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Sample records for viable prosthetic interfaces

  1. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  2. Innovations in prosthetic interfaces for the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Theodore A; Bueno, Reuben A; Alkhalefah, Ghadah K; Langhals, Nicholas B; Urbanchek, Melanie G; Cederna, Paul S

    2013-12-01

    Advancements in modern robotic technology have led to the development of highly sophisticated upper extremity prosthetic limbs. High-fidelity volitional control of these devices is dependent on the critical interface between the patient and the mechanical prosthesis. Recent innovations in prosthetic interfaces have focused on several control strategies. Targeted muscle reinnervation is currently the most immediately applicable prosthetic control strategy and is particularly indicated in proximal upper extremity amputations. Investigation into various brain interfaces has allowed acquisition of neuroelectric signals directly or indirectly from the central nervous system for prosthetic control. Peripheral nerve interfaces permit signal transduction from both motor and sensory nerves with a higher degree of selectivity. This article reviews the current developments in each of these interface systems and discusses the potential of these approaches to facilitate motor control and sensory feedback in upper extremity neuroprosthetic devices.

  3. Immediate natural tooth pontic: a viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: a patient reported outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Rashi

    2012-01-01

    In patients with hopeless prognosis of the anterior teeth there is still a strong desire to save them for the sake of esthetics. If not grossly carious, broken down or discolored the extracted tooth after suitable modifications can be placed back in its original site by splinting it to the adjacent stable teeth. Fifteen patients (10 males, 5 females) in the age range of 40-65 years with pathologically migrated, unsalvageable teeth were treated by splinting the extracted teeth immediately with the stable adjacent teeth. After 12 weeks, all the patients were explained various treatment options available for replacement of the lost teeth. The patients were asked to fill out a simple closed ended questionnaire citing the various difficulties encountered during this transitional period, selection of further treatment modalities and the reasons for their choice. The feedback obtained was then analyzed statistically. Hundred percent of patients were happy with the esthetics; however, 60% of them were dissatisfied with the function that it provided. The primary problem being apprehension of splint fracture and difficulty while incising and the data was found to be statistically significant (P=0.01**). All patients demanded a permanent treatment option following this with a fixed prosthesis. None of the patients were interested in the implant supported prosthesis due to cost, treatment time involved, and need for surgery. The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  4. Stiffness and position control of a prosthetic wrist by means of an EMG interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, S.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for decoding electromyographic signals from an amputee and for interfacing them with a prosthetic wrist. The model for the interface makes use of electromyographic signals from electrodes placed in agonistic and antagonistic sides of the forearm. The model

  5. Adapting proportional myoelectric-controlled interfaces for prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistohl, Tobias; Cipriani, Christian; Jackson, Andrew; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2013-01-01

    Powered hand prostheses with many degrees of freedom are moving from research into the market for prosthetics. In order to make use of the prostheses' full functionality, it is essential to find efficient ways to control their multiple actuators. Human subjects can rapidly learn to employ electromyographic (EMG) activity of several hand and arm muscles to control the position of a cursor on a computer screen, even if the muscle-cursor map contradicts directions in which the muscles would act naturally. We investigated whether a similar control scheme, using signals from four hand muscles, could be adopted for real-time operation of a dexterous robotic hand. Despite different mapping strategies, learning to control the robotic hand over time was surprisingly similar to the learning of two-dimensional cursor control.

  6. Control of a powered prosthetic device via a pinch gesture interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin, Oguz; Wallace, Kristi; Sanford, Joseph D.; Popa, Dan O.

    2015-06-01

    A novel system is presented to control a powered prosthetic device using a gesture tracking system worn on a user's sound hand in order to detect different grasp patterns. Experiments are presented with two different gesture tracking systems: one comprised of Conductive Thimbles worn on each finger (Conductive Thimble system), and another comprised of a glove which leaves the fingers free (Conductive Glove system). Timing tests were performed on the selection and execution of two grasp patterns using the Conductive Thimble system and the iPhone app provided by the manufacturer. A modified Box and Blocks test was performed using Conductive Glove system and the iPhone app provided by Touch Bionics. The best prosthetic device performance is reported with the developed Conductive Glove system in this test. Results show that these low encumbrance gesture-based wearable systems for selecting grasp patterns may provide a viable alternative to EMG and other prosthetic control modalities, especially for new prosthetic users who are not trained in using EMG signals.

  7. Conducting Polymers for Neural Prosthetic and Neural Interface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing devices are an artificial mechanism for restoring or supplementing the function of the nervous system lost as a result of injury or disease. Conducting polymers (CPs) are gaining significant attention due to their capacity to meet the performance criteria of a number of neuronal therapies including recording and stimulating neural activity, the regeneration of neural tissue and the delivery of bioactive molecules for mediating device-tissue interactions. CPs form a flexible platform technology that enables the development of tailored materials for a range of neuronal diagnostic and treatment therapies. In this review the application of CPs for neural prostheses and other neural interfacing devices are discussed, with a specific focus on neural recording, neural stimulation, neural regeneration, and therapeutic drug delivery. PMID:26414302

  8. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Stephanie; Ferris, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocne...

  9. Simulation of a sensor array for multiparameter measurements at the prosthetic limb interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gabriel I.; Mamishev, Alexander V.

    2004-07-01

    Sensitive skin is a highly desired device for biomechanical devices, wearable computing, human-computer interfaces, exoskeletons, and, most pertinent to this paper, for lower limb prosthetics. The measurement of shear stress is very important because shear effects are key factors in developing surface abrasions and pressure sores in paraplegics and users of prosthetic/orthotic devices. A single element of a sensitive skin is simulated and characterized in this paper. Conventional tactile sensors are designed for measurement of the normal stress only, which is inadequate for comprehensive assessment of surface contact conditions. The sensitive skin discussed here is a flexible array capable of sensing shear and normal forces, as well as humidity and temperature on each element.

  10. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Stephanie; Ferris, Daniel P

    2012-08-10

    Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user's nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head) and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius) of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee's nervous system.

  11. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Stephanie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. Results We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Conclusion Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee’s nervous system.

  12. Optical fiber Bragg grating-instrumented silicone liner for interface pressure measurement within prosthetic sockets of lower-limb amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Ebrahim; Arifin, Nooranida; Pirouzi, Gholamhossein; Mahamd Adikan, Faisal Rafiq; Shasmin, Hanie Nadia; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-instrumented prosthetic silicone liner that provides cushioning for the residual limb and can successfully measure interface pressures inside prosthetic sockets of lower-limb amputees in a simple and practical means of sensing. The liner is made of two silicone layers between which 12 FBG sensors were embedded at locations of clinical interest. The sensors were then calibrated using a custom calibration platform that mimics a real-life situation. Afterward, a custom gait simulating machine was built to test the liner performance during an amputee's simulated gait. To validate the findings, the results were compared to those obtained by the commonly used F-socket mats. As the statistical findings reveal, both pressure mapping methods measured the interface pressure in a consistent way, with no significant difference (P-values ≥0.05). This pressure mapping technique in the form of a prosthetic liner will allow prosthetics professionals to quickly and accurately create an overall picture of the interface pressure distribution inside sockets in research and clinical settings, thereby improving the socket fit and amputee's satisfaction.

  13. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task

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    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson NS; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. Approach. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like ‘Face in a Crowd’ task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the ‘Crowd’) using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a ‘Crowd Off’ condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Main results. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Significance. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet

  14. Broadband Prosthetic Interfaces: Combining Nerve Transfers and Implantable Multichannel EMG Technology to Decode Spinal Motor Neuron Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeister, Konstantin D; Vujaklija, Ivan; Muceli, Silvia; Sturma, Agnes; Hruby, Laura A; Prahm, Cosima; Riedl, Otto; Salminger, Stefan; Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina; Aman, Martin; Russold, Michael-Friedrich; Hofer, Christian; Principe, Jose; Farina, Dario; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2017-01-01

    Modern robotic hands/upper limbs may replace multiple degrees of freedom of extremity function. However, their intuitive use requires a high number of control signals, which current man-machine interfaces do not provide. Here, we discuss a broadband control interface that combines targeted muscle reinnervation, implantable multichannel electromyographic sensors, and advanced decoding to address the increasing capabilities of modern robotic limbs. With targeted muscle reinnervation, nerves that have lost their targets due to an amputation are surgically transferred to residual stump muscles to increase the number of intuitive prosthetic control signals. This surgery re-establishes a nerve-muscle connection that is used for sensing nerve activity with myoelectric interfaces. Moreover, the nerve transfer determines neurophysiological effects, such as muscular hyper-reinnervation and cortical reafferentation that can be exploited by the myoelectric interface. Modern implantable multichannel EMG sensors provide signals from which it is possible to disentangle the behavior of single motor neurons. Recent studies have shown that the neural drive to muscles can be decoded from these signals and thereby the user's intention can be reliably estimated. By combining these concepts in chronic implants and embedded electronics, we believe that it is in principle possible to establish a broadband man-machine interface, with specific applications in prosthesis control. This perspective illustrates this concept, based on combining advanced surgical techniques with recording hardware and processing algorithms. Here we describe the scientific evidence for this concept, current state of investigations, challenges, and alternative approaches to improve current prosthetic interfaces.

  15. Broadband Prosthetic Interfaces: Combining Nerve Transfers and Implantable Multichannel EMG Technology to Decode Spinal Motor Neuron Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin D. Bergmeister

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern robotic hands/upper limbs may replace multiple degrees of freedom of extremity function. However, their intuitive use requires a high number of control signals, which current man-machine interfaces do not provide. Here, we discuss a broadband control interface that combines targeted muscle reinnervation, implantable multichannel electromyographic sensors, and advanced decoding to address the increasing capabilities of modern robotic limbs. With targeted muscle reinnervation, nerves that have lost their targets due to an amputation are surgically transferred to residual stump muscles to increase the number of intuitive prosthetic control signals. This surgery re-establishes a nerve-muscle connection that is used for sensing nerve activity with myoelectric interfaces. Moreover, the nerve transfer determines neurophysiological effects, such as muscular hyper-reinnervation and cortical reafferentation that can be exploited by the myoelectric interface. Modern implantable multichannel EMG sensors provide signals from which it is possible to disentangle the behavior of single motor neurons. Recent studies have shown that the neural drive to muscles can be decoded from these signals and thereby the user's intention can be reliably estimated. By combining these concepts in chronic implants and embedded electronics, we believe that it is in principle possible to establish a broadband man-machine interface, with specific applications in prosthesis control. This perspective illustrates this concept, based on combining advanced surgical techniques with recording hardware and processing algorithms. Here we describe the scientific evidence for this concept, current state of investigations, challenges, and alternative approaches to improve current prosthetic interfaces.

  16. Brain-machine interface to control a prosthetic arm with monkey ECoGs during periodic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Soichiro; Sato, Keita; Watanabe, Hidenori; Nishimura, Yukio; Isa, Tadashi; Kato, Ryu; Nakamura, Tatsuhiro; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are promising technologies for rehabilitation of upper limb functions in patients with severe paralysis. We previously developed a BMI prosthetic arm for a monkey implanted with electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes, and trained it in a reaching task. The stability of the BMI prevented incorrect movements due to misclassification of ECoG patterns. As a trade-off for the stability, however, the latency (the time gap between the monkey's actual motion and the prosthetic arm movement) was about 200 ms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to improve the response time of the BMI prosthetic arm. We focused on the generation of a trigger event by decoding muscle activity in order to predict integrated electromyograms (iEMGs) from the ECoGs. We verified the achievability of our method by conducting a performance test of the proposed method with actual achieved iEMGs instead of predicted iEMGs. Our results confirmed that the proposed method with predicted iEMGs eliminated the time delay. In addition, we found that motor intention is better reflected by muscle activity estimated from brain activity rather than actual muscle activity. Therefore, we propose that using predicted iEMGs to guide prosthetic arm movement results in minimal delay and excellent performance.

  17. Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim A. Al-Fakih

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket.

  18. Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: from science fiction ideas to viable technologies.

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    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J; Succi, Marc D; Langer, Robert

    2013-10-07

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micrometer-scale submarines and "cyborg" body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery: the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the predefined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics.

  19. Drug Delivery Interfaces in the 21st Century: From Science Fiction Ideas to Viable Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J.; Succi, Marc D.; Langer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micron-scale submarines and ‘Cyborg’ body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery – the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the pre-defined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics. PMID:23915375

  20. Interface stress in socket/residual limb with transtibial prosthetic suspension systems during locomotion on slopes and stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshraghi, Arezoo; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Gholizadeh, Hossien; Ali, Sadeeq; Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Wan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of different suspension methods on the interface stress inside the prosthetic sockets of transtibial amputees when negotiating ramps and stairs. Three transtibial prostheses, with a pin/lock system, a Seal-In system, and a magnetic suspension system, were created for the participants in a prospective study. Interface stress was measured as the peak pressure by using the F-socket transducers during stairs and ramp negotiation. Twelve individuals with transtibial amputation managed to complete the experiments. During the stair ascent and descent, the greatest peak pressure was observed in the prosthesis with the Seal-In system. The magnetic prosthetic suspension system caused significantly different peak pressure at the anterior proximal region compared with the pin/lock (P = 0.022) and Seal-In (P = 0.001) during the stair ascent. It was also observed during the stair descent and ramp negotiation. The prostheses exhibited varying pressure profiles during the stair and ramp ascent. The prostheses with the pin/lock and magnetic suspension systems exhibited lower peak pressures compared with the Seal-In system. The intrasystem pressure distribution at the anterior and posterior regions of the residual limb was fairly homogenous during the stair and ramp ascent and descent. Nevertheless, the intrasystem pressure mapping revealed a significant difference among the suspension types, particularly at the anterior and posterior sensor sites.

  1. Brain-Machine Interface to Control a Prosthetic Arm with Monkey ECoGs during Periodic Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro eMorishita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain Machine Interfaces (BMIs are promising technologies to rehabilitate the function of upper limbs in severely paralyzed patients. We succeeded in developing a BMI prosthetic arm for a monkey implanted with electrocorticogram (ECoG electrodes and trained in a reaching task. It had stability in preventing the misclassification of ECoG patterns. However, the latency was about 200 ms as a trade-off for the stability. To improve the response of this BMI prosthetic arm, the generation of a trigger event by decoding muscle activity was adopted. It was performed to predict integrated electromyograms (iEMGs from the ECoGs. Experiments were conducted to verify the availability of this method, and the results confirmed that the proposed method was superior to the conventional one. In addition, a performance test of the proposed method with actually achieved iEMGs instead of predicted iEMGs was performed, and we found that the motor intention is finely expressed through estimated muscle activity from brain activity rather than actual muscle activity.

  2. Restoring the sense of touch with a prosthetic hand through a brain interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabot, Gregg A; Dammann, John F; Berg, Joshua A; Tenore, Francesco V; Boback, Jessica L; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2013-11-05

    Our ability to manipulate objects dexterously relies fundamentally on sensory signals originating from the hand. To restore motor function with upper-limb neuroprostheses requires that somatosensory feedback be provided to the tetraplegic patient or amputee. Given the complexity of state-of-the-art prosthetic limbs and, thus, the huge state space they can traverse, it is desirable to minimize the need for the patient to learn associations between events impinging on the limb and arbitrary sensations. Accordingly, we have developed approaches to intuitively convey sensory information that is critical for object manipulation--information about contact location, pressure, and timing--through intracortical microstimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. In experiments with nonhuman primates, we show that we can elicit percepts that are projected to a localized patch of skin and that track the pressure exerted on the skin. In a real-time application, we demonstrate that animals can perform a tactile discrimination task equally well whether mechanical stimuli are delivered to their native fingers or to a prosthetic one. Finally, we propose that the timing of contact events can be signaled through phasic intracortical microstimulation at the onset and offset of object contact that mimics the ubiquitous on and off responses observed in primary somatosensory cortex to complement slowly varying pressure-related feedback. We anticipate that the proposed biomimetic feedback will considerably increase the dexterity and embodiment of upper-limb neuroprostheses and will constitute an important step in restoring touch to individuals who have lost it.

  3. A New Animal Model for Developing a Somatosensory Neural Interface for Prosthetic Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-12

    interface for neuroprosthetic limbs. PI: Douglas J. Weber, Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh 1 10/15/2007 Scientific progress and accomplishments. We...information to the brain. A new animal model for developing a somatosensory neural interface for neuroprosthetic limbs. PI: Douglas J. Weber, Ph.D...A new animal model for developing a somatosensory neural interface for neuroprosthetic limbs. PI: Douglas J. Weber, Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh

  4. The biomechanical behavior on the interface of tumor arthrosis/allograft prosthetic composite by finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Z.; Jiang, W.; Zou, W.; Luo, J. M.; Chen, J. Y.; Tu, C. Q.; Xing, B. B.; Gu, Z. W.; Zhang, X. D.

    2008-11-01

    The biomechanical behavior of the uniting interface between the allograft bone and the autogenetic bone plays an important role in the treatment of the proximal femur massive defects with artificial tumor arthrosis/allograft prosthetic composite (TAAPC). According to the CT data of a patient, a 3D medical treatment model of TAAPC was established. Under the loads of 1.5 and 2.5 times standard body weight (70 kg), the mechanical behavior of the treatment model was analyzed by finite element analysis (FEA) for three typical healing periods. The results show that there are significant differences in the stress values and distribution in different healing periods. With healing of osteotomy, the hardness of the tissue of the uniting interface increases, the stress in uniting area was increased greatly and the stress concentration decreased. After cured the stress almost reached the level of normal bone. In the initial stage of healing, the healing training is not encouraged because there is an obvious risk of fracture of prosthesis and bone cement. In addition, porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic used as bone tissue scaffold for this case, not only facilitates the generation of new bone, but also can avoid this risk caused by the non-uniting interface.

  5. Pressure characteristics at the stump/socket interface in transtibial amputees using an adaptive prosthetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian I; Alimusaj, Merkur; Fradet, Laetitia; Siegel, Johannes; Braatz, Frank

    2009-12-01

    The technological advances that have been made in developing highly functional prostheses are promising for very active patients but we do not yet know whether they cause an increase in biomechanical load along with possibly negative consequences for pressure conditions in the socket. Therefore, this study monitored the socket pressure at specific locations of the stump when using a microprocessor-controlled adaptive prosthetic ankle under different walking conditions. Twelve unilateral transtibial amputees between 43 and 59 years of age were provided with the Proprio-Foot (Ossur) and underwent an instrumented 3D gait analysis in level, stair, and incline walking, including synchronous data capturing of socket pressure. Peak pressures and pressure time integrals (PTI) at three different locations were compared for five walking conditions with and without using the device's ankle adaptation mode. Highest peak pressures of 2.4 k Pa/kg were found for incline ascent at the calf muscle as compared to 2.1 k Pa/kg in level walking with large inter-individual variance. In stair ascent a strong correlation was found between maximum knee moment and socket pressure. The most significant pressure changes relative to level walking were seen in ramp descent anteriorly towards the stump end, with PTI values being almost twice as high as those in level walking. Adapting the angle of the prosthesis on stairs and ramps modified the pressure data such that they were closer to those in level walking. Pressure at the stump depends on the knee moments involved in each walking condition. Adapting the prosthetic ankle angle is a valuable means of modifying joint kinetics and thereby the pressure distribution at the stump. However, large inter-individual differences in local pressures underline the importance of individual socket fitting.

  6. An investigation on effects of amputee's physiological parameters on maximum pressure developed at the prosthetic socket interface using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Chitresh; Singh, Amit; Chaudhary, Himanshu; Unune, Deepak Rajendra

    2017-10-23

    Technological advances in prosthetics have attracted the curiosity of researchers in monitoring design and developments of the sockets to sustain maximum pressure without any soft tissue damage, skin breakdown, and painful sores. Numerous studies have been reported in the area of pressure measurement at the limb/socket interface, though, the relation between amputee's physiological parameters and the pressure developed at the limb/socket interface is still not studied. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of patient-specific physiological parameters viz. height, weight, and stump length on the pressure development at the transtibial prosthetic limb/socket interface. Initially, the pressure values at the limb/socket interface were clinically measured during stance and walking conditions for different patients using strain gauges placed at critical locations of the stump. The measured maximum pressure data related to patient's physiological parameters was used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The effects of physiological parameters on the pressure development at the limb/socket interface were examined using the ANN model. The analyzed results indicated that the weight and stump length significantly affects the maximum pressure values. The outcomes of this work could be an important platform for the design and development of patient-specific prosthetic socket which can endure the maximum pressure conditions at stance and ambulation conditions.

  7. The myokinetic control interface: tracking implanted magnets as a means for prosthetic control.

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    Tarantino, S; Clemente, F; Barone, D; Controzzi, M; Cipriani, C

    2017-12-07

    Upper limb amputation deprives individuals of their innate ability to manipulate objects. Such disability can be restored with a robotic prosthesis linked to the brain by a human-machine interface (HMI) capable of decoding voluntary intentions, and sending motor commands to the prosthesis. Clinical or research HMIs rely on the interpretation of electrophysiological signals recorded from the muscles. However, the quest for an HMI that allows for arbitrary and physiologically appropriate control of dexterous prostheses, is far from being completed. Here we propose a new HMI that aims to track the muscles contractions with implanted permanent magnets, by means of magnetic field sensors. We called this a myokinetic control interface. We present the concept, the features and a demonstration of a prototype which exploits six 3-axis sensors to localize four magnets implanted in a forearm mockup, for the control of a dexterous hand prosthesis. The system proved highly linear (R 2  = 0.99) and precise (1% repeatability), yet exhibiting short computation delay (45 ms) and limited cross talk errors (10% the mean stroke of the magnets). Our results open up promising possibilities for amputees, demonstrating the viability of the myokinetic approach in implementing direct and simultaneous control over multiple digits of an artificial hand.

  8. Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sensory Aids Service » Prosthetic & Sensory Aids Service (PSAS) Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services Menu Menu Rehabilitation and Prosthetics Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Services Home Amputation ...

  9. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Dosen, Strahinja; Amsuess, Sebastian; Yu, Wenwei; Farina, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI) cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns) and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources). In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate), decoding (one signal to recognize), and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair), or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces) in order to improve the usability of existing low-bandwidth HMIs.

  10. Human-Machine Interface for the Control of Multi-Function Systems Based on Electrocutaneous Menu: Application to Multi-Grasp Prosthetic Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gonzalez-Vargas

    Full Text Available Modern assistive devices are very sophisticated systems with multiple degrees of freedom. However, an effective and user-friendly control of these systems is still an open problem since conventional human-machine interfaces (HMI cannot easily accommodate the system's complexity. In HMIs, the user is responsible for generating unique patterns of command signals directly triggering the device functions. This approach can be difficult to implement when there are many functions (necessitating many command patterns and/or the user has a considerable impairment (limited number of available signal sources. In this study, we propose a novel concept for a general-purpose HMI where the controller and the user communicate bidirectionally to select the desired function. The system first presents possible choices to the user via electro-tactile stimulation; the user then acknowledges the desired choice by generating a single command signal. Therefore, the proposed approach simplifies the user communication interface (one signal to generate, decoding (one signal to recognize, and allows selecting from a number of options. To demonstrate the new concept the method was used in one particular application, namely, to implement the control of all the relevant functions in a state of the art commercial prosthetic hand without using any myoelectric channels. We performed experiments in healthy subjects and with one amputee to test the feasibility of the novel approach. The results showed that the performance of the novel HMI concept was comparable or, for some outcome measures, better than the classic myoelectric interfaces. The presented approach has a general applicability and the obtained results point out that it could be used to operate various assistive systems (e.g., prosthesis vs. wheelchair, or it could be integrated into other control schemes (e.g., myoelectric control, brain-machine interfaces in order to improve the usability of existing low

  11. The Effect of Prosthetic Socket Interface Design on Socket Comfort, Residual Limb Health, and Function for the Transfemoral Amputee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    for the Transfemoral Amputee PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: M. Jason Highsmith CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of South Florida Tampa, FL 33620 REPORT...and Function for the Transfemoral Amputee 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Highsmith, M. Jason 5d...There are two alternative interface designs for the military and veteran above knee amputee that could provide answers to issues germane to above

  12. Demonstration of a Semi-Autonomous Hybrid Brain-Machine Interface using Human Intracranial EEG, Eye Tracking, and Computer Vision to Control a Robotic Upper Limb Prosthetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, David P.; Hotson, Guy; Katyal, Kapil D.; Wester, Brock A.; Fifer, Matthew S.; McGee, Timothy G.; Harris, Andrew; Johannes, Matthew S.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Ravitz, Alan D.; Anderson, William S.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Crone, Nathan E.

    2014-01-01

    To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the object by the MPL. Sequential iterations of HARMONIE were tested in two pilot subjects implanted with electrocorticographic (ECoG) and depth electrodes within motor areas. The subjects performed the complex task in 71.4% (20/28) and 67.7% (21/31) of trials after minimal training. Balanced accuracy for detecting movements was 91.1% and 92.9%, significantly greater than chance accuracies (p < 0.05). After BMI-based initiation, the MPL completed the entire task 100% (one object) and 70% (three objects) of the time. The MPL took approximately 12.2 seconds for task completion after system improvements implemented for the second subject. Our hybrid-BMI design prevented all but one baseline false positive from initiating the system. The novel approach demonstrated in this proof-of-principle study, using hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics, addresses limitations of current BMIs. PMID:24760914

  13. Demonstration of a semi-autonomous hybrid brain-machine interface using human intracranial EEG, eye tracking, and computer vision to control a robotic upper limb prosthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, David P; Hotson, Guy; Katyal, Kapil D; Wester, Brock A; Fifer, Matthew S; McGee, Timothy G; Harris, Andrew; Johannes, Matthew S; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Ravitz, Alan D; Anderson, William S; Thakor, Nitish V; Crone, Nathan E

    2014-07-01

    To increase the ability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) to control advanced prostheses such as the modular prosthetic limb (MPL), we are developing a novel system: the Hybrid Augmented Reality Multimodal Operation Neural Integration Environment (HARMONIE). This system utilizes hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics to allow users to identify an object (via eye tracking and computer vision) and initiate (via brain-control) a semi-autonomous reach-grasp-and-drop of the object by the MPL. Sequential iterations of HARMONIE were tested in two pilot subjects implanted with electrocorticographic (ECoG) and depth electrodes within motor areas. The subjects performed the complex task in 71.4% (20/28) and 67.7% (21/31) of trials after minimal training. Balanced accuracy for detecting movements was 91.1% and 92.9%, significantly greater than chance accuracies (p < 0.05). After BMI-based initiation, the MPL completed the entire task 100% (one object) and 70% (three objects) of the time. The MPL took approximately 12.2 s for task completion after system improvements implemented for the second subject. Our hybrid-BMI design prevented all but one baseline false positive from initiating the system. The novel approach demonstrated in this proof-of-principle study, using hybrid input, supervisory control, and intelligent robotics, addresses limitations of current BMIs.

  14. AI and Prosthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriazi, Nefeli Evdokia

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetics are very important to an amputee.The introduction of technology to prosthetics has allowed bionic limbs to emerge and change the way we were thinking about prosthetic limbs.More and more companies create new innovative models,but not affordable for anyone.3D Printing gives more options.

  15. Threshold concepts in prosthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. Objectives: To explore possible thresh...

  16. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  17. Threshold concepts in prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. To explore possible threshold concepts within prosthetics. Qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data from 18 students and 8 staff at two universities with undergraduate prosthetics and orthotics programmes were generated through interviews and questionnaires. The data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Three possible threshold concepts arose from the data: 'how we walk', 'learning to talk' and 'considering the person'. Three potential threshold concepts in prosthetics are suggested with possible implications for prosthetics education. These possible threshold concepts involve changes in both conceptual and ontological knowledge, integrating into the persona of the individual. This integration occurs through the development of memories associated with procedural concepts that combine with disciplinary concepts. Considering the prosthetics curriculum through the lens of threshold concepts enables a focus on how students learn to become prosthetists. Clinical relevance This study provides new insights into how prosthetists learn. This has implications for curriculum design in prosthetics education.

  18. Early interfaced neural activity from chronic amputated nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitija Garde

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct interfacing of transected peripheral nerves with advanced robotic prosthetic devices has been proposed as a strategy for achieving natural motor control and sensory perception of such bionic substitutes, thus fully functionally replacing missing limbs in amputees. Multi-electrode arrays placed in the brain and peripheral nerves have been used successfully to convey neural control of prosthetic devices to the user. However, reactive gliosis, micro hemorrhages, axonopathy and excessive inflammation, currently limit their long-term use. Here we demonstrate that enticement of peripheral nerve regeneration through a non-obstructive multi-electrode array, after either acute or chronic nerve amputation, offers a viable alternative to obtain early neural recordings and to enhance long-term interfacing of nerve activity. Non restrictive electrode arrays placed in the path of regenerating nerve fibers allowed the recording of action potentials as early as 8 days post-implantation with high signal-to-noise ratio, as long as 3 months in some animals, and with minimal inflammation at the nerve tissue-metal electrode interface. Our findings suggest that regenerative on-dependent multi-electrode arrays of open design allow the early and stable interfacing of neural activity from amputated peripheral nerves and might contribute towards conveying full neural control and sensory feedback to users of robotic prosthetic devices. .

  19. GIANT PROSTHETIC VALVE THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.

  20. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  1. Viability of Controlling Prosthetic Hand Utilizing Electroencephalograph (EEG) Dataset Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskon, Azizi; A/L Thanakodi, Suresh; Raihan Mazlan, Mohd; Mohd Haziq Azhar, Satria; Nooraya Mohd Tawil, Siti

    2016-11-01

    This project presents the development of an artificial hand controlled by Electroencephalograph (EEG) signal datasets for the prosthetic application. The EEG signal datasets were used as to improvise the way to control the prosthetic hand compared to the Electromyograph (EMG). The EMG has disadvantages to a person, who has not used the muscle for a long time and also to person with degenerative issues due to age factor. Thus, the EEG datasets found to be an alternative for EMG. The datasets used in this work were taken from Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Project. The datasets were already classified for open, close and combined movement operations. It served the purpose as an input to control the prosthetic hand by using an Interface system between Microsoft Visual Studio and Arduino. The obtained results reveal the prosthetic hand to be more efficient and faster in response to the EEG datasets with an additional LiPo (Lithium Polymer) battery attached to the prosthetic. Some limitations were also identified in terms of the hand movements, weight of the prosthetic, and the suggestions to improve were concluded in this paper. Overall, the objective of this paper were achieved when the prosthetic hand found to be feasible in operation utilizing the EEG datasets.

  2. Functional Assessment of a Myoelectric Postural Controller and Multi-Functional Prosthetic Hand by Persons With Trans-Radial Limb Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segil, Jacob L; Huddle, Stephen A; Weir, Richard F Ff

    2017-06-01

    The functional assessment of myoelectric control algorithms by persons with amputation promotes the overarching goal of the field of prosthetic limb design: to replace what was lost. However, many studies use experimental paradigms with virtual interfaces and able-bodied subjects that do not capture the challenges of a clinical implementation with an amputee population. A myoelectric control system must be robust to variable physiology, loading effects of the prosthesis on the limb, and limb position effects during dynamic tasks. Here persons with transradial limb loss performed activities of daily living using a postural controller and multi-functional prosthetic hand in order to verify that the postural controller was robust to these clinical challenges. The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure was performed by persons with limb loss and able-bodied subjects. The results indicate that persons with limb loss and able-limbed subjects achieved the same performance and therefore that the clinical challenges were overcome. Persons with limb loss achieved 55% of physiological hand function on average. Also, the postural controller is compared to other state of the art myoelectric controllers and prosthetic hands previously tested. This work confirms that the postural controller is potentially a clinically-viable method to control myoelectric multi-functional prosthetic hands.

  3. Rotationally Actuated Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Carden, James R.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand attached to end of remaining part of forearm and to upper arm just above elbow. Pincerlike fingers pushed apart to degree depending on rotation of forearm. Simpler in design, simpler to operate, weighs less, and takes up less space.

  4. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  5. Cortical neural prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew B

    2004-01-01

    Control of prostheses using cortical signals is based on three elements: chronic microelectrode arrays, extraction algorithms, and prosthetic effectors. Arrays of microelectrodes are permanently implanted in cerebral cortex. These arrays must record populations of single- and multiunit activity indefinitely. Information containing position and velocity correlates of animate movement needs to be extracted continuously in real time from the recorded activity. Prosthetic arms, the current effectors used in this work, need to have the agility and configuration of natural arms. Demonstrations using closed-loop control show that subjects change their neural activity to improve performance with these devices. Adaptive-learning algorithms that capitalize on these improvements show that this technology has the capability of restoring much of the arm movement lost with immobilizing deficits.

  6. Welding of Prosthetic Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the techniques of joining metal denture elements, used in prosthetic dentistry: the traditional soldering technique with a gas burner and a new technique of welding with a laser beam; the aim of the study was to make a comparative assessment of the quality of the joints in view of the possibility of applying them in prosthetic structures. Fractographic examinations were conducted along with tensile strength and impact strength tests, and the quality of the joints was assessed compared to the solid metal. The experiments have shown that the metal elements used to make dentures, joined by the technique which employs a laser beam, have better strength properties than those achieved with a gas burner.

  7. New developments in prosthetic arm systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaklija I

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ivan Vujaklija,1 Dario Farina,1 Oskar C Aszmann2 1Institute of Neurorehabilitation Systems, Bernstein Focus Neurotechnology Göttingen, University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany; 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Restoration of Extremity Function, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Abstract: Absence of an upper limb leads to severe impairments in everyday life, which can further influence the social and mental state. For these reasons, early developments in cosmetic and body-driven prostheses date some centuries ago, and they have been evolving ever since. Following the end of the Second World War, rapid developments in technology resulted in powered myoelectric hand prosthetics. In the years to come, these devices were common on the market, though they still suffered high user abandonment rates. The reasons for rejection were trifold – insufficient functionality of the hardware, fragile design, and cumbersome control. In the last decade, both academia and industry have reached major improvements concerning technical features of upper limb prosthetics and methods for their interfacing and control. Advanced robotic hands are offered by several vendors and research groups, with a variety of active and passive wrist options that can be articulated across several degrees of freedom. Nowadays, elbow joint designs include active solutions with different weight and power options. Control features are getting progressively more sophisticated, offering options for multiple sensor integration and multi-joint articulation. Latest developments in socket designs are capable of facilitating implantable and multiple surface electromyography sensors in both traditional and osseointegration-based systems. Novel surgical techniques in combination with modern, sophisticated hardware are enabling restoration of dexterous upper limb

  8. Prosthetic elbow joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An artificial, manually positionable elbow joint for use in an upper extremity, above-elbow, prosthetic is described. The prosthesis provides a locking feature that is easily controlled by the wearer. The instant elbow joint is very strong and durable enough to withstand the repeated heavy loadings encountered by a wearer who works in an industrial, construction, farming, or similar environment. The elbow joint of the present invention comprises a turntable, a frame, a forearm, and a locking assembly. The frame generally includes a housing for the locking assembly and two protruding ears. The forearm includes an elongated beam having a cup-shaped cylindrical member at one end and a locking wheel having a plurality of holes along a circular arc on its other end with a central bore for pivotal attachment to the protruding ears of the frame. The locking assembly includes a collar having a central opening with a plurality of internal grooves, a plurality of internal cam members each having a chamfered surface at one end and a V-shaped slot at its other end; an elongated locking pin having a crown wheel with cam surfaces and locking lugs secured thereto; two coiled compression springs; and a flexible filament attached to one end of the elongated locking pin and extending from the locking assembly for extending and retracting the locking pin into the holes in the locking wheel to permit selective adjustment of the forearm relative to the frame. In use, the turntable is affixed to the upper arm part of the prosthetic in the conventional manner, and the cup-shaped cylindrical member on one end of the forearm is affixed to the forearm piece of the prosthetic in the conventional manner. The elbow joint is easily adjusted and locked between maximum flex and extended positions.

  9. Toward More Versatile and Intuitive Cortical Brain–Machine Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Richard A.; Kellis, Spencer; Klaes, Christian; Aflalo, Tyson

    2014-01-01

    Brain–machine interfaces have great potential for the development of neuroprosthetic applications to assist patients suffering from brain injury or neurodegenerative disease. One type of brain–machine interface is a cortical motor prosthetic, which is used to assist paralyzed subjects. Motor prosthetics to date have typically used the motor cortex as a source of neural signals for controlling external devices. The review will focus on several new topics in the arena of cortical prosthetics. T...

  10. Real-time decision fusion for multimodal neural prosthetic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James Robert; Levy, Todd; Bishop, William; Beaty, James D

    2010-03-02

    The field of neural prosthetics aims to develop prosthetic limbs with a brain-computer interface (BCI) through which neural activity is decoded into movements. A natural extension of current research is the incorporation of neural activity from multiple modalities to more accurately estimate the user's intent. The challenge remains how to appropriately combine this information in real-time for a neural prosthetic device. Here we propose a framework based on decision fusion, i.e., fusing predictions from several single-modality decoders to produce a more accurate device state estimate. We examine two algorithms for continuous variable decision fusion: the Kalman filter and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Using simulated cortical neural spike signals, we implemented several successful individual neural decoding algorithms, and tested the capabilities of each fusion method in the context of decoding 2-dimensional endpoint trajectories of a neural prosthetic arm. Extensively testing these methods on random trajectories, we find that on average both the Kalman filter and ANNs successfully fuse the individual decoder estimates to produce more accurate predictions. Our results reveal that a fusion-based approach has the potential to improve prediction accuracy over individual decoders of varying quality, and we hope that this work will encourage multimodal neural prosthetics experiments in the future.

  11. Real-time decision fusion for multimodal neural prosthetic devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Robert White

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The field of neural prosthetics aims to develop prosthetic limbs with a brain-computer interface (BCI through which neural activity is decoded into movements. A natural extension of current research is the incorporation of neural activity from multiple modalities to more accurately estimate the user's intent. The challenge remains how to appropriately combine this information in real-time for a neural prosthetic device. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we propose a framework based on decision fusion, i.e., fusing predictions from several single-modality decoders to produce a more accurate device state estimate. We examine two algorithms for continuous variable decision fusion: the Kalman filter and artificial neural networks (ANNs. Using simulated cortical neural spike signals, we implemented several successful individual neural decoding algorithms, and tested the capabilities of each fusion method in the context of decoding 2-dimensional endpoint trajectories of a neural prosthetic arm. Extensively testing these methods on random trajectories, we find that on average both the Kalman filter and ANNs successfully fuse the individual decoder estimates to produce more accurate predictions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that a fusion-based approach has the potential to improve prediction accuracy over individual decoders of varying quality, and we hope that this work will encourage multimodal neural prosthetics experiments in the future.

  12. Prosthetic stomatitis with removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalieva Yu.Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Research Objective: To study patients with prosthetic stomatitis, who use the removable laminar dentures. Materials: The consultations and treatment of 79 patients aged 47-65 years have been conducted. The patients have been divided into two clinical groups. The first clinical group (39 persons with the performance of immediate prosthet-ics; the second control clinical group (40 persons — the permanent dentures were produced without the preliminary instruction. Results: All the patients, having the laminar dentures without the preliminary use of immediate constructions of dentures, in spite of repeated correction of them, have had changes of dentures and transitory fold. Patients have been exposed to prosthetic stomatitis of different etiology (without trauma; the single-shot or multiple correction of dentures by the method of rebasing with using of cold cure plastics has been made. Conclusion: Structural and functional changes of dentition during the prosthetic stomatitis lead to disorders, associated by the mucositis. Use of the term of «prosthetic stomatitis» reflects etiological and pathogenetic component of changes in the denture-supporting tissues

  13. Prosthetic helping hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees, having a C-shaped clamping mechanism for grasping cylindrical objects, is described. The clamping mechanism is pivotally mounted to a cuff that fits on the amputee's lower arm. The present invention is utilized by placing an arm that has been amputated below the elbow into the cuff. The clamping mechanism then serves as a hand whenever it becomes necessary for the amputee to grasp a cylindrical object such as a handle, a bar, a rod, etc. To grasp the cylindrical object, the object is jammed against the opening in the C-shaped spring, causing the spring to open, the object to pass to the center of the spring, and the spring to snap shut behind the object. Various sizes of clamping mechanisms can be provided and easily interchanged to accommodate a variety of diameters. With the extension that pivots and rotates, the clamping mechanism can be used in a variety of orientations. Thus, this invention provides the amputee with a clamping mechanism that can be used to perform a number of tasks.

  14. Control of Prosthetic Hands via the Peripheral Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Cordella, Francesca; Barone, Roberto; Romeo, Rocco Antonio; Bellingegni, Alberto Dellacasa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to provide a critical review of the literature on the technological issues on control and sensorization of hand prostheses interfacing with the Peripheral Nervous System (i.e., PNS), and their experimental validation on amputees. The study opens with an in-depth analysis of control solutions and sensorization features of research and commercially available prosthetic hands. Pros and cons of adopted technologies, signal processing techniques and motion control solutions are investigated. Special emphasis is then dedicated to the recent studies on the restoration of tactile perception in amputees through neural interfaces. The paper finally proposes a number of suggestions for designing the prosthetic system able to re-establish a bidirectional communication with the PNS and foster the prosthesis natural control.

  15. Control of prosthetic hands via the peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa eCiancio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to provide a critical review of the literature on the technological issues on control and sensorization of hand prostheses interfacing with the Peripheral Nervous System (i.e. PNS, and their experimental validation on amputees. The study opens with an in-depth analysis of control solutions and sensorization features of research and commercially available prosthetic hands. Pros and cons of adopted technologies, signal processing techniques and motion control solutions are investigated. Special emphasis is then dedicated to the recent studies on the restoration of tactile perception in amputees through neural interfaces. The paper finally proposes a number of suggestions for designing the prosthetic system able to re-establish a bidirectional communication with the PNS and foster the prosthesis natural control.

  16. Control of Prosthetic Hands via the Peripheral Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Cordella, Francesca; Barone, Roberto; Romeo, Rocco Antonio; Bellingegni, Alberto Dellacasa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to provide a critical review of the literature on the technological issues on control and sensorization of hand prostheses interfacing with the Peripheral Nervous System (i.e., PNS), and their experimental validation on amputees. The study opens with an in-depth analysis of control solutions and sensorization features of research and commercially available prosthetic hands. Pros and cons of adopted technologies, signal processing techniques and motion control solutions are investigated. Special emphasis is then dedicated to the recent studies on the restoration of tactile perception in amputees through neural interfaces. The paper finally proposes a number of suggestions for designing the prosthetic system able to re-establish a bidirectional communication with the PNS and foster the prosthesis natural control. PMID:27092041

  17. Control of Prosthetic Hands via the Peripheral Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lisa eCiancio; Francesca eCordella; Roberto eBarone; Rocco Antonio Romeo; Alberto eDellacasa Bellingegni; Rinaldo eSacchetti; Angelo eDavalli; Giovanni eDi Pino; Federico eRanieri; Vincenzo eDi Lazzaro; Eugenio eGuglielmelli; Loredana eZollo

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to provide a critical review of the literature on the technological issues on control and sensorization of hand prostheses interfacing with the Peripheral Nervous System (i.e., PNS), and their experimental validation on amputees. The study opens with an in-depth analysis of control solutions and sensorization features of research and commercially available prosthetic hands. Pros and cons of adopted technologies, signal processing techniques and motion control solutions are ...

  18. Providing a sense of touch to prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Bao Tram; Sando, Ian C; Gillespie, R Brent; McLaughlin, Bryan L; Gerling, Gregory J; Langhals, Nicholas B; Urbanchek, Melanie G; Cederna, Paul S

    2015-06-01

    Each year, approximately 185,000 Americans suffer the devastating loss of a limb. The effects of upper limb amputations are profound because a person's hands are tools for everyday functioning, expressive communication, and other uniquely human attributes. Despite the advancements in prosthetic technology, current upper limb prostheses are still limited in terms of complex motor control and sensory feedback. Sensory feedback is critical to restoring full functionality to amputated patients because it would relieve the cognitive burden of relying solely on visual input to monitor motor commands and provide tremendous psychological benefits. This article reviews the latest innovations in sensory feedback and argues in favor of peripheral nerve interfaces. First, the authors examine the structure of the peripheral nerve and its importance in the development of a sensory interface. Second, the authors discuss advancements in targeted muscle reinnervation and direct neural stimulation by means of intraneural electrodes. The authors then explore the future of prosthetic sensory feedback using innovative technologies for neural signaling, specifically, the sensory regenerative peripheral nerve interface and optogenetics. These breakthroughs pave the way for the development of a prosthetic limb with the ability to feel.

  19. Implantes cono Morse con sistema de indexación interno: Descripción del caso clínico Morse taper interface with prosthetic index: Clinical case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Thomé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de implantes cono Morse con indexadores para instalación con torque interno sería una opción interesante para el diseño de un implante dentario, que incluso podría traer más opciones protéticas a ese sistema ya que el índex interno también puede utilizarse como una referencia para las restauraciones. El objetivo de este artículo es describir un caso clínico con empleo de implantes cono Morse y un sistema de indexación interno, que evitaría el uso de un montador externo que ya venga adaptado de fábrica. La técnica de cirugía sin colgajo asociada al implante cono Morse con indexador hexagonal interno demostró ser un procedimiento seguro para rehabilitación del área edéntula posterior del maxilar.The use of Morse Taper implants with index to the installation with internal torque should be an interesting option to the design of a dental implant, It could even bring more prosthetic solutions to this system by the fact that the internal index could also be used as a reference for restorations. This article aims to describe a clinical case with the use of Morse Taper implants and a system of internal index, avoiding the use of an external mount, which already comes adapted from factory. The technique of flapless surgery associated to the Morse Taper implant with internal hex index demonstrated to be a safe procedure to the rehabilitation of the posterior edentulous region in the jaw.

  20. Candida infection of a prosthetic shoulder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtman, E.A.

    1983-09-01

    A heroin addict developed a Candida parapsilosis infection in a prosthetic shoulder joint. Radiographs showed loose fragments of cement with prosthetic loosening. The patient was treated with removal of the prosthesis and intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral ketoconazole.

  1. Rothia prosthetic knee joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Manish N; Malhotra, Prashant

    2015-08-01

    Rothia species - Gram-positive pleomorphic bacteria that are part of the normal oral and respiratory flora - are commonly associated with dental cavities and periodontal disease although systemic infections have been described. We describe a 53-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis complicated by prosthetic knee joint infection due to Rothia species, which was successfully treated by surgical removal of prosthesis and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. The issue of antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures among patients with prosthetic joint replacements is discussed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Performance characteristics of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Joseph T; Dollar, Aaron M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we set forth a review of performance characteristics for both common commercial prosthetics as well as anthropomorphic research devices. Based on these specifications as well as surveyed results from prosthetic users, ranges of hand attributes are evaluated and discussed. End user information is used to describe the performance requirements for prosthetic hands for clinical use. © 2011 IEEE

  3. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Bhandari; Rashi Chaturvedi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In patients with hopeless prognosis of the anterior teeth there is still a strong desire to save them for the sake of esthetics. If not grossly carious, broken down or discolored the extracted tooth after suitable modifications can be placed back in its original site by splinting it to the adjacent stable teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (10 males, 5 females) in the age range of 40-65 years with pathologically migrated, unsalvageable teeth were treated by splin...

  4. A smartphone photogrammetry method for digitizing prosthetic socket interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Amaia; Lemaire, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Prosthetic CAD/CAM systems require accurate 3D limb models; however, difficulties arise when working from the person's socket since current 3D scanners have difficulties scanning socket interiors. While dedicated scanners exist, they are expensive and the cost may be prohibitive for a limited number of scans per year. A low-cost and accessible photogrammetry method for socket interior digitization is proposed, using a smartphone camera and cloud-based photogrammetry services. 15 two-dimensional images of the socket's interior are captured using a smartphone camera. A 3D model is generated using cloud-based software. Linear measurements were comparing between sockets and the related 3D models. 3D reconstruction accuracy averaged 2.6 ± 2.0 mm and 0.086 ± 0.078 L, which was less accurate than models obtained by high quality 3D scanners. However, this method would provide a viable 3D digital socket reproduction that is accessible and low-cost, after processing in prosthetic CAD software. Clinical relevance The described method provides a low-cost and accessible means to digitize a socket interior for use in prosthetic CAD/CAM systems, employing a smartphone camera and cloud-based photogrammetry software.

