morphology, and this variation is even larger for patients with pathological anatomies. Thus, patient-specific models are imperative for reliable biomechanical analyses on which decisions of surgical treatments...... the resulting models do indeed represent the patients’ biomechanics. As a particularly challenging case, foot deformities based only on point sets recovered from surface scans are considered as shown in the figure. The preliminary results are promising for the cases of severe flat foot and metatarsalgia while...

  12. Genome position specific priors for genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens Sandø


    Background The accuracy of genomic prediction is highly dependent on the size of the reference population. For small populations, including information from other populations could improve this accuracy. The usual strategy is to pool data from different populations; however, this has not proven...... as successful as hoped for with distantly related breeds. BayesRS is a novel approach to share information across populations for genomic predictions. The approach allows information to be captured even where the phase of SNP alleles and casual mutation alleles are reversed across populations, or the actual...... casual mutation is different between the populations but affects the same gene. Proportions of a four-distribution mixture for SNP effects in segments of fixed size along the genome are derived from one population and set as location specific prior proportions of distributions of SNP effects...

  13. Copula method for specific Burr distribution (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Hidayah Binti; Khalid, Zarina Binti Mohd


    Copula method is discovered to become a useful method to joint two distributions and is known as dependence functions. It is a multivariate distribution functions whose one-dimensional margins are uniform on the interval (0, 1). The used of copula has expanded in many fields of study. Copula has many classes and families. However, in this research, copula methods which are Ali-Mikhail-Haq (AMH), Clayton and Gumbel are used on uncensored data to join specific Burr Type III and XII distributions using the theorem and algorithm of construction the copula. The result showed that AMH, Clayton and Gumbel copula fitted well with Burr distribution since the values of copula lie on the interval (0, 1).

  14. On HNBUE class after specific age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.W. Mahmoud


    Full Text Available In this article we introduce new classes of life distributions namely harmonic new better (worse than used in expectation after specific age t0 HNBUE∗t0 (HNWUE∗t0. The closure properties under various reliability operations such as convolution, mixture, mixing and the homogeneous Poisson shock model of these classes are studied. Furthermore, nonparametric test is proposed to test exponentiality vs. the HNBUE∗t0 class. The critical values and the powers of this test are calculated to assess the performance of the test. It is shown that the proposed test have high efficiencies for LFR and Weibull distributions. Sets of real data are used as examples to elucidate the use of the proposed test for practical problems.

  15. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, R.E.


    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  16. The Warsaw soundscape - structure and specifics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Małgorzata


    Full Text Available The Warsaw soundscape has been examined according to the principles of acoustic ecology. The soundscape is the acoustic environment tested primarily by qualitative research. Warsaw residents were asked in a survey about their sound impressions and requirements for the Warsaw soundscape. The aim of this research was to learn both the conditions of acoustic environment and the needs of space users in accordance with the space category. The present and expected sound structures of five different categories of space were examined (residential areas, streets, city centre, tourist areas and green areas. Information on both the specific Warsaw sounds and the ideas for new sounds (which could be introduced into the city was collected.

  17. Compact stars with specific mass function (United States)

    Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Rahaman, Farook; Rahaman, Monsur; Banerjee, Ayan


    Aims: In the present work we search for a new model of compact star within embedding class one spacetime i.e., four dimensional spacetime embedded in five dimensional Pseudo Euclidean space. Methods: In particular we propose a new mass function to obtain an exact analytic solutions of the Einstein field equations. For this specific mass function, obtained solutions are well-behaved at the centre of the star, satisfy all energy conditions and the mass-radius relation fall within the limit proposed by Buchdahl (1959). Results: The static equilibrium condition has been maintained under different forces. We have discussed the solutions in detail and compare with a set of astrophysical objects like 4U1608-52, PSR J1903+327, PSR J1614-2230 and X-ray pulsar Vela X-1 is also explored.

  18. CVD calibration light systems specifications. Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcllwain, A. K. [Analytical Science Branch, Whiteshell Laboratories, AECL Research Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)


    Two prototype Cerenkov Viewing Device Calibration Light systems for the Mark IV CVD have been fabricated. They consist of a maintenance unit that will be used by the IAEA maintenance staff and a field unit that will be used by IAEA inspectors. More detailed information on the design of the calibration units can be obtained from the document SSP-39 and additional information on the Mark IV CVD can be obtained from the operating manual published as Canadian Safeguards Support Program document CSSP 6. The specifications refer to the prototype units which will be demonstrated to the IAEA in 1992 May. Based upon the feedback from the IAEA, the instruments will be changed in the final production models to provide devices that more closely satisfy the needs of the end users.

  19. Zinc-specific food frequency questionnaire. (United States)

    Lacey, Janet M


    A new dietary zinc assessment tool (ZAT) was evaluated to determine its usefulness in estimating zinc intakes among college students. A food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for calculating average zinc intakes was administered to university students who had also completed three-day food records. Zinc intakes from the two instruments were compared. Among 171 participants (38 male, 133 female) aged 20.2 +/- 1.6 years (mean +/- standard deviation), the two dietary assessment methods were positively correlated (r=0.33, pAllowance for zinc (8 mg/day for females, 11 mg/day for males). This convenient tool may assist in the identification of problematic dietary patterns at an early stage. Further design modifications and expanded studies are warranted.

  20. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  1. High specific power lithium polymer rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.Y.; De Jonghe, L.; Visco, S. [PolyPlus Battery Co., Berkeley, CA (United States)


    PolyPlus Battery Company (PPBC) is developing an advanced lithium polymer rechargeable battery based on its proprietary positive electrode. This battery offers high steady-state (> 250 W/kg) and peak power densities (3,000 W/kg), in a low cost and environmentally benign format. This PolyPlus lithium polymer battery also delivers high specific energy. The first generation battery has an energy density of 100 Wh/kg (120 Wh/l) and subsequent generations increases the performance in excess of 500 Wh/kg (600 Wh/l). The high power and energy densities, along with the low toxicity and low cost of materials used in the PolyPlus solid-state cell makes this battery exceptionally attractive for both hybrid and electric vehicle applications.

  2. [Therapy control of specific hymenoptera venom allergy]. (United States)

    Aust, W; Wichmann, G; Dietz, A


    In Germany anaphylactic reactions after insect stings are mostly caused by honey bee (Apis mellifera) and wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Vespula germanica). In the majority of cases venom immunotherapy is a successful therapy and protects patients from recurrent systemic anaphylactic reaction. In some patients persistent severe reactions after insect sting can even occur in spite of venom therapy, as a sign of therapy failure. It is important to identify these patients, who do not benefit from venom immunotherapy, in an early stage of therapy. In this case dose rate of venom immunotherapy must be adjusted for a successful therapy outcome. Up to now skin prick tests, specific IgE-antibodies and in vitro diagnostics are not suitable for detecting therapy failure. Patients with treatment failure can be diagnosed by insect sting test and almost all of them will become fully protected by increasing the maintenance dose. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Graham S. [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States)


    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  4. RD53A Integrated Circuit Specifications

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sciveres, Mauricio


    Specifications for the RD53 collaboration’s first engineering wafer run of an integrated circuit (IC) for hybrid pixel detector readout, called RD53A. RD53A is intended to demonstrate in a large format IC the suitability of the technology (including radiation tolerance), the stable low threshold operation, and the high hit and trigger rate capabilities, required for HL-LHC upgrades of ATLAS and CMS. The wafer scale production will permit the experiments to prototype bump bonding assembly with realistic sensors in this new technology and to measure the performance of hybrid assemblies. RD53A is not intended to be a final production IC for use in an experiment, and will contain design variations for testing purposes, making the pixel matrix non-uniform.

  5. Refining System Requirements to Program Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Ruediger; Ravn, Anders P.; Skakkebæk, Jens Ulrik


    A coherent and mathematically well-founded approach to the design ofreal-time and hybrid systems is presented.It covers requirementsanalysis and specification, design of controlling automatasatisfying the requirements, and derivation ofoccam-like communicating programs from these automata.......The generalized railroad crossing due to Heitmeyer and Lynchillustrates the approach.Requirements are analyzed within aconventional dynamic systems model of a plant, where states arefunctions of the reals, representing time. The requirements arespecified in an assumption-commitment style using Duration Calculus......,a real-time interval logic. Controlling real-time automata arespecified in the same formalism by elementaryconstraints on the plant states for each control state or phase.The Duration Calculus is used to verify that the control design refinesthe requirements.The real-time automata map smoothly...

  6. Keratinocyte specific markers isolated using phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.B.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Ravn, P.


    Specific molecular markers for various normal and pathogenic cell states and cell types provide knowledge of basic biological systems and have a direct application in targeted therapy. We describe a proteomic method based on the combination of new and improved phage display antibody technologies...... display method was applied to analysis of human skin keratinocytes resulting in the isolation of a panel of antibodies. Fourteen of these antibodies were further characterized, half of which predominantly recognized keratinocytes in a screen of a range of different cell types. Three cognate keratinocyte...... antigens were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry as laminin-5, plectin, and fibronectin. The combination of phage display technology with mass spectrometry methods for protein identification is a general and promising approach for proteomic analysis of cell surface complexity....

  7. Cost Concept Model and Gateway Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad


    in an operational context but will also provide a critical foundation for more strategic thinking around curation such as the Economic Sustainability Reference Model (ESRM). Where appropriate, definitions of terms are provided, recommendations are made, and examples from existing models are used to illustrate...... user communities and builds upon our understanding of the requirements, drivers, obstacles and objectives that various stakeholder groups have relating to digital curation. Ultimately, this concept model should provide a critical input to the development and refinement of cost models as well as helping...... both costs and benefits is provided. The goal of this task was not to create a single, functionally implementable cost modelling application; but rather to design a model based on common concepts and to develop a generic gateway specification that can be used by future model developers, service...

