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Sample records for viable human fetuses

  1. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

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    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  2. Terminating pregnancy for severe hypertension when the fetus is considered non-viable : a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerden, Leonoor; Van Oostwaard, Miriam F.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C. M.; Pajkrt, Eva; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Vandenbussche, Frank P.; Oei, Swan G.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Van Eyck, Jim; Middeldorp, Johanna M.; Koenen, Steven V.; De Groot, Christianne J. M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate frequency and practise of termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders where the fetus is considered to be non-viable. Study design: Retrospective cohort study in all Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres (n = 10), between January 2000 and January 2014.

  3. Terminating pregnancy for severe hypertension when the fetus is considered non-viable: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, L. van; Oostwaard, M.F. Van; Zeeman, G.G.; Page-Christiaens, G.C.; Pajkrt, E.; Duvekot, J.J.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.; Oei, S.G.; Scheepers, H.C.; Eyck, J. van; Middeldorp, J.M.; Koenen, S.V.; Groot, C.J. de; Bolte, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency and practise of termination of pregnancy for early-onset hypertensive disorders where the fetus is considered to be non-viable. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in all Dutch tertiary perinatal care centres (n=10), between January 2000 and January 2014. All

  4. Echocardiography in the human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Stewart (Patricia)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe objectives of this study were as follows. The first objective was to assess and review current non-invasive methods of studying normal and abnormal human fetal cardiac morphology and function. A discussion of the four currently used ultrasonic techniques to define fetal

  5. Neuromaturation of the human fetus.

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    Flower, M J

    1985-08-01

    The fetal human possesses an active central nervous system from at least the eighth week of development. Until mid-gestation the most significant center of activity is the brainstem. By the end of the first trimester, it appears that the brainstem could be acting as a rudimentary modulator of sensory information and motor activity. What importance ought to be attached to such regulatory activity is uncertain. Some argue that it represents a level of integrated activity sufficient to bolster an argument for conferring some measure of standing at this point. Our thinking about sentience is not advanced a great deal, as we as yet have no good way of talking about it at the brainstem level. As for the neocortex, available evidence indicates that it does not become a functional part of the neuraxis until at least mid-gestation. It is not until then that the thalamus--the major gateway for sensory input to the cerebrum--makes its first afferent contacts with the neocortex.

  6. Enzymatic isolation of viable human odontoblasts.

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    Cuffaro, H M; Pääkkönen, V; Tjäderhane, L

    2016-05-01

    To improve an enzymatic method previously used for isolation of rat odontoblasts to isolate viable mature human odontoblasts. Collagenase I, collagenase I/hyaluronidase mixture and hyaluronidase were used to extract mature human odontoblasts from the pulp chamber. Detachment of odontoblasts from dentine was determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and to analyse the significance of differences in tubular diameter, and the t-test was used. MTT-reaction was used to analyse cell viability, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney post hoc tests were used to analyse the data. Immunofluorescent staining of dentine sialoprotein (DSP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were used to confirm the odontoblastic nature of the cells. MTT-reaction and FESEM demonstrated collagenase I/hyaluronidase resulted in more effective detachment and higher viability than collagenase I alone. Hyaluronidase alone was not able to detach odontoblasts. Immunofluorescence revealed the typical odontoblastic-morphology with one process, and DSP, AQP4 and MMP-20 were detected. Quantitative PCR of DSPP confirmed that the isolated cells expressed this odontoblast-specific gene. The isolation of viable human odontoblasts was successful. The cells demonstrated morphology typical for odontoblasts and expressed characteristic odontoblast-type genes and proteins. This method will enable new approaches, such as apoptosis analysis, for studies using fully differentiated odontoblasts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of fluorine on the human fetus

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    He, H.; Cheng, Z.S.; Liu, W.Q. [Huaxi Medical University, Huaxi (China)

    2008-10-15

    In an endemic fluorosis area, 16 fetuses that were delivered during their sixth to eighth month of gestation by means of artificial abortion were collected and studied. The results (compared to 10 control fetuses from a non-endemic area) show that fluorine levels in tissues are obviously high, especially in brain, calvarium, and femur. The activity of alkaline phosphatase in femur and kidney was raised. By observation of the ultrastructure of samples, the number of mitochondria, rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, and free ribosome in neurons of cerebral cortex were reduced, and the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was obviously dilated. These findings indicate that the neurons of the cerebral cortex in the developing brain may be one of the targets of fluorine.

  8. A viable fetus presenting 68,XX[73]/69,XXX[27] triploid mosaicism

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    A.X. Acosta

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Triploidy is common in human pregnancies. It is detected in 1 to 2% of clinically recognized pregnancies and in approximately 15 to 20% of spontaneous abortions produced by chromosome anomalies. We report a premature liveborn girl (30 weeks of gestation with microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities who died at one day of age due to respiratory failure. The placenta showed partial hydatiform mole. Autopsy revealed no internal malformations. Cytogenetic analysis of 100 metaphases obtained from renal tissue culture revealed a 68,XX[73]/69,XXX[27] karyotype. To our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of 68,XX[73]/69,XXX[27] mosaicism in a liveborn infant.A triploidia é uma anomalia cromossômica comum encontrada em 1 a 2% das gestações clinicamente reconhecidas e em cerca de 15 a 20% dos abortos espontâneos de causa cromossômica. Em aproximadamente 5% dos casos, uma aneuploidia pode estar também associada (Boué et al., 1985. Descrevemos um recém-nascido do sexo feminino, prematuro (30 semanas de idade gestacional, com microcefalia, dismorfias faciais e alterações de membros, que foi a óbito com 1 dia de vida por insuficiência respiratória. O exame anátomo-patológico da placenta revelou alterações compatíveis com degeneração molar. A necrópsia da criança não evidenciou malformações internas. A análise citogenética de 100 metáfases, obtidas a partir de cultura de tecido renal, evidenciou cariótipo 68,XX[73]/69,XXX[27]. Apenas 9 casos de triploidia 68,XX foram descritos anteriormente, sendo 7 em abortos, 1 em feto de 21 semanas e 1 em recém-nascido a termo. Consideramos que este estudo seja o primeiro da literatura relatando a ocorrência de mosaicismo 69,XXX/68,XX em um recém-nascido vivo. Os autores discutem os achados clínicos e os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos nesta aberração cromossômica.

  9. MYSTERIES OF THE HUMAN FETUS REVEALED.

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    Sandman, Curt A

    2015-09-01

    The impressive program of research from the DiPietro laboratory succeeds in its aim to document the ontogeny of human fetal neurobehavioral development. From studies of great depth and breadth, and wielding creative methods of assessment, DiPietro et al. open a window into the largely inaccessible developing human fetal brain. This commentary, with reference to the seminal cardiovascular studies of the Laceys, supports the measures of the fetal heart to index fetal well-being and to provide evidence of stimulus processing. A separate case is made that the DiPietro program provides unique and invaluable information for assessing the influential Developmental Origins of Health and Disease or Fetal Programming Models. The goal of these models, to predict or understand the influences of early experience or response patterns on later postnatal life, is identical to the ultimate goal of the DiPietro program. Because human fetal behavior is uncontaminated by socialization or parenting or peers, it may be the best reflection of fetal exposures. The remarkable neurobehavioral profiles generated by the DiPietro program can make a critical contribution to the Fetal Programming Model in terms of sensitive and critical periods of nervous system vulnerability and to specify gestational periods of neurobehavioral risk. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Morphological structure and variations of lumbar plexus in human fetuses.

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    Yasar, Soner; Kaya, Serdar; Temiz, Cağlar; Tehli, Ozkan; Kural, Cahit; Izci, Yusuf

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to study the anatomy of lumbar plexus on human fetuses and to establish its morphometric characteristics and differences compared with adults. Twenty lumbar plexus of 10 human fetal cadavers in different gestational ages and genders were dissected. Lumbar spinal nerves, ganglions, and peripheral nerves were exposed. Normal anatomical structure and variations of lumbar plexus were investigated and morphometric analyses were performed. The diameters of lumbar spinal nerves increased from L1 to L4. The thickest nerve forming the plexus was femoral nerve, the thinnest was ilioinguinal nerve, the longest nerve through posterior abdominal wall was iliohypogastric nerve, and the shortest nerve was femoral nerve. Each plexus had a single furcal nerve and this arose from L4 nerve in all fetuses. No prefix or postfix plexus variation was observed. In two plexuses, L1 nerve was in the form of a single branch. Also, in two plexuses, genitofemoral nerve arose only from L2 nerve. Accessory obturator nerve was observed in four plexuses. According to these findings, the morphological pattern of the lumbar plexus in the fetus was found to be very similar to the lumbar plexus in adults. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Quantitative Anatomy of the Trapezius Muscle in the Human Fetus.

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    Badura, Mateusz; Grzonkowska, Magdalena; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Michał

    2016-01-01

    The trapezius muscle consists of three parts that are capable of functioning independently. Its superior part together with the levator scapulae and rhomboids elevate the shoulder, the middle part retracts the scapula, while the inferior part lowers the shoulder. The present study aimed to supplement numerical data and to provide growth dynamics of the trapezius in the human fetus. Using methods of anatomical dissection, digital image analysis (NIS Elements AR 3.0), and statistics (Student's t-test, regression analysis), we measured the length, the width and the surface area of the trapezius in 30 fetuses of both sexes (13™ k,17™ … ) aged 13-19 weeks. Neither sex nor laterality differences were found. All the studied parameters of the trapezius increased proportionately with age. The linear functions were computed as follows: y = -103.288 + 10.514 × age (r = 0.957) for total length of the trapezius muscle, y = -67.439 + 6.689 × age (r = 0.856) for length of its descending part, y = -8.493 + 1.033 × age (r = 0.53) for length of its transverse part, y = -27.545 + 2.802 × age (r = 0.791) for length of its ascending part, y = -19.970 + 2.505 × age (r = 0.875) for width of the trapezius muscle, and y = -2670.458 + 212.029 × age (r = 0.915) for its surface area. Neither sex nor laterality differences exist in the numerical data of the trapezius muscle in the human fetus. The descending part of trapezius is the longest, while its transverse part is the shortest. The growth dynamics of the fetal trapezius muscle follows proportionately.

  12. Expression of cathepsin K in the human embryo and fetus.

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    Haeckel, C; Krueger, S; Buehling, F; Broemme, D; Franke, K; Schuetze, A; Roese, I; Roessner, A

    1999-10-01

    Cathepsin K is a protease with high collagenolytic and elastinolytic activity. Its cellular expression was previously thought to be restricted to osteoclasts and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In this study, the expression of cathepsin K in the human embryo and fetus was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and by Northern blotting of fetal tissue extracts. Besides osteoclasts and chondroclasts and their precursors, epithelial cells of various organ systems expressed significant amounts of this enzyme. Respiratory and gastrointestinal mucosa, including bile duct epithelia and urothelia, showed high levels of cathepsin K expression. With the exception of the urothelium, showing a more homogenous expression pattern, the protease was usually accentuated in the surface cell layers of pithelia. In summary, these findings in the human embryo and early fetus demonstrated a significant expression of cathepsin K in different epithelial cell types besides osteoclasts. The functional aspects of cathepsin K expression in nonosteoclastic cells and potential conclusions on physiological and pathological conditions in the embryo-fetal or adult organism remain to be investigated. Dev Dyn 1999;216:89-95. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Inkjet printing of viable human dental follicle stem cells

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    Mau Robert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing technology has the potential to be used for seeding of viable cells for tissue engineering approaches. For this reason, a piezoelectrically actuated, drop-on-demand inkjet printing system was applied to deliver viable human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSC of sizes of about 15 μm up to 20 μm in diameter. The purpose of these investigations was to verify the stability of the printing process and to evaluate cell viability post printing. Using a Nanoplotter 2.1 (Gesim, Germany equipped with the piezoelectric printhead NanoTip HV (Gesim, Germany, a concentration of 6.6 ×106 cells ml−1 in DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS could be dispensed. The piezoelectric printhead has a nominal droplet volume of ~ 400 pl and was set to a voltage of 75 V and a pulse of 50 μs while dosing 50 000 droplets over a time of 100 seconds. The volume and trajectory of the droplet were checked by a stroboscope test right before and after the printing process. It was found that the droplet volume decreases significantly by 35% during printing process, while the trajectory of the droplets remains stable with only an insignificant number of degrees deviation from the vertical line. It is highly probable that some cell sedimentations or agglomerations affect the printing performance. The cell viability post printing was assessed by using the Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The printing process was found to have no significant influence on cell survival. In conclusion, drop-on-demand inkjet printing can be a potent tool for the seeding of viable cells.

  14. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

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    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  15. New quantitative patterns of the growing trachea in human fetuses.

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    Szpinda, Michał; Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Baumgart, Mariusz; Paruszewska-Achtel, Monika

    2012-06-01

    Rapid progress in perinatal medicine has resulted in numerous tracheo-bronchial interventions on fetal and neonatal airways. The present study was performed to compile normative data for tracheal dimensions at varying gestational ages. Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis (NIS-Elements BR 3.0) and statistical analysis (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Student's t test, one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Bonferroni test, linear and nonlinear regression analysis) a range of the 4 variables (length in mm, middle external transverse diameter in mm, proximal internal cross-sectional area in mm², internal volume in mm³) for the trachea in 73 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (39 male, 34 female) aged 14-25 weeks was examined. No significant male-female differences were found (P>0.05). The length ranged from 10.37±2.15 to 26.54±0.26 mm as y=-65.098 + 28.796 × ln (Age) ±1.794 (R²=0.82). The middle external transverse diameter varied from 2.53±0.09 to 5.09±0.42 mm with the model y=-11.020 + 5.049 × ln (Age) ±0.330 (R²=0.81). The trachea indicated a proportional evolution because the middle external transverse diameter-to-length ratio was stable (0.23±0.03). The proximal internal cross-sectional area rose from 1.46±0.04 to 5.76±1.04 mm² as y=-3.562 + 0.352 × Age ±0.519 (R²=0.76). The internal volumetric growth from 11.89±2.49 to 119.63±4.95 mm³ generated the function y=-135.248 + 9.919 × Age ±10.478 (R²=0.86). The growth in both length and middle external transverse diameter of the trachea follows logarithmic functions, whereas growth of both its proximal internal cross-sectional area and internal volume follow linear functions. The length and middle external transverse diameter of the trachea develop proportionally to each other. The tracheal dimensions may be helpful in the prenatal diagnosis and monitoring of tracheal malformations and obstructive anomalies of the upper respiratory tract.

  16. Relations of Facial Nerve With Retromandibular Vein in Human Fetuses.

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    Elvan, Özlem; Gilan, Yağmurhan; Beger, Orhan; Bobuş, Alev; Tezer, Mesut; Aktekin, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    The relationship of facial nerve (FN) and its branches with the retromandibular vein (RMV) has been described in adults, whereas there is no data in the literature regarding this relationship in fetuses. The study was conducted to evaluate the anatomic relationships of these structures on 61 hemi-faces of fetuses with a mean age of 26.5 ± 4.9 weeks with no visible facial abnormalities. The FN trunk was identified at its emergence at the stylomastoid foramen. It was traced till its ramification within the parotid gland. In 46 sides, FN trunk ramified before crossing RMV and ran lateral to it, while in 8 sides FN trunk ramified on the lateral aspect of the RMV. In 3 sides, FN trunk ramified after crossing the RMV at its medial aspect. In only 1 side, FN trunk trifurcated as superior, middle, and inferior divisions and RMV lied anterior to FN trunk, lateral to superior division, medial to middle and inferior divisions. In 2 sides, FN trunk bifurcated as superior and inferior divisions. Retromandibular vein was located anterior to FN trunk, medial to superior division, lateral to inferior division in both of them. In 1 side, RMV ran medial to almost all branches, except the cervical branch of FN. Variability in the relationship of FN and RMV in fetuses as presented in this study is thought to be crucial in surgical procedures particularly in early childhood.

  17. Surfactant maturation is not delayed in human fetuses with diaphragmatic hernia.

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    Olivier Boucherat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension account for significant mortality and morbidity in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH. Global lung immaturity and studies in animal models suggest the presence of surfactant deficiency that may further complicate the pathophysiology of CDH. However, data about surfactant status in human fetuses with CDH at birth are contradictory. The lack of a chronological study of surfactant content in late pregnancy has been a significant limitation. The appropriateness of administering surfactant supplements to neonates with CDH is therefore a debated question. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated surfactant content in human fetuses with CDH compared to age-matched fetuses with nonpulmonary diseases used as controls. Concentrations of disaturated phosphatidylcholine and surfactant proteins were found to be similar at a given stage of pregnancy, with both components showing a similar pattern of increase with progressing pregnancy in fetuses with CDH and in control fetuses. Thyroid transcription factor 1, a critical regulator of surfactant protein transcription, similarly displayed no difference in abundance. Finally, we examined the expression of three glucocorticoid-regulated diffusible mediators involved in lung epithelial maturation, namely: keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, leptin, and neuregulin 1 beta 1 (NRG1-beta1. KGF expression decreased slightly with time in control fetuses, but remained unchanged in fetuses with CDH. Leptin and NRG1-beta1 similarly increased in late pregnancy in control and CDH lungs. These maturation factors were also determined in the sheep fetus with surgical diaphragmatic hernia, in which surfactant deficiency has been reported previously. In contrast to the findings in humans, surgical diaphragmatic hernia in the sheep fetus was associated with decreased KGF and neuregulin expression. Fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion performed in

  18. Amino Acid Metabolism in the Human Fetus at Term: Leucine, Valine, and Methionine Kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Chris H. P.; Schierbeek, Henk; Minderman, Gardi; Vermes, Andras; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2011-01-01

    Human fetal metabolism is largely unexplored. Understanding how a healthy fetus achieves its fast growth rates could eventually play a pivotal role in improving future nutritional strategies for premature infants. To quantify specific fetal amino acid kinetics, eight healthy pregnant women received

  19. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  20. The effect of intrauterine growth retardation on the quality of general movements in the human fetus

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    Sival, D A; Visser, G H; Prechtl, H F

    The effect of severe intrauterine growth retardation on the quality of general movements was studied longitudinally in 17 human fetuses. During the prenatal and postnatal periods, fetal movements were recorded by means of weekly 1 h ultrasound and video registrations. Neurological examinations were

  1. Morphological characterization of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and its association to pathologies.

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    Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Verli, Flaviana Dornela; Consolaro, Alberto; Santos, Cássio Roberto Rocha dos

    2013-01-01

    The nasopalatine region is composed of structures such as the vomeronasal organ and nasopalatine duct. The nasopalatine duct may provide the communication of the mouth to the nasal cavity in human fetuses and can be obliterated in an adult human. Knowledge on the development of the nasopalatine region and nasopalatine duct in humans is necessary for understanding the morphology and etiopathogenesis of lesions that occur in this region. The aim of the present study was to describe the morphological aspects of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and correlate these aspects with the development of pathologies in this region. Five human fetuses with no facial or palatine abnormalities were used for the acquisition of specimens from the nasopalatine region. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed. Histological cuts were stained with methylene blue to orient the cutting plane and hematoxylin-eosin for the descriptive histological analysis. The age of the fetuses was 8.00, 8.25, 9.00 and 9.25 weeks, and it was not possible to determine the age in the last one. The incisive canal was observed in all specimens as an opening delimited laterally by the periosteum and connecting oral and nasal cavity. The nasopalatine duct is an epithelial structure with the greatest morphological variation, with either unilateral or bilateral occurrence and total patent, partial patent and islet forms. The vomeronasal organ is a bilateral epithelized structure located alongside the nasal septum above the incisive canal in all the fetuses. The incisive canal, nasopalatine duct and vomeronasal organ are distinct anatomic structures. The development of nasopalatine duct cysts may occur in all forms of the nasopalatine duct.

  2. Morphological characterization of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and its association to pathologies

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    Saulo Gabriel Moreira FALCI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nasopalatine region is composed of structures such as the vomeronasal organ and nasopalatine duct. The nasopalatine duct may provide the communication of the mouth to the nasal cavity in human fetuses and can be obliterated in an adult human. Knowledge on the development of the nasopalatine region and nasopalatine duct in humans is necessary for understanding the morphology and etiopathogenesis of lesions that occur in this region. Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the morphological aspects of the nasopalatine region in human fetuses and correlate these aspects with the development of pathologies in this region. Material and Methods Five human fetuses with no facial or palatine abnormalities were used for the acquisition of specimens from the nasopalatine region. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed. Histological cuts were stained with methylene blue to orient the cutting plane and hematoxylin-eosin for the descriptive histological analysis. Results The age of the fetuses was 8.00, 8.25, 9.00 and 9.25 weeks, and it was not possible to determine the age in the last one. The incisive canal was observed in all specimens as an opening delimited laterally by the periosteum and connecting oral and nasal cavity. The nasopalatine duct is an epithelial structure with the greatest morphological variation, with either unilateral or bilateral occurrence and total patent, partial patent and islet forms. The vomeronasal organ is a bilateral epithelized structure located alongside the nasal septum above the incisive canal in all the fetuses. Conclusions The incisive canal, nasopalatine duct and vomeronasal organ are distinct anatomic structures. The development of nasopalatine duct cysts may occur in all forms of the nasopalatine duct.

  3. Changes of Fluctuating Asymmetry with Age in Human Fetuses and Young Infants

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    Stefan Van Dongen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Developmental instability (DI, often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA, increases with stress in humans, yet little is known about how stress affects the changes of asymmetry with age. More specifically, it is unknown if fetuses experiencing a major congenital abnormality will express higher FA already during early development or only at a later age; (2 Methods: We combine two datasets to study associations between age and asymmetry in human fetuses and young infants. One population consists of fetuses from spontaneous abortions and early deceased infants where many experienced major congenital abnormalities, and a second from elicited abortions for social reasons; (3 Results: While the occurrence of major abnormalities did not seem to affect the way asymmetry decreased with age, differences between the two populations were observed; and (4 Conclusions: In one population where fetuses and young infants deceased of natural causes, asymmetry decreased rapidly until 20 weeks of age and then leveled off. Over the entire timespan (week 15–49, individuals with major congenital abnormalities showed higher FA, suggesting that developmental perturbations increase FA rapidly. In the second, more normal population with abortions solicited for social reasons, the decrease in asymmetry with age was less profound and not statistically significant, calling for further research toward understanding regional differences.

  4. Types of coronary vasculature in the human fetus: an autopsy study.

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    Nowak, Dariusz; Gielecki, Jerzy; Rzeszowska, Mariola; Kiestrzyn-Wójcik, Alina

    2008-01-01

    The heart receives blood from 2 vessels: the right and the left coronary arteries. Depending on the relationship between these 2 vessels, types with the right, the left or with neither coronary artery predominating can be distinguished. The incidence of particular types varies according to different reports. All available data regarding this issue come from studies where adult subjects were examined. There is no research in this field involving human fetuses. We examined 199 fetuses of both sexes (101 males and 98 females), 3-8 months of intrauterine life. All cases were derived from the Department of Histology and Embryology, Nicolaus Copernicus University. Prior to examination, all fetuses had been conserved in a 9% formaldehyde solution for over 3 months. We obtained the following results: type I vasculature, having equally developed coronary arteries, was found in 59 cases (29.5%); type II, with the right coronary artery predominating, was found in 65 cases (32.5%), and type III, with the left coronary artery predominating, occurred in 76 cases (38%). The subtypes IIIA and IIIB were described in 50 (25%) and 26 (13%) of the type III subjects, respectively. These data differ from the adult material incidence of dominant left coronary artery. While it is the most frequently occurring type in human fetuses, it is the least common in adult subjects. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

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    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  6. Disposition of the striated urethral sphincter and its relation to the prostate in human fetuses

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    Luciano A. Favorito

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the arrangement of the muscle fibers of the striated urethral sphincter and its relationship with the prostate during the fetal period in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 17 prostates from well preserved fresh human fetuses ranging in age from 10 to 31 weeks postconception (WPC. Transversal sections were obtained and stained with Gomori's trichrome and immunolabeled with anti alpha-actin antibody. RESULTS: We found that the urethral striated sphincter (rabdosphincter is located on the periphery of the smooth muscle and there was no merge between striated and smooth muscle fibers in any fetal period. In the prostate apex, the striated sphincter shows a circular arrangement and covers completely the urethra externally, whereas adjacent to verumontanum, it looks like a "horseshoe" and covers only the anterior and lateral surfaces of the urethra. Near the bladder neck, in fetuses younger than 20 WPC, we have found striated muscle fibers only at the anterior surface of the prostate, while in fetuses older than 20 WPC, the striated muscle covers the anterior and lateral surfaces of the prostate. CONCLUSIONS: The urethral sphincter muscle covers the anterior and lateral surfaces of the urethra in all fetuses older than 20 WPC, close to the bladder neck and at the distal prostate. In the region of the prostate apex, the urethral sphincter covers completely the urethra circularly. The knowledge of the normal anatomy of the urethral sphincter in fetuses could be important to understand its alterations in congenital anomalies involving the base of the bladder, the bladder neck and the proximal urethra.

  7. Mathematical modelling of the growth of human fetus anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Kędzia, Wojciech; Kędzia, Emilia; Kędzia, Alicja; Derkowski, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to present a procedure that would enable mathematical analysis of the increase of linear sizes of human anatomical structures, estimate mathematical model parameters and evaluate their adequacy. Section material consisted of 67 foetuses-rectus abdominis muscle and 75 foetuses- biceps femoris muscle. The following methods were incorporated to the study: preparation and anthropologic methods, image digital acquisition, Image J computer system measurements and statistical analysis method. We used an anthropologic method based on age determination with the use of crown-rump length-CRL (V-TUB) by Scammon and Calkins. The choice of mathematical function should be based on a real course of the curve presenting growth of anatomical structure linear size Ύ in subsequent weeks t of pregnancy. Size changes can be described with a segmental-linear model or one-function model with accuracy adequate enough for clinical purposes. The interdependence of size-age is described with many functions. However, the following functions are most often considered: linear, polynomial, spline, logarithmic, power, exponential, power-exponential, log-logistic I and II, Gompertz's I and II and von Bertalanffy's function. With the use of the procedures described above, mathematical models parameters were assessed for V-PL (the total length of body) and CRL body length increases, rectus abdominis total length h, its segments hI, hII, hIII, hIV, as well as biceps femoris length and width of long head (LHL and LHW) and of short head (SHL and SHW). The best adjustments to measurement results were observed in the exponential and Gompertz's models.

  8. Fetus as Human Being: Where is the Cut-off Point?

    OpenAIRE

    Dabbagh, Soroush

    2009-01-01

    Abortion is one of the controversial issues discussed in medical ethics. We can formulate the argument which is put forward by the opponents of abortion as follows: 1) fetus has to be regarded as human being; 2) killing an innocent human being is morally wrong; 3) aborting is an example of killing and terminating a human being?s life. So, being engaged in aborting is morally wrong. In this paper, I am going to argue that the proponents? argument with regard to the implausibility of categorizi...

  9. Development of daily rhythmicity in heart rate and locomotor activity in the human fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kintraia Nicolas P

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about the perinatal genesis of circadian rhythmicity in the human fetus. Some researchers have found evidence of rhythmicity early on in fetal development, whereas others have observed a slow development of rhythmicity during several years after birth. Method Rhythms of fetal heartbeat and locomotor activity were studied in women with physiological course of pregnancy at 16 to 40 gestational weeks. Observations were conducted continuously for 24 h using the method of external electrocardiography, which provided simultaneous detection of the changes in maternal and fetal heartbeat as well as assessment of daily locomotor activity of the fetus. During the night-time, electroencephalogram, myogram, oculogram and respiration of the mother were registered in parallel with fetal external electrocardiography. Results Although we found no significant daily rhythmicity in heart rate per se in the human fetus, we developed a new method for the assessment of 24-h fetal cardiotachogram that allowed us to identify daily rhythmicity in the short-term pattern of heart beating. We found that daily rhythmicity of fetal electrocardiogram resembles that of the mother; however, the phase of the rhythm is opposite to that of the mother. "Active" (from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. and from 7 p.m. to 4 a.m. and "quiet" (from 4 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 2 p.m. to 7 p.m. periods of activity were identified. Conclusion A healthy fetus at gestational age of 16 to 20 weeks reveals pronounced rhythms of activity and locomotion. Absence of distinct rhythmicity within the term of 20 to 24 weeks points to developmental retardation. The "Z"-type fetal reaction, recorded during the "quiet" hours, does not indicate unsatisfactory state, but rather is suggestive of definite reduction of functional levels of the fetal physiological systems necessary for vital activity.

  10. Placenta Maps: In Utero Placental Health Assessment of the Human Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haichao; Mistelbauer, Gabriel; Karimov, Alexey; Alansary, Amir; Davidson, Alice; Lloyd, David F A; Damodaram, Mellisa; Story, Lisa; Hutter, Jana; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rutherford, Mary; Preim, Bernhard; Kainz, Bernhard; Groller, M Eduard

    2017-06-01

    The human placenta is essential for the supply of the fetus. To monitor the fetal development, imaging data is acquired using (US). Although it is currently the gold-standard in fetal imaging, it might not capture certain abnormalities of the placenta. (MRI) is a safe alternative for the in utero examination while acquiring the fetus data in higher detail. Nevertheless, there is currently no established procedure for assessing the condition of the placenta and consequently the fetal health. Due to maternal respiration and inherent movements of the fetus during examination, a quantitative assessment of the placenta requires fetal motion compensation, precise placenta segmentation and a standardized visualization, which are challenging tasks. Utilizing advanced motion compensation and automatic segmentation methods to extract the highly versatile shape of the placenta, we introduce a novel visualization technique that presents the fetal and maternal side of the placenta in a standardized way. Our approach enables physicians to explore the placenta even in utero. This establishes the basis for a comparative assessment of multiple placentas to analyze possible pathologic arrangements and to support the research and understanding of this vital organ. Additionally, we propose a three-dimensional structure-aware surface slicing technique in order to explore relevant regions inside the placenta. Finally, to survey the applicability of our approach, we consulted clinical experts in prenatal diagnostics and imaging. We received mainly positive feedback, especially the applicability of our technique for research purposes was appreciated.

  11. Medical and Ethical Considerations Related to Viable Fetuses with Trisomy 13 in the 36th Week of Pregnancy--a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, Małgorzata; Dżugalik, Małgorzata; Pietras, Jolanta; Bełza, Łukasz; Latkowski, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Patau syndrome was first described in 1960 as a group of birth defects caused by trisomy of chromosome 13 (T13). Providing accurate information and relevant reproductive genetic counseling that would allow parents to make informed decisions is not easily accomplished because of the limited information available prenatally. Only 1/3 of all cases of T13 are diagnosed prenatally, which means it cannot be expected that most cases will be detected early in pregnancy, that the parents will decide to terminate the pregnancy, and that difficulties will be avoided. There is no good prenatal screening for T13, and there are many kinds and degrees of anomalies. About 60% of cases are first detected in the second trimester, and life expectancy is difficult to predict. When patients choose not to terminate pregnancy, or when the pregnancy has progressed to a viable gestational age, pregnancy termination is no longer an option. Also, nowadays 12% of couples choose to continue pregnancy following chromosomal confirmation of a suspected T13. The aim of this work is to eludicate for health care providers what problems they are likely to face in the care of children with T13 and in contact with their parents. It is crucial for the management of each case to discuss neonatal procedures of resuscitation, alternatives to aggressive resuscitation, the possibilities for correcting some of the defects, and to be prepared to guide the parents through the trauma of having a child with a lethal defect.

  12. An immunohistochemical study of matrix proteins in the craniofacial cartilage in midterm human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shibata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemical localization of collagen types I, II, and X, aggrecan, versican, dentin matrix protein (DMP-1, martix extracellular phosphoprotein (MEPE were performed for Meckel’s cartilage, cranial base cartilage, and mandibular condylar cartilage in human midterm fetuses; staining patterns within the condylar cartilage were compared to those within other cartilaginous structures. Mandibular condylar cartilage contained aggrecan; it also had more type I collagen and a thicker hypertrophic cell layer than the other two types of cartilage; these three characteristics are similar to those of the secondary cartilage of rodents. MEPE immunoreactivity was first evident in the cartilage matrix of all types of cartilage in the human fetuses and in Meckel’s cartilage of mice and rats. MEPE immunoreactivity was enhanced in the deep layer of the hypertrophic cell layer and in the cartilaginous core of the bone trabeculae in the primary spongiosa. These results indicated that MEPE is a component of cartilage matrix and may be involved in cartilage mineralization. DMP-1 immunoreactivity first became evident in human bone lacunae walls and canaliculi; this pattern of expression was comparable to the pattern seen in rodents. In addition, chondroid bone was evident in the mandibular (glenoid fossa of the temporal bone, and it had aggrecan, collagen types I and X, MEPE, and DMP-1 immunoreactivity; these findings indicated that chondroid bone in this region has phenotypic expression indicative of both hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocytes.