  5. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  6. Prosthetics & Orthotics Manufacturing Initiative (POMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    have promise in allowing sockets to be adjusted after manufacture. The most likely configuration involves placing shape-memory foams , which are...demonstrated that the liquid carbon dioxide-based system could provide cooling through the thermal resistances of the viscoelastic liner now commonly worn...When a patient’s residual limb is covered by the prosthetic system, including a viscoelastic liner, the limb is robbed of all natural mechanisms

  7. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  8. Occlusion properties of prosthetic contact lenses for the treatment of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Randall S; McChesney, Megan E; McCluer, Craig A; Schatz, Martha P

    2008-12-01

    The efficacy of opaque contact lenses as occlusion therapy for amblyopia has been established in the literature. Prosthetic contact lenses use similar tints to improve cosmesis in scarred or deformed eyes and may be an alternative in occlusion therapy. To test this idea, we determined the degree of vision penalization elicited by prosthetic contact lenses and their effect on peripheral fusion. We tested 19 CIBA Vision DuraSoft 3 Prosthetic soft contact lenses with varying iris prints, underprints, and opaque pupil sizes in 10 volunteers with best-corrected Snellen distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better in each eye. Snellen visual acuity and peripheral fusion using the Worth 4-Dot test at near were measured on each subject wearing each of the 19 lenses. Results were analyzed with 3-factor analysis of variance. Mean visual acuity through the various lenses ranged from 20/79 to 20/620. Eight lenses allowed preservation of peripheral fusion in 50% or more of the subjects tested. Iris print pattern and opaque pupil size were significant factors in determining visual acuity (p prosthetic contact lenses a viable therapy for amblyopia. The degree of penalization can be varied and different iris print patterns and pupil sizes, using peripheral fusion, can be preserved with some lenses. Prosthetic contact lenses can be more cosmetically appealing and more tolerable than other amblyopia treatment modalities. These factors may improve compliance in occlusion therapy.

  9. Cognitive Control Signals for Neural Prosthetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. Musallam; B. D. Corneil; B. Greger; H. Scherberger; R. A. Andersen

    2004-01-01

    Recent development of neural prosthetics for assisting paralyzed patients has focused on decoding intended hand trajectories from motor cortical neurons and using this signal to control external devices...

  10. Computer Aided Facial Prosthetics Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial deformities can impose burden to the patient. There are many solutions for facial deformities such as plastic surgery and facial prosthetics. However, current fabrication method of facial prosthetics is high-cost and time consuming. This study aimed to identify a new method to construct a customized facial prosthetic. A 3D scanner, computer software and 3D printer were used in this study. Results showed that the new developed method can be used to produce a customized facial prosthetics. The advantages of the developed method over the conventional process are low cost, reduce waste of material and pollution in order to meet the green concept.

  11. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  12. Consumer Guide for Amputees: A Guide to Lower Limb Prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Guide for Amputees: A Guide to Lower Limb Prosthetics: Part I -- Prosthetic Design: Basic Concepts Volume 8 · ... wanted to have available a comprehensive explanation of limb prosthetics written in easily understood language for amputee consumers. ...

  13. Rotationally actuated prosthetic helping hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G., Jr. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor); West, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A prosthetic device has been developed for below-the-elbow amputees. The device consists of a cuff, a stem, a housing, two hook-like fingers, an elastic band for holding the fingers together, and a brace. The fingers are pivotally mounted on a housing that is secured to the amputee's upper arm with the brace. The stem, which also contains a cam, is rotationally mounted within the housing and is secured to the cuff, which fits over the amputee's stump. By rotating the cammed stem between the fingers with the lower arm, the amputee can open and close the fingers.

  14. Cochlear Implant Using Neural Prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shweta; Singh, Shashi kumar; Dubey, Pratik Kumar

    2012-10-01

    This research is based on neural prosthetic device. The oldest and most widely used of these electrical, and often computerized, devices is the cochlear implant, which has provided hearing to thousands of congenitally deaf people in this country. Recently, the use of the cochlear implant is expanding to the elderly, who frequently suffer major hearing loss. More cutting edge are artificial retinas, which are helping dozens of blind people see, and ìsmartî artificial arms and legs that amputees can maneuver by thoughts alone, and that feel more like real limbs.Research, which curiosity led to explore frog legs dancing during thunderstorms, a snail shapedorgan in the inner ear, and how various eye cells react to light, have fostered an understanding of how to ìtalkî to the nervous system. That understanding combined with the miniaturization of electronics and enhanced computer processing has enabled prosthetic devices that often can bridge the gap in nerve signaling that is caused by disease or injury.

  15. Neural prostheses for vision: designing a functional interface with retinal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetling, John R; Baig-Silva, Monica S

    2004-01-01

    A number of prevalent eye diseases exist which may lead to partial or total blindness, and for which there are currently no cures or means by which to restore lost sight. Based on recent progress, it has become apparent that artificial prosthetic devices, which would use electrical stimulation of neurons in the visual pathway to elicit visual percepts, are likely to some day become a viable treatment for patients blinded by these diseases. A number of recent scientific reviews have summarized general functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches related to the visual system, and many of the technical considerations regarding fabrication, biocompatibility, stimulation thresholds and electrotoxicity. This review will address a principal outstanding question in retinal prosthesis development: the design and implementation of a functional interface with the retina. A functional interface between electrodes and retinal neurons will be stable, biocompatible, and will convey useful information to the visual system. Several parameters related to both the artificial and biological aspects of the interface must be considered; this paper will emphasize electrode design. Additional issues central to the development of prosthesis interface design, including retinal physiology, eye diseases, and existing animal models of retinal degeneration, are also summarized.

  16. Marker-based method to measure movement between the residual limb and a transtibial prosthetic socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Walter Lee; Siebert, Steven

    2016-12-01

    Limb movement between the residuum and socket continues to be an underlying factor in limb health, prosthetic comfort, and gait performance yet techniques to measure this have been underdeveloped. Develop a method to measure motion between the residual limb and a transtibial prosthetic socket. Single subject, repeated measures with mathematical modeling. The gait of a participant with transtibial amputation was recorded using a motion capture system using a marker set that included arrays on the anterior distal tibia and the lateral epicondyle of the femur. The proximal or distal translation, anterior or posterior translation, and angular movements were quantified. A random Monte Carlo simulation based on the precision of the motion capture system and a model of the bone moving under the skin explored the technique's accuracy. Residual limb tissue stiffness was modeled as a linear spring based on data from Papaioannou et al. Residuum movement relative to the socket went through ~30 mm, 18 mm, and 15° range of motion. Root mean squared errors were 5.47 mm, 1.86 mm, and 0.75° when considering the modeled bone-skin movement in the proximal or distal, anterior or posterior, and angular directions, respectively. The measured movement was greater than the root mean squared error, indicating that this method can measure motion between the residuum and socket. The ability to quantify movement between the residual limb and the prosthetic socket will improve prosthetic treatment through the evaluation of different prosthetic suspensions, socket designs, and motor control of the prosthetic interface. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  17. 21 CFR 890.3420 - External limb prosthetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External limb prosthetic component. 890.3420... External limb prosthetic component. (a) Identification. An external limb prosthetic component is a device... total prosthesis. Examples of external limb prosthetic components include the following: Ankle, foot...

  18. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  19. Development of prosthetic arm with pneumatic prosthetic hand and tendon-driven wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Kan, Hiroto; Hirano, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Recently, various prosthetic arms have been developed, but few are both attractive and functional. Considering human coexistence, prosthetic arms must be both safe and flexible. In this research, we developed a novel prosthetic arm with a five-fingered prosthetic hand using our original pneumatic actuators and a slender tendon-driven wrist using a wire drive and two small motors. Because the prosthetic hand's driving source is comprised of small pneumatic actuators, the prosthetic hand is safe when it makes contact with people; it can also operate flexibly. In addition, the arm has a tendon-driven wrist to expand its motion space and to perform many operations. First, we explain the pneumatic hand's drive mechanism and its tendon-driven wrist. Next, we identify the characteristics of the hand and the wrist and construct a control system for this arm and verify its control performance.

  20. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lymphatic opacification in the prosthetic hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, R.A.; Gheorghiu, D. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Radiology); Krausz, Y. (Hadassah Univ. Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 52 patients with hip pain following total hip replacement was made. Each of them was evaluated by plain radiographs, technetium 99m pyrophosphate scans, arthrography with plain film substraction technique, and culture of joint fluid. In 30 cases there was evidence of prosthetic loosening, and in 21 of these lymphangeal opacification during arthrography was seen. In 15 cases with lymphongeal opacification the daignosis of prosthetic loosening was subsequently confirmed by prosthetic revision. In none of the 22 cases in which no evidence of prosthetic loosening was seen was there lymphatic opacification. It is concluded that lymphatic opacification during arthrography for pain following total hip prosthesis is a valuable ancillary sign of loosening. (orig.).

  2. Computed Tomography of Prosthetic Heart Valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, J.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening disease with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Patients with PHV dysfunction clinically can present with symptoms of congestive heart failure (dyspnea, fatigue, edema), fever, angina pectoris, dizziness

  3. Successful Thrombolysis of Aortic Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    threatening. Standard surgical treatment using cardiopulmonary bypass carries high maternal and fetal complications. Here we report a case of an antenatal female in first trimester with aortic prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT), who was successfully ...

  4. DME Prosthetics Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics-Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule. The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes...

  5. INTERVENTIONS TO MANAGE RESIDUAL LIMB ULCERATION DUE TO PROSTHETIC USE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH LOWER EXTREMITY AMPUTATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Andrews, Casey R; Lewis, Katherine L; Bradley, Rachel C; Ward, Jessica M; Orriola, John J; Highsmith, James T

    2016-09-01

    Patients with lower extremity amputation (LEA) experience 65% more dermatologic issues than non-amputees, and skin problems are experienced by ≈75% of LEA patients who use prostheses. Continuously referring LEA patients to a dermatologist for every stump related skin condition may be impractical. Thus, physical rehabilitation professionals should be prepared to recognize and manage common non-emergent skin conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the quantity, quality, and strength of available evidence supporting treatment methods for prosthesis-related residual limb (RL) ulcers. Systematic literature review with evidence grading and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES) was employed. Three EESs were formulated describing ulcer etiology, conditions in which prosthetic continuance is practical, circumstances likely requiring prosthetic discontinuance, and the consideration of additional medical or surgical interventions. Continued prosthetic use is a viable option to manage minor or early-stage ulcerated residual limbs in compliant patients lacking multiple comorbidities. Prosthetic discontinuance is also a viable method of residual limb ulcer healing and may be favored in the presence of severe acute ulcerations, chronic heavy smoking, intractable pain, rapid volume and weight change, history of chronic ulceration, systemic infections, or advanced dysvascular etiology. Surgery or other interventions may also be necessary in such cases to achieve restored prosthetic ambulation. A short bout of prosthetic discontinuance with a staged re-introduction plan is another viable option that may be warranted in patients with ulceration due to poor RL volume management. High-quality prospective research with larger samples is needed to determine the most appropriate course of treatment when a person with LEA develops an RL ulcer that is associated with prosthetic use.

  6. INTERVENTIONS TO MANAGE RESIDUAL LIMB ULCERATION DUE TO PROSTHETIC USE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH LOWER EXTREMITY AMPUTATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M. Jason; Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Andrews, Casey R.; Lewis, Katherine L.; Bradley, Rachel C.; Ward, Jessica M.; Orriola, John J.; Highsmith, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with lower extremity amputation (LEA) experience 65% more dermatologic issues than non-amputees, and skin problems are experienced by ≈75% of LEA patients who use prostheses. Continuously referring LEA patients to a dermatologist for every stump related skin condition may be impractical. Thus, physical rehabilitation professionals should be prepared to recognize and manage common non-emergent skin conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the quantity, quality, and strength of available evidence supporting treatment methods for prosthesis-related residual limb (RL) ulcers. Systematic literature review with evidence grading and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES) was employed. Three EESs were formulated describing ulcer etiology, conditions in which prosthetic continuance is practical, circumstances likely requiring prosthetic discontinuance, and the consideration of additional medical or surgical interventions. Continued prosthetic use is a viable option to manage minor or early-stage ulcerated residual limbs in compliant patients lacking multiple comorbidities. Prosthetic discontinuance is also a viable method of residual limb ulcer healing and may be favored in the presence of severe acute ulcerations, chronic heavy smoking, intractable pain, rapid volume and weight change, history of chronic ulceration, systemic infections, or advanced dysvascular etiology. Surgery or other interventions may also be necessary in such cases to achieve restored prosthetic ambulation. A short bout of prosthetic discontinuance with a staged re-introduction plan is another viable option that may be warranted in patients with ulceration due to poor RL volume management. High-quality prospective research with larger samples is needed to determine the most appropriate course of treatment when a person with LEA develops an RL ulcer that is associated with prosthetic use. PMID:28066521

  7. Surgical and Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Combination Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carlino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report is to analyze the clinical symptoms, ethologic factors, and prosthetic rehabilitation in a case of Combination Syndrome (CS. The treatment of CS can be conventional or surgical, with or without the bone reconstruction of maxilla. The correct prosthetic treatment helps this kind of patients to restore the physiologic occlusion plane to allow a correct masticatory and aesthetic function. Management of this kind of patients can be a challenge for a dental practitioner.

  8. Fiber-array based optogenetic prosthetic system for stimulation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling; Cote, Chris; Tejeda, Hector; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2012-02-01

    Recent advent of optogenetics has enabled activation of genetically-targeted neuronal cells using low intensity blue light with high temporal precision. Since blue light is attenuated rapidly due to scattering and absorption in neural tissue, optogenetic treatment of neurological disorders may require stimulation of specific cell types in multiple regions of the brain. Further, restoration of certain neural functions (vision, and auditory etc) requires accurate spatio-temporal stimulation patterns rather than just precise temporal stimulation. In order to activate multiple regions of the central nervous system in 3D, here, we report development of an optogenetic prosthetic comprising of array of fibers coupled to independently-controllable LEDs. This design avoids direct contact of LEDs with the brain tissue and thus does not require electrical and heat isolation, which can non-specifically stimulate and damage the local brain regions. The intensity, frequency, and duty cycle of light pulses from each fiber in the array was controlled independently using an inhouse developed LabView based program interfaced with a microcontroller driving the individual LEDs. While the temporal profile of the light pulses was controlled by varying the current driving the LED, the beam profile emanating from each fiber tip could be sculpted by microfabrication of the fiber tip. The fiber array was used to stimulate neurons, expressing channelrhodopsin-2, in different locations within the brain or retina. Control of neural activity in the mice cortex, using the fiber-array based prosthetic, is evaluated from recordings made with multi-electrode array (MEA). We also report construction of a μLED array based prosthetic for spatio-temporal stimulation of cortex.

  9. Cetacean Swimming with Prosthetic Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Fish, Frank

    2016-11-01

    During entanglement in fishing gear, dolphins can suffer abrasions and amputations of flukes and fins. As a result, if the dolphin survives the ordeal, swimming performance is altered. Current rehabilitation technques is the use of prosthesis to regain swimming ability. In this work, analyses are focused on two dolphins with locomotive impairment; Winter (currently living in Clearwater Marine Aquarium in Florida) and Fuji (lived in Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium in Japan). Fuji lost about 75% of its fluke surface to necrosis (death of cells) and Winter lost its tail due to amputation. Both dolphins are aided by prosthetic tails that mimic the shape of a real dolphin tail. Using 3D surface reconstruction techniques and a high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow solver, we were able to elucidate the kinematics and hydrodynamics and fluke deformation of these swimmers to clarify the effectiveness of prostheses in helping the dolphins regain their swimming ability. Associated with the performance, we identified distinct features in the wake structures that can explain this gap in the performance compared to a healthy dolphin. This work was supported by ONR MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  10. Percutaneous management of prosthetic valve thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Vuppaladadhiam

    2014-01-01

    Thrombosis of a prosthetic valve is a serious complication in patients with prosthetic heart valves. Thrombolysis is the initial choice of treatment. Patients who do not respond to thrombolysis are subjected to surgery which carries a high risk. We report a case series of 5 patients with prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis who did not respond to thrombolysis and were subjected to percutaneous manipulation of the prosthetic valves successfully and improved. Five patients who were diagnosed to have prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis and failed to respond to a minimum of 36 h of thrombolysis (persistent symptoms with increased gradients, abnormal findings on fluoroscopy),were subjected to percutaneous treatment after receiving proper consent. None of them had a visible thrombus on transthoracic echocardiogram. All patients underwent transseptal puncture following which a 6F JR4 guiding catheter was passed into the left atrium. The valve leaflets were repeatedly hit gently under fluoroscopic guidance till they regained their normal mobility. Mean age was 38.8 years. Average peak and mean gradients prior to the procedure were 38 and 25 and after the procedure were 12 and 6 mm of Hg respectively. All patients had successful recovery of valve motion on fluoroscopy with normalization of gradients and complete resolution of symptoms. None of the patients had any focal neurological deficits, embolic manifestations or bleeding complications. Percutaneous manipulation of prosthetic valves in selected patients with prosthetic valve thrombosis who do not respond to thrombolytic therapy is feasible and can be used as an alternative to surgery. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. First-in-man demonstration of a fully implanted myoelectric sensors system to control an advanced electromechanical prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Paul F; Evangelista, Melissa; Carvalho, A J; Lockhart, Joseph; Griffin, Sarah; Nanos, George; McKay, Patricia; Hansen, Morten; Ipsen, Derek; Vandersea, James; Butkus, Josef; Miller, Matthew; Murphy, Ian; Hankin, David

    2015-04-15

    Advanced motorized prosthetic devices are currently controlled by EMG signals generated by residual muscles and recorded by surface electrodes on the skin. These surface recordings are often inconsistent and unreliable, leading to high prosthetic abandonment rates for individuals with upper limb amputation. Surface electrodes are limited because of poor skin contact, socket rotation, residual limb sweating, and their ability to only record signals from superficial muscles, whose function frequently does not relate to the intended prosthetic function. More sophisticated prosthetic devices require a stable and reliable interface between the user and robotic hand to improve upper limb prosthetic function. Implantable Myoelectric Sensors (IMES(®)) are small electrodes intended to detect and wirelessly transmit EMG signals to an electromechanical prosthetic hand via an electro-magnetic coil built into the prosthetic socket. This system is designed to simultaneously capture EMG signals from multiple residual limb muscles, allowing the natural control of multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously. We report the status of the first FDA-approved clinical trial of the IMES(®) System. This study is currently in progress, limiting reporting to only preliminary results. Our first subject has reported the ability to accomplish a greater variety and complexity of tasks in his everyday life compared to what could be achieved with his previous myoelectric prosthesis. The interim results of this study indicate the feasibility of utilizing IMES(®) technology to reliably sense and wirelessly transmit EMG signals from residual muscles to intuitively control a three degree-of-freedom prosthetic arm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Generic Examples to Make Viable Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Ely, Rob; Yopp, David

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen an increased call to train students to craft mathematical arguments. The third of the Common Core's (CCSS) Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP 3) (CCSSI 2010) calls for all mathematically proficient students to "construct viable arguments" to support the truth of their ideas and to "critique…

  13. Prosthetic fitting after rotationplasty of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Noel F; Andrews, Karen L; Anderson, Kimberly; Gozola, Michael A; Shives, Thomas C; Rose, Peter S; Shaughnessy, William J; Sim, Franklin H

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the authors' experience with the timeline for prosthetic fitting after rotationplasty of the knee and to determine factors that may be associated with earlier prosthetic fitting. The authors conducted a retrospective observational study of 12 patients who underwent rotationplasty of the knee and received prosthetic care at this institution. All patients had oncologic causes for surgery. The median age at amputation was 10 yrs. The overall survival rate was 92%. Five patients received a preliminary bypass prosthesis. All 12 patients were successfully fitted with a definitive prosthesis. Three patients were fitted within 90 days; two of these three patients did not require chemotherapy. The median time for definitive prosthetic fitting in the ten patients requiring chemotherapy was 230.5 days (range, 85-425 days). Nine patients had documentation supporting a return to sport/premorbid physical recreational activities. In the authors' experience, chemotherapy was associated with delayed definitive prosthetic fitting. Typically, the patients who required rotationplasty for cancer completed fitting with a definitive prosthesis in 6 mos. The findings of this study validate previous reports and confirm that most rotationplasty patients have excellent outcomes with return to premorbid physical activities.

  14. Modality-specific axonal regeneration: toward selective regenerative neural interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Parisa; Garde, Kshitija; Chouhan, Amit K; Bengali, Ebrahim; Romero-Ortega, Mario I

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces have been proposed as viable alternatives for the natural control of robotic prosthetic devices. However, sensory and motor axons at the neural interface are of mixed sub-modality types, which difficult the specific recording from motor axons and the eliciting of precise sensory modalities through selective stimulation. Here we evaluated the possibility of using type specific neurotrophins to preferentially entice the regeneration of defined axonal populations from transected peripheral nerves into separate compartments. Segregation of mixed sensory fibers from dorsal root ganglion neurons was evaluated in vitro by compartmentalized diffusion delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), to preferentially entice the growth of TrkA+ nociceptive and TrkC+ proprioceptive subsets of sensory neurons, respectively. The average axon length in the NGF channel increased 2.5-fold compared to that in saline or NT-3, whereas the number of branches increased threefold in the NT-3 channels. These results were confirmed using a 3D "Y"-shaped in vitro assay showing that the arm containing NGF was able to entice a fivefold increase in axonal length of unbranched fibers. To address if such segregation can be enticed in vivo, a "Y"-shaped tubing was used to allow regeneration of the transected adult rat sciatic nerve into separate compartments filled with either NFG or NT-3. A significant increase in the number of CGRP+ pain fibers were attracted toward the sural nerve, while N-52+ large-diameter axons were observed in the tibial and NT-3 compartments. This study demonstrates the guided enrichment of sensory axons in specific regenerative chambers, and supports the notion that neurotrophic factors can be used to segregate sensory and perhaps motor axons in separate peripheral interfaces.

  15. Real-time control of a prosthetic hand using human electrocorticography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Hirata, Masayuki; Saitoh, Youichi; Goto, Tetsu; Kishima, Haruhiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2011-06-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) offers patients with severe motor disabilities greater independence by controlling external devices such as prosthetic arms. Among the available signal sources for the BMI, electrocorticography (ECoG) provides a clinically feasible signal with long-term stability and low clinical risk. Although ECoG signals have been used to infer arm movements, no study has examined its use to control a prosthetic arm in real time. The authors present an integrated BMI system for the control of a prosthetic hand using ECoG signals in a patient who had suffered a stroke. This system used the power modulations of the ECoG signal that are characteristic during movements of the patient's hand and enabled control of the prosthetic hand with movements that mimicked the patient's hand movements. A poststroke patient with subdural electrodes placed over his sensorimotor cortex performed 3 types of simple hand movements following a sound cue (calibration period). Time-frequency analysis was performed with the ECoG signals to select 3 frequency bands (1-8, 25-40, and 80-150 Hz) that revealed characteristic power modulation during the movements. Using these selected features, 2 classifiers (decoders) were trained to predict the movement state--that is, whether the patient was moving his hand or not--and the movement type based on a linear support vector machine. The decoding accuracy was compared among the 3 frequency bands to identify the most informative features. With the trained decoders, novel ECoG signals were decoded online while the patient performed the same task without cues (free-run period). According to the results of the real-time decoding, the prosthetic hand mimicked the patient's hand movements. Offline cross-validation analysis of the ECoG data measured during the calibration period revealed that the state and movement type of the patient's hand were predicted with an accuracy of 79.6% (chance 50%) and 68.3% (chance 33.3%), respectively

  16. Bruxism and prosthetic treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anders; Omar, Ridwaan; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2011-07-01

    Based on the findings from available research on bruxism and prosthetic treatment published in the dental literature, an attempt was made to draw conclusions about the existence of a possible relationship between the two, and its clinical relevance. MEDLINE/PubMed searches were conducted using the terms 'bruxism' and 'prosthetic treatment', as well as combinations of these and related terms. The few studies judged to be relevant were critically reviewed, in addition to papers found during an additional manual search of reference lists within selected articles. Bruxism is a common parafunctional habit, occurring both during sleep and wakefulness. Usually it causes few serious effects, but can do so in some patients. The etiology is multifactorial. There is no known treatment to stop bruxism, including prosthetic treatment. The role of bruxism in the process of tooth wear is unclear, but it is not considered a major cause. As informed by the present critical review, the relationship between bruxism and prosthetic treatment is one that relates mainly to the effect of the former on the latter. Bruxism may be included among the risk factors, and is associated with increased mechanical and/or technical complications in prosthodontic rehabilitation, although it seems not to affect implant survival. When prosthetic intervention is indicated in a patient with bruxism, efforts should be made to reduce the effects of likely heavy occlusal loading on all the components that contribute to prosthetic structural integrity. Failure to do so may indicate earlier failure than is the norm. Copyright © 2011 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimising the prescription of prosthetic technologies (opptec): Outcome measures for evidence based prosthetic practice and use

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryall, Dr Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This study provided a forum for patients and service providers to voice their opinions in what they believe to be the important predictors and outcomes involved in successful rehabilitation following limb loss. To develop a consensus on the most important outcomes and factors to address for both the lower limb and upper limb prosthetic prescription process, the above data relating to lower limb and upper prosthetics were subsequently used in the next phase of the research involving two Delphi surveys of 23 and 53 experts within the lower limb and upper limb amputation and prosthetic field respectively, including users, service providers and researchers.\\r\

  18. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  19. [Prosthetic rehabilitation: needs in Senegalese dental offices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbodj, E B; Diouf, M; Faye, D; Ndiaye, A; Seck, M T; Ndiaye, C; Diallo, P D

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of dental prosthetic needs will develop strategies for prevention and treatment through a package of individual, community and professional policies. The aim of this study was to evaluate prosthetic needs in Senegalese dental offices. The survey was conducted among people aged 15 years and more attending Senegalese dental clinics. The mean number of missing teeth was 4.4. Only 55.3% of the sample expressed the need for dentures and 81.8% had a diagnosed need for prosthesis. A statistically significant difference was noticed between the needs diagnosed and the expressed needs (p dental offices.

  20. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  1. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal...

  2. Comparative roll-over analysis of prosthetic feet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, Carolin; Hof, At L.; van Keeken, Helco G.; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2009-01-01

    A prosthetic foot is a key element of a prosthetic leg, literally forming the basis for a stable and efficient amputee gait. We determined the roll-over characteristics of a broad range of prosthetic feet and examined the effect of a variety of shoes on these characteristics. The body weight of a

  3. Consumer satisfaction in prosthetics and orthotics facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, J.H.B.; Gankema, H.G.J.; Groothoff, J.W.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    The aim of this study was to assess consumer/patient satisfaction with the services of the prosthetics and orthotics (P&O) facilities in the north of the Netherlands, using a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire. In this questionnaire, consumer interests and experiences are assessed on a 5-point Likert

  4. Successful Thrombolysis of Aortic Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    She delivered a normal baby uneventfully in follow up at full term of pregnancy with no complications. Fibrinolytic therapy for mechanical valve thrombosis is a reasonable alternative to surgery in first trimester of pregnancy. KEY WORDS: Prosthetic valve thrombosis; Echocardiography; Streptokinase;. Thrombolysis; Fetus.

  5. Prosthetic Management of Patients Presenting with Juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The main objective of prosthetic rehabilitation is the restoration of the integrity of the dental arches. However, the choice of teeth replaced in the partial dentures provided for the patients in this study was based on the choice of the patients, and their choice was determined by aesthetics and affordability.

  6. Promoting prosthetics in the Latino community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, R; Barabe, J G; Cupp, D

    1995-01-01

    This article describes an effective approach to informing the Latino community about prosthetics. Unlike English, little information on this subject is available in Spanish. The process of obtaining, fabricating, and wearing a prosthesis was interwoven into the teleplay "Milagros." The story concept, video production, and the Latino population's cultural characteristics are discussed. The audience welcomed the opportunity to share the information with others.

  7. Pregnancy after Prosthetic Aortic Valve Replacement: How Do We Monitor Prosthetic Valvular Function during Pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Sahasrabudhe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. With modern medicine, many women after structural heart repair are deciding to experience pregnancy. There is a need for further study to identify normal echocardiographic parameters to better assess prosthetic valvular function in pregnancy. In addition, a multidisciplinary approach is essential in managing pregnant patients with complex cardiac conditions. Case. A 22-year-old nulliparous woman with an aortic valve replacement 18 months prior to her pregnancy presented to prenatal care at 20-week gestation. During her prenatal care, serial echocardiography showed a significant increase in the mean gradient across the prosthetic aortic valve. Multidisciplinary management and a serial echocardiography played an integral role in her care that resulted in a successful spontaneous vaginal delivery without complications. Conclusion. Further characterization of the normal echocardiographic parameters in pregnant patients with prosthetic valves is critical to optimize prenatal care for this patient population. This case report is novel in that serial echocardiograms were obtained throughout prenatal care, which showed significant changes across the prosthetic aortic valve. Teaching Points. (1 Further study is needed to identify normal echocardiographic parameters to best assess prosthetic valvular function in pregnancy. (2 Multidisciplinary management is encouraged to optimize prenatal care for women with prosthetic aortic valve replacements.

  8. Comparative roll-over analysis of prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtze, Carolin; Hof, At L; van Keeken, Helco G; Halbertsma, Jan P K; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2009-08-07

    A prosthetic foot is a key element of a prosthetic leg, literally forming the basis for a stable and efficient amputee gait. We determined the roll-over characteristics of a broad range of prosthetic feet and examined the effect of a variety of shoes on these characteristics. The body weight of a person acting on a prosthetic foot during roll-over was emulated by means of an inverted pendulum-like apparatus. Parameters measured were the effective radius of curvature, the forward travel of the center of pressure, and the instantaneous radius of curvature of the prosthetic feet. Finally, we discuss how these parameters relate to amputee gait.

  9. Air-spore in Cartagena, Spain: viable and non-viable sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Vergara, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jose; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In the presented study the airborne fungal spores of the semiarid city of Cartagena, Spain, are identified and quantified by means of viable or non-viable sampling methods. Airborne fungal samples were collected simultaneously using a filtration method and a pollen and particle sampler based on the Hirst methodology. This information is very useful for elucidating geographical patterns of hay fever and asthma. The qualitative results showed that when the non-viable methodology was employed, Cladosporium, Ustilago, and Alternaria were the most abundant spores identified in the atmosphere of Cartagena, while the viable methodology showed that the most abundant taxa were: Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. The quantitative results of airborne fungal spores identified by the Hirst-type air sampler (non-viable method), showed that Deuteromycetes represented 74% of total annual spore counts, Cladosporium being the major component of the fungal spectrum (62.2%), followed by Alternaria (5.3%), and Stemphylium (1.3%). The Basidiomycetes group represented 18.9% of total annual spore counts, Ustilago (7.1%) being the most representative taxon of this group and the second most abundant spore type. Ascomycetes accounted for 6.9%, Nectria (2.3%) being the principal taxon. Oomycetes (0.2%) and Zygomycestes and Myxomycestes (0.06%) were scarce. The prevailing species define our bioaerosol as typical of dry air. The viable methodology was better at identifying small hyaline spores and allowed for the discrimination of the genus of some spore types. However, non-viable methods revealed the richness of fungal types present in the bioaerosol. Thus, the use of both methodologies provides a more comprehensive characterization of the spore profile.

  10. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión...

  11. Toward more versatile and intuitive cortical brain machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Richard A.; Kellis, Spencer; Klaes, Christian; Aflalo, Tyson

    2015-01-01

    Brain machine interfaces have great potential in neuroprosthetic applications to assist patients with brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. One type of BMI is a cortical motor prosthetic which is used to assist paralyzed subjects. Motor prosthetics to date have typically used the motor cortex as a source of neural signals for controlling external devices. The review will focus on several new topics in the arena of cortical prosthetics. These include using 1) recordings from cortical areas outside motor cortex; 2) local field potentials (LFPs) as a source of recorded signals; 3) somatosensory feedback for more dexterous control of robotics; and 4) new decoding methods that work in concert to form an ecology of decode algorithms. These new advances hold promise in greatly accelerating the applicability and ease of operation of motor prosthetics. PMID:25247368

  12. Surface EMG and intra-socket force measurement to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Joe; Patterson, Rita; Popa, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) has been shown to be a robust and reliable interaction method allowing for basic control of powered prosthetic devices. Research has shown a marked decrease in EMG-classification efficiency throughout activities of daily life due to socket shift and movement and fatigue as well as changes in degree of fit of the socket throughout the subject's lifetime. Users with the most severe levels of amputation require the most complex devices with the greatest number of degrees of freedom. Controlling complex dexterous devices with limited available inputs requires the addition of sensing and interaction modalities. However, the larger the amputation severity, the fewer viable SEMG sites are available as control inputs. Previous work reported the use of intra-socket pressure, as measured during wrist flexion and extension, and has shown that it is possible to control a powered prosthetic device with pressure sensors. In this paper, we present data correlations of SEMG data with intra-socket pressure data. Surface EMG sensors and force sensors were housed within a simulated prosthetic cuff fit to a healthy-limbed subject. EMG and intra-socket force data was collected from inside the cuff as a subject performed pre-defined grip motions with their dominant hand. Data fusion algorithms were explored and allowed a subject to use both intra-socket pressure and SEMG data as control inputs for a powered prosthetic device. This additional input modality allows for an improvement in input classification as well as information regarding socket fit through out activities of daily life.

  13. Enzymatic isolation of viable human odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffaro, H M; Pääkkönen, V; Tjäderhane, L

    2016-05-01

    To improve an enzymatic method previously used for isolation of rat odontoblasts to isolate viable mature human odontoblasts. Collagenase I, collagenase I/hyaluronidase mixture and hyaluronidase were used to extract mature human odontoblasts from the pulp chamber. Detachment of odontoblasts from dentine was determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and to analyse the significance of differences in tubular diameter, and the t-test was used. MTT-reaction was used to analyse cell viability, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney post hoc tests were used to analyse the data. Immunofluorescent staining of dentine sialoprotein (DSP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were used to confirm the odontoblastic nature of the cells. MTT-reaction and FESEM demonstrated collagenase I/hyaluronidase resulted in more effective detachment and higher viability than collagenase I alone. Hyaluronidase alone was not able to detach odontoblasts. Immunofluorescence revealed the typical odontoblastic-morphology with one process, and DSP, AQP4 and MMP-20 were detected. Quantitative PCR of DSPP confirmed that the isolated cells expressed this odontoblast-specific gene. The isolation of viable human odontoblasts was successful. The cells demonstrated morphology typical for odontoblasts and expressed characteristic odontoblast-type genes and proteins. This method will enable new approaches, such as apoptosis analysis, for studies using fully differentiated odontoblasts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Kinetic Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises.......A kinetic interface for orientation detection in a video training system is disclosed. The interface includes a balance platform instrumented with inertial motion sensors. The interface engages a participant's sense of balance in training exercises....

  15. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  16. Retinal Prosthetics, Optogenetics, and Chemical Photoswitches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Three technologies have emerged as therapies to restore light sensing to profoundly blind patients suffering from late-stage retinal degenerations: (1) retinal prosthetics, (2) optogenetics, and (3) chemical photoswitches. Prosthetics are the most mature and the only approach in clinical practice. Prosthetic implants require complex surgical intervention and provide only limited visual resolution but can potentially restore navigational ability to many blind patients. Optogenetics uses viral delivery of type 1 opsin genes from prokaryotes or eukaryote algae to restore light responses in survivor neurons. Targeting and expression remain major problems, but are potentially soluble. Importantly, optogenetics could provide the ultimate in high-resolution vision due to the long persistence of gene expression achieved in animal models. Nevertheless, optogenetics remains challenging to implement in human eyes with large volumes, complex disease progression, and physical barriers to viral penetration. Now, a new generation of photochromic ligands or chemical photoswitches (azobenzene-quaternary ammonium derivatives) can be injected into a degenerated mouse eye and, in minutes to hours, activate light responses in neurons. These photoswitches offer the potential for rapidly and reversibly screening the vision restoration expected in an individual patient. Chemical photoswitch variants that persist in the cell membrane could make them a simple therapy of choice, with resolution and sensitivity equivalent to optogenetics approaches. A major complexity in treating retinal degenerations is retinal remodeling: pathologic network rewiring, molecular reprogramming, and cell death that compromise signaling in the surviving retina. Remodeling forces a choice between upstream and downstream targeting, each engaging different benefits and defects. Prosthetics and optogenetics can be implemented in either mode, but the use of chemical photoswitches is currently limited to downstream

  17. Retinal prosthetics, optogenetics, and chemical photoswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Robert; Pfeiffer, Rebecca; Jones, Bryan

    2014-10-15

    Three technologies have emerged as therapies to restore light sensing to profoundly blind patients suffering from late-stage retinal degenerations: (1) retinal prosthetics, (2) optogenetics, and (3) chemical photoswitches. Prosthetics are the most mature and the only approach in clinical practice. Prosthetic implants require complex surgical intervention and provide only limited visual resolution but can potentially restore navigational ability to many blind patients. Optogenetics uses viral delivery of type 1 opsin genes from prokaryotes or eukaryote algae to restore light responses in survivor neurons. Targeting and expression remain major problems, but are potentially soluble. Importantly, optogenetics could provide the ultimate in high-resolution vision due to the long persistence of gene expression achieved in animal models. Nevertheless, optogenetics remains challenging to implement in human eyes with large volumes, complex disease progression, and physical barriers to viral penetration. Now, a new generation of photochromic ligands or chemical photoswitches (azobenzene-quaternary ammonium derivatives) can be injected into a degenerated mouse eye and, in minutes to hours, activate light responses in neurons. These photoswitches offer the potential for rapidly and reversibly screening the vision restoration expected in an individual patient. Chemical photoswitch variants that persist in the cell membrane could make them a simple therapy of choice, with resolution and sensitivity equivalent to optogenetics approaches. A major complexity in treating retinal degenerations is retinal remodeling: pathologic network rewiring, molecular reprogramming, and cell death that compromise signaling in the surviving retina. Remodeling forces a choice between upstream and downstream targeting, each engaging different benefits and defects. Prosthetics and optogenetics can be implemented in either mode, but the use of chemical photoswitches is currently limited to downstream

  18. Prosthetic Hand With Two Gripping Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William E.; Belcher, Jewell B.; Vest, Thomas W.; Carden, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Prosthetic hand developed for amputee who retains significant portion of forearm. Outer end of device is end effector including two fingers, one moved by rotating remaining part of forearm about its longitudinal axis. Main body of end effector is end member supporting fingers, roller bearing assembly, and rack-and-pinion mechanism. Advantage of rack-and-pinion mechanism enables user to open or close gap between fingers with precision and force.

  19. Prosthetic management of an ocular defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Kumar Chintal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes the prosthetic management of an ocular defect with a custom-made ocular prosthesis.

  20. The Prosthetic Workflow in the Digital Era

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Tordiglione; Michele De Franco; Giovanni Bosetti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to clinically evaluate the benefits of adopting a full digital workflow for the implementation of fixed prosthetic restorations on natural teeth. To evaluate the effectiveness of these protocols, treatment plans were drawn up for 15 patients requiring rehabilitation of one or more natural teeth. All the dental impressions were taken using a Planmeca PlanScan® (Planmeca OY, Helsinki, Finland) intraoral scanner, which provided digital casts on which t...

  1. Surface Charge Visualization at Viable Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David; Paulose Nadappuram, Binoy; Momotenko, Dmitry; Voyias, Philip D; Page, Ashley; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Frenguelli, Bruno G; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-03-09

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is demonstrated to be a powerful technique for quantitative nanoscale surface charge mapping of living cells. Utilizing a bias modulated (BM) scheme, in which the potential between a quasi-reference counter electrode (QRCE) in an electrolyte-filled nanopipette and a QRCE in bulk solution is modulated, it is shown that both the cell topography and the surface charge present at cellular interfaces can be measured simultaneously at high spatial resolution with dynamic potential measurements. Surface charge is elucidated by probing the properties of the diffuse double layer (DDL) at the cellular interface, and the technique is sensitive at both low-ionic strength and under typical physiological (high-ionic strength) conditions. The combination of experiments that incorporate pixel-level self-referencing (calibration) with a robust theoretical model allows for the analysis of local surface charge variations across cellular interfaces, as demonstrated on two important living systems. First, charge mapping at Zea mays root hairs shows that there is a high negative surface charge at the tip of the cell. Second, it is shown that there are distinct surface charge distributions across the surface of human adipocyte cells, whose role is the storage and regulation of lipids in mammalian systems. These are new features, not previously recognized, and their implications for the functioning of these cells are highlighted.

  2. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  4. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luigi, Arthur Jason; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-08-01

    With the technologic advances in medicine and an emphasis on maintaining physical fitness, the population of athletes with impairments is growing. It is incumbent upon health care practitioners to make every effort to inform these individuals of growing and diverse opportunities and to encourage safe exercise and athletic participation through counseling and education. Given the opportunities for participation in sports for persons with a limb deficiency, the demand for new, innovative prosthetic designs is challenging the clinical and technical expertise of the physician and prosthetist. When generating a prosthetic prescription, physicians and prosthetists should consider the needs and preferences of the athlete with limb deficiency, as well as the functional demands of the chosen sporting activity. The intent of this article is to provide information regarding the current advancements in the adaptive sports technology and biomechanics in the field of prosthetics, and to assist clinicians and their patients in facilitating participation in sporting activities. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Prosthetic Experience Between Body and Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that a prosthetic aesthetic instigated by experimental art practices operate with and within a ‘second nature’ – in-between science and art. Drawing on theories from Dewey and Edelman and examples from Da Vinci, Brancusi, Man Ray, Dali and Stelarc, I am calling for an exper...... in art, which is performing a complex re-design of (the idea and representation of) technology and the body.......In this paper, I argue that a prosthetic aesthetic instigated by experimental art practices operate with and within a ‘second nature’ – in-between science and art. Drawing on theories from Dewey and Edelman and examples from Da Vinci, Brancusi, Man Ray, Dali and Stelarc, I am calling...... for an experience-based analysis of experimental practices operating between body and technology. These practices, which, rather than falling into the category of science fiction or horror cinema as some recent critique from post-human studies would have it, are pointing towards a genealogy of prosthetic experience...

  6. A neurorobotic platform for locomotor prosthetic development in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zitzewitz, Joachim; Asboth, Leonie; Fumeaux, Nicolas; Hasse, Alexander; Baud, Laetitia; Vallery, Heike; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to develop a robotic interface capable of providing finely-tuned, multidirectional trunk assistance adjusted in real-time during unconstrained locomotion in rats and mice. We interfaced a large-scale robotic structure actuated in four degrees of freedom to exchangeable attachment modules exhibiting selective compliance along distinct directions. This combination allowed high-precision force and torque control in multiple directions over a large workspace. We next designed a neurorobotic platform wherein real-time kinematics and physiological signals directly adjust robotic actuation and prosthetic actions. We tested the performance of this platform in both rats and mice with spinal cord injury. Kinematic analyses showed that the robotic interface did not impede locomotor movements of lightweight mice that walked freely along paths with changing directions and height profiles. Personalized trunk assistance instantly enabled coordinated locomotion in mice and rats with severe hindlimb motor deficits. Closed-loop control of robotic actuation based on ongoing movement features enabled real-time control of electromyographic activity in anti-gravity muscles during locomotion. This neurorobotic platform will support the study of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of locomotor prosthetics and rehabilitation using high-resolution genetic tools in rodent models.

  7. A neurorobotic platform for locomotor prosthetic development in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zitzewitz, Joachim; Asboth, Leonie; Fumeaux, Nicolas; Hasse, Alexander; Baud, Laetitia; Vallery, Heike; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-04-01

    Objectives. We aimed to develop a robotic interface capable of providing finely-tuned, multidirectional trunk assistance adjusted in real-time during unconstrained locomotion in rats and mice. Approach. We interfaced a large-scale robotic structure actuated in four degrees of freedom to exchangeable attachment modules exhibiting selective compliance along distinct directions. This combination allowed high-precision force and torque control in multiple directions over a large workspace. We next designed a neurorobotic platform wherein real-time kinematics and physiological signals directly adjust robotic actuation and prosthetic actions. We tested the performance of this platform in both rats and mice with spinal cord injury. Main Results. Kinematic analyses showed that the robotic interface did not impede locomotor movements of lightweight mice that walked freely along paths with changing directions and height profiles. Personalized trunk assistance instantly enabled coordinated locomotion in mice and rats with severe hindlimb motor deficits. Closed-loop control of robotic actuation based on ongoing movement features enabled real-time control of electromyographic activity in anti-gravity muscles during locomotion. Significance. This neurorobotic platform will support the study of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of locomotor prosthetics and rehabilitation using high-resolution genetic tools in rodent models.

  8. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  9. Control of Prosthetic Hands via the Peripheral Nervous System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Cordella, Francesca; Barone, Roberto; Romeo, Rocco Antonio; Bellingegni, Alberto Dellacasa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    ...), and their experimental validation on amputees. The study opens with an in-depth analysis of control solutions and sensorization features of research and commercially available prosthetic hands...

  10. Design of a prosthetic hand with remote actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kurt; Perez-Gracia, Alba

    2012-01-01

    One of the main issues of prosthetic hands is to be able to fulfill all the specifications about speed, torque, weight and inertia while placing all the components within the prosthetic hand. This is especially true when full dexterity is required in the prosthesis. In this paper, a new design for a prosthetic hand is presented, which uses remote actuation in order to satisfy most of those requirements. The actuators are to be located in the back of the subject and the transmission is implemented via cables. Other characteristics of this new prosthetic hand include torque limitation and the possibility of switching between underactuated and fully actuated functions.

  11. Factors Associated with Prosthetic Looseness in Lower Limb Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonghanyudh, Thong; Sutpasanon, Taweesak; Hathaiareerug, Chanasak; Devakula, M L Buddhibongsa; Kumnerddee, Wipoo

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors associated with prosthetic looseness in lower limb amputees in Sisaket province. The present was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Subjects were lower limb amputees who previously obtained prostheses and required prosthetic replacements at the mobile prosthetic laboratory unit under the Prostheses Foundation of H.R.H. the Princess Mother at Khun Han Hospital, Sisaket province, in February 2013. Data including participant characteristics, prosthetic looseness data, and various variables were collected by direct semi-structured interview. Energy expenditures in physical activities were measured using the Thai version of the short format international physical activity questionnaire. Data between participants with and without prosthetic looseness were compared to determine prosthetic loosening associated factors. Among 101 participants enrolled, 33 (32.7%) had prosthetic looseness with average onset of 1.76 ± 1.67 years. Diabetes mellitus was the only significant factor associated with prosthetic looseness from both univariate and multivariate analyses (HR = 7.05, p = 0.002 and HR = 5.93, p = 0.007 respectively). Among the lower limb amputees in Sisaket province, diabetes mellitus was the only factor associated with prosthetic looseness. Therefore, diabetic screening should be supplemented in lower limb amputee assessment protocol. In addition, we recommend that amputees with diabetes mellitus should receive prosthesis check out at approximately

  12. The role of osteoblasts in peri-prosthetic osteolysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, S C

    2013-08-01

    Peri-prosthetic osteolysis and subsequent aseptic loosening is the most common reason for revising total hip replacements. Wear particles originating from the prosthetic components interact with multiple cell types in the peri-prosthetic region resulting in an inflammatory process that ultimately leads to peri-prosthetic bone loss. These cells include macrophages, osteoclasts, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. The majority of research in peri-prosthetic osteolysis has concentrated on the role played by osteoclasts and macrophages. The purpose of this review is to assess the role of the osteoblast in peri-prosthetic osteolysis. In peri-prosthetic osteolysis, wear particles may affect osteoblasts and contribute to the osteolytic process by two mechanisms. First, particles and metallic ions have been shown to inhibit the osteoblast in terms of its ability to secrete mineralised bone matrix, by reducing calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and its ability to proliferate. Secondly, particles and metallic ions have been shown to stimulate osteoblasts to produce pro inflammatory mediators in vitro. In vivo, these mediators have the potential to attract pro-inflammatory cells to the peri-prosthetic area and stimulate osteoclasts to absorb bone. Further research is needed to fully define the role of the osteoblast in peri-prosthetic osteolysis and to explore its potential role as a therapeutic target in this condition.