  8. Patient-specific workup of adrenal incidentalomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy R. de Haan

    Full Text Available Purpose: : To develop a clinical prediction model to predict a clinically relevant adrenal disorder for patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Materials and methods: : This retrospective study is approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Natural language processing is used for filtering of adrenal incidentaloma cases in all thoracic and abdominal CT reports from 2010 till 2012. A total of 635 patients are identified. Stepwise logistic regression is used to construct the prediction model. The model predicts if a patient is at risk for malignancy or hormonal hyperfunction of the adrenal gland at the moment of initial presentation, thus generates a predicted probability for every individual patient. The prediction model is evaluated on its usefulness in clinical practice using decision curve analysis (DCA based on different threshold probabilities. For patients whose predicted probability is lower than the predetermined threshold probability, further workup could be omitted. Results: : A prediction model is successfully developed, with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.78. Results of the DCA indicate that up to 11% of patients with an adrenal incidentaloma can be avoided from unnecessary workup, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 11%. Conclusion: : A prediction model can accurately predict if an adrenal incidentaloma patient is at risk for malignancy or hormonal hyperfunction of the adrenal gland based on initial imaging features and patient demographics. However, with most adrenal incidentalomas labeled as nonfunctional adrenocortical adenomas requiring no further treatment, it is likely that more patients could be omitting from unnecessary diagnostics. Keywords: Adrenal incidentaloma, Patient-specific workup, Prediction model

  9. Specific Nucleoprotein Residues Affect Influenza Virus Morphology (United States)

    Bialas, Kristy M.; Bussey, Kendra A.; Stone, Raychel L.


    Influenza virus strains are often pleiomorphic, a characteristic that is largely attributed to specific residues in matrix protein 1 (M1). Although the mechanism by which M1 controls virion morphology has not yet been defined, it is suggested that the M1 interaction with other viral proteins plays an important role. In this study, we rescued recombinant virus WSN-AichiM1 containing the spherical A/WSN/33 (WSN) backbone and the M1 protein from A/Aichi/2/68 (Aichi). Aichi M1 differs from WSN M1 by 7 amino acids but includes those identified to be responsible for filamentous virion formation. Interestingly, Aichi virus produced spherical virions, while WSN-AichiM1 exhibited a long filamentous morphology, as detected by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Additional incorporation of Aichi nucleoprotein (NP) but not the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), or M2 gene to WSN-AichiM1 abrogated filamentous virion formation, suggesting that specific M1-NP interactions affect virion morphology. Further characterization of viruses containing WSN/Aichi chimeric NPs identified residues 214, 217, and 253 of Aichi NP as necessary and sufficient for the formation of spherical virions. NP residues 214 and 217 localize at the minor groove between the two opposite-polarity NP helical strands of viral ribonucleocapsids, and residue 253 also localizes near the surface of the groove. These findings indicate that NP plays a critical role in influenza virus morphology, possibly through its interaction with the M1 layer during virus budding. PMID:24335312

  10. Specific dermatoses of pregnancy: a review. (United States)

    Yakasai, I A; Thomson, A J; Fitzsimons, C


    Some dermatoses worsen during pregnancy, some improve, yet others have unpredictable course. To conduct evidence-based search, and review of current management of specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Comprehensive literature search was conducted, with Medline and Cochrane Database regarding skin diseases in pregnancy from 1990- 2005. International pharmaceutical abstracts science search (1997- 2003) was used for search references found in the articles. All articles selected for inclusion in this review were evaluated critically with regards to their impact factor, source, and evidence based contribution on this topic as measured by their citation index and the journals they were published in. This review was limited to specific dermatoses of pregnancy generally and some of the skin disorders modified by pregnancy. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy should be managed as high risk pregnancies as several investigations have shown foetal complications. Recent randomised trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Pruritice ruption of pregnancy is associated with multiple pregnancies. It has variable clinical features and has to be differentiated from pemphigoid gestationis, which is associated with an increased incidence of both prematurity and small for date's babies. Prurigo of pregnancy is extremely itchy with papules appearing on the extensor surfaces of the limbs and trunk. It has no maternal risk. The eruptions in pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy clear spontaneously in the postpartum period, with no associated morbidity either in the mother or baby. Some skin diseases like obstetric cholestasis may have adverse foetal outcome, while other disorders like pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy have no significant effect on either the mother or baby.

  11. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load (United States)

    Bogusz, Anna; Bukowska, Mirosława


    The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW) - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the susceptibility

  12. Defensive mobilization in specific phobia: fear specificity, negative affectivity, and diagnostic prominence. (United States)

    McTeague, Lisa M; Lang, Peter J; Wangelin, Bethany C; Laplante, Marie-Claude; Bradley, Margaret M


    Understanding of exaggerated responsivity in specific phobia-its physiology and neural mediators-has advanced considerably. However, despite strong phenotypic evidence that prominence of specific phobia relative to co-occurring conditions (i.e., principal versus nonprincipal disorder) is associated with dramatic differences in subjective distress, there is yet no consideration of such comorbidity issues on objective defensive reactivity. A community sample of specific phobia (n = 74 principal; n = 86 nonprincipal) and control (n = 76) participants imagined threatening and neutral events while acoustic startle probes were presented and eyeblinks (orbicularis occuli) recorded. Changes in heart rate, skin conductance level, and facial expressivity were also measured. Principal specific phobia patients far exceeded control participants in startle reflex and autonomic reactivity during idiographic fear imagery. Distinguishing between single and multiple phobias within principal phobia and comparing these with nonprincipal phobia revealed a continuum of decreasing defensive mobilization: single patients were strongly reactive, multiple patients were intermediate, and nonprincipal patients were attenuated-the inverse of measures of pervasive anxiety and dysphoria (i.e., negative affectivity). Further, as more disorders supplanted specific phobia from principal disorder, overall defensive mobilization was systematically more impaired. The exaggerated responsivity characteristic of specific phobia is limited to those patients for whom circumscribed fear is the most impairing condition and coincident with little additional affective psychopathology. As specific phobia is superseded in severity by broad and chronic negative affectivity, defensive reactivity progressively diminishes. Focal fears may still be clinically significant but not reflected in objective defensive mobilization. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Electrical detection of specific versus non-specific binding events in breast cancer cells (United States)

    King, Benjamin C.; Clark, Michael; Burkhead, Thomas; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rai, Shesh; Kloecker, Goetz; Panchapakesan, Balaji


    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patient blood samples offers a desirable alternative to invasive tissue biopsies for screening of malignant carcinomas. A rigorous CTC detection method must identify CTCs from millions of other formed elements in blood and distinguish them from healthy tissue cells also present in the blood. CTCs are known to overexpress surface receptors, many of which aid them in invading other tissue, and these provide an avenue for their detection. We have developed carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film devices to specifically detect these receptors in intact cells. The CNT sidewalls are functionalized with antibodies specific to Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), a marker overexpressed by breast and other carcinomas. Specific binding of EpCAM to anti-EpCAM antibodies causes a change in the local charge environment of the CNT surface which produces a characteristic electrical signal. Two cell lines were tested in the device: MCF7, a mammary adenocarcinoma line which overexpresses EpCAM, and MCF10A, a non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial line which does not. Introduction of MCF7s caused significant changes in the electrical conductance of the devices due to specific binding and associated charge environment change near the CNT sidewalls. Introduction of MCF10A displays a different profile due to purely nonspecific interactions. The profile of specific vs. nonspecific interaction signatures using carbon based devices will guide development of this diagnostic tool towards clinical sample volumes with wide variety of markers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V


    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  15. Complexity of Decision Problems for Mixed and Modal Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonik, Adam; Huth, Michael; Nyman, Ulrik Mathias


    We consider decision problems for modal and mixed transition systems used as specifications: the common implementation problem (whether a set of specifications has a common implementation), the consistency problem (whether a single specification has an implementation), and the thorough refinement...

  16. Integration of Behavioural Requirements Specification within Knowledge Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herlea, D.E.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.


    It is shown how specification of behavioural requirements from informal to formal can be integrated within knowledge engineering. The integration of requirements specification has addressed, in particular: the integration of requirements acquisition and specification with ontology acquisition and

  17. [Multidimensional family therapy: which influences, which specificities?]. (United States)

    Bonnaire, C; Bastard, N; Couteron, J-P; Har, A; Phan, O


    Among illegal psycho-active drugs, cannabis is the most consumed by French adolescents. Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) is a family-based outpatient therapy which has been developed for adolescents with drug and behavioral problems. MDFT has shown its effectiveness in adolescents with substance abuse disorders (notably cannabis abuse) not only in the United States but also in Europe (International Cannabis Need of Treatment project). MDFT is a multidisciplinary approach and an evidence-based treatment, at the crossroads of developmental psychology, ecological theories and family therapy. Its psychotherapeutic techniques find its roots in a variety of approaches which include systemic family therapy and cognitive therapy. The aims of this paper are: to describe all the backgrounds of MDFT by highlighting its characteristics; to explain how structural and strategy therapies have influenced this approach; to explore the links between MDFT, brief strategic family therapy and multi systemic family therapy; and to underline the specificities of this family therapy method. The multidimensional family therapy was created on the bases of 1) the integration of multiple therapeutic techniques stemming from various family therapy theories; and 2) studies which have shown family therapy efficiency. Several trials have shown a better efficiency of MDFT compared to group treatment, cognitive-behavioral therapy and home-based treatment. Studies have also highlighted that MDFT led to superior treatment outcomes, especially among young people with severe drug use and psychiatric co-morbidities. In the field of systemic family therapies, MDFT was influenced by: 1) the structural family therapy (S. Minuchin), 2) the strategic family theory (J. Haley), and 3) the intergenerational family therapy (Bowen and Boszormenyi-Nagy). MDFT has specific aspects: MDFT therapists think in a multidimensional perspective (because an adolescent's drug abuse is a multidimensional disorder), they

  18. Organ-Specific and Memory Treg Cells: Specificity, Development, Function, and Maintenance (United States)

    Gratz, Iris K.; Campbell, Daniel J.