  13. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  14. Tracheo-bronchial angles in the human fetus – an anatomical, digital, and statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Michał; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Flisiński, Piotr; Szpinda, Anna; WoŸniak, Alina; Kosiński, Adam; Grzybiak, Marek; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-01-01

    Background Both the advancement of visual techniques and intensive progress in perinatal medicine result in performing airway management in the fetus and neonate affected by life-threatening malformations. This study aimed to examine the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles, including the right and left bronchial angles, and the interbronchial angle, in the fetus at various gestational ages. Material/Methods Using methods of anatomical dissection, digital image analysis with an adequate program (NIS-Elements BR 3.0, Nikon), and statistics, values of the two bronchial angles and their sum as the interbronchial angle were semi-automatically measured in 73 human fetuses at the age of 14–25 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. Results No male-female differences between the parameters studied were found. The 3 fetal tracheo-bronchial angles were found to be independent of age. The right bronchial angle ranged from 11.4° to 41.8°, and averaged 26.9±7.0° for the whole analyzed sample. The values of left bronchial angle varied from 24.8° to 64.8°, with the overall mean of 46.2±8.0°. As a consequence, the interbronchial angle totalled 36.2–96.6°, and averaged 73.1±12.7°. Conclusions The tracheo-bronchial angles change independently of sex and fetal age. The left bronchial angle is wider than the right one. Values of the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles are unpredictable since their regression curves of best fit with relation to fetal age cannot be modelled. Both of the 2 bronchial angles and the interbronchial angle are of great relevance in the location of inhaled foreign bodies, and in the diagnosis cardiac diseases and mediastinal abnormalities. PMID:23857411

  15. Tracheo-bronchial angles in the human fetus -- an anatomical, digital, and statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroszewski, Marcin; Szpinda, Michał; Flisiński, Piotr; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Kosiński, Adam; Grzybiak, Marek; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-07-16

    Both the advancement of visual techniques and intensive progress in perinatal medicine result in performing airway management in the fetus and neonate affected by life-threatening malformations. This study aimed to examine the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles, including the right and left bronchial angles, and the interbronchial angle, in the fetus at various gestational ages. Using methods of anatomical dissection, digital image analysis with an adequate program (NIS-Elements BR 3.0, Nikon), and statistics, values of the two bronchial angles and their sum as the interbronchial angle were semi-automatically measured in 73 human fetuses at the age of 14-25 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. No male-female differences between the parameters studied were found. The 3 fetal tracheo-bronchial angles were found to be independent of age. The right bronchial angle ranged from 11.4° to 41.8°, and averaged 26.9±7.0° for the whole analyzed sample. The values of left bronchial angle varied from 24.8° to 64.8°, with the overall mean of 46.2±8.0°. As a consequence, the interbronchial angle totalled 36.2-96.6°, and averaged 73.1±12.7°. The tracheo-bronchial angles change independently of sex and fetal age. The left bronchial angle is wider than the right one. Values of the 3 tracheo-bronchial angles are unpredictable since their regression curves of best fit with relation to fetal age cannot be modelled. Both of the 2 bronchial angles and the interbronchial angle are of great relevance in the location of inhaled foreign bodies, and in the diagnosis cardiac diseases and mediastinal abnormalities.

  16. Applied anatomic study of testicular veins in adult cadavers and in human fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Analyze the anatomic variations of the testicular veins in human cadavers and fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred male adult cadavers and 24 fetuses were studied. Four anatomic aspects were considered: 1 Number of testicular veins, 2 The local of vein termination, 3 Type and number of collaterals present and 4 Testicular vein termination angle. RESULTS: Cadavers - Right side - One testicular vein occurred in 85% and 2 veins in 5% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 21% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 82%, two veins in 15%, three veins in 2% and four veins in 1% of the cases. There were communicating veins with the colon in 31% of the cases. Fetuses - Right side -One testicular vein occurred in all cases. This vein drained to the vena cava in 83.3% of the cases, to the junction of the vena cava with the renal vein in 12.5% and to the renal vein in 4.2%. There were communicating veins with the colon in 25% of the cases. Left side - One testicular vein occurred in 66.6% of the cases, and 2 veins in occurred 33.3%. Communicating veins with the colon were found in 41.6% of the cases. CONCLUSION: The testicular vein presents numeric variations and also variations in its local of termination. In approximately 30% of the cases, there are collaterals that communicate the testicular vein with retroperitoneal veins. These anatomic findings can help understanding the origin of varicocele and its recurrence after surgical interventions.

  17. In utero fetal liver cell transplantation in the treatment of immunodeficient or thalassemic human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraine, J L

    1993-07-01

    Following 18 years' experience in postnatal fetal liver transplantation (FLT), we have developed a new therapeutic method, namely the in utero transplantation of stem cells from the human fetal liver. This early transplant takes advantage of the immunological tolerance that exists in young fetal recipients. The four fetuses that we treated were 28, 26, 17 and 12 weeks of gestation. The first two patients had immunodeficiencies, the two others had thalassemia major. Donor cells were obtained from 7- to 12-week-old fetuses, with conditions approved by the National Committee for Bioethics. Donors and recipients were not matched. The fetal cells were infused through the umbilical vein of three patients and injected intraperitoneally into the other one, under ultrasonic visualization. The first patient, born in 1988, has evidence of engraftment and reconstitution of cell-mediated immunity: initially 10% then 26% of lymphocytes of donor origin (with distinct phenotype), T-cell responses to tetanus toxoid, CMV and candida antigens. This child, who had bare lymphocyte syndrome, has no clinical manifestation of the disease and lives normally at home. The second child was born in 1989; donor cell engraftment has been proven (Y-chromosome in this female patient) and immunological reconstitution is in progress, allowing a normal life at home. The third patient also has evidence of donor cell take (Y-chromosome in a female patient) and a partial effect on thalassemia has been documented (donor hemoglobin present in peripheral blood). In all three cases, no side-effect of any kind developed in the mother nor in the fetus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi induce inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Fevrier, Helene B; Philipp, Mario T

    2013-11-27

    In previous studies, exposure to live Borrelia burgdorferi was shown to induce inflammation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes. In this study we assessed the ability of non-viable bacteria (heat killed or sonicated) to induce inflammatory mediators and cell death. Both heat-killed and sonicated bacteria induced release of CCL2, IL-6, and CXCL8 from oligodendrocytes in a dose dependent manner. In addition, non-viable B. burgdorferi also induced cell death as evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and another cell viability assay. These results suggest that spirochetal residues left after bacterial demise, due to treatment or otherwise, may continue to be pathogenic to the central nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Scanning electron microscopic observations on the middle ear mucosa of human fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J

    1992-01-01

    The epithelial development of middle ear mucosa in nine human fetuses, ranging from the 12th week to full term, was observed by the scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ciliated cells were found in the tympanic cleft of the 12th week fetus. The ciliated cells were especially dense in a crescent region along the antero-inferior periphery of the inner surface of eardrum, and were distributed around the tympanic orifice predominantly, above and blow the promontory and the hypotympanum. The length of cilia and the population of the ciliated cells increased with the fetal age. At the 26th week, the ciliated cell population and the length of cilia were similar to those of the neonate. The goblet cells appeared at the 26th fetal week. The secretory phenomenon of the goblet cells was seen at the 34th fetal age. These findings indicated that the mucociliary transportation system has been developed well at the late period of fetal development.

  20. Concurrent detection of other respiratory viruses in children shedding viable human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, T B; Paula, F E; Iwamoto, M A; Proença-Modena, J L; Santos, A E; Camara, A A; Cervi, M C; Cintra, O A L; Arruda, E

    2013-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease. The majority of studies addressing the importance of virus co-infections to the HRSV-disease have been based on the detection of HRSV by RT-PCR, which may not distinguish current replication from prolonged shedding of remnant RNA from previous HRSV infections. To assess whether co-detections of other common respiratory viruses are associated with increased severity of HRSV illnesses from patients who were shedding viable-HRSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates from children younger than 5 years who sought medical care for respiratory infections in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil) were tested for HRSV by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture. All samples with viable-HRSV were tested further by PCR for other respiratory viruses. HRSV-disease severity was assessed by a clinical score scale. A total of 266 samples from 247 children were collected and 111 (42%) were HRSV-positive. HRSV was isolated from 70 (63%), and 52 (74%) of them were positive for at least one additional virus. HRSV-positive diseases were more severe than HRSV-negative ones, but there was no difference in disease severity between patients with viable-HRSV and those HRSV-positives by RT-PCR. Co-detection of other viruses did not correlate with increased disease severity. HRSV isolation in cell culture does not seem to be superior to RT-PCR to distinguish infections associated with HRSV replication in studies of clinical impact of HRSV. A high rate of co-detection of other respiratory viruses was found in samples with viable-HRSV, but this was not associated with more severe HRSV infection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Diagnosis and Management of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in the Mother, Fetus, and Newborn Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revello, Maria Grazia; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection and mental retardation. HCMV infection, while causing asymptomatic infections in most immunocompetent subjects, can be transmitted during pregnancy from the mother with primary (and also recurrent) infection to the fetus. Hence, careful diagnosis of primary infection is required in the pregnant woman based on the most sensitive serologic assays (immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgG avidity assays) and conventional virologic and molecular procedures for virus detection in blood. Maternal prognostic markers of fetal infection are still under investigation. If primary infection is diagnosed in a timely manner, prenatal diagnosis can be offered, including the search for virus and virus components in fetal blood and amniotic fluid, with fetal prognostic markers of HCMV disease still to be defined. However, the final step for definite diagnosis of congenital HCMV infection is detection of virus in the blood or urine in the first 1 to 2 weeks of life. To date, treatment of congenital infection with antiviral drugs is only palliative both prior to and after birth, whereas the only efficacious preventive measure seems to be the development of a safe and immunogenic vaccine, including recombinant, subunit, DNA, and peptide-based vaccines now under investigation. The following controversial issues are discussed in the light of the most recent advances in the field: the actual perception of the problem; universal serologic screening before pregnancy; the impact of correct counseling on decision making by the couple involved; the role of prenatal diagnosis in ascertaining transmission of virus to the fetus; the impact of preconceptional and periconceptional infections on the prevalence of congenital infection; and the prevalence of congenitally infected babies born to mothers who were immune prior to pregnancy compared to the number born to mothers undergoing primary infection during pregnancy. PMID

  2. A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF MIDLINE SECTIONED SYMPHYSIS PUBIS IN HUMAN FETUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobul

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Symphysis pubis a midline secondary cartilaginous joint has been studied mostly for age estimation in forensic anthropology. Symphysis pubis forms at about the beginning of the third month of gestation. Centre of chondrification starts to develop in the primitive scleroblastema, grow together at the midline forming the precursor of the symphysis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the developmental of symphyseal surface of pubis morphometrically in human fetuses and to analyze whether it is sex dependent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 foetuses divided into five groups according to the gestational age with each group having male and female fetuses. The interpubic joint along with the pubis were dissected and a midline incision was given to expose the symphyseal surface. Measurements were taken with the help of Vernier calipers and the data was analyzed using students ‘t’ test. OBSERVATION AND RESULT: Vertical height of midline sectioned pubic symphysis grew at different rates during different periods of intrauterine life. Growth rate was maximum in group II. Anteroposterior growth of midline sectioned pubic symphysis at the upper end showed significant growth in early stage of gestation, while in the middle part significant increase in measurements was noticed in groups II and III and in the lower portion in groups II and V. CONCLUSION: Maximal growth of the symphyseal surface of the pubes occurs vertically as well as antero-posteriorly between 19–22 weeks of gestation. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the vertical growth of the pubic symphysis in group II foetuses

  3. Morphometric properties of the latissimus dorsi muscle in human fetuses for flap surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Orhan; Beger, Burhan; Uzmansel, Deniz; Erdoğan, Semra; Kurtoğlu, Zeliha

    2017-11-16

    Although latissimus dorsi (LD) flaps are extensively used in a wide range of interventions, fetus studies on this subject are quite limited. This study aims to obtain detailed information about the morphometric features of LD, thoracodorsal artery (TDA) and nerve (TDN). The study was carried out on both sides of 50 formalin-fixed human fetuses (22 male/28 female) with a mean gestational age of 24.5 ± 4.7 (range 18-36) weeks, which were in the inventory of Anatomy Department of Mersin University Faculty of Medicine. Dimensions of LD, lengths and width of TDA and TDN were measured. Surface area of LD was calculated using digital image analysis software. All samples had LD muscle. Neither gender nor side-significant differences were observed in relation with the numerical data of LD, TDN and TDA. Linear function of surface area was calculated as "y = - 1767.532 + 114.582 × Age (weeks)". LD was attached directly to the posterior part of iliac crest in 59 of 100 sides meanwhile in the rest 41, it was attached by the thoracolumbar fascia. TDA gave a branch to serratus anterior in 96 cases and 2 branches in 4 cases. TDN passed superficial to TDA in 84 and deep to TDA in 16 samples. TDN had bifurcation in 93, trifurcation in 6 and tetrafurcation in 1 side. Data obtained from this study can be useful for estimating the sizes of LD and related neurovascular structures, especially in neonate surgeries. Linear function of LD surface area can be helpful to design the flap dimensions in newborn surgeries. A throughout knowledge about the branching pattern of TDN and its location-wise relation with TDA should be kept in mind to prevent possible complications during harvesting LD flaps and TDN grafts.

  4. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Beck, Bjarne Lomholdt

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities.......We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities....

  5. Topography of the inferior alveolar nerve in human embryos and fetuses. An histomorphological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lvovich Kabak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to establish the position of the inferior alveolar nerve in relation to the Meckel’s cartilage, the anlage of the mandibular body and primordia of the teeth, and also to trace the change in nerve trunk structure in the human prenatal ontogenesis. Serial sections (20µm from thirty-two 6-12 weeks-old entire human embryos and serial sections (10µm of six mandibles of 13-20 weeks-old human fetuses without developmental abnormalities were studied. Histological sections were impregnated with silver nitrate according to Bilshovsky-Buke and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. During embryonic development, the number of branches of the inferior alveolar nerve increases and its fascicular structure changes. In conclusion, the architecture of intraosseous canals in the body of the mandible, as well as the location of the foramina, is predetermined by the course and pattern of the vessel/nerve branching in the mandibular arch, even before the formation of bony trabeculae. Particularly, the formation of the incisive canal of the mandible can be explained by the presence of the incisive nerve as the extension of the inferior alveolar nerve. It has also been established that Meckel’s cartilage does not participate in mandibular canal morphogenesis.

  6. c-kit positive cells and networks in tooth germs of human midterm fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Pop, Florinel; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to characterize the dental pulp stem cells. However, studies performed on prenatal human tissues have not been performed to evaluate the in situ characterization and topography of progenitor cells. We aimed to perform such a study using of antibodies for CD117/c-kit and multiplex antibody for Ki67+ caspase 3. Antibodies were applied on samples dissected from five human midterm fetuses. Positive CD117/c-kit labeling was found in mesenchymal derived tissues, such as the dental follicle and the dental papilla. The epithelial tissues, that is, dental lamina, enamel organ and oral epithelia, also displayed isolated progenitor cells which were CD117/c-kit positive. Interestingly, CD117/c-kit positive cells of mesenchymal derived tissues extended multiple prolongations building networks; the most consistent of such networks were those of the dental follicle and the perivascular networks of the dental papilla. However, the mantle of the dental papilla was also positive for CD117/c-kit positive stromal networks. The CD117/c-kit cell populations building networks appeared mostly with a Ki67 negative phenotype. The results suggest that CD117/c-kit progenitor cells of the prenatal tooth germ tissues might be involved in intercellular signaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal and total body volumes of human fetuses: assessment of reference data by spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braillon, Pierre M. [Department of Radiology (Pavilion B), Hospital E. Herriot and University Claude Bernard, Lyon (France); Buenerd, Annie; Bouvier, Raymonde [Department of Pathology, Hospital E. Herriot and University Claude Bernard, Lyon (France); Lapillonne, Alexandre [USDA/ARS Children' s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Objective: To define reference data for skeletal and total body volumes of normal human fetuses. Materials and methods: Spiral CT was used to assess the skeletal and total body volumes of 31 normal human stillborn infants with gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) ranging from 14 to 41.5 weeks and 22 to 3,760 g, respectively. CT scans (slice thickness 2.7 mm, pitch 0.7) were performed within the first 24 h after delivery. Precise bone and soft-tissue windows were defined from analysis of the density along the diaphysis of the fetal long bones and from the measurement of a phantom that mimics soft tissues. Lengths and volumes were obtained from 3D reconstructions. The femur lengths measured from CT images (FLct) were compared with those provided by US studies (FLus). Results: Significant correlations (r>0.9) were found between BW, measured volumes of the entire skeleton or head, long-bone lengths, biparietal diameter and GA. Strong linear correlations (r>0.98) were observed between FLct and FLus. Conclusions: Skeletal and total body volume values obtained using spiral CT were significantly correlated with fetal biometric measurements. These data could complement those obtained in obstetric investigations with US. (orig.)

  8. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R; Geyer, John W; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Aris, John P [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shifrin, Roger Y, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-08-07

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations

  9. Morphometric study of the two fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Grzonkowska, Magdalena; Badura, Mateusz; Dombek, Małgorzata; Małkowski, Bogdan; Szpinda, Michał

    2016-10-01

    A satisfactory understanding of the clavicle development may be contributing to both the diagnosis of its congenital defects and prevention of perinatal damage to the shoulder girdle. This study was carried out to examine the transverse and sagittal diameters, cross-sectional area and volume of the two fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle. Using the methods of CT, digital-image analysis and statistics, the size for two fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle in 42 spontaneously aborted human fetuses at ages of 18-30 weeks was studied. Without any male-female and right-left significant differences, the best fit growth models for two fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle were as follows: y = -31.373 + 15.243 × ln(age) ± 1.424 (R (2) = 0.74) for transverse diameter, y = -7.945 + 3.225 × ln(age) ± 0.262 (R (2) = 0.78), y = -4.503 + 2.007 × ln(age) ± 0.218 (R (2) = 0.68), and y = -4.860 + 2.117 × ln(age) ± 0.200 (R (2) = 0.73) for sagittal diameters of the lateral, middle and medial ends respectively, y = -31.390 + 2.432 × age ± 4.599 (R (2) = 0.78) for cross-sectional area, and y = 28.161 + 0.00017 × (age)(4) ± 15.357 (R (2) = 0.83) for volume. With no sex and laterality differences, the fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle grow logarithmically in both transverse and sagittal diameters, linearly in cross-sectional area, and fourth-degree polynomially in volume. Our normative quantitative findings may be conducive in monitoring normal fetal growth and screening for inherited faults and anomalies of the clavicle in European human fetuses.

  10. Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights...... for nonmacerated fetuses and for mildly, moderately, and markedly macerated fetuses at 12 to 43 weeks of gestation. Cases were selected from a consecutive series of 1800 fetal and perinatal autopsies. Cases with malformations, hydrops, infection, or chromosomal abnormality, fetuses from multiple births...

  11. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our series comprised 35 fetuses and 58 boys with cryptorchidism, and 22 normal fetuses...... and 25 normal boys. Age ranged from 28 weeks of gestation to 3 years. RESULTS: Cryptorchid fetuses had reduced germ cells per tubular cross section values and lower testicular weights. Values were reduced in cryptorchid boys without a symptomatic inguinal hernia. If a hernia was present, values were...... number of germ cells in undescended testes from week 28 of gestation and germ cell hypoplasia as a consequence of continued postnatal undescended testicular position. Cryptorchidism may result from abnormal development of the caudal developmental field....

  12. Ultrasonographic Investigation of Human Fetus Responses to Maternal Communicative and Non-communicative Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Gabriella A; Nicolini, Ylenia; Demuru, Elisa; Tosato, Cecilia; Hussain, Merhi; Scesa, Elena; Romei, Luisa; Boerci, Maria; Iappini, Emanuela; Dalla Rosa Prati, Guido; Palagi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus' mouth movements in response to mothers' speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants' sensitivity to their mother's voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouthmotor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g., chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc.) and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus' behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA) and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth.

  13. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  14. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. METHODS In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. RESULTS Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1- fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity CONCLUSIONS Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  15. Morphometric study of the neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Grzonkowska, Magdalena; Małkowski, Bogdan; Badura, Mateusz; Szpinda, Michał

    2016-12-01

    The knowledge of the developing cervical spine and its individual vertebrae, including their neural processes may be useful in the diagnostics of congenital vertebral malformations. This study was performed to quantitatively examine the neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis with respect to their linear, planar and volumetric parameters. Using the methods of CT, digital-image analysis and statistics, the size of neural ossification centers in the atlas and axis in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was studied. Without any male-female and right-left significant differences, the best fit growth dynamics for the neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis were, respectively, modelled by the following functions: for length: y = -13.461 + 6.140 × ln(age) ± 0.570 and y = -15.683 + 6.882 × ln(age) ± 0.503, for width: y = -4.006 + 1.930 × ln(age) ± 0.178 and y = -3.054 + 1.648 × ln(age) ± 0.178, for cross-sectional area: y = -7.362 + 0.780 × age ± 1.700 and y = -9.930 + 0.869 × age ± 1.911, and for volume: y = -6.417 + 0.836 × age ± 1.924 and y = -11.592 + 1.087 × age ± 2.509. The size of neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis shows neither sexual nor bilateral differences. The neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis grow logarithmically in both length and width and linearly in both cross-sectional area and volume. The numerical data relating to the size of neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis derived from the CT and digital-image analysis are considered specific-age reference values of potential relevance in both the ultrasound monitoring and the early detection of spinal abnormalities relating to the neural processes of the first two cervical vertebrae in the fetus.

  16. Functional plasticity before the cradle: a review of neural functional imaging in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Amy L; Thomason, Moriah E

    2013-11-01

    The organization of the brain is highly plastic in fetal life. Establishment of healthy neural functional systems during the fetal period is essential to normal growth and development. Across the last several decades, remarkable progress has been made in understanding the development of human fetal functional brain systems. This is largely due to advances in imaging methodologies. Fetal neuroimaging began in the 1950-1970's with fetal electroencephalography (EEG) applied during labor. Later, in the 1980's, magnetoencephalography (MEG) emerged as an effective approach for investigating fetal brain function. Most recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has arisen as an additional powerful approach for examining fetal brain function. This review will discuss major developmental findings from fetal imaging studies such as the maturation of prenatal sensory system functions, functional hemispheric asymmetry, and sensory-driven neurodevelopment. We describe how with improved imaging and analysis techniques, functional imaging of the fetus has the potential to assess the earliest point of neural maturation and provide insight into the patterning and sequence of normal and abnormal brain development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Postmortem examination of human fetuses: a comparison of 2-dimensional ultrasound with invasive autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Shelmerdine, Susan C; Hurtado, Ivan; Bevilacqua, Elisa; Hutchinson, Ciaran; Mandalia, Uday; Segers, Valerie; Cos Sanchez, Teresa; Cannie, Mieke M; Carlin, Andrew; Sebire, Neil J; Arthurs, Owen J; Jani, Jacques C

    2017-08-07

    To compare the diagnostic usefulness of postmortem ultrasound with invasive autopsy in fetuses at different gestational ages. We performed postmortem 2-dimensional ultrasound on 163 fetuses at 13-42 weeks gestation, blinded to clinical details. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the effect on non-diagnostic results of gestational age during postmortem ultrasound, presence of maceration, and cause of death. In 123 cases where invasive autopsy was available, the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in detecting major organ abnormalities was evaluated, using invasive autopsy as a gold standard. For the fetal brain, a non-diagnostic result was found in 17 (39.5%) of 43 fetuses with maceration and was significantly more common as compared to fetuses without maceration (24 [20.0%] of 120 fetuses [p=0.013]). For the fetal thorax, a non-diagnostic result was found in 15 (34.1%) of 44 fetuses at autopsy. It may therefore play a role as a first-line examination before other virtual autopsy techniques are indicated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  19. [Motor behavior of human fetuses during the second trimester of gestation: a longitudinal ultrasound study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, C; Crespo-Eguílaz, N; Alcázar, J L; Narbona, J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research is to contribute to knowledge of the normal spontaneous motor behavior of the human fetus during the second trimester of pregnancy. This study focuses on five patterns of spontaneous fetal movement: startle (S), axo-rhizomelic rhythmia (ARR), axial stretching (AS), general movement (GM), and diaphragmatic contraction (DC). A cohort of 13 subjects was followed up using 2D obstetrical ultrasound images at 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks of gestation. As inclusion criteria, neonatal neurological examination and general movements after eutocic delivery at term were normal in all of the subjects, and their neuromotor and cognitive development until the end of pre-school age were also normal. All these five motor patterns are present at the beginning of the 2(nd) gestational trimester, but their quantitative and qualitative traits are diverse according to gestational ages. The phasic, isolated or rhythmically repeated movements, S and ARR, are prominent at 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, and then their presence gradually diminishes. By contrast, tonic and complex AS and GM movements increase their presence and quality at 20 and 24 weeks. RAR constitute a particular periodic motor pattern not described in previous literature. Moreover, the incidence of DC is progressive throughout the trimester, in clusters of 2-6 arrhythmic and irregular beats. Fetal heart rate increases during fetal motor active periods. All five normal behavioral patterns observed in the ultrasounds reflect the progressive tuning of motor generators in human nervous system during mid-pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Vomeronasal epithelial cells of human fetuses contain immunoreactivity for G proteins, Go(alpha) and Gi(alpha 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, S; Yukimatsu, M; Matsumura, G; Nishiyama, F

    2001-06-01

    Two G protein subfamilies, Go(alpha) and Gi(alpha 2), were identified and localized immunohistochemically in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of 5-month-old human fetuses. Immunoreactivity for Go(alpha) and Gi(alpha 2) was present in a subset of vomeronasal epithelial cells. Prominent immunoreactivity was observed in apical processes and their apical terminals facing onto the vomeronasal lumen. Nerve fibers associated with the VNO exhibited intense immunoreactivity for Go(alpha) and weak immunoreactivity for Gi(alpha 2). Since Go(alpha) and Gi(alpha 2) are characteristically expressed and coupled with putative pheromone receptors in rodent vomeronasal receptor neurons, the present results suggest the possibility that vomeronasal epithelial cells containing Go(alpha) and Gi(alpha 2) in human fetuses are chemosensory neurons.

  1. Molecular characterization and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, L.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) can cause disease in humans and animals. In humans, C. fetus can cause septicemia and intestinal illness. Contaminated food, like unpasteurized milk, is possibly a source of human C. fetus infections. This thesis focuses on the mammal-associated C. fetus

  2. Transsphenoidal meningocele: an anatomical study using human fetuses including report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Yukio; Kawamoto, Ai; Cho, Kwang Ho; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinichi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki

    2013-09-01

    An asymptomatic transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele was discovered incidentally by fiber laryngoscopic examination in a 62-year-old man suffering from hoarseness due to dysplasia of the vocal cord epithelium. To provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this anomaly, we performed histologic observations of paraffin-embedded specimens of 42 human fetal heads at 12-16 weeks of gestation. At these stages, ossification had started in the clivus but the sphenoid sinus was not developed. In contrast to the very low incidence of the intra- or trans-sphenoidal remnant of Rathke's pouch after birth, we found (1) the typical mid-line cleft of the sphenoid body in two specimens (2/42 or 4.8 %) and (2) a duct-like, sellar inferior protrusion ending in the sphenoid body in 12 specimens (12/42 or 28.6 %). The cyst-like structure in the protrusion (two specimens) seemed to be composed of obstructed veins. The intra- and trans-sphenoidal anomalies were observed more frequently in specimens without ossification of the sphenoid body than in those with ossification. However, irrespective of ossification, a cyst-like remnant of the most upper part of Rathke's pouch was always seen between the anterior and posterior lobes of the developing pituitary gland. In addition, the bursa pharyngea was seen in four specimens and we confirmed that the notochord was attached to the bursa in each case. The consistent remnant of the intrasellar Rathke's pouch appeared to explain the high incidence of Rathke's cleft cyst in adults. The relatively high incidence of intrasphenoidal anomalies in fetuses (14/42) suggested that the intra- or trans-sphenoidal remnant of Rathke's pouch was physiologically closed by ossification of the sphenoid body.

  3. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szpinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 × age ± Z  × (−3.15 + 0.27 × age. The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (r=0.91, p<0.001 between the liver volumes achieved by hydrostatic (x and indirect (y methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16x  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias.

  4. Ultrasonographic investigation of human fetus responses to maternal communicative and non-communicative stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella eArrigoni Ferrari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus’ mouth movements in response to mothers’ speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants’ sensitivity to their mother’s voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouth motor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g. chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc. and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus’ behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth.

  5. Validation of the ovine fetus as an experimental model for the human myelomeningocele defect: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Araujo Lapa Pedreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To produce a myelomeningocele-like human defect inthe ovine fetus and validate this experimental model in ourpopulation. Methods: A prospective study on 12 pregnant sheep ofa crossed Hampshire/Down breed where a spinal defect wassurgically created between day 75 and day 77 after conception.The technique consisted of a hysterotomy with exposure of fetalhind limbs and tail up to the mid spine. Fetal skin, paravertebralmuscles, and 4 posterior spinal arches were excised, exposingthe spinal cord. Duramater was opened and the medulla was inciseduntil the medullar canal. Animals were euthanized at 139 days ofgestation for fetal evaluation. The central nervous system wassubmitted to post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI andthe spine was submitted to pathological examination. Results:The defect was created in 13 fetuses and 5 survived. Meangestational age at necropsy was 121.6 days (varying from 93 to145 days. Macroscopically, the defect was present in 4 cases.Microscopy revealed a flattened medulla with disappearance ofthe medullar canal and disruption of normal medullar cellarchitecture with neuronal apoptosis and/or fusion of the piamaterand duramater. The MRI showed herniation of the cerebellum intothe cervical canal and syringomyelia. Conclusions: The surgicallyproduced defect mimics defects in the human fetus, including theArnold-Chiari malformation. Post-mortem MRI was used for thefirst time in our study and proved an excellent alternative fordemonstrating the cerebellar herniation. We standardized thetechnique for creating the defect in our population.

  6. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    normal in the first year of life but decreased at age 1 to 3 years. Malformations or dysplasia of the kidneys, ureter or T10 to S5 vertebrae were present in 34% of the cryptorchid fetuses and 18% of the cryptorchid boys without a symptomatic inguinal hernia. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a reduced...

  7. External physical stimulation of the human-fetus during episodes of low heart-rate variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; ZEELENBERG, HJ; DEVRIES, JIP; DAWES, GS

    1983-01-01

    The effect of shaking the fetus through the maternal abdomen during episodes of low (nonreactive) fetal heart rate variation was studied in 10 healthy nulliparous women near term. Heart rate monitoring from an abdominal electrocardiogram was combined with real-time scanning for body movements and

  8. URINE PRODUCTION-RATE IS RELATED TO BEHAVIORAL STATES IN THE NEAR-TERM HUMAN FETUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERSTEGE, JG; LANDER, M; PRECHTL, HFR; AARNOUDSE, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    1993-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between hourly fetal urine production rate (HFUPR) and behavioural states 1F and 2F (corresponding to quiet and active sleep, respectively) in normal near term fetuses. Design An observational study. Setting A clinic for antenatal care at a university hospital.