  13. The prototype of a thermoregulatory system for measurement and control of temperature inside prosthetic socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Zheng, Yong Ping; Hing, Louis Lee Tat; Safari, Mohammad Reza; Leung, Aaron Kl

    2016-12-01

    Thermal related problems with prostheses are common complaints of amputee people. This article aims to introduce a thermoregulatory technique as a potential solution for those problems in prostheses wearers. A smart thermoregulatory system was designed, manufactured, and installed on a phantom model of a prosthetic socket. It captured temperature data from 16 sensors positioned at the interface between the phantom model and a silicone liner and used their average for comparison with a defined set temperature to select required heating or cooling functions for thermal equilibrium. A thin layer of Aluminum was used to transfer temperature between thermal pump and different sites around the phantom model. The feasibility of this thermoregulatory technique was confirmed by its ability to provide thermal equilibrium. Further investigations to improve the design of thermoregulatory system are necessary including temperature transfer element and power consumption based on thermal capacity and thermal inertia of the residual limb. The smart thermoregulatory system by providing thermal equilibrium between two sides of a prosthetic silicone liner can control residual limb skin temperature and sweating. Consequently, it can improve quality of life in amputee people. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  14. A training platform for many-dimensional prosthetic devices using a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putrino, David; Wong, Yan T; Weiss, Adam; Pesaran, Bijan

    2015-04-15

    Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to assist in the rehabilitation of millions of patients worldwide. Despite recent advancements in BMI technology for the restoration of lost motor function, a training environment to restore full control of the anatomical segments of an upper limb extremity has not yet been presented. Here, we develop a virtual upper limb prosthesis with 27 independent dimensions, the anatomical dimensions of the human arm and hand, and deploy the virtual prosthesis as an avatar in a virtual reality environment (VRE) that can be controlled in real-time. The prosthesis avatar accepts kinematic control inputs that can be captured from movements of the arm and hand as well as neural control inputs derived from processed neural signals. We characterize the system performance under kinematic control using a commercially available motion capture system. We also present the performance under kinematic control achieved by two non-human primates (Macaca Mulatta) trained to use the prosthetic avatar to perform reaching and grasping tasks. This is the first virtual prosthetic device that is capable of emulating all the anatomical movements of a healthy upper limb in real-time. Since the system accepts both neural and kinematic inputs for a variety of many-dimensional skeletons, we propose it provides a customizable training platform for the acquisition of many-dimensional neural prosthetic control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  16. Is Greenberg's "Macro-Carib" viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg's primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib 'etymologies' and another 64 Amerind 'etymologies'. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg's Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg's morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg's 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable

  17. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  18. Engineering a titanium and polycaprolactone construct for a biocompatible interface between the body and artificial limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia M; Roy, Tithi Dutta; Bhalkikar, Abhijeet; Li, Bo; Hickman, James J; Church, Kenneth H

    2010-02-01

    Intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses may be able to overcome the problems that stem from the nonuniform distribution of pressure seen in the conventional stump-socket prosthetic replacement devices. Transcutaneous devices have had limited success in amputees. By optimizing the attachment of the skin to the prosthetic, intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses may become clinically viable options. This report details studies evaluating the development of a modified titanium construct with a specially machined surface to increase the adherence of tissue as well as scaffold. A computer-aided biology tool was used to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with a specific three-dimensional architecture. To extrude the PCL, it was dissolved in acetic acid to produce a 70% PCL liquid. A scaffold with a porosity of >50% was fabricated to have a tensile strength similar to skin. The presence of a specially machined surface greatly increased the adhesion of the PCL scaffold to the titanium constructs. When the 70% PCL was properly neutralized by heating at 55 degrees C and washing in 90% ethanol (EtOH), there was only a decrease (10%) in the viability of cells seeded onto the PCL constructs when compared with the cells in culture. The antibacterial properties of titanium dioxide anatase, silver nanoparticles, and chlorhexidine diacetate mixed in either type I collagen or hyaluronic acid (HA) were assessed. The addition of 1% (w/w) chlorhexidine diacetate in HA resulted in a 71% decrease in bacteria seen in nontreated HA. These results show promise in developing a novel engineered titanium and PCL construct that promotes effective adhesion between the titanium-skin interface.

  19. Reconsidering evidence-based practice in prosthetic rehabilitation : a shared enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Twillert, S.; Geertzen, J.; Hemminga, T.; Postema, K.; Lettinga, A.

    Background: A divide is experienced between producers and users of evidence in prosthetic rehabilitation. Objective: To discuss the complexity inherent in establishing evidence-based practice in a prosthetic rehabilitation team illustrated by the case of prosthetic prescription for elderly

  20. STUDY OF SURFACE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS OF PROSTHETIC RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Păpuşa Vasiliu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a direct consequence of their application domain – the oral cavity – dental materials are subjected to the corosive action of saliva, being surrounded by microorganisms, fluids and alimentary rests, which modify their surface characteristics. Concerns on the quality of the dental materials explain the numeorus interdisciplinary studies, characterized by a close relation among various scientific domains (physics, chemistry, biology, science of biomaterials, techniques also applied in clinical stomatology. Analysis of the saliva–dental materials interface made use of ceramic surfaces, composites and artificial saliva, permitting to determine the main surface parameters of the materials of prosthetic restoration, calculated with some physical models, starting from measurements of the contact angle: surface energy, its polar and dispersive components, surface rugosity, adhesion mechanic work. All composites showed low values of the adhesion mechanic work, the conclusion being that they are much more hydrophobic than the ceramic materials. Such a property is especially important from an aesthetic perspective, as the hydrophobic materials have a better colour stability in time.

  1. Getting signals into the brain: visual prosthetics through thalamic microstimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezaris, John S.; Eskandar, Emad N.

    2010-01-01

    Common causes of blindness are diseases that affect the ocular structures, such as glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and macular degeneration, rendering the eyes no longer sensitive to light. The visual pathway, however, as a predominantly central structure, is largely spared in these cases. It is thus widely thought that a device-based prosthetic approach to restoration of visual function will be effective and will enjoy similar success as cochlear implants have for restoration of auditory function. In this article the authors review the potential locations for stimulation electrode placement for visual prostheses, assessing the anatomical and functional advantages and disadvantages of each. Of particular interest to the neurosurgical community is placement of deep brain stimulating electrodes in thalamic structures that has shown substantial promise in an animal model. The theory of operation of visual prostheses is discussed, along with a review of the current state of knowledge. Finally, the visual prosthesis is proposed as a model for a general high-fidelity machine-brain interface. PMID:19569894

  2. Enhanced ultrasound for advanced diagnostics, ultrasound tomography for volume limb imaging and prosthetic fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Brian W.

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound imaging methods hold the potential to deliver low-cost, high-resolution, operator-independent and nonionizing imaging systems - such systems couple appropriate algorithms with imaging devices and techniques. The increasing demands on general practitioners motivate us to develop more usable and productive diagnostic imaging equipment. Ultrasound, specifically freehand ultrasound, is a low cost and safe medical imaging technique. It doesn't expose a patient to ionizing radiation. Its safety and versatility make it very well suited for the increasing demands on general practitioners, or for providing improved medical care in rural regions or the developing world. However it typically suffers from sonographer variability; we will discuss techniques to address user variability. We also discuss our work to combine cylindrical scanning systems with state of the art inversion algorithms to deliver ultrasound systems for imaging and quantifying limbs in 3-D in vivo. Such systems have the potential to track the progression of limb health at a low cost and without radiation exposure, as well as, improve prosthetic socket fitting. Current methods of prosthetic socket fabrication remain subjective and ineffective at creating an interface to the human body that is both comfortable and functional. Though there has been recent success using methods like magnetic resonance imaging and biomechanical modeling, a low-cost, streamlined, and quantitative process for prosthetic cup design and fabrication has not been fully demonstrated. Medical ultrasonography may inform the design process of prosthetic sockets in a more objective manner. This keynote talk presents the results of progress in this area.

  3. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  4. Tactile sensing means for prosthetic limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An improved prosthetic device characterized by a frame and a socket for mounting on the stump of a truncated human appendage is described. Flexible digits extend from the distal end and transducers located within the digits act as sensing devices for detecting tactile stimuli. The transducers are connected through a power circuit with a slave unit supported by a strap and fixed to the stump. The tactile stimuli detected at the sensing devices are reproduced and applied to the skin of the appendage in order to stimulate the sensory organs located therein.

  5. Smart Prosthetic Hand Technology - Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Belgrade/USC Hand (Bekey, Tomovic and Zeljkovic 1990) has small conductive plastic potentiometers compact (35x10x3mm) with good resolution (320ohms...upper limb loss and their reported research priorities. Journal of Prosthetic and Orthotics 8 (1), 2–11. Bekey, G. A., Tomovic , R., Zeljkovic, I...G.R. Tomovic , and I. Zeljkovic. "Control Architecture for the Belgrade/USC Hand." In Dextrous Robot Hands, by S.T. Venkataram and T. Iberall, 136-149

  6. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  7. Tensile strength and impact resistance properties of materials used in prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschutz, Maria J; Haynes, Michael L; Nixon, Derek M; Colvin, James M

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic sockets serve as the interface between people with amputations and their prostheses. Although most materials used to make prosthetic sockets have been used for many years, knowledge of these materials' properties is limited, especially after they are subjected to fabrication processes. This study evaluated tensile and impact properties of the current state-of-the-art materials used to fabricate prosthetic check sockets, copolymer sockets, and definitive laminated sockets. Thermolyn Rigid and Orfitrans Stiff check socket materials produced significantly lower tensile strength and impact resistance than polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG). Copolymer socket materials exhibited greater resistance to impact forces than the check socket materials but lower tensile strengths than PETG. The heated molding processes, for the check socket and copolymer materials, reduced both tensile strength and elongation at break. Definitive laminated sockets were sorted according to fabrication techniques. Nyglass material had significantly higher elongation, indicating a more ductile material than carbon-based laminations. Carbon sockets with pigmented resin had higher tensile strength and modulus at break than nonpigmented carbon sockets. Elongation at yield and elongation at break were similar for both types of carbon-based laminations. The material properties determined in this study provide a foundation for understanding and improving the quality of prosthetic sockets using current fabrication materials and a basis for evaluating future technologies.

  8. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances. Artificial limbs, braces, orthopedic shoes, hearing aids, wheelchairs, medical accessories, similar...

  9. Prosthetic Frequently Asked Questions for the New Amputee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it with your favorite color or pattern. The prosthesis is an extension of you and your style – wear it proudly! Technology continues to change the prosthetic market. With advances in the microprocessor knee and foot, and advanced hands and sockets, prosthetics ...

  10. Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Children: An Alternative Clinical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Carolina Teixeira Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete and partial removable dentures have been used successfully in numerous patients with oligodontia and/or anodontia. However, there is little information in the literature regarding the principles and guidelines to prosthetic rehabilitation for growing children. This case report describes the management of a young child with oligodontia as well as the treatment planning and the prosthetic rehabilitation technique.

  11. Principles of obstacle avoidance with a transfemoral prosthetic limb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keeken, Helco G.; Vrieling, Aline H.; Hof, At L.; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this study, conditions that enable a prosthetic knee flexion strategy in transfemoral amputee subjects during obstacle avoidance were investigated. This study explored the hip torque principle and the static ground principle as object avoidance strategies. A prosthetic limb simulator device was

  12. Stiffness and hysteresis properties of some prosthetic feet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Jaarsveld, H.W.L.; Grootenboer, H.J.; de Vries, J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A prosthetic foot is an important element of a prosthesis, although it is not always fully recognized that the properties of the foot, along with the prosthetic knee joint and the socket, are in part responsible for the stability and metabolic energy cost during walking. The stiffness and the

  13. Prosthetic clone and natural human tooth comparison by speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slangen, Pierre; Corn, Stephane; Fages, Michel; Raynal, Jacques; Cuisinier, Frederic J. G.

    2010-09-01

    New trends in dental prosthodontic interventions tend to preserve the maximum of "body" structure. With the evolution of CAD-CAM techniques, it is now possible to measure "in mouth" the remaining dental tissues. The prosthetic crown is then designed using this shape on which it will be glued on, and also by taking into account the contact surface of the opposite jaw tooth. Several theories discuss on the glue thickness and formulation, but also on the way to evolve to a more biocompatible crown and also new biomechanical concepts. In order to validate these new concepts and materials, and to study the mechanical properties and mechanical integrity of the prosthesis, high resolution optical measurements of the deformations of the glue and the crown are needed. Samples are two intact premolars extracted for orthodontics reasons. The reference sample has no modifications on the tooth while the second sample tooth is shaped to receive a feldspathic ceramic monoblock crown which will be glued. This crown was manufactured with a chairside CAD-CAM system from an intra-oral optical print. The software allows to realize a nearly perfect clone of the reference sample. The necessary space for the glue is also entered with ideal values. This duplication process yields to obtain two samples with identical anatomy for further processing. The glue joint thickness can also be modified if required. The purpose is to compare the behaviour of a natural tooth and its prosthetic clone manufactured with "biomechanical" concepts. Vertical cut samples have been used to deal with planar object observation, and also to look "inside" the tooth. We have developed a complete apparatus enabling the study of the compressive mechanical behaviour of the concerned tooth by speckle interferometry. Because in plane displacements are of great interest for orthodontic measurements1, an optical fiber in-plane sensitive interferometer has been designed. The fibers are wrapped around piezoelectric

  14. Prosthetic implantation of the human vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Nowack, Amy; Shepherd, Sarah J; Bierer, Steven M; Jameyson, Elyse; Kaneko, Chris R S; Phillips, James O; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2014-01-01

    A functional vestibular prosthesis can be implanted in human such that electrical stimulation of each semicircular canal produces canal-specific eye movements while preserving vestibular and auditory function. A number of vestibular disorders could be treated with prosthetic stimulation of the vestibular end organs. We have previously demonstrated in rhesus monkeys that a vestibular neurostimulator, based on the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant, can produce canal-specific electrically evoked eye movements while preserving auditory and vestibular function. An investigational device exemption has been obtained from the FDA to study the feasibility of treating uncontrolled Ménière's disease with the device. The UW/Nucleus vestibular implant was implanted in the perilymphatic space adjacent to the three semicircular canal ampullae of a human subject with uncontrolled Ménière's disease. Preoperative and postoperative vestibular and auditory function was assessed. Electrically evoked eye movements were measured at 2 time points postoperatively. Implantation of all semicircular canals was technically feasible. Horizontal canal and auditory function were largely, but not totally, lost. Electrode stimulation in 2 of 3 canals resulted in canal-appropriate eye movements. Over time, stimulation thresholds increased. Prosthetic implantation of the semicircular canals in humans is technically feasible. Electrical stimulation resulted in canal-specific eye movements, although thresholds increased over time. Preservation of native auditory and vestibular function, previously observed in animals, was not demonstrated in a single subject with advanced Ménière's disease.

  15. Is the prosthetic homologue necessary for embodiment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Dornfeld

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embodiment is the process by which patients with limb loss come to accept their peripheral device as a natural extension of self. However, there is little guidance as to how exacting the prosthesis must be in order for embodiment to take place: is it necessary for the prosthetic hand to look just like the absent hand? Here, we describe a protocol for testing whether an individual would select a hand that looks like their own from among a selection of 5 hands, and whether the hand selection (regardless of homology is consistent across multiple exposures to the same (but reordered set of candidate hands. Pilot results using healthy volunteers reveals that hand selection is only modestly consistent, and that selection of the prosthetic homologue is atypical (61 of 192 total exposures. Our protocol can be executed in minutes, and makes use of readily available equipment and softwares. We present both a face-to-face and a virtual protocol, for maximum flexibility of implementation.

  16. The use of underactuation in prosthetic grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Kyberd

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Underactuation as a method of driving prosthetic hands has a long history. The pragmatic requirements of such a device to be light enough to be worn and used regularly have meant that any multi degree of freedom prosthetic hand must have fewer actuators than the usable degrees of freedom. Aesthetics ensures that while the hand needs five fingers, five actuators have considerable mass, and only in recent years has it even been possible to construct a practical anthropomorphic hand with five motors. Thus there is an important trade off as to which fingers are driven, and which joints on which fingers are actuated, and how the forces are distributed to create a functional device. This paper outlines some of the historical solutions created for this problem and includes those designs of recent years that are now beginning to be used in the commercial environment.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  17. The Prosthetic Workflow in the Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Tordiglione

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to clinically evaluate the benefits of adopting a full digital workflow for the implementation of fixed prosthetic restorations on natural teeth. To evaluate the effectiveness of these protocols, treatment plans were drawn up for 15 patients requiring rehabilitation of one or more natural teeth. All the dental impressions were taken using a Planmeca PlanScan® (Planmeca OY, Helsinki, Finland intraoral scanner, which provided digital casts on which the restorations were digitally designed using Exocad® (Exocad GmbH, Germany, 2010 software and fabricated by CAM processing on 5-axis milling machines. A total of 28 single crowns were made from monolithic zirconia, 12 vestibular veneers from lithium disilicate, and 4 three-quarter vestibular veneers with palatal extension. While the restorations were applied, the authors could clinically appreciate the excellent match between the digitally produced prosthetic design and the cemented prostheses, which never required any occlusal or proximal adjustment. Out of all the restorations applied, only one exhibited premature failure and was replaced with no other complications or need for further scanning. From the clinical experience gained using a full digital workflow, the authors can confirm that these work processes enable the fabrication of clinically reliable restorations, with all the benefits that digital methods bring to the dentist, the dental laboratory, and the patient.

  18. The Prosthetic Workflow in the Digital Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordiglione, Lidia; De Franco, Michele; Bosetti, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to clinically evaluate the benefits of adopting a full digital workflow for the implementation of fixed prosthetic restorations on natural teeth. To evaluate the effectiveness of these protocols, treatment plans were drawn up for 15 patients requiring rehabilitation of one or more natural teeth. All the dental impressions were taken using a Planmeca PlanScan® (Planmeca OY, Helsinki, Finland) intraoral scanner, which provided digital casts on which the restorations were digitally designed using Exocad® (Exocad GmbH, Germany, 2010) software and fabricated by CAM processing on 5-axis milling machines. A total of 28 single crowns were made from monolithic zirconia, 12 vestibular veneers from lithium disilicate, and 4 three-quarter vestibular veneers with palatal extension. While the restorations were applied, the authors could clinically appreciate the excellent match between the digitally produced prosthetic design and the cemented prostheses, which never required any occlusal or proximal adjustment. Out of all the restorations applied, only one exhibited premature failure and was replaced with no other complications or need for further scanning. From the clinical experience gained using a full digital workflow, the authors can confirm that these work processes enable the fabrication of clinically reliable restorations, with all the benefits that digital methods bring to the dentist, the dental laboratory, and the patient.

  19. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...

  20. The effect of chronic intracortical microstimulation on the electrode-tissue interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin H.; Dammann, John F.; Boback, Jessica L.; Tenore, Francesco V.; Otto, Kevin J.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Somatosensation is critical for effective object manipulation, but current upper limb prostheses do not provide such feedback to the user. For individuals who require use of prosthetic limbs, this lack of feedback transforms a mundane task into one that requires extreme concentration and effort. Although vibrotactile motors and sensory substitution devices can be used to convey gross sensations, a direct neural interface is required to provide detailed and intuitive sensory feedback. The viability of intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) as a method to deliver feedback depends in part on the long-term reliability of implanted electrodes used to deliver the stimulation. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of chronic ICMS on the electrode-tissue interface. Approach. We stimulate the primary somatosensory cortex of three Rhesus macaques through chronically implanted electrodes for 4 h per day over a period of six months, with different electrodes subjected to different regimes of stimulation. We measure the impedance and voltage excursion as a function of time and of ICMS parameters. We also test the sensorimotor consequences of chronic ICMS by having animals grasp and manipulate small treats. Main results. We show that impedance and voltage excursion both decay with time but stabilize after 10-12 weeks. The magnitude of this decay is dependent on the amplitude of the ICMS and, to a lesser degree, the duration of individual pulse trains. Furthermore, chronic ICMS does not produce any deficits in fine motor control. Significance. The results suggest that chronic ICMS has only a minor effect on the electrode-tissue interface and may thus be a viable means to convey sensory feedback in neuroprosthetics.

  1. An in-vitro study of the effects of various disinfectants on prosthetic and surface materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahannan, Salma A; Abdel-Salam, Maha M

    2002-04-01

    This study assessed the effect of various disinfectants on several contaminated prosthetic and surface-covering materials. The efficacy of 6 disinfectants used at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, on prosthetic and surface-covering materials, irreversible hydrocolloid and elastomer impression materials, wax, acrylic resin, metal, bench-covering material, and floor carpet. These materials were contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Counts of viable bacteria on the materials was determined by incubated replica plating on blood agar plates at 5 minute intervals. A 3 way non parametric analysis of variance was used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the disinfectants, bacteria, and materials. Statistical analysis showed that material, type of disinfectant, and interactions between material and bacteria were significant. Carpet has a significantly higher bacterial count than many other items (P bench surfaces. Quaternary ammonia compound and the tertiary ammonia phenol were the most effective disinfectants. Efficacy of the disinfectant depends partly on the bacteria used for contamination. Carpets in dental clinics showed high potential to retain microorganisms.

  2. Prosthetic hand sensor placement: Analysis of touch perception during the grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans rely on their hands to perform everyday tasks. The hand is used as a tool, but also as the interface to “sense” the world. Current prosthetic hands are based on sophisticated multi-fingered structures, and include many sensors which counterpart natural proprioceptors and exteroceptors. The sensory information is used for control, but not sent to the user of the hand (amputee. Grasping without sensing is not good enough. This research is part of the development of the sensing interface for amputees, specifically addressing the analysis of human perception while grasping. The goal is to determine the small number of preferred positions of sensors on the prosthetic hand. This task has previously been approached by trying to replicate a natural sensory system characteristic for healthy humans, resulting in a multitude of redundant sensors and basic inability to make the patient aware of the sensor readings on the subconscious level. We based our artificial perception system on the reported sensations of humans when grasping various objects without seeing the objects (obstructed visual feedback. Subjects, with no known sensory deficits, were asked to report on the touch sensation while grasping. The analysis included objects of various sizes, weights, textures and temperatures. Based on this data we formed a map of the preferred positions for the sensors that is appropriate for five finger human-like robotic hand. The final map was intentionally minimized in size (number of sensors.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF THE POLYMER PROSTHETIC BASE PRESSURE OVER THE PROSTHETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Cigu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Partially mobile polymeric prostheses constitute absolutely necessary therapeutical means in all forms of partial edentations. As known, polymeric partial prostheses constitute temporary solutions for the treatment of edentaton states. Nowadays, this treatment includes traditional acrylic prostheses, as well as elastic prostheses made of different material systems. Such a system is Valplast, which uses a polyamide for the realization of the prosthetic base. Both the rigid and the elastic materials are nowadays under debate, different – positive or negative – opinions being uttered in relation with their utilization. The scope of the present study is to support the intensive application of the elastic materials. Extremely important is the identification of the intrinsic qualities of the materials influencing the behaviour in the oral cavity, especially the effects of pressure upon the biological structures of the prosthetic field.

  4. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  5. Predicting prosthetic prescription after major lower-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We describe prosthetic limb prescription in the first year following lower-limb amputation and examine the relationship between amputation level, geographic region, and prosthetic prescription. We analyzed 2005 to 2010 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Inpatient and Medical Encounters SAS data sets, Vital Status death data, and National Prosthetic Patient Database data for 9,994 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation at a VA hospital. Descriptive statistics and bivariates were examined. Cox proportional hazard models identified factors associated with prosthetic prescription. Analyses showed that amputation level was associated with prosthetic prescription. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.41 for ankle amputation and 0.46 for transfemoral amputation compared with transtibial amputation. HRs for geographic region were Northeast = 1.49, Upper Midwest = 1.26, and West = 1.39 compared with the South (p prosthetic prescription. Being married was positively associated. After adjusting for patient characteristics, people with ankle amputation were most likely to be prescribed a prosthesis and people with transfemoral amputation were least likely. Geographic variation in prosthetic prescription exists in the VA and further research is needed to explain why.

  6. Passive prosthetic hands and tools: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, Bartjan; Smit, Gerwin; Plettenburg, Dick; Breedveld, Paul

    2018-02-01

    The group of passive prostheses consists of prosthetic hands and prosthetic tools. These can either be static or adjustable. Limited research and development on passive prostheses has been performed although many people use these prosthesis types. Although some publications describe passive prostheses, no recent review of the peer-reviewed literature on passive prostheses is available. Review the peer-reviewed literature on passive prostheses for replacement of the hand. Literature review. Four electronic databases were searched using a Boolean combination of relevant keywords. English-language articles relevant to the objective were selected. In all, 38 papers were included in the review. Publications on passive prosthetic hands describe their users, usage, functionality, and problems in activities of daily living. Publications on prosthetic tools mostly focus on sport, recreation, and vehicle driving. Passive hand prostheses receive little attention in prosthetic research and literature. Yet one out of three people with a limb deficiency uses this type of prosthesis. Literature indicates that passive prostheses can be improved on pulling and grasping functions. In the literature, ambiguous names are used for different types of passive prostheses. This causes confusion. We present a new and clear classification of passive prostheses. Clinical relevance This review provides information on the users of passive prosthetic hands and tools, their usage and the functionality. Passive prostheses receive very little attention and low appreciation in literature. Passive prosthetic hands and tools show to be useful to many unilateral amputees and should receive more attention and higher acceptance.

  7. A Miniature Force Sensor for Prosthetic Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert; Chu, Mars; Diftler, Myron; Martin, Toby; Valvo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Tactile sensing is an important part of the development of new prosthetic hands. A number of approaches to establishing an afferent pathway back to the patient for tactile information are becoming available including tactors and direct stimulation of the afferent nerves. Tactile information can also be used by low-level control systems that perform simple tasks for the patient such as establishing a stable grasp and maintaining the grasping forces needed to hold an object. This abstract reports on the design of a small fingertip load cell based on semi-conductor strain gauges. Since this load cell is so small (measuring only 8.5mm in diameter and 6.25 mm in height), it easily fits into the tip of an anthropomorphic mechatronic hand. This load cell is tested by comparing a time series of force and moment data with reference data acquired from a much larger high-precision commercial load cell.

  8. [Improving the speech with a prosthetic construction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalpers, M J; Engelen, M; van der Stappen, J A A M; Weijs, W L J; Takes, R P; van Heumen, C C M

    2016-03-01

    A 12-year-old boy had problems with his speech due to a defect in the soft palate. This defect was caused by the surgical removal of a synovial sarcoma. Testing with a nasometer revealed hypernasality above normal values. Given the size and severity of the defect in the soft palate, the possibility of improving the speech with speech therapy was limited. At a centre for special dentistry an attempt was made with a prosthetic construction to improve the performance of the palate and, in that way, the speech. This construction consisted of a denture with an obturator attached to it. With it, an effective closure of the palate could be achieved. New measurements with acoustic nasometry showed scores within the normal values. The nasality in the speech largely disappeared. The obturator is an effective and relatively easy solution for palatal insufficiency resulting from surgical resection. Intrusive reconstructive surgery can be avoided in this way.

  9. Gait analysis in lower-limb amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Gait analysis combined with sound clinical judgment plays an important role in elucidating the factors involved in the pathologic prosthetic gait and the selection and effects of available interventions to optimize it. Detailed clinical evaluation of walking contributes to the analysis of the prosthetic gait, but evaluation in the gait laboratory using kinetic and kinematic data is often necessary to quantify and identify the particular contributions of the variables impacting the gait with confidence and assess the results of such intervention. The same approach can be considered when selecting prosthetic components and assessing leg length in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thrombolytic therapy in prosthetic valve thrombosis during early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the improvements in the design of prosthetic heart valves and the use of anticoagulation, systemic embolism and valve thrombosis remains the most dreaded complications of mechanical heart valve replacement. A course of thrombolytic therapy may be considered as a first-line therapy for prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. The safety of thrombolysis in early pregnancy is not known. We describe a primigravida with mitral valve replacement status presenting with acute prosthetic valve thrombosis and treated successfully with intravenous streptokinase.

  11. Mechanical testing of pericardium for manufacturing prosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiari, Paola; Fiorese, Michele; Iop, Laura; Gerosa, Gino; Bagno, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian pericardia are currently used for the production of percutaneous prosthetic heart valves. The characteristics of biological tissues largely influence the durability of prosthetic devices used in the percutaneous approach and in traditional surgery, too. This paper reviews methodologies employed to assess and compare mechanical properties of pericardial patches from different mammalian species in order to identify the biomaterials adequate for manufacturing prosthetic heart valves. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    -viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...... of viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the PCA of each cultivar and the pooled samples. However, the PCA did not exhibit a pattern of separation among the early, normal and late germinated tomato seeds. The NIR spectral regions of 1160–1170, 1383–1397, 1647–1666, 1860–1884 and 1915–1940 nm were...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable...

  13. A personalized 3D-printed prosthetic joint replacement for the human temporomandibular joint: From implant design to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, David C; Robinson, Dale; Redhead, Michael; Lee, Peter Vee Sin; Moskaljuk, Adrian; Dimitroulis, George

    2017-05-01

    Personalized prosthetic joint replacements have important applications in cases of complex bone and joint conditions where the shape and size of off-the-shelf components may not be adequate. The objective of this study was to design, test and fabricate a personalized 3D-printed prosthesis for a patient requiring total joint replacement surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The new 'Melbourne' prosthetic TMJ design featured a condylar component sized specifically to the patient and fixation screw positions that avoid potential intra-operative damage to the mandibular nerve. The Melbourne prosthetic TMJ was developed for a 58-year-old female recipient with end-stage osteoarthritis of the TMJ. The load response of the prosthesis during chewing and a maximum-force bite was quantified using a personalized musculoskeletal model of the patient's masticatory system developed using medical images. The simulations were then repeated after implantation of the Biomet Microfixation prosthetic TMJ, an established stock device. The maximum condylar stresses, screw stress and mandibular stress at the screw-bone interface were lower in the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ (259.6MPa, 312.9MPa and 198.4MPa, respectively) than those in the Biomet Microfixation device (284.0MPa, 416.0MPa and 262.2MPa, respectively) during the maximum-force bite, with similar trends also observed during the chewing bite. After trialing surgical placement and evaluating prosthetic TMJ stability using cadaveric specimens, the prosthesis was fabricated using 3D printing, sterilized, and implanted into the female recipient. Six months post-operatively, the prosthesis recipient had a normal jaw opening distance (40.0 mm), with no complications identified. The new design features and immediate load response of the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ suggests that it may provide improved clinical and biomechanical joint function compared to a commonly used stock device, and reduce risk of intra-operative nerve damage

  14. Interface Realisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pold, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly to the devel......This article argues for seeing the interface as an important representational and aesthetic form with implications for postmodern culture and digital aesthetics. The interface emphasizes realism due in part to the desire for transparency in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and partly...

  15. [A new implant system for orbital prosthetic rehabilitation: "epiplating mono"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Federspil, P A; Neumann, A; Schick, B

    2014-06-01

    A New Implant System for Orbital Prosthetic Rehabilitation: "Epiplating Mono" Prosthetic or episthetic rehabilitation of ear, eye and nose are currently most common performed using magnetic fixation. While at the beginning single implants have been used, now-a-days a more extended approach with plate fixation are recommended to enhance the stability of the anchored magnets. A newly designed implant system epiplating mono is presented that combines the structure of a single implant with additional fixation elements. In a pilot study this new implant system was used in 4 patients for prosthetic orbital rehabilitation. Further experiences with this new implant system are required necessitating long-term experiences of implant stability to define the value of the presented epiplating mono system for prosthetic rehabilitation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Esthetics with prosthetics in case of maxillary canine transposition: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-16

    .app.medknow. For suggestions and comments do write back to us. Announcement. How to cite this article: Yadav S, Sheorain AK, Madan N, Bajaj P. Esthetics with prosthetics in case of maxillary canine transposition: A ...

  17. Fixed prosthetic treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajevska Jagoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prosthetic treatment of patients with cleft palate includes various treatment options such as fixed partial dentures, removable partial prosthesis, etc. The type of prosthetic appliance is determined by the oral health of each individual and the circumstances. We presented three adult patients with the cleft lip and palate subjected to prosthetic treatment. Case report. From the possible prosthetic solutions according to the conditions in the oral cavity and the circumstances, fixed partial dentures veneered with composite or ceramic were chosen. A proper relationship between the teeth was reached with the fixed partial dentures, and function established, the phonetics improved and satisfying aesthetics effect accomplished improving the profile appearance of the patient’s face. Plastic surgery of the nose was performed after that. Conclusion. Multidisclipinary treatment is necessary for favourable long-term outcome in cleft lip and palate patients.

  18. Prosthetic motility in pegged versus unpegged integrated porous orbital implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillinta, Paulo; Vasani, Sunil N; Granet, David B; Kikkawa, Don O

    2003-03-01

    To objectively measure and compare prosthetic motility in pegged versus unpegged orbital implants and to determine subjective patient assessment of motility after the pegging procedure. A prospective case series of 10 patients with integrated porous orbital implants, who had secondary motility peg placement procedure, were studied. Infrared oculography was used to quantitatively assess pegged and unpegged prosthetic eye motility in horizontal and vertical excursions. For horizontal excursions, prosthetic motility in unpegged implants retained an average of 49.6% of measured motility of the contralateral normal eye, which increased to 86.5% with peg placement (Ppeg placement (P>0.3). Nine of 10 patients judged their motility as "significantly improved," and 1 patient gave a rating of "some improvement" after peg placement. Four of 10 patients had granulomas around the peg sites. Objective assessment of prosthetic motility shows a significant increase in horizontal gaze after motility peg placement.

  19. Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients with Prosthetic Heart Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed HA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with mechanical valve prostheses require a lifelong anticoagulant treatment. The combined use of Warfarin and low-dose aspirin appears to reduce the risk of valve thrombosis and systemic embolism at a low risk of bleeding. The management of women with prosthetic heart valves during pregnancy poses a particular challenge, as there are no available controlled clinical trials to provide guidelines for effective antithrombotic therapy. Oral anticoagulants, such as Warfarin, cause foetal embryopathy; unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin have been reported to be ineffective in preventing thromboembolic complications.This article discusses the available data and the most recent guidelines in the antithrombotic management of patients with prosthetic valves, and antithrombotic therapy in various clinical situations such as pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves, and patients with prosthetic heart valves undergoing noncardiac surgery.

  20. Interface models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for specifying interfaces between concurrently executing modules of a computing system. The model does not prescribe a particular type of communication protocol and is aimed at describing interfaces between both software and hardware modules or a combination of the two...

  1. Organic interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, W.A.; Tempelman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the consequences for product designers resulting from the replacement of traditional interfaces by responsive materials. Part 1 presents a theoretical framework regarding a new paradigm for man-machine interfacing. Part 2 provides an analysis of the opportunities offered by new

  2. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  3. Grasping Pattern Recognition and Grasping Force Estimation For Prosthetic Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Bing-Ke; Zhong Guo-Liang; Deng Hua

    2016-01-01

    Human’s movement can be decoded by surface electromyography (EMG), and the prosthetic hand can be controlled freely through EMG signal. This paper proposes a grasping pattern and force synchronized decoding method for prosthetic hands. Considering pattern recognition and force estimation simultaneously, this paper analyzes whether different muscle contraction levels affect pattern recognition and whether different grasping modes have impact on force estimation, then proposes two schemes to co...

  4. 24 DOF EMG controlled hybrid actuated prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, A; Kaya, E; Toptas, E; Kuchimov, S; Kaplanoglu, E; Ozkan, M

    2016-08-01

    A complete mechanical design concept of an electromyogram (EMG) controlled hybrid prosthetic hand, with 24 degree of freedom (DOF) anthropomorphic structure is presented. Brushless DC motors along with Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators are used to achieve dexterous functionality. An 8 channel EMG is used for detecting 7 basic hand gestures for control purposes. The prosthetic hand will be integrated with the Neural Network (NNE) based controller in the next phase of the study.

  5. Possibilities of prosthetic upper limb fitting in cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Doležalová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis give an overview of possible solutions in upper limbs prosthetic fitting which is suitable for cycling. And provide enough information on modifications that should be performed on a bicycle so that it can be used by humans with upper extremity prostheses. It can be an essential guide for anyone looking for a solution that would allow a person with an amputated upper limb again sit on the bike. Keywords: amputation, upper limb prosthesis, prosthetic fitting, cycling

  6. Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry F. Bartlett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures.

  7. [Surgical management of limb prosthetic vascular graft exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wu, Wei-wei; Bai, Ming; Zeng, Rong; Song, Xiao-jun; Chen, Yu; Liu, Chang-wei

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the risk factors and surgical management of limb prosthetic vascular graft exposure. The clinical data of 17 patients suffering from limb prosthetic vascular graft exposure in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 2006 to December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Among 17 cases, 5 suffered from prosthetic vascular graft exposure after vascular bypass for the lower limb ischemia, whereas 12 were affected after the artificial graft arteriovenous fistula construction in the upper limbs for hemodialysis. The surgical procedures mainly included the local debridement as well as the local flap and transferred muscle-cutaneous flap reconstruction to preserve the prosthetic vascular graft. All 17 patients underwent local flap or muscle-cutaneous flap coverage procedure. After the surgery, the prosthetic vascular graft was successfully salvaged in 14 cases. The total successful rate was 82.4%. The surgery failed in three patients, in whom the prosthetic vascular grafts were finally removed. Local flap and transferred muscle-cutaneous flap reconstruction is an effective surgical management to salvage the exposed grafts.

  8. Instantaneous stiffness and hysteresis of dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Christina M; Kaufman, Kenton

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet are designed to mimic the functional characteristics of the native foot/ankle joint. Numerous designs of dynamic elastic response feet exist which make the prescription process difficult, especially because of the lack of empirical evidence describing the objective performance characteristics of the feet. To quantify the mechanical properties of available dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet, specifically the stiffness and hysteresis. Mechanical testing of dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet. Static Proof Testing in accordance with ISO 10328 was conducted on seven dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet. Load-displacement data were used to calculate the instantaneous stiffness in both the heel and forefoot regions, as well as hysteresis associated with each foot. Heel stiffness was greater than forefoot stiffness for all feet. The heel of the glass composite prosthetic foot was stiffer than the carbon fiber feet and it exhibited less hysteresis. Two different carbon fiber feet had the stiffest forefoot regions. Mechanical testing is a reproducible method that can be used to provide objective evidence about dynamic elastic response prosthetic foot performance and aid in the prescription process. Clinical relevance The quantitative stiffness and hysteresis data from this study can be used by prosthetists to aid the prescription process and make it more objective.

  9. Rotationplasty with vascular reconstruction for prosthetic knee joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Kawai, Akira; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Rotationplasty is used most often as a function-preserving salvage procedure after resection of sarcomas of the lower extremity; however, it is also used after infection of prosthetic knee joints. Conventional vascular management during rotationplasty is to preserve and coil major vessels, but recently, transection and reanastomosis of the major vessels has been widely performed. However, there has been little discussion regarding the optimal vascular management of rotationplasty after infection of prosthetic knee joints because rotationplasty is rarely performed for this indication. We reviewed four patients who had undergone resection of osteosarcomas of the femur, placement of a prosthetic knee joint, and rotationplasty with vascular reconstruction from 2010 to 2013. The mean interval between prosthetic joint replacement and rotationplasty was 10.4 years and the mean interval between the diagnosis of prosthesis infection and rotationplasty was 7.9 years. Rotationplasty was successful in all patients; however, in one patient, arterial thrombosis developed and necessitated urgent surgical removal and arterial reconstruction. All patients were able to walk independently with a prosthetic limb after rehabilitation. Although there is no consensus regarding the most appropriate method of vascular management during rotationplasty for revision of infected prosthetic joints, vascular transection and reanastomosis is a useful option.

  10. Rotationplasty with Vascular Reconstruction for Prosthetic Knee Joint Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Fujiki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotationplasty is used most often as a function-preserving salvage procedure after resection of sarcomas of the lower extremity; however, it is also used after infection of prosthetic knee joints. Conventional vascular management during rotationplasty is to preserve and coil major vessels, but recently, transection and reanastomosis of the major vessels has been widely performed. However, there has been little discussion regarding the optimal vascular management of rotationplasty after infection of prosthetic knee joints because rotationplasty is rarely performed for this indication. We reviewed four patients who had undergone resection of osteosarcomas of the femur, placement of a prosthetic knee joint, and rotationplasty with vascular reconstruction from 2010 to 2013. The mean interval between prosthetic joint replacement and rotationplasty was 10.4 years and the mean interval between the diagnosis of prosthesis infection and rotationplasty was 7.9 years. Rotationplasty was successful in all patients; however, in one patient, arterial thrombosis developed and necessitated urgent surgical removal and arterial reconstruction. All patients were able to walk independently with a prosthetic limb after rehabilitation. Although there is no consensus regarding the most appropriate method of vascular management during rotationplasty for revision of infected prosthetic joints, vascular transection and reanastomosis is a useful option.

  11. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu

    2018-02-15

    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  12. A Prosthetic Foot Emulator to Optimize Prescription of Prosthetic Feet in Veterans and Service Members with Leg Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    on Microprocessor -Controlled Prosthetic Knees . Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics. 2013;25(4S):53-55. 28. Raschke SU, Orendurff MS, Mattie JL, et al... Knee -Ankle Prosthesis Leg on Everyday Community Mobility and Social Interaction Role Site Principal Investigator (A Jayaraman, PI) (5% effort...Funding $2.5 M Purpose To evaluate new prosthesis that has powered controls at both the knee and ankle joints and a new way of controlling this device

  13. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  14. Surface EMG in advanced hand prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Claudio; van der Smagt, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    One of the major problems when dealing with highly dexterous, active hand prostheses is their control by the patient wearing them. With the advances in mechatronics, building prosthetic hands with multiple active degrees of freedom is realisable, but actively controlling the position and especially the exerted force of each finger cannot yet be done naturally. This paper deals with advanced robotic hand control via surface electromyography. Building upon recent results, we show that machine learning, together with a simple downsampling algorithm, can be effectively used to control on-line, in real time, finger position as well as finger force of a highly dexterous robotic hand. The system determines the type of grasp a human subject is willing to use, and the required amount of force involved, with a high degree of accuracy. This represents a remarkable improvement with respect to the state-of-the-art of feed-forward control of dexterous mechanical hands, and opens up a scenario in which amputees will be able to control hand prostheses in a much finer way than it has so far been possible.

  15. Identification of dynamic load for prosthetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Han, Xu; Zhang, Zhongpu; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Chao; Yoda, Nobuhiro; Meng, Xianghua; Li, Qing

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic load exists in numerous biomechanical systems, and its identification signifies a critical issue for characterizing dynamic behaviors and studying biomechanical consequence of the systems. This study aims to identify dynamic load in the dental prosthetic structures, namely, 3-unit implant-supported fixed partial denture (I-FPD) and teeth-supported fixed partial denture. The 3-dimensional finite element models were constructed through specific patient's computerized tomography images. A forward algorithm and regularization technique were developed for identifying dynamic load. To verify the effectiveness of the identification method proposed, the I-FPD and teeth-supported fixed partial denture structures were investigated to determine the dynamic loads. For validating the results of inverse identification, an experimental force-measuring system was developed by using a 3-dimensional piezoelectric transducer to measure the dynamic load in the I-FPD structure in vivo. The computationally identified loads were presented with different noise levels to determine their influence on the identification accuracy. The errors between the measured load and identified counterpart were calculated for evaluating the practical applicability of the proposed procedure in biomechanical engineering. This study is expected to serve as a demonstrative role in identifying dynamic loading in biomedical systems, where a direct in vivo measurement may be rather demanding in some areas of interest clinically. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Prosthetic rehabilitation of the upper limb amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard O′Keeffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of all or part of the arm is a catastrophic event for a patient and a significant challenge to rehabilitation professionals and prosthetic engineers. The large, upper extremity amputee population in India has, historically, been poorly served, with most having no access to support or being provided with ineffective prostheses. In recent years, the arrival of organisations like Otto Bock has made high quality service standards and devices accessible to more amputees. This review attempts to provide surgeons and other medical professionals with an overview of the multidisciplinary, multistage rehabilitation process and the solution options available. With worldwide upper extremity prosthesis rejection rates at significant levels, the review also describes some of the factors which influence the outcome. This is particularly relevant in the Indian context where the service can involve high cost investments. It is the responsibility of all contributing professionals to guide vulnerable patients through the process and try to maximise the benefit that can be obtained within the resources available.

  17. Peri-prosthetic fracture vibration testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruce, Jesse R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erwin, Jenny R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Remick, Kevin R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cornwell, Phillip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menegini, R. Michael [INDIANA UNIV.; Racanelli, Joe [STRYKER ORTHOPARDICS

    2010-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to establish a test setup and vibration analysis method to predict femoral stem seating and prevent bone fracture using accelerometer and force response data from an instrumented stem and impactor. This study builds upon earlier studies to identify a means to supplement a surgeon's tactile and auditory senses by using damage identification techniques normally used for civil and mechanical structures. Testing was conducted using foam cortical shell sawbones prepared for stems of different geometries. Each stem was instrumented with an accelerometer. Two impactor designs were compared: a monolithic impactor and a two-piece impactor, each with an integrated load cell and accelerometer. Acceleration and force measurements were taken in the direction of impaction. Comparisons between different methods of applying an impacting force were made, including a drop tower and a surgical hammer. The effect of varying compliance on the data was also investigated. The ultimate goal of this study was to assist in the design of an integrated portable data acquisition system capable of being used in future cadaveric testing. This paper will discuss the experimental setup and the subsequent results of the comparisons made between impactors, prosthetic geometries, compliances, and impact methods. The results of this study can be used for both future replicate testing as well as in a cadaveric environment.

  18. Prosthetic EMG control enhancement through the application of man-machine principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    An area in medicine that appears suitable to man-machine principles is rehabilitation research, particularly when the motor aspects of the body are involved. If one considers the limb, whether functional or not, as the machine, the brain as the controller and the neuromuscular system as the man-machine interface, the human body is reduced to a man-machine system that can benefit from the principles behind such systems. The area of rehabilitation that this paper deals with is that of an arm amputee and his prosthetic device. Reducing this area to its man-machine basics, the problem becomes one of attaining natural multiaxis prosthetic control using Electromyographic activity (EMG) as the means of communication between man and prothesis. In order to use EMG as the communication channel it must be amplified and processed to yield a high information signal suitable for control. The most common processing scheme employed is termed Mean Value Processing. This technique for extracting the useful EMG signal consists of a differential to single ended conversion to the surface activity followed by a rectification and smoothing.

  19. Systematic review of effects of current transtibial prosthetic socket designs-Part 1: Qualitative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Meier, Margrit Regula

    2015-01-01

    This review is an attempt to untangle the complexity of transtibial prosthetic socket fit, determine the most important characteristic for a successful fitting, and perhaps find some indication of whether a particular prosthetic socket type might be best for a given situation. Further, it is intended to provide directions for future research. We followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and used medical subject headings and standard key words to search for articles in relevant databases. No restrictions were made on study design or type of outcome measure. From the obtained search results (n = 1,863), 35 articles were included. The relevant data were entered into a predefined data form that incorporated the Downs and Black risk of bias assessment checklist. Results for the qualitative outcomes (n = 19 articles) are synthesized. Total surface bearing sockets lead to greater activity levels and satisfaction in active persons with amputation, those with a traumatic cause of amputation, and younger persons with amputation than patellar tendon bearing sockets. Evidence on vacuum-assisted suction and hydrostatic sockets is inadequate, and further studies are much needed. To improve the scientific basis for prescription, comparison of and correlation between mechanical properties of interface material, socket designs, user characteristics, and outcome measures should be conducted and reported in future studies.

  20. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering.

  1. A new method for photodynamic disinfection of prosthetic constructions and impressions in prosthetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahova, Angelina P; Kisov, Christo K; Popova, Elka V; Haydushka, Irina A; Mantareva, Vanya N

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a topical treatment of pathogens that involves the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer), which is non-toxic when not exposed to light and activated by light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. The highly cytotoxic oxygen species generated by the induced photophysical processes inactivate the pathogenic cells. The PURPOSE of this study was to present a new method we developed for photodynamic disinfection of prostheses and impressions in prosthetic dentistry and to assess its effectiveness in comparison with some conventional methods of disinfection. The method was developed on the basis of series of experimental studies (30 experiments for each type of disinfectant, 30 controls with no disinfection for each material, and 30 direct cultures of each test microorganism--MRSA, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans) using standard test specimens made of prosthesis plastic and impression materials. The new method of photodynamic disinfection with GaPc1 as photosensitizer was 100% efficient in C-silicones, A-silicones and polyethers, but not in alginates (40%). To plastics the photodynamic method shows the same efficiency as the conventional disinfectants of hypochlorite solutions and denture cleansing tablets (100% effect). The method of photodynamic disinfection we developed is a good therapeutic choice against orally transmitted diseases in prosthetic dentistry.