    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are essential for establishing and maintaining self-tolerance, and also inhibit immune responses to innocuous environmental antigens. Imbalances and dysfunction in Treg cells lead to a variety of immune-mediated diseases, as deficits in Treg cell function contribute to the development autoimmune disease and pathological tissue damage, whereas overabundance of Treg cells can promote chronic infection and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the fact that Treg cells themselves are a diverse collection of phenotypically and functionally specialized populations, with distinct developmental origins, antigen-specificities, tissue-tropisms, and homeostatic requirements. The signals directing the differentiation of these populations, their specificities and the mechanisms by which they combine to promote organ-specific and systemic tolerance, and how they embody the emerging property of regulatory memory are the focus of this review. PMID:25076948

  19. Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Nielsen, Poul Erik


    A requirements reuse setups typically includes reusable requirement set(s) containing a collection of reusable requirements and a number of product specific requirements sets which are drawn from the reusable set(s). The ideal scenario when reusing requirements is that all the product requirements...... set. In this paper the objective is not to present a specific method for requirements reuse but to introduce and discuss the possible dimensions of adjustability when generating a product requirement set by reusing requirements from a reusable set. Six adjustability dimensions have been identified...... highlights the need, not only to understand the effects of each adjustability dimension but also of the dependencies to case specific criterions. The classification of adjustability dimensions in requirements reuse and the options for their implementation has not been outlined by previous research and should...

  20. Rituximab selectively suppresses specific islet antibodies. (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Herold, Kevan; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; McGee, Paula L; Bundy, Brian; Pugliese, Alberto; Krischer, Jeff; Eisenbarth, George S


    The TrialNet Study Group evaluated rituximab, a B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody, for its effect in new-onset patients with type 1A diabetes. Rituximab decreased the loss of C-peptide over the first year of follow-up and markedly depleted B lymphocytes for 6 months after administration. This article analyzes the specific effect of rituximab on multiple islet autoantibodies. A total of 87 patients between the ages of 8 and 40 years received either rituximab or a placebo infusion weekly for four doses close to the onset of diabetes. Autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), GAD65 (GADAs), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2As), and ZnT8 (ZnT8As) were measured with radioimmunoassays. The primary outcome for this autoantibody analysis was the mean level of autoantibodies during follow-up. Rituximab markedly suppressed IAAs compared with the placebo injection but had a much smaller effect on GADAs, IA2As, and ZnT8As. A total of 40% (19 of 48) of rituximab-treated patients who were IAA positive became IAA negative versus 0 of 29 placebo-treated patients (P IAAs were markedly suppressed by rituximab in all patients for 1 year and for four patients as long as 3 years despite continuing insulin therapy. Independent of rituximab treatment, the mean level of IAAs at study entry was markedly lower (P = 0.035) for patients who maintained C-peptide levels during the first year of follow-up in both rituximab-treated and placebo groups. A single course of rituximab differentially suppresses IAAs, clearly blocking IAAs for >1 year in insulin-treated patients. For the patients receiving insulin for >2 weeks prior to rituximab administration, we cannot assess whether rituximab not only blocks the acquisition of insulin antibodies induced by insulin administration and/or also suppresses preformed insulin autoantibodies. Studies in prediabetic non-insulin-treated patients will likely be needed to evaluate the specific effects of rituximab on levels of IAAs.

  1. Data mining of enzymes using specific peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavi Yair


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the function of a protein from its sequence is a long-standing challenge of bioinformatic research, typically addressed using either sequence-similarity or sequence-motifs. We employ the novel motif method that consists of Specific Peptides (SPs that are unique to specific branches of the Enzyme Commission (EC functional classification. We devise the Data Mining of Enzymes (DME methodology that allows for searching SPs on arbitrary proteins, determining from its sequence whether a protein is an enzyme and what the enzyme's EC classification is. Results We extract novel SP sets from Swiss-Prot enzyme data. Using a training set of July 2006, and test sets of July 2008, we find that the predictive power of SPs, both for true-positives (enzymes and true-negatives (non-enzymes, depends on the coverage length of all SP matches (the number of amino-acids matched on the protein sequence. DME is quite different from BLAST. Comparing the two on an enzyme test set of July 2008, we find that DME has lower recall. On the other hand, DME can provide predictions for proteins regarded by BLAST as having low homologies with known enzymes, thus supplying complementary information. We test our method on a set of proteins belonging to 10 bacteria, dated July 2008, establishing the usefulness of the coverage-length cutoff to determine true-negatives. Moreover, sifting through our predictions we find that some of them have been substantiated by Swiss-Prot annotations by July 2009. Finally we extract, for production purposes, a novel SP set trained on all Swiss-Prot enzymes as of July 2009. This new set increases considerably the recall of DME. The new SP set is being applied to three metagenomes: Sargasso Sea with over 1,000,000 proteins, producing predictions of over 220,000 enzymes, and two human gut metagenomes. The outcome of these analyses can be characterized by the enzymatic profile of the metagenomes, describing the relative

  2. Specific Energy of Hard Coal Under Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Anna


    Full Text Available The article presents results of experimental tests of energy parameters of hard coals under loading, collected from research sites located within five main geologic structures of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW - Main Trough, Main Anticline, Bytom Trough, Rybnik Trough and Chwałowice Trough. Coals from12 mines were analysed, starting with seams of group 200, through groups 400, 500, 600 and, finally, seams of group 700. Coal of each of the groups of seams underwent uniaxial compression stress of the energy parameters, in a servo-controlled testing machine MTS-810NEW, for the full range of strain of the tested coal samples. Based on the tests the dependence of different types of specific energy of longitudinal strain of coals on the value of uniaxial compression strength was determined. The dependence of the value of dissipated energy and kinetic energy of coals on the uniaxial compression strength was described with a linear function, both for coals which due to their age belong to various bed sand for various lithotypes of coal. An increase in the value of dissipated energy and in kinetic energy was observed, which was correlated with an increase in uniaxial compression strength of coal. The share of dissipated energy is dominant in the total energy of strain. Share of recoverable energy in the total energy of strain is small, independent of the compression strength of coals and is at most a few per cent high. In coals of low strength and dominant share of dissipated energy, share of recoverable energy is the biggest among the tested coals. It was shown that following an increase in compression strength the share of recoverable energy decreases, while the share of dissipated energy in the total energy increases. Further studies of specific energy of longitudinal strain of rocks in the full-range strain will be the next step inperfecting methodology of research into natural rock burst susceptibility of Carboniferous rock mass and changes in the

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Specific Immunochromatography Based Lateral Flow Assay for Serogroup Specific Diagnosis of Leptospirosis in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Vanithamani

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a re-emerging infectious disease that is under-recognized due to low-sensitivity and cumbersome serological tests. MAT is the gold standard test and it is the only serogroup specific test used till date. Rapid reliable alternative serogroup specific tests are needed for surveillance studies to identify locally circulating serogroups in the study area.In the present investigation the serological specificity of leptospiral lipopolysaccharides (LPS was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, dot blot assay and rapid immunochromatography based lateral flow assay (ICG-LFA. Sera samples from 120 MAT positive cases, 174 cases with febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 121 seronegative healthy controls were evaluated for the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the developed assays. LPS was extracted from five locally predominant circulating serogroups including: Australis (27.5%, Autumnalis (11.7%, Ballum (25.8%, Grippotyphosa (12.5%, Pomona (10% and were used as antigens in the diagnostics to detect IgM antibodies in patients' sera. The sensitivity observed by IgM ELISA and dot blot assay using various leptospiral LPS was >90% for homologous sera. Except for Ballum LPS, no other LPS showed cross-reactivity to heterologous sera. An attempt was made to develop LPS based ICG-LFA for rapid and sensitive serogroup specific diagnostics of leptospirosis. The developed ICG-LFA showed sensitivity in the range between 93 and 100% for homologous sera. The Wilcoxon analysis showed LPS based ICG-LFA did not differ significantly from the gold standard MAT (P>0.05.The application of single array of LPS for serogroup specific diagnosis is first of its kind. The developed assay could potentially be evaluated and employed for as MAT alternative.

  4. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability: Marginal and Cause-Specific Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie


    cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling......cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling...

  5. Cell-specific DNA methylation patterns of retina-specific genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannath L Merbs

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms are important in the regulation of gene expression during embryogenesis, gametogenesis, and other forms of tissue-specific gene regulation. We sought to explore the possible role of epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, in the establishment and maintenance of cell type-restricted gene expression in the retina. To assess the relationship between DNA methylation status and expression level of retinal genes, bisulfite sequence analysis of the 1000 bp region around the transcription start sites (TSS of representative rod and cone photoreceptor-specific genes and gene expression analysis were performed in the WERI and Y79 human retinoblastoma cell lines. Next, the homologous genes in mouse were bisulfite sequenced in the retina and in non-expressing tissues. Finally, bisulfite sequencing was performed on isolated photoreceptor and non-photoreceptor retinal cells isolated by laser capture microdissection. Differential methylation of rhodopsin (RHO, retinal binding protein 3 (RBP3, IRBP cone opsin, short-wave-sensitive (OPN1SW, cone opsin, middle-wave-sensitive (OPN1MW, and cone opsin, long-wave-sensitive (OPN1LW was found in the retinoblastoma cell lines that inversely correlated with gene expression levels. Similarly, we found tissue-specific hypomethylation of the promoter region of Rho and Rbp3 in mouse retina as compared to non-expressing tissues, and also observed hypomethylation of retinal-expressed microRNAs. The Rho and Rbp3 promoter regions were unmethylated in expressing photoreceptor cells and methylated in non-expressing, non-photoreceptor cells from the inner nuclear layer. A third regional hypomethylation pattern of photoreceptor-specific genes was seen in a subpopulation of non-expressing photoreceptors (Rho in cones from the Nrl -/- mouse and Opn1sw in rods. These results demonstrate that a number of photoreceptor-specific genes have cell-specific differential DNA

  6. Genotype-specific interactions between parasitic arthropods. (United States)

    Orsucci, M; Navajas, M; Fellous, S


    Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, we know little of the effects of intra-specific genetic variability on coinfection by distinct parasite species. Here we test the hypothesis that parasite multiplication depends on the combination of parasite genotypes that coinfect the host (that is Genotype.parasite × Genotype.parasite interaction). To that aim, we infected tomato leaves with the ecto-parasitic mites Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi. We tested all possible combinations between four T. urticae and two T. evansi populations sampled on different hosts or localities. There was no universal (that is genotype-independent) effect of coinfection on mite multiplication; in many cases the two species had no effect on each other. However, several combinations of T. evansi and T. urticae populations led to elevated T. evansi numbers. Similarly, T. urticae reproduction largely depended on the interaction between T. urticae and T. evansi populations. This evidence for genotype-by-genotype interaction between coinfecting parasites indicates that the effect of coinfection on parasite epidemiology and evolution may vary in space according to the genetic composition of local parasite populations; it further suggests the possibility of coevolution between parasites species that share the same hosts.