  9. Increased Expression and Altered Methylation of HERVWE1 in the Human Placentas of Smaller Fetuses from Monozygotic, Dichorionic, Discordant Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zilian; Luo, Yanmin; Sun, Hongyu; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Linhuan; Li, Manchao; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Background The human endogenous retroviral family W, Env(C7), member 1 gene (HERVWE1) is thought to participate in trophoblast cell fusion, and its expression is diminished in the placentas of singleton intrauterine growth-retarded pregnancies. However, there is limited information about the role of HERVWE1 in discordant fetal growth in twins. This study was to compare HERVWE1 gene expression between the placentas of discordant monozygotic twins and to identify its regulation by methylation. Methodology/Principal Findings Fetuses from twenty-one pairs of monozygotic, dichorionic, discordant twins were marked as “smaller” or “larger” according to birth weight. Placental HERVWE1 mRNA and protein expression profiles were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. Methylation profiles of the HERVWE1 promoter region were analyzed using a pyrosequencing assay. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) transcript levels were analyzed by RT-PCR. 5-methyl cytosine (5-MC) was stained using an immunohistochemical assay. There was a significant negative correlation between HERVWE1 mRNA levels and birth weight in twins (Ptwins(Ptwins(Ptwins (P>0.05). The DNMT3b3 mRNA levels in the smaller group were significantly downregulated compared with the larger group in discordant twins(Ptwins(Ptwins, HERVWE1 expression was higher in smaller fetuses and lower in larger fetuses. Methylation of the HERVWE1 gene promoter region may participate in the regulation of HERVWE1 gene expression in discordant twin pregnancies. PMID:22457770

  10. Digital image analysis of ossification centers in the axial dens and body in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Grzonkowska, Magdalena; Małkowski, Bogdan; Badura, Mateusz; Dąbrowska, Maria; Szpinda, Michał

    2016-12-01

    The detailed understanding of the anatomy and timing of ossification centers is indispensable in both determining the fetal stage and maturity and for detecting congenital disorders. This study was performed to quantitatively examine the odontoid and body ossification centers in the axis with respect to their linear, planar and volumetric parameters. Using the methods of CT, digital image analysis and statistics, the size of the odontoid and body ossification centers in the axis in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was studied. With no sex difference, the best fit growth dynamics for odontoid and body ossification centers of the axis were, respectively, as follows: for transverse diameter y = -10.752 + 4.276 × ln(age) ± 0.335 and y = -10.578 + 4.265 × ln(age) ± 0.338, for sagittal diameter y = -4.329 + 2.010 × ln(age) ± 0.182 and y = -3.934 + 1.930 × ln(age) ± 0.182, for cross-sectional area y = -7.102 + 0.520 × age ± 0.724 and y = -7.002 + 0.521 × age ± 0.726, and for volume y = -37.021 + 14.014 × ln(age) ± 1.091 and y = -37.425 + 14.197 × ln(age) ± 1.109. With no sex differences, the odontoid and body ossification centers of the axis grow logarithmically in transverse and sagittal diameters, and in volume, while proportionately in cross-sectional area. Our specific-age reference data for the odontoid and body ossification centers of the axis may be relevant for determining the fetal stage and maturity and for in utero three-dimensional sonographic detecting segmentation anomalies of the axis.

  11. Morphometric study of the T6 vertebra and its three ossification centers in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Dombek, Małgorzata; Kosiński, Adam; Grzybiak, Marek

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is critical in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. We aimed to study the size of T6 vertebra in human fetuses with the crown-rump length of 115-265 mm. Using the methods of computed tomography (Biograph mCT), digital image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistics, the normative growth of the T6 vertebral body and the three ossification centers of T6 vertebra in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) aged 17-30 weeks were studied. Neither male-female nor right-left significant differences were found. The height, transverse, and sagittal diameters of the T6 vertebral body followed natural logarithmic functions as y = -4.972 + 2.732 × ln(age) ± 0.253 (R (2) = 0.72), y = -14.862 + 6.426 × ln(age) ± 0.456 (R (2) = 0.82), and y = -10.990 + 4.982 × ln(age) ± 0.278 (R (2) = 0.89), respectively. Its cross-sectional area (CSA) rose proportionately as y = -19.909 + 1.664 × age ± 2.033 (R (2) = 0.89), whereas its volumetric growth followed the four-degree polynomial function y = 19.158 + 0.0002 × age(4) ± 7.942 (R (2) = 0.93). The T6 body ossification center grew logarithmically in both transverse and sagittal diameters as y = -14.784 + 6.115 × ln(age) ± 0.458 (R (2) = 0.81) and y = -12.065 + 5.019 × ln(age) ± 0.315 (R (2) = 0.87), and proportionately in both CSA and volume like y = -15.591 + 1.200 × age ± 1.470 (R (2) = 0.90) and y = -22.120 + 1.663 × age ± 1.869 (R (2) = 0.91), respectively. The ossification center-to-vertebral body volume ratio was gradually decreasing with age. On the right and left, the neural ossification centers revealed the following models: y = -15.188 + 6.332 × ln(age) ± 0.629 (R (2) = 0.72) and y = -15.991 + 6.600 × ln(age) ± 0.629 (R (2) = 0.74) for length, y = -6.716 + 2.814 × ln(age) ± 0.362 (R (2) = 0.61) and y = -7.058 + 2

  12. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    . In the present study, eight triploid fetuses were analyzed radiographically and histologically focusing especially on the cranial base, which borders to the spine and to which the jaws are attached. A histological analysis of the cranial base has not previously been performed in triploid cases. An enlarged...... and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base....

  13. Abortion and protection of the human fetus: religious and legal problems in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Alam, Mukhtar; Ahmad, Habib; Sajid-ul-Ghafoor

    2009-01-01

    Abortion is the most common and controversial issue in many parts of the world. Approximately 46 million abortions are performed worldwide every year. The world ratio is 26 induced abortions per 100 known pregnancies. Pakistan has an estimated abortion rate of 29 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age, despite the procedure being illegal except to save a woman's life. 890,000 abortions are performed annually in Pakistan. Many government and non-government organizations are working on the issue of abortion. Muslim jurists are unanimous in declaring that after the fetus is completely formed and has been given a soul, abortion is haram (forbidden).

  14. Cardiorenal syndrome is present in human fetuses with severe, isolated urinary tract malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltraut M Merz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the association between renal and cardiovascular parameters in fetuses with isolated severe urinary tract malformations. METHODS: 39 fetuses at a mean gestational age of 23.6 weeks with nephropathies or urinary tract malformations and markedly impaired or absent renal function were prospectively examined. Fetal echocardiography was performed, and thicknesses of the interventricular septum, and left and right ventricular wall were measured. Blood flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus were obtained by color Doppler ultrasound. Concentrations of circulating n-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (nt-proBNP, cystatin C, ß2-microglobulin, and hemoglobin were determined from fetal blood samples. RESULTS: Malformations included 21 cases of obstructive uropathy, 10 fetuses with bilateral nephropathy, and 8 cases of bilateral renal agenesis. Marked biventricular myocardial hypertrophy was present in all cases. The ratio between measured and gestational age-adjusted normal values was 2.01 (interventricular septum, 1.85, and 1.78 (right and left ventricular wall, respectively. Compared to controls, levels of circulating nt-proBNP were significantly increased (median (IQR 5035 ng/L (5936 ng/L vs. 1874 ng/L (1092 ng/L; p<0.001. Cystatin C and ß2-microglobulin concentrations were elevated as follows (mean ± SD 1.85±0.391 mg/L and 8.44±2.423 mg/L, respectively (normal range 1.66±0.202 mg/L and 4.25±0.734 mg/L, respectively. No correlation was detected between cardiovascular parameters and urinary tract morphology and function. Despite increased levels of nt-proBNP cardiovascular function was preserved, with normal fetal Doppler indices in 90.2% of cases. CONCLUSION: Urinary tract malformations resulting in severe renal impairment are associated with biventricular myocardial hypertrophy and elevated concentrations of circulating nt-proBNP during fetal life. Cardiovascular

  15. Tracheal dimensions in human fetuses: an anatomical, digital and statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Daroszewski, Marcin; Woźniak, Alina; Szpinda, Anna; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2012-05-01

    Rapid advances in perinatal medicine have resulted in increased number of various tracheo-bronchial interventions on fetal and neonatal airways. The present study was performed to compile normative data for external dimensions of the trachea at varying gestational age. Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis (NIS-Elements BR 3.0) and statistical analysis (ANOVA, regression analysis), a range of measurements (prebifurcation and bifurcation lengths, proximal and distal external transverse diameters, proximal external cross-sectional area, and external volume) for the trachea in 73 spontaneously aborted fetuses (39 male, 34 female) aged 14-25 weeks was examined. No significant male-female differences were found (P > 0.05). The prebifurcation and bifurcation lengths ranged from 8.14 ± 1.90 to 20.77 ± 0.50 mm and from 2.23 ± 0.25 to 5.77 ± 0.76 mm, according to the functions y = -54.291 + 23.940 × ln (Age) ± 1.681 (R (2) = 0.78) and y = -10.756 + 4.860 × ln (Age) ± 0.731 (R (2) = 0.44), respectively. Their relative growth, expressed as the bifurcation-to-prebifurcation length ratio, was stable from the age of 16 weeks and attained the value 0.22 ± 0.05. The proximal external transverse diameter of the trachea was greater (36 fetuses, 49.3%), smaller (34 fetuses, 46.6%) or similar (3 fetuses, 4.1%), when compared to the distal external transverse diameter. The values for proximal and distal transverse diameters ranged from 2.39 ± 0.04 to 5.20 ± 0.17 mm and from 2.42 ± 0.20 to 4.93 ± 0.08 mm, expressed by the functions: y = -9.659 + 4.574 × ln (Age) ± 0.313 (R (2) = 0.79) and y = -10.897 + 4.984 × ln (Age) ± 0.327 (R (2) = 0.81). The values of proximal external cross-sectional area ranged from 3.38 ± 0.12 to 15.98 ± 1.04 mm(2), according to the linear function y = -11.798 + 1.077 × Age ± 1.463 (R (2) = 0.78). The values of external volume of the trachea ranged from 34.3 ± 11.6 to 370.6 ± 94.1 mm(3) and generated the quadratic function y

  16. Hypothesis: terminal transverse limb defects with "nubbins" represent a regenerative process during limb development in human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, David M; Holmes, Lewis B

    2012-03-01

    Terminal transverse limb defects with nubbins occur in one arm at one of several levels (distal humerus, proximal forearm, wrist, and at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint in the hand). The associated nubbins contain osteocartilaginous tissue and small nails and are not associated with evidence of amnion disruption. We present affected newborn infants whose terminal transverse limb defects are at one of these three levels: proximal forearm, elbow, or metacarpal-phalangeal joint. We hypothesize that the presence of residual digit-like structures reflects a regenerative process that has occurred during limb development in these infants. Only limited regeneration of digit-like structures can occur in the human fetus. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Amniotic fluid deficiency and congenital abnormalities both influence fluctuating asymmetry in developing limbs of human deceased fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mariquita Antoinette ten Broek

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, as an indirect measure of developmental instability (DI, has been intensively studied for associations with stress and fitness. Patterns, however, appear heterogeneous and the underlying causes remain largely unknown. One aspect that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the consequence of direct mechanical effects on asymmetries. The crucial prerequisite for FA to reflect DI is that environmental conditions on both sides should be identical. This condition may be violated during early human development if amniotic fluid volume is deficient, as the resulting mechanical pressures may increase asymmetries. Indeed, we showed that limb bones of deceased human fetuses exhibited increased asymmetry, when there was not sufficient amniotic fluid (and, thus, space in the uterine cavity. As amniotic fluid deficiency is known to cause substantial asymmetries and abnormal limb development, these subtle asymmetries are probably at least in part caused by the mechanical pressures. On the other hand, deficiencies in amniotic fluid volume are known to be associated with other congenital abnormalities that may disturb DI. More specifically, urogenital abnormalities can directly affect/reduce amniotic fluid volume. We disentangled the direct mechanical effects on FA from the indirect effects of urogenital abnormalities, the latter presumably representing DI. We discovered that both factors contributed significantly to the increase in FA. However, the direct mechanical effect of uterine pressure, albeit statistically significant, appeared less important than the effects of urogenital abnormalities, with an effect size only two-third as large. We, thus, conclude that correcting for the relevant direct factors allowed for a representative test of the association between DI and stress, and confirmed that fetuses form a suitable model system to increase our understanding in patterns of FA and symmetry development.

  18. Anatomy of musculus levator veli palatini in the 15-week human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueber, K; Langdon, H L

    1979-01-01

    The morphology of musculus levator veli palatini in the 15-week fetus was analyzed using 30-micrometer subserial sections. The sample included 26 specimens, of which 9 each were sectioned coronally and sagittally while 8 were sectioned in the transverse plane. At this stage of development m. levator veli palatini takes a general attachment to the precursor of the petrous part of the temporal bone, and, in some cases, auxiliary attachments to the auditory tube complex were also observed. At its origin, the muscle is located anterior to the tube. It then runs medially, passing beneath the auditory tube prior to entering the velum. As it nears the region of the lateral pharyngeal wall, a small fascicle trails posteriorly and inferiorly to the main muscle mass and occasionally runs into the upper margin of m. constrictor pharyngis superior. The levator muscle is more localized within the velum at this stage of development than it has been reported to be in the adult, being confined here to the central third of the soft palate. Most of the fibers of the muscle appear to form a sling within the central 20% of the velum, although some were seen to take attachment to loose connective tissue and the palatine raphe. Upon its entry into the velum, m. levator veli palatini is intersected vertically by bundles of both mm. palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus.

  19. Development and Optimization of Viable Human Platforms through 3D Printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Paul R. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moya, Monica L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wheeler, Elizabeth K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-21

    3D printing technology offers a unique method for creating cell cultures in a manner far more conducive to accurate representation of human tissues and systems. Here we print cellular structures capable of forming vascular networks and exhibiting qualities of natural tissues and human systems. This allows for cheaper and readily available sources for further study of biological and pharmaceutical agents.

  20. An investigation of the origin, location and variations of the renal arteries in human fetuses and their clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciçekcibaşi, Aynur Emine; Ziylan, Taner; Salbacak, Ahmet; Seker, Muzaffer; Büyükmumcu, Mustafa; Tuncer, Işik

    2005-09-01

    We investigated the origin, localizations and anatomic variations of the renal artery (RA) in human fetuses with the aim of determining the distribution of these variations according to lateralization and gender. In total, 90 fetuses of spontaneous abortion (45 males, 45 females) with no congenital malformations were included to the study. The abdominal aorta and its branches were dissected after latex solution colored with red ink had been injected into the vessels from the thoracic aorta. In all, 180 RA dissections were performed bilaterally in 90 cases and the anatomic variations were photographed. Right and left RAs were found to originate from the following levels according to the columna vertebralis, respectively: 3.8% and 1.9% lower T12, 67.3% and 25.0% upper L1, 9.6% and 28.8% mid L1, 15.3% and 40.3 lower L1, 3.8% and 3.8% upper 1/3 part of L2 vertebra. The right RA originated from the lateral part and anterolateral wall of the abdominal aorta in 73.0% and 26.9% of cases while the lateral and anterolateral wall origin percentages of left RA were 90.3% and 9.6%, respectively. The origin site of the right RA from the abdominal aorta was superior to, at the same level with, and inferior to that of the left RA in 53.8%, 34.6% and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. There were no variations in 75% of the cases whereas the remaining 25% had several variation patterns. The presented morphological results are as follows: A single hilar artery in 75% of the cases, double hilar arteries in 11.1%, an inferior polar artery in 10.5%, and a superior polar artery in 3.3% of specimens studied. Anatomical variations were observed more frequently among male fetuses and on the right side. Knowledge of RA variations is important for surgeons in performing many procedures and may help to avoid clinical complications, especially, during radiological examination and/or surgical approaches in the abdominal region.

  1. Experimental human-like model to assess the part of viable Legionella reaching the thoracic region after nebulization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Pourchez

    Full Text Available The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella, we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract. The model's sensitivity was determined by monitoring the deposition of (i aerosolized water and Tc99m radio-aerosol as controls, and (ii bioaerosols generated from both Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila sg 1 suspensions. The numbers of viable Legionella prior to and after nebulization were provided by culture, flow cytometry and qPCR. This study was designed to obtain more realistic data on aerosol inhalation (vs. animal experimentation and deposition at the thoracic region in the context of LD. Upon nebulization, 40% and 48% of the initial Legionella inoculum was made of cultivable and non-cultivable cells, respectively; 0.7% of both populations reached the filter holder mimicking the thoracic region in this setup. These results are in agreement with experimental data based on quantitative microbial risk assessment methods and bring new methods that may be useful for preventing LD.

  2. The effect of intraumbilical fetal nutrition via a subcutaneously implanted port system on amino acid concentration by severe IUGR human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchirikov, Michael; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay Sh; Bapayeva, Gauri; Bergner, Michael; Entezami, Michael

    2017-02-01

    To determine if intrauterine intraumbilical supplementation with amino acids (AA) and glucose can improve neonatal outcome of severe growth restricted human fetuses (IUGR). Prospective pilot study of intrauterine treatment of severe IUGR fetuses [n=14, 27 weeks of gestation (range 23-31)] with cerebroplacental ratio IUGR fetuses in both groups. Long-term supplementation with a commercial AA formula led to a slight, but not significant, reduction of histidine, threonine, lysine, arginine, asparagine and glutamine. However, the concentration of tryptophan and glutamic acid slightly increased. HBO can be combined with AA supplementation via a port system. In one case, the port system was also successfully used for fetal blood transfusion. Intravascular treatment of IUGR with fetal nutrition can prolong pregnancy with severe placental insufficiency and brain sparing for many weeks. However, rather than normalizing AA concentrations, an enhanced AA imbalance was observed in IUGR fetuses following supplementation. These deviations in AA concentrations prevent the recommendation for use of commercial AA solutions for prenatal treatment of extreme preterm IUGR fetuses.

  3. Absence of an anatomical origin for altered ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms in first-trimester human fetuses with increased nuchal translucency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Nicole B.; Matias, Alexandra; Kok, Evelien; de Groot, Christianne J M; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Bekker, Mireille N.; Haak, Monique C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To perform a morphological evaluation of the ductus venosus, heart and jugular lymphatic sac (JLS) in first-trimester human fetuses with normal and abnormal ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms (DV-FVWs) and normal and increased nuchal translucency (NT). Method: Postmortem examination

  4. Absence of an anatomical origin for altered ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms in first-trimester human fetuses with increased nuchal translucency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Nicole B.; Matias, Alexandra; Kok, Evelien; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Bekker, Mireille N.; Haak, Monique C.

    2016-01-01

    To perform a morphological evaluation of the ductus venosus, heart and jugular lymphatic sac (JLS) in first-trimester human fetuses with normal and abnormal ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms (DV-FVWs) and normal and increased nuchal translucency (NT). Postmortem examination was performed on

  5. In vivo activation of aflatoxin B1 in C57BL/6N mice carrying a human fetus-specific CYP3A7 gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Y; Yokoi, T; Katsuki, M; Wang, J S; Groopman, J D; Kamataki, T

    1997-01-01

    The in vivo activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was assessed by using two transgenic mouse lines, M2 and M10, in which the human fetus-specific CYP3A7 was expressed in the kidney (M2) and the liver (M10), respectively...

  6. Storage of sialic acid-containing carbohydrates in the placenta of a human galactosialidosis fetus. Isolation and structural characterization of 16 sialyloligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Pelt, J. van; Kuik, J.A. van; Diggelen, O.P. van; Galjaard, H.

    1988-01-01

    From the placenta of a human fetus with galactosialidosis, detected by prenatal diagnosis, sialyloligosaccharides were isolated by successively gel-permeation chromatography on Bio-Gel P-6, anion-exchange chromatography on Mono Q and high-performance liquid chromatography on Lichrosorb-NH2. 16

  7. A melodic contour repeatedly experienced by human near-term fetuses elicits a profound cardiac reaction one month after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Granier-Deferre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human hearing develops progressively during the last trimester of gestation. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, and process complex auditory streams. Fetal and neonatal studies show that they can remember frequently recurring sounds. However, existing data can only show retention intervals up to several days after birth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that auditory memories can last at least six weeks. Experimental fetuses were given precisely controlled exposure to a descending piano melody twice daily during the 35(th, 36(th, and 37(th weeks of gestation. Six weeks later we assessed the cardiac responses of 25 exposed infants and 25 naive control infants, while in quiet sleep, to the descending melody and to an ascending control piano melody. The melodies had precisely inverse contours, but similar spectra, identical duration, tempo and rhythm, thus, almost identical amplitude envelopes. All infants displayed a significant heart rate change. In exposed infants, the descending melody evoked a cardiac deceleration that was twice larger than the decelerations elicited by the ascending melody and by both melodies in control infants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, 3-weeks of prenatal exposure to a specific melodic contour affects infants 'auditory processing' or perception, i.e., impacts the autonomic nervous system at least six weeks later, when infants are 1-month old. Our results extend the retention interval over which a prenatally acquired memory of a specific sound stream can be observed from 3-4 days to six weeks. The long-term memory for the descending melody is interpreted in terms of enduring neurophysiological tuning and its significance for the developmental psychobiology of attention and perception, including early speech perception, is discussed.

  8. Modeling of coarctation of aorta in human fetuses using 3D/4D fetal echocardiography and computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Jingying; Liu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shuping; He, Yihua

    2017-12-01

    We sought to develop a hemodynamic model of aortic and ductal arches using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D/4D spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) fetal echocardiography and to investigate the hemodynamics of coarctation of aorta (CoA) in human fetuses using this approach. We obtained 3D/4D STIC fetal echocardiographic images of the aortic and ductal arches (DA) in five normal fetuses. Based on these images, we simulated the hemodynamics in the two arches using CFD. Subsequently, we reduced the dimensions of aortic isthmus from 100% to 85%, 70%, 55%, 40%, and 25% of the original dimension digitally. Numerical simulation was repeated in each condition, and flow profile, velocity, pressure, and wall shear stress (WSS) were compared with those of the baseline normal aortic and ductal arches. With the progressive narrowing in the aortic isthmus, there were alterations in the flow profile, velocity, pressure, and WSS. The downstream vortexes disappeared, and the double helix profile became single helix. When the aortic isthmus reduced by 55% in dimension, there was an exponential increase in velocity and WSS and decrease in pressure. The aortic and ductal arch geometry and flow lead to the alterations in flow profile, velocity, pressure, and WSS in the aortic isthmus in normal and CoA models, which are conductive of ductal issue migration into these areas. A 55% reduction in the dimension of aortic isthmus is associated with exponential change in velocity, pressure, and WSS, a probable threshold for hemodynamically significant CoA. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Molecular evidence for a thymus-independent partial T cell development in a FOXN1-/- athymic human fetus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fusco

    Full Text Available The thymus is the primary organ able to support T cell ontogeny, abrogated in FOXN1(-/- human athymia. Although evidence indicates that in animal models T lymphocytes may differentiate at extrathymic sites, whether this process is really thymus-independent has still to be clarified. In an athymic FOXN1(-/- fetus, in which we previously described a total blockage of CD4(+ and partial blockage of CD8(+ cell development, we investigated whether intestine could play a role as extrathymic site of T-lymphopoiesis in humans. We document the presence of few extrathymically developed T lymphocytes and the presence in the intestine of CD3(+ and CD8(+, but not of CD4(+ cells, a few of them exhibiting a CD45RA(+ naïve phenotype. The expression of CD3εεpTα, RAG1 and RAG2 transcripts in the intestine and TCR gene rearrangement was also documented, thus indicating that in humans the partial T cell ontogeny occurring at extrathymic sites is a thymus- and FOXN1-independent process.

  10. Cross-sectional study of the neural ossification centers of vertebrae C1-S5 in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-10-01

    An understanding of the normal evolution of the spine is of great relevance in the prenatal detection of spinal abnormalities. This study was carried out to estimate the length, width, cross-sectional area and volume of the neural ossification centers of vertebrae C1-S5 in the human fetus. Using the methods of CT (Biograph mCT), digital-image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistics (the one-way ANOVA test for paired data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene's test, Student's t test, the one-way ANOVA test for unpaired data with post hoc RIR Tukey comparisons) the size for the neural ossification centers throughout the spine in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) at ages of 17-30 weeks was studied. The neural ossification centers were visualized in the whole pre-sacral spine, in 74.5 % for S1, in 61.8 % for S2, in 52.7 % for S3, and in 12.7 % for S4. Neither male-female nor right-left significant differences in the size of neural ossification centers were found. The neural ossification centers were the longest within the cervical spine. The maximum values referred to the axis on the right, and to C5 vertebra on the left. There was a gradual decrease in length for the neural ossification centers of T1-S4 vertebrae. The neural ossification centers were the widest within the proximal thoracic spine and narrowed bi-directionally. The growth dynamics for CSA of neural ossification centers were found to parallel that of volume. The largest CSAs and volumes of neural ossification centers were found in the C3 vertebra, and decreased in the distal direction. The neural ossification centers show neither male-female nor right-left differences. The neural ossification centers are characterized by the maximum length for C2-C6 vertebrae, the maximum width for the proximal thoracic spine, and both the maximum cross-sectional area and volume for C3 vertebra. There is a sharp decrease in size of the neural ossification centers along the sacral spine. A

  11. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Van Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  12. Expression of proposed implantation marker genes CDX2 and HOXB7 in the blastocyst does not distinguish viable from non-viable human embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Selection of the most competent embryo challenges the credo of promoting single embryo transfer (SET) while maintaining high pregnancy rates, thus intensifying the need to introduce techniques that can improve embryo selection. Recent studies have demonstrated that blastocyst gene...... after oocyte retrieval. Immediately following biopsy, cells were lysed and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was carried out directly on the cell lysate using Superscript® III First Strand Synthesis kit (Invitrogen) thus avoiding introducing RNA amplification steps. As part of the study, the expression...... of 15 key genes associated with developmental competence in animals were evaluated in high quality human embryos with monogenic or chromosomal disorders from a pre-implantation genetic disorder program. Triplicate cDNA amplifications for quantitative (q) RT-PCR were performed using pre-designed gene...

  13. Severe cell reduction in the future brain cortex in human growth-restricted fetuses and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Grethe B; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bogdanović, Nenad

    2007-01-01

    with controls. The daily increase in brain cells in the future cortex was only half of that of the controls. In the 3 other developmental zones, no significant differences in cell numbers could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR in humans is associated with a severe reduction in cortical growth...

  14. Atlas-based segmentation of developing tissues in the human brain with quantitative validation in young fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A; Barkovich, A James; Studholme, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Imaging of the human fetus using magnetic resonance (MR) is an essential tool for quantitative studies of normal as well as abnormal brain development in utero. However, because of fundamental differences in tissue types, tissue properties and tissue distribution between the fetal and adult brain, automated tissue segmentation techniques developed for adult brain anatomy are unsuitable for this data. In this paper, we describe methodology for automatic atlas-based segmentation of individual tissue types in motion-corrected 3D volumes reconstructed from clinical MR scans of the fetal brain. To generate anatomically correct automatic segmentations, we create a set of accurate manual delineations and build an in utero 3D statistical atlas of tissue distribution incorporating developing gray and white matter as well as transient tissue types such as the germinal matrix. The probabilistic atlas is associated with an unbiased average shape and intensity template for registration of new subject images to the space of the atlas. Quantitative whole brain 3D validation of tissue labeling performed on a set of 14 fetal MR scans (20.57-22.86 weeks gestational age) demonstrates that this atlas-based EM segmentation approach achieves consistently high DSC performance for the main tissue types in the fetal brain. This work indicates that reliable measures of brain development can be automatically derived from clinical MR imaging and opens up possibility of further 3D volumetric and morphometric studies with multiple fetal subjects. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Development of digastric muscles in human fetuses: a review and findings in the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Jin, Zhe Wu; Zhao, Peng; Murakami, Gen; Li, Xiang Wu; Jin, Yu

    2017-09-04

    The digastricus and omohyoideus muscles are digastric muscles with two muscle bellies. An insertion tendon of the posterior belly becomes an intermediate tendon in digastricus muscles, whereas a single band-like muscle in omohyoideus muscles may later be interrupted by an intermediate tendon, possibly due to muscle cell death caused by mechanical stress. In human fetuses, an intermediate tendon provides the temporal origins of the tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani muscles. Some reptiles, including snakes, carry multiple series of digastric-like axial muscles, in which each intersegmental septum is likely to become an intermediate tendon. These findings indicate that many pathways are involved in the development of digastric muscles. A review of these morphologies suggested that the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle was a digastric muscle, although the intermediate tendon may not be visible in the surface view in adults. The present observations support the hypothesis that the proximal anlage at the elbow develops into a deep muscle slip to a limited finger, while the distal anlage at the wrist develops into the other slips. The findings suggest that, in the FDS muscle, the proximal and distal bellies of the embryonic digastric muscle fuse together to form a laminar structure, in which muscle slips accumulate from the palmar to the deep side of the forearm.

  16. The fetus as a patient: an essential ethical concept for maternal-fetal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an ethical analysis of the concept of the fetus as a patient and to identify the clinical implications of this concept for maternal-fetal medicine. The principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy are applied to the viable and previable fetus. We argue that the viable fetus is a fetal patient. The previable fetus is a fetal patient only when the pregnant woman confers such status on it. When the fetus is a patient, directive counseling for fetal benefit is ethically justified. When the fetus is not a patient, counseling should be non-directive.

  17. Absorption of the Wolffian duct and duplicated ureter by the urogenital sinus: morphological study using human fetuses and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Michiko; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Aizawa, Shin; Fujisawa, Masato

    2015-07-01

    To describe the embryological origin of the duplicated ureter and to investigate whether the urogenital sinus absorbs not only the Wolffian duct (WD) but also the ureter. During studies using sections of human fetuses (45 specimens), we incidentally found a specific type of ureteric duplication (at ~7 weeks) in which two unilateral ureters joined at the vesico-ureteric junction, apparently representing a morphology arising at an intermediate stage between complete and partial ureteric duplication. The existing literature lacks any photographic representation of early development of the vesico-ureteric junction, and we therefore studied horizontal sections of 10 human embryos (at ~5-6 weeks' gestation) in which the ureter did not join the urogenital sinus (future bladder) but instead joined the WD (future vas deferens). The sinus consistently showed a reversed Y-shape, the arms of which extended posteriorly to receive the WD. When absorption of the duct into the sinus wall reached the distal end of the ureter, the arm-like parts appeared to enlarge posteriorly for further involvement of the duct, with little or no incorporation of the ureter; therefore, the future trigone of the bladder might develop from these arm-like parts of the sinus posterior wall. Consequently, in the case of ureteric duplication included in the present study, it is considered that the ureters would probably have merged with the WD at closely adjacent sites. The present study represents the first photographic illustration of the early development of the human vesico-ureteric junction. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Leonardo da Vinci and his studies on the human fetus and the placenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, L; Fanos, V

    2000-01-01

    To review the accuracy of Leonardo's anatomical studies of the female external genitalia and the foetus, particularly those concerning the umbilical cord with its blood vessels. The anatomical drawings of Leonardo da Vinci which are now stored in the Windors Castle near London were reviewed and the accuracy of the details of the genital apparatus and foetus was evaluated. A written comment characterizes many of his drawings. He described accurately the position of the uterine blood vessels and the relationship between the pelvic organs. However his drawing and description of the female external genitalia and human placenta was incorrect because his understanding of it was inadequate. He believed that the human placenta had cotyledons like that of the ungulate uterus (drown side A of sheet 19). At the top of that sheet some Leonardo's details of the anatomic relationship are shown. In our opinion, Leonardo's misunderstanding is probably because he was only able to perform one anatomical dissection of a pregnant women and foetus and therefore his knowledge was limited. The resulting documentation of the pregnant women and foetus was therefore heavily supplemented with his enormous experience in animal anatomy.