  2. Quantification of Shear Stresses Within a Transtibial Prosthetic Socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Adam; Havey, Robery; Carandang, Gerard; Wickman, Amy; Angelico, John; Patwardhan, Avinash; Pinzur, Michael

    2014-08-01

    There is a paucity of objectively recorded data delineating the pattern of weightbearing distribution within the prosthetic socket of patients with transtibial amputation. Our current knowledge is based primarily on information obtained from finite element analysis computer models. Four high-functioning transtibial amputees were fit with similar custom prosthetic sockets. Three load cells were incorporated into each socket at high stress contact areas predicted by computer modeling. Dynamic recording of prosthetic socket loading was accomplished during rising from a sitting position, stepping from a 2-leg stance to a 1-leg stance, and during the initiation of walking. By comparing the loads measured at each of the 3 critical locations, anterior/posterior shear, superior/inferior shear, and end weightbearing were recorded. The same load pattern in all 4 subjects was found during each of the 3 functional activities. The load transmission at the distal end of the amputation residual limbs was negligible. Consistent forces were observed in both the anterior/posterior and superior/inferior planes. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the loads measured in each of the 4 subjects, which ranged from a low of .82 to a high of .98, where a value approaching 1.0 implies a linear relationship amongst subjects. This experimental model appears to have accurately recorded loading within a transtibial prosthetic socket consistent with previously reported finite element analysis computer models. This clinical model will allow objective measurement of weightbearing within the prosthetic socket of transtibial amputees and allow objective comparison of weightbearing distribution within the prosthetic sockets of patients who have undergone creation of different versions of a transtibial amputation residual limb and prosthetic socket designs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Prescription and repair rates of prosthetic limbs in the VA healthcare system: implications for national prosthetic parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Katherine; Borgia, Matthew; Resnik, Linda

    2014-05-22

    Abstract Purpose: To quantify prescription and repair rates of prosthetic limbs in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and explore differences by level, type, and age. Methods: Veterans (N = 32 440) with an initial prosthetic prescription between 2000 and 2010 were classified by amputation level and type. Annual rates of prescription and repair were calculated using person-time and compared by group. Results: Veterans with upper limb amputation had lower annual prescription and repair rates (0.28 and 0.21) compared with those with lower limb amputation (0.40 and 0.56). Myoelectric devices users had higher prescription rates. However, body-powered users had higher repair rates. Prescription and repair rates for microprocessor knee joints were higher than for fluid and friction devices. Veterans under 65 had 0.07 and 0.16 higher rates of prescription and repair than those over 65 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Because the VA is unconstrained by co-pays or caps, data on prosthetic prescription and repair can be used to estimate rates that might occur if national prosthetic parity laws were adopted. Given the rates found, it is likely that annual costs would exceed the typical annual and/or lifetime caps in most insurance plans. In states without prosthetic parity laws, such costs likely limit access to needed devices. Implications for Rehabilitation For the almost 2 million people in the United States living with an amputation or congenital limb loss, purchasing and maintaining a prosthetic limb can be costly, with insurances often imposing annual or lifetime caps. Data on prosthetic purchasing and repair is limited and reliant on self-reported information. Because the VA is unconstrained by co-pays or caps, claims data on prosthetic prescription and repair can be used to estimate rates that might occur if national prosthetic parity laws were adopted. Given the rates found, it is likely that annual costs would exceed the typical annual and/or lifetime caps

  4. Results of prosthetic mesh repair in the emergency management of the acutely incarcerated and/or strangulated groin hernias: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, S S; Abdel-fattah, M R; Al-Sayes, I A; Korayem, I T

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to present a 10-year experience with the use of prosthetic mesh repair in the management of the acutely incarcerated and/or strangulated groin hernias. Patients with acutely incarcerated and/or strangulated groin hernias were treated by emergency repair of the hernia using a Prolene mesh. The presence of non-viable intestine necessitating resection-anastomosis of the bowel was not considered a contraindication to the use of mesh. The present study included 234 patients. Their age ranged from 16 to 85 years with a mean of 55.9 ± 17.7 years. The hernia was indirect inguinal in 201 patients (85.9%), direct inguinal in 5 patients 5 (2.1%), hernia of canal of nuck in 13 patients (5.6%) and femoral in 15 patients (6.4%). Thirty patients (12.8%) had recurrent hernias. Resection-anastomosis of non-viable small intestine was performed in 32 patients (13.7%). There were 5 perioperative mortalities (2.1%). Complications were encountered in 41 patients (17.5%) and included wound infection in 14 patients (6%), scrotal hematoma in 9 patients (3.8%), chest infection in 8 patients (3.4%), deep vein thrombosis in 2 patients (0.9%), transient deterioration of liver function in 11 patients (4.7%) and mesh infection in 1 patient (0.5%). Follow-up duration ranged from 6 to 120 months with a mean of 62.5 ± 35.3 months. Two recurrences (0.9%) were encountered throughout the study period. The use of prosthetic mesh repair in the emergency management of the acutely incarcerated and/or strangulated groin hernias is safe. The presence of non-viable intestine cannot be regarded as a contraindication for prosthetic repair.

  5. Recent advancements in prosthetic hand technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Angana; Mazumdar, Sushmi; Sahai, Nitin; Paul, Sudip; Bhatia, Dinesh; Verma, Suresh; Rohilla, Punit Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Recently, significant advances over the past decade have been made in robotics, artificial intelligence and other cognitive related fields, allowing development of highly sophisticated bio-mimetic robotics systems. In addition, enormous number of robots have been designed and assembled by explicitly realising their biological oriented behaviours. To enhance skill behaviours and adequate grasping abilities in these devices, a new phase of dexterous hands has been developed recently with bio-mimetically oriented and bio-inspired functionalities. The aim in writing this review paper is to present a detailed insight towards the development of the bio-mimetic based dexterous robotic multi-fingered artificial hand. An "ideal" upper limb prosthesis should be perceived as a part of their natural body by the amputee and should replicate sensory-motor capabilities of the amputated limb. Upper-limb amputations are most often the result of sudden trauma to the body, although they also can be caused by malignancy, congenital deficiencies and vascular diseases. This paper discusses the different bio-mimetic approaches using a framework that permits for a common description of biological and technical based hand manipulation behaviour. In particular, the review focuses on a number of developments in the inspired robotic systems. In conclusion, the study found that a huge amount of research efforts in terms of kinematics, dynamics, modelling and control methodologies are being put in to improve the present hand technology, thereby providing more functionality to the prosthetic limb of the amputee. This would improve their quality-of-life and help in performing activities of daily living (ADL) tasks with comparative ease in the near future.

  6. Staphylococcus capitis isolated from prosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevell, S; Hellmark, B; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Å; Söderquist, B

    2017-01-01

    Further knowledge about the clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by different coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may facilitate interpretation of microbiological findings and improve treatment algorithms. Staphylococcus capitis is a CoNS with documented potential for both human disease and nosocomial spread. As data on orthopaedic infections are scarce, our aim was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PJIs caused by S. capitis. This retrospective cohort study included three centres and 21 patients with significant growth of S. capitis during revision surgery for PJI between 2005 and 2014. Clinical data were extracted and further microbiological characterisation of the S. capitis isolates was performed. Multidrug-resistant (≥3 antibiotic groups) S. capitis was detected in 28.6 % of isolates, methicillin resistance in 38.1 % and fluoroquinolone resistance in 14.3 %; no isolates were rifampin-resistant. Heterogeneous glycopeptide-intermediate resistance was detected in 38.1 %. Biofilm-forming ability was common. All episodes were either early post-interventional or chronic, and there were no haematogenous infections. Ten patients experienced monomicrobial infections. Among patients available for evaluation, 86 % of chronic infections and 70 % of early post-interventional infections achieved clinical cure; 90 % of monomicrobial infections remained infection-free. Genetic fingerprinting with repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab®) displayed clustering of isolates, suggesting that nosocomial spread might be present. Staphylococcus capitis has the potential to cause PJIs, with infection most likely being contracted during surgery or in the early postoperative period. As S. capitis might be an emerging nosocomial pathogen, surveillance of the prevalence of PJIs caused by S. capitis could be recommended.

  7. A Wireless 32-Channel Implantable Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yi; Routhu, Sudhamayee; Moon, Kee S.; Lee, Sung Q.; Youm, WooSub; Ozturk, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    All neural information systems (NIS) rely on sensing neural activity to supply commands and control signals for computers, machines and a variety of prosthetic devices. Invasive systems achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by eliminating the volume conduction problems caused by tissue and bone. An implantable brain machine interface (BMI) using intracortical electrodes provides excellent detection of a broad range of frequency oscillatory activities through the placement of a sensor in ...

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Naive Adaptive Brain-Machine Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Kevin C.; He, Bryan D.; Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan

    2013-01-01

    The closed-loop operation of brain-machine interfaces (BMI) provides a context to discover foundational principles behind human-computer interaction, with emerging clinical applications to stroke, neuromuscular diseases, and trauma. In the canonical BMI, a user controls a prosthetic limb through neural signals that are recorded by electrodes and processed by a decoder into limb movements. In laboratory demonstrations with able-bodied test subjects, parameters of the decoder are commonly tuned...

  9. Methods for characterization of mechanical and electrical prosthetic vacuum pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolafe, Oluseeni; Wood, Sean; Caldwell, Ryan; Hansen, Andrew; Fatone, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasingly widespread adoption of vacuum-assisted suspension systems in prosthetic clinical practices, there remain gaps in the body of scientific knowledge guiding clinicians' choices of existing products. In this study, we identified important pump-performance metrics and developed techniques to objectively characterize the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pumps. The sensitivity of the proposed techniques was assessed by characterizing the evacuation performance of two electrical (Harmony e-Pulse [Ottobock; Duderstadt, Germany] and LimbLogic VS [Ohio Willow Wood; Mt. Sterling, Ohio]) and three mechanical (Harmony P2, Harmony HD, and Harmony P3 [Ottobock]) prosthetic pumps in bench-top testing. Five fixed volume chambers ranging from 33 cm(3) (2 in.(3)) to 197 cm(3) (12 in.(3)) were used to represent different air volume spaces between a prosthetic socket and a liner-clad residual limb. All measurements were obtained at a vacuum gauge pressure of 57.6 kPa (17 inHg). The proposed techniques demonstrated sensitivity to the different electrical and mechanical pumps and, to a lesser degree, to the different setting adjustments of each pump. The sensitivity was less pronounced for the mechanical pumps, and future improvements for testing of mechanical vacuum pumps were proposed. Overall, this study successfully offers techniques feasible as standards for assessing the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pump devices.

  10. Corynebacterium CDC group G native and prosthetic valve endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Sattar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of native and recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis with Corynebacterium CDC group G, a rarely reported cause of infective endocarditis (IE. Previously, there have been only two cases reported for prosthetic valve IE caused by these organisms. A 69-year-old female with a known history of mitral valve regurgitation presented with a 3-day history of high-grade fever, pleuritic chest pain and cough. Echocardiography confirmed findings of mitral valve thickening consistent with endocarditis, which subsequently progressed to become large and mobile vegetations. Both sets of blood cultures taken on admission were positive for Corynebacterium CDC group G. Despite removal of a long-term venous access port, the patient’s presumed source of line associated bacteremia, mitral valve replacement, and aggressive antibiotic therapy, the patient had recurrence of vegetations on the prosthetic valve. She underwent replacement of her prosthetic mitral valve in the subsequent 2 weeks, before she progressed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and expired. Although they are typically considered contaminants, corynebacteria, in the appropriate clinical setting, should be recognized, identified, and treated as potentially life-threatening infections, particularly in the case of line-associated bacteremias, and native and prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  11. Heel-region properties of prosthetic feet and shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, Glenn K; Berge, Jocelyn S; Segal, Ava D

    2004-07-01

    The properties of the prosthetic components prescribed to amputees have the potential to ameliorate or exacerbate their comfort, mobility, and health. To measure the difference in heel-region structural properties of currently available prosthetic feet and shoes, we simulated the period of initial heel-ground contact with a pendulum apparatus. The energy dissipation capacity of the various prosthetic feet ranged from 33.6% to 52.6% of the input energy. Donning a shoe had a large effect. Energy dissipation of a Seattle Lightfoot 2 prosthetic foot was 45.3%, while addition of a walking, running, and orthopedic shoe increased energy dissipation to 63.0%, 73.0%, and 82.4%, respectively. The force versus deformation response to impact was modeled as a hardening spring in parallel with a position-dependent damping element. A nonlinear least-squares curve fit produced model coefficients useful for predicting the heel-region impact response of both prosthetic feet and shoes.

  12. Corynebacterium CDC Group G Native and Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Adil; Yu, Siegfried; Koirala, Janak

    2015-08-11

    We report the first case of native and recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis with Corynebacterium CDC group G, a rarely reported cause of infective endocarditis (IE). Previously, there have been only two cases reported for prosthetic valve IE caused by these organisms. A 69-year-old female with a known history of mitral valve regurgitation presented with a 3-day history of high-grade fever, pleuritic chest pain and cough. Echocardiography confirmed findings of mitral valve thickening consistent with endocarditis, which subsequently progressed to become large and mobile vegetations. Both sets of blood cultures taken on admission were positive for Corynebacterium CDC group G. Despite removal of a long-term venous access port, the patient's presumed source of line associated bacteremia, mitral valve replacement, and aggressive antibiotic therapy, the patient had recurrence of vegetations on the prosthetic valve. She underwent replacement of her prosthetic mitral valve in the subsequent 2 weeks, before she progressed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and expired. Although they are typically considered contaminants, corynebacteria, in the appropriate clinical setting, should be recognized, identified, and treated as potentially life-threatening infections, particularly in the case of line-associated bacteremias, and native and prosthetic valve endocarditis.

  13. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-16

    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS g.kg(-1), respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  14. Designing Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tidwell, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Despite all of the UI toolkits available today, it's still not easy to design good application interfaces. This bestselling book is one of the few reliable sources to help you navigate through the maze of design options. By capturing UI best practices and reusable ideas as design patterns, Designing Interfaces provides solutions to common design problems that you can tailor to the situation at hand. This updated edition includes patterns for mobile apps and social media, as well as web applications and desktop software. Each pattern contains full-color examples and practical design advice th

  15. Nanoscale Properties of Neural Cell Prosthetic and Astrocyte Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, D. A.; Ayres, V. M.; Delgado-Rivera, R.; Ahmed, I.; Meiners, S. A.

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary data from in-vivo investigations (rat model) suggest that a nanofiber prosthetic device of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-modified nanofibers can correctly guide regenerating axons across an injury gap with aligned functional recovery. Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy (SPRM) with auto-tracking of individual nanofibers is used for investigation of the key nanoscale properties of the nanofiber prosthetic device for central nervous system tissue engineering and repair. The key properties under SPRM investigation include nanofiber stiffness and surface roughness, nanofiber curvature, nanofiber mesh density and porosity, and growth factor presentation and distribution. Each of these factors has been demonstrated to have global effects on cell morphology, function, proliferation, morphogenesis, migration, and differentiation. The effect of FGF-2 modification on the key nanoscale properties is investigated. Results from the nanofiber prosthetic properties investigations are correlated with astrocyte response to unmodified and FGF-2 modified scaffolds, using 2D planar substrates as a control.

  16. Prosthetic hand control using motion discrimination from EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Naoyuki; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we improve the motion discrimination method from electromyogram (EMG) for a prosthetic hand and propose prosthetic hand control. In the past, we proved that a motion discrimination method using conic models could discriminate three hand motions without the incorrect discriminations that the elbow motions cause. In this research, to increase discrimination accuracy of motion discrimination using conic models, we propose a feature extraction method using quadratic polynomials. Additionally, because many prosthetic hands using motion discrimination have constant motion speed that can't be controlled, we propose an angular velocity generation method using multiple regression models. We verified these methods by controlling the 3D hand model. In the experiment, the proposed method could discriminate five motions at a rate of above 90 percent without the incorrect discriminations that elbow motions cause. Moreover, the wrist joint angle of the 3D hand model could be controlled by standard variation of 3[deg] or less.

  17. Three-Dimensional Printing of Prosthetic Hands for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Matthew B; Ta, Anderson; Gogola, Gloria R

    2016-05-01

    Children with hand reductions, whether congenital or traumatic, have unique prosthetic needs. They present a challenge because of their continually changing size due to physical growth as well as changing needs due to psychosocial development. Conventional prosthetics are becoming more technologically advanced and increasingly complex. Although these are welcome advances for adults, the concomitant increases in weight, moving parts, and cost are not beneficial for children. Pediatric prosthetic needs may be better met with simpler solutions. Three-dimensional printing can be used to fabricate rugged, light-weight, easily replaceable, and very low cost assistive hands for children. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis in pregnancy: from thrombolysis to anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Gonçalo; Aguiar, Carlos; Andrade, Maria João; Patrício, Lino; Freire, Isabel; Serrano, Fátima; Anjos, Rui; Mendes, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves are at increased risk for valve thrombosis. Management decisions for this life-threatening complication are complex. Open-heart surgery has a very high risk of maternal mortality and fetal loss. Bleeding and embolic risks associated with thrombolytic agents, the limited efficacy of thrombolysis in certain subgroups, and a lack of experience in the setting of pregnancy raise important concerns. We report a case of mitral prosthetic valve thrombosis in early pregnancy, which was successfully treated with streptokinase. Ten years later, the same patient had an uneventful pregnancy, throughout which acenocoumarol was maintained. With this case we review the prevention (with oral anticoagulant therapy) and treatment of prosthetic valve thrombosis during pregnancy, which is important for both obstetrician and cardiologist. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgical-prosthetic treatment of large mandibular cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džambas Ljubiša D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a combined surgical-prosthetic procedure of reconstructing mandibular bone defect in a 53 year old patient, following enucleation of a mandibular cyst (Cystectomy Partsch II. After a thorough diagnostic evaluation, a surgical procedure was planned with the particular attention to the nature of the disease, patient’s condition, size and extension of the cyst, tissue loss, and the possibilities of prosthetic management of a mandibular bone defect with partial postresection dental prosthesis. It is of great importance to point to the significance of teamwork of a maxillofacial surgeon and a specialist in prosthodontics. This kind of cooperation provided very effective and less risky soft tissue, as well as bone tissue regeneration (osteogenesis. The patient’s recovery was fast, and he could return to his daily activities and work without significant changes regarding quality of life after surgery and prosthetic treatment.

  20. Radiological evaluation of prosthetic fit in below-the-knee amputees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, R.L.; Schreiber, M.H.; Morgan, D.

    1988-06-01

    Fourteen artificial limbs in eight adult patients with below the knee amputations were evaluated for prosthetic fit by several radiological parameters. The best objective means of evaluation of prosthetic adequacy is piston action.

  1. Neuroengineering tools/applications for bidirectional interfaces, brain-computer interfaces, and neuroprosthetic implants - a review of recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Ryan Mark

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this review is to provide a holistic amalgamated overview of the most recent human in vivo techniques for implementing brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), bidirectional interfaces, and neuroprosthetics. Neuroengineering is providing new methods for tackling current difficulties; however neuroprosthetics have been studied for decades. Recent progresses are permitting the design of better systems with higher accuracies, repeatability, and system robustness. Bidirectional interfaces integrate recording and the relaying of information from and to the brain for the development of BCIs. The concepts of non-invasive and invasive recording of brain activity are introduced. This includes classical and innovative techniques like electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy. Then the problem of gliosis and solutions for (semi-) permanent implant biocompatibility such as innovative implant coatings, materials, and shapes are discussed. Implant power and the transmission of their data through implanted pulse generators and wireless telemetry are taken into account. How sensation can be relayed back to the brain to increase integration of the neuroengineered systems with the body by methods such as micro-stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are then addressed. The neuroprosthetic section discusses some of the various types and how they operate. Visual prosthetics are discussed and the three types, dependant on implant location, are examined. Auditory prosthetics, being cochlear or cortical, are then addressed. Replacement hand and limb prosthetics are then considered. These are followed by sections concentrating on the control of wheelchairs, computers and robotics directly from brain activity as recorded by non-invasive and invasive techniques.

  2. The development of measurement tools for prosthetic eye research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith Raymond; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert John

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to develop tools to measure the condition of ocular prostheses and the socket's response to prosthetic eyewear. A novel staining technique for displaying deposits on prosthetic eyes was developed. Equal interval perceptual grading scales for measuring inferior palpebral conjunctival inflammation, and anterior and posterior stained surface deposits on prosthetic eyes were developed from 800 photographs of 43 volunteers. The photographs for each scale were chosen by the authors. A group of four ophthalmologists, three optometrists and three senior students was consulted about selection criteria and asked to position the photographs along a 1.5 m rule to determine equal intervals. Photographs judged not to represent exactly equal perceptual intervals were exchanged with others from the original pool. The final scales (a five-photograph scale for inflammation and two 11 photograph scales for deposits) were assessed for inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability by groups of senior optometry students. Standard deviations for inter-rater reliability tests were 0.52 scale units for the inflammation scale, 0.99 for the anterior surface deposits scale and 1.03 for the posterior surface deposits scale. The standard deviation of the test-retest differences for inflammation was 0.6 scale units and for both anterior and posterior surface deposits it was 0.71. A novel technique for displaying and measuring the intensity and extent of deposit formation on prosthetic eye surfaces has been described. The two equal interval perceptual grading scales that have been developed to quantify the extent of deposit formation together with the equal interval perceptual scale for grading severity of palpebral conjunctival inflammation will for the first time allow the effects of prosthetic eye wear to be evaluated. Further research to validate the scale for palpebral conjunctival inflammation in a clinical setting is recommended. The technique for staining deposits on

  3. Clinical Aspects of Combination of Aesthetic Fixed Prosthetic Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Biben

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the peculiarities of the combination of zirconia and ceramic occlusal surfaces when constructing aesthetic fixed prosthetic appliances. Materials and methods. The study included 70 patients with zirconia and ceramic occlusal surfaces of aesthetic fixed dental prostheses. Group I included 24 patients with a combination of zirconia and ceramic occlusal surfaces. Group II included 30 patients with a combination of ceramic occlusal surfaces. Group III included 16 patients with a combination of zirconia occlusal surfaces. All the patients were observed 12 and 24 months after prosthetic repair. Results. 12 and 24 months after prosthetic repair, the occlusal contact surface area was the largest in Group II (8.18±0.16 mm2 and 9.17±0.1 mm2, respectively. In Group I, where only one occlusive surface was made of zirconium dioxide, significantly reduced levels of abrasion were observed as compared to Group II – 8.07±0.21 mm2 and 8.65±0.23 mm2, respectively. 36 months after denture wearing, in Group III, the smallest contact surface area – 7.84±0.15 mm2as well as the lowest growth of the surface area was observed – 8.07±0.13 mm2. Conclusions. Dental prostheses with at least one ceramic occlusal surface exhibit a strong tendency to abrasion and, consequently, to an increase in the occlusal surface area resulting in an excessive load on prosthetic appliance. Moreover, functional and aesthetic values of prosthetic prosthesis sharply decrease. Therefore, we recommend to produce zirconia occlusal surface or at least to combine the same materials, as it will increase the longevity of prosthetic appliance.

  4. Uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite can be divided into three groups names cemented, uncemented, and partially cemented. Previous studies have mainly reported outcomes in cemented and partially cemented allograft-prosthetic composites, but have rarely focused on the uncemented allograft-prosthetic composites. The objectives of our study were to describe a surgical technique for using proximal femoral uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite and to present the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients who underwent uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite reconstruction of the proximal femur after bone tumor resection were retrospectively evaluated at an average followup of 24.0 months. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated. Results: In our series, union occurred in all the patients (100%; range 5-9 months. Until the most recent followup, there were no cases with infection, nonunion of the greater trochanter, junctional bone resorption, dislocation, allergic reaction, wear of acetabulum socket, recurrence, and metastasis. But there were three periprosthetic fractures which were fixed using cerclage wire during surgery. Five cases had bone resorption in and around the greater trochanter. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS score and Harris hip score (HHS were 26.2 points (range 24-29 points and 80.6 points (range 66.2-92.7 points, respectively. Conclusions: These results showed that uncemented allograft-prosthetic composite could promote bone union through compression at the host-allograft junction and is a good choice for proximal femoral resection. Although this technology has its own merits, long term outcomes are yet not validated.

  5. Maxillofacial prosthetics training and practice profiles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, James L; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Davis, Betsy K; Wee, Alvin G

    2017-10-01

    The motivation of maxillofacial prosthodontists to go into fellowship training and specific procedures in maxillofacial prosthetics practice once they have completed training has not been previously evaluated. The purpose of this study was to survey maxillofacial prosthodontists in the United States to investigate their reasons for pursuing maxillofacial prosthetic training and their practice profiles. In June 2015, a survey was sent to all US maxillofacial prosthodontists asking for descriptive demographics, their reasoning as to what prompted entrance into a maxillofacial prosthetic program, and their practice pattern. Frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations were calculated and reported. The survey response rate was 60.4%. The main reason for pursuing maxillofacial training was primarily personal satisfaction, prosthodontic residency exposure, and mentorship rather than media exposure and compensation. The time spent in prosthodontic practice varied among practitioners, with the majority of practice time spent accomplishing standard prosthodontic procedures (65.59%) versus maxillofacial (25.53%) or surgical procedures (9.67%). Of 12 clinical maxillofacial procedures inquired about, the most prevalent were obturators, dental oncology, and mandibular resections. This study reveals that personal satisfaction, mentorship, and prosthodontic residency exposure were the reasons most prosthodontists pursued an additional year of maxillofacial prosthetic fellowship. Most were very satisfied with their training and chosen career path and would recommend an additional year of training. The majority of maxillofacial prosthodontists provided maxillofacial prosthetic treatment for approximately one fourth of their practice time. The most common procedures performed were obturators, dental oncology, and mandibular resections. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prosthetic Mesh Repair for Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihad Tatar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incarcerated inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered urgent surgical condition, and tension-free repair is a well-established method for the treatment of noncomplicated cases. However, due to the risk of prosthetic material-related infections, the use of mesh in the repair of strangulated or incarcerated hernia has often been subject to debate. Recent studies have demonstrated that biomaterials represent suitable materials for performing urgent hernia repair. Certain studies recommend mesh repair only for cases where no bowel resection is required; other studies, however, recommend mesh repair for patients requiring bowel resection as well. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of different surgical techniques performed for strangulated hernia, and to evaluate the effect of mesh use on postoperative complications. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 151 patients who had been admitted to our hospital’s emergency department to undergo surgery for a diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied surgical technique. Group 1 consisted of 112 patients treated with mesh-based repair techniques, while Group 2 consisted of 39 patients treated with tissue repair techniques. Patients in Group 1 were further divided into two sub-groups: one consisting of patients undergoing bowel resection (Group 3, and the other consisting of patients not undergoing bowel resection (Group 4. Results: In Group 1, it was observed that eight (7.14% of the patients had wound infections, while two (1.78% had hematomas, four (3.57% had seromas, and one (0.89% had relapse. In Group 2, one (2.56% of the patients had a wound infection, while three (7.69% had hematomas, one (2.56% had seroma, and none had relapses. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to wound infection

  7. Beyond intuitive anthropomorphic control: recent achievements using brain computer interface technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A.; Fifer, Matthew; Rich, Matthew; Pino, Johnathan; Wester, Brock; Johannes, Matthew; Dohopolski, Chris; Helder, John; D'Angelo, Denise; Beaty, James; Bensmaia, Sliman; McLoughlin, Michael; Tenore, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) research has progressed rapidly, with BCIs shifting from animal tests to human demonstrations of controlling computer cursors and even advanced prosthetic limbs, the latter having been the goal of the Revolutionizing Prosthetics (RP) program. These achievements now include direct electrical intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the brain to provide human BCI users feedback information from the sensors of prosthetic limbs. These successes raise the question of how well people would be able to use BCIs to interact with systems that are not based directly on the body (e.g., prosthetic arms), and how well BCI users could interpret ICMS information from such devices. If paralyzed individuals could use BCIs to effectively interact with such non-anthropomorphic systems, it would offer them numerous new opportunities to control novel assistive devices. Here we explore how well a participant with tetraplegia can detect infrared (IR) sources in the environment using a prosthetic arm mounted camera that encodes IR information via ICMS. We also investigate how well a BCI user could transition from controlling a BCI based on prosthetic arm movements to controlling a flight simulator, a system with different physical dynamics than the arm. In that test, the BCI participant used environmental information encoded via ICMS to identify which of several upcoming flight routes was the best option. For both tasks, the BCI user was able to quickly learn how to interpret the ICMSprovided information to achieve the task goals.

  8. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Ocular Defect resulting from Pediatric Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janya, Suma; Gubrellay, Priyanka; Purwar, Anupam; Khanna, Shally

    2014-01-01

    Ocular defects result from tumor, congenital anomaly and external injury not only lead to serious impairment of function and esthetics but also make the patient psychologically disabled. Prosthetic rehabilitation attempts to restore these disfgurements may improve esthetic, level of function, general psychologic improvement and quality of life. This clinical report details an attempt to rehabilitate a pediatric patient who has undergone orbital enucleation resulting from retinoblastoma with the aid of custom ocular prosthesis using commercially available prefabricated eye shell. How to cite this article: Janya S, Gubrellay P, Purwar A, Khanna S. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Ocular Defect resulting from Pediatric Retinoblastoma. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014; 7(3):209-212.

  9. Prosthetic limbs on display: from maker to user

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Goggins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic devices have been used in museums to tell clinical, technical and personal stories. Here we reflect on the ways artificial limbs and their users were represented in recent museum projects at the Royal College of Surgeons of England and at National Museums Scotland. We consider how these meaningful artefacts illuminate three overlapping themes in museum scholarship and practice: the representation of disabled people and disability in museums; reflections on conflict-acquired limb loss; and the presence or otherwise of user or patient voice in interpretation. In working with and representing people who design and wear prosthetics we advocate a balance between narratives of technique and of use.

  10. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.

    1999-01-01

    The wide use of solid insulating materials combinations in combinations has introduced problems in the interfaces between components. The most common insulating materials are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), silicone rubber (SIR) and ethylene-propylene rubbers (EPR). Assemblies of these materials...

  11. Towards a Smart Semi-Active Prosthetic Leg: Preliminary Assessment and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, MI; Abouhossein, A; Dehghani-Sanij, AA; Richardson, R.; Moser, D.; Zahedi, S; Bradley, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a development of a semi-active prosthetic knee, which can work in both active and passive modes based on the energy required during the gait cycle of various activities of daily livings (ADLs). The prosthetic limb is equipped with various sensors to measure the kinematic and kinetic parameters of both prosthetic limbs. This prosthetic knee is designed to be back-drivable in passive mode to provide a potential use in energy regeneration when there negative energy across the...

  12. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  13. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for polymerase chain ...

  14. Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local governments are principally established for development at the grassroots and they must be structured in a manner that makes them viable and capable of achieving this purpose. The objective of this comment is to appraise the current local government structure under the Nigerian constitutional framework with a view ...

  15. Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic Trypanosoma vivax in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic. Trypanosoma vivax in vitro and in vivo. O. A. Idowu, A. B. Idowu, C. F. Mafiana and S. O. Sam-Wobo*. Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Accepted 13 April, 2006. Trypanosoma vivax was ...

  16. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for ...

  17. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  18. Patient-Specific Implant in Prosthetic Craniofacial Reconstruction: First Report of a Novel Technique With Far-Reaching Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Sabine Maria; Menzel, Kerstin; Motzkus, Yvonne; Adolphs, Nicolai; Hoffmeister, Bodo; Raguse, Jan-Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Application of endosseous implants in prosthetic craniofacial reconstruction represents a secure and reliable method and is a well-established surgical procedure. In areas of low bone presentation, standardized plate-like titanium implants are available. For allowing a congruent fitting to the recipient site, these contemporary implants have to be manually adapted--implicating drawbacks in terms of time consumption, technical complexity, and insufficient functional outcome. Owing to these limitations, a custom-made patient-specific implant is introduced based on Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data and designed for optimal prosthetic reconstruction. For the first time, the application of a prefabricated patient-specific implant for retaining a craniofacial prosthesis is described. In a 64-year-old man with partial nasal defect standardized plate-like implants failed because of compromised bone quality due to Osler disease. To realize an implant-retained prosthetic reconstruction, a patient-specific implant was fabricated based on computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This technique allows for considering the implant's ideal geometry as well as its correct placement of the required magnetic abutments. Furthermore, the surface of the implant can be designed for optimal hygienic conditions. The patient-specific implant was successfully inserted in a time effective operating procedure. Follow-up at 6 months showed an excellent functional and aesthetic outcome. Application of prefabricated patient-specific implants offers prospectively an ideal tool for retaining craniofacial prostheses and should be considered a viable option in standard cases, but obligatory in anatomically demanding defects.

  19. Pre-prosthetic surgical alterations in maxillectomy to enhance the prosthetic prognoses as part of rehabilitation of oral cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fattah, H; Zaghloul, A; Pedemonte, E; Escuin, T

    2012-03-01

    After maxillectomy, prosthetic restoration of the resulting defect is an essential step because it signals the beginning of patient's rehabilitation. The obturator used to restore the defect should be comfortable, restore adequate speech, deglutition, mastication, and be cosmetically acceptable, success will depend on the size and location of the defect and the quantity and integrity of the remaining structures, in addition to pre-prosthetic surgical preparation of defect site. Preoperative cooperation between the oncologist surgeon and the maxillofacial surgeon may allow obturation of a resultant defect by preservation of the premaxilla or the tuberosity on the defect side and maintaining the alveolar bone or teeth adjacent to the defect. This study evaluates the importance of pre-prosthetic surgical alterations at the time maxillectomy on the enhancement of the prosthetic prognoses as part of the rehabilitation of oral cancer patient. The study was carried out between 2003- 2008, on 66 cancer patients(41 male-25 female) age ranged from 33 to 72 years, at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, whom underwent maxillectomy surgery to remove malignant tumor as a part of cancer treatment. Patients were divided in two groups. Group A: Resection of maxilla followed by preprosthetic surgical preparation. Twenty-four cancer patients (13 male - 11 female). Group B: Resection of maxilla without any preprosthetic surgical preparation. Forty-two cancer patients (28 male-14 female). Outcome variables measured included facial contour and aesthetic results, speech understandability, ability to eat solid foods, oronasal separation, socializing outside the home, and return-to-work status. Flap success and donor site morbidity were also studied. To improve the prosthetic restoration of maxillary defect resulting maxillary resection as part treatment of maxillofacial tumor depends on the close cooperation between prosthodontist and surgeon, by combination of pre-prosthetic

  20. Interface learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2014-01-01

    "Interface learning - New goals for museum and upper secondary school collaboration" investigates and analyzes the learning that takes place when museums and upper secondary schools in Denmark work together in local partnerships to develop and carry out school-related, museum-based coursework...... for students. The research focuses on the learning that the students experience in the interface of the two learning environments: The formal learning environment of the upper secondary school and the informal learning environment of the museum. Focus is also on the learning that the teachers and museum...... professionals experience as a result of their collaboration. The dissertation demonstrates how a given partnership’s collaboration affects the students’ learning experiences when they are doing the coursework. The dissertation presents findings that museum-school partnerships can use in order to develop...

  1. Rehabilitation regimes based upon psychophysical studies of prosthetic vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. C.; Suaning, G. J.; Morley, J. W.; Lovell, N. H.

    2009-06-01

    Human trials of prototype visual prostheses have successfully elicited visual percepts (phosphenes) in the visual field of implant recipients blinded through retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. Researchers are progressing rapidly towards a device that utilizes individual phosphenes as the elementary building blocks to compose a visual scene. This form of prosthetic vision is expected, in the near term, to have low resolution, large inter-phosphene gaps, distorted spatial distribution of phosphenes, restricted field of view, an eccentrically located phosphene field and limited number of expressible luminance levels. In order to fully realize the potential of these devices, there needs to be a training and rehabilitation program which aims to assist the prosthesis recipients to understand what they are seeing, and also to adapt their viewing habits to optimize the performance of the device. Based on the literature of psychophysical studies in simulated and real prosthetic vision, this paper proposes a comprehensive, theoretical training regime for a prosthesis recipient: visual search, visual acuity, reading, face/object recognition, hand-eye coordination and navigation. The aim of these tasks is to train the recipients to conduct visual scanning, eccentric viewing and reading, discerning low-contrast visual information, and coordinating bodily actions for visual-guided tasks under prosthetic vision. These skills have been identified as playing an important role in making prosthetic vision functional for the daily activities of their recipients.

  2. Different Intraorbital Implant Situations and Ocular Prosthetic Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kumar, Pradeep; Eachempati, Prashanti; Alvi, Habib A

    2016-12-01

    Enucleation is the removal of the entire globe of the eye and a portion of the optic nerve, while evisceration involves the removal of the contents of the globe leaving the sclera, extraocular muscles, and optic nerve. Following enucleation or evisceration, intraorbital implants are routinely placed to enhance the prosthetic outcome in addition to restoring the lost orbital volume. Current practice employs intraorbital implants made of nonporous silicone, hydroxyapatite, or porous polyethylene. Intraorbital implant selection and placement, being a highly demanding procedure in terms of knowledge, skill, and expertise, may be associated with a multiplicity of technical and surgical errors. Complications are usually minimal with these implants, but they do occur. The literature reveals many articles related to intraorbital implants, their benefits, and complications; however, the literature regarding the effect of various intraorbital implant situations on the subsequent prosthetic rehabilitation is markedly scarce. Moreover, the need for interdisciplinary surgical and prosthetic interventions required for successful rehabilitation in cases of compromised implant situations has been underemphasized. Hence, this review aimed to evaluate the effect of different intraorbital implant situations on ocular rehabilitation and the required interdisciplinary surgical and prosthetic treatment approach for rehabilitation of enucleated/eviscerated sockets with compromised implant situations, to provide a critical appraisal, and to present a simplified management strategy. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. PROSTHETIC MICROVENOUS GRAFTING IN THE RAT FEMORAL VEIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERLEI, B; ROBINSON, PH; Bartels, H.

    Male Wistar rats were used to evaluate microvenous prosthetic grafting techniques and microvenous prostheses in the femoral vein. With the end-to-end technique to implant microvenous prostheses, there was extensive exposure of vessel wall collagen especially at the suture sites. Thrombus formation

  4. Prosthetic Hand For Holding Rods, Tools, And Handles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Jewell G., Jr.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Prosthetic hand with quick-grip/quick-release lever broadens range of specialized functions available to lower-arm amputee by providing improved capabilities for gripping rods, tools, handles, and like. Includes two stationary lower fingers opposed by one pivoting upper finger. Lever operates in conjunction with attached bracket.

  5. Enhanced visual feedback for slip prevention with a prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeberg, Erik D; Meek, Sanford

    2012-12-01

    Upper limb amputees have no direct sense of the grip force applied by a prosthetic hand; thus, precise control of the applied grip force is difficult for amputees. Since there is little object deformation when rigid objects are grasped, it is difficult for amputees to visually gauge the applied grip force in this situation. To determine if the applied grip force from a prosthetic hand can be visually displayed and used to more efficaciously grasp objects. Experimental controlled trial. Force feedback is used in the control algorithm for the prosthetic hand and supplied visually to the user through a bicolor LED experimentally mounted to the thumb. Several experiments are performed by able-bodied test subjects to rate the usefulness of the additional visual feedback when manipulating a clearly visible, brittle object that can break if grasped too firmly. A hybrid force-velocity sliding mode controller is used with and without additional visual force feedback supplied to the operators. Subjective evaluations and success rates from the test subjects indicate a statistically significant reduction in breaking the grasped object when using the prosthesis with the extra visual feedback. The additional visual force feedback can effectively facilitate the manipulation of brittle objects. Clinical relevance The novel approach of this research is the implementation of a noninvasive, effective and economic technique to visually indicate the grip force applied by a prosthetic hand to upper limb amputees. This technique provides a statistically significant improvement when handling brittle objects.

  6. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew R; Walter, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  7. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with a resected right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-01

    Oct 1, 2015 ... [3] In literature, a mandibular or palatal prosthesis with a guide ramp is one of the methods for reducing mandibular deviation.[1,2,6]. This report describes the implant‑supported prosthetic treatment of a patient with a palatinal guidance ramp‑positioning apparatus after mandibular resection caused by an ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prosthetic management of an 11-year-old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunbodede

    Hickey A.J., Vergo T.J. Prothetic treatments for patients with ectodermal dysplasia J. Prosthet. Dent 2001; 86(4):364-368. 13. Bergendral. B. Prothetic habilitation of a young patient with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and oligodontia: a case report of 20 years of treatment. Int J Prosthodont 2001; 14(5). 471-479. 14.

  9. Consumer satisfaction with the services of prosthetics and orthotics facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, Joline; Geertzen, Jan; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2009-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction with the services provided in a prosthetics and orthotics (PO) facility has seldom been studied. The aim of this study was to analyze consumer satisfaction regarding the services provided by 15 PO facilities in The Netherlands. Consumers (n=1,364) of these PO facilities who

  10. Laser photonics application in prosthetic dentistry for denture design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosmann, M. H.; Kiryushin, M. A.; Larkin, A. I.; Lebedenko, A. I.; Lebedenko, I. Yu.; Lopatina, N. A.; Osincev, A. V.; Shchepinov, V. P.; Shchepinova, I. V.

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate that holographic and speckle interferometry—laser photonics methods are compatible and useful for prosthetic stomatology. These methods allow to study the deformation of the mandible after insertion of mini-implants of various forms, and to give the practical medical recommendations.

  11. Development of a 3D-Printed Robotic Prosthetic Arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Martinez, M.; Garcia-Miquel, A.; Vidal Martinez, N.

    2016-07-01

    Current prostheses are not affordable to the general public. 3D printing technology may allow low-cost production of such devices, making them more readily accessible to people in need. This contribution presents the set-up and the considerations that have to be taken into account to develop a functional artificial upper limb prototype. The robotic prosthetic arm reported herein was produced entirely using 3D printing technology to demonstrate its feasibility on a limited budget. The project was developed to integrate two different functional modes: a prosthetic application and a remote application. The prosthetic application is intended to emulate existing prosthetic devices using myoelectric sensors. The remote application is conceived as a tool for prevention, by providing the general public with a device that could carry out activities that entail a risk of severe physical injury. This is achieved using a hand-tracking system that allows the robotic arm to copy the user’s movements remotely and in real time. The outcome of the validation tests has been considerably successful for both applications and the total costs are on target. (Author)

  12. Prosthetic valve endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Thue; De Backer, Ole; Thyregod, Hans G H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an advancing mode of treatment for inoperable or high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) after TAVI is a serious complication, but only limited data exist on its incidence, outcome, and procedural...

  13. Increased Mortality After Prosthetic Joint Infection in Primary THA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Varnum, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Revision for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has a major effect on patients’ health but it remains unclear if early PJI after primary THA is associated with a high mortality. Questions/Purposes: (1) Do patients with a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have increased...

  14. Specialisation and specialist education in prosthetic dentistry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owall, B.; Welfare, R.; Garefis, P.; Hedzelek, W.; Hobkirk, J.; Isidor, F.; Jerolimov, V.; Jokstad, A.; Kalk, W.; Kronstrom, M.; van der Kuij, P.; Mericske-Stern, R.; Naert, I.; Narhi, T.; Nilner, K.; Polyzois, G.; Setz, J.; User, A.; Zonnenberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reports on the results of a meeting of prosthodontists from selected European countries. The aim of the meeting was to analyse and promote specialisation and specialist education in Prosthetic Dentistry in Europe. Representatives for Europe were selected from the European

  15. Selective criteria for successful long-term prosthetic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M J; Delitto, A

    1985-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify criteria contributing to successful long-term prosthetic use in patients with an amputation secondary to vascular disease. All elderly patients with a unilateral below-knee amputation or an above-knee amputation, secondary to vascular disease, seen in our clinic between 1977 and 1982 were included in this telephone survey. Of those contacted, 37 of 38 below-knee amputees (BKAs) and 7 of 18 above-knee amputees (AKAs) still wore their prostheses at least part of every day (success). We used a two-tailed chi-square to compare the success of the BKAs with the success of the AKAs. The BKAs were successful more often (X2 = 24.81, df = 1, p less than .001). All AKAs also were characterized according to age, time from prescription, obesity, ambulatory status, strength, range of motion, sex, general compliance, and medical problems after prosthetic prescription. Of these criteria, only compliance and medical problems after prescription showed a significant difference between successful and nonsuccessful long-term AKA prosthetic users (X2 = 5.76, df = 1, p less than .05 for each criterion). As the demands of quality assurance and diagnostic related groupings increase, these results can assist the physical therapy clinician in setting realistic goals for the geriatric amputee and help predict if the patient will be a successful prosthetic user.

  16. The Design And Development Of Adjustable Prosthetic Device For A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a six bar link knee mechanism an artificial adjustable leg is produced for an amputee. The prosthetic device when fitted to an amputee provided easy movement for the left leg amputee. It is produced using readily available materials involving aluminum, steel, polyethylene, leader, glue etc. the device has a special ...

  17. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Williams

    Full Text Available The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  18. Diagnostic flowcharts in osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis and prosthetic joint infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutte, P.; Lazzeri, E.; Sconfienza, L. M.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.; Trampuz, A.; Petrosillo, N.; Signore, A.

    Infections of the bone, spine and prosthetic joints are serious and complex conditions to diagnose and to treat. Structured diagnostic workup may very well improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis, thereby improving the outcome since treatment may very well be more successful and less harmful if

  19. Prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, H; Geertzen, JHB; Hofstad, CJ; Postema, K; Van Limbeek, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Prosthetic prescription for lower limb amputees and the methodology used are primarily based on empirical knowledge. Clinical expertise plays an important role that can lead to an adequate prescription; however, a clear evidence based motivation for the choices made cannot be given. This can lead to

  20. Determining asymmetry of roll-over shapes in prosthetic walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, C.; Otten, Bert; Hof, A.L.; Postema, K.

    2011-01-01

    How does the inherent asymmetry of the locomotor system in people with lower-limb amputation affect the ankle-foot roll-over shape of prosthetic walking? In a single-case design, we evaluated the walking patterns of six people with lower-limb amputation (3 transtibial and 3 transfemoral) and three

  1. Renal Haemosiderosis in Patients with· Prosthetic Heart Valves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... Prosthetic Heart Valves. A. G. ROSE. SUMMARY. Renal haemosiderosis is the anatomical indicator of intra- vascular haemolysis. The incidence of renal haemosiderosis was studied in 66 patients with valve prostheses, 32 patients with advanced rheumatic-type valvular deformities and in 21 consecutive ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prosthetic management of an 11-year-old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunbodede

    Result: Upper removable partial denture and lower removable complete denture was fabricated and fitted satisfactory. Conclusion: The psychological and social embarrassment suffered by children with ectodermal dysplasia associated with missing teeth can be greatly improved with early prosthetic rehabilitation with ...

  3. Removal of viable bacteria and endotoxins by Electro Deionization (EDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Norimitsu; Otomo, Teruo; Watabe, Tomoichi; Ase, Tomonobu; Takemura, Takuto; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    Viable bacteria and endotoxins in water sometimes cause problems for human health. Endotoxins are major components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharides). In medical procedures, especially haemodialysis (HD) and related therapies (haemodiafiltration (HDF), haemofiltration (HF)), endotoxins in the water for haemodialysis can permeate through the haemodialysis membrane and cause microinflammation or various haemodialysis-related illnesses. To decrease such a biological risk, RO and UF membranes are generally used. Also, hot water disinfection or the chemical disinfection is regularly executed to kill bacteria which produce endotoxins. However, simple treatment methods and equipment may be able to decrease the biological risk more efficiently. In our experiments, we confirmed that viable bacteria and endotoxins were removed by Electro Deionization (EDI) technology and also clarified the desorption mechanisms.

  4. Evaluation of 3D printed anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Tyagi; Schlafly, Millicent; Reed, Kyle B

    2017-07-01

    This case study compares a transfemoral amputee's gait while using the existing Ossur Total Knee 2000 and our novel 3D printed anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee. The anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee is 3D printed out of a carbon-fiber and nylon composite that has a gear-mesh coupling with a hard-stop weight-actuated locking mechanism aided by a cross-linked four-bar spring mechanism. This design can be scaled using anatomical dimensions of a human femur and tibia to have a unique fit for each user. The transfemoral amputee who was tested is high functioning and walked on the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN) at a self-selected pace. The motion capture and force data that was collected showed that there were distinct differences in the gait dynamics. The data was used to perform the Combined Gait Asymmetry Metric (CGAM), where the scores revealed that the overall asymmetry of the gait on the Ossur Total Knee was more asymmetric than the anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee. The anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee had higher peak knee flexion that caused a large step time asymmetry. This made walking on the anatomically scalable transfemoral prosthetic knee more strenuous due to the compensatory movements in adapting to the different dynamics. This can be overcome by tuning the cross-linked spring mechanism to emulate the dynamics of the subject better. The subject stated that the knee would be good for daily use and has the potential to be adapted as a running knee.

  5. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  6. Academic Pediatric Dentistry is a Rewarding, Financially Viable Career Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L

    2017-09-15

    Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.

  7. How Can We Prevent Violence Becoming a Viable Political Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Justino

    2009-01-01

    A basic issue that conflict analysis investigates is how non-peaceful ways of living and governing become viable political strategies. Macro-level studies provide some important insights but micro-level analysis is vital to understand the mechanisms that make violence possible. This briefing outlines some preliminary findings in this respect from MICROCON, a major research programme analysing violent conflict at the micro level. It also discusses their implications for policies aimed at preve...