  7. Specification of floral organs in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Wellmer, Frank; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Riechmann, José Luis


    Floral organs are specified by the activities of a small group of transcriptional regulators, the floral organ identity factors. Extensive genetic and molecular analyses have shown that these proteins act as master regulators of flower development, and function not only in organ identity determination but also during organ morphogenesis. Although it is now well established that these transcription factors act in higher order protein complexes in the regulation of transcription, the gene expression programmes controlled by them have remained largely elusive. Only recently, detailed insights into their functions have been obtained through the combination of a wide range of experimental methods, including transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Here, we review the progress that has been made in the characterization of the floral organ identity factors from the main model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and we discuss what is known about the processes acting downstream of these regulators. We further outline open questions, which we believe need to be addressed to obtain a more complete view of the molecular processes that govern floral organ development and specification.

  8. [Advances in lineage-specific genes]. (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-ping; Yin, Tong-ming


    Lineage-specific genes (LSGs) are defined as genes found in one particular taxonomic group but have no significant sequence similarity with genes from other lineages, which compose about 10%?20% of the total genes in the genome of a focal organism. LSGs were first uncovered in the yeast genome in 1996. The development of the whole genome sequencing leads to the emergence of studies on LSGs as a hot topic in comparative genomics. LSGs have been extensively studied on microbial species, lower marine organisms, plant (such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus), insects, primate, etc; the biological functions of LSGs are important to clarify the evolution and adaptability of a species. In this review, we summarize the progress of LSGs studies, including LSGs identification, gene characterization, origin and evolution of LSGs, biological function, and expression analysis of LSGs. In addition, we discuss the existing problems and future directions for studies in this area. Our purpose is to provide some unique insights into the researches of LSGs.

  9. The SARSAT LUT specification, design and operation (United States)

    Kozminchuk, B. W.; Renner, R. C.; Bibby, R. J.

    The design, test performance, and operation of the local-user terminal (LUT) for the French-Canadian-U.S.-USSR SARSAT/COSPAS satellite search and rescue network are discussed. The organizational and developmental history of the program is reviewed; the LUT specifications (processing of 10 emergency-locator-transmitter signals in each of the 121.5/243-MHz channels and 50 signals in the experimental 406-MHz band, with location accuracies 20 and 5 km and threshold S/N 30 and 39 dB Hz, respectively) are examined; and the design approach adopted (digital FFT processing, two-dimensional template-matching algorithm for Doppler-curve extraction, general-purpose microprocessor hardware implementation, top-down software structure providing four operating modes, and unmanned stations with remote and on-site operator intervention) is explained. In field tests, 70 percent of the 121.5/243-MHz solutions are found to be within 20 km, and preliminary results at 406 MHz have been as accurate as 1 km. A list of successful rescue missions using the LUT in 1982-1983 is provided.

  10. SSER: Species specific essential reactions database. (United States)

    Labena, Abraham A; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Dong, Chuan; Zhang, Fa-Z; Guo, Feng-Biao


    Essential reactions are vital components of cellular networks. They are the foundations of synthetic biology and are potential candidate targets for antimetabolic drug design. Especially if a single reaction is catalyzed by multiple enzymes, then inhibiting the reaction would be a better option than targeting the enzymes or the corresponding enzyme-encoding gene. The existing databases such as BRENDA, BiGG, KEGG, Bio-models, Biosilico, and many others offer useful and comprehensive information on biochemical reactions. But none of these databases especially focus on essential reactions. Therefore, building a centralized repository for this class of reactions would be of great value. Here, we present a species-specific essential reactions database (SSER). The current version comprises essential biochemical and transport reactions of twenty-six organisms which are identified via flux balance analysis (FBA) combined with manual curation on experimentally validated metabolic network models. Quantitative data on the number of essential reactions, number of the essential reactions associated with their respective enzyme-encoding genes and shared essential reactions across organisms are the main contents of the database. SSER would be a prime source to obtain essential reactions data and related gene and metabolite information and it can significantly facilitate the metabolic network models reconstruction and analysis, and drug target discovery studies. Users can browse, search, compare and download the essential reactions of organisms of their interest through the website .

  11. Specific legislation on biobanks in Spain. (United States)

    García-Merino, Isabel Ma; Consuegra, Irene; Jiménez, José Luís; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles


    Spain has enacted specific legislation concerning biobanks. This legislation regulates how biobanks should be set up, how they should operate, and the requirements they need to comply with. The main objective of this legislation is to keep a good balance between scientific progress and respect for the rights and freedom of individuals participating in research. Therefore, this legislation lays down a series of basic principles, for instance, the principle to inform donors accurately i) on the deposit of samples in terms of the objectives and implications of their donation and on the need to obtain written consents; ii) on the obligation to establish consistent procedures to guarantee the confidentiality of personal data associated with and obtained from biological samples; iii) on the concept of free sample donation either by donors or by biobanks; iv) on the need for consistent procedures to deposit samples and data in biobanks; and v) for acts of donation and data for research projects to be performed correctly. Although this Spanish legislation fulfills its objectives, it has some drawbacks; mainly it overprotects research participants. This issue should be analyzed in future revisions of the legislation.

  12. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region]. (United States)

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S


    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms.

  13. Delta-t protocol specification: working draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.W.


    This document is one of a series describing protocols associated with the Livermore Interactive Network Communication System (LINCS) hierarchical architecture. At the heart of LINCS is its basic interprocess communication (LINCS-IPC) service. LINCS-IPC defines a reliable, flow controlled, full duplex, uninterpreted, labeled bit stream communication service. LINCS-IPC is level 4 in the LINCS architecture. Level 3 of LINCS is the Network layer defining an internetwork datagram type service. LINCS-IPC interfaces to User processes that utilize higher level syntactic and semantic conventions for process interaction. The transport service provided by the Delta-t protocol can be considered a sublayer of the LINCS-IPC layer. Delta-t augments the Network level service as required to support LINCS-IPC. This document specifies the services provided by the Delta-t protocol to support LINCS-IPC, the operation of Delta-t, and the services Delta-t requires of the Network level. This document was written to be self-contained but the reader will find it useful to have available for reference the LINCS-IPC and LINCS DeltaGram Network layer protocol specifications. Implementations are underway in Pascal for the PDP-11 running under RT11 and RX11, in BLISS for the VAX running under VMS, in MODEL for the CRAY-1 and CDC 7600 running under NLTSS and LTSS, and for the SEL 32/75 running under PORT.

  14. Specificity of peer conflicts in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Danijela


    Full Text Available The results of the survey conducted on the sample of 530 adolescents are presented in this paper. The sample included two age groups (13 and 16 years. The research was realized in 11 town and 26 schools. The method of the retrospection of the conflict contents, with one week retrospection interval, was used to research the perception of the conflict characteristics. The distinctive characteristics and the effects of the peer conflicts in adolescence have been identified by comparing them to the conflicts with friends, romantic partners, siblings and teachers. According to the results peer conflicts have certain specificity. Although less frequent than conflicts with parents and siblings, the peer conflicts in adolescence are widen phenomenon - on average, the adolescents get in conflict with their peers more than 13 times in a week, almost twice in a day. The most frequent causes are teasing and inappropriate jokes, deliberate provoking, gossips, insults and not respecting the differences in opinion. Peers follow the teachers as the least important persons in the conflict. Compared to the conflicts in other types of the social relations, the conflicts with peers are the least uncomfortable. Yielding is the least, competition the most present resolution strategy in peer conflicts. As well as the most conflicts in this age conflicts with peers are short time episode.

  15. Comorbidity in Emetophobia (Specific Phobia of Vomiting). (United States)

    Sykes, Mark; Boschen, Mark J; Conlon, Elizabeth G


    Emetophobia (fear of vomiting) is an anxiety disorder in which individuals report clinical levels of fear that they may vomit or be exposed to the vomit of others. The prevalence of comorbidity of emetophobia with other conditions has previously only been investigated using self-report instruments. Sixty-four adults with emetophobia participated in an online structured clinical diagnostic interview assessing the presence of emetophobia and other conditions. Higher comorbidity for depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were found in participants compared with general population norms. Emetophobia is commonly comorbid with other anxiety and depressive disorders. Comorbidity rates, when assessed using a structured clinical interview, were lower than previously reported using self-report alone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message Emetophobia (specific phobia of vomiting) is a clinical fear of vomiting. Individuals with emetophobia show high comorbidity with other anxiety and mood disorders. The most common comorbid conditions were generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, hypochondriasis and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinicians should ensure that they assess for the presence of comorbid conditions when treating emetophobia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Lesion-specific laser catheters for angioplasty (United States)

    Murphy-Chutorian, Douglas


    Since no one laser catheter can treat all types of disease, a new family of 'lesion-specific' devices was evaluated with a holmium laser source. Fifty patients (avg. 69 yrs) with lifestyle-limiting peripheral vascular disease and 29 patients (avg. 58 yrs) with symptomatic coronary disease were studied. Average lesion length was 5.3 cm in legs and 1.5 cm in hearts. A 1.5, 2.0, or 2.8 mm, tapered-tip or non-tapered, multifiber catheter (Eclipse, Palo Alto, CA) was advanced over the wire while emitting 300-1200 mj/pulse at 5 Hz. Mean percent stenosis decreased from 89% to 45% after lasing with a mean of 411 pulses in legs and from 86% to 46% with a mean of 158 pulses in hearts. Complications were infrequent. Laser technical success was 80% and overall procedural success was 97%. Conclusion: 1) Specialized laser catheters delivering holmium laser energy are capable of reducing the severity of peripheral and coronary stenoses including balloon angioplasty failures and bypass graft failures; 2) Follow-up studies are in progress to assess long term efficacy.