  19. A factor converting viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae to a culturable state in eukaryotic cells is a human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Hamabata, Takashi; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work, we demonstrated that viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 were converted to culturable by coculture with eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, we isolated a factor converting VBNC V. cholerae to culturable (FCVC) from a eukaryotic cell line, HT-29. In this study, we purified FCVC by successive column chromatographies comprising UNO Q-6 anion exchange, Bio-Scale CHT2-1 hydroxyapatite, and Superdex 200 10/300 GL. Homogeneity of the purified FCVC was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE. Nano-LC MS/MS analysis showed that the purified FCVC was a human catalase. An experiment of RNAi knockdown of catalase mRNA from HT-29 cells and treatment of the purified FCVC with a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole confirmed that the FCVC was a catalase. A possible role of the catalase in converting a VBNC V. cholerae to a culturable state in the human intestine is discussed. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. New anatomical data on the growing C4 vertebra and its three ossification centers in human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Michał; Szpinda, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Detailed knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is of great relevance in the prenatal diagnosis of its abnormalities. The present study was conducted to compile age-specific reference data for vertebra C4 and its three ossification centers in human fetuses. With the use of CT (Biograph mCT), digital image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistical analysis (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene's test, Student's t test, one-way ANOVA, post hoc RIR Tukey test, linear and nonlinear regression analysis), the normative growth of vertebra C4 and its three ossification centers in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) aged 17-30 weeks was examined. Significant differences in neither sex nor laterality were found. The height and transverse and sagittal diameters of the C4 vertebral body increased logarithmically as: y = -3.866 + 2.225 × ln(Age) ± 0.238 (R(2) = 0.69), y = -7.077 + 3.547 × ln(Age) ± 0.356 (R(2) = 0.72) and y = -3.886 + 2.272 × ln(Age) ± 0.222 (R(2) = 0.73), respectively. The C4 vertebral body grew linearly in cross-sectional area as y = -7.205 + 0.812 × Age ± 1.668 (R(2) = 0.76) and four-degree polynomially in volume as y = 14.108 + 0.00007 × Age(4) ± 6.289 (R(2) = 0.83). The transverse and sagittal diameters, cross-sectional area and volume of the ossification center of the C4 vertebral body generated the following functions: y = -8.836 + 3.708 × ln(Age) ± 0.334 (R(2) = 0.76), y = -7.748 + 3.240 × ln(Age) ± 0.237 (R(2) = 0.83), y = -4.690 + 0.437 × Age ± 1.172 (R(2) = 0.63) and y = -5.917 + 0.582 × Age ± 1.157 (R(2) = 0.77), respectively. The ossification center-to-vertebral body volume ratio gradually declined with age. On the right and left, the neural ossification centers showed the following growth: y = -19.601 + 8.018 × ln(Age) ± 0.369 (R(2) = 0.92) and y = -15.804 + 6.912 × ln(Age) ± 0.471 (R (2) = 0.85) for length, y = -5.806 + 2.587 × ln(Age) ± 0.146 (R(2) = 0.88) and y = -5

  1. Reduction of viable Enterococcus faecalis in human radicular dentin treated with 1% cetrimide and conventional intracanal medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal Mejía, Jeison B; Aguilar Arrieta, Angela

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of E. faecalis after a 14-day exposure to 1% cetrimide (CET), triantibiotic paste (i.e., metronidazole, minocycline, and ciprofloxacin), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel, and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2 ) in an infected dentine model. A total of 75 roots of extracted uniradicular human teeth were chemomechanically prepared, sterilized, and infected for 21 days with E. faecalis. Samples were divided into five groups (n = 15) to apply intracanal medicaments, namely saline solution (negative control), 1% CET, triantibiotic paste (TRIA), 2% CHX gel, and Ca(OH)2 during 14 days. Dentine samples were collected and stained with the SYTO 9/propidium iodide technique (Live/Dead, Bacligth, Invitrogen, Eugene, OR, USA) for fluorescence microscopy to obtain the percentage of viable cells. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test (P faecalis when compared with the control group. In addition, the least cytotoxic medicament was Ca(OH)2 followed by CHX. There was no significant difference between 1% CET and TRIA (P = 0.98). Both 1% CET and TRIA significantly reduced the viability of E. faecalis in dentine of extracted teeth in comparison with 2% CHX gel and calcium hydroxide paste. Further laboratory and clinical investigations should be carried out to validate findings of the beneficial use of 1% CET as an intracanal medicament against E. faecalis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus toward the right atrium is associated with a worse outcome despite a higher rate of invasive procedures in human fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressig, R; Fimmers, R; Schaible, T; Degenhardt, J; Axt-Fliedner, R; Gembruch, U; Kohl, T

    2013-12-01

    Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus (DV) toward the right atrium has been observed in fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia (LDH). The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates to discharge between a group with preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart and a group in which this abnormal flow pattern was not present. We retrospectively searched our patient records for fetuses with LDH in whom liver position, DV streaming and postnatal outcome information was available. 55 cases were found and divided into two groups: Group I fetuses exhibited abnormal DV streaming toward the right side of the heart; group II fetuses did not. Various prognostic and outcome parameters were compared. 62 % of group I fetuses and 88 % of group II fetuses survived to discharge (p = 0.032). Fetoscopic tracheal balloon occlusion (FETO) was performed in 66 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II fetuses (p = 0.003). Postnatal ECMO therapy was performed in 55 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II infants (p = 0.025). Moderate to severe chronic lung disease in survivors was observed in 56 % of the survivors of group I and 9 % of the survivors of group II (p = 0.002). Preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart in human fetuses with left-sided diaphragmatic hernia was associated with a poorer postnatal outcome despite a higher rate of invasive pre- and postnatal procedures compared to fetuses without this flow abnormality. Specifically, abnormal DV streaming was found to be an independent predictor for FETO. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Isolation of viable human hepatic progenitors from adult livers is possible even after 48 hours of cold ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupet, Sophie; Simoné, Gael; Heyd, Bruno; Bachellier, Philippe; Vidal, Isabelle; Richert, Lysiane; Martin, Hélène

    2013-07-01

    Liver transplantation, utilized routinely for end-stage liver disease, has been constrained by the paucity of organ donors, and is being complemented by alternative strategies such as liver cell transplantation. One of the most promising forms of liver cell transplantation is hepatic stem cell therapies, as the number of human hepatic stem cells (hHpSCs) and other early hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sufficient to provide treatment for multiple patients from a single liver source. In the present study, human adult livers were exposed to cold ischemia and then processed after numbers, albeit somewhat lower, were obtained from those exposed to 48 h of cold ischemia. The yields are similar to those reported from livers with minimal exposure to ischemia. When cultured on plastic dishes and in Kubota's Medium, a serum-free medium designed for early lineage stage HPCs, colonies of rapidly expanding cells formed. They were confirmed to be probable hHpSCs by their ability to survive and expand on plastic and in Kubota's Medium for months, by co-expression of EpCAM and neural cell adhesion molecule, minimal if any albumin expression, with EpCAM found throughout the cells, and no expression of alpha-fetoprotein. The yields of viable EpCAM(+) cells were surprisingly large, and the numbers from a single donor liver are sufficient to treat approximately 50-100 patients given the numbers of EpCAM(+) cells currently used in hepatic stem cell therapies. Thus, cold ischemic livers for up to 48 h are a new source of cells that might be used for liver cell therapies.

  4. Pathogenesis of Congenital Rubella Virus Infection in Human Fetuses: Viral Infection in the Ciliary Body Could Play an Important Role in Cataractogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thong Van; Pham, Van Hung; Abe, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Development of congenital rubella syndrome associated with rubella virus infection during pregnancy is clinically important, but the pathogenicity of the virus remains unclear. Pathological examination was conducted on 3 aborted fetuses with congenital rubella infection. At autopsy, all 3 aborted fetuses showed congenital cataract confirmed by gross observation. Rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs including circulating hematopoietic stem cells confirmed by immunohistochemical and molecular investigations, and major histopathogical changes were found in the liver. It is noteworthy that the virus infected the ciliary body of the eye, suggesting a possible cause of cataracts. Our study based on the pathological examination demonstrated that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of human fetuses. This fact was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and direct detection of viral RNA in multiple organs. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report demonstrating that the rubella virus infection occurred via systemic organs of the human body. Importantly, virus infection of the ciliary body could play an important role in cataractogenesis.

  5. Novel patterns for the growing main bronchi in the human fetus: an anatomical, digital and statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Daroszewski, Marcin; Woźniak, Alina; Szpinda, Anna; Flisiński, Piotr; Dombek, Małgorzata; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Siedlaczek, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Intensive progress in prenatal medicine results in performing airway management in the fetus affected by life-threatening congenital malformations. This study aimed to examine age-specific reference intervals and growth dynamics for length, proximal and distal external transverse diameters, and projection surface areas of the two main bronchi at varying gestational ages, including their relative growth in length and projection surface area. Using anatomical dissection, digital image analysis and statistics, length, proximal and distal external transverse diameters, and projection surface areas of the right and left main bronchi were examined in 73 human fetuses (39 males, 34 females) aged 14-25 weeks, derived from spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. Statistical analysis showed no sex differences. Between the 14 and 25th week of gestation, the lengths of the right and left main bronchi increased from 1.43 ± 0.18 to 3.18 ± 0.39 mm, and from 2.97 ± 0.16 to 7.58 ± 1.95 mm, in accordance with the functions: [Formula: see text], respectively. The proximal external transverse diameters of the right and left main bronchi varied from 2.13 ± 0.41 to 4.24 ± 0.20 mm, and from 1.84 ± 0.06 to 3.67 ± 0.66 mm, following the logarithmic models: [Formula: see text], respectively. The distal external transverse diameter rose from 2.09 ± 0.47 to 4.24 ± 0.20 mm, as [Formula: see text] for the right main bronchus, and from 1.85 ± 0.04 to 3.67 ± 0.66 mm, like [Formula: see text] for the left one. On either side, there were no statistically significant differences between values of the proximal and distal transverse diameters of the main bronchus. The projection surface areas of the right and left main bronchi ranged from 2.95 ± 0.19 to 13.34 ± 2.12 mm(2), and from 5.57 ± 0.21 to 28.52 ± 5.24 mm(2), as [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The two main bronchi revealed a proportionate increase in both length and projection

  6. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Subspecies identification of C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital C...

  7. Fetus specific immune recognition and regulation by T cells at the fetal-maternal inferface in human pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburgs, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    During pregnancy the maternal immune system tolerates the persistence of fetal cells in maternal tissue. The fetus expresses maternal as well as paternal encoded molecules but is not rejected by the maternal immune system. The aim of this thesis was to determine whether maternal T cells contribute

  8. Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus from Zika: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 167128.html Malaria Drug Protected Mouse Fetus From Zika: Study More research is needed on effects in ... A malaria drug protected mice fetuses from the Zika virus, researchers report. In humans, Zika infection during ...

  9. The normal growth of the common iliac arteries in human fetuses - an anatomical, digital and statistical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Daroszewski, Marcin; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2012-03-01

    The present study was carried out to compile normative data for dimensions of the common iliac arteries at varying gestational ages. We used anatomical dissection, digital-image analysis (system of Leica QWin Pro 16) and statistical analysis (Student T test, one-way ANOVA, post-hoc RIR Tukey test, and regression analysis) to examine the increase in length (mm), proximal external diameter (mm), and volume (mm³) of the common iliac arteries in 124 (60 males, 64 females) spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 15-34 weeks. Neither sex nor right-left significant differences were found (P>0.05). The length ranged from 4.76 ± 1.05 to 15.38 ± 1.60 mm on the right, and from 4.92 ± 1.33 to 14.91 ± 1.25 mm on the left, according to the linear functions y=-3.598+0.585 × Age ± 1.522 (R²=0.83) and y=-3.107+0.554 × Age ± 1.444 (R²=0.83). The proximal external diameter increased from 0.66 ± 0.19 to 2.30 ± 0.42 mm on the right, and from 0.66 ± 0.14 to 2.16 ± 0.42 mm on the left, according to the quadratic models y=1.392-0.110 × Age + 0.004 × Age² ± 0.285 (R²=0.77) and y=1.283-0.099 × Age + 0.004 × Age² ± 0.238 (R²=0.81). The volumes were increasing from 1.93 ± 1.74 to 66.95 ± 29.31 mm³ on the right, and from 1.91 ± 1.65 to 56.86 ± 25.17 mm³ on the left, given by the quadratic functions: y=99.69-10.60 × Age+0.28 7 × Age² ± 14.40 (R²=0.67) and y=82.62-8.86 × Age + 0.242 × Age² ± 11.60 (R²=0.71). The common iliac arteries grow linearly in length, and parabolically in both diameter and volume. The right common iliac artery constitutes a predominant vessel in relation to its length, external diameter and volume. The morphometric data on the common iliac arteries may serve as a useful reference in the prenatal diagnosis and monitoring of congenital aorto-iliac abnormalities.

  10. The effect of formulation on the penetration of coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles into the viable epidermis of human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Silva, Vânia R; Le Lamer, Marina; Sanchez, Washington Y; Liu, David C; Sanchez, Washington H; Morrow, Isabel; Martin, Darren; Silva, Heron D T; Prow, Tarl W; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S

    2013-06-01

    The use of nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) in sunscreens and other cosmetic products has raised public health concerns. The two key issues are the extent of exposure to ZnO-NP and the likely hazard after the application of ZnO-NP in sunscreen and cosmetic products to humans in vivo. Our aims were to assess exposure by the extent of ZnO-NP penetration into the viable epidermis and hazard by changes in the viable epidermal redox state for a number of topical products. Of particular interest is the role of the particle coating, formulation used, and the presence of any enhancers. Multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (MPT-FLIM) was used to simultaneously observe ZnO-NP penetration and potential metabolic changes within the viable epidermis of human volunteers after topical application of various ZnO-NP products. Coated and uncoated ZnO-NP remained in the superficial layers of the SC and in the skin furrows. We observed limited penetration of coated ZnO-NP dispersed in a water-in-oil emulsion formulation, which was predominantly localized adjacent to the skin furrow. However, the presence of ZnO-NP in the viable epidermis did not alter the metabolic state or morphology of the cells. In summary, our data suggest that some limited penetration of coated and uncoated ZnO-NP may occur into viable stratum granulosum epidermis adjacent to furrows, but that the extent is not sufficient to affect the redox state of those viable cells. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Congenital Absence of Salivary Glands in Fetuses with Trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, Marwan; Bronshtein, Moshe; Bornstein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The congenital absence of salivary glands has been reported in children but never in fetuses with trisomy 21. To determine whether the congenital absence of salivary glands can be detected prenatally between 13 and 16 weeks of gestation in normal and trisomy 21 fetuses using transvaginal ultrasound. We performed a retrospective analysis of recordings of normal and trisomy 21 fetuses. Inclusion criteria were a single viable fetus and good visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands on both sides of the fetal face. All videos were reviewed by one examiner who reported the presence or absence of one or more salivary glands and was blinded to the fetal karyotype. Of the 45 videos reviewed, 4 were excluded from the study: namely, a non-viable fetus, twin pregnancy, and in 2 there was unsatisfactory visualization of the anatomic area of the salivary glands. Of the remaining 41 fetuses, 24 had trisomy 21 and 17 were normal. In the trisomy 21 fetuses, 8 (33.3%) had congenital absence of one or more salivary glands compared to 1 of 17 normal fetuses (5.9%) (P salivary glands has a high specificity but low sensitivity for detecting trisomy 21 fetuses.

  12. A detailed musculoskeletal study of a fetus with anencephaly and spina bifida (craniorachischisis), and comparison with other cases of human congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Malak A; Ziermann, Janine M; Gregg, Lydia; Diogo, Rui

    2017-06-01

    Few descriptions of the musculoskeletal system of humans with anencephaly or spina bifida exist in the literature. Even less is published about individuals in which both phenomena occur together, i.e. about craniorachischisis. Here we provide a detailed report on the musculoskeletal structures of a fetus with craniorachischisis, as well as comparisons with the few descriptions for anencephaly and with musculoskeletal anomalies found in other congenital malformations. We focused in particular on the comparison with trisomies 13, 18, and 21 because neural tube defects have been associated with such chromosomal defects. Our results showed that many of the defects found in the fetus with craniorachischisis are similar not only to anomalies previously described in the available works on musculoskeletal phenotypes seen in fetuses with anencephaly and spina bifida, but also to a wide range of other different conditions/syndromes including trisomies 13, 18 and 21, and cyclopia. The fact that similar anomalies are seen commonly not only in a wide range of different syndromes, but also as variants of the normal human population and as the 'normal' phenotype of other animals, supports Pere Alberch's unfortunately named idea of a 'logic of monsters'. That is, it supports the idea that development is so constrained that both in 'normal' and abnormal development one sees certain outcomes being produced again and again because ontogenetic constraints only allow a few possible outcomes, thus also leading to cases where the anatomical defects of some organisms are similar to the 'normal' phenotype of other organisms. In fact, this applies not only to specific anomalies but also to general patterns, such as the fact that in pathological conditions affecting different regions of the body, one consistently sees more defects on the upper limbs than on the lower limbs. Such general patterns are, again, seen in the fetus examined for this study, which had 29 muscle anomalies on the right

  13. Studies on immunoproteasome in human liver. Part I: Absence in fetuses, presence in normal subjects, and increased levels in chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasuri, Francesco; Capizzi, Elisa [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Bellavista, Elena [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Mishto, Michele [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Institute of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty Charite, Berlin (Germany); Santoro, Aurelia [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Fiorentino, Michelangelo [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Capri, Miriam [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy); Cescon, Matteo; Grazi, Gian Luca [Unit of General and Transplantation Surgery, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Grigioni, Walter Franco; D' Errico-Grigioni, Antonia [Pathology Unit of the ' F. Addarii' Institute of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Franceschi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.franceschi@unibo.it [Department of Experimental Pathology, Bologna University (Italy); Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Biophysics, Bioinformatics and Biocomplexity ' L. Galvani' (CIG), Bologna University (Italy)

    2010-06-25

    Despite the central role of proteasomes in relevant physiological pathways and pathological processes, this topic is unexpectedly largely unexplored in human liver. Here we present data on the presence of proteasome and immunoproteasome in human livers from normal adults, fetuses and patients affected by major hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry for constitutive ({alpha}4 and {beta}1) and inducible (LMP2 and LMP7) proteasome subunits, and for the PA28{alpha}{beta} regulator, was performed in liver samples from 38 normal subjects, 6 fetuses, 2 pediatric cases, and 19 pathological cases (10 chronic active hepatitis and 9 cirrhosis). The immunohistochemical data have been validated and quantified by Western blotting analysis. The most striking result we found was the concomitant presence in hepatocyte cytoplasm of all healthy subjects, including the pediatric cases, of constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome subunits, as well as PA28{alpha}{beta}. At variance, immunoproteasome was not present in hepatocytes from fetuses, while a strong cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity for LMP2 and LMP7 was found in pathological samples, directly correlated to the histopathological grade of inflammation. At variance from other organs such as the brain, immunoproteasome is present in livers from normal adult and pediatric cases, in apparent absence of pathological processes, suggesting the presence of a peculiar regulation of the proteasome/immunoproteasome system, likely related to the physiological stimuli derived from the gut microbiota after birth. Other inflammatory stimuli contribute in inducing high levels of immunoproteasome in pathological conditions, where its role deserve further attention.

  14. The normal growth of the common iliac arteries in human fetuses – an anatomical, digital and statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Szpinda, Anna; WoŸniak, Alina; Daroszewski, Marcin; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The present study was carried out to compile normative data for dimensions of the common iliac arteries at varying gestational ages. Material/Methods We used anatomical dissection, digital-image analysis (system of Leica QWin Pro 16) and statistical analysis (Student T test, one-way ANOVA, post-hoc RIR Tukey test, and regression analysis) to examine the increase in length (mm), proximal external diameter (mm), and volume (mm3) of the common iliac arteries in 124 (60 males, 64 females) spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 15–34 weeks. Results Neither sex nor right-left significant differences were found (P>0.05). The length ranged from 4.76±1.05 to 15.38±1.60 mm on the right, and from 4.92±1.33 to 14.91±1.25 mm on the left, according to the linear functions y=−3.598+0.585×Age ±1.522 (R2=0.83) and y=−3.107+0.554×Age ±1.444 (R2=0.83). The proximal external diameter increased from 0.66±0.19 to 2.30±0.42 mm on the right, and from 0.66±0.14 to 2.16±0.42 mm on the left, according to the quadratic models y=1.392−0.110×Age+0.004×Age2 ±0.285 (R2=0.77) and y=1.283−0.099×Age+0.004×Age2 ±0.238 (R2=0.81). The volumes were increasing from 1.93±1.74 to 66.95±29.31 mm3 on the right, and from 1.91±1.65 to 56.86±25.17 mm3 on the left, given by the quadratic functions: y=99.69−10.60×Age+0.287×Age2 ±14.40 (R2=0.67) and y=82.62−8.86×Age+0.242×Age2 ±11.60 (R2=0.71). Conclusions The common iliac arteries grow linearly in length, and parabolically in both diameter and volume. The right common iliac artery constitutes a predominant vessel in relation to its length, external diameter and volume. The morphometric data on the common iliac arteries may serve as a useful reference in the prenatal diagnosis and monitoring of congenital aorto-iliac abnormalities. PMID:22367120

  15. Enhanced inhibition of murine prostatic carcinoma growth by immunization with or administration of viable human umbilical vein endothelial cells and CRM197

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huiyong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination with xenogeneic and syngeneic endothelial cells is effective for inhibiting tumor growth. Nontoxic diphtheria toxin (CRM197, as an immunogen or as a specific inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, has shown promising antitumor activity. Therefore, immunization with or administration of viable human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs combined with CRM197 could have an enhanced antitumor effect. Six-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were vaccinated with viable HUVECs, 1 x 10(6 viable HUVECs combined with 100 μg CRM197, or 100 μg CRM197 alone by ip injections once a week for 4 consecutive weeks. RM-1 cells (5 x 10(5 were inoculated by sc injection as a preventive procedure. During the therapeutic procedure, 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were challenged with 1 x 10(5 RM-1 cells, then injected sc with 1 x 10(6 viable HUVECs, 1 x 10(6 viable HUVECs + 100 μg CRM197, and 100 μg CRM197 alone twice a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Tumor volume and life span were monitored. We also investigated the effects of immunization with HUVECs on the aortic arch wall and on wound healing. Vaccination with or administration of viable HUVECs+CRM197 enhanced the inhibition of RM-1 prostatic carcinoma by 24 and 29%, respectively, and prolonged the life span for 3 and 4 days, respectively, compared with those of only vaccination or administration with viable HUVECs of tumor-bearing C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, HUVEC immunization caused some damage to the aortic arch wall but did not have remarkable effects on the rate of wound healing; the wounds healed in approximately 13 days. Treatment with CRM197 in combination with viable HUVECs resulted in a marked enhancement of the antitumor effect in the preventive or therapeutic treatment for prostatic carcinoma in vivo, suggesting a novel combination for anti-cancer therapy.

  16. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may be...

  17. Environmental pollution and the fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A child is a growing and developing human being early from conception throughout the end of adolescent period. Children at any stages of growth and development need to be protected from environmental health hazards. They need safe and health promoting environment to reach their optimum growth and development that they are capable genetically. However physical, chemical, biological and social environments have changed throughout decades and children of today are living in a very different environment than from their grandparents and parents. Today they are at most risk of being exposed to new chemicals that are mostly not tested for fetus and children. Since World War II, approximately 80,000 new synthetic chemicals have been manufactured and released into the environment in large amounts, with 10 new chemicals being introduced every day. The vast majority of these chemicals have not been studied adequately for their impacts on human health or their particular impacts on fetus. Many of these synthetic chemicals are persistent and bio-accumulative, remaining in the human body long after the exposure. Parental exposures occurred before the conception threatens the fetus both because the maternal or paternal reproductive organs are affected and because chemicals that can be accumulated in the mother’s body before pregnancy may be mobilized and cross over placental barrier during pregnancy. Many synthetic chemicals are already present in cord blood and we do not know how these multi-chemical exposures affect programmed development of fetus and studies are limited on long term effects of single chemical exposure. Some examples of health effects resulting from developmental exposures include those observed prenatally and at birth such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, birth defects. Establishing a causal links between specific environmental exposures and complex multifactorial health outcomes is difficult and challenging.

  18. In vivo activation of aflatoxin B1 in C57BL/6N mice carrying a human fetus-specific CYP3A7 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Yokoi, T; Katsuki, M; Wang, J S; Groopman, J D; Kamataki, T

    1997-02-15

    The in vivo activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was assessed by using two transgenic mouse lines, M2 and M10, in which the human fetus-specific CYP3A7 was expressed in the kidney (M2) and the liver (M10), respectively. Male mice of 8 weeks old from these two lines were treated with a single i.p. injection of AFB1 (4 mg/kg body weight). AFB1-N7-guanine adduct was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA damage was measured using the alkaline elution technique 2 and 6 h after AFB1 treatment. Administration of AFB1 resulted in a significantly higher level of AFB1-N7-guanine in the livers of M10 transgenic mice compared with their nontransgenic littermates (16.5 +/- 4.2 versus 10.4 +/- 1.2 ng/mg DNA, P M2 mice compared with control mice (73.0 +/- 6.3 versus 50.2 +/- 9.5 ng/mg DNA, P M2 mice. A dose-response relationship of NAAC values was observed in the livers of M10 mice when treated with AFB1 at different doses ranging from 1 to 16 mg/kg body weight, whereas in nontransgenic mice, only slight but not statistically significant increases of NAAC values were observed. Both the mouse CYP3A11 and GST-Yc subunit were expressed at identical levels in these transgenic lines. The results of this study present further evidence that human fetuses are also under the carcinogenic attack of AFB1 as adults if exposed to this potent carcinogen.

  19. Abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trends after transfer of multiple embryos resulting in viable singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paula C; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Racowsky, Catherine; Fox, Janis H

    2017-12-19

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether abnormal hCG trends occur at a higher incidence among women conceiving singleton pregnancies following transfer of multiple (two or more) embryos (MET), as compared to those having a single embryo transfer (SET). Retrospective cohort study was performed of women who conceived singleton pregnancies following fresh or frozen autologous IVF/ICSI cycles with day 3 or day 5 embryo transfers between 2007 and 2014 at a single academic medical center. Cycles resulting in one gestational sac on ultrasound followed by singleton live birth beyond 24 weeks of gestation were included. Logistic regression models adjusted a priori for patient age at oocyte retrieval and day of embryo transfer were used to estimate the Odds Ratio of having an abnormal hCG rise (defined as a rise or hCG rises between the first and second measurements, compared to 2.7% (n = 17) of patients undergoing SET (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.26-3.71). Among patients with initially abnormal hCG rises who had a third level checked (89%), three-quarters had normal hCG rises between the second and third measurements. Patients who deliver singletons following MET were more likely to have suboptimal initial hCG rises, potentially due to transient implantation of other non-viable embryo(s). While useful for counseling, these findings should not change standard management of abnormal hCG rises following IVF. The third hCG measurements may clarify pregnancy prognosis.

  20. Microwaving human faecal sludge as a viable sanitation technology option for treatment and value recovery - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Oluwasola O D; Sohail, M

    2017-02-01

    The prolonged challenges and terrible consequences of poor sanitation, especially in developing economies, call for the exploration of new sustainable sanitation technologies. Such technologies must be: capable of effectively treating human faecal wastes without any health or environmental impacts; scalable to address rapid increases in population and urbanization; capable of meeting environmental regulations and standards for faecal management; and competitive with existing strategies. Further and importantly, despite its noxiousness and pathogenic load, the chemical composition of human faecal sludge indicates that it could be considered a potentially valuable, nutrient-rich renewable resource, rather than a problematic waste product. New approaches to faecal sludge management must consequently seek to incorporate a 'valuable resource recovery' approach, compatible with stringent treatment requirements. This review intends to advance the understanding of human faecal sludge as a sustainable organic-rich resource that is typically high in moisture (up to 97 per cent), making it a suitable candidate for dielectric heating, i.e. microwave irradiation, to promote faecal treatment, while also recovering value-added products such as ammonia liquor concentrate (suitable for fertilizers) and chars (suitable for fuel) - which can provide an economic base to sustain the technology. Additionally, microwaving human faecal sludge represents a thermally effective approach that can destroy pathogens, eradicate the foul odour associated human faecal sludge, while also preventing hazardous product formations and/or emissions, aside from other benefits such as improved dewaterability and heavy metals recovery. Key technological parameters crucial for scaling the technology as a complementary solution to the challenges of onsite sanitation are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross-protection of newly emerging HPAI H5 viruses by neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies: A viable alternative to oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huanhuan; Wang, Guiqin; Wang, Shuangshuang; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongxing; Cheng, Genhong; Zhou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Newly emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8 and H5N9 viruses have been spreading in poultry and wild birds. The H5N6 viruses have also caused 10 human infections with 4 fatal cases in China. Here, we assessed the cross-neutralization and cross-protection of human and mouse monoclonal antibodies against 2 viruses: a HPAI H5N8 virus, A/chicken/Netherlands/14015526/2014 (NE14) and a HPAI H5N6 virus, A/Sichuan/26221/2014 (SC14). The former was isolated from an infected chicken in Netherlands in 2014 and the latter was isolated from an infected human patient in Sichuan, China. We show that antibodies FLA5.10, FLD21.140, 100F4 and 65C6, but not AVFluIgG01, AVFluIgG03, S139/1 and the VRC01 control, potently cross-neutralize the H5N8 NE14 and H5N6 SC14 viruses. Furthermore, we show that a single injection of >1 mg/kg of antibody 100F4 at 4 hours before, or 20 mg/kg antibody 100F4 at 72 hours after, a lethal dose of H5N8 NE14 enables mice to withstand the infection. Finally, we show that a single injection of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg antibody 100F4 prophylactically or 10 mg/kg 100F4 therapeutically outperforms a 5-day course of 10 mg/kg/day oseltamivir treatment against lethal H5N8 NE14 or H5N6 SC14 infection in mice. Our results suggest that further preclinical evaluation of human monoclonal antibodies against newly emerging H5 viruses is warranted.

  2. False positive reactivity of a substance P-antibody in the ectodermal/epithelial plug of the nose, ear, eye and perineum of the human and mouse fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Hiroshi; Katori, Yukio; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Shibata, Shunichi; Matsubara, Akio

    2010-08-01

    Epithelial/ectodermal plug formation in the developing nose, ear, and eye regions is followed by canalization/recanalization mediated by cell death. However, the mechanism is not well understood. Recently, substance P (SP)-mediated cell death, rather than cell apoptosis, has been reported in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Horizontal paraffin sections of 5 human fetuses at 15-16 weeks of gestation were used to examine the entire area of the nose, ear, eye and perineum with immunohistochemistry for SP and its receptor neurokinin-1 (NK-1), and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and S100 protein to identify whether the positive cells had neural origins. The deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method was also conducted to identify apoptosis. Four SP antibodies were commercially obtained and compared the results. In addition, using the same antibodies for SP, those results were compared with fetal mouse heads (E14-17). Substance P immunoreactivity of one of the 4 antibodies (sc9758) was clearly found in the nasal plug, the epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity, the entire excretory tear duct, the marginal palpebral conjunctiva, the auditory meatal plug, the parotid duct, the external urethral orifice and, the preputial lamella along the future prepuce. Immunoreactivity was usually seen in enlarged round cells in humans. In fetal mouse heads, in spite of negative reaction in all these sites, the midline epithelial seam at the palate fusion and the oral epithelium especially at and near the tooth germ specifically reacted with the sc9758. Nevertheless, the other 3 antibodies did not react at any of those sites both in human and mouse fetuses. NK-1 receptor-positive cells were seen in the nose and meatal plugs and preputial lamella, but not in the tear duct. S100 protein, PGP 9.5, and TUNEL method all demonstrated negative reactivity at any sc9758-positive sites. Consequently, the present immunoreactivity of the sc9758

  3. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  4. Real Time PCR to detect and differentiate Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, A; Chanter, J; Gale, S; Parr, J; Toszeghy, M; Line, K

    2013-09-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacter infection, caused by Campylobacter fetus venerealis, is of significant economic importance to the livestock industry. Unfortunately, the successful detection and discrimination of C. fetus venerealis from C. fetus fetus continue to be a limitation throughout the world. There are several publications warning of the problem with biotyping methods as well as with recent molecular based assays. In this study, assessed on 1071 isolates, we report on the successful development of two Real Time SYBR® Green PCR assays that will allow for the detection and discrimination of C. fetus fetus and C. fetus venerealis. The sensitivity reported here for the C. fetus (CampF4/R4) and the C. fetus venerealis (CampF7/R7) specific PCR assays are 100% and 98.7% respectively. The specificity for these same PCR assays are 99.6% and 99.8% respectively. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Freezing Nitrogen Ethanol Composite May be a Viable Approach for Cryotherapy of Human Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Wang, Jir-You; Chen, Paul Chih-Hsueh; Chang, Ming-Chau; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Liquid nitrogen has been used as adjuvant cryotherapy for treating giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone. However, the liquid phase and ultrafreezing (-196° C) properties increase the risk of damage to the adjacent tissues and may lead to perioperative complications. A novel semisolid cryogen, freezing nitrogen ethanol composite, might mitigate these shortcomings because of less-extreme freezing. We therefore wished to evaluate freezing nitrogen ethanol composite as a coolant to determine its properties in tumor cryoablation. (1) Is freezing nitrogen ethanol composite-mediated freezing effective for tumor cryoablation in an ex vivo model, and if yes, is apoptosis involved in the tumor-killing mechanism? (2) Does freezing nitrogen ethanol composite treatment block neovascularization and neoplastic progression of the grafted GCTs and is it comparable to that of liquid nitrogen in an in vivo chicken model? (3) Can use of freezing nitrogen ethanol composite as an adjuvant to curettage result in successful short-term treatment, defined as absence of GCT recurrence at a minimum of 1 year in a small proof-of-concept clinical series? The cryogenic effect on bone tissue mediated by freezing nitrogen ethanol composite and liquid nitrogen was verified by thermal measurement in a time-course manner. Cryoablation on human GCT tissue was examined ex vivo for effect on morphologic features (cell shrinkage) and DNA fragmentation (apoptosis). The presumed mechanism was investigated by molecular analysis of apoptosis regulatory proteins including caspases 3, 8, and 9 and Bax/Bcl-2. Chicken chorioallantoic membrane was used as an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of freezing nitrogen ethanol composite and liquid nitrogen treatment on GCT-derived neovascularization and tumor neoplasm. A small group of patients with GCT of bone was treated by curettage and adjuvant freezing nitrogen ethanol composite cryotherapy in a proof-of-concept study. Tumor recurrence and perioperative

  6. Validation of the ovine fetus as an experimental model for the human myelomeningocele defect Validação do feto de ovino como modelo experimental de meningomielocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Araújo Lapa Pedreira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To produce a myelomeningocele-like human defect in the ovine fetus and validate this experimental model in our population. METHODS: A prospective study on 12 pregnant sheep of a crossed Hampshire/Down breed where a spinal defect was surgically created between Day 75 and Day 77 after conception. The technique consisted of a hysterotomy with exposure of fetal hind limbs and tail up to the mid spine. Fetal skin, paravertebral muscles, and 4 posterior spinal arches were excised, exposing the spinal cord. Duramater was opened and the medulla was incised until the medullar canal. Animals were euthanized at 139 days of gestation for fetal evaluation. The central nervous system was submitted to post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and the spine was submitted to pathological examination. RESULTS: The defect was created in 13 fetuses and 5 survived. Mean gestational age at necropsy was 121.6 days (varying from 93 to 145 days. Macroscopically, the defect was present in 4 cases. Microscopy revealed a flattened medulla with disappearance of the medullar canal and disruption of normal medullar architecture with neuronal apoptosis and/or fusion of the piamater and duramater. The MRI showed herniation of the cerebellum into the cervical canal and syringomyelia. CONCLUSIONS: The surgically produced defect mimics the defect found in the human fetus, including the Arnold-Chiari malformation. Post-mortem MRI was used for the first time in our study and proved an excellent alternative for demonstrating the cerebellar herniation. We standardized the technique for creating the defect in our population.OBJETIVO: Produzir um defeito semelhante a meningomielocele humana em feto de ovinos, validando este modelo experimental, em nosso meio. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com 12 ovelhas de cruzamento das raças Hampshire e Down, onde um defeito na coluna foi criado cirurgicamente com 75 a 77 dias de gestação. A técnica consistiu em histerotomia com exposi

  7. Non-Viable Lactobacillus reuteri DSMZ 17648 (Pylopass™ as a New Approach to Helicobacter pylori Control in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Busjahn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infections by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen involved in a number of gastrointestinal diseases, remains high in developing countries. Management of infections by eradication is not always an option. Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri DSMZ17648 (Pylopass™/Lonza specifically co-aggregates H. pylori in vitro and was shown to reduce 13C urea breath test in vivo. In this pilot study, we tried to replicate previous findings in an independent sample and to evaluate effects of spray-drying vs. freeze-drying of cultures. A single-blinded, placebo-controlled study was done in 22 H. pylori positive, asymptomatic adults. H. pylori levels were determined by 13C-urea-breath method after 14 days of supplementation, as well as after 6, 12, and 24 weeks follow-up. In the test group, but not in the placebo group, a significant reduction of H. pylori was observed. For the first time, spray-dried cells of L. reuteri DSMZ17648 have been used in a human study and results are in line with the first study results, supplementing with freeze-dried material. This is of special interest as spray-drying results in dead cell material, meaning that the effect of L. reuteri must be independent of its probiotic activity. These results confirm the potential of Pylopass™ as a novel way to reduce the load of H. pylori.