  8. Dutch evidence-based guidelines for amputation and prosthetics of the lower extremity : Rehabilitation process and prosthetics. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan; van der Linde, Harmen; Rosenbrand, Kitty; Conradi, Marcel; Deckers, Jos; Koning, Jan; Rietman, Hans S.; van der Schaaf, Dick; van der Ploeg, Rein; Schapendonk, Johannes; Schrier, Ernst; Duijzentkunst, Rob Smit; Spruit-van Eijk, Monica; Versteegen, Gerbrig; Voesten, Harrie

    2015-01-01

    Background: A structured, multidisciplinary approach in the rehabilitation process after amputation is needed that includes a greater focus on the involvement of both (para)medics and prosthetists. There is considerable variation in prosthetic prescription concerning the moment of initial prosthesis

  9. Graphene-Based Interfaces Do Not Alter Target Nerve Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Scaini, Denis; León, Verónica; Vázquez, Ester; Cellot, Giada; Privitera, Giulia; Lombardi, Lucia; Torrisi, Felice; Tomarchio, Flavia; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bosi, Susanna; Ferrari, Andrea C; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio

    2016-01-26

    Neural-interfaces rely on the ability of electrodes to transduce stimuli into electrical patterns delivered to the brain. In addition to sensitivity to the stimuli, stability in the operating conditions and efficient charge transfer to neurons, the electrodes should not alter the physiological properties of the target tissue. Graphene is emerging as a promising material for neuro-interfacing applications, given its outstanding physico-chemical properties. Here, we use graphene-based substrates (GBSs) to interface neuronal growth. We test our GBSs on brain cell cultures by measuring functional and synaptic integrity of the emerging neuronal networks. We show that GBSs are permissive interfaces, even when uncoated by cell adhesion layers, retaining unaltered neuronal signaling properties, thus being suitable for carbon-based neural prosthetic devices.

  10. Effects of prosthetic foot forefoot flexibility on gait of unilateral transtibial prosthesis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klodd, Elizabeth; Hansen, Andrew; Fatone, Stefania; Edwards, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Five solid-ankle experimental prosthetic feet were used in this double-blind randomized crossover study to determine the effects of forefoot flexibility on gait of 14 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. Flexibility in experimental feet was altered by changing the number of flexural hinges in their forefoot sections. When experimental prosthetic foot conditions were compared, measured prosthetic ankle dorsiflexion range of motion increased as much as 3.3° with increasing flexibility (p prosthetic ankle moments as high as 0.53 Nm/kg in late stance phase of walking as flexibility decreased (p prosthetic sides increased as much as 9% of body weight when subjects used the foot with the greatest flexibility (p = 0.001). The results of this study suggest solid-ankle prosthetic foot designs with overly flexible forefoot sections can cause a "drop-off" effect in late stance phase and during the transition of loading between prosthetic and contralateral limbs.

  11. A rapid biosensor for viable B. anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumner, Antje J; Leonard, Barbara; McElwee, John; Montagna, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    A simple membrane-strip-based biosensor assay has been combined with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction for rapid (4 h) detection of a small number (ten) of viable B. anthracis spores. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from one of the anthrax toxin genes, the protective antigen ( pag), encoded on the toxin plasmid, pXO1, and thus provides high specificity toward B. anthracis. Previously, the anthrax toxins activator ( atxA) mRNA had been used in our laboratory for the development of a biosensor for the detection of a single B. anthracis spore within 12 h. Changing the target sequence to the pag mRNA provided the ability to shorten the overall assay time significantly. The vaccine strain of B. anthracis (Sterne strain) was used in all experiments. A 500-microL sample containing as few as ten spores was mixed with 500 microL growth medium and incubated for 30 min for spore germination and mRNA production. Thus, only spores that are viable were detected. Subsequently, RNA was extracted from lysed cells, selectively amplified using NASBA, and rapidly identified by the biosensor. While the biosensor assay requires only 15 min assay time, the overall process takes 4 h for detection of ten viable B. anthracis spores, and is shortened significantly if more spores are present. The biosensor is based on an oligonucleotide sandwich-hybridization assay format. It uses a membrane flow-through system with an immobilized DNA probe that hybridizes with the target sequence. Signal amplification is provided when the target sequence hybridizes to a second DNA probe that has been coupled to liposomes encapsulating the dye sulforhodamine B. The amount of liposomes captured in the detection zone can be read visually or quantified with a hand-held reflectometer. The biosensor can detect as little as 1 fmol target mRNA (1 nmol L(-1)). Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with 11 organisms tested, among them closely

  12. Principal components analysis based control of a multi-dof underactuated prosthetic hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magenes Giovanni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functionality, controllability and cosmetics are the key issues to be addressed in order to accomplish a successful functional substitution of the human hand by means of a prosthesis. Not only the prosthesis should duplicate the human hand in shape, functionality, sensorization, perception and sense of body-belonging, but it should also be controlled as the natural one, in the most intuitive and undemanding way. At present, prosthetic hands are controlled by means of non-invasive interfaces based on electromyography (EMG. Driving a multi degrees of freedom (DoF hand for achieving hand dexterity implies to selectively modulate many different EMG signals in order to make each joint move independently, and this could require significant cognitive effort to the user. Methods A Principal Components Analysis (PCA based algorithm is used to drive a 16 DoFs underactuated prosthetic hand prototype (called CyberHand with a two dimensional control input, in order to perform the three prehensile forms mostly used in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs. Such Principal Components set has been derived directly from the artificial hand by collecting its sensory data while performing 50 different grasps, and subsequently used for control. Results Trials have shown that two independent input signals can be successfully used to control the posture of a real robotic hand and that correct grasps (in terms of involved fingers, stability and posture may be achieved. Conclusions This work demonstrates the effectiveness of a bio-inspired system successfully conjugating the advantages of an underactuated, anthropomorphic hand with a PCA-based control strategy, and opens up promising possibilities for the development of an intuitively controllable hand prosthesis.

  13. Principal components analysis based control of a multi-DoF underactuated prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrone, Giulia C; Cipriani, Christian; Secco, Emanuele L; Magenes, Giovanni; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2010-04-23

    Functionality, controllability and cosmetics are the key issues to be addressed in order to accomplish a successful functional substitution of the human hand by means of a prosthesis. Not only the prosthesis should duplicate the human hand in shape, functionality, sensorization, perception and sense of body-belonging, but it should also be controlled as the natural one, in the most intuitive and undemanding way. At present, prosthetic hands are controlled by means of non-invasive interfaces based on electromyography (EMG). Driving a multi degrees of freedom (DoF) hand for achieving hand dexterity implies to selectively modulate many different EMG signals in order to make each joint move independently, and this could require significant cognitive effort to the user. A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) based algorithm is used to drive a 16 DoFs underactuated prosthetic hand prototype (called CyberHand) with a two dimensional control input, in order to perform the three prehensile forms mostly used in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). Such Principal Components set has been derived directly from the artificial hand by collecting its sensory data while performing 50 different grasps, and subsequently used for control. Trials have shown that two independent input signals can be successfully used to control the posture of a real robotic hand and that correct grasps (in terms of involved fingers, stability and posture) may be achieved. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of a bio-inspired system successfully conjugating the advantages of an underactuated, anthropomorphic hand with a PCA-based control strategy, and opens up promising possibilities for the development of an intuitively controllable hand prosthesis.

  14. A Prosthetic Hand Body Area Controller Based on Efficient Pattern Recognition Control Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Simone; Milosevic, Bojan; Farella, Elisabetta; Gruppioni, Emanuele; Benini, Luca

    2017-04-15

    Poliarticulated prosthetic hands represent a powerful tool to restore functionality and improve quality of life for upper limb amputees. Such devices offer, on the same wearable node, sensing and actuation capabilities, which are not equally supported by natural interaction and control strategies. The control in state-of-the-art solutions is still performed mainly through complex encoding of gestures in bursts of contractions of the residual forearm muscles, resulting in a non-intuitive Human-Machine Interface (HMI). Recent research efforts explore the use of myoelectric gesture recognition for innovative interaction solutions, however there persists a considerable gap between research evaluation and implementation into successful complete systems. In this paper, we present the design of a wearable prosthetic hand controller, based on intuitive gesture recognition and a custom control strategy. The wearable node directly actuates a poliarticulated hand and wirelessly interacts with a personal gateway (i.e., a smartphone) for the training and personalization of the recognition algorithm. Through the whole system development, we address the challenge of integrating an efficient embedded gesture classifier with a control strategy tailored for an intuitive interaction between the user and the prosthesis. We demonstrate that this combined approach outperforms systems based on mere pattern recognition, since they target the accuracy of a classification algorithm rather than the control of a gesture. The system was fully implemented, tested on healthy and amputee subjects and compared against benchmark repositories. The proposed approach achieves an error rate of 1.6% in the end-to-end real time control of commonly used hand gestures, while complying with the power and performance budget of a low-cost microcontroller.

  15. 'Interfaces' 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Issue No. 4 is the first open issue of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures. It contains contributions by Henry Bainton (12th-century historiography, Lucie Doležalová (parabiblical texts and the canon, Máire Ní Mhaonaigh (Irish literary culture in Latin and Irish, Isabel Varillas Sánchez (legends of composition of canonical texts, Septuaginta, Wim Verbaal (letter collections, Bernard of Clairvaux, and Jonas Wellendorf (canons of skaldic poets in the 12th/13th century, preceded by a brief Introduction by the editors.

  16. An Investigation of Bonding Mechanisms at the Interface of a Prosthetic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    seen in the implant is due to sawing and grinding. A higher magnification of the boxed area is shown in Fig. 8b. (b) High power transmitted light...and grinding. A higher magnification of the boxed ar ea is shown in Fig. 8b. (b) High power trans- mitted light micrograph of one month bioglass...Ceravltal and calcium phosphate ceramics; packing of periodontal pockets -with Durapatite; endodontic tooth roots with calcium phosphates, tracheal

  17. Engineering the Biomaterial Interface of Prosthetic Vascular Grafts for Improving Thromboresistance and Biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Ryan Akihiro

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop novel biomaterials as therapies for treating cardiovascular disease. The first and second aims describe the creation of a new and facile approach for grafting bioactive heparin to the surface of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts using a thermally cross-linked poly(1,8 octanediol-co-citric acid) (POC) elastomer. The POC immobilized heparin (POC-Heparin) demonstrated excellent long term stability under physiological conditions for up to one month and significantly reduced platelet adhesion and maintained bioactive inhibition of whole blood clotting kinetics. POC-Heparin supported endothelial cell viability, proliferation, nitric oxide production and expression of endothelial cell specific markers von Willebrand factor and vascular endothelial-cadherin. This material was also capable of affecting vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype via increased expression of alpha-actin and decreased cell growth. The POC-Heparin coating is capable of significantly improving vascular graft thromboresistance, supporting endothelialization and inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell growth. This coating technology can be easily adapted to modify other blood contacting devices for simultaneously reducing thrombogenicity and improving endothelialization. Lastly, the third aim details the initial steps for developing materials which are capable of providing sustained release of bioactive signaling molecules such as stromal derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1) to promote recruitment of stem/progenitor cells. A copolymer based on citric acid, polyethylene glycol and N-isopropylacrylamide (CPN) was synthesized with enhanced electronegative charge and gelation properties for controlling SDF-1 protein encapsulation and delivery. Upon CPN gelation at 37°C, SDF-1 protein can be encapsulated with near 100% efficiency and deliver protein for up to 3 weeks. Using isolated blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) from human peripheral blood EPCs as a model for progenitor cell recruitment, the cells exhibited high levels of CXCR4 expression and demonstrated that released SDF-1 protein remained bioactive and was capable of promoting migration. The copolymer also exhibited excellent cell compatibility and significantly inhibited whole blood clotting. Together, these results are significant steps towards developing biocompatible materials which are capable of harnessing the regenerative properties of EPCs as well as serving as thromboresistant blood vessel replacements.

  18. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG, progesterone (P4 and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20 was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013, as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant. Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071, but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure

  19. Inkjet printing of viable human dental follicle stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau Robert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing technology has the potential to be used for seeding of viable cells for tissue engineering approaches. For this reason, a piezoelectrically actuated, drop-on-demand inkjet printing system was applied to deliver viable human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSC of sizes of about 15 μm up to 20 μm in diameter. The purpose of these investigations was to verify the stability of the printing process and to evaluate cell viability post printing. Using a Nanoplotter 2.1 (Gesim, Germany equipped with the piezoelectric printhead NanoTip HV (Gesim, Germany, a concentration of 6.6 ×106 cells ml−1 in DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS could be dispensed. The piezoelectric printhead has a nominal droplet volume of ~ 400 pl and was set to a voltage of 75 V and a pulse of 50 μs while dosing 50 000 droplets over a time of 100 seconds. The volume and trajectory of the droplet were checked by a stroboscope test right before and after the printing process. It was found that the droplet volume decreases significantly by 35% during printing process, while the trajectory of the droplets remains stable with only an insignificant number of degrees deviation from the vertical line. It is highly probable that some cell sedimentations or agglomerations affect the printing performance. The cell viability post printing was assessed by using the Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The printing process was found to have no significant influence on cell survival. In conclusion, drop-on-demand inkjet printing can be a potent tool for the seeding of viable cells.

  20. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  1. Designing prosthetic knee joints with bio-inspired bearing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingfeng; Chyr, Anthony; Sanders, Anthony P; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2014-09-01

    It has long been known that articular cartilage exhibits a surface microtexture with shallow indentations. By contrast, prosthetic joints consist of ultra-smooth bearing surfaces, the longevity of which does not reach that of natural cartilage. We show that adding a microtexture to the smooth femoral component of a prosthetic knee joint reduces friction by increasing the lubricant film thickness between the bearing surfaces of the knee. We have implemented an elastohydrodynamic lubrication model to optimize the geometry of the microtexture, while taking into account the deformation of the polyethylene tibial insert. We have manufactured several microtexture designs on a surrogate femoral component, and experimentally demonstrate that the microtexture reduces friction between the surrogate femoral component and tibial insert.

  2. Grasping Pattern Recognition and Grasping Force Estimation For Prosthetic Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bing-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human’s movement can be decoded by surface electromyography (EMG, and the prosthetic hand can be controlled freely through EMG signal. This paper proposes a grasping pattern and force synchronized decoding method for prosthetic hands. Considering pattern recognition and force estimation simultaneously, this paper analyzes whether different muscle contraction levels affect pattern recognition and whether different grasping modes have impact on force estimation, then proposes two schemes to complete EMG simultaneously decoding. Experiments compare the accuracy of the two methods. The results show that there is no much difference between two methods in force estimation, the former’s accuracy of pattern recognition is a little higher than the latter.

  3. Backstepping and sliding mode control hybridized for a prosthetic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeberg, Erik D; Meek, Sanford G

    2009-02-01

    Open loop and force controllers are compared experimentally with three robust parallel force-velocity controllers that are developed for a prosthetic hand. Robust sliding mode, backstepping, and hybrid sliding mode-backstepping (HSMBS) parallel force-velocity controllers are tested by ten able-bodied subjects. Results obtained with a myoelectrically controlled prosthesis indicate that all three robust controllers offer a statistically significant improvement over linear hand prosthesis control schemes. The robust controllers enable the human operators to more easily manipulate a delicate object. Bench top experiments combined with quantitative and qualitative evaluations from ten test subjects reveal the HSMBS controller to be the best choice to improve control of powered prosthetic hands.

  4. Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Partially Edentulous Elders – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    PICOS, ALINA MONICA; DONCA, VALER; PICOS, ANDREI

    2014-01-01

    Complex treatment involving removable articulated to fixed prostheses is indicated in extended edentulous areas, which represent clinical conditions more frequently encountered in elderly patients. A number of aspects must be considered in elderly patients before starting the therapy: physical and mental condition, self-care capacity, time and cost of treatment, predictability. In institutionalized elders, suffering of systemic diseases, the therapy of choice should be the least invasive and able to restore function at an acceptable level. Active healthy elders can be beneficiaries of complex prosthetic treatments involving many long sessions and difficult treatments. We present a case of a 74 year-old male with extended maxillary edentulous areas, in whom a complex prosthetic treatment was performed. PMID:26528025

  5. Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Partially Edentulous Elders - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picos, Alina Monica; Donca, Valer; Picos, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Complex treatment involving removable articulated to fixed prostheses is indicated in extended edentulous areas, which represent clinical conditions more frequently encountered in elderly patients. A number of aspects must be considered in elderly patients before starting the therapy: physical and mental condition, self-care capacity, time and cost of treatment, predictability. In institutionalized elders, suffering of systemic diseases, the therapy of choice should be the least invasive and able to restore function at an acceptable level. Active healthy elders can be beneficiaries of complex prosthetic treatments involving many long sessions and difficult treatments. We present a case of a 74 year-old male with extended maxillary edentulous areas, in whom a complex prosthetic treatment was performed.

  6. Mechanical Prosthetic Valves and Pregnancy: A therapeutic dilemma of anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Panduranga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the best anticoagulant therapy for a pregnant patient with a mechanical prosthetic valve is controversial and the published international guidelines contain no clear-cut consensus on the best approach. This is due to the fact that there is presently no anticoagulant which can reliably decrease thromboembolic events while avoiding damage to the fetus. Current treatments include either continuing oral warfarin or substituting warfarin for subcutaneous unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH in the first trimester (6–12 weeks or at any point throughout the pregnancy. However, LMWH, while widely-prescribed, requires close monitoring of the blood anti-factor Xa levels. Unfortunately, facilities for such monitoring are not universally available, such as within hospitals in developing countries. This review evaluates the leading international guidelines concerning anticoagulant therapy in pregnant patients with mechanical prosthetic valves as well as proposing a simplified guideline which may be more relevant to hospitals in this region.

  7. A New F-18 Prosthetic Group via an Oxime Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Patrick; Lieberman, Brian P.; Ploessl, Karl; Choi, Seok R.; Haase, Danniebelle N.; Kung, Hank F.

    2011-01-01

    A novel fluorine-18 prosthetic ligand, 5-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-2-(2-(2-(2- fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)pyridine [18F]2, has been synthesized. The prosthetic ligand is formed in high radiochemical yield (rcy = 71 ± 2 %, n = 3) with excellent radiochemical purity (rcp = 99 ± 1 %, n = 3) in a short reaction time (10 min). [18F]2 is a small, neutral, organic complex, easily synthesized in four steps from a readily available starting material. It can be anchored onto a target molecule containing an aminooxy functional group under acidic conditions by way of an oxime bond. We report herein two examples [18F]23 and [18F]24, potential imaging agents for β-amyloid plaques, which were labeled with this prosthetic group. This approach could be used for labeling proteins and peptides containing an aminooxy group. Biodistribution in male ICR mice for both oxime labeled complexes [18F]23 and [18F]24 were compared to that of the known β-amyloid plaque indicator, [18F]-AV-45, florbetapir 1. Oximes [18F]23 and [18F]24 are larger in size and therefore should reduce the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. The brain uptake for oxime [18F]23 appeared to be reduced, but still retained some capability to cross the BBB. Oxime [18F]24 showed promising results after 2 min post injection (0.48 % dose/gram), however the uptake increased after 30 min post injection (0.92 % dose/gram) suggesting an in-vivo decomposition/metabolism of compound [18F]24. We have demonstrated a general protocol for the fluoride-18 labeling with a new prosthetic ligand [18F]2 that is tolerant towards several functional groups and is formed via chemoselective oxime coupling. PMID:21452846

  8. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith; Sloan, Brian; Stewart, Joanna; Jacobs, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients. An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists' Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed. Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists' Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes. A standardized treatment protocol for managing discharge is lacking. More frequent prosthesis removal and cleaning was associated with more severe discharge, but the direction of cause and effect has not been established. Professional repolishing regimes had limited impact on discharge experience. Further research into the socket's response to prosthetic eye wear, including the

  9. Prosthetic choices for people with leg and arm amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenberg, Robert S

    2014-02-01

    New technology and materials have advanced prosthetic designs to enable people who rely on artificial limbs to achieve feats never dreamed before. However, the latest and the greatest technology is not appropriate for everyone. The aim of this article is to present contemporary options that are available for people who rely on artificial limbs to enhance their quality of life for mobility and independence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser Science and its Applications in Prosthetic Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Gounder, Revathy; Gounder, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    The minimal invasive nature of lasers, with quick tissue response and healing has made them a very attractive technology in various fields of dentistry which serves as a tool to create a better result than ever before. The rapid development of lasers and their wavelengths with variety of applications on soft and hard tissues may continue to have major impact on the scope and practice in prosthetic dentistry. The purpose of this article is to make every clinician familiar with the fundamentals...

  11. Open aortic stent grafting and prosthetic bypass in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Midorikawa, Hirofumi; Morishima, Shigehiro; Takano, Takashi; Nakazawa, Makoto; Kudo, Yoshimichi

    2011-10-01

    Pseudoaneurysm is a major complication of percutaneous balloon angioplasty to treat recoarctation and restenosis after an interrupted aortic arch repair. Endovascular stent grafting to manage this complication has rarely been performed in children. We used a combination of open stent grafting and a prosthetic ascending aorta-to-descending aorta bypass to treat a pseudoaneurysm and ascending aorta stenosis in a 7-year-old child. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection.

  13. Neural-Network Control Of Prosthetic And Robotic Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic neural networks proposed for use in controlling robotic and prosthetic hands and exoskeletal or glovelike electromechanical devices aiding intact but nonfunctional hands. Specific to patient, who activates grasping motion by voice command, by mechanical switch, or by myoelectric impulse. Patient retains higher-level control, while lower-level control provided by neural network analogous to that of miniature brain. During training, patient teaches miniature brain to perform specialized, anthropomorphic movements unique to himself or herself.

  14. Prosthetic rehabilitation for a patient with microstomia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslehifard E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nFabrication of dental prosthesis for patients with microstomia has long been a problem for dentists. Microstomia is defined as an abnormally small oral orifice. Prosthetic rehabilitation of microstomia patients presents difficulties at all stages, from the preliminary impressions to fabrication of prosthesis. This study described a method for making impressions for patients with limited opening of the oral cavity which the use of a full-size impression tray was not possible.

  15. Treatment of Prosthetic Valve Thrombosis: Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteker, Murat; Altun, Ibrahim; Basaran, Ozcan; Dogan, Volkan; Yildirim, Birdal; Ergun, Gokhan

    2015-12-01

    Prosthetic heart valve thrombosis (PVT) is a rare but serious complication with high morbidity and mortality. The optimal treatment of the PVT is controversial and depends on thrombus location and size, the patient's functional class, the risk of surgery or thrombolysis, and the clinician's experience. Although surgical therapy has been the traditional therapeutic approach, studies with low-dose and slow-infusion rates of thrombolytic agents have revealed excellent results. This article reviews the various treatment options in patient with PVT.

  16. EEG Mind Controlled Smart Prosthetic Arm – A Comprehensive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Beyrouthy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the field of prosthetics has seen many accomplishments especially with the integration of technological advancements. In this paper, different arm types (robotic, surgical, bionic, prosthetic and static are analyzed in terms of resistance, usage, flexibility, cost and potential. Most of these techniques have some problems; they are extremely expensive, hard to install and maintain and may require surgery. Therefore, our work introduces the initial design of an EEG mind controlled smart prosthetic arm. The arm is controlled by the brain commands, obtained from an electroencephalography (EEG headset, and equipped with a network of smart sensors and actuators that give the patient intelligent feedback about the surrounding environment and the object in contact. This network provides the arm with normal hand functionality, smart reflexes and smooth movements. Various types of sensors are used including temperature, pressure, ultrasonic proximity sensors, accelerometers, potentiometers, strain gauges and gyroscopes. The arm is completely 3D printed built from various lightweight and high strength materials that can handle high impacts and fragile elements as well. Our project requires the use of nine servomotors installed at different places in the arm. Therefore, the static and dynamic modes of servomotors are analyzed. The total cost of the project is estimated to be relatively cheap compared to other previously built arms. Many scenarios are analyzed corresponding to the actions that the prosthetic arm can perform, and an algorithm is created to match these scenarios. Experimental results show that the proposed EEG Mind-controlled Arm is a promising alternative for current solutions that require invasive and expensive surgical procedures.

  17. Rotationplasty with Vascular Reconstruction for Prosthetic Knee Joint Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Masahide Fujiki; Shimpei Miyamoto; Fumihiko Nakatani; Akira Kawai; Minoru Sakuraba

    2015-01-01

    Rotationplasty is used most often as a function-preserving salvage procedure after resection of sarcomas of the lower extremity; however, it is also used after infection of prosthetic knee joints. Conventional vascular management during rotationplasty is to preserve and coil major vessels, but recently, transection and reanastomosis of the major vessels has been widely performed. However, there has been little discussion regarding the optimal vascular management of rotationplasty after infect...

  18. Development of Standardized Material Testing Protocols for Prosthetic Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, John C; Reinhall, Per G; Hafner, Brian J; Sanders, Joan E

    2017-04-01

    A set of protocols was created to characterize prosthetic liners across six clinically relevant material properties. Properties included compressive elasticity, shear elasticity, tensile elasticity, volumetric elasticity, coefficient of friction (CoF), and thermal conductivity. Eighteen prosthetic liners representing the diverse range of commercial products were evaluated to create test procedures that maximized repeatability, minimized error, and provided clinically meaningful results. Shear and tensile elasticity test designs were augmented with finite element analysis (FEA) to optimize specimen geometries. Results showed that because of the wide range of available liner products, the compressive elasticity and tensile elasticity tests required two test maxima; samples were tested until they met either a strain-based or a stress-based maximum, whichever was reached first. The shear and tensile elasticity tests required that no cyclic conditioning be conducted because of limited endurance of the mounting adhesive with some liner materials. The coefficient of friction test was based on dynamic coefficient of friction, as it proved to be a more reliable measurement than static coefficient of friction. The volumetric elasticity test required that air be released beneath samples in the test chamber before testing. The thermal conductivity test best reflected the clinical environment when thermal grease was omitted and when liner samples were placed under pressure consistent with load bearing conditions. The developed procedures provide a standardized approach for evaluating liner products in the prosthetics industry. Test results can be used to improve clinical selection of liners for individual patients and guide development of new liner products.

  19. Iodine-125 orbital brachytherapy with a prosthetic implant in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Clare; Maree, Gert; Munro, Roger; Lecuona, Karin; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    Brachytherapy is one method of irradiating the orbit after enucleation of an eye with a malignant tumor that has a potential to recur. It consists of 6 trains of I-125 seeds placed around the periphery of the orbit, a shorter central train, and a metal disc, loaded with seeds, placed beneath the eyelids. The presence of a prosthetic orbital implant requires omission of the central train and adjustment of the activity of the seeds in the anterior orbit around the prosthesis. This is a retrospective review of the technical modifications and outcome of 12 patients treated in this manner: 6 with retinoblastoma, 5 with malignant melanoma, and 1 with an intraocular rhabdomyosarcoma. The median dose was 35.5 Gy in 73 hours for retinoblastoma and 56 Gy in 141 hours for malignant melanoma. Patients with retinoblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma also received chemotherapy. The tubes can be placed satisfactorily around the prosthesis. The increased activity in the anterior half of the tubes produced comparable dose distributions. There have been no orbital recurrences, no extrusion of the prosthesis, and cosmesis is good. Insertion of a prosthetic implant at the time of enucleation greatly enhances the subsequent cosmetic appearance. This should be encouraged unless there is frank tumor in the orbit. Orbital brachytherapy without the central train continues to give excellent local control. The short treatment time and good cosmesis are added advantages. The patient is spared the expense and inconvenience of removing and replacing the prosthetic implant.

  20. Prosthetic design directives: Low-cost hands within reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G K; Rosendo, A; Stopforth, R

    2017-07-01

    Although three million people around the world suffer from the lack of one or both upper limbs 80% of this number is located within developing countries. While prosthetic prices soar with technology 3D printing and low cost electronics present a sensible solution for those that cannot afford expensive prosthetics. The electronic and control design of a low-cost prosthetic hand, the Touch Hand II, is discussed. This paper shows that sensorless techniques can be used to reduce design complexities, costs, and provide easier access to the electronics. A closing and opening finite state machine (COFSM) was developed to handle the actuated digit joint control state and a supervisory switching control scheme, used for speed and grip strength control. Three torque and speed settings were created to be preset for specific grasps. The hand was able to replicate ten frequently used grasps and grip some common objects. Future work is necessary to enable a user to control it with myoelectric signals (MESs) and to solve operational problems related to electromagnetic interference (EMI).

  1. Overview: Mechanism and Control of a Prosthetic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Tushar; Uddanwadiker, Rashmi

    2015-09-01

    Continuous growth in industrialization and lack of awareness in safety parameters the cases of amputations are growing. The search of safer, simpler and automated prosthetic arms for managing upper limbs is expected. Continuous efforts have been made to design and develop prosthetic arms ranging from simple harness actuated to automated mechanisms with various control options. However due the cost constraints, the automated prosthetic arms are still out of the reach of needy people. Recent data have shown that there is a wide scope to develop a low cost and light weight upper limb prosthesis. This review summarizes the various designs methodologies, mechanisms and control system developed by the researchers and the advances therein. Educating the patient to develop acceptability to prosthesis and using the same for the most basic desired functions of human hand, post amputation care and to improve patient's independent life is equally important. In conclusion it can be interpreted that there is a wide scope in design in an adaptive mechanism for opening and closing of the fingers using other methods of path and position synthesis. Simple mechanisms and less parts may optimize the cost factor. Reduction in the weight of the prosthesis may be achieved using polymers used for engineering applications. Control system will remain never ending challenge for the researchers, but it is essential to maintain the simplicity from the patients perspective.

  2. Evaluation of new suspension system for limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Ali, Sadeeq; Arifin, Nooranida; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

    2014-01-10

    Good prosthetic suspension system secures the residual limb inside the prosthetic socket and enables easy donning and doffing. This study aimed to introduce, evaluate and compare a newly designed prosthetic suspension system (HOLO) with the current suspension systems (suction, pin/lock and magnetic systems). All the suspension systems were tested (tensile testing machine) in terms of the degree of the shear strength and the patient's comfort. Nine transtibial amputees participated in this study. The patients were asked to use four different suspension systems. Afterwards, each participant completed a questionnaire for each system to evaluate their comfort. Furthermore, the systems were compared in terms of the cost. The maximum tensile load that the new system could bear was 490 N (SD, 5.5) before the system failed. Pin/lock, magnetic and suction suspension systems could tolerate loads of 580 N (SD, 8.5), 350.9 (SD, 7) and 310 N (SD, 8.4), respectively. Our subjects were satisfied with the new hook and loop system, particularly in terms of easy donning and doffing. Furthermore, the new system is considerably cheaper (35 times) than the current locking systems in the market. The new suspension system could successfully retain the prosthesis on the residual limb as a good alternative for lower limb amputees. In addition, the new system addresses some problems of the existing systems and is more cost effective than its counterparts.

  3. Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Maria; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades cardiovascular disease management has been substantially improved by the increasing introduction of medical devices as prosthetic valves. The yearly rate of infective endocarditis (IE) in patient with a prosthetic valve is approximately 3 cases per 1,000 patients. The fatality rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains stable over the years, in part due to the aging of the population. The diagnostic value of echocardiography in diagnosis is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in presence of intracardiac devices and valvular prosthesis. The modified Duke criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing IE; their sensibility is 80%, but in clinical practice their diagnostic accuracy in PVE is lower, resulting inconclusively in nearly 30% of cases. In the last years, these new imaging modalities have gained an increasing attention because they make it possible to diagnose an IE earlier than the structural alterations occurring. Several studies have been conducted in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis of PVE. We performed a review of the literature to assess the available evidence on the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of PVE. PMID:25695043

  4. Prosthetic bioabsorbable mesh for hiatal hernia repair during sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has become a valuable primary bariatric operation. It has an acceptable complication profile and amount of weight loss. However, one of the most distressing complications to the patient is reflux postoperatively. There is thought to be a relationship between a hiatal hernia and postoperative reflux. There is disagreement on how to address a hiatal hernia intraoperatively, and the use of mesh is controversial. Our objectives were to examine the use of a prosthetic bioabsorbable mesh for repair of a large hiatal hernia during a sleeve gastrectomy and to examine the incidence of reflux and mesh-related complications in the near term. This is a case series of patients with hiatal hernia undergoing a primary sleeve gastrectomy. None of the patients had a previous hiatal hernia repair. Three patients with large hiatal hernias diagnosed preoperatively or intraoperatively were included. The hiatus of the diaphragm was repaired with a posterior crural closure, and a piece of prosthetic bioabsorbable mesh was placed posteriorly to reinforce the repair. There were 3 patients. The mean follow-up period was 12 months. There were no mesh-related complications. One of the patients needed to resume proton pump inhibitors to control reflux. The use of a prosthetic bioabsorbable mesh to repair a hiatal hernia simultaneously with a sleeve gastrectomy is safe. There were no mesh-related complications at 1 year.

  5. Orientation and mobility assessment in retinal prosthetic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geruschat, Duane R; Bittner, Ava K; Dagnelie, Gislin

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an orientation and mobility (O&M) assessment protocol to implement in subjects who have been implanted with an artificial silicon retina (ASR), and to use this experience to propose a research agenda for O&M with prosthetic vision. A controlled and naturalistic assessment was developed that included walking a prescribed obstacle course and travel to and from a hospital cafeteria. Subjects were tested before and 3 and 6 months after being implanted with the ASR. Outcome measures were walking speed and number of contacts with obstacles. The experiences from this study led to a proposed research agenda in O&M. Eight subjects with retinitis pigmentosa participated in this study. The vision status of the subjects ranged from mobility after implantation. Three subjects self-reported enhancements of travel after implantation, but this enhancement was not observed. This study demonstrates that mobility might not be improved with prosthetic vision. The proposed research agenda emphasizes the importance of developing individualized assessments, identifying specific items of orientation rather than mobility for measuring the effect of prosthetic vision, and to develop and evaluate instructional programs that may be needed to obtain the full benefit of the technology.

  6. Learning prosthetic vision: a virtual-reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Spencer C; Hallum, Luke E; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2005-09-01

    Acceptance of prosthetic vision will be heavily dependent on the ability of recipients to form useful information from such vision. Training strategies to accelerate learning and maximize visual comprehension would need to be designed in the light of the factors affecting human learning under prosthetic vision. Some of these potential factors were examined in a visual acuity study using the Landolt C optotype under virtual-reality simulation of prosthetic vision. Fifteen normally sighted subjects were tested for 10-20 sessions. Potential learning factors were tested at p Learning was most evident across-sessions, though 17% of sessions did express significant within-session trends. Learning was highly concentrated toward a critical range of optotype sizes, and subjects were less capable in identifying the closed optotype (a Landolt C with no gap, forming a closed annulus). Training for implant recipients should target these critical sizes and the closed optotype to extend the limit of visual comprehension. Although there was no evidence that image processing affected overall learning, subjects showed varying personal preferences.

  7. Ergonomic workplace assessment in orthotic and prosthetic workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani Nodooshan, H; Koohi Booshehri, S; Daneshmandi, H; Choobineh, A R

    2016-10-17

    In Iranian orthotic and prosthetic workshops, the majority of activities are carried out by manpower and the tasks are labor-intensive. In these workshops, ergonomic aspects of working conditions are seldom considered. This study was conducted in orthotic and prosthetic workshops with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate of MSDs among employees and assessment of ergonomics working conditions. In this cross-sectional study, all employees (n = 42; 29 males and 13 females) in 11 active orthotic and prosthetic production centers of Shiraz city participated. Data were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and observational technique by an ergonomics checklist for assessment of working conditions. The means (SD) of age and job tenure (years) in the study individuals were 37.26 (10.21) and 12.8 (9.39), respectively. The most prevalent MSD symptoms in the past 12 months were reported in the lower back (42.9%), shoulders (40.5%) and knees (40.5%). Working conditions assessment showed that the main ergonomic problems in the workshops studied originated from awkward working posture, improper workstation design, poorly designed hand tools and incorrect manual material handling. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should, therefore, focus on these areas.

  8. Iodine-125 orbital brachytherapy with a prosthetic implant in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, Clare [Groote Schuur Hospital and Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Maree, Gert; Munro, Roger [Groote Schuur Hospital and Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Physics; Lecuona, Karin [Groote Schuur Hospital and Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Sauerwein, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Strahlenklinik, NCTeam

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is one method of irradiating the orbit after enucleation of an eye with a malignant tumor that has a potential to recur. It consists of 6 trains of I-125 seeds placed around the periphery of the orbit, a shorter central train, and a metal disc, loaded with seeds, placed beneath the eyelids. The presence of a prosthetic orbital implant requires omission of the central train and adjustment of the activity of the seeds in the anterior orbit around the prosthesis. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the technical modifications and outcome of 12 patients treated in this manner: 6 with retinoblastoma, 5 with malignant melanoma, and 1 with an intraocular rhabdomyosarcoma. The median dose was 35.5 Gy in 73 hours for retinoblastoma and 56 Gy in 141 hours for malignant melanoma. Patients with retinoblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma also received chemotherapy. Results: The tubes can be placed satisfactorily around the prosthesis. The increased activity in the anterior half of the tubes produced comparable dose distributions. There have been no orbital recurrences, no extrusion of the prosthesis, and cosmesis is good. Conclusion: Insertion of a prosthetic implant at the time of enucleation greatly enhances the subsequent cosmetic appearance. This should be encouraged unless there is frank tumor in the orbit. Orbital brachytherapy without the central train continues to give excellent local control. The short treatment time and good cosmesis are added advantages. The patient is spared the expense and inconvenience of removing and replacing the prosthetic implant. (orig.)

  9. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  10. Advances in Retinal Prosthetic Research: A Systematic Review of Engineering and Clinical Characteristics of Current Prosthetic Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Derrick L; Greenberg, Paul B; Borton, David A

    2017-03-01

    To date, reviews of retinal prostheses have focused primarily on devices undergoing human trials in the Western Hemisphere and fail to capture significant advances in materials and engineering research in countries such as Japan and Korea, as well as projects in early stages of development. To address these gaps, this systematic review examines worldwide advances in retinal prosthetic research, evaluates engineering characteristics and clinical progress of contemporary device initiatives, and identifies potential directions for future research in the field of retinal prosthetics. A literature search using PubMed, Google Scholar, and IEEExplore was conducted following the PRISMA Guidelines for Systematic Review. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed papers demonstrating progress in human or animal trials and papers discussing the prosthetic engineering design. For each initiative, a description of the device, its engineering considerations, and recent clinical results were provided. Ten prosthetic initiatives met our inclusion criteria and were organized by stimulation location. Of these initiatives, four have recently completed human trials, three are undergoing multi- or single-center human trials, and three are undergoing preclinical animal testing. Only the Argus II (FDA 2013, CE 2011) has obtained FDA approval for use in the United States; the Alpha-IMS (CE 2013) has achieved the highest visual acuity using a Landolt-C test to date and is the only device presently undergoing a multicenter clinical trial. Several distinct approaches to retinal stimulation have been successful in eliciting visual precepts in animals and/or humans. However, many clinical needs are still not met and engineering challenges must be addressed before a retinal prosthesis with the capability to fully and safely restore functional vision can be realized.

  11. The response of the anophthalmic socket to prosthetic eye wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith Raymond; Sloan, Brian; Stewart, Joanna; Jacobs, Robert John

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response of the anophthalmic socket to prosthetic eye wear. One hundred and two prosthetic eye wearers were recruited for this observational study. Photographic grading scales were used to measure the severity of conjunctival inflammation and the extent and intensity of stained deposits on the prosthetic eyes. Tear volume was measured with the phenol red thread test. For mucoid discharge, visual analogue scales were used to assess frequency of occurrence, colour, volume and viscosity. For the prostheses, assessments were made of weight, shape, wearing time and frequency of cleaning. Anophthalmic sockets had more severe conjunctival inflammation than their companion eyes (p = 0.0001). The difference in inflammation between the companion eye and the anophthalmic socket was associated with discharge volume (p = 0.01) and discharge viscosity (p = 0.007) with greater difference in inflammation being associated with higher levels of discharge volume and viscosity. A greater difference in inflammation was also associated with less surface deposition (p = 0.009). No evidence of associations was found between difference in conjunctival inflammation and the other variables. Recently developed grading scales for measuring inflammation in anophthalmic sockets and deposits on prosthetic eyes were used for the first time in this study. It is recommended that in clinical practice, inflammation grades for both socket and companion eye conjunctivae be compared, when determining if prosthesis-induced inflammation is present. The finding that more discharge was associated with more conjunctival inflammation is logical but the finding that less inflammation was associated with more deposits is counter-intuitive to those familiar with the contact lens literature. The apparently benign nature of at least some deposits on the prostheses raises questions about the maintenance of prosthetic eyes. We conclude that the simple presence

  12. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Keith Pine1, Brian Sloan2, Joanna Stewart3, Robert J Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, 2Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, 3Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients.Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists’ Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed.Results: Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists’ Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes.Conclusions: A standardized treatment

  13. Developing prescribing guidelines for microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees in the South East England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedki, Imad; Fisher, Keren

    2015-06-01

    Microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees have gained increasing popularity over the last decade. Research supports their provision to address specific problems or to achieve certain rehabilitation goals. However, there are yet no agreed protocols or prescribing criteria to assist clinicians in the identification and appropriate selection of suitable users. The aim is to reach professionals' agreement on specific prescribing guidelines for microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees. The study involved multidisciplinary teams from the Inter Regional Prosthetic Audit Group, representing nine Prosthetic Rehabilitation Centres in the South East England region. We used the Delphi technique with a total of three rounds to reach professionals' agreement. The prescribing guidelines were agreed and will be reviewed and updated depending on new research evidence and technical advances. This project is highly useful for professionals in a clinic setting to aid in appropriate patient selection and to justify the cost of prescribing microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  14. Mechanical design and performance specifications of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph T. Belter, MS, BS; Segil, Jacob L.; Aaron M. Dollar, PhD, SM, BS; Richard F. Weir, PhD

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we set forth a detailed analysis of the mechanical characteristics of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands. We report on an empirical study concerning the performance of several commercially available myoelectric prosthetic hands, including the Vincent, iLimb, iLimb Pulse, Bebionic, Bebionic v2, and Michelangelo hands. We investigated the finger design and kinematics, mechanical joint coupling, and actuation methods of these commercial prosthetic hands. The empirical findings are...

  15. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  16. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  17. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  18. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with dopaminergic agonist (cabergoline. A second ultrasound scan revealed the presence of two gestational vesicles in the right uterine horn that were successfully carried to term. Unusually, while pyometra persisted in the left uterine horn, two viable puppies were delivered by caesarean section from the right uterine horn.

  19. Taming the plasma-material interface with the snowflake divertor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2015-04-24

    Experiments in several tokamaks have provided increasing support for the snowflake configuration as a viable tokamak heat exhaust concept. This white paper summarizes the snowflake properties predicted theoretically and studied experimentally, and identifies outstanding issues to be resolved in existing and future facilities before the snowflake divertor can qualify for the reactor interface.

  20. Virtual Control of Prosthetic Hand Based on Grasping Patterns and Estimated Force from Semg

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Gao-Ke; Xu Li-Sha; Zhang Yi; Deng Hua

    2016-01-01

    Myoelectric prosthetic hands aim to serve upper limb amputees. The myoelectric control of the hand grasp action is a kind of real-time or online method. Thus it is of great necessity to carry on a study of online prosthetic hand electrical control. In this paper, the strategy of simultaneous EMG decoding of grasping patterns and grasping force was realized by controlling a virtual multi-degree-freedom prosthetic hand and a real one-degree-freedom prosthetic hand simultaneously. The former rea...

  1. A prosthetic knee using magnetorhelogical fluid damper for above-knee amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhyuk; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-04-01

    A prosthetic knee for above-knee (AK) amputees is categorized into two types; namely a passive and an active type. The passive prosthetic knee is generally made by elastic materials such as carbon fiber reinforced composite material, titanium and etc. The passive prosthetic knee easy to walk. But, it has disadvantages such that a knee joint motion is not similar to ordinary people. On the other hand, the active prosthetic knee can control the knee joint angle effectively because of mechanical actuator and microprocessor. The actuator should generate large damping force to support the weight of human body. But, generating the large torque using small actuator is difficult. To solve this problem, a semi-active type prosthetic knee has been researched. This paper proposes a semi-active prosthetic knee using a flow mode magneto-rheological (MR) damper for AK amputees. The proposed semi-active type prosthetic knee consists of the flow mode MR damper, hinge and prosthetic knee body. In order to support weight of human body, the required energy of MR damper is smaller than actuator of active prosthetic leg. And it can control the knee joint angle by inducing the magnetic field during the stance phase.

  2. Prosthetic management 56 years after rotationplasty due to proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, N; Pieters, S

    2007-09-01

    Proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) is a rare congenital anomaly of the femur. Rotationplasty has been described as a reconstructive procedure in the management of PFFD. A 68-year-old woman with PFFD of the right leg and rotationplasty at the age of 12 years had prosthetic fitting problems after a fall. The authors describe the analysis of the prosthetic fitting problems and the considerations made in prosthetic management. Following a fall, 56 years after rotationplasty, this woman has a good prosthetic fitting and a satisfying level of functioning.

  3. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  4. Characterizing mobility from the prosthetic limb user's perspective: Use of focus groups to guide development of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Brian J; Morgan, Sara J; Abrahamson, Daniel C; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2016-10-01

    Input from target respondents in the development of patient-reported outcome measures is necessary to ensure that the instrument is meaningful. To solicit perspectives of prosthetic limb users about their mobility experiences and to inform development of the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility. Qualitative study. Four focus groups of lower limb prosthesis users were held in different regions of the United States. Focus group transcripts were coded, and themes were identified. Feedback from participants was used to develop a framework for measuring mobility with a lower limb prosthesis. Focus group participants (N = 37) described mobility as a confluence of factors that included characteristics of the individual, activity, and environment. Identified themes were defined as individual characteristics, forms of movement, and environmental situations. Prosthetic mobility was conceptualized as movement activities performed in an environmental or situational context. Respondent feedback used to guide development of Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility established a foundation for a new person-centered measure of mobility with a prosthetic limb. Perspectives of target respondents are needed to guide development of instruments intended to measure health outcomes. Focus groups of prosthetic limb users were conducted to solicit experiences related to mobility with a lower limb prosthesis. Results were used to inform development of a clinically meaningful, person-centered instrument. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  5. Bonding strength of glass-ceramic trabecular-like coatings to ceramic substrates for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Baino, Francesco; Pugno, Nicola M; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2013-04-01

    A new approach based on the concepts of quantized fracture mechanics (QFM) is presented and discussed in this paper to estimate the bonding strength of trabecular-like coatings, i.e. glass-ceramic scaffolds mimicking the architecture of cancellous bone, to ceramic substrates. The innovative application of glass-derived scaffolds as trabecular-like coatings is proposed in order to enhance the osteointegration of prosthetic ceramic devices. The scaffolds, prepared by polymeric sponge replication, are joined to alumina substrates by a dense glass-ceramic coating (interlayer) and the so-obtained 3-layer constructs are investigated from micro-structural, morphological and mechanical viewpoints. In particular, the fracture strengths of three different crack propagation modes, i.e. glass-derived scaffold fracture, interface delamination or mixed fracture, are predicted in agreement with those of experimental mechanical tests. The approach proposed in this work could have interesting applications towards an ever more rational design of bone tissue engineering biomaterials and coatings, in view of the optimization of their mechanical properties for making them actually suitable for clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  7. Neuroengineering tools/applications for bidirectional interfaces, brain computer interfaces, and neuroprosthetic implants - a review of recent progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Rothschild

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this review is to provide a holistic amalgamated overview of the most recent human in vivo techniques for implementing brain-computer interfaces (BCIs, bidirectional interfaces and neuroprosthetics. Neuroengineering is providing new methods for tackling current difficulties; however neuroprosthetics have been studied for decades. Recent progresses are permitting the design of better systems with higher accuracies, repeatability and system robustness. Bidirectional interfaces integrate recording and the relaying of information from and to the brain for the development of BCIs. The concepts of non-invasive and invasive recording of brain activity are introduced. This includes classical and innovative techniques like electroencephalography (EEG and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Then the problem of gliosis and solutions for (semi- permanent implant biocompatibility such as innovative implant coatings, materials and shapes are discussed. Implant power and the transmission of their data through implanted pulse generators (IPGs and wireless telemetry are taken into account. How sensation can be relayed back to the brain to increase integration of the neuroengineered systems with the body by methods such as micro-stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS are then addressed. The neuroprosthetic section discusses some of the various types and how they operate. Visual prosthetics are discussed and the three types, dependant on implant location, are examined. Auditory prosthetics, being cochlear or cortical, are then addressed. Replacement hand and limb prosthetics are then considered. These are followed by sections concentrating on the control of wheelchairs, computers and robotics directly from brain activity as recorded by non-invasive and invasive techniques.