  17. Specific Aspects of Drug Hypersensitivity in Children. (United States)

    Bergmann, Marcel; Caubet, Jean-Christoph


    Suspicion for drug hypersensitivity (DH) is a common reason for children's referral to an allergy department, with β-lactam antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as the most frequently involved drugs. The prevalence of DH in children remains not well defined as epidemiologic studies in children are lacking, and the most of those take into account adverse drug reactions (ADR) without a systematic allergy work-up to confirm or exclude hypersensitivity. The clinical history is mandatory in order to classify the reaction as being immediate or non-immediate and then to subsequently adapt the allergy work-up. Mainly due to the lack of studies, the same guidelines used for diagnosis of drug allergy in adults are generally used in the pediatric population, and the diagnosis is based mainly on in vivo tests (i.e. skin tests and/or drug provocation test) and rarely on in vitro tests. However, specific aspects of management of DH in children have been recently highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  18. A CNN-Specific Integrated Processor (United States)

    Malki, Suleyman; Spaanenburg, Lambert


    Integrated Processors (IP) are algorithm-specific cores that either by programming or by configuration can be re-used within many microelectronic systems. This paper looks at Cellular Neural Networks (CNN) to become realized as IP. First current digital implementations are reviewed, and the memoryprocessor bandwidth issues are analyzed. Then a generic view is taken on the structure of the network, and a new intra-communication protocol based on rotating wheels is proposed. It is shown that this provides for guaranteed high-performance with a minimal network interface. The resulting node is small and supports multi-level CNN designs, giving the system a 30-fold increase in capacity compared to classical designs. As it facilitates multiple operations on a single image, and single operations on multiple images, with minimal access to the external image memory, balancing the internal and external data transfer requirements optimizes the system operation. In conventional digital CNN designs, the treatment of boundary nodes requires additional logic to handle the CNN value propagation scheme. In the new architecture, only a slight modification of the existing cells is necessary to model the boundary effect. A typical prototype for visual pattern recognition will house 4096 CNN cells with a 2% overhead for making it an IP.

  19. Update of patient-specific maxillofacial implant. (United States)

    Owusu, James A; Boahene, Kofi


    Patient-specific implant (PSI) is a personalized approach to reconstructive and esthetic surgery. This is particularly useful in maxillofacial surgery in which restoring the complex three-dimensional (3D) contour can be quite challenging. In certain situations, the best results can only be achieved with implants custom-made to fit a particular need. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in the design and manufacture of maxillofacial PSIs. Computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology is rapidly advancing and has provided new options for fabrication of PSIs with better precision. Maxillofacial PSIs can now be designed using preoperative imaging data as input into CAD software. The designed implant is then fabricated using a CAM technique such as 3D printing. This approach increases precision and decreases or completely eliminates the need for intraoperative modification of implants. The use of CAD/CAM-produced PSIs for maxillofacial reconstruction and augmentation can significantly improve contour outcomes and decrease operating time. CAD/CAM technology allows timely and precise fabrication of maxillofacial PSIs. This approach is gaining increasing popularity in maxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Continued advances in CAD technology and 3D printing are bound to improve the cost-effectiveness and decrease the production time of maxillofacial PSIs.

  20. Task-specific disruption of perceptual learning. (United States)

    Seitz, Aaron R; Yamagishi, Noriko; Werner, Birgit; Goda, Naokazu; Kawato, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Takeo


    For more than a century, the process of stabilization has been a central issue in the research of learning and memory. Namely, after a skill or memory is acquired, it must be consolidated before it becomes resistant to disruption by subsequent learning. Although it is clear that there are many cases in which learning can be disrupted, it is unclear when learning something new disrupts what has already been learned. Herein, we provide two answers to this question with the demonstration that perceptual learning of a visual stimulus disrupts or interferes with the consolidation of a previously learned visual stimulus. In this study, we trained subjects on two different hyperacuity tasks and determined whether learning of the second task disrupted that of the first. We first show that disruption of learning occurs between visual stimuli presented at the same orientation in the same retinotopic location but not for the same stimuli presented at retinotopically disparate locations or different orientations at the same location. Second, we show that disruption from stimuli in the same retinotopic location is ameliorated if the subjects wait for 1 h before training on the second task. These results indicate that disruption, at least in visual learning, is specific to features of the tasks and that a temporal delay of 1 h can stabilize visual learning. This research shows that visual learning is susceptible to disruption and elucidates the processes by which the brain can consolidate learning and thus protect what is learned from being overwritten.

  1. Cognitive impulsivity in specific learning disabilities. (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Mugnaini, Daniele; Dell'Uomo, Andrea


    Many studies on cognitive impulsivity in learning disabled children have been criticized for their methodological limitations, and they have not dealt with the different types of learning disability. The aim of this study was to overcome these limitations and to assess if there was a significant cognitive impulsivity in reading disorder and/or spelling disorder by using the 20-item Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFF20). A total of 110 children (second through eighth grades) were recruited from a cohort of children assessed for the first time in a National Health clinic specialized in the study of specific learning disabilities. In all, 30 dyslexic children and 25 children with spelling disorder (all children without an ADHD comorbidity) were compared with 55 children of a control group on the MMF20 (accuracy and time latency). Results showed that the children with reading disorder were less accurate than the children with spelling disability (pdata seem to confirm the idea that, similar to ADHD children, dyslexic children have impaired frontal/prefrontal functions. Clinical and treatment implications are discussed.

  2. Specificity, transfer, and the development of expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Brookes


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of two experiments designed to understand how physics students’ learning of the concept of refraction is influenced by the cognitive phenomenon of “specificity.” In both experiments participants learned why light bends as it travels from one optical medium to another with an analogy made to a car driving from paved road into mud and vice versa. They then learned how to qualitatively draw the direction of refracted light rays with an example of a glass prism. One group learned with a rectangular prism example while a second group learned with a triangular prism example. In a transfer test, the participants revealed how, even when they seemed able to implement the refraction concept, their responses were biased by the example they had seen. Participants frequently violated the refraction principle they had just learned (reversing the bend direction in order to make sure their response matched the surface features of their learning example. This tended to happen when their test question looked superficially similar to their learning example. We discuss the implications of these results for physics instruction.

  3. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel


    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles adapted for specific biomedical applications. (United States)

    Dutz, Silvio; Müller, Robert; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Hilger, Ingrid; Zeisberger, Matthias


    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used in different biomedical applications, whereby each application requires specific particle properties. To fulfill these requirements, particle properties have to be optimized by means of variation of crystal structure, particle size, and size distribution. To this aim, improved aqueous precipitation procedures for magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis were developed. One procedure focused on the cyclic growth of MNPs without nucleation of new particle cores during precipitation. The second novel particle type are magnetic multicore nanoparticles, which consist of single cores of approximately 10 nm forming dense clusters in the size range from 40 to 80 nm. Their highest potential features these multicore particles in hyperthermia application. In our in vivo experiments, therapeutically suitable temperatures were reached after 20 s of heating for a particle concentration in the tumor of 1% and field parameters of H=24 kA/m and f=410 kHz. This review on our recent investigations for particle optimization demonstrates that tuning magnetic properties of MNPs can be obtained by the alteration of their structure, size, and size distribution. This can be realized by means of control of particle size during synthesis or subsequent size-dependent fractionation. The here-developed particles show high potential for biomedical applications.

  5. [Specific treatment of sacro-coccygeal ulcers]. (United States)

    Díaz Caro, Isabel


    The pathology of bedsores located in the sacro-coccygeal region continues to be present in hospital and health care institutions in spite of all the modern scientific advances. Bedsores constitute a serious problem, given their very high cost when they occur and their prevalent nature. Since the relative mortality rate of persons suffering bedsores is significantly higher than that of those who do not suffer them, a careful appraisal and preventive measures are fundamentally desired. Using local therapeutic alternatives based on cicatrisation in a humid medium with modern dressings, those authors proposed an open, prospective, multi-centric study which evaluates the efficiency as well as the behavior of a new hydropolymeric dressing in 3-D specifically designed for ulcerations located in the sacro-coccygeal area. The results indicate that the selected dressing proves to be very useful as a local treatment of sacrum bedsores and in use as a first degree level preventive measure in these areas. This study took under consideration the acceptance of this dressing on behalf of nursing professionals and subjective opinions from patients.