  8. Female longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats extend into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule: a histological study using human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Yusuke; Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2013-05-01

    It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor. Using immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, we examined semiserial frontal sections of 1) eleven female late-stage fetuses at 28-37 weeks of gestation, 2) two female middle-stage fetus (2 specimens at 13 weeks), and, 3) six male fetuses at 12 and 37 weeks as a comparison of the morphology. In late-stage female fetuses, the CLCs consistently (11/11) extended into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule on the anterior side of the external anal sphincter. Lateral to the CLCs, the external anal sphincter also extended anteriorly toward the vaginal side walls. The anterior part of the CLCs originated from the perimysium of the levator ani muscle without any contribution of the rectal longitudinal muscle layer. However, in 2 female middle-stage fetuses, smooth muscles along the vestibulum extended superiorly toward the levetor ani sling. In male fetuses, the CLCs were separated from another subcutaneous smooth muscle along the scrotal raphe (posterior parts of the dartos layer) by fatty tissue. In terms of topographical anatomy, the female anterior CLCs are likely to correspond to the lateral extension of the perineal body (a bulky subcutaneous smooth muscle mass present in adult women), supporting the vaginal vestibule by transmission of force from the levator ani.

  9. Post-mortem whole-body magnetic resonance imaging of human fetuses: a comparison of 3-T vs. 1.5-T MR imaging with classical autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Xin; Bevilacqua, Elisa; Cos Sanchez, Teresa; Jani, Jacques C. [University Hospital Brugmann, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fetal Medicine Unit, Brussels (Belgium); Cannie, Mieke M. [University Hospital Brugmann, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Radiology, UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Arthurs, Owen J.; Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Segers, Valerie; Fourneau, Catherine [University Hospital Brugmann, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Fetopathology, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-08-15

    To prospectively compare diagnostic accuracy of fetal post-mortem whole-body MRI at 3-T vs. 1.5-T. Between 2012 and 2015, post-mortem MRI at 1.5-T and 3-T was performed in fetuses after miscarriage/stillbirth or termination. Clinical MRI diagnoses were assessed using a confidence diagnostic score and compared with classical autopsy to derive a diagnostic error score. The relation of diagnostic error for each organ group with gestational age was calculated and 1.5-T with 3-T was compared with accuracy analysis. 135 fetuses at 12-41 weeks underwent post-mortem MRI (followed by conventional autopsy in 92 fetuses). For all organ groups except the brain, and for both modalities, the diagnostic error decreased with gestation (P < 0.0001). 3-T MRI diagnostic error was significantly lower than that of 1.5-T for all anatomic structures and organ groups, except the orbits and brain. This difference was maintained for fetuses <20 weeks gestation. Moreover, 3-T was associated with fewer non-diagnostic scans and greater concordance with classical autopsy than 1.5-T MRI, especially for the thorax, heart and abdomen in fetuses <20 weeks. Post-mortem fetal 3-T MRI improves confidence scores and overall accuracy compared with 1.5-T, mainly for the thorax, heart and abdomen of fetuses <20 weeks of gestation. (orig.)

  10. Fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV as modulators of cell behavior during adrenal gland development in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, Estelle; Narcy, Agnès; Lehoux, Jean-Guy; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2002-04-01

    The specific development of the human fetal adrenal gland requires cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and zone-specific steroidogenic activity. The present work was designed to determine the physiological significance of the previously identified spatial distribution of extracellular matrix components in the fetal gland. Primary cultures of human fetal adrenal cells grown on collagen IV, laminin, or fibronectin revealed that cell morphology was affected by environmental cues. Matrices also modulated the profile of steroid secretion by the fetal cells. Collagen IV favored cortisol secretion after ACTH or angiotensin II stimulation and increased dehydroepiandrosterone production when the AT(2) receptor of angiotensin II was specifically stimulated. These effects were correlated by changes in the mRNA levels of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450C17. In contrast, fibronectin and laminin decreased cell responsiveness to ACTH in terms of cortisol secretion, but enhanced ACTH-stimulated androgen secretion. Finally, extracellular matrices were able to orchestrate cell behavior. Collagen IV and laminin enhanced cell proliferation, and fibronectin increased cell death. This study is the first to demonstrate that the nature of extracellular matrix coordinates specific steroidogenic pathways and cell turnover in the developing human fetal adrenal gland.

  11. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the dead fetus; macerated fetal material; or cells, tissue, or organs excised from a dead fetus, shall be...

  12. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  13. Female Longitudinal Anal Muscles or Conjoint Longitudinal Coats Extend into the Subcutaneous Tissue along the Vaginal Vestibule: A Histological Study Using Human Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vízquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor. Materials and Methods Using immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, we examined semiserial frontal sections of 1) eleven female late-stage fetuses at 28-37 weeks of gestation, 2) two female middle-stage fetus (2 specimens at 13 weeks), and, 3) six male fetuses at 12 and 37 weeks as a comparison of the morphology. Results In late-stage female fetuses, the CLCs consistently (11/11) extended into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule on the anterior side of the external anal sphincter. Lateral to the CLCs, the external anal sphincter also extended anteriorly toward the vaginal side walls. The anterior part of the CLCs originated from the perimysium of the levator ani muscle without any contribution of the rectal longitudinal muscle layer. However, in 2 female middle-stage fetuses, smooth muscles along the vestibulum extended superiorly toward the levetor ani sling. In male fetuses, the CLCs were separated from another subcutaneous smooth muscle along the scrotal raphe (posterior parts of the dartos layer) by fatty tissue. Conclusion In terms of topographical anatomy, the female anterior CLCs are likely to correspond to the lateral extension of the perineal body (a bulky subcutaneous smooth muscle mass present in adult women), supporting the vaginal vestibule by transmission of force from the levator ani. PMID:23549829

  14. A non-aggressive, highly efficient, enzymatic method for dissociation of human brain-tumors and brain-tissues to viable single-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volovitz, Ilan; Shapira, Netanel; Ezer, Haim; Gafni, Aviv; Lustgarten, Merav; Alter, Tal; Ben-Horin, Idan; Barzilai, Ori; Shahar, Tal; Kanner, Andrew; Fried, Itzhak; Veshchev, Igor; Grossman, Rachel; Ram, Zvi

    2016-06-01

    Conducting research on the molecular biology, immunology, and physiology of brain tumors (BTs) and primary brain tissues requires the use of viably dissociated single cells. Inadequate methods for tissue dissociation generate considerable loss in the quantity of single cells produced and in the produced cells' viability. Improper dissociation may also demote the quality of data attained in functional and molecular assays due to the presence of large quantities cellular debris containing immune-activatory danger associated molecular patterns, and due to the increased quantities of degraded proteins and RNA. Over 40 resected BTs and non-tumorous brain tissue samples were dissociated into single cells by mechanical dissociation or by mechanical and enzymatic dissociation. The quality of dissociation was compared for all frequently used dissociation enzymes (collagenase, DNase, hyaluronidase, papain, dispase) and for neutral protease (NP) from Clostridium histolyticum. Single-cell-dissociated cell mixtures were evaluated for cellular viability and for the cell-mixture dissociation quality. Dissociation quality was graded by the quantity of subcellular debris, non-dissociated cell clumps, and DNA released from dead cells. Of all enzymes or enzyme combinations examined, NP (an enzyme previously not evaluated on brain tissues) produced dissociated cell mixtures with the highest mean cellular viability: 93 % in gliomas, 85 % in brain metastases, and 89 % in non-tumorous brain tissue. NP also produced cell mixtures with significantly less cellular debris than other enzymes tested. Dissociation using NP was non-aggressive over time-no changes in cell viability or dissociation quality were found when comparing 2-h dissociation at 37 °C to overnight dissociation at ambient temperature. The use of NP allows for the most effective dissociation of viable single cells from human BTs or brain tissue. Its non-aggressive dissociative capacity may enable ambient

  15. Post-mortem whole-body magnetic resonance imaging of human fetuses: a comparison of 3-T vs. 1.5-T MR imaging with classical autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Cannie, Mieke M; Arthurs, Owen J; Segers, Valerie; Fourneau, Catherine; Bevilacqua, Elisa; Cos Sanchez, Teresa; Sebire, Neil J; Jani, Jacques C

    2017-08-01

    To prospectively compare diagnostic accuracy of fetal post-mortem whole-body MRI at 3-T vs. 1.5-T. Between 2012 and 2015, post-mortem MRI at 1.5-T and 3-T was performed in fetuses after miscarriage/stillbirth or termination. Clinical MRI diagnoses were assessed using a confidence diagnostic score and compared with classical autopsy to derive a diagnostic error score. The relation of diagnostic error for each organ group with gestational age was calculated and 1.5-T with 3-T was compared with accuracy analysis. 135 fetuses at 12-41 weeks underwent post-mortem MRI (followed by conventional autopsy in 92 fetuses). For all organ groups except the brain, and for both modalities, the diagnostic error decreased with gestation (P autopsy than 1.5-T MRI, especially for the thorax, heart and abdomen in fetuses autopsy increases with 3-T. • PM-MRI using 3-T is particularly interesting for thoracic and abdominal organs. • PM-MRI using 3-T is particularly interesting for fetuses < 20 weeks' gestation.

  16. Decreased deformability of donor red blood cells after intrauterine transfusion in the human fetus: possible reason for their reduced life span?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, J.; Hardeman, M. R.; Luykx, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    The life span of donor red blood cells (RBCs) is reduced in the fetus with Rh hemolytic disease. This may have resulted from donor or recipient factors. Studied in vitro was the effect of gamma irradiation on hemolysis, methemo-globin (metHb), and lipid peroxidation of donor RBCs and the ability of

  17. No relationship between the length of the left coronary artery main stem and the type of coronary vasculature in human fetuses from a morphological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Gielecki, Jerzy; Zurada, Anna; Góralczyk, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the type of heart vasculature is in any way related to the length of the main stem of the left coronary artery. The study was inspired by publications describing a shorter main stem of the left coronary artery in adults with left coronary artery predominance, also associated with a worse clinical outcome. Such relationships have not been been examined in a fetus. A short main stem of the left coronary artery is thought to convey faster progression of atheromatosis in coronary arteries. This investigation was performed on 187 fetuses of both sexes at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Department of Histology and Embryology. Vasculature types were determined in line with criteria set by Adachi. All fetuses had been delivered naturally. None of them had any signs of malformations or developmental abnormalities. Prior to examination, all fetuses had been conserved for a 3-month period in 9% formaldehyde solution. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistica software for Windows. The length of the left main stem was found to be related to the type of vasculature, though this relationship did not achieve statistical significance. There were no differences in relation to gender or type of vasculature or between analyzed sub-groups. There was no relationship between the length of the main stem and dominance of the coronary artery in this study.

  18. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L.; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  20. Pericarditis caused by Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus associated with ingestion of raw beef liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyasu, Yoshihiko; Akiyama, Daiki; Kurihara, Yoko; Koganemaru, Hiroshi; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-12-01

    Campylobacter fetus is an organism residing primarily in the gastrointestinal tracts of cattle and sheep and transmitting to humans through ingestion of contaminated food products or surface water. The organism has caused various extraintestinal infections but, to date, purulent pericarditis due to the organism has rarely been described. We report a case of purulent pericarditis due to C. fetus subsp. fetus, occurring in a patient having several predisposing conditions, including receiving hemodialysis therapy, recent surgery for cecal cancer, and administration of esomeprazole. The patient mentioned having eaten homemade raw beef liver two weeks before the onset, suggesting that the ingested food product was contaminated with C. fetus and the organism transmitted to the pericardium through the bloodstream although blood culture was negative. The causative organism, recovered from the pericardial effusion, was unidentifiable with commercial systems but determinable with molecular methods at the subspecies level. The patient fully improved with pericardiocentesis and subsequent administration of ciprofloxacin, to which the organism was considered susceptible, for a total of four weeks. This is the first case of C. fetus pericarditis in which a history of ingesting a raw food product was clearly mentioned. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between the response to external light stimulation and behavioral states in the human fetus: how it differs from vibroacoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, M; Nagata, N; Ikeno, S; Terakawa, N

    2000-05-01

    To determine the effects of external light stimulation on fetal behavioral states and know the difference from those of vibroacoustic stimulation. A flashlight and a vibroacoustic stimulator was applied directly on the maternal abdomen to determine the response of 56 normal fetuses at 36-40 weeks gestation. Fetal heart rate (FHR) and body movements were recorded using an actocardiograph, and fetal eye movements were observed using real-time ultrasonography. Using Nijhuis's criteria, the fetal behavioral states (1F-4F) were determined. FHR acceleration was considered a fetal response to the stimulations. The lag time between stimulation and fetal response was within 4 s. A positive response rate to the light stimulation was higher at behavioral states 2F (82%) and 3F (83%) than at state 1F (4%). Light stimulation changed the behavioral state of two of the six 3F fetuses (33%) from 3F to 4F. No change of state was observed in fetuses that were in states 1F and 2F. For vibroacoustic stimulation, fetal response was 100% positive and changes of states were observed frequently irrespective of the behavioral state before the stimulation. Fetal response to light stimulation is closely connected to fetal behavioral states and may reflect some distinct stages of the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  2. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  3. A novel real-time PCR assay for quantitative detection of Campylobacter fetus based on ribosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Betancor, Laura; Marandino, Ana; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra; Paolicchi, Fernando; Piccirillo, Alessandra; Tomás, Gonzalo; Velilla, Alejandra; Calleros, Lucía

    2016-12-15

    Campylobacter fetus is a pathogen of major concern for animal and human health. The species shows a great intraspecific variation, with three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. fetus subsp. venerealis, and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Campylobacter fetus fetus affects a broad range of hosts and induces abortion in sheep and cows. Campylobacter fetus venerealis is restricted to cattle and causes the endemic disease bovine genital campylobacteriosis, which triggers reproductive problems and is responsible for major economic losses. Campylobacter fetus testudinum has been proposed recently based on genetically divergent strains isolated from reptiles and humans. Both C. fetus fetus and C. fetus testudinum are opportunistic pathogens for immune-compromised humans. Biochemical tests remain as the gold standard for identifying C. fetus but the fastidious growing requirements and the lack of reliability and reproducibility of some biochemical tests motivated the development of molecular diagnostic tools. These methods have been successfully tested on bovine isolates but fail to detect some genetically divergent strains isolated from other hosts. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly specific molecular assay to identify and quantify C. fetus strains. We developed a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay that targets a unique region of the 16S rRNA gene. This assay successfully detected all C. fetus strains, including those that were negative for the cstA gene-based assay used as a standard for molecular C. fetus identification. The assay showed high specificity and absence of cross-reactivity with other bacterial species. The analytical testing of the assay was determined using a standard curve. The assay demonstrated a wide dynamic range between 10 2 and 107 genome copies per reaction, and a good reproducibility with small intra- and inter-assay variability. The possibility to characterize samples in a rapid, sensitive and reproducible way makes this assay

  4. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  5. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Nuzhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses and group II (third-trimester fetuses, followed by dissection. Result. (1 Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%. In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2 Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3 Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4 Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position.

  6. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned to...

  7. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karen Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  8. ISSUES OF FETUS DRUG SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of fetus drug safety. Development of a child’s health depends both on hereditary information and environment factors. The reason for deviation from the process of normal prenatal development could be any xenobiotics, physical factors and some medications having a pathogenic effect during pregnancy on the embryo and fetus. Due to that, the physician’s preventive work based on the knowledge of embryogenesis processes and critical development periods. Key words: teratogenic action, medications, prenatal development, congenital malformation, newborns, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:25-28

  9. Twin Gestation Consisting of Hydatidiform Mole and a Live Fetus: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasonography revealed hydatidiform mole and a viable fetus. She had suction curettage at 16weeks gestational age because of heavy vaginal bleeding. Histology confirmed benign hydatidiform mole. Urinary HCG level declined progressively and was negative by 4 weeks post-evacuation. Eight months after, she was 20 ...

  10. Comparison of the mouse foot pad test with a Buddemeyer type radiorespirometric assay in detecting viable Mycobacterium leprae in human lesional biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Vinay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : This study assesses the utility of a Buddemeyer type radiorespirometric (RR assay in detecting viable Mycobacterium leprae in clinical samples taking the mouse foot pad (MFP test as gold standard. Methods : A total of 131 skin biopsy specimens comprising of 56 untreated, smear-positive, borderline lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy (BL-LL and 75 untreated, smear-negative, borderline tuberculoid and mid-borderline (BT-BB specimens were processed by both the methods. The cut-off value (in counts per minute, cpm for test samples in the RR assay was determined using nonleprous (normal skin biopsy specimens. Results : In the untreated BL-LL and BT-BB groups, 86 and 56% of the cases tested positive in the RR assay respectively, which was comparable to the results of the MFP test (80 and 45% respectively. The overall concordance between the two tests was 74.79%, whereas the sensitivity and specificity were 75 and 74.3% respectively. A Kappa value of 0.459 indicated a fairly good agreement between the two methods. There was no linear relationship observed between the bacteriological index (BI and the morphological index (MI with the counts per minute (cpm output. Conclusion : The results indicate the ability of this RR assay to detect viability; however a comparison with another sensitive method would further validate the assay system.

  11. Binding of CLL subset 4 B-cell receptor immunoglobulins to viable human memory B lymphocytes requires a distinctive IGKV somatic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catera, Rosa; Liu, Yun; Gao, Chao; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Magli, Amanda; Allen, Steven L; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Rai, Kanti R; Chu, Charles C; Feizi, Ten; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2017-01-12

    Amino acid replacement mutations in certain CLL stereotyped B-cell receptor (BCR) immunoglobulins (IGs) at defined positions within antigen-binding sites strongly imply antigen selection. Prime examples of this are CLL subset 4 BCR IGs using IGHV4-34/IGHD5-18/IGHJ6 and IGKV2-30/IGKJ2 rearrangements. Conspicuously and unlike most CLL IGs, subset 4 IGs do not bind apoptotic cells. By testing the (auto)antigenic reactivities of subset 4 IGs toward viable lymphoid-lineage cells and specific autoantigens typically bound by IGHV4-34+ IGs, we found IGs from both subset 4 and non-subset 4 IGHV4-34-expressing CLL cases bind naïve B cells. However, only subset 4 IGs react with memory B cells. Furthermore, subset 4 IGs do not bind DNA nor i or I carbohydrate antigens, common targets of IGHV4-34-utilizing antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and cold agglutinin disease, respectively. Notably, we found that subset 4 IG binding to memory B lymphocytes depends on an aspartic acid at position 66 of FR3 in the rearranged IGKV2-30 gene; this amino acid residue is acquired by somatic mutation. Our findings illustrate the importance of positive and negative selection criteria for structural elements in CLL IGs and suggest that autoantigens driving normal B cells to become subset 4 CLL cells differ from those driving IGHV4-34+ B cells in other diseases.

  12. FETUS PAPYRACEOUS : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetus Papyraceous is a rare manifestation of discordant growth in twins . It is usually diagnosed during labour or after delivery of papyraceous . The main complication is that the normal twin and occasionally the mother may be adversely affected .

  13. Switching of the Laryngeal Cavity From the Respiratory Diverticulum to the Vestibular Recess: A Study Using Serial Sagittal Sections of Human Embryos and Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahito; Honkura, Yohei; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Katori, Yukio; Cho, Baik Hwan; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    A cecum-like protrusion of the pharynx (the laryngeal cecum or vestibular recess [VR]) develops immediately anterior to the laryngeal part of the respiratory diverticulum. An expansion of the VR has been well described, whereas the fate of the diverticulum is still obscure, although its pharyngeal opening corresponds to the glottis. We observed sagittal sections of 10 embryos (five specimens at 5-6 weeks and another five at 7-8 weeks) and eight fetuses at 25-30 weeks. At 5-6 weeks, a lumen of the laryngeal part of the respiratory diverticulum appeared, and subsequently, the VR opened into the epithelial lamina. Because of this discrete separation, it seemed unlikely that the pharyngeal pouches contributed to the laryngeal epithelium. At 6-7 weeks, the VR exhibited a high boot-shaped lumen with canalization to the diverticular lumen at the level of the cricoid cartilage. Thus, in a midline area between the bilateral arytenoid cartilages, double laryngeal lumina were evident, separated by the thick midline epithelial lamina. At 25-30 weeks, the inferior part of the VR lumen had become enlarged because of the destruction of the epithelial lamina along the arytenoid and corniculate cartilages. In contrast, candidates for the initial diverticular lumen remained as epithelial slits in the anterosuperior side of the transverse arytenoid muscle. Therefore, the final anterior and lateral laryngeal walls seemed to originate from the VR with canalization, in contrast to the part of the posterior wall derived from the initial diverticular wall. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or...

  15. Genetic Relationships among Reptilian and Mammalian Campylobacter fetus Strains Determined by Multilocus Sequence Typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingle, K.E.; Blaser, M.J.; Tu, Z.C.; Pruckler, J.; Fitzgerald, C.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Lawson, A.J.; Owen, R.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Reptile Campylobacter fetus isolates and closely related strains causing human disease were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. They shared similar to 90% nucleotide sequence identity with classical mammalian C. fetus, and there was evidence of recombination among members of these two

  16. Comparison of viable cell counts and fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific rRNA-based probes for the quantification of human fecal bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, HJM; Gibson, GR; Elfferich, P; Raangs, GC; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; Argaiz, A; Roberfroid, MB; Welling, GW

    2000-01-01

    Conventional cultivation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 16S rRNA-based probes were compared for the enumeration of human colonic bacteria. Groups of common intestinal anaerobic bacteria were enumerated in slurries prepared From fecal samples of three healthy volunteers. To

  17. Campylobacter fetus subespécie fetus: abortamento e natimortalidade em ovinos Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus: abortion and stillbirths in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Trevisan Gressler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria do gênero Campylobacter está comumente envolvida em surtos de abortos ovinos em muitos países. No Brasil, até o presente momento, ainda não houve relato sobre a ocorrência de aborto em ovinos causado pelo C. fetus, subespécie fetus (C. fetus ssp. fetus. No presente trabalho, relata-se a detecção deste agente em fetos e natimortos ovinos naturalmente infectados. Desse modo, alerta-se para a possibilidade de novos casos de aborto em ovinos causados por C. fetus ssp. fetus.The bacteria of genus Campylobacter spp, is commonly involved in outbreaks of ovine abortion in many countries. In Brazil, until now, there has been no report on the occurrence of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus. In this paper, we report the detection this bacteria in ovine fetuses naturally infected. Thus, alert for possible cases of abortion in sheep caused by C. fetus subsp. fetus.

  18. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughna, S; Bennett, P; Gau, G; Nicolaides, K; Blunt, S; Moore, G

    1993-01-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8213811

  20. Radionuclide Exposure of the Embryo/Fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundell, Helen

    1999-06-01

    This report addresses the determination of radiation dose to the embryo (the conceptus from fertilisation to organogenesis) and the fetus (post-organogenesis to birth) from radionuclides that are present in the woman before her pregnancy or that enter her during her pregnancy. This exposure may be via nuclear medicine procedures, occupational exposures or environmental sources that may affect the general population. The effects of radiation on the embryo/fetus are greatly influenced by the dependence on stage of gestation, which affects the transfer of radioactivity from the pregnant woman to the fetoplacental system, the distribution of the activity and the developmental effects of the resulting radiation absorbed doses. A chapter is therefore devoted to a detailed discussion of development of the embryo/fetus through the stages of pre-implantation, implantation and post-implantation development and the fetal period. To an non-expert the anatomical detail and nomenclature are rather difficult, but diagrams are clear and well labelled and a useful glossary of terms is provided. Mechanisms of maternal-fetal exchange and the effects of the maternal organs and placenta as external sources of radiation are then discussed, though it is stressed here - as throughout the report - that most information about the distribution and retention of materials during pregnancy has been obtained from studies in experimental animals. Extrapolation of animal data to humans is difficult and potentially inaccurate. The effects of prenatal irradiation are categorised as early, delayed and late effects. Early effects are further divided into the pre-implantation period (blastogenesis), period of organ formation (organogenesis) and period of the fetus (fetogenesis). Chapters 7 and 8 deal with compartmental modelling, dosimetry and estimation of embryo/fetus dose in radiation protection practice. The ICRP and MIRD methodologies are discussed, both of which differentiate source and target

  1. The number of oogonia and somatic cells in the human female embryo and fetus in relation to whether or not exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Sørensen, K P; Larsen, K B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking or compounds of cigarette smoke is associated with serious reproductive hazards such as apoptotic death of oogonia in murine offspring and decreased fecundability in human offspring. The present study addresses potential effects of in ut......BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking or compounds of cigarette smoke is associated with serious reproductive hazards such as apoptotic death of oogonia in murine offspring and decreased fecundability in human offspring. The present study addresses potential effects...... a significant decrease in the number of somatic cells (P maternal smoking (P ... by smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Oogonia proliferate and/or invade the developing ovary at a much faster relative rate than somatic cells. In utero exposure to maternal smoking significantly reduces the number of somatic cells from Days 38 to 64 p.c. Since oocytes cannot survive without being enclosed by somatic...

  2. Electronic fetal monitoring of the preterm fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Suzanne McMurtry; Ruth, Donna Jean

    2002-06-01

    Following an analysis of the literature, this article reviews the current practices, guidelines, and recommendations for electronic fetal monitoring of the preterm fetus. The physiologic aspects of fetal heart rate control, electronic fetal monitor parameters, and differences between the preterm and term fetus are discussed. Clearly identified is the need for clinical research regarding electronic fetal monitoring of the preterm fetus to establish evidence-based practice guidelines.

  3. Fetus in fetu: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenen Carmona-Meza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetus in fetu is a rare condition, which has fewer than 200 cases reported to date. lt is mainly located in the retro peritoneum; but it can occur at other levels.Treatment is always surgical and early detection and extraction allows clinical improvement and the successful development of the affected child. We report the case of an 18 month infant who is carried by her mother to medical appointment dueto low weight for that age. In the physical exam, doctor found mass in the left hypochondrium and epigastrium and a total abdominal ultrasound is requested. Ultrasound reports findings relating to right hydronephrosis, and excretory urography and a CT with contrast reveals fetus parasite located in retro peritoneum. The infant is taken to surgery for lysis of peritoneal adhesions, resection of retroperitoneal tumor, and ureterolysis nephropexy.Afterthis, the infant presented good evolution. Early detection of these cases is necessary to allow a good development of the child; but this begins from a good medical care, that allows its identification and treatment

  4. Macroscopic study of testicular descent in caprine fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hejazi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fetus samples were collected randomly from 200 pregnant goats which were slaughtered at Tabriz  abattoir during autumn. The age of collected fetuses was calculated by the formula X=2.74 Y+30.15 proposed by Gull et al. After opening the abdominal cavity of the fetuses at different ages, the location of the testicles in the abdominal cavity and the time of their descent into the scrotum were investigated. Macroscopic studies indicated that the first testicular migration coincides with mesonephrous degeneration in 45 days old fetuses. At the age of 59 days, the mesonephrous is completely diminished and the remains of the mesonephric duct changed to epididymis. At this age, the gubernacular tissue is inflated and expanded. In days 89, testis is seen in the middle of the inguinal canal and until day 106 of pregnancy it descents from final  of the inguinal canal into the opening of the scrotum. At the age of 153 days (birth time complete descent of the testis into the scrotum takes place. On the basis of the results of the present study it can be concluded that the location of testis in the goat is similar to cattle, sheep, horse and humans at birth and its descent into scrotum follows retraction and degeneration of the gubernacular tissue.

  5. Facial anatomy of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanty, P; Romero, R; Staudach, A; Hobbins, J C

    1986-11-01

    Real-time ultrasonography was used in this study to demonstrate details of the anatomy of the face and neck of the fetus. Details such as the ocular globe, vitreous body, lens, anterior chamber, rectus muscles, optic nerve and disc, and the ophthalmic artery are visible at the level of the eye. The helix, scaphoid fossa, triangular fossa, concha, antihelix, antitragus, intertragic incisure, and lobule can be seen at the level of the ear. The tip of the nose, the alae nasi, and the columna are also seen. The epiglottis is visible in the vestibulum of the larynx. The fetal face is an important structure that can provide invaluable information in the search for congenital malformations, and possibly also in fetal behavior.

  6. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii and Campylobacter fetus fetus in sheep from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, R P; Wilkins, M; Green, R S; de Lisle, G W

    2011-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of antibody titres to Toxoplasma gondii and Campylobacter fetus fetus in sheep from New Zealand. As part of a free screening service, unsolicited blood samples were supplied by veterinarians wishing to gauge the exposure of their clients' ewe flocks to T. gondii and C. fetus fetus. Blood samples were submitted from mixed-age ewes throughout New Zealand, from 2006 to 2009, that had not been vaccinated for T. gondii and C. fetus fetus. A total of 2,254 sera were serologically titrated for T. gondii and 3,429 for C. fetus fetus. A latex agglutination kit available commercially was used to quantify antibodies to T. gondii, and an agglutination test developed in-house was used for C. fetus fetus. For T. gondii, titres of ≥1:16 and ≥1:64 were used to define a positive response, and for C. fetus fetus a titre of ≥1:10 was defined as positive. A flock was defined as positive if ≥1 ewe had a positive titre. Of the sera tested for T. gondii, 1,917/2,254 (85%) were positive, using a titre of ≥1:16, and 1,384/2,254 (61%) with a titre of ≥1:64. All 198 ewe flocks tested were seropositive to T. gondii, at a titre of ≥1:16, and all but three were at a titre of ≥1:64. A bimodal distribution was evident in the prevalence of titres to T. gondii suggesting that a percentage of titres ≤1:64 may have been non-specific. Of the sera tested for C. fetus fetus, 1,644/3,429 (48%) were positive to at least one of the four test antigens at titre of ≥1:10. Only 34/298 (11%) flocks tested for C. fetus fetus were completely seronegative. The percentage of seropositive ewes to both T. gondii and C. fetus fetus was significantly higher in the North Island than the South Island. The study demonstrated that exposure to these two important infectious abortifacients was both considerable and widespread. Minimum titres were postulated to establish a 'cut-off' for a positive result and to allow comparison with past and future studies. The bimodal

  7. Responses to vibroacoustic stimulation in a fetus with an encephalocele compared to responses of normal fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heteren, C F; Boekkooi, P F; Jongsma, H W; Nijhuis, J G

    2000-01-01

    Observation of fetal movement and fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) might be useful as a measure to assess fetal well-being and to assess the integrity of the fetal central nervous system (CNS). We observed the movement and FHR responses to repeated VAS of a term fetus with a serious brain anomaly as compared to responses of normal term fetuses. In 37 normal term fetuses and in a term fetus with an encephalocele we studied movement and FHR response to repeated VAS. All normal fetuses responded within 1 s after stimulation with general body movement and FHR acceleration. At 36 gestational weeks, no movement or FHR responses were seen in the fetus with an encephalocele. Repetition of the test in this fetus after one week still showed no response to repeated VAS. Normal fetuses showed movement and FHR responses to external stimulation. The fetus with an encephalocele did not respond to repeated VAS with a movement or FHR acceleration. Case studies in fetuses with structural anomalies of the CNS are needed to gain insight into the spectrum of possible responses to VAS.