  8. Neuroengineering Tools/Applications for Bidirectional Interfaces, Brain–Computer Interfaces, and Neuroprosthetic Implants – A Review of Recent Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Ryan Mark

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this review is to provide a holistic amalgamated overview of the most recent human in vivo techniques for implementing brain–computer interfaces (BCIs), bidirectional interfaces, and neuroprosthetics. Neuroengineering is providing new methods for tackling current difficulties; however neuroprosthetics have been studied for decades. Recent progresses are permitting the design of better systems with higher accuracies, repeatability, and system robustness. Bidirectional interfaces integrate recording and the relaying of information from and to the brain for the development of BCIs. The concepts of non-invasive and invasive recording of brain activity are introduced. This includes classical and innovative techniques like electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy. Then the problem of gliosis and solutions for (semi-) permanent implant biocompatibility such as innovative implant coatings, materials, and shapes are discussed. Implant power and the transmission of their data through implanted pulse generators and wireless telemetry are taken into account. How sensation can be relayed back to the brain to increase integration of the neuroengineered systems with the body by methods such as micro-stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are then addressed. The neuroprosthetic section discusses some of the various types and how they operate. Visual prosthetics are discussed and the three types, dependant on implant location, are examined. Auditory prosthetics, being cochlear or cortical, are then addressed. Replacement hand and limb prosthetics are then considered. These are followed by sections concentrating on the control of wheelchairs, computers and robotics directly from brain activity as recorded by non-invasive and invasive techniques. PMID:21060801

  9. Wireless communication links for brain-machine interface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L.

    2016-05-01

    Recent technological developments have given neuroscientists direct access to neural signals in real time, with the accompanying ability to decode the resulting information and control various prosthetic devices and gain insight into deeper aspects of cognition. These developments - along with deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease and the possible use of electro-stimulation for other maladies - leads to the conclusion that the widespread use electronic brain interface technology is a long term possibility. This talk will summarize the various technical challenges and approaches that have been developed to wirelessly communicate with the brain, including technology constraints, dc power limits, compression and data rate issues.

  10. Design of Cognitive Interfaces for Personal Informatics Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk

    to personal informatics systems, and propose an approach to design cognitive interfaces, which considers both users’ motivations, needs, and goals. In this thesis I propose a new personal informatics framework, the feedback loop, which incorporates lean agile design principles. Including hierarchical modeling...... of goals, activities, and tasks to create minimal viable products. While considering how micro-interactions based on an understanding of data, couples with user needs and the context they appear in, can contribute to creating cognitive interfaces. Designing cognitive interfaces requires a focus...

  11. Transparent biocompatible sensor patches for touch sensitive prosthetic limbs

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-12-26

    The paper presents the fabrication of transparent, flexible sensor patches developed using a casting technique with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as substrate and a nanocomposite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and PDMS as interdigital electrodes. The electrodes act as strain sensitive capacitor. The prototypes were used as touch sensitive sensors attached to the limbs. Experiments results show the sensitivity of the patches towards tactile sensing. The results are very promising and can play a key role in the development of a cost efficient sensing system attached to prosthetic limbs.

  12. New optimum humanoid hand design for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mogeeb A; Taher, Mona F; Metwalli, Sayed M

    2012-04-30

    To address the need for a commercially feasible prosthetic hand, the current work presents the design of a new humanoid hand actuated using shape memory alloy (SMA) artificial muscle wires. The hand has 3 compliant fingers and a thumb attached to the palm. The palm structure is a novel design, which is based on the natural arches of the human hand to provide better grasping capabilities. A compact actuator module is proposed to house and cool the SMA wires. Design parameters of the hand were selected to maximize the work density. The hand is lightweight, low cost, and operates silently. It has functional opening and closing speeds and fingertip force.

  13. Wrist-arthrography for the determination of the prosthetic bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuttge, R.; Kueffer, G.; Hahn, D.; Bauer, J.; Wilhelm, K.

    1988-03-01

    Arthrography was performed during the last 12 months in 14 patients who had 2 months to 10 years after implantation of a silicone-elastomere- or fascia-lata-prosthesis recurrent complaints in their operated wrists. Following an extensive radiological native examination either midcarpal or radiocarpal arthrography was performed in dependence of the site of carpal-bone-substitute. Inflammatory changes of the prosthetic bed, missing penetration of contrast medium into the periprosthetic space and other less common additional findings showed the advantages of the relatively handsome procedure.

  14. Development and marketing of a prosthetic urinary control valve system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, J. B., Jr.; Rabinowitz, R.; Rogers, D. W.; Harrison, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    An implantable prosthetic for the control of urinary incontinence was developed and marketed. Three phases are presented: bench development studies, animal trials, and human clinical trials. This work was performed under the direction of a Research Team at Rochester General Hospital (RGH). Bench trials were completed on prototype hardware and provided early verification of the device's ability to withstand repeated cyclic testing. Configurational variants were evaluated and a preferred design concept was established. Silicone rubber (medical grade) was selected as the preferred material for the prosthesis.

  15. Cinema and Prosthetic Memory: The Case of the Korean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keene

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the explanatory possibilities of the concept of prosthetic memory, with cinema as the enabler of popular understanding, when applied to the Korean War. The essay examines why it was that the conflict in Korea for many decades occupied a memory void and whether the explanations that have been offered for other similar “forgotten “wars are useful in relation to Korea. The analysis sugggests that cinema may be important in the formation of popular understanding but that there are serious analytical drawbacks in assuming that cinema can provide a window into popular mentalities.

  16. Laser Science and its Applications in Prosthetic Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Revathy; Gounder, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    The minimal invasive nature of lasers, with quick tissue response and healing has made them a very attractive technology in various fields of dentistry which serves as a tool to create a better result than ever before. The rapid development of lasers and their wavelengths with variety of applications on soft and hard tissues may continue to have major impact on the scope and practice in prosthetic dentistry. The purpose of this article is to make every clinician familiar with the fundamentals of lasers and different laser systems to incorporate into their clinical practices. PMID:28491254

  17. The Role of Virtual Articulator in Prosthetic and Restorative Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljanakh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a computer based technology linked with the future of dentistry and dental practice. The virtual articulator is one such application in prosthetic and restorative dentistry based on virtual reality that will significantly reduce the limitations of the mechanical articulator, and by simulation of real patient data, allow analyses with regard to static and dynamic occlusion as well as to jaw relation. It is the purpose of this article to present the concepts and strategies for a future replacement of the mechanical articulator by a virtual one. Also, a brief note on virtual reality haptic system has been highlighted along with newly developed touch enabled virtual articulator. PMID:25177664

  18. A high performing brain-machine interface driven by low-frequency local field potentials alone and together with spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavisky, Sergey D.; Kao, Jonathan C.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) seek to enable people with movement disabilities to directly control prosthetic systems with their neural activity. Current high performance BMIs are driven by action potentials (spikes), but access to this signal often diminishes as sensors degrade over time. Decoding local field potentials (LFPs) as an alternative or complementary BMI control signal may improve performance when there is a paucity of spike signals. To date only a small handful of LFP decoding methods have been tested online; there remains a need to test different LFP decoding approaches and improve LFP-driven performance. There has also not been a reported demonstration of a hybrid BMI that decodes kinematics from both LFP and spikes. Here we first evaluate a BMI driven by the local motor potential (LMP), a low-pass filtered time-domain LFP amplitude feature. We then combine decoding of both LMP and spikes to implement a hybrid BMI. Approach. Spikes and LFP were recorded from two macaques implanted with multielectrode arrays in primary and premotor cortex while they performed a reaching task. We then evaluated closed-loop BMI control using biomimetic decoders driven by LMP, spikes, or both signals together. Main results. LMP decoding enabled quick and accurate cursor control which surpassed previously reported LFP BMI performance. Hybrid decoding of both spikes and LMP improved performance when spikes signal quality was mediocre to poor. Significance. These findings show that LMP is an effective BMI control signal which requires minimal power to extract and can substitute for or augment impoverished spikes signals. Use of this signal may lengthen the useful lifespan of BMIs and is therefore an important step towards clinically viable BMIs.

  19. A high performing brain-machine interface driven by low-frequency local field potentials alone and together with spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavisky, Sergey D; Kao, Jonathan C; Nuyujukian, Paul; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2015-06-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) seek to enable people with movement disabilities to directly control prosthetic systems with their neural activity. Current high performance BMIs are driven by action potentials (spikes), but access to this signal often diminishes as sensors degrade over time. Decoding local field potentials (LFPs) as an alternative or complementary BMI control signal may improve performance when there is a paucity of spike signals. To date only a small handful of LFP decoding methods have been tested online; there remains a need to test different LFP decoding approaches and improve LFP-driven performance. There has also not been a reported demonstration of a hybrid BMI that decodes kinematics from both LFP and spikes. Here we first evaluate a BMI driven by the local motor potential (LMP), a low-pass filtered time-domain LFP amplitude feature. We then combine decoding of both LMP and spikes to implement a hybrid BMI. Spikes and LFP were recorded from two macaques implanted with multielectrode arrays in primary and premotor cortex while they performed a reaching task. We then evaluated closed-loop BMI control using biomimetic decoders driven by LMP, spikes, or both signals together. LMP decoding enabled quick and accurate cursor control which surpassed previously reported LFP BMI performance. Hybrid decoding of both spikes and LMP improved performance when spikes signal quality was mediocre to poor. These findings show that LMP is an effective BMI control signal which requires minimal power to extract and can substitute for or augment impoverished spikes signals. Use of this signal may lengthen the useful lifespan of BMIs and is therefore an important step towards clinically viable BMIs.

  20. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  1. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  2. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  3. Is Greenberg’s “Macro-Carib” viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg’s primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib ‘etymologies’ and another 64 Amerind ‘etymologies’. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg’s Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg’s morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg’s 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable.

  4. Case-based anatomy teaching: a viable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseonu, Onyedikachi; Carachi, Robert; Brindley, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a decline in the amount of time available for anatomy teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum, and new methods of anatomy teaching have been adopted for pragmatic reasons, with little evidence base to support their proposed educational benefits. This study seeks to establish the effect of a case-based teaching method on students' confidence in anatomy. Forty-three student volunteers in the clinical phase of the Glasgow medical course were given weekly anatomy teaching sessions based on clinical case presentations over 4 weeks. The students were given an anatomy test, and were asked to rate their confidence in their anatomy knowledge before and after the teaching sessions. There was a two-point increase in students' self-rated confidence, and a 10.9 per cent increase in average test score after the case-based anatomy teaching sessions. Both of these increases were statistically significant (p teaching was also highly rated by students, which may make it a viable option for the teaching of anatomy in the modern medical curriculum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  6. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  7. SMA actuators: a viable practical technology (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Hodgson, Darel E.

    2015-04-01

    Diverse products either based solely on or incorporating Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have and are being made in a wide range of industries, and IP is being captured. Why then compared to SE (superelastic) Nitinol, and especially conventional technology, do so few ideas reach production? This presentation delves deeply into this topic in reaching the final assessment that SMA actuators are indeed now a viable practical technology. The presentation begins with an introduction to and description of the fundamental basis of SMA actuator technology. Examples of multiple commercially available geometric forms of SMA actuators are given and the functionalities that they provide are described. This is followed by examples of multiple commercial products incorporating such SMA actuators. Given that there are literally millions of commercial products incorporating conventional actuator technologies, indications are given as to why there are their less than 1000 that utilize SMA. Experience based challenges to the commercial use of SMA actuators are described. Besides having to compete with existing non-SMA technology which is quite mature additional challenges that are unique to SM actuators are indicated these including a wider than expected set of technical engineering problems and challenges and that a broader scope of dynamics is required.

  8. Learning effects of repetitive administration of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure in novice prosthetic users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golea-Vasluian, Ecaterina; Bongers, Raoul M; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K

    Objective: The Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) evaluates the functionality of normal, injured or prosthetic hands. The aim was to evaluate the learning effects of SHAP tasks and the appropriateness of the time limits applied per task in novice prosthetic users. Methods: Right-handed

  9. Brain activation during manipulation of the myoelectric prosthetic hand: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruishi, Masaharu; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Ozawa, Yoshiaki; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Miyatani, Makoto; Kawahara, Junichiro

    2004-04-01

    Neuroimaging data, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings, have not been reported in users of the myoelectric or electromyographic (EMG) prosthetic hand. We developed a virtual EMG prosthetic hand system to eliminate mutual signal noise interference between fMRI imaging and the EMG prosthesis. We used fMRI to localize activation in the human brain during manipulation of the virtual EMG prosthetic hand. Fourteen right-handed normal subjects were instructed to perform repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes closed (CEG); repetitive grasping with the right hand with eyes open to obtain visual feedback of their own hand movement (OEG); and repetitive grasping with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand with the eyes open to obtain visual feedback of the prosthetic hand movement (VRG). The specific site activated during manipulation of the EMG prosthetic hand was the right ventral premotor cortex. Both paradigms with visual feedback also (OEG and VRG) demonstrated activation in the right posterior parietal cortex. The center of activation of the right posterior parietal cortex shifted laterally for visual feedback with the virtual EMG prosthetic hand compared to a subject's own hand. The results suggest that the EMG prosthetic hand might be recognized in the brain as a high-performance alternative to a real hand, being controlled through a "mirror system" in the brain.

  10. Improved grasp force sensitivity for prosthetic hands through force-derivative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeberg, Erik D; Meek, Sanford

    2008-02-01

    Sensitivity of applied grasp force is improved for a myoelectrically controlled prosthetic hand under force control through normal force-derivative feedback. Benchtop experiments and results from 12 human test subjects indicate that normal force-derivative feedback can be used in prosthetic hands to help prevent accidental damage to delicate objects.

  11. A mechanism to compensate undesired stiffness in joints of prosthetic hands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenbrug, D.H.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cosmetic gloves that cover a prosthetic hand have a parasitic positive stiffness that counteracts the flexion of a finger joint. Objectives: Reducing the required input torque to move a finger of a prosthetic hand by compensating the parasitic stiffness of the cosmetic glove. Study

  12. Pregnancy with prosthetic heart valves - 30 years' nationwide experience in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with prosthetic heart valves remains a risk factor for both mother and fetus, but unselected and unbiased outcome and complication data remain scarce. We analyzed nationwide outcome data from 1977 to 2007 for all pregnancies in women with prosthetic valves....

  13. 75 FR 65060 - Advisory Committee on Prosthetics and Special-Disabilities Programs; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... advise the Secretary of Veterans Affairs on VA's prosthetics programs designed to provide state-of-the..., blindness or visual impairments, loss of extremities or loss of function, deafness or hearing impairment... November 10, the Committee will be briefed by the Chief Consultant for Prosthetics and Sensory Aids Service...

  14. 78 FR 48941 - Advisory Committee on Prosthetics and Special-Disabilities Programs, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Veterans Affairs on VA's prosthetics programs designed to provide state-of-the- art prosthetics and the... administered by the Secretary to serve Veterans with spinal cord injuries, blindness or visual impairments... Sensory Aids Service. On August 14, the Committee will receive a briefing on Telemedicine. No time will be...

  15. 76 FR 64429 - Advisory Committee on Prosthetics and Special-Disabilities Programs; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... advise the Secretary of Veterans Affairs on VA's prosthetics programs designed to provide state-of-the..., blindness or visual impairments, loss of extremities or loss of function, deafness or hearing impairment..., Amputation System of Care; and Deputy Chief Consultant, Prosthetics and Sensory Aids Service. On November 2...

  16. Replantation versus Prosthetic Fitting in Traumatic Arm Amputations: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Iris A.; Kon, Moshe; Schuurman, Arnold H.; van Minnen, L. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic arm amputations can be treated with replantation or surgical formalization of the stump with or without subsequent prosthetic fitting. In the literature, many authors suggest the superiority of replantation. This systematic review compared available literature to analyze whether replantation is functionally and psychologically more profitable than formalization and prosthetic fitting in patients with traumatic arm amputation. Methods: Functional outcome and satisfaction ...

  17. 77 FR 14989 - Medicare Program; Revisions to the Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... defined at 42 CFR 400.202 as a hospital, a critical access hospital (CAH), a skilled nursing facility (SNF... equipment include blood glucose monitors, hospital beds, oxygen tents, and wheelchairs. Prosthetic devices... Act, the term ``prosthetic devices'' does not include parenteral and enteral nutrition nutrients...

  18. Development of regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces for motor control of neuroprosthetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Stephen W. P.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.; Irwin, Zachary T.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Cederna, Paul S.

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries suffered during amputation commonly results in debilitating neuropathic pain in the affected limb. Modern prosthetic technologies allow for intuitive, simultaneous control of multiple degrees of freedom. However, these state-of-the-art devices require separate, independent control signals for each degree of freedom, which is currently not possible. As a result, amputees reject up to 75% of myoelectric devices preferring instead to use body-powered artificial limbs which offer subtle sensory feedback. Without meaningful and intuitive sensory feedback, even the most advanced myoelectric prostheses remain insensate, burdensome, and are associated with enormous cognitive demand and mental fatigue. The ideal prosthetic device is one which is capable of providing intuitive somatosensory feedback essential for interaction with the environment. Critical to the design of such a bioprosthetic device is the development of a reliable biologic interface between human and machine. This ideal patient-prosthetic interface allows for transmission of both afferent somatosensory information and efferent motor signals for a closed-loop feedback system of neural control. Our lab has developed the Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interface (RPNI) as a biologic nerve interface designed for stable integration of a prosthetic device with transected peripheral nerves in a residual limb. The RPNI is constructed by surgically implanting the distal end of a transected peripheral nerve into an autogenous muscle graft. Animal experiments in our lab have shown recording of motor signals from RPNI's implanted into both rodents and monkeys. Here, we achieve high amplitude EMG signals with a high signal to noise (SNR) ratio.

  19. Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Bordetella holmesii, an Acinetobacter lookalike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Stijn; De Baere, Thierry; Schroeyers, Pascal; Soetens, Oriane; De Bel, Annelies; Surmont, Ignace

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of fulminant endocarditis on a prosthetic homograft aortic valve caused by Bordetella holmesii, which was successfully managed by surgical valve replacement and antibiotic treatment. B. holmesii, a strictly aerobic, small, Gram-negative coccobacillus, has been implicated as an infrequent cause of a pertussis-like syndrome and other respiratory illnesses. However, B. holmesii is also a rare cause of septicaemia and infective endocarditis, mostly in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. holmesii endocarditis on a prosthetic aortic valve. Routine laboratory testing initially misidentified the strain as Acinetobacter sp. Correct identification was achieved by 16S rRNA gene and outer-membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Interestingly, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry also produced an accurate species-level identification. Subsequent susceptibility testing and review of the literature revealed ceftazidime, cefepime, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline and colistin as possible candidates to treat infections caused by B. holmesii.

  20. Prosthetic vision: devices, patient outcomes and retinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjinicolaou, Alex E; Meffin, Hamish; Maturana, Matias I; Cloherty, Shaun L; Ibbotson, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Retinal disease and its associated retinal degeneration can lead to the loss of photoreceptors and therefore, profound blindness. While retinal degeneration destroys the photoreceptors, the neural circuits that convey information from the eye to the brain are sufficiently preserved to make it possible to restore sight using prosthetic devices. Typically, these devices consist of a digital camera and an implantable neurostimulator. The image sensor in a digital camera has the same spatiotopic arrangement as the photoreceptors of the retina. Therefore, it is possible to extract meaningful spatial information from an image and deliver it via an array of stimulating electrodes directly to the surviving retinal circuits. Here, we review the structure and function of normal and degenerate retina. The different approaches to prosthetic implant design are described in the context of human and preclinical trials. In the last section, we review studies of electrical properties of the retina and its response to electrical stimulation. These types of investigation are currently assessing a number of key challenges identified in human trials, including stimulation efficacy, spatial localisation, desensitisation to repetitive stimulation and selective activation of retinal cell populations. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  1. New prosthetic restorative features of Ankylos implant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Paul

    2004-01-01

    All oral implant systems rely on the abutment part of the implant to provide stability for the dental prosthetic. The Ankylos implant offers precisely machined, tapered-cone abutment (Morse taper) connection. This tapered abutment connection provides high resistance to bending and rotational torque during clinical function, which significantly reduces the possibilities of screw fracture or loosening. This report describes the design and mechanical construction characteristics of the Ankylos implant system that make it possible for the system to provide final restorations that are natural looking, esthetically acceptable, durable, and cost effective. Review of the clinical literature. The clinical results of singletooth crowns borne on Ankylos implants in the lateral tooth region are excellent after a minimum of 5 years in function (mean = 6.3 years) compared with the high prosthetic complication rate with other systems. Abutment loosening occurred in only 1.3% of the 233 innovative implants restored with crowns that were designed with a physiologically shaped occlusal surface. This implant system is exceptionally well suited for use in the restoration of missing natural teeth.

  2. Case Report. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Crowded Maxillary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovics Emese Rita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this case report we present the aesthetical correction of crowded anterior teeth in a patient who has refused the orthodontic treatment. We also discuss how this correction can be resolved from the point of view of dental prosthetic and what measurements can be helpful in order to collect the data used to restore a satisfying smile on the patient’s face using dental ceramic restoration. Case presentation: A 32-year-old patient complained about his crowded incisors. We examined the incisal curvature, the proportion between the height and the width of the teeth, and the relation between the widths of the teeth and the golden proportion. The results of the measurements were compared to the characteristic values of the ideal denture. After the examination of the dental plaster cast, calculating the difference between the existing space and the necessary space, we were able to calculate the lack of space, which caused the crowded teeth. Conclusion: Along the prosthetic planning, these measurements may serve as a guideline to the dentist as an objective basis for the formation of an aesthetic denture and smile.

  3. Consumer satisfaction with the services of prosthetics and orthotics facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Joline; Geertzen, Jan; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2009-03-01

    Consumer satisfaction with the services provided in a prosthetics and orthotics (P&O) facility has seldom been studied. The aim of this study was to analyze consumer satisfaction regarding the services provided by 15 P&O facilities in The Netherlands. Consumers (n = 1,364) of these P&O facilities who were fitted with a prosthesis, orthopaedic shoes, an orthosis, or another device, were asked to rate the overall services provided and whether they were satisfied with the device provided and its delivery time. Additionally, they filled in a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire (see Appendix). Consumers gave the service provided by P&O facilities a mean overall rating of 8.1. The highest ratings were given by consumers fitted with a prosthesis (mean overall rating of services: 8.4). In total, 78% of the consumers were satisfied with the device provided and 93% with the delivery time. The results of our study showed that, on the SERVQUAL, 50% of the statements fulfilled the criteria for a satisfactory quality of the services. The overall consumer rating of the service provided by P&O facilities is high and depends on the device provided. The outcomes on the SERVQUAL were moderate. In future, it is important to study consumer satisfaction more extensively in order to improve the quality of P&O services in daily practice. Additionally, specific questionnaires need to be developed to measure all aspects of prosthetic and orthotic care, with the aim to improve the services.

  4. Prosthetic replacement of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava for leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Giacobbi, Daniela; Papaspyropoulos, Vassilios; Ceccanei, Gianluca

    2006-09-01

    Resection of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava associated with prosthetic graft replacement for caval leiomyosarcoma is an acceptable procedure to obtain prolonged and good-quality survival. A consecutive sample clinical study with a mean follow-up of 40 months. The surgical department of an academic tertiary center and an affiliated secondary care center. Eleven patients, with a mean age of 51 years, who have primary leiomyosarcoma of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava. All of the patients underwent radical resection of the tumor en bloc with the affected segment of the vena cava. Reconstruction consisted of 10 cavocaval polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and 1 cavobiliac graft. An associated right nephrectomy was performed in 2 cases. The left renal vein was reimplanted in the graft in 3 cases. Cumulative disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and graft patency rates expressed by standard life-table analysis. No patients died in the postoperative period. The cumulative (SE) disease-specific survival rate was 53% (21%) at 5 years. The cumulative (SE) disease-free survival rate was 44% (19%) at 5 years. The cumulative (SE) graft patency rate was 67% (22%) at 5 years. Radical resection followed by prosthetic graft reconstruction is a valuable method for treating primary leiomyosarcoma of the infrahepatic inferior vena cava.

  5. Outdoor weathering of facial prosthetic elastomers differing in Durometer hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Emily S; Beatty, Mark W

    2015-03-01

    Facial prosthetic elastomers with wide ranges in hardness are available, yet material weatherability is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess color, Durometer hardness, and tensile property changes after 3000 hours of outdoor weathering. Unpigmented elastomers with Durometer hardness 5, 30, 50, 70, and A-2186 were polymerized into dumbbells (ASTM D412) and disks, 34 mm in diameter by 6 mm thick. Materials were subjected to outdoor or time passage environments for 3000 hours. CIELab color (n=5), Durometer hardness (n=5), and tensile mechanical properties (n=10) were measured at 0 and 3000 hours, and group differences were assessed by material and weathering condition (ANOVA/Tukey, α=.05). Except for A-2186, the mean Durometer changes for all materials were 1 unit or less, with no significant differences observed between time passage and weathered groups (P≥.05). Three-thousand-hour tensile mechanical property results demonstrated nonsignificant differences between time passage and weathered materials but significantly changed properties from immediately tested materials (Phardness 5 and 30 and A-2186. With a few exceptions, outdoor weathering produced relatively small changes in color, Durometer hardness, or tensile properties compared with time passage. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Streptococcus equisimilis associated septic arthritis/prosthetic joint infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Ozkören Calik, Sebnem; Pullukçu, Hüsnü; Işikgöz Taşbakan, Meltem; Arda, Bilgin; Tünger, Alper; Ulusoy, Sercan

    2008-07-01

    Group C streptococci are flora members of skin, nasopharynx, gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. They are rare causes of human pharyngitis, arthritis, pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. In this report, a 71-years old male patient with Streptococcus equisimilis arthritis/prosthetic joint infection has been presented. The patient was admitted to the emergency service with the complaints of erythema, swelling and tenderness on right knee which had total knee prosthesis. Examination of synovial fluid punction sample yielded abundant amount of leukocytes (> 1000 cells/mm3). Empirical ampicillin-sulbactam (1 g q6h, parenterally) therapy was initiated. Bacteria which have been cultivated from synovial fluid specimen were identified as S. equisimilis. The isolate was found to be susceptible to penicilin, erythromycin and teicoplanin, and resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Although clinical presentation improved during the first ten days, symptoms recurred after the 10th day and the therapy was switched to teicoplanin. The recurrence was thought to be the result of antibiotic tolerence. The patient was treated successfully with teicoplanin, and no relapse or reinfection was observed during one year of follow-up. To our knowledge this is the first case of S. equisimilis arthritis reported from Turkey and first case of S. equisimilis associated prosthetic joint infection.

  7. Psychophysics of prosthetic vision: I. Visual scanning and visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S C; Hallum, L E; Suaning, G J; Lovell, N H

    2006-01-01

    Recipients of vision prosthesis prototypes have reported electrically elicited visual perceptions as discrete dots of light (phosphenes). Phosphenes construct the scenery in discontinuous small isolated patches, resulting in visual information deficit to a large portion of the visual field. Visual scanning therefore plays an important role in the utility of prosthetic vision. In a psychophysical study, normally sighted subjects undertook a visual acuity task in a simulation of prosthetic vision with scanning facilitated by head movements. Subjects who adopted the circular scanning technique (4/12) correctly identified >60% of the test items, compared to subjects with no particular scanning patterns (3/12) with <50%. Increased head movement velocity was correlated to increased performance; at optimal scanning velocities, we estimated a 50% increase in identification rate or a two-fold improvement in visual acuity threshold compared to otherwise complete lack of scanning movement. Improved performance likely resulted from positive interactions with the temporal processes of the human visual system, which may as much as double the spatial information of that originally afforded by the phosphene lattice.

  8. A surface EMG test tool to measure proportional prosthetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturma, Agnes; Roche, Aidan D; Göbel, Peter; Herceg, Malvina; Ge, Nan; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Aszmann, Oskar

    2015-06-01

    In upper limb amputees, prosthetic control training is recommended before and after fitting. During rehabilitation, the focus is on selective proportional control signals. For functional monitoring, many different tests are available. None can be used in the early phase of training. However, an early assessment is needed to judge if a patient has the potential to control a certain prosthetic set-up. This early analysis will determine if further training is needed or if other strategies would be more appropriate. Presented here is a tool that is capable of predicting achievable function in voluntary EMG control. This tool is applicable to individual muscle groups to support preparation of training and fitting. In four of five patients, the sEMG test tool accurately predicted the suitability for further myoelectric training based on SHAP outcome measures. (P1: "Poor" function in the sEMG test tool corresponded to 54/100 in the SHAP test; P2: Good: 85; P3: Good: 81; P4: Average: 78). One patient scored well during sEMG testing, but was unmotivated during SHAP testing. (Good: 50) Therefore, the surface EMG test tool may predict achievable control skills to a high extent, validated with the SHAP, but requires further clinical testing to validate this technique.

  9. Uptake of radiolabeled leukocytes in prosthetic graft infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serota, A.I.; Williams, R.A.; Rose, J.G.; Wilson, S.E.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of radionuclide labeled leukocytes in the demonstration of infection within vascular prostheses was examined. The infrarenal aorta was replaced with a 3 cm Dacron graft in 12 dogs. On the third postoperative day, six of the animals received an intravenous injection of 10(8) Staphylococcus aureus. Labeled leukocyte scans were performed at postoperative days one and three, and then weekly for 8 weeks with indium-111 and technetium-99 labeled autologous leukocytes. When scans showed focal uptake of isotope in the area of prosthetic material, the grafts were aseptically excised and cultured on mannitol-salt agar. Both control and infected animals had retroperitoneal isotope activity in the immediate postoperative period that disappeared by the end of the first week. By the eighth postoperative week, all of the animals that received the bacteremic challenge had both radionuclide concentration in the region of the vascular prosthesis and S. aureus cultured subsequently from the perigraft tissues. None of the control animals had either radionuclide or bacteriologic evidence of infection at the eighth postoperative week. The radiolabeled leukocyte scan is a highly sensitive and specific technique, clinically applicable for the diagnosis of vascular prosthetic infections.

  10. Occlusal concepts application in resolving implant prosthetic failure: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamcoski, Vanessa Helena; Faot, Fernanda; de Mattias Sartori, Ivete Aparecida; Vieira, Rogéria Acedo; Tiossi, Rodrigo

    2014-04-01

    The prosthetic management of a poor implant treatment is presented in this case report. The recommended occlusion concepts for implant-supported prostheses were applied for the resolution of the case. The rehabilitation of the posterior segments provided a mutually protected occlusion with adequate distribution of the axial and lateral bite forces with stable posterior occlusion. The clinical exam indicated the need for modification in the vertical dimension of occlusion. Sufficient interocclusal rest space was present to test the alteration in the vertical dimension. The aim was to achieve an occlusion scheme that followed four specific criteria: (1) centric contacts and centric relation of the jaw-to-jaw position; (2) anterior guidance only; (3) shallow anterior angle of tooth contact; and (4) vertical dimension of occlusion with acceptable tooth form and guidance. The success of an oral rehabilitation relies in following the aforementioned criteria, appropriate interaction between the dental laboratory technician and the clinician, careful elaboration of the provisional rehabilitation with all the desired details to be reproduced in the final prosthetic restoration and sufficient follow-up time of the provisional prostheses before placing the final restoration.

  11. A powered prosthetic ankle joint for walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, Martin; Holgate, Matthew; Holgate, Robert; Boehler, Alexander; Ward, Jeffrey; Hollander, Kevin; Sugar, Thomas; Seyfarth, André

    2016-12-19

    Current prosthetic ankle joints are designed either for walking or for running. In order to mimic the capabilities of an able-bodied, a powered prosthetic ankle for walking and running was designed. A powered system has the potential to reduce the limitations in range of motion and positive work output of passive walking and running feet. To perform the experiments a controller capable of transitions between standing, walking, and running with speed adaptations was developed. In the first case study the system was mounted on an ankle bypass in parallel with the foot of a non-amputee subject. By this method the functionality of hardware and controller was proven. The Walk-Run ankle was capable of mimicking desired torque and angle trajectories in walking and running up to 2.6 m/s. At 4 m/s running, ankle angle could be matched while ankle torque could not. Limited ankle output power resulting from a suboptimal spring stiffness value was identified as a main reason. Further studies have to show to what extent the findings can be transferred to amputees.

  12. Axial and torsional stiffness of pediatric prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M

    2017-02-01

    Prosthetic stiffness likely affects the walking biomechanics of toddlers and children with leg amputations, but the actual stiffness values for prostheses are not reported by manufacturers or in standardized testing procedures. We measured axial (k A ) and torsional (k T ) stiffness from four brands of pediatric prosthetic feet (Trulife, Kingsley Mfg. Co., TRS Incorporated, and College Park Industries) over a range of foot sizes. We applied forces and torques onto prostheses with a materials testing machine that replicated those exhibited in vivo by using the kinetics measured from four non-amputee toddlers (2-3years) during walking. Across brands, k A averaged 35.2kN/m during heel loading, was more stiff during midfoot loading (121.8kN/m, Pfeet. Plantarflexion torsional stiffness (k T1 ), was not statistically different across brands. For every 1cm increase in foot size, k T1 increased 0.16kN·m/rad (Pfeet should be publically reported to health practitioners to ensure evidence-based decisions and meet the specific needs of each patient with a leg amputation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical design and performance specifications of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Joseph T; Segil, Jacob L; Dollar, Aaron M; Weir, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we set forth a detailed analysis of the mechanical characteristics of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands. We report on an empirical study concerning the performance of several commercially available myoelectric prosthetic hands, including the Vincent, iLimb, iLimb Pulse, Bebionic, Bebionic v2, and Michelangelo hands. We investigated the finger design and kinematics, mechanical joint coupling, and actuation methods of these commercial prosthetic hands. The empirical findings are supplemented with a compilation of published data on both commercial and prototype research prosthetic hands. We discuss numerous mechanical design parameters by referencing examples in the literature. Crucial design trade-offs are highlighted, including number of actuators and hand complexity, hand weight, and grasp force. Finally, we offer a set of rules of thumb regarding the mechanical design of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands.

  14. Distal anastomotic vein adjunct usage in infrainguinal prosthetic bypasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, James T; Goodney, Philip P; Schanzer, Andres; Shaykevich, Shimon; Belkin, Michael; Menard, Matthew T

    2013-04-01

    Single-segment saphenous vein remains the optimal conduit for infrainguinal revascularization. In its absence, prosthetic conduit may be used. Existing data regarding the significance of anastomotic distal vein adjunct (DVA) usage with prosthetic grafts are based on small series. This is a retrospective cohort analysis derived from the regional Vascular Study Group of New England as well as the Brigham and Women's hospital database. A total of 1018 infrainguinal prosthetic bypass grafts were captured in the dataset from 73 surgeons at 15 participating institutions. Propensity scoring and 3:1 matching was performed to create similar exposure groups for analysis. Outcome measures of interest included: primary patency, freedom from major adverse limb events (MALEs), and amputation free survival at 1 year as a function of vein patch utilization. Time to event data were compared with the log-rank test; multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the adjusted association between vein cuff usage and the primary end points. DVA was defined as a vein patch, cuff, or boot in any configuration. Of the 1018 bypass operations, 94 (9.2%) had a DVA whereas 924 (90.8%) did not (no DVA). After propensity score matching, 88 DVAs (25%) and 264 no DVAs (75%) were analyzed. On univariate analysis of the matched cohort, the DVA and no DVA groups were similar in terms of mean age (70.0 vs 69.0; P = .55), male sex (58.0% vs 58.3%; P > .99), and preoperative characteristics such as living at home (93.2% vs 94.3%; P = .79) and independent ambulatory status (72.7% vs 75.7%; P = .64). The DVA and no DVA groups had similar rates of major comorbidities such as hypertension chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and dialysis dependence (P > .05 for all). Likewise, they had similar rates of distal origin grafts (13.6% vs 12.5%; P = .85), critical limb ischemia indications (P = .53), and prior arterial bypass (58% vs 47%; P = .08

  15. Prosthetic valves in adult patients with congenital heart disease : Rationale and design of the Dutch PROSTAVA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freling, H. G.; van Slooten, Y. J.; van Melle, J. P.; Mulder, B. J. M.; van Dijk, A. P. J.; Hillege, H. L.; Post, M. C.; Sieswerda, G. Tj; Jongbloed, M. R. M.; Willems, T. P.; Pieper, P. G.

    2012-01-01

    Data on long-term complications in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) and a prosthetic valve are scarce. Moreover, the influence of prosthetic valves on quality of life (QoL) and functional outcome in ACHD patients with prosthetic valves has not been studied. The primary objective

  16. Interface mobility from interface random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautt, Zachary; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Karma, Alain

    2007-03-01

    Computational studies aimed at extracting interface mobilities require driving forces orders of magnitude higher than those occurring experimentally. We present a computational methodology that extracts the absolute interface mobility in the zero driving force limit by monitoring the one-dimensional random walk of the mean interface position along the interface normal. The method exploits a fluctuation-dissipation relation similar to the Stokes-Einstein relation, which relates the diffusion coefficient of this Brownian-like random walk to the interface mobility. Atomic-scale simulations of grain boundaries in model crystalline systems validate the theoretical predictions, and also highlight the profound effect of impurities. The generality of this technique combined with its inherent spatial-temporal efficiency should allow computational studies to effectively complement experiments in understanding interface kinetics in diverse material systems.

  17. Interface solutions for interface side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffregen Thomas A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-computer interfaces often give rise to a variety of side effects, including eyestrain, headache, fatigue, and motion sickness (aka cybersickness, simulator sickness. We might hope that improvements in interface design would tend to reduce these side effects. Unfortunately, history reveals just the opposite: The incidence and severity of motion sickness (for example is positively related to the progressive sophistication of display technology and systems. In this presentation, I enquire about the future of interface technologies in relation to side effects. I review the types of side effects that occur and what is known about the causes of interface side effects. I suggest new ways of understanding relations between interface technologies and side effects, and new ways to approach the problem of interface side effects.

  18. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Suescún

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La acupuntura es una antigua técnica terapéutica desarrollada en China, que ha evidenciado ser efectiva en síntomas como las náuseas, vómito y dolor dentario. A pesar del sustento fisiológico que posibilitaría un uso efectivo en otras patologías, incluyendo el campo de las adicciones, los estudios son contradictorios, posiblemente por la diferencias de visión entre la medicina oriental y la occidental. El consumo de psicoactivos es un problema de salud pública en Colombia y en el mundo que genera grandes costos tangibles e intangibles, los cuales, en países desarrollados, puede llegar hasta el 1,6 % del PIB. En contraste, el beneficio económico del tratamiento de las adicciones, según las Naciones Unidas Contra la Droga y el Delito (UNODC, está entre 1:3 a 1:13; por lo tanto, cualquier esfuerzo que se realice en favor de los consumidores es una ganancia. Con base en estos datos, los organismos internacionales han generado políticas que ayudan a aminorar estos efectos. Colombia, como integrante de estos organismos, ha realizado varios compromisos para llevar a cabo dichas metas. Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  19. Interface pressure in transtibial socket during ascent and descent on stairs and its effect on patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sadeeq; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Abd Razak, Nasrul Anwar Bin; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar Bin

    2013-01-01

    Transtibial amputees encounter stairs and steps during their daily activities. The excessive pressure between residual limb/socket may reduce the walking capability of transtibial prosthetic users during ascent and descent on stairs. The purposes of the research were to evaluate the interface pressure between Dermo (shuttle lock) and Seal-In X5 (prosthetic valve) interface systems during stair ascent and descent, and to determine their satisfaction effects on users. Ten amputees with unilateral transtibial amputation participated in the study. Interface pressure was recorded with F-socket transducer (9811E) during stair ascent and descent at self-selected speed. Each participant filled in a questionnaire about satisfaction and problems encountered with the use of the two interface systems. The resultant mean peak pressure (kPa) was significantly lower for the Dermo interface system compared to that of the Seal-In X5 interface system at the anterior, posterior and medial regions during stair ascent (63.14 vs. 80.14, 63.14 vs. 90.44, 49.21 vs. 66.04, respectively) and descent (67.11 vs. 80.41, 64.12 vs. 88.24, 47.33 vs. 65.11, respectively). Significant statistical difference existed between the two interface systems in terms of satisfaction and problems encountered (Pstair negotiation. The qualitative survey also showed that the prosthesis users experienced fewer problems and increased satisfaction with the Dermo interface system. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prosthetic joint infections: radionuclide state-of-the-art imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [AZ Alma Campus Sijsele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sijsele-Damme (Belgium); Wyngaert, Hans van den [AZ Alma Campus Sijsele, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sijsele-Damme (Belgium); Love, Charito [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Welling, M.M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Scientist Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Section of Nuclear Medicine C2-203, Leiden (Netherlands); Gemmel, Paul [Ghent University, The Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Hempstead, NY (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Prosthetic joint replacement surgery is performed with increasing frequency. Overall the incidence of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and subsequently prosthesis revision failure is estimated to be between 1 and 3%. Differentiating infection from aseptic mechanical loosening, which is the most common cause of prosthetic failure, is especially important because of different types of therapeutic management. Despite a thorough patient history, physical examination, multiple diagnostic tests and complex algorithms, differentiating PJI from aseptic loosening remains challenging. Among imaging modalities, radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are limited by hardware-induced artefacts. Radionuclide imaging reflects functional rather than anatomical changes and is not hampered by the presence of a metallic joint prosthesis. As a result scintigraphy is currently the modality of choice in the investigation of suspected PJI. Unfortunately, there is no true consensus about the gold standard technique since there are several drawbacks and limitations inherent to each modality. Bone scintigraphy (BS) is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot differentiate between infection and aseptic loosening. Combined bone/gallium scintigraphy (BS/GS) offers modest improvement over BS alone for diagnosing PJI. However, due to a number of drawbacks, BS/GS has generally been superseded by other techniques but it still may have a role in neutropenic patients. Radiolabelled leucocyte scintigraphy remains the gold standard technique for diagnosing neutrophil-mediated processes. It seems to be that combined in vitro labelled leucocyte/bone marrow scintigraphy (LS/BMS), with an accuracy of about 90%, is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing PJI. There are, however, significant limitations using in vitro labelled leucocytes and considerable effort

  1. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  2. Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R

    2003-11-10

    than spin-based techniques like PB on a Linux platform. Third, the proposed HYBRID scheduling provides the best performance-energy behavior and can be implemented on any cluster with little effort. All these results suggest that blocking-based coscheduling techniques are viable candidates to be used instead of batching scheme for significant performance-energy benefits.

  3. Forward Prediction in the Posterior Parietal Cortex and Dynamic Brain-Machine Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, He

    2016-01-01

    While remarkable progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) over the past two decades, it is still difficult to utilize neural signals to drive artificial actuators to produce predictive movements in response to dynamic stimuli. In contrast to naturalistic limb movements largely based on forward planning, brain-controlled neuroprosthetics mainly rely on feedback without prior trajectory formation. As an important sensorimotor interface integrating multisensory inputs and efference copy, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might play a proactive role in predictive motor control. Here it is proposed that predictive neural activity in PPC could be decoded to provide prosthetic control signals for guiding BMI systems in dynamic environments.

  4. Impact testing of the residual limb: System response to changes in prosthetic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Erin; Stine, Rebecca; Gard, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Currently, it is unknown whether changing prosthetic limb stiffness affects the total limb stiffness and influences the shock absorption of an individual with transtibial amputation. The hypotheses tested within this study are that a decrease in longitudinal prosthetic stiffness will produce (1) a reduced total limb stiffness, and (2) reduced magnitude of peak impact forces and increased time delay to peak force. Fourteen subjects with a transtibial amputation participated in this study. Prosthetic stiffness was modified by means of a shock-absorbing pylon that provides reduced longitudinal stiffness through compression of a helical spring within the pylon. A sudden loading evaluation device was built to examine changes in limb loading mechanics during a sudden impact event. No significant change was found in the peak force magnitude or timing of the peak force between prosthetic limb stiffness conditions. Total limb stiffness estimates ranged from 14.9 to 17.9 kN/m but were not significantly different between conditions. Thus, the prosthetic-side total limb stiffness was unaffected by changes in prosthetic limb stiffness. The insensitivity of the total limb stiffness to prosthetic stiffness may be explained by the mechanical characteristics (i.e., stiffness and damping) of the anatomical tissue within the residual limb.

  5. Optimising the trans-femoral prosthetic alignment for running, by lowering the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, B; Smeathers, J; Barker, T

    2001-12-01

    For amputees to perform an everyday task, or to participate in physical exercise, it is crucial that they have an appropriately designed functional prosthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal trans-femoral prosthetic alignment configuration for running. A case study design was implemented as the method to collect data on four male Paralympic level trans-femoral amputee runners. In total 28 synchronised 3D kinematic, kinetic, and temporal biomechanical measures were analysed. A new prosthetic alignment, in which the prosthetic knee axis was lowered longitudinally (moved distally), was evaluated for running. The performance of the symmetry indices and running time for a total of three new modified alignments were compared to the standard prosthetic alignment. The interlimb asymmetry was found to improve when the subjects ran on the modified prosthetic alignment, and most importantly a one way ANOVA found a statistically significant increase in running velocity. This study identified that for all four subjects, who used the same prosthetic components, lowering the prosthetic knee joint centre improved their interlimb symmetry, and subsequently their running velocity by an average of 26%.

  6. Influence of the prosthetic arm length (palatal position) of zygomatic implants upon patient satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Cervera-Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Bagán, Leticia; Peñarrocha-Diago, María

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the influence of the prosthetic arm length (palatal position) of zygomatic implants upon patient comfort and stability, speech, functionality and overall satisfaction. Material and Methods A retrospective clinical study was made of patients subjected to rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla with complete maxillary implant-supported fixed prostheses involving a minimum of two zygomatic implants (one on each side) in conjunction with premaxillary implants, and with 12 months of follow-up after implant loading. Subjects used a VAS to score general satisfaction, comfort and stability, speech and functionality, and the results were analyzed in relation to the prosthetic arm length of the zygomatic implants 12 months after prosthetic delivery. Results Twenty-two patients participated in the study, receiving 22 prostheses anchored on 148 implants (44 were zygomatic and 94 were conventional implants). The mean right and left prosthetic arm length was 5.9±2.4 mm and 6.1±2.7 mm, respectively, with no statistically significant differences between them (p=0.576). The mean scores referred to comfort/retention, speech, functionality and overall satisfaction were high - no correlation being found between prosthetic arm length and patient satisfaction (p=0.815). Conclusions No relationship could be identified between prosthetic arm length (palatal position) and patient satisfaction. Key words:Zygomatic implants, patient satisfaction, zygomatic prosthesis, prosthetic arm length. PMID:26946206

  7. Targeted muscle reinnervation a neural interface for artificial limbs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuiken, Todd A; Barlow, Ann K

    2013-01-01

    Implement TMR with Your Patients and Improve Their Quality of Life Developed by Dr. Todd A. Kuiken and Dr. Gregory A. Dumanian, targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a new approach to accessing motor control signals from peripheral nerves after amputation and providing sensory feedback to prosthesis users. This practical approach has many advantages over other neural-machine interfaces for the improved control of artificial limbs. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation: A Neural Interface for Artificial Limbs provides a template for the clinical implementation of TMR and a resource for further research in this new area of science. After describing the basic scientific concepts and key principles underlying TMR, the book presents surgical approaches to transhumeral and shoulder disarticulation amputations. It explores the possible role of TMR in the prevention and treatment of end-neuromas and details the principles of rehabilitation, prosthetic fitting, and occupational therapy for TMR patients. The book also describ...

  8. PERSPECTIVE: Consideration of user priorities when developing neural prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kim D.

    2009-10-01

    For too long there has been separation of basic science, biomedical engineering, clinical science and the people these disciplines are serving. A key ingredient to understanding the real-life consequences of many neurologic disorders that produce physical disabilities, such as spinal cord injury, is to obtain valuable information from the individuals that are actually living with the disorders everyday. This information can be obtained in an objective and usable format, which can then be used to direct biomedical research in a manner that is meaningful to the intended beneficiaries. In particular, the field of neural prosthetics for spinal cord injury can make great strides if user input is obtained throughout the stages of development. Presented here is the perspective of a scientist who also has 20 years of experience living with a cervical spinal cord injury.