  6. Why do dentists refer to specific orthodontists? (United States)

    Hall, Jason F; Sohn, Woosung; McNamara, James A


    This study tested the hypothesis that the quality of treatment outcomes and overall patient satisfaction are of equal importance in influencing a general dentist to refer a patient to an orthodontist for treatment. The investigation also attempted to determine what specific aspects of an orthodontically treated occlusion comprise an outstanding result in the opinion of the general dentist. Self-administered surveys containing 35 questions were distributed to a random sample of 1000 general dentists in the midwestern United States. Three-quarters responded that the quality of previous orthodontic treatment and patient/ parental satisfaction were of equal importance in the orthodontic referral decision. If additional factors were considered, the quality of the treated result as judged by the general dentist was far more important than the location of the orthodontist's office, the reputation of the orthodontist, or the anticipated cost of treatment. With regard to desired postorthodontic occlusal and functional characteristics, the majority of the dentists ranked canine guidance as most important. Other characteristics were Class I molar and canine relationships, even contact of all teeth in centric occlusion, amount of overjet and overbite, absence of spacing, and absence of balancing interferences. The decision of the general dentist to refer a patient to one orthodontist over another is based on a number of interactive factors. It behooves the orthodontic clinician to provide high-quality treatment, to interact well with his or her patients and their families, and to maintain good communications with general practitioners in the community.

  7. A CNN-Specific Integrated Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Malki


    Full Text Available Integrated Processors (IP are algorithm-specific cores that either by programming or by configuration can be re-used within many microelectronic systems. This paper looks at Cellular Neural Networks (CNN to become realized as IP. First current digital implementations are reviewed, and the memoryprocessor bandwidth issues are analyzed. Then a generic view is taken on the structure of the network, and a new intra-communication protocol based on rotating wheels is proposed. It is shown that this provides for guaranteed high-performance with a minimal network interface. The resulting node is small and supports multi-level CNN designs, giving the system a 30-fold increase in capacity compared to classical designs. As it facilitates multiple operations on a single image, and single operations on multiple images, with minimal access to the external image memory, balancing the internal and external data transfer requirements optimizes the system operation. In conventional digital CNN designs, the treatment of boundary nodes requires additional logic to handle the CNN value propagation scheme. In the new architecture, only a slight modification of the existing cells is necessary to model the boundary effect. A typical prototype for visual pattern recognition will house 4096 CNN cells with a 2% overhead for making it an IP.

  8. Patient-Specific Modeling of Intraventricular Hemodynamics (United States)

    Vedula, Vijay; Marsden, Alison


    Heart disease is the one of the leading causes of death in the world. Apart from malfunctions in electrophysiology and myocardial mechanics, abnormal hemodynamics is a major factor attributed to heart disease across all ages. Computer simulations offer an efficient means to accurately reproduce in vivo flow conditions and also make predictions of post-operative outcomes and disease progression. We present an experimentally validated computational framework for performing patient-specific modeling of intraventricular hemodynamics. Our modeling framework employs the SimVascular open source software to build an anatomic model and employs robust image registration methods to extract ventricular motion from the image data. We then employ a stabilized finite element solver to simulate blood flow in the ventricles, solving the Navier-Stokes equations in arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) coordinates by prescribing the wall motion extracted during registration. We model the fluid-structure interaction effects of the cardiac valves using an immersed boundary method and discuss the potential application of this methodology in single ventricle physiology and trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This research is supported in part by the Stanford Child Health Research Institute and the Stanford NIH-NCATS-CTSA through Grant UL1 TR001085 and partly through NIH NHLBI R01 Grant 5R01HL129727-02.

  9. Orientation specificity of learning vernier discriminations. (United States)

    Spang, K; Grimsen, C; Herzog, M H; Fahle, M


    Orientation selective neurons in the primary visual cortex typically respond to a range of orientations that covers 20 degrees or more, while in psychophysical experiments, orientation bandwidth is often clearly narrower. Here, we measure the orientation specificity of perceptual learning for vernier discriminations. More than 70 observers, in separate groups, practiced a vernier discrimination task with a constant stimulus orientation. After a 1h session of training, the vernier was rotated by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 45 degrees or 90 degrees. Improvement through training in the first session transferred to the second session (tested on the next day) up to 10 degrees of stimulus rotation. We found no transfer for rotations of 20 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees. Hence, the orientation half-bandwidth of perceptual learning is around 15 degrees, leading to a bandwidth of 30 degrees and corresponding to that of single neurons in early visual cortices, while being narrower than that in higher cortical areas. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific "scientific" data structures, and their processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Karczmarczuk


    Full Text Available Programming physicists use, as all programmers, arrays, lists, tuples, records, etc., and this requires some change in their thought patterns while converting their formulae into some code, since the "data structures" operated upon, while elaborating some theory and its consequences, are rather: power series and Padé approximants, differential forms and other instances of differential algebras, functionals (for the variational calculus, trajectories (solutions of differential equations, Young diagrams and Feynman graphs, etc. Such data is often used in a [semi-]numerical setting, not necessarily "symbolic", appropriate for the computer algebra packages. Modules adapted to such data may be "just libraries", but often they become specific, embedded sub-languages, typically mapped into object-oriented frameworks, with overloaded mathematical operations. Here we present a functional approach to this philosophy. We show how the usage of Haskell datatypes and - fundamental for our tutorial - the application of lazy evaluation makes it possible to operate upon such data (in particular: the "infinite" sequences in a natural and comfortable manner.

  11. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen


    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  12. Sequence-Specific Procedural Learning Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.


    This study tested the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) by comparing children's performance in two motor procedural learning tasks and an implicit verbal sequence learning task. Participants were 7- to 11-year-old children with SLI (n = 48), typically developing age-matched children (n = 20) and younger…

  13. A Time to Define: Making the Specific Learning Disability Definition Prescribe Specific Learning Disability (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Spaulding, Lucinda S.; Beam, Andrea P.


    Unlike other special education categories defined in U.S. law (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act), the definition of specific learning disability (SLD) has not changed since first proposed in 1968. Thus, although the operational definition of SLD has responded to new knowledge and understanding about the construct, the formal definition…

  14. Tissue-specific and substrate-specific mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline cardiac and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Dela, Flemming; Koch, Jørgen


    fibers. Biopsies of left ventricular cardiac muscle and soleus muscle, a type I-rich oxidative skeletal muscle, were obtained from 15 healthy domestic cats. Enzymatic activity of citrate synthase (CS), a biomarker of mitochondrial content, was measured. Mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity with various kinds......-specific quantitative and qualitative differences in mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity between the different types of oxidative muscles from cats....

  15. Cell-specific cardiac electrophysiology models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijn Groenendaal


    Full Text Available The traditional cardiac model-building paradigm involves constructing a composite model using data collected from many cells. Equations are derived for each relevant cellular component (e.g., ion channel, exchanger independently. After the equations for all components are combined to form the composite model, a subset of parameters is tuned, often arbitrarily and by hand, until the model output matches a target objective, such as an action potential. Unfortunately, such models often fail to accurately simulate behavior that is dynamically dissimilar (e.g., arrhythmia to the simple target objective to which the model was fit. In this study, we develop a new approach in which data are collected via a series of complex electrophysiology protocols from single cardiac myocytes and then used to tune model parameters via a parallel fitting method known as a genetic algorithm (GA. The dynamical complexity of the electrophysiological data, which can only be fit by an automated method such as a GA, leads to more accurately parameterized models that can simulate rich cardiac dynamics. The feasibility of the method is first validated computationally, after which it is used to develop models of isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes that simulate the electrophysiological dynamics significantly better than does a standard guinea pig model. In addition to improving model fidelity generally, this approach can be used to generate a cell-specific model. By so doing, the approach may be useful in applications ranging from studying the implications of cell-to-cell variability to the prediction of intersubject differences in response to pharmacological treatment.

  16. KSHV Rta promoter specification and viral reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGuito


    Full Text Available Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens whose biological success depends upon replication and packaging of viral genomes, and transmission of progeny viruses to new hosts. The biological success of herpesviruses is enhanced by their ability to reproduce their genomes without producing progeny viruses or killing the host cells, a process called latency. Latency permits a herpesvirus to remain undetected in its animal host for decades while maintaining the potential to reactivate, or switch, to a productive life cycle when host conditions are conducive to generating viral progeny. Direct interactions between many host and viral molecules are implicated in controlling herpesviral reactivation, suggesting complex biological networks that control the decision. One viral protein that is necessary and sufficient to switch latent KSHV into the lytic infection cycle is called K-Rta. Rta is a transcriptional activator that specifies promoters by binding direct DNA directly and interacting with cellular proteins. Among these cellular proteins, binding of K-Rta to RBP-Jk is essential for viral reactivation.. In contrast to the canonical model for Notch signaling, RBP-Jk is not uniformly and constitutively bound to the latent KSHV genome, but rather is recruited to DNA by interactions with K-Rta. Stimulation of RBP-Jk DNA binding requires high affinity binding of Rta to repetitive and palindromic CANT DNA repeats in promoters, and formation of ternary complexes with RBP-Jk. However, while K-Rta expression is necessary for initiating KSHV reactivation, K-Rta’s role as the switch is inefficient. Many factors modulate K-Rta’s function, suggesting that KSHV reactivation can be significantly regulated post-Rta expression and challenging the notion that herpesviral reactivation is bistable. This review analyzes rapidly evolving research on KSHV K-Rta to consider the role of K-Rta promoter specification in regulating the progression of KSHV reactivation.

  17. Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Gilad [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Ziv, Tamar [The Smoler Proteomics Center, Faculty of Biology – Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Braten, Ori [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Admon, Arie [The Smoler Proteomics Center, Faculty of Biology – Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Udasin, Ronald G. [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Ciechanover, Aaron, E-mail: [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel)


    Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems – at least partially – in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. -- Highlights: •Mitochondrial matrix contains ubiquitinated proteins. •Ubiquitination occurs most probably in the matrix. •Dma1p is a ubiquitin ligase present in mitochondrial preparations.