  8. Study of the ureter structure in anencephalic fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the ureter in normal and anencephalic human fetuses. Materials and Methods We studied 16 ureters from 8 human fetuses without congenital anomalies aged 16 to 27 weeks post-conception (WPC and 14 ureters from 7 anencephalic fetuses aged 19 to 33 WPC. The ureters were dissected and embedded in paraffin, from which 5 µm thick sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome, to quantify smooth muscle cells (SMC and to determine the ureteral lumen area, thickness and ureteral diameter. The samples were also stained with Weigert Resorcin Fucsin (to study elastic fibers and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to study collagen. Stereological analysis of collagen, elastic system fibers and SMC were performed on the sections. Data were expressed as volumetric density (Vv-%. The images were captured with an Olympus BX51 microscope and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done using the Image Pro and Image J programs. For biochemical analysis, samples were fixed in acetone, and collagen concentrations were expressed as micrograms of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were statistically compared using the unpaired t-test (p < 0.05. Results The ureteral epithelium was well preserved in the anencephalic and control groups. We did not observe differences in the transitional epithelium in the anencephalic and control groups. There was no difference in elastic fibers and total collagen distribution in normal and anencephalic fetuses. SMC concentration did not differ significantly (p = 0.1215 in the anencephalic and control group. The ureteral lumen area (p = 0.0047, diameter (p = 0.0024 and thickness (p = 0.0144 were significantly smaller in anencephalic fetuses. Conclusions Fetuses with anencephaly showed smaller diameter, area and thickness. These differences could indicate that anencephalic fetal

  9. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

    1981-12-01

    Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01).

  10. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Postmaturity Premature Rupture of the Membranes (PROM) Preterm Labor Prolapsed Umbilical Cord Shoulder Dystocia Uterine Rupture Augmentation or Slowing of Labor Cesarean Delivery Induction of Labor Operative Vaginal Delivery Position refers to whether the fetus is facing rearward ( ...

  11. When does a fetus become a person?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurjak, Asim; TIKVICA LEUTIC, ANA; Miskovic, Berivoj; Frank A Chervenak

    2009-01-01

    One of the most controversial questions in modern medicine, bioethics and science is dilemma about the fetus being a person. To discuss that questionone must first define personality. The list of necessary conditions for beinga person includes features like intelligence, self-awareness, self controletc. The infrastructures of those abilities reside in the cortex that is well developedfrom the 30th week of gestation. From that point of view, every neonateor fetus during the third trimester ...

  12. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert; Graaf-Van Bloois, Van Der Linda; Fitzgerald, C.; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, S.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  13. Evaluation of molecular assays for identification Campylobacter fetus species and subspecies and development of a C. fetus specific real-time PCR assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf-van Bloois, van der L.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Wal, van der F.J.; Boer, de A.G.; Duim, B.; Schmidt, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic differentiation between Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) subspecies fetus and C. fetus subspecies venerealis is hampered by poor reliability and reproducibility of biochemical assays. AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and MLST (multilocus sequence typing) are the molecular

  14. Urine production rate and renal blood flow in the near-term ovine fetus are not related to high and low voltage electrocortical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J; Dassel, ACM; Aarnoudse, JG

    Studies in both the human and ovine near-term fetus have identified the clustering of physiologic and behavioral parameters into states. In a recent study in the human fetus a considerable decrease was found in fetal urine production during nonrapid eye movement (non-REM) compared with REM sleep.

  15. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome with Harlequin Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin fetus, a severe variant of ichthyosis, occurs rarely, and these babies die within the first few days of life. Early retinoid therapy may improve the disorder and help increase survival rates. The exact cause of the sudden infant death syndrome of the suckling is not known and the incidence approximately is 0.1-0.3 %. In general, these babies looked well and healthy at the time of the sleeping but were found dead in their bed in the morning. We report a harlequin fetus with sudden infant death syndrome.

  16. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  17. Cardiac axis shift within the cardiac cycle of normal fetuses and fetuses with congenital heart defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Abuhamad, S; Sinkovskaya, E; Mlynarczyk, M; Romary, L; Abuhamad, A

    2015-11-01

    To investigate changes in the cardiac axis (CAx) within the cardiac cycle of normal fetuses and fetuses with congenital heart defects (CHD). This was a retrospective case-control study in which stored videoclips of four-chamber views from 527 prenatal ultrasound examinations performed at 18 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks of gestation were reviewed. Among the ultrasound scans included, 287 were of normal fetuses (controls) and 240 were of fetuses with CHD. In each case, the CAx was measured at end systole (just before the atrioventricular (AV) valve opened) and at end diastole (just before the AV valve closed). CAx measurements of fetuses with CHD were compared to those of controls. The mean CAx in the control group was 45.9 ± 8.5° at end systole and 38.3 ± 8.4° at end diastole (P left heart syndrome and L-transposition of the great arteries, the CAx was greater at end diastole than at end systole, with a difference of more than 5°. In 21.3% of control fetuses, there was a CAx shift within the cardiac cycle of ≥ 10°. Abnormal CAx measured at end systole was strongly associated with CHD. Measurement of the CAx at end systole provides values that differ from those when measured at end diastole, in both normal fetuses and those with CHD. We recommend that the CAx be measured at end systole as a greater proportion of fetuses with CHD and fewer normal fetuses have an abnormal CAx at this stage compared to at end diastole. The occurrence of an abnormal CAx and the CAx shift within the fetal cardiac cycle depend on the type of CHD. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Monitoring the preterm fetus during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss special challenges in monitoring the preterm fetus during labor, review implications of preterm fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns, and highlight appropriate nursing interventions that contribute to the best outcomes for mothers and babies. With the current incidence of preterm birth, monitoring the preterm fetus during labor is a common perinatal nursing responsibility. Most of the published research on this topic was conducted in the 1980s; there has been little attention to FHR monitoring during preterm labor in recent studies. There has been much more accumulated evidence about antepartum testing techniques involving electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for the preterm fetus in contrast to FHR patterns during labor. Thus, this is an area of opportunity for nursing research. The perinatal nurse has a key role in promoting positive outcomes when caring for women during preterm labor. The condition of the fetus during labor and birth has a significant impact on the likelihood of survival and the odds of developing serious complications of prematurity.

  19. Effects of Alcohol on a Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, behavioral, and/or learning ... under way to learn more about the complex effects of alcohol on a fetus. Increased understanding may lead to ...

  20. Skeletal malformations in fetuses with Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Fischer Hansen, B; Keeling, J W

    1999-01-01

    In six fetuses with Meckel syndrome (gestational age 16-23 weeks, crown-rump length 130-170 mm) the skeleton was examined as part of the autopsy procedure using whole body radiography and special radiographic techniques. In the upper and lower limbs we found similar types of polydactyly. We noted...

  1. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases

  2. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases

  3. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  4. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  5. Comparative study using AFLP fingerprinting, PCR genotyping and phenotyping for differentiation of Campylobacter fetus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Newell, D.G.; Grogono-Thomas, R.; Duim, B.

    2001-01-01

    A collection of Campylobacter fetus strains, including both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis, were phenotypically identified to the subspecies level and genotypically typed by PCR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypic subspecies determination

  6. Skin edema in first trimester fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenewein, N; Christ, J; Günther, D; Hutsteiner, P; Ortmann, O; Germer, U

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to prove an association between generalized skin edema and nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and its predictive value for aneuploidy and structural anomalies. In this retrospective study fetuses with and without skin edema in the first trimester with an NT above 2.2 mm were compared. Statistical significance was calculated with the Chi-square test (p edema. The rate of skin edema was 1.3 % in the group with an NT edema which was significantly higher than the rate of 10.2 % (20/196) in those without skin edema (p edema and significantly higher compared to 9.1 % (16/176) in those without skin edema (p edema. Skin edema has a high predictive value for aneuploidy or structural malformations. Therefore, fetuses with skin edema should have early malformation scans in case of normal karyotype. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Aplasia Cutis Congenita Associated with Fetus Papyraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, María Lía; Alcalá, Rebeca; Boggio, Paula; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Porriño, María Librada; Luna, Paula C; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Schroh, Roberto; Larralde, Margarita; Torrelo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), or congenital absence of skin, is a heterogeneous condition that may be due to varied mechanisms. ACC has rarely been reported in association with fetus papyraceus, representing a peculiar phenotype of ACC. We present six new cases of neonates born with symmetric ACC associated with intrauterine fetal demise of co-twins during the late first or early second trimester. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Precursors to glycogen in ovine fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitsky, L.L.; Paton, J.B.; Fisher, D.E. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1988-11-01

    Postprandial hepatic glycogenesis in the adult animal is now felt to proceed largely through gluconeogenic pathways rather than directly from glucose. The ovine fetus, like the mature sheep, lacks specific hepatic glucokinase. Therefore, the authors examined the role of lactate as a fetal glycogenic precursor in seven chronically catheterized 125-day sheep fetuses. Fetuses were infused with L-(U-{sup 14}C)lactate and D-(3-{sup 3}H)glucose, while maternal glucose was maintained at 50 mg/dl. Mean fetal hepatic glycogen specific activity ({mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}) was 0.82 {plus minus} 0.08 for {sup 14}C and 2.6 {plus minus} 0.4 for {sup 3}H, whereas fetal renal glycogen specific activity was 0.46 {plus minus} 0.22 for {sup 14}C and 0.78 {plus minus} 0.16 for {sup 3}H. In contrast, ({sup 14}C)glucose specific activity was undetectable in blood and mean ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was 8.9 {plus minus} 1.3 {mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}. The least detectable specific activity of ({sup 14}C)glucose did not differ significantly from the ({sup 14}C)glycogen enrichment in liver, whereas ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was significantly greater than ({sup 3}H)glycogen enrichment. The authors conclude that glycogenesis from glucose is partly through the indirect gluconeogenic route and that lactate may be a glycogenic precursor in the ovine fetus.

  9. Concomitant Craniorachischisis Andomphalocele in a Male Fetus: Prenatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: Prenatal MRI is able to provide a clear whole-body image of the fetus and its relationship with the placenta. Prenatal MRI is very useful in the differential diagnosis of concomitant craniorachischisis and omphalocele from amniotic band sequence, limb body–wall complex with craniofacial defect and Disorganization human homologue.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis: the irresistible rise of the 'visible fetus'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwy, Ilana

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal diagnosis was developed in the 1970s, a result of a partly contingent coming together of three medical innovations-amniocentesis, the study of human chromosomes and obstetrical ultrasound-with a social innovation, the decriminalization of abortion. Initially this diagnostic approach was proposed only to women at high risk of fetal malformations. Later, however, the supervision of the fetus was extended to all pregnant women. The latter step was strongly favoured by professionals' aspiration to prevent the birth of children with Down syndrome, an inborn condition perceived as a source of suffering for families and a burden on public purse. Experts who promoted screening for 'Down risk' assumed that the majority of women who carry a Down fetus will decide to terminate the pregnancy, and will provide a private solution to a public health problem. The generalization of screening for Down risk increased in turn the frequency of diagnoses of other, confirmed or potential fetal pathologies, and of dilemmas linked with such diagnoses. Debates on such dilemmas are usually limited to professionals. The transformation of prenatal diagnosis into a routine medical technology was, to a great extent, an invisible revolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter fetus from reptiles and mammals reveals divergent evolution in host-associated lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. fetus subsp. venerealis, and C. fetus subsp. testudinum, which display a distinct host association. Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are associated with endothermic mammals, primar...

  12. Postmortem microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) of small fetuses and hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, C M; Zambelli, V; Botta, G; Moltrasio, F; Cattoretti, G; Lucchini, V; Fesslova, V; Cuttin, M S

    2014-11-01

    To assess the feasibility and utility of contrast-enhanced microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) for identifying structural anomalies in ex-vivo first- and second-trimester human fetuses and isolated fetal hearts. Radiopaque iodine staining and micro-CT scanning protocols were first developed in rodent studies and then used to examine routinely fixed whole human fetuses (n = 7, weight 0.1-90 g, gestational age, 7-17 weeks) and isolated fetal hearts (n = 14, weight 0.1-5.2 g, gestational age, 11-22 weeks). Samples were scanned using an isotropic resolution of 18 (and, if necessary, 9 or 35) µm and findings were interpreted jointly by four fetal pathologists, a fetal cardiologist and a radiologist. Samples with gestational ages ≥ 13 weeks also underwent conventional autopsy or dissection. Micro-CT identified all anatomical structures and abnormalities documented by the macroscopic examination. In all seven cases involving fetuses ≤ 13 weeks (four fetuses, three isolated hearts), micro-CT excluded the presence of structural anomalies. In the remaining 14 cases, it provided all the information obtained with invasive autopsy or dissection and in seven of the 14 (two fetuses, five isolated hearts) it furnished additional diagnostic details. This pilot study confirms the feasibility of postmortem contrast-enhanced micro-CT assessment of structural anomalies in whole small fetuses and fetal hearts. Further study is needed to confirm our findings, particularly in whole fetuses, and to define the extent to which this virtual examination might be used instead of conventional invasive autopsy. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Removal of viable bacteria and endotoxins by Electro Deionization (EDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Norimitsu; Otomo, Teruo; Watabe, Tomoichi; Ase, Tomonobu; Takemura, Takuto; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    Viable bacteria and endotoxins in water sometimes cause problems for human health. Endotoxins are major components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharides). In medical procedures, especially haemodialysis (HD) and related therapies (haemodiafiltration (HDF), haemofiltration (HF)), endotoxins in the water for haemodialysis can permeate through the haemodialysis membrane and cause microinflammation or various haemodialysis-related illnesses. To decrease such a biological risk, RO and UF membranes are generally used. Also, hot water disinfection or the chemical disinfection is regularly executed to kill bacteria which produce endotoxins. However, simple treatment methods and equipment may be able to decrease the biological risk more efficiently. In our experiments, we confirmed that viable bacteria and endotoxins were removed by Electro Deionization (EDI) technology and also clarified the desorption mechanisms.

  14. Using Generic Examples to Make Viable Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Ely, Rob; Yopp, David

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen an increased call to train students to craft mathematical arguments. The third of the Common Core's (CCSS) Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP 3) (CCSSI 2010) calls for all mathematically proficient students to "construct viable arguments" to support the truth of their ideas and to "critique…

  15. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated

  16. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  17. Prenatal Sonographic Features of Fetuses in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful tool to detect structural abnormalities associated with the fetuses in trisomy 13 pregnancies. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal sonographic markers of trisomy 13 in the first trimester, including fetal nuchal translucency thickness, fetal heart rate, fetal nasal bone, fetal tricuspid regurgitation, ductus venous flow, fetal crown-rump length, fetal trunk and head volume, fetal frontomaxillary facial angle, gestational sac volume and umbilical cord diameter, along with biochemical markers such as maternal serum free β-human chorionic gonadotropin, maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, maternal serum placental growth factor, and the fetal and total cell-free DNA concentration in the maternal circulation.

  18. Ethical dimensions of the fetus as a patient

    OpenAIRE

    Chervenak, F.; Mccullough, L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and identify its implications for the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine.Methods: We describe secular medical ethics and its two fundamental principles, beneficence and respect for autonomy. We articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient on the basis of the ethical principle of beneficence.Results: In the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine guided by the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient...

  19. Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Alain; Baud, Catherine; Ferran, Jean Louis; Saguintaah, Magali; Veyrac, Corinne [Hopital Arnaud de Villeneuve, 34 - Montpellier (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique

    2008-07-01

    Sonography of the gastrointestinal tract in fetuses, neonates and children entails no known biological risk, permits serial scanning and can provide information unobtainable with any other imaging modality. In experienced hands it can be used as the initial imaging technique in a number of gastrointestinal diseases and conditions. This book provides a comprehensive account of the current state of the art regarding sonography in this context. An introductory chapter compares the merits of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent chapters focus on the technique, pitfalls and findings in a wide variety of applications, including antropyloric diseases, bowel obstruction, bowel wall thickening, colitis, appendicitis, some types of intussusception, abdominal wall and umbilical abnormalities, intraperitoneal tumors, and trauma. In each case the sonographic morphology is considered in depth with the aid of high-quality illustrations. A concluding chapter comprises a quiz based on 15 case reports. Gastrointestinal Tract Sonography in Fetuses and Children will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Priorities Funding Opportunities & Notices Contract Opportunities Grants Process, Policies & ... Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share ...

  1. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  2. Creatine for women in pregnancy for neuroprotection of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Hayley; Bain, Emily; Wilkinson, Dominic; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A; Walker, David W

    2014-12-19

    Creatine is an amino acid derivative and, when phosphorylated (phosphocreatine), is involved in replenishing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via the creatine kinase reaction. Cells obtain creatine from a diet rich in fish, meat, or dairy and by endogenous synthesis from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine in an approximate 50:50 ratio. Animal studies have shown that creatine may provide fetal neuroprotection when given to the mother through her diet in pregnancy. It is important to assess whether maternally administered creatine in human pregnancy (at times of known, suspected, or potential fetal compromise) may offer neuroprotection to the fetus and may accordingly reduce the risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, such as cerebral palsy and associated impairments and disabilities arising from fetal brain injury. To assess the effects of creatine when used for neuroprotection of the fetus. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2014). We planned to include all published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised trials and quasi-randomised trials. We planned to include studies reported as abstracts only as well as full-text manuscripts. Trials using a cross-over or cluster-randomised design were not eligible for inclusion.We planned to include trials comparing creatine given to women in pregnancy for fetal neuroprotection (regardless of the route, timing, dose, or duration of administration) with placebo, no treatment, or with an alternative agent aimed at providing fetal neuroprotection. We also planned to include comparisons of different regimens for administration of creatine. We identified no completed or ongoing randomised controlled trials. We found no randomised controlled trials for inclusion in this review. As we did not identify any randomised controlled trials for inclusion in this review, we are unable to comment on implications for practice. Although evidence from animal studies has supported a

  3. Relationship between lung-to-head ratio and lung volume in normal fetuses and fetuses with diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, J; Peralta, C F A; Van Schoubroeck, D; Deprest, J; Nicolaides, K H

    2006-05-01

    To examine the relationship between the fetal lung area and lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) and lung volume by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography in normal fetuses and in fetuses with unilateral congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In 64 fetuses with CDH at median 26 (range, 20-32) weeks of gestation the contralateral lung volume, lung area and LHR were measured and the values were compared to those of 650 normal fetuses at 12-32 weeks. In the normal fetuses both lungs were assessed but in the 64 fetuses with CDH only the contralateral lung was measured because the ipsilateral lung could be visualized adequately in only 40 (62.5%) of the cases. Regression analysis was used to assess the significance of the association between lung volume and lung area or LHR. In the fetuses with CDH, the observed to expected ratios for lung area and LHR were calculated. The expected lung area and LHR were the normal median for a given lung volume. The significance of the differences between the observed to expected lung area and LHR in fetuses with CDH and normal fetuses was determined. In the 64 fetuses with CDH and in 64 normal fetuses, matched for gestational age, the lung length between the apex and the superior aspect of the diaphragm dome was also recorded. In normal fetuses the median lung area and LHR in both the left and right lungs increased significantly with lung volume. In the fetuses with CDH, the lung area and lung volume for gestation were substantially lower than in normal fetuses and the ratios of observed to expected lung area and LHR for a given lung volume were significantly lower than the respective values in normal fetuses. Additionally, the mean lung length was 13% greater and the mean lung area was 44% smaller than the respective values in the normal controls matched for gestational age. The finding of a significant association between LHR and lung volume has validated the use of LHR in the assessment of lung growth. However, the study has

  4. Air-spore in Cartagena, Spain: viable and non-viable sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Vergara, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jose; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In the presented study the airborne fungal spores of the semiarid city of Cartagena, Spain, are identified and quantified by means of viable or non-viable sampling methods. Airborne fungal samples were collected simultaneously using a filtration method and a pollen and particle sampler based on the Hirst methodology. This information is very useful for elucidating geographical patterns of hay fever and asthma. The qualitative results showed that when the non-viable methodology was employed, Cladosporium, Ustilago, and Alternaria were the most abundant spores identified in the atmosphere of Cartagena, while the viable methodology showed that the most abundant taxa were: Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. The quantitative results of airborne fungal spores identified by the Hirst-type air sampler (non-viable method), showed that Deuteromycetes represented 74% of total annual spore counts, Cladosporium being the major component of the fungal spectrum (62.2%), followed by Alternaria (5.3%), and Stemphylium (1.3%). The Basidiomycetes group represented 18.9% of total annual spore counts, Ustilago (7.1%) being the most representative taxon of this group and the second most abundant spore type. Ascomycetes accounted for 6.9%, Nectria (2.3%) being the principal taxon. Oomycetes (0.2%) and Zygomycestes and Myxomycestes (0.06%) were scarce. The prevailing species define our bioaerosol as typical of dry air. The viable methodology was better at identifying small hyaline spores and allowed for the discrimination of the genus of some spore types. However, non-viable methods revealed the richness of fungal types present in the bioaerosol. Thus, the use of both methodologies provides a more comprehensive characterization of the spore profile.

  5. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión...

  6. High macrosomia rate in healthy fetuses after enlarged nuchal translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, E; Pajkrt, E; Snijders, R J M; Bilardo, C M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the first trimester screening variables nuchal translucency (NT), pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP-A), and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) and birth weight, with a focus on the prediction of macrosomia. The database of our Fetal Medicine Unit was searched for all singleton pregnancies, who underwent first trimester Down syndrome screening. Live born infants born at term without chromosomal or structural defects from non-diabetic mothers constituted the study population. Birth weight percentiles were corrected for gestational age at delivery, parity, and gender. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight ≥95th centile. We included 6503 fetuses. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that birth weight centile was positively correlated with NT multiples of the median (MoM), PAPP-A MoM, and maternal body mass index, and it was negatively correlated with smoking. An NT ≥95th centile was present in 315 fetuses (4.8%). Although median birth weight centile was not significantly different between cases with NT ≥95th centile and those 95th centile was more common (11% vs 7%) in the presence of NT ≥95th centile. Pregnancy associated plasma protein was elevated (≥95th centile) in 303 cases (7.9%). Median birth weight was higher (P56 vs P51, P = 0.03) in case of elevated PAPP-A compared with PAPP-A macrosomia rate in case of PAPP-A ≥95th centile (7.4% vs 6.3%, P = 0.07). Area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for the prediction of macrosomia (birth weight ≥95th centile) by NT MoM, PAPP-A MoM, maternal body mass index, and maternal smoking was 0.64 (P macrosomia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of nitroprusside on furosemide-induced skeletal teratogenicity in rat fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khaksary Mahabady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Furosemide as a loop diuretic can use in treatment of hypertension, renal or heart failures and cirrhosis, when sodium retention is significant. It is known that use of furosemide can be lead congenital abnormalities in humans and animals. Nitroprusside as a NO donor can decrease blood supply complications and constriction of placenta and uterus via vasodilation and improvment blood supply. The aim of this study was preventation or decrease of teratogenicity form furosemide in rat fetuses by sodium nitroprusside. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 28 pregnant rats that were divided into four groups, the groups consist control, furosemide, sodium nitroprusside and furosemide plus sodium nitroprusside. Drugs were administrated on 14th and 16th day of gestation. Test groups received furosemide (200mg/kg orally, and nitroprusside (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The rats were euthanized and fetuses were collected at 19th day of gestation, after weight and length determination, they stained by Alizarin red- Alician blue method. Then the skeletal system of the stained fetuses was investigated by stereomicroscope for teratogenicity effects. Results: The results showed the cleft palate, wavy ribs and decreased ossification mean incidence in forelimbs and hindlimbs were 11.11%, 68.88% and 20% in the fetuses of the rats received furosemide, where as it decreased to 7.31%, 21.95% and 12.19% in group which received furosemide plus nitroprusside, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that sodium nitroprusside can significantly decrease teratogenicity induced by furosemide.

  8. Current understanding of the toxicological risk posed to the fetus following maternal exposure to nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wu, Junrong; Feng, Xiaoli; Wang, Ruolan; Chen, Aijie; Shao, Longquan

    2017-12-01

    With the broad use of nanotechnology, the number and variety of nanoparticles that humans can be exposed to has further increased. Consequently, there is growing concern about the potential effect of maternal exposure to various nanoparticles during pregnancy on a fetus. However, the nature of this risk is not fully known. Areas covered: In this review, materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles through the placenta is described. Both prenatal and postnatal adverse effects, such as fetal resorption, malformation and injury to various organs in mice exposed to nanoparticles are reviewed. The potential mechanisms of toxicity are also discussed. Expert opinion: The toxicology and safe application of recently developed nanoparticles has attracted much attention in the past few years. Although many studies have demonstrated the toxicology of nanoparticles in various species, only a small number of studies have examined the effect on a fetus after maternal exposure to nanoparticles. This is particularly important, because the developing fetus is especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of nanoparticles during fetal development due to the unique physical stage of the fetus. Nanoparticles may directly or indirectly impair fetal development and growth after maternal exposure to nanoparticles.

  9. Analysis of microRNA expression profile by small RNA sequencing in Down syndrome fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Wuxian; Liu, Xueyan; Ma, Hualin; Tu, Zhiguang; Dai, Yong

    2013-11-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is associated with numerous deleterious phenotypes, including cognitive impairment, childhood leukemia and immune defects. Five Hsa21‑derived microRNAs (i.e., hsa-miR-99a, let-7c, miR-125b-2, miR-155 and miR-802) are involved in variable phenotypes of DS. However, the changes involved in the genome-wide microRNA expression of DS fetuses under the influence of trisomy 21 have yet to be determined. To investigate the expression characteristic of microRNAs during the development of DS fetuses and identify whether another microRNA gene resides in the Hsa21, Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to comprehensively characterize the microRNA expression profiles of the DS and normal fetal cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). In total, 149 of 395 identified microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (fold change >2.0 and Pgenome-wide microRNA expression profiles in the DS fetus. Differentially expressed microRNAs may be involved in hemopoietic abnormalities and the immune defects of DS fetuses and newborns.

  10. Neuropathological features in a female fetus with OPHN1 deletion and cerebellar hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Delphine; Alix, Eudeline; Michel, Jessica; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Labalme, Audrey; Guilbert, Hélène; Till, Marianne; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; de Haas, Pascale; Massardier, Jérôme; Portes, Vincent des; Edery, Patrick; Touraine, Renaud; Guibaud, Laurent; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Sanlaville, Damien

    2013-05-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old pregnant woman. The third-trimester ultrasound scan during pregnancy revealed fetal bilateral ventricular dilatation, macrosomia and a transverse diameter of the cerebellum at the 30th centile. A brain MRI scan at 31 weeks of gestation led to a diagnosis of hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis without hemisphere abnormalities and a non compressive expansion of the cisterna magna. The fetal karyotype was 46,XX. The pregnancy was terminated and array-CGH analysis of the fetus identified a 238 kb de novo deletion on chromosome Xp12, encompassing part of OPHN1 gene. Further studies revealed a completely skewed pattern of X inactivation. OPHN1 is involved in X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) with cerebellar hypoplasia and encodes a Rho-GTPase-activating protein called oligophrenin-1, which is produced throughout the developing mouse brain and in the hippocampus and Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in adult mice. Neuropathological examination of the female fetus revealed cerebellar hypoplasia and the heterotopia of Purkinje cells at multiple sites in the white matter of the cerebellum. This condition mostly affects male fetuses in humans. We report here the first case of a de novo partial deletion of OPHN1, with radiological and neuropathological examination, in a female fetus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Complete Hydatidiform Mole Coexisting with a Live Fetus | Ezem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydatidiform mole co-existing with a normal fetus is very rare. We report a case of a 36 year old woman Para 4+0 who presented with amenorrhoea of twenty four weeks duration, vaginal bleeding , abdominal pain and pre-eclampsia. Ultrasound examination revealed a hydatidiform mole coexisting with a normal living fetus.

  12. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.L.; Schepens-Franke, A.N.; Asten, J.J.A. van; Bosboom, D.G.H.; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K.; Kozicz, T.; Ruiter, D.J.; Oostra, R.J.; Klein, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are

  13. Prenatal Sonographic Features of Fetuses in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful tool for the detection of structural abnormalities of fetuses in trisomy 13 pregnancies. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal sonographic features of trisomy 13 fetuses in the second and third trimesters, including cystic hygroma and nuchal edema, congenital heart defects, hydrops fetalis, omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia, urinary tract abnormalities, and abnormal extremities and polydactyly.

  14. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG, progesterone (P4 and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20 was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013, as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant. Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071, but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure

  15. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: managing the mother, fetus, and newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Matthews, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) affects 3/100 000 to 80/100 000 patients per year. It is due to maternal blood group antibodies that cause fetal red cell destruction and in some cases, marrow suppression. This process leads to fetal anemia, and in severe cases can progress to edema, ascites, heart failure, and death. Infants affected with HDFN can have hyperbilirubinemia in the acute phase and hyporegenerative anemia for weeks to months after birth. The diagnosis and management of pregnant women with HDFN is based on laboratory and radiographic monitoring. Fetuses with marked anemia may require intervention with intrauterine transfusion. HDFN due to RhD can be prevented by RhIg administration. Prevention for other causal blood group specificities is less studied. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  16. A Case of Bacteremia Due to Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Importance of Gram Stain at Laboratory Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Müşerref TATMAN OTKUN; Gülten AYDIN TUTAK; Emrah GÜLŞEN; Özgen, Zeren

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus is related with bacteriemia and extraintestinal system infections at immunodeficient patients. Bacteriemia may cause systemic complications like septic abortus, septic arthritis, abscess, menengitidis, endocarditis, micotic aneurisym, trombophlebitis, peritonitis and salphengitis. In this case report, a 92 years old male patient with secondary chronic renal failure due to chronic pylenophritis developed bacteriemia possibly after a gastrointestinal infection c...

  17. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  18. Radiation Dose Assessments for the Embryo, Fetus, and Nursing Infant during Operation Tomodachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    models for the transfer of radiostrontium to the fetus and breast - feeding infant. 22 2. Acute intake (1 Bq) 6 months prior to conception 3. Acute...Comparison of Nursing Infant Doses with Other Analyses ............................ 55 6.5 Reports Related to Radionuclides in Human Breast Milk in Japan...and premature birth were comparable to the 520 live births in the BIHR for “infants included if gestation occurred at any time during the

  19. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  20. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  1. Phenotypic variability in fetuses with down syndrome: a case-control pathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, C; Brandão, O; Matias, A; Montenegro, N

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of morphological and morphometric characteristics of fetuses with Down syndrome based on a detailed postmortem examination and comparison of these fetuses with a control group of fetuses with normal karyotype to improve the prenatal knowledge of Down syndrome characteristics. A case-control study was undertaken in a tertiary referral hospital. The Down syndrome fetuses (50) were compared with chromosomally normal fetuses (47) matched for gestational age. Biometric and morphological parameters were compared. The biometry of fetuses with Down syndrome differs from control fetuses only in the occipitofrontal diameter and in the nasal bone length. There were craniofacial anomalies in 96% of fetuses with Down syndrome and in 51% of fetuses with normal karyotype. With the exception of small ears, all craniofacial features analyzed were significantly different between Down syndrome fetuses and control fetuses. All extremity features of fetuses with Down syndrome were significantly different from fetuses without Down syndrome. There were 31 fetuses with Down syndrome (62%) with 55 internal anomalies. Nineteen fetuses (38.8%) showed 27 cardiac anomalies. Six fetuses had more than one anomaly. There were 18 fetuses (36%) with 28 noncardiac anomalies. The importance of studying the morphological characteristics of fetuses with Down syndrome is the contribution to a better knowledge of fetal characteristics and probably to optimize prenatal diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Role of leptin in the regulation of growth and carbohydrate metabolism in the ovine fetus during late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhead, Alison J; Lamb, Christopher A; Franko, Kathryn L; O'Connor, Deirdre M; Wooding, F B Peter; Cripps, Roselle L; Ozanne, Susan; Blache, Dominique; Shen, Qingwu W; Du, Min; Fowden, Abigail L

    2008-05-01

    Leptin is an important regulator of appetite and energy expenditure in adulthood, although its role as a nutritional signal in the control of growth and metabolism before birth is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of leptin on growth, carbohydrate metabolism and insulin signalling in fetal sheep. Crown-rump length-measuring devices and vascular catheters were implanted in 12 sheep fetuses at 105-110 days of gestation (term 145 +/- 2 days). The fetuses were infused i.v. either with saline (0.9% NaCl; n = 6) or recombinant ovine leptin (0.5-1.0 mg kg(-1) day(-1); n = 6) for 5 days from 125 to 130 days when they were humanely killed and tissues collected. Leptin receptor mRNA and protein were expressed in fetal liver, skeletal muscle and perirenal adipose tissue. Throughout infusion, plasma leptin in the leptin-infused fetuses was 3- to 5-fold higher than in the saline-infused fetuses, although plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, lactate, cortisol, catecholamines and thyroid hormones did not differ between the groups. Leptin infusion did not affect linear skeletal growth or body, placental and organ weights in utero. Hepatic glycogen content and activities of the gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the leptin-infused fetuses were lower than in the saline-infused fetuses by 44, 48 and 36%, respectively; however, there were no differences in hepatic glycogen synthase activity or insulin signalling protein levels. Therefore, before birth, leptin may inhibit endogenous glucose production by the fetal liver when adipose energy stores and transplacental nutrient delivery are sufficient for the metabolic needs of the fetus. These actions of leptin in utero may contribute to the development of neonatal hypoglycaemia in macrosomic babies of diabetic mothers.