  9. Prosthetic Correction of Postenucleation Socket Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Vikas B

    2014-12-01

    Postenucleation socket syndrome is a frequent late complication of enucleation of eye globe. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to account for the symptoms of postenucleation socket syndrome, which include lost orbital volume, superior sulcus deformity, upper eyelid ptosis, lower eyelid laxity, and backward tilt of the prosthesis. The goal of postenucleation socket syndrome treatment is to achieve the best possible functional and esthetic result. The treatment can be either conservative or surgical. For the patient interested in a non-surgical correction, the conservative treatment is simple and non invasive and can be done with prosthesis modification for good positioning, comfort, and mobility. This paper describes prosthetic correction of a patient with postenucleation socket syndrome by modified ocular prosthesis.

  10. The cleft sternum: a possible role for pliable prosthetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddoura, Imad L; Obeid, Mounir Y

    2014-01-01

    Faced with our intraoperative inability to primarily close a very wide isolated cleft sternum of a pediatric patient without causing cardiovascular decompensation, we describe our use of a synthetic material for partial approximation allowing muscular coverage. We report an infant who was born with an isolated large complete sternal cleft where a trial of primary surgical repair had to be abandoned because of cardiovascular compromise. A similar difficulty was encountered in approximating the origins of both pectoralis major muscle flaps at the midline. Thus, a pliable synthetic patch was helpful in partially obliterating the widened sternal defect allowing successful muscular coverage. Closure of a wide congenital sternal cleft using a synthetic material that partially obliterated an otherwise widely separated cleft sternum which was neither amenable for primary repair, nor by bilateral pectoralis major advancement alone, was possible. Strong prosthetic pliable material may offer a simple and useful procedure allowing obliteration of the widely separated cleft sternum not amenable for primary repair.

  11. Design of smart prosthetic knee utilizing magnetorheological damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Liu, Y. N.; Liao, W. H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, based on human knee's kinetics, a smart prosthetic knee employing springs, DC motor and magnetorheological (MR) damper is designed. The MR damper is coupled in series with the springs that are mounted in parallel with the DC motor. The working principle of the prosthesis during level-ground walking is presented. During stance phase, the MR damper is powered on. The springs will store and release the negative mechanical energy for restoring the function of human knee joint. In swing phase, the MR damper is powered off for disengaging the springs. In this phase, the work of knee joint is negative. For improving the system energy efficiency, the DC motor will work as a power generator to supply required damping torque and harvest electrical energy. Finally, the design of MR damper is introduced.

  12. Increasing risk of prosthetic joint infection after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Håvard; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir

    2012-01-01

    of primary surgery, and most notably in the first 3 months. The risk of revision due to infection increased in all 4 countries. Risk factors for revision due to infection were male sex, hybrid fixation, cement without antibiotics, and THA performed due to inflammatory disease, hip fracture, or femoral head......Background and purpose The risk of revision due to infection after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be increasing in Norway. We investigated whether this increase is a common feature in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). Materials and methods...... explain this increase. We believe that there has been an actual increase in the incidence of prosthetic joint infections after THA....

  13. Custom design in lower limb prosthetics for athletic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, J R; Boone, D A

    2000-08-01

    In summary, the prosthetist is the best source of information with regard to the fast-changing lower extremity prosthetics technology for sports. The needs and desires of the amputee should be outlined and balanced with the cost of the desired components and design. In many cases, one carefully designed prosthesis can serve in dual roles for everyday ambulation and certain athletic activities. In other cases, the amputee is limited severely by a prosthesis that is not designed for a specific activity. Using a prosthesis for activities that it was not designed to accommodate can cause physical injury to the amputee as well as structural failure of the device. A properly designed and fitted prosthesis can open a whole new world of activity to the amputee and helps him or her to reach the desired a vocational goals.

  14. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia prosthetic valve endocarditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayle Sophie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium increasingly involved in nosocomial infections and resistant to most antibiotics. It is important to recognize and efficiently treat infections with this bacterium as soon as possible. Case presentation We present a case of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia prosthetic valve endocarditis secondary to an indwelling catheter infection. The patient was cured without surgery. We review other cases of S. maltophilia endocarditis from the literature and describe the peculiarities of this case. Conclusion S. maltophilia endocarditis is a rare disease that is often hospital-acquired and related to an indwelling catheter infection. The high lethality is likely related to the intrinsic resistance of nosocomial bloodstream infections to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

  15. Prosthetic management of a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhan R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Treacher Collins syndrome encompasses a group of closely related defects of the head and neck. It is a rare syndrome characterized by bilaterally symmetrical abnormalities derived from the first and second brachial arches and the nasal placode. It is an autosomal dominant disorder and its occurence ranges from 1 in 25,000 to 1 in 50,000 live births. The facial appearance of these patients can be improved by either surgical or prosthetic rehabilitation. In this case report we are presenting the features of a 13-year-old boy with Treacher Collins syndrome. A multidisplinary approach was followed in managing the situation. The various treatment options and the steps involved in making an auricular prosthesis are also discussed.

  16. The effect of recasting on corrosion of DUCINOX prosthetic alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Klimek

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of recasting, up to two times, Ni-Cr (DUCINOX prosthetic alloy on its corrosion properties was carried out. The corrosion measurements were done in deoxygenated Fusayama Meyer artificial saliva solution at temperature of 37°C. In the study following electrochemical methods were used: measurement of free corrosion potential Ecor in open circuit, measurement of polarization resistance according to Stern-Geary's method and measurement of potentiodynamic characteristic in wide range of anodic polarization. In general, it can be stated that casting number weakly influence on corrosion properties of investigated alloy. At free corrosion potential there is no monotonic dependence of corrosion parameters versus casting number. However, at extreme anodic potentials monotonic changes of corrosion parameters with increasing casting number is observed. Obtained results and drawn conclusions are partially compatible with literature data.

  17. Brain-Machine Interface Control Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanechi, Maryam M

    2016-12-14

    Motor brain-machine interfaces (BMI) allow subjects to control external devices by modulating their neural activity. BMIs record the neural activity, use a mathematical algorithm to estimate the subject's intended movement, actuate an external device, and provide visual feedback of the generated movement to the subject. A critical component of a BMI system is the control algorithm, termed decoder. Significant progress has been made in the design of BMI decoders in recent years resulting in proficient control in non-human primates and humans. In this review article, we discuss the decoding algorithms developed in the BMI field, with particular focus on recent designs that are informed by closed-loop control ideas. A motor BMI can be modeled as a closed-loop control system, where the controller is the brain, the plant is the prosthetic, the feedback is the biofeedback, and the control command is the neural activity. Additionally, compared to other closed-loop systems, BMIs have various unique properties. Neural activity is noisy and stochastic, and often consists of a sequence of spike trains. Neural representations of movement could be non-stationary and change over time, for example as a result of learning. We review recent decoder designs that take these unique properties into account. We also discuss the opportunities that exist at the interface of control theory, statistical inference, and neuroscience to devise a control-theoretic framework for BMI design and help develop the next-generation BMI control algorithms.

  18. Effect of myocardial revascularisation on left ventricular systolic function in patients with and without viable myocardium: should non-viable segments be revascularised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipac, Alja Vlahovic; Stankovic, Ivan; Vidakovic, Radosav; Putnikovic, Biljana; Ilic, Ivan; Milicic, Biljana; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of surgical revascularisation on left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with viable and non-viable dysfunctional LV segments determined by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Prospective observational cohort study. Single tertiary care centre. Consecutive patients referred to surgical revascularisation (n=115). DSE and surgical revascularisation. Functional recovery defined as increase in ejection fraction ≥ 5% 1 year after revascularisation in patients with and without viable myocardium (viability defined as improvement of contractility in ≥ 4 LV segments on DSE). The mean age, ejection fraction and wall motion score index (WMSi) of patients were 59 ± 9 years, 44 ± 9% and 1.82 ± 0.31, respectively. There was no difference between DSE positive and DSE negative patients for any of those parameters at baseline study (p>0.05 for all). After 12 months, the ejection fraction increased 11 ± 1% in patients with viable myocardium vs 7 ± 1% in patients without viable myocardium (p=0.002). Moreover, in patients with viable myocardium, the greatest increase of ejection fraction occurred 1 month after surgery (9 ± 1%), whereas in those patients with negative DSE the ejection fraction increased more gradually (2±1% after 1 month, p=0.002 between groups for 1 month vs preoperative value), but still improved after 12 months follow-up (pmyocardial revascularisation. Functional recovery continuously occurs throughout the first year after surgical treatment.

  19. Undergraduate prosthetics and orthotics teaching methods: A baseline for international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian, Gholamreza; O'Toole, John M; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani

    2015-08-01

    Education of Prosthetics and Orthotics is a relatively recent professional program. While there has been some work on various teaching methods and strategies in international medical education, limited publication exists within prosthetics and orthotics. To identify the teaching and learning methods that are used in Bachelor-level prosthetics and orthotics programs that are given highest priority by expert prosthetics and orthotics instructors from regions enjoying a range of economic development. Mixed method. The study partly documented by this article utilized a mixed method approach (qualitative and quantitative methods) within which each phase provided data for other phases. It began with analysis of prosthetics and orthotics curricula documents, which was followed by a broad survey of instructors in this field and then a modified Delphi process. The expert instructors who participated in this study gave high priority to student-centered, small group methods that encourage critical thinking and may lead to lifelong learning. Instructors from more developed nations placed higher priority on student's independent acquisition of prosthetics and orthotics knowledge, particularly in clinical training. Application of student-centered approaches to prosthetics and orthotics programs may be preferred by many experts, but there appeared to be regional differences in the priority given to different teaching methods. The results of this study identify the methods of teaching that are preferred by expert prosthetics and orthotics instructors from a variety of regions. This treatment of current instructional techniques may inform instructor choice of teaching methods that impact the quality of education and improve the professional skills of students. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  20. Case report: Early prosthetic treatment in children with ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbanne, M A; Sitbon, M C; Landru, M M; Naveau, A

    2010-12-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia affects at least two ectoderm-derived structures such as hair, nails, skin, sweat glands and teeth. The dentition in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED) is altered with many phenotypes ranging from oligodontia to anodontia. No consensus exists on the ideal age for beginning of prosthetic rehabilitation. A 2-year-old male patient with severe oligodontia in the primary dentition was referred for examination, evaluation and treatment. The child exhibited classical XLHED features with sparse hair, absence of eyelashes and eyebrows, severe hypohidrosis associated with heat intolerance and skin dryness. Radiographic examination revealed only intra-osseous maxillary primary canines. He presented an apparent prognathism of partially functional cause, retrusion of the maxillary and lateral deviation of the mandible. The rehabilitation protocol was similar to an edentulous adult but extra care was taken to avoid discomfort to this very young patient. For example, alginate was used for the impressions for its neutral taste, ease of use, and quick setting speed. An hour was given for the child to adapt to the maxillary prosthesis and then the mandibular one was fitted. Denture adhesive was used to maximize retention. The child succeeded in eating some dry biscuits and drinking some water, demonstrating the exceptional potential for adaptation children usually present with at this very young age. Three months later, the prognathic tendency had vanished and he could eat hard food. Periodic recall visits were scheduled and at six months and normalization of oral functions was almost complete. Three years later, a new set of prostheses was made very easily as the child knew the protocol and was used to dentures wearing. Prosthetic rehabilitation must be done at the earliest age possible in order to maintain and correct the oral functions and prevent growth anomalies. It makes the subsequent treatment steps easier. Early rehabilitation and follow-up seems

  1. Dynamic facial prosthetics for sufferers of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Fergal; Breedon, Philip; Vloeberghs, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the various methods and the materials for the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. The primary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysed or atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverable unilateral facial paralysis. The prosthetic solution described in this paper is based on sensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy muscles and replicating that motion across a patient's paralysed side of the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. The development of this facial prosthetic device focused on recreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis on timing, displacement and the appearance of the wrinkles and folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyes during the expression. An animatronic face was constructed with actuations being made to a silicone representation musculature, using multiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside the artificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expression recognition software system was constructed. This forms the basis of an automated calibration and reconfiguration system for the artificial muscles following implantation, so as to suit the implantee's unique physiognomy. An animatronic model face with silicone musculature was designed and built to evaluate the performance of Shape Memory Alloy artificial muscles, their power control circuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motion sensing system was designed to allow real time control over model - a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physical motion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real to artificial muscle performance. Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects was made, which give useful data upon which to base the systems parameter limits. The system performed well, and the various strengths and shortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewed and considered for the next research phase, when new polymer based artificial muscles are constructed and evaluated.

  2. Color matching in facial prosthetics: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Ranabhatt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Color matching to the surrounding skin is extremely important in patients wearing maxillofacial prostheses. It is of utmost importance to know the different techniques of color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The purpose of this study is to review the literature data with regard to color matching in maxillofacial prosthetics. An electronic search of peer review restricted to English language dental literature was conducted to identify the relevant scientific article on color matching and coloring in maxillofacial prostheses. The publication year was up to December 2015 so that the search could include all the articles provided in that particular database. Two independent observers independently read the abstracts and later preselected full-text articles. A full-text review was carried out only for 15 articles. Out of the 15 articles, 7 were related to coloring using tinting, spraying, milling, and use of commercial cosmetics. Three studies were related to shade matching in maxillofacial prostheses. Two studies conducted the measurement of color in maxillofacial prostheses. Only one study had explained color and its relevance in maxillofacial prosthetics. Only one study was done for reproducing silicone shade guide matching Indian skin color. In addition, a single pilot study was done to measure facial skin and lip color in a human population sample stratified by race, gender, and age. Currently, there is no evidence discussing the best technique available for perfectly matching the color for the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. However, the latest instruments such as spectrophotometer and colorimeters are believed to have improved efficiency in matching the color.

  3. Experimental and failure analysis of the prosthetic finger joint implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Sanjiv H.

    Small joint replacement arthroplasty of the hand is a well accepted surgical procedure to restore function and cosmesis in an individual with a crippled hand. Silicone elastomers have been used as prosthetic material in various small hand joints for well over three decades. Although the clinical science aspects of silicone elastomer failure are well known, the physical science aspects of prosthetic failure are scant and vague. In the following thesis, using both an animal model, and actual retrieved specimens which have failed in human service, experimental and failure analysis of silicone finger joints are presented. Fractured surfaces of retrieved silicone trapezial implants, and silicone finger joint implants were studied with both FESEM and SEM; the mode of failure for silicone trapezium is by wear polishing, whereas the finger joint implants failed either by fatigue fracture or tearing of the elastomer, or a combination of both. Thermal analysis revealed that the retrieved elastomer implants maintained its viscoelastic properties throughout the service period. In order to provide for a more functional and physiologic arthroplasty a novel finger joint (Rolamite prosthesis) is proposed using more recently developed thermoplastic polymers. The following thesis also addresses the outcome of the experimental studies of the Rolamite prosthesis in a rabbit animal model, in addition to the failure analysis of the thermoplastic polymers while in service in an in vivo synovial environment. Results of retrieved Rolamite specimens suggest that the use for thermoplastic elastomers such as block copolymer based elastomers in a synovial environment such as a mammalian joint may very well be limited.

  4. Prosthetic limb sockets from plant-based composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Andrew I; Sexton, Sandra; Schaschke, Carl J; Kinsman, Harry; McLaughlin, Brian; Boyle, Martin

    2012-06-01

    There is a considerable demand for lower limb prostheses globally due to vascular disease, war, conflict, land mines and natural disasters. Conventional composite materials used for prosthetic limb sockets include acrylic resins, glass and carbon fibres, which produce harmful gasses and dust in their manufacture. To investigate the feasibility of using a renewable plant oil-based polycarbonate-polyurethane copolymer resin and plant fibre composite, instead of conventional materials, to improve safety and accessibility of prosthetic limb manufacture. Experimental, bench research. Test pieces of the resin with a range of plant fibres (10.0% by volume) were prepared and tensile strengths were tested. Test sockets of both conventional composite materials and plant resin with plant fibres were constructed and tested to destruction. Combinations of plant resin and either banana or ramie fibres gave high tensile strengths. The conventional composite material socket and plant resin with ramie composite socket failed at a similar loading, exceeding the ISO 10328 standard. Both wall thickness and fibre-matrix adhesion played a significant role in socket strength. From this limited study we conclude that the plant resin and ramie fibre composite socket has the potential to replace the standard layup. Further mechanical and biocompatibility testing as well as a full economic analysis is required. Using readily sourced and renewable natural fibres and a low-volatile bio-resin has potential to reduce harm to those involved in the manufacture of artificial limb sockets, without compromising socket strength and benefitting clinicians working in poorer countries where safety equipment is scarce. Such composite materials will reduce environmental impact.

  5. Remote transient Lactobacillus animalis bacteremia causing prosthetic hip joint infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Somayaji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus spp. are uncommon pathogens in immunocompetent hosts, and even rarer causes of prosthetic device infections. Case presentation A case of chronic hip prosthetic joint infection (PJI caused by L. animalis is described. This occurred 5 years after a transient bacteremia with the same organism. Whole genome sequencing of both isolates proved this PJI infection resulted from this remote bacteremia. Conclusions We document that prosthetic joint infections may be a consequence of bacteremia as much as 3 years before the onset of symptoms.

  6. A virtual reality environment for designing and fitting neural prosthetic limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Markus; Davoodi, Rahman; Loeb, Gerald E

    2007-03-01

    Building and testing novel prosthetic limbs and control algorithms for functional electrical stimulation (FES) is expensive and risky. Here, we describe a virtual reality environment (VRE) to facilitate and accelerate the development of novel systems. In the VRE, subjects/patients can operate a simulated limb to interact with virtual objects. Realistic models of all relevant musculoskeletal and mechatronic components allow the development of entire prosthetic systems in VR before introducing them to the patient. The system is used both by engineers as a development tool and by clinicians to fit prosthetic devices to patients.

  7. Aerogel Use as a Skin Protective Liner In Space Suits and Prosthetic Limbs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications for use in space suits and orthopedics. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material, and our initial findings demonstrated that these materrials would be excellent candidates for liner applications for prosthetics and space suits. The project is currently on hold until additional funding is obtained for application testing at the VH Hospitals in Tampa

  8. Reduced prosthetic stiffness lowers the metabolic cost of running for athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the springlike action of biological legs, running-specific prostheses are designed to enable athletes with lower-limb amputations to run. However, manufacturer's recommendations for prosthetic stiffness and height may not optimize running performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using different prosthetic configurations on the metabolic cost and biomechanics of running. Five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations each performed 15 trials on a force-measuring treadmill at 2.5 or 3.0 m/s. Athletes ran using each of 3 different prosthetic models (Freedom Innovations Catapult FX6, Össur Flex-Run, and Ottobock 1E90 Sprinter) with 5 combinations of stiffness categories (manufacturer's recommended and ± 1) and heights (International Paralympic Committee's maximum competition height and ± 2 cm) while we measured metabolic rates and ground reaction forces. Overall, prosthetic stiffness [fixed effect (β) = 0.036; P = 0.008] but not height ( P ≥ 0.089) affected the net metabolic cost of transport; less stiff prostheses reduced metabolic cost. While controlling for prosthetic stiffness (in kilonewtons per meter), using the Flex-Run (β = -0.139; P = 0.044) and 1E90 Sprinter prostheses (β = -0.176; P = 0.009) reduced net metabolic costs by 4.3-4.9% compared with using the Catapult prostheses. The metabolic cost of running improved when athletes used prosthetic configurations that decreased peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces (β = 2.786; P = 0.001), stride frequencies (β = 0.911; P running in athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations is influenced by prosthetic model and stiffness but not height. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We measured the metabolic rates and biomechanics of five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations while running with different prosthetic configurations. The metabolic cost of running for these athletes is minimized by using an optimal prosthetic model and reducing prosthetic

  9. EDITORIAL: Focus on the neural interface Focus on the neural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Dominique M.

    2009-10-01

    The possibility of an effective connection between neural tissue and computers has inspired scientists and engineers to develop new ways of controlling and obtaining information from the nervous system. These applications range from `brain hacking' to neural control of artificial limbs with brain signals. Notwithstanding the significant advances in neural prosthetics in the last few decades and the success of some stimulation devices such as cochlear prosthesis, neurotechnology remains below its potential for restoring neural function in patients with nervous system disorders. One of the reasons for this limited impact can be found at the neural interface and close attention to the integration between electrodes and tissue should improve the possibility of successful outcomes. The neural interfaces research community consists of investigators working in areas such as deep brain stimulation, functional neuromuscular/electrical stimulation, auditory prostheses, cortical prostheses, neuromodulation, microelectrode array technology, brain-computer/machine interfaces. Following the success of previous neuroprostheses and neural interfaces workshops, funding (from NIH) was obtained to establish a biennial conference in the area of neural interfaces. The first Neural Interfaces Conference took place in Cleveland, OH in 2008 and several topics from this conference have been selected for publication in this special section of the Journal of Neural Engineering. Three `perspectives' review the areas of neural regeneration (Corredor and Goldberg), cochlear implants (O'Leary et al) and neural prostheses (Anderson). Seven articles focus on various aspects of neural interfacing. One of the most popular of these areas is the field of brain-computer interfaces. Fraser et al, report on a method to generate robust control with simple signal processing algorithms of signals obtained with electrodes implanted in the brain. One problem with implanted electrode arrays, however, is that

  10. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  11. Individual finger control of a modular prosthetic limb using high-density electrocorticography in a human subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotson, Guy; McMullen, David P.; Fifer, Matthew S.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Katyal, Kapil D.; Para, Matthew P.; Armiger, Robert; Anderson, William S.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Wester, Brock A.; Crone, Nathan E.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. We used native sensorimotor representations of fingers in a brain-machine interface (BMI) to achieve immediate online control of individual prosthetic fingers. Approach. Using high gamma responses recorded with a high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) array, we rapidly mapped the functional anatomy of cued finger movements. We used these cortical maps to select ECoG electrodes for a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis classification scheme to predict: (1) if any finger was moving, and, if so, (2) which digit was moving. To account for sensory feedback, we also mapped the spatiotemporal activation elicited by vibrotactile stimulation. Finally, we used this prediction framework to provide immediate online control over individual fingers of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory modular prosthetic limb. Main results. The balanced classification accuracy for detection of movements during the online control session was 92% (chance: 50%). At the onset of movement, finger classification was 76% (chance: 20%), and 88% (chance: 25%) if the pinky and ring finger movements were coupled. Balanced accuracy of fully flexing the cued finger was 64%, and 77% had we combined pinky and ring commands. Offline decoding yielded a peak finger decoding accuracy of 96.5% (chance: 20%) when using an optimized selection of electrodes. Offline analysis demonstrated significant finger-specific activations throughout sensorimotor cortex. Activations either prior to movement onset or during sensory feedback led to discriminable finger control. Significance. Our results demonstrate the ability of ECoG-based BMIs to leverage the native functional anatomy of sensorimotor cortical populations to immediately control individual finger movements in real time.

  12. Instantaneous Liquid Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Willard, Adam P.; Chandler, David

    2009-01-01

    We describe and illustrate a simple procedure for identifying a liquid interface from atomic coordinates. In particular, a coarse grained density field is constructed, and the interface is defined as a constant density surface for this coarse grained field. In applications to a molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water, it is shown that this procedure provides instructive and useful pictures of liquid-vapor interfaces and of liquid-protein interfaces.

  13. Microcomputer interfacing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, M A

    1990-01-01

    This is the applications guide to interfacing microcomputers. It offers practical non-mathematical solutions to interfacing problems in many applications including data acquisition and control. Emphasis is given to the definition of the objectives of the interface, then comparing possible solutions and producing the best interface for every situation. Dr Mustafa A Mustafa is a senior designer of control equipment and has written many technical articles and papers on the subject of computers and their application to control engineering.

  14. Real-time animation software for customized training to use motor prosthetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Rahman; Loeb, Gerald E

    2012-03-01

    Research on control of human movement and development of tools for restoration and rehabilitation of movement after spinal cord injury and amputation can benefit greatly from software tools for creating precisely timed animation sequences of human movement. Despite their ability to create sophisticated animation and high quality rendering, existing animation software are not adapted for application to neural prostheses and rehabilitation of human movement. We have developed a software tool known as MSMS (MusculoSkeletal Modeling Software) that can be used to develop models of human or prosthetic limbs and the objects with which they interact and to animate their movement using motion data from a variety of offline and online sources. The motion data can be read from a motion file containing synthesized motion data or recordings from a motion capture system. Alternatively, motion data can be streamed online from a real-time motion capture system, a physics-based simulation program, or any program that can produce real-time motion data. Further, animation sequences of daily life activities can be constructed using the intuitive user interface of Microsoft's PowerPoint software. The latter allows expert and nonexpert users alike to assemble primitive movements into a complex motion sequence with precise timing by simply arranging the order of the slides and editing their properties in PowerPoint. The resulting motion sequence can be played back in an open-loop manner for demonstration and training or in closed-loop virtual reality environments where the timing and speed of animation depends on user inputs. These versatile animation utilities can be used in any application that requires precisely timed animations but they are particularly suited for research and rehabilitation of movement disorders. MSMS's modeling and animation tools are routinely used in a number of research laboratories around the country to study the control of movement and to develop and test

  15. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Water at Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Hodgson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives...

  17. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design

  18. 75 FR 52629 - Medicare Program; Establishing Additional Medicare Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... are defined in this section of the Act as ``devices (other than dental) which replace all or part of... prosthetic devices include cardiac pacemakers, cochlear implants, electrical continence aids, electrical...

  19. A Statistical Perspective on Running with Prosthetic Lower-Limbs: An Advantage or Disadvantage?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansi; Shadi, Mehran; Noroozi, Siamak; Dyer, Bryce

    2014-01-01

    .... This study aims to exploit a series of statistical techniques in order to prepare a response to the vital question of whether utilizing prosthetic feet can affect an athletes ability when running...

  20. 78 FR 69176 - Advisory Committee on Prosthetics and Special-Disabilities Programs; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... administered by the Secretary to serve Veterans with spinal cord injuries, blindness or visual impairments... Services, Spinal Cord Injury and Disorders, Orthotic and Prosthetic Program, Clothing Benefits, and... associated rehabilitation research, development, and evaluation of such technology. The Committee also...

  1. [Research on proportional control system of prosthetic hand based on FMG signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Li, Panpan; Zhao, Shengnan

    2013-02-01

    The control of prosthetic hand is always a focus in prosthesis research. For solving current problems of controlling signals of skin surface electrical signals, we applied force myography (FMG) signals in prosthetic control of this system. The control system based on FMG signals were designed, containing signal acquisition and pre-processing, prosthetic control, motor driving and so on. Two-freedom artificial hand with proportional control was proposed through acquiring two-channel FMG signals from the amputee stump. The proportional control of prosthetic hand was achieved according to the average of FMG amplitude. The results showed that the control system had a great potential to control artificial hand and to realize speed adjustment effectively. Besides, the Virtual instrument software LabVIEW is adopted to establish the FMG signal collection and calibration of experiment system.

  2. Virtual Control of Prosthetic Hand Based on Grasping Patterns and Estimated Force from Semg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Gao-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoelectric prosthetic hands aim to serve upper limb amputees. The myoelectric control of the hand grasp action is a kind of real-time or online method. Thus it is of great necessity to carry on a study of online prosthetic hand electrical control. In this paper, the strategy of simultaneous EMG decoding of grasping patterns and grasping force was realized by controlling a virtual multi-degree-freedom prosthetic hand and a real one-degree-freedom prosthetic hand simultaneously. The former realized the grasping patterns from the recognition of the sEMG pattern. The other implemented the grasping force from sEMG force decoding. The results show that the control method is effective and feasible.

  3. Prosthetic finger phalanges with lifelike skin compliance for low-force social touching interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibihan, John-John; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; 10.1186/1743-0003-8-16

    2011-01-01

    Prosthetic arms and hands that can be controlled by the user's electromyography (EMG) signals are emerging. Eventually, these advanced prosthetic devices will be expected to touch and be touched by other people. As realistic as they may look, the currently available prosthetic hands have physical properties that are still far from the characteristics of human skins because they are much stiffer. In this paper, different configurations of synthetic finger phalanges have been investigated for their skin compliance behaviour and have been compared with the phalanges of the human fingers and a phalanx from a commercially available prosthetic hand. Handshake tests were performed to identify which areas on the human hand experience high contact forces. After these areas were determined, experiments were done on selected areas using an indenting probe to obtain the force-displacement curves. Finite element simulations were used to compare the force-displacement results of the synthetic finger phalanx designs with th...

  4. A Statistical Perspective on Running with Prosthetic Lower-Limbs: An Advantage or Disadvantage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments have led to the increased use of carbon fiber and prosthetic lower-limbs in running events at the Paralympic Games. This study aims to exploit a series of statistical techniques in order to prepare a response to the vital question of whether utilizing prosthetic feet can affect an athletes ability when running competitively at the Paralympics Games by comparing both within and between different classifications. The study also considers the differences between running on biological limbs and prosthetic lower-limbs from a mechanical point of view. The results from the male 100 m, 200 m and 400 m at the 2012 London Paralympic Games have been the source of this investigation. The investigation provides statistical evidence to propose that the number of prosthetic limbs used and the structure of such limbs have a significant impact on the outcome of track events at the Paralympic Games.

  5. FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE, PARTICIPATION AND AUTONOMY AFTER DISCHARGE FROM PROSTHETIC REHABILITATION : BARRIERS, FACILITATORS AND OUTCOMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Twillert, Sacha; Stuive, Ilse; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Postema, Klaas; Lettinga, Ant T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine functional performance, participation and autonomy after discharge from prosthetic rehabilitation and to identify the barriers and facilitators affecting these outcomes. Design: Concurrent mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected at discharge from

  6. Prosthetic consideration in implant-supported prosthesis: A review of literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manga Gowd; Thatapudi Shankar; Rajeev Ranjan; Arpita Singh

    2017-01-01

    Modern dentistry has changed tremendously with implant therapy. For the successful implant therapy, making a proper treatment plan considering both surgical and prosthetic part in mind is the key of success...

  7. Advances for prosthetic technology from historical perspective to current status to future application

    CERN Document Server

    LeMoyne, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies.  The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities.  The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored.  The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses.  The core of the book deals with futuristic robo...

  8. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus.

  9. Rehand: Realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Sato, Ryo; Higashihara, Takanori; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    Myoelectric prosthetic hands provide an appearance with five fingers and a grasping function to forearm amputees. However, they have problems in weight, appearance, and cost. This paper reports on the Rehand, a realistic electric prosthetic hand created with a 3D printer. It provides a realistic appearance that is same as the cosmetic prosthetic hand and a grasping function. A simple link mechanism with one linear actuator for grasping and 3D printed parts achieve low cost, light weight, and ease of maintenance. An operating system based on a distance sensor provides a natural operability equivalent to the myoelectric control system. A supporter socket allows them to wear the prosthetic hand easily. An evaluation using the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) demonstrated that an amputee was able to operate various objects and do everyday activities with the Rehand.

  10. Replantation versus prosthetic fitting in traumatic arm amputations : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Iris A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413995836; Kon, Moshe|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06797886X; Schuurman, AH|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239335147; Van Minnen, L. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic arm amputations can be treated with replantation or surgical formalization of the stump with or without subsequent prosthetic fitting. In the literature, many authors suggest the superiority of replantation. This systematic review compared available literature to analyze

  11. Effects of prosthetic foot forefoot flexibility on gait of unilateral transtibial prosthesis users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klodd, Elizabeth; Hansen, Andrew; Fatone, Stefania; Edwards, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Five solid-ankle experimental prosthetic feet were used in this double-blind randomized crossover study to determine the effects of forefoot flexibility on gait of 14 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users...

  12. Identification and quantification of prosthetic mitral regurgitation by flow convergence method using transthoracic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roux Emmanuel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present case report illustrates the clinical applicability of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA method in identifying, locating and assessing paravalvular prosthetic mitral regurgitation by transthoracic echocardiography.

  13. Identification and quantification of prosthetic mitral regurgitation by flow convergence method using transthoracic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Roux Emmanuel; Leonnet Caroline; Arques Stephane; Avierinos Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The present case report illustrates the clinical applicability of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method in identifying, locating and assessing paravalvular prosthetic mitral regurgitation by transthoracic echocardiography.

  14. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  15. Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

    1991-04-01

    When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice.

  16. Outdoor dynamic subject-specific evaluation of internal stresses in the residual limb: hydraulic energy-stored prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy-stored prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; Kristal, Anat; Gefen, Amit; Siev-Ner, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    The prosthetic foot plays an important role in propelling, breaking, balancing and supporting body loads while the amputee ambulates on different grounds. It is therefore important to quantify the effect of the prosthetic foot mechanism on biomechanical parameters, in order to prevent pressure ulcers and deep tissue injury. Our aim was to monitor the internal stresses in the residuum of transtibial amputation (TTA) prosthetic-users ambulating on different terrains, which the amputees encounter during their daily activities, i.e. paved floor, grass, ascending and descending stairs and slope. We specifically aimed to compare between the internal stresses in the TTA residuum of amputees ambulating with a novel hydraulic prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy storage and return (ESR) prosthetic feet. Monitoring of internal stresses was accomplished using a portable subject-specific real-time internal stress monitor. We found significant decrease (phydraulic foot, compared to walking with ESR feet. The loading rate calculated while ambulating with the hydraulic foot was at least three times lower than the loading rate calculated while ambulating with the ESR foot. Although the average decrease in internal stresses was ≈ 2-fold larger when replacing single-toe ESR feet with the hydraulic foot than when replacing split-toed ESR feet with the hydraulic foot, the differences were statistically insignificant. Our findings suggest that using a hydraulic prosthetic foot may protect the distal tibial end of the TTA residuum from high stresses, therefore preventing pressure-related injury and pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An evaluation of dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs (trans genders) residing in bhopal city, madhya pradesh, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongal, S; Torwane, Na; Chandrashekhar, Br; Saxena, V; Chavan, Kr

    2014-11-01

    Eunuchs are considered as the most vulnerable, frustrated, and insecure community. The accessibility to medical and dental facilities for the eunuchs is nearly nonexistent. Due to these reasons, they might be at a high risk of developing severe dental problems like tooth loss. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India. On the basis of convenient nonprobability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal along with a matched control consisting of cross section of the general population residing in the same locality was examined to evaluate the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of the population. All the obtained data were entered into a personal computer on Microsoft excel sheet and analyzed using the software; Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. Data comparison was done by applying Chi-square test. A total of 639 subjects comprised of 207 eunuchs, 218 males and 214 females. Among all participants, 2.8% (18/639) were having prosthesis. The overall prosthetic status among males was 3.2% (7/218) followed by 2.9% (6/207) eunuchs and 2.3% (5/214) females. However, need for multi-unit and combination of one and more unit prosthesis for upper and lower jaws was higher in males compared to females and eunuchs, but the difference was not statistically significant. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate a high unmet need for prosthetic care among the population surveyed.

  18. A Statistical Perspective on Running with Prosthetic Lower-Limbs: An Advantage or Disadvantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Hassani; Mansi Ghodsi; Mehran Shadi; Siamak Noroozi; Bryce Dyer

    2014-01-01

    Technological developments have led to the increased use of carbon fiber and prosthetic lower-limbs in running events at the Paralympic Games. This study aims to exploit a series of statistical techniques in order to prepare a response to the vital question of whether utilizing prosthetic feet can affect an athletes ability when running competitively at the Paralympics Games by comparing both within and between different classifications. The study also considers the differences between runnin...

  19. Effects of prosthetic mass distribution on the spatiotemporal characteristics and knee kinematics of transfemoral amputee locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmatfard, Maryam; Farahmand, Farzam; Ebrahimi, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of changing the location of the center of mass (COM) of transfemoral prostheses on the spatiotemporal and kinematical characteristics of the amputee gait, while maintaining the prosthetic mass fixed. Ten men with unilateral traumatic transfemoral amputation participated in gait analysis, 2-min walk and subject preference tests. Weights were added to the original prosthetic legs in three conditions: 600g added to the ankle, 600g added at 10cm distal to the prosthetic knee, and 300g added to the ankle, and 300g at 10cm distal to the knee. For each prosthetic mass condition, the stride and step lengths, stepping speed, stance, swing and gait cycle durations, self-selected walking speed, cadence, and knee flexion angle, were measured. We found no significant change in the spatiotemporal variables and the knee kinematics with alteration of the prosthetic COM, for both the prosthetic and the intact limbs. With the mass added to the ankle, the stepping speed, and the step and stride lengths of the prosthetic limb were significantly larger than those of the intact limb. Subject's preference revealed that 8 of 10 preferred their original no-added mass prostheses or mass added prostheses with minimal change of the COM. It was concluded that a short-term intervention with changed prosthetic mass distribution has no significant effect on the spatiotemporal and knee kinematical characteristics of the transfemoral amputee gait, although it can affect the spatiotemporal symmetry of locomotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Secure Microprocessor-Controlled Prosthetic Leg for Elderly Amputees: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Krut, S.; Coste, Ch. Azevedo; Chabloz, P.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new prosthetic leg design, adapted to elderly trans-femoral amputees. Technical progress in prosthesis design mainly concerns active individuals. An important number of elderly amputees are not very mobile, tire easily, present reduced muscle strength, and have difficulties managing their balance. Therefore, the needs and characteristics of this specific population are very different from those of younger ones and the prosthetic solutions are not adapted. Our artificial knee ha...

  1. PLANNING OF IMPLANTO‐PROSTHETIC STRUCTURES IN TOTAL EDENTATION ACCORDING TO BIOMECHANICAL CRITERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile, N.; V. IBRIC‐CIORANU

    2013-01-01

    Scope of the study: Analysis of the biomechanical aspects of the implanto‐prosthetic structures for planning the treatment in cases of total edentation.Materials and method: The study was performed in the Clinics of Prosthetics and Oral Implantology, Military Emergency Hospital of Sibiu, on a group of mandibularly totally edentated patients. Planning of the implanto‐pros‐ thetic treatment had in view the peculiarities of total man‐ dibular edentation and observance of the biomechanical princi...

  2. PLANNING OF IMPLANTO‐PROSTHETIC STRUCTURES IN TOTAL EDENTATION ACCORDING TO BIOMECHANICAL CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. VASILE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scope of the study: Analysis of the biomechanical aspects of the implanto‐prosthetic structures for planning the treatment in cases of total edentation.Materials and method: The study was performed in the Clinics of Prosthetics and Oral Implantology, Military Emergency Hospital of Sibiu, on a group of mandibularly totally edentated patients. Planning of the implanto‐pros‐ thetic treatment had in view the peculiarities of total man‐ dibular edentation and observance of the biomechanical principles. Selection of the type of occlusion restoration considered the presence of parafunctions and the nature of the antagonistic arch. Special attention was paid to the direction and intensity of the forces acting in the region of the future prosthetic work. When bruxism was manifested, its preimplantary removal was compulsory.Results and discussion: In fixed prosthetic restaurati‐ ons applied on implants, distribuition of forces obviously depend on the quality of osteo‐acceptance, as well, and also on the elasticity degree of the prosthetic work. In the case of mobilized prosthetic restorations supported on implants, rigidization of implants from the anterior region of the mandible may be obtained by means of a bar. In decreasing order of their elasticity, the materials employed are: acrylate, composites, noble and seminoble alloys, other metals, ceramics. Ceramics confers maximum stability to implants, yet without redeeming the forces. For amortizing the forces and for a progressive charging of the implants, it is recommended that the first (temporary prosthetic restorations should be made of either acrylate or compo‐ sites.Conclusions. Observance of the occlusological princi‐ ples in cases of occlusal reconstruction represents the determining element which assures the osteo‐acceptance of implants and the integrity of prosthetic restaurations.

  3. Limits of stability in persons with transtibial amputation with respect to prosthetic alignment alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarova, Barbora; Janura, Miroslav; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the limits of stability (LOS) in persons with transtibial amputation (TTA), and to determine the effects of prosthetic alignment alterations on motor control strategies. Before-and-after trial. A kinesiology laboratory at a university hospital. Male patients with TTA (n=10) and controls (n=17). Prosthetic alignment. For the LOS test, the maximum excursion, endpoint excursion, direction control, movement velocity, and reaction time with inclination in the forward direction, toward the amputated leg/right leg, and in the backward direction, and toward the nonamputated leg/left leg. Measurements were performed using the following 5 prosthetic alignments: the optimal alignment, with the prosthesis shorter by 1cm, with the prosthesis longer by 1cm, and with the prosthetic foot in 5° of extra plantar flexion and 5° of extra dorsiflexion. Compared with the control group, maximum excursion and direction control were lower (P<.05) in patients with TTA with backward body inclination for all tested prosthetic alignments. Direction control in backward inclination was reduced (P<.05) compared with other tested directions for all assessed prosthetic alignments. Differences between the tested alignments were not significant in any of the tested directions. Patients with TTA have decreased voluntary body inclination backward within the LOS for all tested prosthetic alignments. Compared with controls, changes in prosthetic foot settings by means of rotation in the sagittal plane had a larger impact on movement strategy in patients with TTA than did changes to the length of the prosthesis. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Good quality of life outcomes after treatment of prosthetic joint infection with debridement and prosthesis retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboltins, Craig; Dowsey, Michelle; Peel, Trish; Lim, Wen K; Choong, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Patients treated for early prosthetic joint infection (PJI) with surgical debridement and prosthesis retention have a rate of successful infection eradication that is similar to patients treated with the traditional approach of prosthesis exchange. It is therefore important to consider other outcomes after prosthetic joint infection treatment that may influence management decisions, such as quality of life (QOL). Our aim was to describe infection cure rates and quality of life for patients with prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and prosthesis retention and to determine if treatment with this approach was a risk factor for poor quality of life outcomes. Prospectively collected pre and post-arthroplasty data were available for 2,134 patients, of which PJI occurred in 41. For patients treated for prosthetic joint infection, the 2-year survival free of treatment failure was 87% (95%CI 84-89). Prosthetic joint infection cases treated with debridement and retention had a similar improvement from pre-arthroplasty to 12-months post-arthroplasty as patients without PJI in QOL according to the SF-12 survey. Prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and retention was not a risk factor for poor quality of life on univariate or multivariate analysis. Prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and prosthesis retention results in good cure rates and quality of life. Further studies are required that directly compare quality of life for different surgical approaches for prosthetic joint infection to better inform management decisions. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:898-902, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Brain responses to acupuncture stimulation in the prosthetic hand of an amputee patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Seon; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, Ye-Seul; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the brain responses to acupuncture in an upper limb amputee patient. A 62-year-old male had previously undergone a lower left arm amputation following an electrical accident. Using functional MRI, we investigated brain responses to acupuncture stimulation in the aforementioned amputee under three conditions: (a) intact hand, (b) prosthetic hand (used by the patient), and (c) fake fabric hand. The patient described greater de qi sensation when he received acupuncture stimulation in his prosthetic hand compared to a fake hand, with both stimulations performed in a similar manner. We found enhanced brain activation in the insula and sensorimotor cortex in response to acupuncture stimulation in the amputee's prosthetic hand, while there was only minimal activation in the visual cortex in response to acupuncture stimulation in a fake hand. The enhanced brain responses to acupuncture stimulation of the patient's prosthetic hand might be derived from cortical reorganisation, as he has been using his prosthetic hand for over 40 years. Our findings suggest the possible use of acupuncture stimulation in a prosthetic hand as an enhanced sensory feedback mechanism, which may represent a new treatment approach for phantom limb pain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Pinch-force-magnification mechanism of low degree of freedom EMG prosthetic hand for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hesong; Sakoda, Shintaro; Jiang, Yinlai; Morishita, Soichiro; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    EMG prosthetic hands are being extensively studied for the disabled who need them not only for cosmesis but also for the functions to help them with basic daily activities. However, most EMG prosthetic hands are developed for adults. Since the early use of prosthetic hands is important for the children to accept and adapt to them, we are developing low degrees of freedom (DoF) prosthetic hand that is suitable for children. Due to the limited size of a child's hand, the servo motor which drives the MP joint are small-sized and low-power. Hence, a pinch-force-magnification mechanism is required to improve the pinch force of the EMG prosthetic hand. In this paper we designed a wire-driven mechanism which can magnify pinch force by increasing the length of the MP joint's moment arm. Pinch force measurement experiment validated that the pinch force of the prosthetic hand with the mechanism is more than twice of that of the hand with direct drive.

  7. The relative contributions of the prosthetic and sound limb to balance control in unilateral transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtze, Carolin; Hof, At L; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2012-06-01

    In unilateral transtibial amputees maintenance of standing balance is compromised due to the lack of active ankle control in the prosthetic limb. The purpose of this study is to disentangle the contribution of the prosthetic and sound limb to balance control following waist-pull perturbations. We compared the contribution of the hip and ankle joints to balance control of 15 unilateral transtibial amputees and 13 able-bodied controls after been externally perturbed through release of a pulling force. Perturbations were applied in four different directions. Outcome measure was the proportion of joint moment integrated over time generated by the hip and ankle joints in order to restore static stability after perturbation. Analyses revealed that perturbations in backward/forward direction were recovered mainly by the ankle strategy. The amputees compensated for the absence of active ankle control in the prosthetic limb by increasing the ankle moment in the sound limb. Interestingly, the passive properties of the prosthetic foot contributed to balance control, which has important implications for prosthetic fitting and standing stability in lower limb amputees. Amputees and controls resisted perturbations in medio-lateral direction by generating the necessary hip moments. Finally, these findings are discussed with respect to prosthetic design and rehabilitation processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew; Nickel, Eric; Medvec, Joseph; Brielmaier, Steven; Pike, Alvin; Weber, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three different flat region lengths within its effective rocker shape. It was hypothesized that longer flat regions of the effective rocker shape would lead to improved standing balance outcomes and reduced walking performance for unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. However, no significant changes were seen in the balance and mobility outcomes of 12 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users when using the three prosthetic foot conditions. Subjects in the study significantly preferred prosthetic feet with relatively low to moderate flat regions over those with long flat regions. All the subjects without loss of light touch or vibratory sensation selected the prosthetic foot with the shortest flat region. More work is needed to investigate the effects of prosthetic foot properties on balance and mobility of prosthesis users.

  9. Influence of the prosthetic arm length (palatal position) of zygomatic implants upon patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Chover, H; Cervera-Ballester, J; Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Bagán, L; Peñarrocha-Diago, M A; Peñarrocha-Diago, M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the influence of the prosthetic arm length (palatal position) of zygomatic implants upon patient comfort and stability, speech, functionality and overall satisfaction. A retrospective clinical study was made of patients subjected to rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla with complete maxillary implant-supported fixed prostheses involving a minimum of two zygomatic implants (one on each side) in conjunction with premaxillary implants, and with 12 months of follow-up after implant loading. Subjects used a VAS to score general satisfaction, comfort and stability, speech and functionality, and the results were analyzed in relation to the prosthetic arm length of the zygomatic implants 12 months after prosthetic delivery. Twenty-two patients participated in the study, receiving 22 prostheses anchored on 148 implants (44 were zygomatic and 94 were conventional implants). The mean right and left prosthetic arm length was 5.9±2.4 mm and 6.1±2.7 mm, respectively, with no statistically significant differences between them (p=0.576). The mean scores referred to comfort/retention, speech, functionality and overall satisfaction were high - no correlation being found between prosthetic arm length and patient satisfaction (p=0.815). No relationship could be identified between prosthetic arm length (palatal position) and patient satisfaction.

  10. Analysis of maxillofacial prosthetics at university dental hospitals in the capital region of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yeon; Paek, Janghyun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic patterns of maxillofacial prosthetic treatment to identify the characteristics and geographic distribution of patients with maxillofacial prosthetics in the capital region of Korea. This retrospective analytical multicenter study was performed by chart reviews. This study included patients who visited the department of prosthodontics at four university dental hospitals for maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation. Patients with facial and congenital defects or with insufficient medical data were excluded. The patients were classified into three categories based on the location of the defect. Patients' sex, age, and residential area were analyzed. Pearson's chi-square test with a significance level of 0.05 was used to analyze the variables. Among 540 patients with maxillofacial prosthetics, there were 284 (52.59%) male patients and 256 (47.41%) female patients. The number of the patients varied greatly by hospital. Most patients were older than 70, and the most common defect was a hard palate defect. Chi-square analysis did not identify any significant differences in sex, age, and distance to hospital for any defect group (P>.05). The results of this study indicated that there was imbalance in the distribution of patients with maxillofacial prosthetic among the hospitals in the capital region of Korea. Considerations on specialists and insurance policies for the improvement of maxillofacial prosthetics in Korea are required.