  18. Prototype development of user specific climate services (United States)

    Jacob, Daniela


    Systematic consultations in the last years with representatives from sectors particularly affected by climate change have helped the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) to identify the most pressing needs of stakeholders from public and private sectors. Besides the development of innovative climate service products and methods, areas are also identified, for which intensive research activities have to be initiated. An example is the demand of decision makers for high-resolution climate change information needed at regional to local levels for their activities towards climate change adaptation. For questions concerning adaptation to climate change, no standard solutions can be provided. Different from mitigation measures, adaptation measures must be framed in accordance with the specific circumstances prevailing in the local situation. Here, individual solutions, which satisfy the individual requirements and needs, are necessary. They have to be developed in close co-operation with the customers and users. For example, the implications of climate change on strategic and operative decisions, e.g. in enterprises and urban planning, are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, high-quality consultancy for businesses and public administration is needed, in order to support decision makers in identifying associated risks and opportunities. For the development of prototype products, GERICS has framed a general methodological approach, including the idea generation, the iterative development, and the prototype testing in co-development with the user. High process transparency and high product quality are prerequisite for the success of a product. The co-development process ensures the best possible communication of user tailored climate change information for different target groups.

  19. Oily skin: specific features in Chinese women. (United States)

    Nouveau-Richard, S; Zhu, W; Li, Y H; Zhang, Y Z; Yang, F Z; Yang, Z L; Lian, S; Qian, B Y; Ran, Y P; Bouillon, C; Chen, H D; de Lacharrière, O


    Inconsistent data are available on the various types of skin, their prevalence and characterization, particularly regarding Asian skins. This observation prompted to conduct a large study in China to assess the prevalence of oily skin and identify the specific factors related to that type of skin. The multicentre trial involved 1787 Chinese women in Shenyang, Harbin, Beijing, Chengdu and Suzhou, between 18 and 65 years of age. Data on history of acne, the presence of environmental factors and a detailed self-evaluation of the skin were collected using a standardized questionnaire. A clinical evaluation of facial skin oiliness was carried-out by a dermatologist at each centre. Sebum secretion was measured on the forehead using Sebumeter SM810. Statistical analysis (multiple correspondence analysis) of typology was conducted based on self-evaluation data. According to self-evaluation data, oily skin prevalence in the overall Chinese population of the study was 25.6%. Self-evaluation results were quite consistent with sebum measurements and with clinical assessment by dermatologist. Parameters associated with oily skin were (i) shiny skin and a past history of acne, (ii) irregular menstruation, and (iii) highly reactive or sensitive skin. Moreover, a clear and significant link was noted between oily skin and the ingestion of spicy or sweet food. Lastly, sebum levels were found to be twice as high in Beijing as in the other cities and were correlated to higher oily skin prevalence. The study demonstrated the capacity of women for proper self-evaluation of their skin type. It also suggests a potential link between nutritional factors such as spicy and/or sweet diets and oily skin as well as between sensitive and oily skin in this population.

  20. Contextual specificity in perception and action (United States)

    Proffitt, Dennis R.




    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Elena Coclici (Telescu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the specific languages of religious style, including the common and the newer ones. The religious style is the first special manifestation of the Romanian literary language; and the beginning of the written Romanian language is directly associated with the writing of religious texts. Being ignored for a long time, in the last decades, the religious style assumed new forms generated by the practices of religious rites, which are sometimes very diversified. The article describes the main language types, and we mention the following: the biblical language, the liturgical language, religious oratorical, religious tehnical, religious dramatical, theological or the ecclesiastic magazine language. The biblical language predominates in Romanian culture through its primary and most conservative version, the biblical text, as opposed to the theological language, which underwent modification during the modernization of the Romanian literary language. The religious oratorical language of the sermons distinguish itself being more mobile, using frequently means that are characteristic to the fictional style languages. The language of the theological magazines derives from the theological language and it points only to the theological version of religious style and not the style on the whole. Therefore, the language of the contemporary ecclesiastical texts carries forward our old literary language that was used in the first decades of the 19th century. The ecclesiastical literature had a major role in the development of the Romanian literary language, a role that was emphasized in number of studies. The multitude of language types of religious style proves that this stylistic version has been existing since back in the old Romanian language period.

  2. Specificities of hand trauma in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jelena


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hand injuries in agriculture are characterized by massive destruction of all tissues, frequent amputations of finger, hand and often the whole extremity. These injuries are mutilant and can cause death. The aim of this paper was to show the specificities of hand injuries in agriculture in regard to hand injuries of other etiology. Methods. We analyzed patients that were treated in the Department for Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Clinical Center Vojvodina, during a five-year period (2003-2007 because of hand injuries. Results. In a five-year period there were 366 patients hospitalized because of hand injuries, out of whom 36 injuries were related to agricultural machinery use. In both groups the number of patients trended to increased, with male gender being dominant. Most of the patients were young or middle-aged men. In agricultural injuries most of the patients were in the group of 41-50-year old (30%, while in the other group, the patients were younger (21-30-year old. Hand injuries in agriculture resulted in finger amputation in 92%, while in the other group that number was much smaller (13%. Skin defect reconstruction in agricultural injuries required complex methods of skin grafting or skin flaps in more than 71%, while this was necessary in only 10% of other hand injuries. Conclusion. Hand injuries in agriculture are very mutilant and often result in conquassation and finger amputation. A possibility to preserve tissue damaged in this way is very limited, and skin closer usually requires complex methods.

  3. Sunflower centromeres consist of a centromere-specific LINE and a chromosome-specific tandem repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka eNagaki


    Full Text Available The kinetochore is a protein complex including kinetochore-specific proteins that plays a role in chromatid segregation during mitosis and meiosis. The complex associates with centromeric DNA sequences that are usually species-specific. In plant species, tandem repeats including satellite DNA sequences and retrotransposons have been reported as centromeric DNA sequences. In this study on sunflowers, a cDNA-encoding centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3 was isolated from a cDNA pool from a seedling, and an antibody was raised against a peptide synthesized from the deduced cDNA. The antibody specifically recognized the sunflower CENH3 (HaCENH3 and showed centromeric signals by immunostaining and immunohistochemical staining analysis. The antibody was also applied in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-Seq to isolate centromeric DNA sequences and two different types of repetitive DNA sequences were identified. One was a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-like sequence, which showed centromere-specific signals on almost all chromosomes in sunflowers. This is the first report of a centromeric LINE sequence, suggesting possible centromere targeting ability. Another type of identified repetitive DNA was a tandem repeat sequence with a 187-bp unit that was found only on a pair of chromosomes. The HaCENH3 content of the tandem repeats was estimated to be much higher than that of the LINE, which implies centromere evolution from LINE-based centromeres to more stable tandem-repeat-based centromeres. In addition, the epigenetic status of the sunflower centromeres was investigated by immunohistochemical staining and ChIP, and it was found that centromeres were heterochromatic.

  4. Meiosis-Specific Loading of the Centromere-Specific Histone CENH3 in Arabidopsis thaliana (United States)

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Shibata, Fukashi; Ramahi, Joseph S.; Nagaki, Kiyotaka; Chen, Changbin; Murata, Minoru; Chan, Simon W. L.


    Centromere behavior is specialized in meiosis I, so that sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes are pulled toward the same side of the spindle (through kinetochore mono-orientation) and chromosome number is reduced. Factors required for mono-orientation have been identified in yeast. However, comparatively little is known about how meiotic centromere behavior is specialized in animals and plants that typically have large tandem repeat centromeres. Kinetochores are nucleated by the centromere-specific histone CENH3. Unlike conventional histone H3s, CENH3 is rapidly evolving, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. Here we describe chimeric variants of CENH3 with alterations in the N-terminal tail that are specifically defective in meiosis. Arabidopsis thaliana cenh3 mutants expressing a GFP-tagged chimeric protein containing the H3 N-terminal tail and the CENH3 C-terminus (termed GFP-tailswap) are sterile because of random meiotic chromosome segregation. These defects result from the specific depletion of GFP-tailswap protein from meiotic kinetochores, which contrasts with its normal localization in mitotic cells. Loss of the GFP-tailswap CENH3 variant in meiosis affects recruitment of the essential kinetochore protein MIS12. Our findings suggest that CENH3 loading dynamics might be regulated differently in mitosis and meiosis. As further support for our hypothesis, we show that GFP-tailswap protein is recruited back to centromeres in a subset of pollen grains in GFP-tailswap once they resume haploid mitosis. Meiotic recruitment of the GFP-tailswap CENH3 variant is not restored by removal of the meiosis-specific cohesin subunit REC8. Our results reveal the existence of a specialized loading pathway for CENH3 during meiosis that is likely to involve the hypervariable N-terminal tail. Meiosis-specific CENH3 dynamics may play a role in modulating meiotic centromere behavior. PMID:21695238

  5. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in accordance with the procedures set.... The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be the average of at least 3 corrected readings on...

  6. 21 CFR 172.785 - Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Listeria-specific bacteriophage preparation. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.785 Listeria -specific bacteriophage preparation. The additive may be safely used as an antimicrobial agent specific for Listeria monocytogenes (L...

  7. 40 CFR 86.113-07 - Fuel specifications. (United States)


    ... Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.113-07 Fuel specifications. Section 86.113-07 includes text... technologies, the manufacturer may test the vehicle using a test fuel meeting the specifications listed in... manufacturer may test the vehicle using a test fuel whose qualities, on a specification by specification basis...

  8. 21 CFR 111.70 - What specifications must you establish? (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What specifications must you establish? 111.70... Control System § 111.70 What specifications must you establish? (a) You must establish a specification for... supplement, you must establish component specifications as follows: (1) You must establish an identity...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Alina Valentina


    Directives as well as at the national level; essential characteristics of the activity to prevent and fight against money laundering in Romania, which is mainly the responsibility of the National Department for Money Laundering Prevention and Control - ONPCSB, as well as the financial analysis of the activity to prevent and combat money laundering in Romania within 1999-2011, identifying the specific typologies of money laundering; the connection between money laundering and terrorism financing.