  3. Maternal hyperoxygenation: A potential therapy for congenital heart disease in the fetuses? A systematic review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co-Vu, Jennifer; Lopez-Colon, Dalia; Vyas, Himesh V; Weiner, Natalie; DeGroff, Curt

    2017-12-01

    To assess efficacy, safety, outcomes, and intrauterine complications following maternal hyperoxygenation (MH) therapy in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD). A systematic review was performed following an electronic search of databases. Articles were published before January 1, 2017, in an English-language and non-English-language journals (with English translations), and included human fetuses and expectant mothers with a fetal diagnosis of CHD who received MH. Ninety-six articles were identified; 72 were excluded and 24 full-text articles were reviewed. Only 9 articles met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. A total of 270 fetuses underwent MH therapy: 169 had CHD, and 101 had normal heart anatomies. Seven studies used fetal echocardiography, while 2 studies used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). The mean gestational age at therapy was 33.4 weeks (26-38 weeks). Majority of MH protocols used 100% FiO2 with non-rebreather face mask at 8 L of flow, achieving 60%-70% FiO2 , or maternal PaO2 goal of 250 mm Hg. No significant adverse events were reported. Four studies reported increased size of the hypoplastic cardiac structures after MH. Three studies utilized acute MH to risk stratify hypoplastic left heart syndrome fetuses. Two studies assessed acute MH in the setting of CMR. The current evidence for MH therapy suggests an increase in pulmonary blood flow, and venous return, ductal flow, and heart dimensions in fetuses. MH has potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in fetuses with CHD. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to ascertain whether MH therapy provides improved outcomes on fetuses with certain types of CHD. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Immune privilege of the eye and fetus: parallel universes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkorn, Jerry Y; Wang, Shixuan

    2005-11-15

    The eye is an extension of the brain and thus many of its tissues are incapable of regeneration. Ocular inflammation can produce extensive damage to innocent bystander cells leading to blindness. However, the eye possesses multiple strategies to control immune-mediated inflammation-a phenomenon known as immune privilege. The fetus of outbred mammals expresses paternal histocompatibility antigens and represents an allograft. However, the success of placental animals is a testament to the immune privilege of the allogeneic fetus. Extensive evidence suggests that the eye and the fetus employ similar strategies for establishing immune privilege for preserving vision and the unborn respectively.

  5. Acardiac Parabiotic Fetus: A Rare Complication of Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acardiac parabiotic fetus is sequelae of complication of monochorionic monoamniotic twin pregnancy also known as Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion Sequence (TRAP. It is rare affecting 1 in 35,000 births and 1 % of monozygotic twins. Acardiac parabiotic twin commonly known as parasite occurs rarely and may lead to high output cardiac failure, hydrops or premature delivery in the pump fetus. In this report, we present a 23 years old primigravida with twin pregnancy, with twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence with one of the twins being acardiac anceps and the other normal pump fetus. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore rarely documented.

  6. Els fetus pateixen els efectes de la nicotina

    OpenAIRE

    García Algar, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    El consum de tabac durant l'embaràs exposa al fetus a possibles efectes deleteris de la nicotina que poden afectar els resultats perinatals i la salut del nen. La nicotina sembla afectar el desenvolupament neurològic normal del fetus al principi de la vida. A més, s'ha observat que l'exposició del fetus dins de l'úter al consum de tabac per part de la mare podria induir una síndrome d'abstinència neonatal a la nicotina.

  7. Development of mandible in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the precise sites of the beginning of primary ossification centers of the mandible of sheep fetuses as well as their onset time, to achieve this goal, samples were taken weekly starting from the 7th week up to 20th week of intrauterine life. Sections of the samples were stained by the alizarin red and alcian blue technique. Primary centers appeared at the beginning of 7th week as big red spot on either sides of mesenchyme of first branchial arch (Meckel’s cartilage that developed by intramembranous ossification. The rostral part of the mandible, however, was developed by endochondral ossification. The successive bone development process (7–20 weeks, were moniterd by macerating the mandibles using either potassium hydroxide or fly larvae. Measuring tape and graph papers were employed for measurements and for localization of mandibular angle. The results revealed significant increase of these measurements during the successive weeks of intrauterine life.

  8. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  9. Is Greenberg's "Macro-Carib" viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg's primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib 'etymologies' and another 64 Amerind 'etymologies'. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg's Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg's morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg's 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable

  10. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  11. Minor Histocompatibility Antigens and the Maternal Immune Response to the Fetus During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscheid, Caitlin; Petroff, Margaret G.

    2014-01-01

    The tolerance of the semiallogeneic fetus by the maternal immune system is an important area of research for understanding how the maternal and fetal systems interact during pregnancy to ensure a successful outcome. Several lines of research reveal that the maternal immune system can recognize and respond to fetal minor histocompatibility antigens during pregnancy. Reactions to these antigens arise because of allelic differences between the mother and fetus, and have been shown more broadly to play an important role in mediating transplantation outcomes. This review outlines the discovery of minor histocompatibility antigens and their importance in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, maternal T-cell responses to minor histocompatibility antigens during pregnancy, expression of minor histocompatibility antigens in the human placenta, and the potential involvement of minor histocompatibility antigens in the development and manifestation of pregnancy complications. PMID:23398025

  12. Cochlear epithelial of dog fetuses: a new source of multipotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Carolina M; Borghesi, Jéssica; Mario, Lara Carolina; Anunciação, Adriana Raquel A; Mess, Andrea Maria; Carreira, Ana Claudia O; Favaron, Phelipe O; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2017-02-01

    Hearing loss caused by the damage of cochlea sensory cells or neurons is a common human disease, but also affects dogs and other animals. To test their progenitor nature as potential value for future therapies, we characterized cells derived from the cochlear epithelium in dog fetuses. In total, 8 fetuses of 35-40 days of gestation, derived from castration campaigns, were investigated. Cells were analysed by the MTT colorimetric assay and in regard to cell cycle, differentiation capacities, immunophenotypes and qPCR analysis. In culture, cells had a fibroblast-like morphology. Phenotypic immunocharacterization showed positive staining for mesenchymal stem cell and pluripotency markers and were negative for hematopoietic cell markers. Cells possessed differentiation capacity for the three main cell lineages: osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic, altogether indicating their nature as mesenchymal stem cells. Thus, cells derived from fetal cochlear tissues indeed may provide valuable sources of progenitor cells for cell therapy of canine deafness and other diseases.

  13. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NICHD in the News Join NICHD Listservs Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Skip ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...

  14. The legal status of the fetus in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Talat; Pickering, A; Erasmus, K; Pardey, J; Beran, Roy G

    2012-09-01

    The issue of how to define the legal status of the fetus is complex. Three clinical cases with fetal losses following motor vehicle accidents raise important issues regarding the legal status of the unborn child. Legislation was submitted to the New South Wales Parliament in the form of the Crimes Amendment (Grievous Bodily Harm) Bill 2005 (NSW) but was subsequently repealed. Medical technological advances make the viability of a fetus a shifting standard and encourage the comparison between newborns and late-term fetuses, offer increased fetal health status information and provide greater capacity to maintain the life of babies born prematurely. In view of the sophisticated state of medical care available in New South Wales, the three cases reviewed highlight the discrepancy between the medical recognition of the fetus as a patient and its lack of legal recognition.

  15. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest follow us on YouTube ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Email This Page to a Friend ...

  16. Identification of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations in fetuses with increased

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leung, Tak Yeung; Vogel, Ida; Lau, Tze Kin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Fetal nuchal translucency (NT) is assessed by ultrasound as a screening tool for aneuploidy at 11-13+6 weeks’ gestation. Fetuses with increased NT but apparently normal karyotyping result are still at higher risk of structural abnormality and a range of genetic syndromes, which may...... sonographic anomalies, and 5.3% (2/38) among those without. Conclusions: aCGH allows detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities of which the prevalence may be increased in fetuses with NT>3.5mm and an apparently normal karyotype....... be related to major and submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of our study is to report the prevalence of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities in a cohort of apparently euploid fetuses that presented with increased NT. Methods: DNA was extracted from stored CVS specimens relating to fetuses...

  17. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Directory Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest ... on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information ...

  18. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... publication. This page is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida ... opening in the spine. In a new Web video, study author Catherine Y. Spong, M.D., Chief ...

  19. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow follow us on Facebook follow us on Twitter follow us on Pinterest follow us on YouTube ... Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print NICHD Archive Note: Information on ...

  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 Recently, scientists in an ... defect, myelomeningocele, is the most serious form of spina bifida, a condition in which the spinal column fails ...

  1. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  2. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This page is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, ... the NICHD, describes the study’s findings. Read the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) Interview text alternative . The ...

  3. Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, pha...

  4. Umbilical vein anomaly in fetuses with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, R; Gindes, L; Gilboa, Y; Weissmann-Brenner, A; Berkenstadt, M

    2010-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of abnormal umbilical vein (UV) anatomy in fetuses with Down syndrome. This was a retrospective survey covering a 24-month period of fetuses with a genetic diagnosis of Down syndrome following a routine early second-trimester (12-16-week) detailed fetal anomaly scan at a single academic tertiary referral center. In our unit this exam includes fetal umbilicoportal venous system evaluation. During the study period, 37 fetuses were diagnosed with Down syndrome and had a detailed early anatomy scan. In four (11%) the detailed early anomaly scan revealed that the UV was connected to the hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) at a position lower than its usual site. Their average gestational age at diagnosis was 13 + 6 (range, 11 + 6 to 15 + 2) weeks. Three of the four fetuses had a nuchal translucency thickness of 3-4 mm. In one fetus there was an additional finding of significant tricuspid regurgitation and the one with normal nuchal translucency thickness had an atrioventricular septal defect (atrioventricular canal) and umbilical cord hernia. During the same period three of 2500 (0.12%) fetuses with normal karyotype demonstrated similar anomalous insertion of the UV into the IVC, creating a portocaval shunt which had normal ductus venosus-like Doppler flow in all three cases. The odds ratio for abnormal umbilicoportal venous system in fetuses with Down syndrome compared with the normal population was 107.4 (95% CI, 19.2-637.1). Fetuses with Down syndrome demonstrate an increased prevalence of abnormal connection of the UV to the IVC. (c) 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Prediction and prevention of the macrosomic fetus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Jennifer M

    2012-06-01

    Fetal macrosomia is associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. In the long term, infants who are large for gestational age are more likely than other infants to be obese in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and are inherently at higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications in adulthood. With over one billion adults in the world now overweight and more than 600 million clinically obese, preventing the vicious cycle effect of fetal macrosomia and childhood obesity is an increasingly pertinent issue. Fetal growth is determined by a complex interplay of various genetic and environmental influences. Consequently the prediction of pregnancies at risk of pathological overgrowth is difficult. Many risk factors for fetal macrosomia, such as maternal obesity and advanced maternal age, are also conversely associated with intrauterine growth restriction. Sonographic detection of fetal macrosomia is notoriously fraught with difficulties, with dozens of formulas for estimated fetal weight proposed but few with sufficient sensitivity to alter clinical practice. This calls into question policies of elective delivery based on projected estimated fetal weight cut-offs alone. More recently the identification of markers of fetal adiposity and maternal serum biomarkers are being investigated to improve the antenatal detection of the large for gestational age fetus. Prevention of fetal macrosomia is entirely dependent upon correct identification of those at risk. Maternal weight, gestational weight gain and glycaemic control are the risk factors for fetal macrosomia that are most amenable to intervention, and have potential maternal health benefits beyond pregnancy and childbirth. The ideal method of optimising maternal weight and glucose homeostasis is yet to be elucidated, though a number of promising advances are recently being reported. In this review we outline the contemporary evidence for the prediction and prevention of fetal macrosomia

  6. Stem cell and genetic therapies for the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Erik G; Flake, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    The prenatal diagnosis and management of congenital disease has made significant progress over the previous decade. Currently, fetal therapy (including open surgery and fetoscopic intervention) provides therapeutic options for a range of congenital anomalies; however, it is restricted to the treatment of fetal pathophysiology. Improvements in prenatal screening and the early diagnosis of genetic disease allow for preemptive treatment of anticipated postnatal disease by stem cell or genetic therapy. While currently awaiting clinical application, in utero stem cell therapy has made significant advances in overcoming the engraftment and immunologic barriers in both murine and pre-clinical large animal models. Likewise, proof in principle for fetal gene therapy has been demonstrated in rodent and large animal systems as a method to prevent the onset of inherited genetic disease; however, safety and ethical risks still need to be addressed prior to human application. In this review, we examine the current status and future direction of stem cell and genetic therapy for the fetus. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  8. Autonomic regulation in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J David; Fifer, William P; Williams, Ismée A

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). From 11/2010 to 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (pHeart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls, with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Model of Human Variability in Viable Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-21

    unforeseen change or a novel situation can be incubated in the degrees of freedom afforded to an operator. These degrees of freedom allow for...team has been formed and how long they have interacted with relevant equipment; intactness may be conceptualized as binary or fuzzy (degrees or

  10. Anti-Müllerian hormone in pregnant women in relation to other hormones, fetal sex and in circulation of second trimester fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, Melissa; Byskov, Anne Grete; Skouby, Sven Oluf

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) blood concentrations in mother and fetus during pregnancy. Serum concentrations of AMH, gonadotrophins, oestradiol and progesterone were measured in pregnant women in the first trimester and AMH concentrations...... in second-trimester fetuses, and these were compared in relation to the sex of the fetus. A total of 153 women undergoing elective termination of a first-trimester pregnancy and seven second-trimester pregnant women undergoing cordocentesis were included. Concentrations of AMH in the serum of first......-trimester pregnant women were similar to non-pregnant women and were unrelated to the very high concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin and the undetectable concentrations of FSH and LH. Serum concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone were unrelated to the concentrations of AMH and the sex of the fetus...

  11. [Application of chromosomal microarray analysis for fetuses with talipes equinovarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q L; Fu, F; Li, R; Jing, X Y; Lei, T Y; Han, J; Yang, X; Zhen, L; Pan, M; Liao, C

    2016-07-25

    To investigate the application of fetuses with talipes equinovarus(TE)using chromosomal microarray analysis(CMA)technology. From May 2012 to June 2015, 54 fetuses were found with TE and with or without other structural anomalies by prenatal ultrasound. Karyotyping was taking for them all, and the fetuses with normal karyotypes took another CMA test. The data were analyzed with CHAS software. Finally all the cases were followed up to know about their pregnancy outcomes. One of the 54 cases was detected with abnormal karyotype which was trisomy 18(2%, 1/54). CMA was undertaken to the remaining fetuses, they were divided into 2 groups, including isolated TE group(n= 38)and complex TE group(n=15). The detection rate of clinical significant copy number variations(CNV)by CMA was 11%(6/53), while isolated and complex TE group were 5%(2/38)and 4/15, respectively(P= 0.047). Of the 53 cases, 51 cases were successfully followed up. Eleven cases were found without TE after birth, and the false positive rate(FPR)of TE was 22%(11/51). Whole-genome high-resolution CMA increased the detection rate by 11% in fetuses with TE. With the FPR and the detection rate of the clinical significant CNV of 2 groups, whole-genome CMA could be recommended to the fetuses with complex TE group but normal karyotypes. A series of ultrasonic tests should be suggested to the isolate TE group, while with the abnormal ultrasound, fetuses would be suggested to have CMA test for decreasing the rates of invasive prenatal diagnosis and FPR.

  12. Evaluation of molecular assays for identification Campylobacter fetus species and subspecies and development of a C. fetus specific real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; van Bergen, Marcel A P; van der Wal, Fimme J; de Boer, Albert G; Duim, Birgitta; Schmidt, Tracy; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2013-10-01

    Phenotypic differentiation between Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) subspecies fetus and C. fetus subspecies venerealis is hampered by poor reliability and reproducibility of biochemical assays. AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and MLST (multilocus sequence typing) are the molecular standards for C. fetus subspecies identification, but these methods are laborious and expensive. Several PCR assays for C. fetus subspecies identification have been described, but a reliable comparison of these assays is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the most practical and routinely implementable published PCR assays designed for C. fetus species and subspecies identification. The sensitivity and specificity of the assays were calculated by using an extensively characterized and diverse collection of C. fetus strains. AFLP and MLST identification were used as reference. Two PCR assays were able to identify C. fetus strains correctly at species level. The C. fetus species identification target, gene nahE, of one PCR assay was used to develop a real-time PCR assay with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, but the development of a subspecies venerealis specific real-time PCR (ISCfe1) failed due to sequence variation of the target insertion sequence and prevalence in other Campylobacter species. None of the published PCR assays was able to identify C. fetus strains correctly at subspecies level. Molecular analysis by AFLP or MLST is still recommended to identify C. fetus isolates at subspecies level. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  14. ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF THE FETUS AS A PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Chervenak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient and identify its implications for the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine.Methods: We describe secular medical ethics and its two fundamental principles, beneficence and respect for autonomy. We articulate the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient on the basis of the ethical principle of beneficence.Results: In the deliberative practice of perinatal medicine guided by the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient, the perinatologist should always identify and balance beneficence-based obligations to the fetal patient and beneficence-based and autonomy-based obligations to the pregnant patient. Directive counseling is appropriate when the fetus is a patient. Non-directive counseling is appropriate when the fetus is not a patient.Conclusion: Counseling pregnant women about the clinical management of their pregnancies should always identify and balance beneficence-based obligations to the fetal patient and beneficence-based and autonomy-based obligations to the pregnant patient.

  15. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  16. Anencephalic fetuses and research embryos: subjects of rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the emergence of social subjects in the form of beings which had previously been embedded in mother's bodies and which have later become defined and circumscribed by biomedicine: extracorporeal embryos, created by in vitro fertilization, and anencephalic fetuses. The embryos were at the center of the controversy regarding their use in scientific research during the debates for the approval of Brazil's new biosecurity law. Anencephalic fetuses became the center of a debate regarding the relaxing of Brazil's abortion laws. This article analyzes mass media news stories provided mostly by a systematic review of articles published in O Globo newspaper between 2000 and 2005 in order to recover the arguments presented in these debates. The arguments to justify or ban embryo research or to anticipate the birth of anencephalic fetuses coincide, in large part, because the are derived from the same value configuration and are founded upon the person: Dumont's individual-as-value.

  17. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on polydactyly of mouse fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Juan; Liu, Jun-Ye; Wang, Ya-Feng; Lang, Hai-Yang; Miao, Xia; Zhang, Li-Yan; Zeng, Li-Hua; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2013-07-01

    There is an increasing public concern regarding potential health impacts from electromagnetic radiation exposure. Embryonic development is sensitive to the external environment, and limb development is vital for life quality. To determine the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on polydactyly of mouse fetuses, pregnant mice were sham-exposed or exposed to EMP (400 kV/m with 400 pulses) from Days 7 to 10 of pregnancy (Day 0 = day of detection of vaginal plug). As a positive control, mice were treated with 5-bromodeoxyuridine on Days 9 and 10. On Days 11 or 18, the fetuses were isolated. Compared with the sham-exposed group, the group exposed to EMP had increased rates of polydactyly fetuses (5.1% vs. 0.6%, P polydactyly induced by EMP was accompanied by abnormal expression of the above-mentioned genes and decreased percentage of programmed cell death during limb development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Valproic Acid-Induced Syringomyelia in Rat Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Among antiepileptic drugs, valproic acid (VA is a well known teratogenic agent. Although axial skeletal malformations (vertebral column and limb defects have been described, its main target organ is neuroepithelium of neural tube. Therefore it seems that administration of VA during early pregnancy may affect on neural tube and adjacent tissues. The goal of present study was to determine whether there is a relationship between maternal valproic acid exposure and developmental changes during neural tube and notochord and their interactions.For this reason, on 9th day of gestation, wistar rats were treated with double dose of 600 mg/kg VA given once in the morning and another in the evening (in experimental group. The controls were received the same volume of normal saline by animal feeding. For teratological studies, fetuses were examined on 20th day of gestation and histological study were carried out.Our findings showed that in addition to some well known congenital malformations (such as axial skeletal defects and spina bifida there was an abnormal cavitation in cervical and thoracic segments of spinal cord (syringomyelia which was accompanied with a delay in determination of notochord at these levels. At these area, the syrinx (cyst is lined by compact glial tissue. In this kind of abnormality there is an atrophy of gray and white matter in the neighboring of syrinx in the spinal cord.These data revealed that, there is a strong association between maternal VA administration and risk for severe spinal cord defect such as syringomyelia and the same pathological changes might occur in human .

  19. Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jeong Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated. Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses. Results: In Streeter’s stages 13–14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days, the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days, the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter’s stage 16–17 (FA, 37 to 43 days. In Streeter’s stage 18–20 (FA, 44 to 51 days, the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB and the posterior cranial base (PCB was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°–126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms. Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures.

  20. Is telomerase a viable target in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseman, C.M.; Wright, W.E.; Shay, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The ideal cancer treatment would specifically target cancer cells yet have minimal or no adverse effects on normal somatic cells. Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that maintains the ends of human chromosome, is an attractive cancer therapeutic target for exactly this reason [1]. Telomerase is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells, making it a nearly universal cancer marker, while the majority of normal somatic cells are telomerase negative. Telomerase activity confers limitless replicative potential to cancer cells, a hallmark of cancer which must be attained for the continued growth that characterizes almost all advanced neoplasms [2]. In this review we will summarize the role of telomeres and telomerase in cancer cells, and how properties of telomerase are being exploited to create targeted cancer therapies including telomerase inhibitors, telomerase-targeted immunotherapies and telomerase-driven virotherapies. A frank and balanced assessment of the current state of telomerase inhibitors with caveats and potential limitations will be included. PMID:21802433

  1. Mycotic aortic aneurysm. A complication of Campylobacter fetus septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolik, J R; Mildvan, D; Winter, J W; Puttlitz, D; Rubenstein, S; Lozman, H

    1983-03-01

    The first surviving case, to our knowledge, of a Campylobacter fetus mycotic aortic aneurysm is reported. Bacteremia and an ileofemoral thrombophlebitis preceded the development of the infected aneurysm, reconfirming the vascular tropism of this organism. The clinical similarity with infections caused by Salmonella choleraesuis is illustrated by this case. The full recovery of our patient attests to the efficacy of extralanatomic bypass combined with long-term antibiotic therapy in the treatment of aortic mycotic aneurysm. Because of frequent changes in nomenclature and insufficient emphasis on speciation of the various campylobacters, pathogenesis and optimal antimicrobial therapy for systemic C fetus infections have not yet been adequately defined.

  2. [Multiple-fetus pregnancies. I. Myths and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksmann, S; Bouchard, P; Monnier, J C

    1990-01-01

    Pregnancies with many fetuses (triplets and more) have at all times been found interesting and unusual. Their rare and spectacular characteristics have for long been considered as divine punishment for the sin of adultery or bestiality or on the other hand as a mark of fertility and a gift from God. The authors report several legends (the Porcelets, the Trazegnies, la Dame de Montigny...) as well as the celebrated cases of fraud. Since techniques have been developed for medical handling of assisted reproduction, multiple pregnancies have become much more frequent. There is no case of survival of all fetuses when there have been more than six born at a time.

  3. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    -viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...... of viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the PCA of each cultivar and the pooled samples. However, the PCA did not exhibit a pattern of separation among the early, normal and late germinated tomato seeds. The NIR spectral regions of 1160–1170, 1383–1397, 1647–1666, 1860–1884 and 1915–1940 nm were...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable...

  4. Human chorionic gonadotropin cutoff value determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis is useful but not absolute for determining pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa M. Khadra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the clinical value of a single early human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG assay (day 14 post embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology (ART pregnancies. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: The Assisted Reproductive Unit at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Patients: During 2009–2011, a total of 248 embryo transfer cycles resulting in pregnancy, defined as serum HCG concentration of ⩾10 IU/l, were included. Interventions: None. Materials and methods: Pregnancies were classified as viable (live fetus at 24 weeks gestation or non-viable (biochemical pregnancy, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate the cutoff value of HCG with maximal sensitivity and specificity to differentiate between viable and non-viable pregnancies. Results: The median HCG concentration was 264 IU/l in viable pregnancies and 120 IU/l in non-viable pregnancies (p < 0.001. The median HCG concentration was 222 IU/l in singleton pregnancies, 389 IU/l in twin pregnancies and 809 IU/l in triplet pregnancies (p < 0.001. An HCG value of 145 IU/l emerged as the most suitable cutoff point to predict viable pregnancy. Conclusion: HCG cutoff values determined by a ROC curve analysis are useful but not absolute for discriminating between viable and non-viable pregnancy outcomes on day 14 after embryo transfer. So it is important to continue routine monitoring of ART pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Auditory evoked response: a new approach for the evaluation of the unborn fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Luz, N; Pereira Lima, C; Germany Paula, L; Hecker Luz, J

    1980-01-01

    The authors present their preliminary results observed with sound stimulation of human fetuses, a new approach to the exploration of some brain functions during fetal life, using a behavioural procedure. By applying an adequate auditory stimulus to the abdomen of pregnant women in the last trimester of pregnancy and during labour, they were able to evoke a standard fetal heart rate and motor response. They describe the different patterns observed during labour as a preliminary report of what appears to be a new procedure for evaluation of fetal conditions in normal or abnormal environments.

  6. Surface Charge Visualization at Viable Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David; Paulose Nadappuram, Binoy; Momotenko, Dmitry; Voyias, Philip D; Page, Ashley; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Frenguelli, Bruno G; Unwin, Patrick R

    2016-03-09

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is demonstrated to be a powerful technique for quantitative nanoscale surface charge mapping of living cells. Utilizing a bias modulated (BM) scheme, in which the potential between a quasi-reference counter electrode (QRCE) in an electrolyte-filled nanopipette and a QRCE in bulk solution is modulated, it is shown that both the cell topography and the surface charge present at cellular interfaces can be measured simultaneously at high spatial resolution with dynamic potential measurements. Surface charge is elucidated by probing the properties of the diffuse double layer (DDL) at the cellular interface, and the technique is sensitive at both low-ionic strength and under typical physiological (high-ionic strength) conditions. The combination of experiments that incorporate pixel-level self-referencing (calibration) with a robust theoretical model allows for the analysis of local surface charge variations across cellular interfaces, as demonstrated on two important living systems. First, charge mapping at Zea mays root hairs shows that there is a high negative surface charge at the tip of the cell. Second, it is shown that there are distinct surface charge distributions across the surface of human adipocyte cells, whose role is the storage and regulation of lipids in mammalian systems. These are new features, not previously recognized, and their implications for the functioning of these cells are highlighted.

  7. Genomic analysis of Campylobacter fetus subspecies: identification of candidate virulence determinants and diagnostic assay targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Daniel O

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, asymptomatic in bulls the disease is spread to female cattle causing extensive reproductive loss. The microbiological and molecular differentiation of C. fetus subsp. venerealis from C. fetus subsp. fetus is extremely difficult. This study describes the analysis of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain genome (~75–80% to identify elements exclusively found in C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains as potential diagnostic targets and the characterisation of subspecies virulence genes. Results Eighty Kb of genomic sequence (22 contigs was identified as unique to C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 and consisted of type IV secretory pathway components, putative plasmid genes and hypothetical proteins. Of the 9 PCR assays developed to target C. fetus subsp. venerealis type IV secretion system genes, 4 of these were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis and did not detect C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius. Two assays were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain, with a further single assay specific for the AZUL-94 strain and C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius (and not the remaining C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis strains tested. C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were found to share most common Campylobacter virulence factors such as SAP, chemotaxis, flagellar biosynthesis, 2-component systems and cytolethal distending toxin subunits (A, B, C. We did not however, identify in C. fetus the full complement of bacterial adherence candidates commonly found in other Campylobacter spp. Conclusion The comparison of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis genome sequence with the C. fetus subsp. fetus genome identified 80 kb of unique C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL94 sequence, with subsequent PCR confirmation demonstrating

  8. Twin Fetuses Papyraeci in a Spontaneous Triplet Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weighed 2.3 kg with Apgar score of 7 and 10 in 1st and 5th min,. Twin Fetuses Papyraeci in a Spontaneous Triplet. Pregnancy Presenting with Unexplained Preterm. Contractions. Bukar M, Chama CM, Bako BG, Jonathan BI. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, ...

  9. Intestinal atresia and ectopia in a bovine fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, B; Miclard, J; Stoffel, M H; Meylan, M

    2011-07-01

    A 2-year-old Red Holstein cow was presented with uterine torsion at 235 days of pregnancy. The fetus extracted by cesarean section had weak vital signs and marked abdominal distention. An edematous pouch that contained tubular structures with peristaltic activity was associated with the umbilical cord. Because of poor prognosis, both dam and fetus were euthanized. At necropsy, the fetus had severe distention of the forestomachs, abomasum, and proximal small intestine; absence of distal small intestine, cecum, and proximal colon; atresia of the 2 blind ends of the intestine; and atrophy of distal colon and rectum. The tubular structures associated with the umbilical cord were identified as the segments of intestine that were absent in the fetus. Intestinal atresia combined with ectopia may be caused by local ischemia during temporary herniation and rotation of the fetal gut into the extraembryonic coelom. The close connection between ectopic intestine and amniotic sheath of the umbilical cord in this case may have facilitated vascularization and allowed development and viability of the ectopic intestine. © The Authors 2011

  10. Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, phalanges and lastly in the carpal bone at an estimated age of 43, 45, 46, 47, 49 - 56 and 90-118 days old respectively. The results of statistical analysis of the total lengths of scapula, humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpus with the lengths of their ossified parts through the 7th – 15th weeks of fetus age, showed presence of significant differences in the average of these measurements among most of studied weeks. Also there was a significant differences in the average of relative increase in the total length and length of ossified part of diaphysis of studied bones during the 7th week in comparison to the same average in the other studied weeks (8th-15th week of indigenous sheep fetuses age.

  11. Prenatal Development of Interlimb Motor Learning in the Rat Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott R.; Kleven, Gale A.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of sensory feedback in the early ontogeny of motor coordination remains a topic of speculation and debate. On E20 of gestation (the 20th day after conception, 2 days before birth), rat fetuses can alter interlimb coordination after a period of training with an interlimb yoke, which constrains limb movement and promotes synchronized,…

  12. Outcome of fetuses with enlarged nuchal translucency and normal karyotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilardo, C. M.; Pajkrt, E.; de Graaf, I.; Mol, B. W.; Bleker, O. P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nuchal translucency measurements and outcome of pregnancy with special regard to fetuses with an enlarged nuchal translucency and a normal karyotype. Fetal nuchal translucency measurements were performed on consecutive mothers attending

  13. Campylobacter fetus ssp jejuni en patología humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Echeverri

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos, como los Rotovirus y el Compylobocter fetus ssp jejuni reconocidos y estudiados recientemente, han llegado a ocupar un lugar preponderante en el grupo de enteropatógenos considerados como problema en salud pública.