  11. Incidence of Prosthetic Complications associated with Implant-borne Prosthesis in a Sleep Disorder Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneel, Venkatesh B; Kotian, Santhosh; Jujare, Ravikanth H; Shetty, Adarsh K; Nidhi, Sneh; Grover, Shehkar

    2017-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the common prevalent conditions present worldwide. The process of abnormal habits related to clenching and grinding of teeth is referred to as bruxism and is characterized under the heading of parafunctional activity of the masticatory system. Osseointegrated dental implants represent advancements in the field of odontology. Despite its high success rate, failure and complications are often associated with dental implant treatment due to a number of factors. Hence, we aimed for the present study to assess the incidence of prosthetic complications in patients rehabilitated with implant-borne prosthesis in a sleep disorder unit. The present study included the assessment of all the patients who underwent prosthetic rehabilitation by dental implants. An experienced registered prosthodontist was given duty for examination of all the cases from the record file data. Prosthetic complications in the patients were identified using photographs, radiographs, and all other relevant data of the patients obtained from the record files. All types of complications and other factors were recorded separately and analyzed. While correlating the prosthetic complications in OSA patients grouped based on number of dental implants, nonsignificant results were obtained. Significant correlation was observed while comparing the prosthetic complications divided based on type of prosthesis. Fracture of the porcelain was observed in four and eight cases respectively, of screwed and cemented dental implant cases. Some amount of significant correlation existed between the incidences of prosthetic complications and OSA. Proper history of the patients undergoing dental implant procedures should be taken to avoid failure.

  12. Frequency of Prosthetic Complications Related to Implant-Borne Prosthesis in a Sleep Disorder Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Saracho, Juan; Almeida, Gabriela Zamora; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan

    2017-02-01

    Sleep bruxism and higher clench index have been associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there is no study that reports on the prosthetic complications in patients with OSA. Records of patients who had performed a sleep study to diagnose OSA were examined for the occurrence of prosthetic complications in implant-borne reconstructions. The primary outcome was the frequency of prosthetic complications. The secondary outcomes were anthropometric data, type of complication, type of prosthesis, type of retention, number of supporting implants, number of prosthetic units, and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea. Of the 172 patients, 67 had an implant-supported prosthesis, and all were included in the study. The mean age was 61 ± 10 years, and 36 were female. Thirty complications in 22 prostheses were identified in 16 patients. The complications were porcelain fracture (14 events), screw/implant fracture (8 events), screw loosening (3 events), and decementation (5 events). The follow-up time was 117 ± 90 months after placement of the prosthesis. The average time for complications to occur was 73 ± 65 months after the placement of the prosthesis. According to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), 49 patients had OSA. Thirteen of the 16 patients having a prosthetic complication also had OSA. The highest AHI and thus the severity of OSA was identified in patients with a fracture complication related to an implant, a screw, or a porcelain. The frequency of prosthetic complications has been higher in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  13. THE ROLE OF ANTICOAGULATION THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTHETIC HEART VALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery is the only radical method of treatment of valvular defects (congenital or acquired: valve preservation procedures or prosthetics operations. 250 000 – 280 000 valve prostheses are implanted every year worldwide, while the number of prosthetic valves operation increases by an average of 5–7 % per year (biological prostheses – 8–11 %, mechanical prostheses – 3–5 %. Selection of biological or mechanical types of prosthesis, its location, the presence of associated risk factors for embolic events, such as atrial fibrillation, previous embolism, left ventricular dysfunction, hypercoagulable states determine patient management tactics. Particularly high risk of prosthetic thrombosis and thromboembolic complications can be seen in case of mechanical prosthesis implantation. Numerous prospective and retrospective clinical studies have proven high effectiveness of anticoagulants for reduction the risk of cardioembolic complications. The degree of anticoagulation (optimal international normalized ratio (INR is determined by risk factors for prosthetic thrombosis and thromboembolic complications in a patient, as well as thrombogenicity of the prosthesis by itself; INR may range from 2.5 to 4.0. International recommendations take into account the presence/absence of additional risk factors for thromboembolism, and based on warfarin administration with the achievement of target INR values combined with low-dose aspirin. Administration of novel direct oral anticoagulation remedies in patients with prosthetic heart valves has not been studied sufficiently up to date and is contraindicated. Thus, warfarin currently is a drug of choice for the prevention of thromboembolic complications in patients with prosthetic heart valves.

  14. Slip sliding away: A novel head-disk interface and its tribology (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jing; Tang, Huan; Wang, Li-Ping; Rauch, Gary C.; Boutaghou, Zine; Hanchi, Jorge; Pitchford, Thomas; Segar, Peter

    2000-05-01

    The continuous reduction of head-disk spacing has made the use of supersmooth media a necessity in gaining ultrahigh magnetic recording areal density. To overcome the stiction barrier associated with supersmooth disks without compromising the head flyability requirement, texture features can be transferred from the disk surface to the slider surface, creating a new type of head-disk interface, the padded slider interface. The tribology of a padded slider interface is in many ways different from that of the traditional head-disk interface with texture on the disk only. In this article, various unique tribological aspects of the padded slider interface are discussed in detail. Both theoretical modeling results and experimental data are presented to elucidate the stiction, friction, and wear behaviors of this novel head-disk interface. It is shown that the padded slider technology offers a viable alternative to the ramp load technology as a head-disk interface solution for the ultrahigh areal density.

  15. Virtual prototyping of a semi-active transfemoral prosthetic leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Zhen Wei; Awad, Mohammed I; Abouhossein, Alireza; Dehghani-Sanij, Abbas A; Messenger, Neil

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a virtual prototyping study of a semi-active lower limb prosthesis to improve the functionality of an amputee during prosthesis-environment interaction for level ground walking. Articulated ankle-foot prosthesis and a single-axis semi-active prosthetic knee with active and passive operating modes were considered. Data for level ground walking were collected using a photogrammetric method in order to develop a base-line simulation model and with the hip kinematics input to verify the proposed design. The simulated results show that the semi-active lower limb prosthesis is able to move efficiently in passive mode, and the activation time of the knee actuator can be reduced by approximately 50%. Therefore, this semi-active system has the potential to reduce the energy consumption of the actuators required during level ground walking and requires less compensation from the amputee due to lower deviation of the vertical excursion of body centre of mass. © IMechE 2015.

  16. Development of a BIONic muscle spindle for prosthetic proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Nicholas A; Loeb, Gerald E

    2007-06-01

    The replacement of proprioceptive function, whether for conscious sensation or feedback control, is likely to be an important aspect of neural prosthetic restoration of limb movements. Thus far, however, it has been hampered by the absence of unobtrusive sensors. We propose a method whereby fully implanted, telemetrically operated BIONs monitor muscle movement, and thereby detect changes in joint angle(s) and/or limb posture without requiring the use of secondary components attached to limb segments or external reference frames. The sensor system is designed to detect variations in the electrical coupling between devices implanted in neighboring muscles that result from changes in their relative position as the muscles contract and stretch with joint motion. The goal of this study was to develop and empirically validate mathematical models of the sensing scheme and to use computer simulations to provide an early proof of concept and inform design of the overall sensor system. Results from experiments using paired dipoles in a saline bath and finite element simulations have given insight into the current distribution and potential gradients exhibited within bounded anisotropic environments similar to a human limb segment and demonstrated an anticipated signal to noise ratio of at least 8:1 for submillimeter resolution of relative implant movement over a range of implant displacements up to 15 cm.

  17. Biosocial profile of New Zealand prosthetic eye wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith R; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert J

    2012-10-12

    To describe the biosocial profile of New Zealand (NZ) artificial eye wearers and establish a basis for future research and international comparison. This retrospective study surveyed 431 NZ artificial eye wearers to investigate their ethnicity, gender, age, causes of eye loss, age of current prosthesis, ocular prosthetic maintenance regimes and the extent and severity of discharge associated with prosthesis wear. Approximately 3000 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Accidents were the main cause of eye loss prior to 1990 and medical conditions have been the main cause since. In the 1960s, the ratio of men to women losing an eye from accidents was 5:1, but during the past decade the ratio was 1.4:1. Socket discharge occurred at least twice daily for one-third of the study group. Approximately 1 in 1440 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Decline of eye loss due to accidents is consistent with decreasing workplace and traffic accidents and may be due to improved medical management, workplace safety standards and safer roads. Mucoid discharge is prevalent in the anophthalmic population of NZ and an evidence based treatment protocol for discharge associated with prosthesis wear is needed. Research into this distressing condition is planned.

  18. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a pediatric patient with an ocular defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M; Anand, Bina M; Shashibhusan, Mayur Anand Kk; Reddy, Vv Subba

    2013-01-01

    The eye is a vital organ for vision and an important component of facial expression. Loss of an eye has a crippling effect physically and psychologically. Especially, in case of a child where it affects the parent too and the approach toward these special children needs to be very special indeed. The construction of an ocular prosthesis for a child is the same as for an adult. A growing child will require periodic enlargement of the prosthesis in order to accompany the expansion of the anophthalmic cavity and it is the only way to esthetically rebuild the anophthalmic socket. Although implant eye prosthesis has superior outcome, due to economic factors it may not be advisable in all patients. Therefore, an acrylic custom-made ocular prosthesis replacement as soon as possible is a good alternative to promote physical and psychological healing for the patient and to improve social acceptance. A case of a custom fabricated ocular acrylic prosthesis using the advantages of digital photography is presented here, which had acceptable fit, retention and improved esthetics with a certain degree of motility in coordination with the contralateral normal eye. How to cite this article: Nalawade TM, Mallikarjuna RM, Anand BM, Anand M, Shashibhusan KK, Subba Reddy VV. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Pediatric Patient with an Ocular Defect. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):62-65.

  19. Meibomian gland dysfunction in longstanding prosthetic eye wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sun Young; Lee, Sang Yeul; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a possible cause of ocular discomfort in patients wearing an ocular prosthesis, with the paired normal eye used as a control. Thirty consecutive patients with a unilateral ocular prosthesis completed a questionnaire designed to identify MGD-related ocular symptoms. Both eyelids of each patient underwent slit lamp examination, meibography imaging, and Fourier-domain (FD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning. Intra-individual comparison of main outcome measures between the eyelids of a prosthetic eye and paired normal eyelids was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A linear mixed model was used to investigate an association between ocular symptoms and condition of meibomian gland/tear parameters. The eyelids with an ocular prosthesis exhibited significantly higher scores for ocular symptoms, lid margin abnormality, meibomian gland expression, and meibography compared to the normal eyelids (pprosthetic eye, assessed with FD OCT, were significantly lower than those of the normal eyelid (pprosthetic eyes, especially those with ocular discomfort.

  20. A method for the control of multigrasp myoelectric prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Skyler Ashton; Varol, Huseyin Atakan; Goldfarb, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and preliminary experimental validation of a multigrasp myoelectric controller. The described method enables direct and proportional control of multigrasp prosthetic hand motion among nine characteristic postures using two surface electromyography electrodes. To assess the efficacy of the control method, five nonamputee subjects utilized the multigrasp myoelectric controller to command the motion of a virtual prosthesis between random sequences of target hand postures in a series of experimental trials. For comparison, the same subjects also utilized a data glove, worn on their native hand, to command the motion of the virtual prosthesis for similar sequences of target postures during each trial. The time required to transition from posture to posture and the percentage of correctly completed transitions were evaluated to characterize the ability to control the virtual prosthesis using each method. The average overall transition times across all subjects were found to be 1.49 and 0.81 s for the multigrasp myoelectric controller and the native hand, respectively. The average transition completion rates for both were found to be the same (99.2%). Supplemental videos demonstrate the virtual prosthesis experiments, as well as a preliminary hardware implementation.

  1. Towards the design of a prosthetic underactuated hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Laliberté

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent advances in the design of an underactuated hand for applications in prosthetics. First, the design of the fingers is addressed. Based on previous experiments with prototypes developed in the past, new tendon routings are proposed that lead to a more effective transmission of the forces. A novel elastic tendon routing is also proposed for the passive opening of the hand. A simplified static analysis of the fingers is proposed to support the results. Then, a new kinematic design of the thumb is presented. The thumb is designed to perform out-of-the-plane motions in order to broaden the variety of possible grasps. A mechanism for the implementation of underactuation between the fingers is proposed that alleviates the friction problems encountered in earlier hand designs. Finally, a prototype of the hand is briefly described and typical grasps are shown.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  2. Prosthetic treatment in dentinogenesis imperfecta type II: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Güven

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI or hereditary opalescent dentin is an autosomal dominant disorder affecting both primary and permanent dentition. Early diagnosis and treatment of DI is important for normal facial growth and esthetic continuity by preserving occlusion and tooth structure. It also provides psychological motivation by increasing the patient’s quality of life. Providing functional dentition in DI patients prevents loss of the vertical dimension, while enabling normal growth of the facial bones and jaw joint. CASE REPORT: A 20-year-old male with DI was referred to our clinic with chewing difficulty and esthetic and speech problems. His brother also had this disease. Oral examination showed the loss of many teeth and the absence of enamel on most of the remaining teeth, causing discoloration and exposing soft dentinal tissue with calcification disorder. Despite widespread attrition of the teeth, pulp chambers were not exposed. The tip of the lower jaw was prominent in the patient’s profile. Placing metal-ceramic fixed dentures in the lower jaw and an overdenture prosthesis in the upper jaw improved the patient’s psychological state as well as his function, phonation, and esthetics. CONCLUSION: This case report presents the intraoral findings in a patient with DI, including the histopathological findings, and the prosthetic treatment approach and the treatment outcome.

  3. Structural testing of a juvenile prosthetic foot pylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Brian P; Wilcox, Rick; Daniel, Brooks; Kawatski, Adam; Rojas, Joseph; Webb, Beacher; Bearden, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians at the Shriner's Hospitals for Children have noticed unexpected catastrophic failures in the 2024-T3 aluminum prosthetic pylons of their juvenile patients. They postulated that small "dings", caused by sharp impacts with playground equipment or other obstacles, might be causing stress concentrations in the pylons. To investigate this, students at the United States Air Force Academy performed a series of tests to determine potential failure modes for the pylon. Initially, a technique for introducing small reproducible "dings" was established. These damaged specimens were then subjected to compressive axial tests to failure, axial fatigue tests (5-100 lbs at 5 Hz), and finally four point bending fatigue tests (370 in-lbs at 5 Hz). The maximum compressive load of the damaged specimen was virtually identical to that of the control specimen (14 kips), and the axial fatigue test was halted with no damage after one million cycles. Two bending fatigue tests resulted in cracks and eventual failure at the load application points of the fixture on the pylon. This has caused us to speculate that failure of the pylons is not due to the dings, but may be due to over-tightening of the pylon attachment points to the foot and the deficient limb. Further testing will be conducted to examine this possibility.

  4. Use of Accelerometers in the Control of Practical Prosthetic Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyberd, Peter J; Poulton, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Accelerometers can be used to augment the control of powered prosthetic arms. They can detect the orientation of the joint and limb, and the controller can correct for the amount of torque required to move the limb. They can also be used to create a platform, with a fixed orientation relative to gravity for the object held in the hand. This paper describes three applications for this technology, in a powered wrist and powered arm. By adding sensors to the arm making these data available to the controller, the input from the user can be made simpler. The operator will not need to correct for changes in orientation of their body as they move. Two examples of the correction for orientation against gravity are described and an example of the system designed for use by a patient. The controller for all examples is a distributed set of microcontrollers, one node for each joint, linked with the control area network bus. The clinical arm uses a version of the Southampton adaptive manipulation scheme to control the arm and hand. In this control form, the user gives simpler input commands and leaves the detailed control of the arm to the controller.

  5. A Powered Prosthetic Intervention for Bilateral Transfemoral Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Brian E.; Ruhe, Brian; Shultz, Amanda; Goldfarb, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and validation of a control system for a pair of powered knee and ankle prostheses to be used as a prosthetic intervention for bilateral transfemoral amputees. The control system leverages communication between the prostheses for enhanced awareness and stability, along with power generation at the knee and ankle joints to better restore biomechanical functionality in level ground walking. The control methodology employed is a combination of an impedance-based framework for weight-bearing portions of gait and a trajectory-based approach for the non-weight-bearing portions. The control system was implemented on a pair of self-contained powered knee and ankle prostheses, and the ability of the prostheses and control approach to provide walking functionality was assessed in a set of experimental trials with a bilateral transfemoral amputee subject. Specifically, experimental data from these trials indicate that the powered prostheses and bilateral control architecture provide gait kinematics that reproduce healthy gait kinematics to a greater extent than the subject’s daily-use passive prostheses. PMID:25014950

  6. Review of the Socket Design and Interface Pressure Measurement for Transtibial Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Pirouzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Socket is an important part of every prosthetic limb as an interface between the residual limb and prosthetic components. Biomechanics of socket-residual limb interface, especially the pressure and force distribution, have effect on patient satisfaction and function. This paper aimed to review and evaluate studies conducted in the last decades on the design of socket, in-socket interface pressure measurement, and socket biomechanics. Literature was searched to find related keywords with transtibial amputation, socket-residual limb interface, socket measurement, socket design, modeling, computational modeling, and suspension system. In accordance with the selection criteria, 19 articles were selected for further analysis. It was revealed that pressure and stress have been studied in the last decaeds, but quantitative evaluations remain inapplicable in clinical settings. This study also illustrates prevailing systems, which may facilitate improvements in socket design for improved quality of life for individuals ambulating with transtibial prosthesis. It is hoped that the review will better facilitate the understanding and determine the clinical relevance of quantitative evaluations.

  7. Advanced aerosense display interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.

    1998-09-01

    High-resolution display technologies are being developed to meet the ever-increasing demand for realistic detail. The requirement for evermore visual information exceeds the capacity of fielded aerospace display interfaces. In this paper we begin an exploration of display interfaces and evolving aerospace requirements. Current and evolving standards for avionics, commercial, and flat panel displays are summarized and compared to near term goals for military and aerospace applications. Aerospace and military applications prior to 2005 up to UXGA and digital HDTV resolution can be met by using commercial interface standard developments. Advanced aerospace requirements require yet higher resolutions (2560 X 2048 color pixels, 5120 X 4096 color pixels at 85 Hz, etc.) and necessitate the initiation of discussion herein of an 'ultra digital interface standard (UDIS)' which includes 'smart interface' features such as large memory and blazingly fast resizing microcomputer. Interface capacity, IT, increased about 105 from 1973 to 1998; 102 more is needed for UDIS.

  8. Selectivity and Longevity of Peripheral-Nerve and Machine Interfaces: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ghafoor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive, direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive, and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals. The peripheral nerve interfaces are highly dependent on interface designs and are required to be biocompatible with the nerves to achieve prolonged stability and longevity. Another criterion is the selection of nerves that allows minimal invasiveness and damages as well as high selectivity for a large number of nerve fascicles. In this paper, we review the nerve-machine interface modalities noted above with more focus on peripheral nerve interfaces, which are responsible for provision of sensory feedback. The invasive interfaces for recording and stimulation of electro-neurographic signals include intra-fascicular, regenerative-type interfaces that provide multiple contact channels to a group of axons inside the nerve and the extra-neural-cuff-type interfaces that enable interaction with many axons around the periphery of the nerve. Section Current Prosthetic Technology summarizes the advancements made to date in the field of neuroprosthetics toward the achievement of a bidirectional nerve-machine interface with more focus on sensory feedback. In the Discussion section, the authors propose a hybrid interface technique for achieving better selectivity and long-term stability using the available nerve interfacing techniques.

  9. Selectivity and Longevity of Peripheral-Nerve and Machine Interfaces: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Usman; Kim, Sohee; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2017-01-01

    For those individuals with upper-extremity amputation, a daily normal living activity is no longer possible or it requires additional effort and time. With the aim of restoring their sensory and motor functions, theoretical and technological investigations have been carried out in the field of neuroprosthetic systems. For transmission of sensory feedback, several interfacing modalities including indirect (non-invasive), direct-to-peripheral-nerve (invasive), and cortical stimulation have been applied. Peripheral nerve interfaces demonstrate an edge over the cortical interfaces due to the sensitivity in attaining cortical brain signals. The peripheral nerve interfaces are highly dependent on interface designs and are required to be biocompatible with the nerves to achieve prolonged stability and longevity. Another criterion is the selection of nerves that allows minimal invasiveness and damages as well as high selectivity for a large number of nerve fascicles. In this paper, we review the nerve-machine interface modalities noted above with more focus on peripheral nerve interfaces, which are responsible for provision of sensory feedback. The invasive interfaces for recording and stimulation of electro-neurographic signals include intra-fascicular, regenerative-type interfaces that provide multiple contact channels to a group of axons inside the nerve and the extra-neural-cuff-type interfaces that enable interaction with many axons around the periphery of the nerve. Section Current Prosthetic Technology summarizes the advancements made to date in the field of neuroprosthetics toward the achievement of a bidirectional nerve-machine interface with more focus on sensory feedback. In the Discussion section, the authors propose a hybrid interface technique for achieving better selectivity and long-term stability using the available nerve interfacing techniques.

  10. Universal computer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dheere, RFBM

    1988-01-01

    Presents a survey of the latest developments in the field of the universal computer interface, resulting from a study of the world patent literature. Illustrating the state of the art today, the book ranges from basic interface structure, through parameters and common characteristics, to the most important industrial bus realizations. Recent technical enhancements are also included, with special emphasis devoted to the universal interface adapter circuit. Comprehensively indexed.

  11. Popeye Project: ROV interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scates, C.R.; Hernandez, D.A.; Hickok, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) interface with the Popeye Project Subsea System. It describes the ROV-related plans, design philosophies, intervention tasks, tooling/equipment requirements, testing activities, and offshore installation experiences. Early identification and continuous consideration of the ROV interfaces significantly improved the overall efficiency of equipment designs and offshore operations. The Popeye Project helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deep water subsea production systems.

  12. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  13. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  14. The influence of staff training and education on prosthetic and orthotic service quality: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghany, Saeed; Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Trinler, Ursula; Onmanee, Pornsuree; Dillon, Michael P; Baker, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Education and training in prosthetics and orthotics typically comply with International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics standards based on three categories of prosthetic and orthotic professionals. This scoping study sought to describe the evidence base available to answer the question, How are prosthetic and orthotic services influenced by the training of staff providing them? Scoping review. A structured search of the peer-reviewed literature catalogued in major electronic databases yielded 3039 papers. Following review of title and abstract, 93 articles were considered relevant. Full-text review reduced this number to 25. Only two articles were identified as providing direct evidence of the effects of training and education on service provision. While both suggested that there was an impact, it is difficult to see how the more specific conclusions of either could be generalised. The other 23 articles provide a useful background to a range of issues including the specification of competencies that training programmes should deliver (3 articles), descriptions of a range of training programmes and the effects of training and education on student knowledge and skills. Although it is considered axiomatic, the service quality is dependent on practitioner education and training. There is insufficient evidence to establish whether levels of training and education in prosthetics and orthotics have an effect on the quality of prosthetic and orthotic services. Clinical relevance There is very little evidence about the effects of training and education of prosthetists and orthotists on service quality. While this is a somewhat negative finding, we feel that it is important to bring this to the attention of the prosthetics and orthotics community.

  15. Contribution of prosthetic treatment considerations for dental extractions of permanent teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrera, Miguel Ángel; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Navarrete-Hernández, José de Jesús; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tooth loss is an easily identifiable outcome that summarizes a complex suite of factors in an individual’s history of dental disease and its treatment by dental services over a lifetime. Assessment of overall tooth loss data is essential for epidemiologically evaluating the adequacy of dental care provided at a systems level, as well as for placing in context tooth loss for non-disease causes. For example, when derived from prosthetic treatment planning, the latter may unfortunately lead to some teeth being extracted (pulled) for the sake of better comprehensive clinical results. The objective of the present manuscript was to identify the contribution to overall tooth loss, by extraction of permanent teeth because of prosthetic treatment reasons. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study included sex, age, total number of extractions performed by subject, sextant (anterior vs. posterior), group of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars), upper or lower arch, and the main reason underlying extraction (extraction for any reason vs. prosthetic treatment), in patients 18 years of age and older seeking care at a dental school clinic in Mexico. A multivariate logistic regression model was generated. Results. A total of 749 teeth were extracted in 331 patients; 161 teeth (21.5% of total) were extracted for explicit prosthetic treatment indications. As age increased, the likelihood of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons increased 3% (OR = 1.03, p extractions increased, the risk of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons decreased (OR = 0.94, p extractions of permanent teeth were performed for prosthetic reasons in this dental school clinical environment; age, sex, type of tooth, and the total number of extractions moderated such pattern. PMID:27441103

  16. Early protection and compression of residual limbs may improve and accelerate prosthetic fit: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwayri, Yazan; Vallabhaneni, Raghuveer; Kirby, John P; Mueller, Michael J; Volshteyn, Oksana; Geraghty, Patrick J; Sicard, Gregorio A; Curci, John A

    2012-02-01

    The goal of rehabilitation following lower extremity amputation is to restore the highest level of independent function. As much as possible, this includes the functional use of a prosthetic device fitted to the residual limb. Early prosthetic fit depends, in turn, on rapid healing of the amputation site. We hypothesized that compliance with a novel custom-designed amputation protection and compression system (CAPCS) to the residual limb can accelerate and improve the likelihood of successful prosthesis use. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients who were offered CAPCS by certified prosthetists (Hanger Prosthetics and Orthotics, Bethesda, MD) during the period between April 2004 and November 2009. Variables included age, sex, indication for amputation, and compliance with CAPCS. Compliance was defined as consistent observed wearing of the CAPCS as directed. The primary end point was the fitting of a prosthetic device to the amputated limb, with time to prosthetic fit being the secondary outcome. Out of 100 patients who were offered CAPCS (n = 100) during the study period, 76% were considered compliant (n = 76). Sixty five patients (65%) were ultimately fitted with prosthetic limbs. In multivariate analysis, we found that patients who had compliant use of CAPCS were significantly more likely to be successfully fit with prosthesis (72 vs. 42%, p = 0.005). At 100 days post amputation, the cumulative incidence of prosthesis fitting was significantly higher in CAPCS compliant patients (69.7 vs. 22.2%, p = 0.012). Compliant use of a CAPCS following amputation is associated with earlier and more frequent use of a prosthetic. Based on this limited data set, a conclusion can be drawn that the potential exists to significantly improve functional outcomes after amputation, but well-designed prospective studies are needed to confirm this association. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Reconsidering evidence-based practice in prosthetic rehabilitation: a shared enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Twillert, Sacha; Geertzen, Jan; Hemminga, Titia; Postema, Klaas; Lettinga, Ant

    2013-06-01

    A divide is experienced between producers and users of evidence in prosthetic rehabilitation. To discuss the complexity inherent in establishing evidence-based practice in a prosthetic rehabilitation team illustrated by the case of prosthetic prescription for elderly dysvascular transfemoral amputee patients. A qualitative research design was used, in which data from multiple sources was triangulated to extract themes for discussion. This discussion paper draws on empirical material gathered by individual and focus-group interviews with members of a prosthetic rehabilitation team, information on technological advancements presented on websites of orthopaedic industry, guidelines and literature study. A prosthetic rehabilitation team needs to deal with lack of evidence, contradictory results, various classification systems, diverging interests of different stakeholders and many modifying factors, and all of this in a continuous technological changing environment. Integrating research designs with different strengths but not sharing the same biases may help researchers to deal with the multimorbidity and multifaceted disability of the target group. Articulating clinical knowledge, patients' needs and values in a systematic way provides depth, detail, nuance and context for evidence-based practice issues in prosthetic rehabilitation. Reconsidering the relationship between evidence, technology and rehabilitation practice is an imperative shared enterprise for clinicians and researchers. Scientific, clinical and patient-related knowledge are seen as important knowledge practices that should inform and strengthen each other. This discussion paper puts the academic clinical debate on evidence-based practice in prosthetics and orthotics in another light. By demonstrating the complexities surrounding evidence-based practice, it is argued and illustrated how both researchers and clinicians can contribute to optimal patient care in which evidence, technology and

  18. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Pasteurella multocida: a case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnorat, Estelle; Seng, Piseth; Savini, Hélène; Pinelli, Pierre-Olivier; Simon, Fabrice; Stein, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    Pasteurella multocida is a well-recognized zoonotic agent following dog or cat bites or scratches. Nevertheless, prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida are rarely reported. We report here a series of six cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida managed at a referral centre for the treatment of bone and joint infection in southern France. We also reviewed the 26 cases reported in literature. The mean age of our cases was 74 years [±8.2, range 63-85]. In majority of our cases (5 cases) were associated with knee prostheses and one case with a hip prosthesis. Most of cases occurred after cat or dog scratches or licks or contact. Diagnoses of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida were made by positive cultures of surgical biopsies or needle aspiration. Mean time delay between prosthetic joint implantation and infection onset was 7.6 years (±5.12 years, range 2-17). Local inflammation, which occurred in all six cases, was the most frequent clinical symptom, followed by pain in five cases, fever and swollen joints in four cases, and a fistula with purulent discharge inside the wound in two cases. The mean time of antibiotic therapy was 8 months. Surgical treatment with prosthesis removal was performed in three cases. Six of our cases were in remission without apparent relapse at 3 years after end of treatment. Prosthetic joint infections caused by P. multocida usually occur after animal scratches or bites, but can occasionally occur after a short animal lick. These infections are usually resulting from a contiguous infection and localized in the knee. An early antibiotic therapy after surgical debridement could avoid prosthetic withdrawal, notably in elderly patients. Patients with prosthetic joints should be warned that animals are potential sources of serious infection and urgent medical advice should be sought if they are bitten or scratched.

  19. The effects of a controlled energy storage and return prototype prosthetic foot on transtibial amputee ambulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Ava D; Zelik, Karl E; Klute, Glenn K; Morgenroth, David C; Hahn, Michael E; Orendurff, Michael S; Adamczyk, Peter G; Collins, Steven H; Kuo, Arthur D; Czerniecki, Joseph M

    2012-08-01

    The lack of functional ankle musculature in lower limb amputees contributes to the reduced prosthetic ankle push-off, compensations at other joints and more energetically costly gait commonly observed in comparison to non-amputees. A variety of energy storing and return prosthetic feet have been developed to address these issues but have not been shown to sufficiently improve amputee biomechanics and energetic cost, perhaps because the timing and magnitude of energy return is not controlled. The goal of this study was to examine how a prototype microprocessor-controlled prosthetic foot designed to store some of the energy during loading and return it during push-off affects amputee gait. Unilateral transtibial amputees wore the Controlled Energy Storage and Return prosthetic foot (CESR), a conventional foot (CONV), and their previously prescribed foot (PRES) in random order. Three-dimensional gait analysis and net oxygen consumption were collected as participants walked at constant speed. The CESR foot demonstrated increased energy storage during early stance, increased prosthetic foot peak push-off power and work, increased prosthetic limb center of mass (COM) push-off work and decreased intact limb COM collision work compared to CONV and PRES. The biological contribution of the positive COM work for CESR was reduced compared to CONV and PRES. However, the net metabolic cost for CESR did not change compared to CONV and increased compared to PRES, which may partially reflect the greater weight, lack of individualized size and stiffness and relatively less familiarity for CESR and CONV. Controlled energy storage and return enhanced prosthetic push-off, but requires further design modifications to improve amputee walking economy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Can We Achieve Intuitive Prosthetic Elbow Control Based on Healthy Upper Limb Motor Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manelle Merad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals

  1. Comparison of four different categories of prosthetic feet during ramp ambulation in unilateral transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vibhor; Gailey, Robert S; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; O'Toole, Christopher; Finnieston, Adam; Tolchin, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness of prosthetic feet during ramp ambulation in unilateral transtibial amputees, who function at different Medicare Functional Classification Levels, has not been published. To determine differences in symmetry in external work between four categories of prosthetic feet in K-Level-2 and K-Level-3 unilateral transtibial amputees during ramp ascent and descent. Randomized repeated-measures trial. Ten subjects completed six testing sessions during which symmetry in external work was calculated using F-scan in-sole sensors. Between testing sessions 1 and 2, subjects received standardized functional prosthetic training. In Sessions 3-6, subjects tested four feet--solid ankle cushion heel, stationary attachment flexible endoskeleton, Talux (categories K1, K2, and K3, respectively), and Proprio-Foot (microprocessor ankle)--using a study socket and had a 10- to 14-day accommodation period with each foot. During ramp descent, K-Level-2 subjects demonstrated higher symmetry in external work values with Talux and Proprio-Foot compared to the solid ankle cushion heel foot. K-Level-3 subjects also had higher symmetry in external work values with the Talux foot than the solid ankle cushion heel foot. Ramp ascent symmetry in external work values were not significantly different between feet. Prosthetic foot category appears to influence symmetry in external work more during decline walking than incline walking. K-Level-2 unilateral transtibial amputees achieve greater symmetry from K3 dynamic response prosthetic feet with J-shaped ankle and microprocessor ankles while descending ramps. The findings suggest that K-Level-2 unilateral transtibial amputees benefit from K3 dynamic response prosthetic feet with J-shaped ankle. These results support the prescription of K3 feet for K-Level-2 amputees who frequently negotiate ramps. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  2. Brain-Computer Interfaces in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jerry J.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) acquire brain signals, analyze them, and translate them into commands that are relayed to output devices that carry out desired actions. BCIs do not use normal neuromuscular output pathways. The main goal of BCI is to replace or restore useful function to people disabled by neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, or spinal cord injury. From initial demonstrations of electroencephalography-based spelling and single-neuron-based device control, researchers have gone on to use electroencephalographic, intracortical, electrocorticographic, and other brain signals for increasingly complex control of cursors, robotic arms, prostheses, wheelchairs, and other devices. Brain-computer interfaces may also prove useful for rehabilitation after stroke and for other disorders. In the future, they might augment the performance of surgeons or other medical professionals. Brain-computer interface technology is the focus of a rapidly growing research and development enterprise that is greatly exciting scientists, engineers, clinicians, and the public in general. Its future achievements will depend on advances in 3 crucial areas. Brain-computer interfaces need signal-acquisition hardware that is convenient, portable, safe, and able to function in all environments. Brain-computer interface systems need to be validated in long-term studies of real-world use by people with severe disabilities, and effective and viable models for their widespread dissemination must be implemented. Finally, the day-to-day and moment-to-moment reliability of BCI performance must be improved so that it approaches the reliability of natural muscle-based function. PMID:22325364

  3. Brain-computer interfaces in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jerry J; Krusienski, Dean J; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2012-03-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) acquire brain signals, analyze them, and translate them into commands that are relayed to output devices that carry out desired actions. BCIs do not use normal neuromuscular output pathways. The main goal of BCI is to replace or restore useful function to people disabled by neuromuscular disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, or spinal cord injury. From initial demonstrations of electroencephalography-based spelling and single-neuron-based device control, researchers have gone on to use electroencephalographic, intracortical, electrocorticographic, and other brain signals for increasingly complex control of cursors, robotic arms, prostheses, wheelchairs, and other devices. Brain-computer interfaces may also prove useful for rehabilitation after stroke and for other disorders. In the future, they might augment the performance of surgeons or other medical professionals. Brain-computer interface technology is the focus of a rapidly growing research and development enterprise that is greatly exciting scientists, engineers, clinicians, and the public in general. Its future achievements will depend on advances in 3 crucial areas. Brain-computer interfaces need signal-acquisition hardware that is convenient, portable, safe, and able to function in all environments. Brain-computer interface systems need to be validated in long-term studies of real-world use by people with severe disabilities, and effective and viable models for their widespread dissemination must be implemented. Finally, the day-to-day and moment-to-moment reliability of BCI performance must be improved so that it approaches the reliability of natural muscle-based function. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  5. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kenkre, V.D.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Direct viable counts (DVC) of bacteria were quantified from polluted and relatively less/non-polluted coastal locations during different seasons to assess whether they can be routinely monitored for an understanding of environmental stress(es...

  6. Recognition of a Virtual Scene via Simulated Prosthetic Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively aid the blind with optimal low-resolution vision and visual recovery training, pathfinding and recognition tests were performed using a simulated visual prosthetic scene. Simple and complex virtual scenes were built using 3DMAX and Unity, and pixelated to three different resolutions (32 × 32, 64 × 64, and 128 × 128 for real-time pixel processing. Twenty subjects were recruited to complete the pathfinding and object recognition tasks within the scene. The recognition accuracy and time required were recorded and analyzed after the trials. In the simple simulated prosthetic vision (SPV scene, when the resolution was increased from 32 × 32 to 48 × 48, the object recognition time decreased from 92.19 ± 6.97 to 43.05 ± 6.08 s, and the recognition accuracy increased from 51.22 ± 8.53 to 85.52 ± 4.93%. Furthermore, the number of collisions decreased from 10.00 ± 2.31 to 3.00 ± 0.68. When the resolution was increased from 48 × 48 to 64 × 64, the object recognition time further decreased from 43.05 ± 6.08 to 19.46 ± 3.71 s, the recognition accuracy increased from 85.52 ± 4.93 to 96.89 ± 2.06%, and the number of collisions decreased from 3.00 ± 0.68 to 1.00 ± 0.29. In complex scenes, the time required to recognize the room type decreased from 115.00 ± 23.02 to 68.25 ± 17.23 s, and object recognition accuracy increased from 65.69 ± 9.61 to 80.42 ± 7.70% when the resolution increased from 48 × 48 to 64 × 64. When the resolution increased from 64 × 64 to 128 × 128, the time required to recognize the room type decreased from 68.25 ± 17.23 to 44.88 ± 9.94 s, and object recognition accuracy increased from 80.42 ± 7.71 to 85.69 ± 7.39%. Therefore, one can conclude that there are correlations between pathfinding and recognition. When the resolution increased, the time required for

  7. User experience of transtibial prosthetic liners: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Amy; Dillon, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    The liner is an integral part of a transtibial prosthesis designed to protect the residual limb, enhance comfort and provide suspension. Literature is difficult to interpret and use given the variety of interventions, outcome measures and method designs. Critical appraisal and synthesis of the evidence is needed to help inform decisions about liner prescription based on the user experience. To critically appraise and synthesise research describing the user experience of transtibial prosthetic liners. Systematic review. A comprehensive suite of databases were searched using terms related to amputation level, liner type and user experience. Included studies were in English and measured the first-person experience of using a transtibial liner. Studies were appraised using the McMaster University Critical Review Forms. A total of 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. While the quality of the evidence has improved over time, a number of common issues (e.g. sampling bias, validity of outcome measures, incorrect inferential analysis) reduce our ability to differentiate between the user experience of different transtibial liners. There is insufficient research to differentiate between the user experience of different transtibial liners. High-quality research is needed to inform decisions about liner prescription based on the user experience. Clinical relevance The available evidence suggests that the user experience of commonly reported problems (e.g. sweating) may be very similar between different liners. Aspects of the user experience that differ most between liners (e.g. unwanted noises, rotation within the socket) can help focus attention on what matters most when discussing prescription.

  8. Proximal Junctional Kyphosis After Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Gold, Meryl; Karlin, Lawrence

    2013-11-01

    Retrospective review of patients who had undergone vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) treatment at a single institution. To evaluate whether clinically significant proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) occurs after VEPTR insertion. PJK is a potential problem after posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion. PJK after VEPTR insertion has not been well-described. A total of 68 patients underwent VEPTR treatment between 1999 and 2009. Diagnosis, age at time of VEPTR insertion, location of VEPTR anchors, preoperative and postoperative scoliosis, T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK, time from VEPTR insertion to development of PJK, revision procedure for significant PJK, change in PJK after the revision procedure, and PJK at final follow-up were recorded. Four patients developed PJK (6%). One patient had congenital scoliosis with rib fusions, 1 had scoliosis associated with a syndrome, and 2 had neuromuscular scoliosis. Mean follow-up was 5.7 years. Average T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK before VEPTR insertion were 77° and 14°, respectively. Mean T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK after VEPTR insertion were 63° and 33°, respectively. Average T2-T12 kyphosis and PJK before the recommended revision procedure for treatment of PJK were 89° and 53°, respectively. All patients developed PJK within the first year after VEPTR insertion. Two patients underwent revision to growing rods. One of these patients had preoperative halo-gravity traction. Mean PJK in these 2 patients improved from 39° to 18° after revision and remained stable at 19° at an average follow-up of 2.9 years. PJK after VEPTR insertion can occur. Patients with preoperative thoracic hyperkyphosis may be at higher risk. PJK can develop within the first year of VEPTR treatment, and can become progressive and severe enough to require complex interventions. In this small case series, patients were revised to growing rods. Copyright © 2013 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wound complications of vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sumeet; LaGreca, Jaren; St Hilaire, Tricia; Gao, Dexiang; Glotzbecker, Michael; Li, Ying; Smith, John T; Flynn, Jack

    2014-06-01

    Multicenter retrospective review. To compare the incidence of infection between vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) incision locations and determine if the infection risk increases in relation to presence of previous incisions and/or increased number of times incisions are opened. Patients undergoing treatment for chest and spine deformity with VEPTR require multiple incisions that are opened repeatedly during expansion procedures. A prospective database (7 sites) and institutional database (2 sites), were queried to identify their 20 most recent patients with VEPTR with a minimum of 4 expansions for inclusion. A total of 103 patients were identified. Clinical and operative reports were reviewed to determine incision locations, number, and infection complications. Twenty-five of 103 patients (24%) developed an infection during treatment. Six had multiple infections (range, 2-4), providing a total of 34 infection events. Patients averaged 6.4 expansion procedures and 13 total incisions. Infection rate at each incision site was not significantly different, in the range from 1% to 5%: paramedian (6 infections/23 patients with total 185 incisions, 3%), proximal midline (12/39; 224, 5%), thoracotomy (6/61; 455, 1%), iliac (5/37; 143, 4%), and distal midline (5/58; 148, 3%). Infection events occurred after an average of 3 times a particular incision was opened (95% confidence interval: 2.2-3.8). There was a trend toward higher infection rate with increased number of times a particular incision was opened. There was no increased infection rate in patients with surgical incisions prior to VEPTR (26%; 6/23) compared with patients not having prior incisions (24%; 19/80). The incidence of infection in patients with 4 or more VEPTR lengthenings was 24% and did not differ across the various incision locations. Presence of prior surgical incisions was not a risk factor for infection. Surgeons should use the most appropriate incision in relation to their patient

  10. Aesthetics in oral implantology: biological, clinical, surgical, and prosthetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammartino, Gilberto; Marenzi, Gaetano; di Lauro, Alessandro Espedito; Paolantoni, Guerino

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a correct clinical, surgical, and prosthetic management of endosseous implants replacing missing teeth in the anterior maxilla, achieving predictable aesthetic outcomes. Placement of immediate post-extraction implants without incisions or flap elevation is one of the surgical treatment options able to improve the healing and regenerative potentials of the fresh socket. Fifty-five patients (33 men, 22 women), ranging in age from 19 to 57 years (mean 29), were selected for this study. All the patients were not smokers, no bruxers, presented stable soft tissue conditions, an acceptable occlusion, and the absence of pathologies that would contraindicate bone healing. Patients were treated with implants made by 2 manufacturers: Institute Straumann, Walderburg, Switzerland and Friadent, Mannheim, Germany. A total of 87 implants were placed immediately after each failing tooth had been removed. The temporary restoration was placed 3 months after implant placement, and the final restoration was placed 4 months from the surgical procedure. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically at implant placement, and 2, 4, 18, and 24 months post-insertion. At 24 months, only 3 implants were lost (2 in male patients;1 in female patient). All of these failed implants did not achieve osseointegration. The overall success rate was 96.6%, with an implant failure rate of 3.4%, all prior to restoration. The immediate placement in the anterior maxilla fresh extraction sockets without incisions or flaps elevation is a surgical option that can ensure ideal peri-implant tissues healing, preserving the presurgical gingival and bone aspects. For a predictable aesthetic result, the most important aspect seems to be the height and thickness of the buccal bone wall, which remain after immediate placement of the fixture.

  11. Partial edentulism and unmet prosthetic needs amongst young adult Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboboye, B; Azodo, C; Soroye, M

    2014-03-01

    Treatment options for missing tooth/teeth which are mostly commonly caused dental caries, periodontitis and trauma include partial dentures, bridge and implant. In developing countries, missing tooth/teeth replacement constitutes a high unmet dental need. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of partial edentulism and prosthetic unmet dental needs among young adults in Nigeria. A total of 244 medical students of college of medicine were recruited and studied using interviewer administered questionnaire which elicited information on sociodemographic, tooth loss and replacement. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 statistical software for windows. There were 98 males (40.2%) and 146 females (59.8%). A total of 35 participants out of the 244 studied participants had missing tooth/teeth giving a prevalence of 14.3%. The major reason of tooth loss was caries (48.6%). The upper left (16.7%) and right (16.7%) had the highest tooth mortality. Of the 35 participants with missing teeth, 4 (11.4%) of had replacement while 31 (88.6%) did not have any form of replacement. The teeth replaced were upper right, left anterior (75%) and upper right posterior (25%). Reasons for non-replacement were not being bothered--14 (45.2%), ignorance of replacement therapy-- 7 (22.6%), misinformation--1 (3.2%) and lack of money--2 (6.5%). Those that replaced 4/42 (9.5%) did so with removable partial dentures (100%). The majority that replaced were females 3/4 (75%). Half (50%) of those that replaced were satisfied and the reasons for non-satisfaction were pain from denture and unnatural feel of denture. Data from this study revealed low prevalence of tooth loss with high unmet tooth replacement needs among the participants. Tooth/teeth replacement options should be incorporated in postoperative instructions after extraction and dental awareness should be improved among medical students.

  12. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: Early Outcome following Medical or Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Alinejad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE is an important cause of morbidity and mortality associated with heart valve replacement surgery. The aim of the present study was to describe the early outcome of treatment in patients with PVE in a single center. Methods: The data of all the episodes of PVE registered at our institution between 2002 and 2007 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The patients were assessed using clinical criteria defined by Durack and colleagues (Duke criteria. The analysis included a detailed study of hospital records. The continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and the discrete variables were presented as percentages.Results: Thirteen patients with PVE were diagnosed and treated at our center during the study period. In all the cases, mechanical prostheses were utilized. The patients' mean age was 46.9±12.8 years. Women made up 53.8% of all the cases. Early PVE was detected in 6 (46.2% patients, and late PVE occurred in 7 (53.8 %. Eleven (84.6% patients were treated with intravenous antimicrobial therapy, and the other two (15.4% required surgical removal and replacement of the infected prosthesis in addition to antibiotic therapy. Blood cultures became positive in 46.2% of the patients. Mortality rate was 15.4% (2 patients. Conclusion: It seems that in selected cases with PVE, i.e. in those who remain clinically stable and respond well to antimicrobial therapy, a cure could be achieved by antimicrobial treatment alone with acceptable morbidity and mortality risk.

  13. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  14. Interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with material interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics. Interface properties between the absorbing semiconductor and other employed materials are crucial for an efficient solar cell. While the optical properties are largely unaffected by a few nanometer thin layer, the electronic

  15. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  16. User Interface Technology Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Interface can be manufactured. The user Interface bulder may be provided with tools to enhance the building block set, e.g.. icon and font editor to add...ity and easy extensiblity of the command set. t supports command history , execu- tion of previous commands, and editing of commands. Through the

  17. Interface, a dispersed architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Past and current specification techniques use timing diagrams and written text to describe the phenomenology of an interface. This paper treats an interface as the architecture of a number of processes, which are dispersed over the related system parts and the message path. This approach yields a

  18. Immunization of rodents against Hymenolepis infections using non-viable homologous oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Ito, Akira

    2004-12-01

    Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous non-viable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at -70 degrees C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  19. [Viable myocardium detecting by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Mu, Hu-Yati; He, Peng-Yi; Yang, Yu-Chun; Chou, Ping; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yan-Yi

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and practicability of detecting viable myocardium by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in 13 anesthetized swines via occluding the distal of left anterior descending coronary arteries by angioplasty balloon for 60-90 minutes. The viable myocardium detection by CARTO voltage mapping was made after reconstruction of the left ventricle using CARTO and the results were compared with TTC staining. The standard of CARTO voltage to detect viable myocardium was 0.5 - 1.5 mV while viable myocardium showed pink color by TTC staining. Eleven out of 13 swines survived the operation and 2 swines died of ventricular fibrillation at 45 and 65 minutes post ischemia. Left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and 176 segments from 11 swines were analyzed. Viable myocardium detected by CARTO voltage mapping was identical as identified by TTC staining (Kappa = 0.816, P < 0.001). Taken the TTC result as standard, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of CARTO voltage mapping are 71.8%, 96.5% and 90.9% respectively. CARTO voltage mapping could be used as a reliable tool to detect viable myocardium in this model.

  20. Entanglement and topological interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, E.; Brunner, I.; Jaud, D.; Schmidt-Colinet, C. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we consider entanglement entropies in two-dimensional conformal field theories in the presence of topological interfaces. Tracing over one side of the interface, the leading term of the entropy remains unchanged. The interface however adds a subleading contribution, which can be interpreted as a relative (Kullback-Leibler) entropy with respect to the situation with no defect inserted. Reinterpreting boundaries as topological interfaces of a chiral half of the full theory, we rederive the left/right entanglement entropy in analogy with the interface case. We discuss WZW models and toroidal bosonic theories as examples. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)