  10. Biomimetic catalysts responsive to specific chemical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Part 1. Design of Biomimetic Catalysts Based on Amphiphilic Systems The overall objective of our research is to create biomimetic catalysts from amphiphilic molecules. More specifically, we aim to create supramolecular systems that can be used to control the microenvironment around a catalytic center in a biomimetic fashion and apply the learning to construct supramolecular catalysts with novel functions found in enzymatic catalysts. We have prepared synthetic molecules (i.e., foldamers) that could fold into helical structures with nanometer-sized internal hydrophilic cavities. Cavities of this size are typically observed only in the tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins but were formed in our foldamer prepared in just a few steps from the monomer. Similar to many proteins, our foldamers displayed cooperativity in the folding/unfolding equilibrium and followed a two-state conformational transition. In addition, their conformational change could be triggered by solvent polarity, pH, or presence of metal ions and certain organic molecules. We studied their environmentally dependent conformational changes in solutions, surfactant micelles, and lipid bilayer membranes. Unlike conventional rigid supramolecular host, a foldamer undergoes conformational change during guest binding. Our study in the molecular recognition of an oligocholate host yielded some extremely exciting results. Cooperativity between host conformation and host–guest interactions was found to “magnify” weak binding interactions. In other words, since binding affinity is determined by the overall change of free energy during the binding, guest-induced conformational change of the host, whether near or far from the binding site, affects the binding. This study has strong implications in catalysis because enzymes have been hypothesized to harvest similar intramolecular forces to strengthen their binding with the transition state of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The supramolecular and

  11. High Specificity of Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR Analysis for MGMT Promoter Hypermethylation Detection in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Parrella


    Full Text Available Normal brain tissue from 28 individuals and 50 glioma samples were analyzed by real-time Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR (QMSP. Data from this analysis were compared with results obtained on the same samples by MSP. QMSP analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference in both methylation level (P=.000009 Mann Whitney Test and frequencies (P=.0000007, Z-test in tumour samples as compared with normal brain tissues. Although QMSP and MSP showed similar sensitivity, the specificity of QMSP analysis was significantly higher (93%; CI95%: 84%–100% as compared with MSP (64%; 95%CI: 46%–82%. Our results suggest that QMSP analysis may represent a powerful tool to identify glioma patients that will benefit from alkylating agents chemotherapy.

  12. Trajectories for High Specific Impulse High Specific Power Deep Space Exploration (United States)

    Polsgrove, T.; Adams, R. B.; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)


    Preliminary results are presented for two methods to approximate the mission performance of high specific impulse high specific power vehicles. The first method is based on an analytical approximation derived by Williams and Shepherd and can be used to approximate mission performance to outer planets and interstellar space. The second method is based on a parametric analysis of trajectories created using the well known trajectory optimization code, VARITOP. This parametric analysis allows the reader to approximate payload ratios and optimal power requirements for both one-way and round-trip missions. While this second method only addresses missions to and from Jupiter, future work will encompass all of the outer planet destinations and some interstellar precursor missions.

  13. Region-Specific versus Country-specific Poverty Lines in Analysis of Poverty


    Mogstad, Magne; Langørgen, Audun; Aaberge, Rolf


    Abstract: The standard practice in most OECD countries is to measure and evaluate poverty on the basis of a poverty line defined as a specific proportion of the median equivalent income within a country. However, this approach disregards regional differences in prices and needs within a country and may, therefore, provide an incomplete and even an incorrect picture of the extent as well as the geographical and demographical composition of the poor. To account for differences in...

  14. Fungus-Specific CD4 T Cells as Specific Sensors for Identification of Pulmonary Fungal Infections. (United States)

    Scheffold, Alexander; Schwarz, Carsten; Bacher, Petra


    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung infections, caused by bacterial, viral or fungal pathogens, which determine morbidity and mortality. The contribution of individual pathogens to chronic disease and acute lung exacerbations is often difficult to determine due to the complex composition of the lung microbiome in CF. In particular, the relevance of fungal pathogens in CF airways remains poorly understood due to limitations of current diagnostics to identify the presence of fungal pathogens and to resolve the individual host-pathogen interaction status. T-lymphocytes play an essential role in host defense against pathogens, but also in inappropriate immune reactions such as allergies. They have the capacity to specifically recognize and discriminate the different pathogens and orchestrate a diverse array of effector functions. Thus, the analysis of the fungus-specific T cell status of an individual can in principle provide detailed information about the identity of the fungal pathogen(s) encountered and the actual fungus-host interaction status. This may allow to classify patients, according to appropriate (protective) or inappropriate (pathology-associated) immune reactions against individual fungal pathogens. However, T cell-based diagnostics are currently not part of the clinical routine. The identification and characterization of fungus-specific T cells in health and disease for diagnostic purposes are associated with significant challenges. Recent technological developments in the field of fungus-specific T helper cell detection provide new insights in the host T cell-fungus interaction. In this review, we will discuss basic principles and the potential of T cell-based diagnostics, as well as the perspectives and further needs for use of T cells for improved clinical diagnostics of fungal diseases.

  15. Specific expression of bioluminescence reporter gene in cardiomyocyte regulated by tissue specific promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vu Hong; Tae, Seong Ho; Le, Nguyen Uyen Chi; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    As the human heart is not capable of regenerating the great numbers of cardiac cells that are lost after myocardial infarction, impaired cardiac function is the inevitable result of ischemic disease. Recently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have gained popularity as a potentially ideal cell candidate for tissue regeneration. In particular, hESCs are capable of cardiac lineage-specific differentiation and confer improvement of cardiac function following transplantation into animal models. Although such data are encouraging, the specific strategy for in vivo and non-invasive detection of differentiated cardiac lineage is still limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established the gene construction in which the optical reporter gene Firefly luciferase was controlled by Myosin Heavy Chain promoter for specific expressing in heart cells. The vector consisting of - MHC promoter and a firefly luciferase coding sequence flanked by full-length bovine growth hormone (BGH) 3'-polyadenylation sequence based on pcDNA3.1- vector backbone. To test the specific transcription of this promoter in g of MHC-Fluc or CMV-Flue (for control) plasmid DNA in myocardial tissue, 20 phosphate-buffered saline was directly injected into mouse myocardium through a midline sternotomy and liver. After 1 week of injection, MHC-Fluc expression was detected from heart region which was observed under cooled CCD camera of in vivo imaging system but not from liver. In control group injected with CMV-Flue, the bioluminescence was detected from all these organs. The expression of Flue under control of Myosin Heavy Chain promoter may become a suitable optical reporter gene for stem cell-derived cardiac lineage differentiation study.



    Nichifor Florin


    The purpose of the research is to analyze the elements of cultural specificity of the OglinziTârguNeamţ sports camp, with a focus on the following aspects: the activity of the manager and of the managerial team, employees’ attitude, the behaviour of clients (children, students, young people, teenagers, athletes), the mental, behavioural, and attitudinal conditions in the context of globalization. Usually considered by children and teenagers the most exciting and attractive space, the camp att...

  17. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin


    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate....

  18. Proteome labeling and protein identification in specific tissues and at specific developmental stages in an animal. (United States)

    Elliott, Thomas S; Townsley, Fiona M; Bianco, Ambra; Ernst, Russell J; Sachdeva, Amit; Elsässer, Simon J; Davis, Lloyd; Lang, Kathrin; Pisa, Rudolf; Greiss, Sebastian; Lilley, Kathryn S; Chin, Jason W


    Identifying the proteins synthesized at specific times in cells of interest in an animal will facilitate the study of cellular functions and dynamic processes. Here we introduce stochastic orthogonal recoding of translation with chemoselective modification (SORT-M) to address this challenge. SORT-M involves modifying cells to express an orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair to enable the incorporation of chemically modifiable analogs of amino acids at diverse sense codons in cells in rich media. We apply SORT-M to Drosophila melanogaster fed standard food to label and image proteins in specific tissues at precise developmental stages with diverse chemistries, including cyclopropene-tetrazine inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions. We also use SORT-M to identify proteins synthesized in germ cells of the fly ovary without dissection. SORT-M will facilitate the definition of proteins synthesized in specific sets of cells to study development, and learning and memory in flies, and may be extended to other animals.

  19. Attention deficits predict phenotypic outcomes in syndrome-specific and domain-specific ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim eCornish


    Full Text Available Attentional difficulties, both at home and in the classroom, are reported across a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, exactly how attention influences early socio-cognitive learning remains unclear. We addressed this question both concurrently and longitudinally in a cross-syndrome design, with respect to the communicative domain of vocabulary and to the cognitive domain of early literacy, and then extended the analysis to social behavior. Participants were young children (aged 4 to 9 years at Time 1 with either Williams syndrome (WS, N=26 or Down syndrome (DS, N=26 and typically developing controls (N=103. Children with WS displayed significantly greater attentional deficits (as indexed by teacher report of behavior typical of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD than children with DS, but both groups had greater attentional problems than the controls. Despite their attention differences, children with DS and those with WS were equivalent in their cognitive abilities of reading single words, both at Time 1 and 12 months later, at Time 2, although they differed in their early communicative abilities in terms of vocabulary. Greater ADHD-like behaviors predicted poorer subsequent literacy for children with DS, but not for children with WS, pointing to syndrome-specific attentional constraints on specific aspects of early development. Overall, our findings highlight the need to investigate more precisely whether and, if so, how, syndrome-specific profiles of behavioral difficulties constrain learning and socio-cognitive outcomes across different domains.

  20. Statistical and Economic Techniques for Site-specific Nematode Management. (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Griffin, Terry; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L


    Recent advances in precision agriculture technologies and spatial statistics allow realistic, site-specific estimation of nematode damage to field crops and provide a platform for the site-specific delivery of nematicides within individual fields. This paper reviews the spatial statistical techniques that model correlations among neighboring observations and develop a spatial economic analysis to determine the potential of site-specific nematicide application. The spatial econometric methodology applied in the context of site-specific crop yield response contributes to closing the gap between data analysis and realistic site-specific nematicide recommendations and helps to provide a practical method of site-specifically controlling nematodes.