  14. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis adhesion to MDBK cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiapparrone, María L; Morán, Pedro E; Echevarría, Hilda M; Soto, Pedro; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Catena, María

    2014-01-01

    ..., adhesion, chemotaxis or tissue tropism 4 . Campylobacter fetus is highly adapted to mucosal surfaces. Bacterial adhesion is an important initial step in infection. Pathogens use surface-located adhesins to interact with specific host cell receptors. Although some bacterial structures involved in the adhesion process are still unknown, there is evidence that ...

  15. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Friend's Email: Submit Cancel Close Email Share Dialog × Print NICHD Archive Note: Information on this page was accurate at the time of publication. This page is no longer being updated. Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Wednesday, March 9, 2011 ...

  16. Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine and Clomipramine on Rat Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMA Nabavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy; therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividing 42 pregnant rats to several case and control groups, we injected different doses of caffeine and clomipramine to the animals. All the injections were performed on the eighth until the 15th day of pregnancy. We removed the fetuses on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied the morphological features and apparent anomalies of the fetuses macroscopically. Results: We found a significant rate of mortality, apparent anomalies, abnormal torsion, shrinkage of skin and subcutaneous bleeding in fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or a combination of caffeine and clomipramine. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant increase (P?0.001 in teratogenicity of high doses of caffeine and its combination with clomipramine. Conclusion: This study implies simultaneous intake of high amounts of caffeine and clomipramine lead to teratogenicity. We recommend pregnant women to avoid uncontrolled consumption of foods that contain caffeine or drugs that contain high amounts of this substance. They should not also take clomipramine with caffeine in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  17. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas L; Schepens-Franke, A N; van Asten, J J A; Bosboom, D G H; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K; Kozicz, T L; Ruiter, D J; Oostra, R-J; Klein, W M

    2017-06-01

    To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are regularly considered as "morbid cabinets". Detailed dysmorphological information concerning the exhibited specimens is often lacking. Moreover, fetuses with severe and complex congenital anomalies are frequently diagnosed incompletely, incorrectly or not at all. In order to verify diagnoses and to enrich their educational and scientific value, we imaged 41 out of the 72 teratological specimens present in the collection of our Anatomy and Pathology Museum in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Additionally, contemporary dysmorphological insights and 3D models are implemented in the teratology education of medical students and residents. Full-term teratological fetuses have become increasingly rare and deserve a prominent place in every anatomical museum; they are suitable for contemporary teratological research and education. Modern radiological techniques markedly enhance their scientific and didactic value. • To explore the scientific and educational potential of institutionalised teratological collections • To understand the additional value of radiological imaging in diagnosing teratological specimens • To learn about the specific settings of MRI parameters when scanning fixed specimens • To recognise specific internal dysmorphology in several congenital anomalies.

  18. Sonographically determined anomalies and outcome in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); W.R. Bhaggoe (W.); M.J.E. Kristelijn (M. J E); T.E. Cohen-Overbeek (Titia); N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); H. Brandenburg (Helen); F.J. Los

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStructural pathology and outcome were studied in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities were established in 158 (93 per cent) cases, of which 110 (71 per cent) represented trisomies, 30 (18 per cent) Turner syndrome, and 18 (11 per cent) triploidy.

  19. Prenatal Sonographic Features of Fetuses in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful tool for detecting structural abnormalities in fetuses in trisomy 13 pregnancies. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal sonographic features of trisomy 13 in the second and third trimesters, including holoprosencephaly, brachycephaly, microcephaly, Dandy-Walker complex and posterior fossa abnormalities, ventriculomegaly, neural tube defects, facial cleft, and micrognathia.

  20. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu

    2018-02-15

    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  1. Female fetuses are more reactive when mother eats chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilli, Andrea L; Lorenzi, Sara; Buscicchio, Giorgia; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Mazzanti, Laura; Emanuelli, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze whether there is a gender difference in the effects of maternal chocolate ingestion (80% cocoa) on the fetus, as expressed by the fetal heart rate (FHR). One hundred pregnant women with uncomplicated term gestation, matched for age and parity, underwent computerized FHR recording before and after eating 30 g of 80% cocoa chocolate; 46 carried a male fetus, and 54 carried a female. Computerized cardiotocography parameters (baseline FHR in beats per minute, number of contractions/hour, fetal movements/hour, accelerations of at least 15 bpm for 15 s, episodes of high variation/min and short-term variation in ms) were expressed as the mean and SD. We calculated the difference before and after maternal chocolate eating both in male and female fetuses and then compared the gender differences in the FHR variation. Statistical significance was set at p chocolate ingestion. The percent variation of the movements (101.7 ± 89.23 males versus 252.0 ± 297.6 females; p = 0.002), accelerations (70.90 ± 46.98 males versus 153.3 ± 178.5 females; p = 0.004) and short-term FHR variation (21.47 ± 18.73 males versus 37.35 ± 27.46 females; p = 0.002) increased to a greater degree in the female fetuses than in the males. The maternal ingestion of dark chocolate induces much more reactivity in female fetuses than in males. This finding supports the existence of an innate gender difference for the effects of chocolate, present even since the fetal period.

  2. Myocardial tissue Doppler velocities in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himesh V Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI is a sensitive index of myocardial function. Its role in the fetus has not been extensively evaluated. Objective: To compare myocardial tissue Doppler velocities in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS to those of normal fetuses (matched for gestational age. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at 2 large perinatal centers (2003-2007. Fetuses with HLHS ( n = 13 were compared with normal fetuses ( n = 207 in 5 gestational age groups. TDI data included peak systolic (s′, peak early (e′, and late diastolic velocities (a′. Linear regression was used to compare TDI parameters in fetuses with HLHS to normal fetuses matched for gestational age. Results: Fetuses with HLHS had significantly reduced lateral tricuspid annular e′ as compared to normal fetuses. Both normal fetuses and those with HLHS had linear increase in TDI velocities with advancing gestational age. Conclusions: TDI velocities are abnormal in fetuses with HLHS. TDI can be useful in serial follow-up of cardiac function in fetuses with HLHS.

  3. Genome-wide microRNA expression profiling in placentas of fetuses with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J H; Kim, D J; Lee, D E; Han, J Y; Chung, J H; Ahn, H K; Lee, S W; Lim, D H; Lee, Y S; Park, S Y; Ryu, H M

    2015-03-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common aneuploidy, caused by an extra copy of all or part of chromosome 21 (chr21). Differential microRNA (miRNA) expression is involved in many human diseases including DS. However, the genome-wide changes in miRNA expression in DS fetal placentas have yet to be determined, and the function of these changes is also unclear. We profiled genome-wide miRNA expression in placenta samples from euploid or DS fetuses by using microarray technology and predicted the functions of differentially expressed miRNAs using bioinformatics tools. Thirty-four miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in the DS placenta compared with the normal placenta (16 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated). However, expression of chr21-derived miRNAs did not change. Predicted target genes included 7434 genes targeted by up-regulated miRNAs and 6071 genes targeted by down-regulated miRNAs. Seventy-six of these target genes were located on chr21 (10 genes controlled by down-regulated miRNAs and 34 genes by up-regulated miRNAs, and 32 genes by both). Target genes on chr21 were significantly associated with DS and DS-related disorders, such as mental retardation, neurobehavioral manifestations, and congenital abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study to comprehensively survey placental miRNAs in DS fetuses. Our results provide new insight into miRNA expression in placentas of fetuses with DS. Additionally, our findings indicate that the differentially expressed miRNAs in the DS placenta may potentially affect various pathways related to DS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Autologous Transplantation of Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Sheep Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S W Steven; Bollini, Sveva; Nader, Khalil Abi; Gastaldello, Annalisa; Mehta, Vedanta; Filppi, Elisa; Cananzi, Mara; Gaspar, H Bobby; Qasim, Waseem; De Coppi, Paolo; David, Anna L

    2016-03-01

    Long-term engraftment and phenotype correction has been difficult to achieve in humans after in utero stem cell transplantation mainly because of allogeneic rejection. Autologous cells could be obtained during gestation from the amniotic fluid with minimal risk for the fetus and the mother. Using a sheep model, we explored the possibility of using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) for autologous in utero stem cell/gene therapy. We collected amniotic fluid (AF) under ultrasound-guided amniocentesis in early gestation pregnant sheep ( n = 9, 58 days of gestation, term = 145 days). AFMSCs were isolated and expanded in all sampled fetal sheep. Those cells were transduced using an HIV vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) with 63.2% (range 38.3-96.2%) transduction efficiency rate. After expansion, transduced AFMSCs were injected into the peritoneal cavity of each donor fetal sheep at 76 days under ultrasound guidance. One ewe miscarried twin fetuses after amniocentesis. Intraperitoneal injection was successful in the remaining 7 fetal sheep giving a 78% survival for the full procedure. Tissues were sampled at postmortem examination 2 weeks later. PCR analysis detected GFP-positive cells in fetal tissues including liver, heart, placenta, membrane, umbilical cord, adrenal gland, and muscle. GFP protein was detected in these tissues by Western blotting and further confirmed by cytofluorimetric and immunofluorescence analyses. This is the first demonstration of autologous stem cell transplantation in the fetus using AFMSCs. Autologous cells derived from AF showed widespread organ migration and could offer an alternative way to ameliorate prenatal congenital disease.

  5. Embryonic thymic development in fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Agreste

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During fetal life, and during the neonatal period, the thymus is a very important immune organ, and is the largest lymphatic organ, which exhibits high lymphopoietic activity as a precursor of lymphopoiesis. Morphological studies on the development of the thymus are rare and only include general information. Given the above, this study aimed to characterize the morphological development of the thymus of embryos and fetuses of domestic cats (Felis domesticus, from natural pregnancy, using macroscopic dissection techniques and light microscopy. The thymus of the cats was pale pink and was resting in the region of the cranial mediastinum, medially to the lungs and dorsally to the base of the heart. Histologically, two distinct regions were observed (cortical and medullar. The medullary region had reticular epithelial cells with large nuclei and dendritic extensions. The fetuses had exponential growth and were more pronounced starting on the 35th day of gestation.

  6. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of renal cystic diseases of the fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Hong, Sung Ran [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The renal cystic diseases of the fetus consist of variable types of multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney, obstructive cystic renal dysplasia, simple renal cyst, medullary cystic disease, and various syndromes with associated cystic renal diseases. Prenatal US findings of renal cystic diseases were compared and analyzed with the pathologic and postnatal US findings to establish the differential points of renal cystic diseases.

  7. Quantification of maceration changes using post mortem MRI in fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    MONTALDO, P; Addison, S.; Oliveira, V; Lally, PJ; Taylor, AM; Sebire, NJ; Thayyil, S.; Arthurs, OJ

    2016-01-01

    Background Post mortem imaging is playing an increasingly important role in perinatal autopsy, and correct interpretation of imaging changes is paramount. This is particularly important following intra-uterine fetal death, where there may be fetal maceration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any changes seen on a whole body fetal post mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) correspond to maceration at conventional autopsy. Methods We performed pre-autopsy PMMR in 75 fetuses u...

  8. [Influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M Q; Wang, Z J; Hou, K Z

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus in pregnant women. A total of 4 286 pregnant women, who received prenatal examination in our hospital from January 2013 to October 2015, were selected as study subjects. The incidence of hypothyroidism and the influence on pregnancy outcomes and fetus were investigated. In 4 286 pregnant women surveyed, 209 hypothyroidism cases were detected(4.9%), including 85 clinical hypothyroidism cases and 124 subclinical hypothyroidism cases. In health group, the premature delivery rate was 1.0%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(6.5%), the differences were significant(χ(2)= 38.884, Phypothyroidism group(18.8%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.7%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=30.949, Phypothyroidism group(14.1%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(4.8%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=50.593, Phypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(5.6%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=19.257, Phypothyroidism group(9.25 ± 0.45)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.28 ± 0.44), the differences were significant(t=8.823, PHypothyroidism during pregnancy has adverse influences on pregnancy outcome and fetus, and it is necessary to strengthen the hypothyroidism detection in pregnant women for the early treatment.

  9. Fetuses with single umbilical artery: analysis of 45 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, B; Dane, C; Kiray, M; Cetin, A; Yayla, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze cases and determine the clinical significance of a prenatally detected single umbilical artery (SUA) in our population. All second and third trimester sonographic examinations carried out between January 2004 and September 2007 in our perinatology unit were reviewed. The postnatal results of the fetuses with SUA were obtained from the medical records and the patients. From a total of 5,620 pregnant patients who were examined by ultrasound (US) scan between 15-36 weeks, a single umbilical artery was found in 45 cases, representing an incidence of 0.8%. Of these, 20 (45%) also presented with other malformations. There were six neonatal deaths, one fetal demise, and six terminations of pregnancy due to severe malformations in this group. Three cases with associated anomalies underwent surgery and one case required intensive care in the neonatal period. The only cytogenetic abnormality was trisomy 18 in one case. Six of 45 fetuses (13%) with single umbilical arteries had abnormal echocardiographic findings. In two of the fetuses associated anomalies (cleft palate and esophageal atresia) were detected after birth. In pregnancies without associated anomalies no aneuploidy was found and they were completely normal at birth and during the neonatal period. Scanning the umbilical cord is one of the essential parts of US examination. As the rate of cardiac malformations seen with single umbilical arteries is high, fetal echocardiography should be performed in suspected cases. The newborn should be reexamined immediately after birth due to the possibility of undetected anomalies.

  10. Ultrafast MR imaging of the normal posterior fossa in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazzone, M M; Hubbard, A M; Bilaniuk, L T; Harty, M P; Meyer, J S; Zimmerman, R A; Mahboubi, S

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if a standard imaging protocol using ultrafast MR sequences could adequately reveal normal posterior fossa anatomy in fetuses and, if so, to document a template on MR imaging for normal posterior fossa development. A retrospective review found 66 MR imaging studies of 63 fetuses, 16-39 weeks' gestation age (mean, 25 weeks' gestation), who were referred between June 1996 and May 1999 for evaluation of non-central nervous system anomalies revealed on prenatal sonography. All fetuses had normal brains and spines on prenatal sonography. The standard MR imaging protocol included axial, sagittal, and coronal half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE); sagittal and coronal two-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH); and axial turbo T1-weighted FLASH images through the fetal brain. Structures that we analyzed were the fourth ventricle, the cisterna magna, the vermis, the cerebellar hemispheres, and the brainstem. Using the HASTE sequences, we documented gestational age-specific signal intensity changes in the cerebellar hemispheres and the brainstem. The posterior fossa anatomy was sufficiently well defined to exclude abnormalities of the fourth ventricle and cerebellar vermis in all cases. Because of high T2-weighting, good contrast enhancement, and good signal-to-noise ratios, HASTE images provided the best anatomic definition of the posterior fossa. Normal posterior fossa anatomy can be adequately shown on ultrafast MR images, which can be helpful when prenatal sonography is equivocal.

  11. First trimester maternal serum PAPP-A, beta-hCG and ADAM12 in prediction of small-for-gestational-age fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Kasper; Larsen, Torben; Krebs, Lone

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the ability of predicting fetuses being small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at delivery with the maternal serum markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12) in first...

  12. A PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Nagita, Akira; Misawa, Naoaki; Matsuda, Motoo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2014-05-01

    Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of human gastrointestinal diseases, other Campylobacter species are also involved in human and animal infections. In this study, we developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis. Previously designed common primers, which can amplify the cdtB gene of C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus, were used for detecting seven Campylobacter species and differentiating between them by restriction digestion. The PCR-RFLP assay was validated with 277 strains, including 35 C. jejuni, 19 C. coli, 20 C. fetus, 24 C. hyointestinalis, 13 C. lari, 2 C. helveticus, 22 C. upsaliensis, 3 other Campylobacter spp. and 17 other species associated with human diseases. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay were 100 % except for C. hyointestinalis (88 % sensitivity). Furthermore, the PCR-RFLP assay successfully detected and differentiated C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus in clinical and animal samples. The results indicate that the PCR-RFLP assay is useful for the detection and differentiation of seven Campylobacter species important for human and animal diseases.

  13. Inconsistency of phenotypic and genomic characteristics of Campylobacter fetus subspecies requires reevaluation of current diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Rijnsburger, Martine; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-12-01

    Classifications of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis were first described in 1959 and were based on the source of isolation (intestinal versus genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in the genital tract of cows. Two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and H2S production) were described to differentiate the subspecies. Multiple molecular assays have been applied to differentiate the C. fetus subspecies, but none of these tests is consistent with the phenotypic identification methods. In this study, we defined the core genome and accessory genes of C. fetus, which are based on the closed genomes of five C. fetus strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the core genomes of 23 C. fetus strains of the two subspecies showed a division into two clusters. The phylogenetic core genome clusters were not consistent with the phenotypic classifications of the C. fetus subspecies. However, they were consistent with the molecular characteristics of the strains, which were determined by multilocus sequence typing, sap typing, and the presence/absence of insertion sequences and a type I restriction modification system. The similarity of the genome characteristics of three of the phenotypically defined C. fetus subsp. fetus strains to C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains, when considering the core genome and accessory genes, requires a critical evaluation of the clinical relevance of C. fetus subspecies identification by phenotypic assays. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Survival of the fetus: fetal B and T cell receptor repertoire development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechavi, Erez; Somech, Raz

    2017-11-01

    A mature and diverse T and B cell receptor repertoire is a prerequisite for immunocompetence. In light of its increased susceptibility to infection, the human fetus has long been considered deficient in this regard. However, data accumulated since the 1990s and in earnest in the past couple of years paints a more complicated picture. As we describe in this review, mechanisms responsible for generating a diverse receptor repertoire, such as somatic recombination, class switch recombination, and somatic hypermutation, are all operational to surprising extents in the growing fetus. The composition of the fetal repertoire differs from that of adults, with preferential usage of certain variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments and a shorter complementarity determining (CDR3) region, primarily due to decreased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) expression. Both T and B cell receptor repertoires are extremely diverse by the end of the second trimester, and in the case of T cells, are capable of responding to an invading pathogen with in utero clonal expansion. Thus, it would appear as though the T and B cell receptor repertoires are not a hindrance towards immunocompetence of the newborn. Our improved understanding of fetal receptor repertoire development is already bearing fruit in the early diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and may help clarify the pathogenesis of congenital infections, recurrent abortions, and autoimmune disorders in the near future.

  15. The fetus, the "potential child," and the ethical obligations of obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Marshall, Mary Faith; Liaschenko, Joan

    2014-05-01

    The right of pregnant women to refuse obstetric interventions is an established tenet of obstetric ethics. However, that does not mean that fetal considerations are inconsequential. Although respect for negative autonomy is largely a settled issue, what is less clear is the degree to which a pregnant woman's affirmative autonomy (the right to demand) should be controlling. We discuss the ethical basis for deciding when a pregnant woman's affirmative autonomy should be decisive. We focus on the ethical consequences when a fetus is considered a "potential child" because of a woman's decision to continue a pregnancy. Her intention determines the relevance and nature of the interests of the future child. Although fetal interests may temporally approach those of a born child, they are, in all cases, still circumscribed by the de facto circumstance of the potential child, ie, the child cannot be treated without treating the mother. That treatment would implicate the pregnant woman's right to bodily integrity. This right is so fundamental to our conception of autonomy that its trespass should give serious pause to all who respect basic human dignity. Accordingly, the future interests of a child should not constrain a pregnant woman's right of negative autonomy (the right to refuse any intervention intended for the putative benefit of the fetus or herself). However, the interests of the potential child may factor into considerations of affirmative autonomy and, in parallel, on a physician's right to refuse a particular intervention or plan of care.

  16. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-16

    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS g.kg(-1), respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism based identification of genetic markers and novel PCR assay for differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, van M.A.P.; Simons, G.; Graaf-van Bloois, van der L.; Putten, van J.P.; Rombout, J.; Wesley, I.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Differentiation of Campylobacter fetus into C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff) and C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is important for both clinical and economic reasons. In the past, several molecular typing methods have been used for differentiation, including amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).

  18. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  19. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for polymerase chain ...

  20. Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local governments are principally established for development at the grassroots and they must be structured in a manner that makes them viable and capable of achieving this purpose. The objective of this comment is to appraise the current local government structure under the Nigerian constitutional framework with a view ...

  1. Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic Trypanosoma vivax in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic. Trypanosoma vivax in vitro and in vivo. O. A. Idowu, A. B. Idowu, C. F. Mafiana and S. O. Sam-Wobo*. Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Accepted 13 April, 2006. Trypanosoma vivax was ...

  2. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for ...

  3. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  4. [The human meaning of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J

    1989-01-01

    Technical development has produced a curious phenomenon, the ebbing of the moral imperative of reproduction. After 2000 years of fight against diseases and death, the respect for life has declined threatening the destruction of Western civilization and family by destroying unborn babies via abortion. Artificial in vitro experimentation can potentially lead to elimination of very young, old, or sick people. Dr. Bernard Nathanson in his book "Aborting America" called abortion infanticide, one of the most abominable crimes. The beginning of life start at conception as shown by recent extra-corporal, in vitro fertilization resulting in a viable fetus, as in the case of Luisa Brown who was conceived in a tube by Drs. Edwards' and Steptoe's technique. The creation of human embryo banks and experimentation on human embryos amount to biological pronography. Respect for the human species and reproduction should manifest itself in the fight against sterility and genetic diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, Down's syndrome, and Huntington's chorea. The fight against AIDS and the elimination of the risk of contracting it by contaminated blood is also a medical priority. In the end, the question still remains: can science itself save the world without moral imperatives, is not the dilemma of Faust and the vileness of Mephistopheles conjured with the nuclear experience and human experimentation.

  5. The medico-legal investigation of abandoned fetuses and newborns--a review of cases admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit-Prinsloo, L; Pickles, C; Smith, Z; Jordaan, J; Saayman, G

    2016-03-01

    There is a dearth of literature on the extent of fetal or newborn abandonment or "dumping" and the medico-legal investigation procedures these cases require. This is despite the fact that these occurrences are a worldwide phenomenon and by definition involve criminal law concerns such as illegal abortion, concealment of birth, murder, or neonaticide, depending on the country concerned. This article contributes to current literature in both respects and provides a retrospective case audit for the period 2004-2008 pertaining to all abandoned newborns and fetuses admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory (PMLL) in South Africa. Demographic details, scope, and nature of the medico-legal investigation as well as formulation of cause of death were recorded. A total of 289 cases were identified for inclusion in this study, 57% of which were considered to have been non-viable fetuses, while 45 of the viable fetuses were deemed to have been stillborn. These instances involve the crimes of concealment of birth and at times illegal abortion, yet prosecution of these cases are relatively unheard of. Signs of live birth were identified in 38 of the cases in the study. Of these infants, 9 were deemed to have died from injuries they have sustained, and in a further 9 cases, no anatomical cause of death could be identified. Homicidal cases should be brought in cases where death ensued as a result of abandonment; however, it is not known how many cases were prosecuted. A comparatively large number of cases were found to have been admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. This is alarming because South African abortion laws are liberal and services are free at point of access in the public health care sector. A substantial percentage of cases of abandoned infants were found to have shown signs of life after birth implying a homicidal manner of death or death by abandonment, but it seems these cases are merely shelved.

  6. Fluid area measurements in the posterior fossa at 11-13 weeks in normal fetuses and fetuses with open spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Katrin; Heling, Kai Sven; Chaoui, Rabih

    2015-01-01

    To measure the area of the intracranial translucency (IT) (syn: 4th ventricle) and the future cisterna magna (CM) in normal fetuses and to compare with fetuses with open spina bifida. In the midsagittal plane of the face of 220 fetuses between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation, the areas of the IT and CM were measured and the sum, defined as the posterior fossa fluid (PFF) area was calculated. Reference ranges were constructed in relation to the crown-rump length. The study group consisted of 21 fetuses with open spina bifida and showed in all cases a single pocket of fluid in the posterior fossa. Fetuses with no fluid in the fossa were excluded. This PFF-area was measured and compared with the reference range of the IT-area and the PFF-area of normal fetuses and Z-scores were calculated. In normal fetuses, a significant increase of the IT-, the CM- and the PFF-area was found as a sign of the expanding posterior fossa. The mean PFF-area increased from 8.55 to 29.72 mm(2) in the observation period. Fetuses with open spina bifida had reduced fluid in the posterior fossa with values ranging between 2.39 and 5.08 mm(2) and significantly lower Z-scores. Fetuses with open spina bifida have an abnormally small posterior fossa at 11-13 weeks' and in cases where the cerebrospinal fluid is still present, the fluid area in the midsagittal plane is reduced when compared to normal fetuses. Area fluid assessment can be an additional useful measurement in suspicious cases for open spina bifida in early gestation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Mandibular dimensions and growth in 11-to 26-week-old Danish fetuses studied by 3D ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, N.V.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Sundberg, K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present normative data on prenatal mandibular morphology and growth. Material and Methods Fifty-four normal fetuses (Danish Caucasian) were included in the study (gestational age: 11-26 weeks). Fetuses were scanned using a GE Voluson 730 Expert 3D scanner. Scans were visualized...... and analyzed using GE 4DVIEW (TM) software. Mandibular dimensions [base length (B), ramus height (H), and total length (L)] and the mandibular angle (phi) were measured, and the mandibular index was calculated. Method error was estimated by duplicate measurements. Growth was calculated by regressing measured.......1 +/- 3.2 mm; phi = 135 +/- 6.0 degrees. A linear model described growth (B-g/H-g/L-g/phi(g)) giving B-g = 1.2; H-g = 0.64; L = 1.7 min/week; phi(g) = -0.9 degrees/week. Conclusion Normative 3D data values for the human mandible in 11- to 26-week-old fetuses were presented. All measured mandibular...

  8. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGICAL ROLE OF VIBRIO FETUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Little, R B; Taylor, M S

    1920-11-30

    The data bearing on these three cases are quite sufficient to rule out Bacillus abortus as the agent. Not only the cultures and guinea pig tests of fetal tissues and contents of the digestive tract, but also the agglutination and guinea pig tests of the milk, were negative. The same is true of the agglutination tests of the blood serum. Only in one case was the placenta obtained in part. The stained films and the sections from various regions showed no abortion bacilli. Guinea pig tests of placental tissue were negative for Bacillus abortus. On the other hand) minute organisms resembling vibrios were detected in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells within capillaries in the edematous subchorionic tissue. Subsequently the agglutination titer of the blood serum of one of these cases rose to a level indicating infection with Bacillus abortus during the second pregnancy. The peculiar distribution of abortions due to Vibrio fetus among older cows and heifers in this herd, resulting at first in cases among older cows and latterly passing to young stock, may be explained by certain occurrences in the herd itself. It may be assumed that the infection was originally brought in by purchased cows. The young stock is kept segregated from these in a special barn, and when 6 months old it is pastured on outlying farms until returned in an advanced stage of pregnancy. The heifers during the first pregnancy were thus kept away from vibrio carriers until after the first calf was born. In June and July, 1919, 55 older cows, purchased and native, were placed on the young stock pasture. The three cases of abortion in heifers due to Vibrio fetus occurred October 24, November 9, and December 2, 1919. The age and condition of the fetuses accord very well with the assumption that Vibrio fetus was introduced among the young stock in June or July of the same year. The information gathered thus far concerning vibrionic abortion in this herd enables us to formulate a tentative hypothesis

  9. Does lung development differ in male and female fetuses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Noreen; Sozo, Foula; Harding, Richard; De Matteo, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Preterm male infants have a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory insufficiency than females of the same gestational age. This male disadvantage could be due to differences in lung architecture; however, few studies have compared lung architecture in male and female fetuses during late gestation. Our principal objectives were to compare the morphology of the fetal lung and the maturity of the surfactant system in preterm male and female fetuses. Lungs from male (n = 9) and female (n = 11) fetal sheep were collected at 0.9 of term (131 days of the 145-day gestation) for morphological and molecular analyses. In separate groups, tracheal liquid was obtained from male (n = 9) and female (n = 9) fetuses at 0.9 of term for determination of surfactant phospholipid composition. We found no sex-related differences in body weight, lung weight, right lung volume, lung tissue and airspace fractions, mean linear intercept, septal crest density, septal thickness, the proportion of proliferating and apoptotic cells, and the percentages of collagen or elastin. The gene expression of surfactant protein -A, -B, -C, and -D and tropoelastin was similar between sexes. There were no differences in the proportion of the major phospholipid classes in the tracheal liquid between sexes; however there was a significantly higher percentage of the phospholipid species phosphatidylinositol 38:5 in males. The greater morbidity and mortality in preterm male lambs do not appear to be related to differences in lung structure or surfactant phospholipid synthesis before birth, but may relate to physiological adaptation to air-breathing at birth.

  10. Prenatal Anogenital Distance Is Shorter in Fetuses With Hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yinon; Perlman, Sharon; Kivilevitch, Zvi; Messing, Baruch; Achiron, Reuven

    2017-01-01

    Recent research provides evidence that anogenital distance may serve as a novel metric to assess reproductive potential in men. In children, a shorter anogenital distance was linked with cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and micropenis. Scarce data exist in the literature regarding anogenital distance measurement in the fetus. The aim of our study was to assess whether intrauterine measurement of fetal anogenital distance could assist in the differential diagnosis of male genital anomalies. Anogenital distance was prospectively measured in all cases referred for suspected isolated abnormal male genitalia. Final diagnoses, confirmed by a pediatric urologist, were compared with anogenital distance prenatal measurements. Fifty-two cases were referred for evaluation because of suspected male external genital malformation during a 12-month period. Cases with normal-appearing genitalia, associated major malformations, and early severe fetal growth restriction were excluded from the study. Postnatal examination revealed 14 cases of hypospadias in varying severity and 8 cases of a buried penis. All fetuses with hypospadias had an anogenital distance measurement below the fifth percentile. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between the normal mean anogenital distance for gestational age versus those with hypospadias (mean ± SD, 16.90 ± 4.08 and 11.68 ± 3.31 mm, respectively; P = .001). No significant difference was found between the normal mean anogenital distance for gestational age versus those with a buried penis (18.85 ± 2.76 and 19.46 ± 3.41 mm; P = .700). Fetuses with hypospadias have a statistically significant shorter anogenital distance compared with the general population. Therefore, anogenital distance may serve as a complementary objective sonographic parameter in the prenatal assessment and counseling of male external genital anomalies. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. [Effects of tobacco smoke on fetus and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    What is caused on fetus and children by parental smoking? Parental smoking, especially maternal smoking cause oral cleft which makes baby difficult to suck milk. It causes not only respiratory illness such as asthma bronchialis but also fire accident or burn by child abuse. These things decrease quality of life of children. Low birth weight caused by parental smoking is the major risk factor of lifestyle-related diseases, according to DOHaD hypothesis. Moreover, parental smoking drive children active smokers. If children start to smoke, they will get bad lifestyle led to metabolic syndrome. So it is important not to make children start the first smoking.

  12. [Vaginal and postpregnancy inflamations, risks of their treatment for fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaková, E; Hubicková Heringová, L

    2008-10-01

    Paper describes risks of gynaecological inflamations and their treatment for the successful course of pregnancy. Review. Czech Teratology Information Service, 3. LF UK, Praha. The article refers the most common types of vaginal inflamation and gives recommendation for the appropriate treatment that is safe for embryo or fetus according to advice of Teratology Information Service. Vaginal inflamation during pregnancy represents risks of abortion, miscarriage or prematurity. For the treatment, we have to take in consideration the age of pregnancy and we should use the drugs, that are safe during this period. It is necessary always to compare risks resulting from disorder and from drugs used.

  13. Prenatal Sonographic Features of Fetuses in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies (I

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ultrasound is a powerful tool for detecting structural abnormalities in fetuses in trisomy 13 pregnancies. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal sonographic features of trisomy 13, including the major structural abnormalities observed during the first trimester (omphalocele, holoprosencephaly, megacystis and congenital heart defects, the frequencies of second- and third-trimester sonographic features reported in previous studies, and the subtle sonographic findings observed during the second trimester (echogenic intra- cardiac foci, echogenic bowel, single umbilical artery, choroid plexus cysts and intrauterine growth restriction.

  14. Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency and normal karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Li, Ru; Fu, Fang; Zhang, Yongling; Li, Dongzhi; Liao, Can

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and normal karyotype. Total of 296 fetuses with increased NT (≥3.0 mm) were tested by conventional karyotyping. When cytogenetic analysis showed normal chromosome, the pregnancies were then consulted for array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis and received subsequent morphology scan between 20 and 24 weeks gestation. Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities were assessed and compared between the fetuses with and without structural defects. Chromosomal abnormality was identified in 19.9% (59/296) fetuses. Two hundred and twenty samples were tested by array CGH. Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9.1% (20/220) fetuses. For the fetuses with abnormal morphology scan, the detection rate of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities was higher than those with normal morphology scan (26.9% versus 6.7%, p karyotype, especially when the structural defects were found at second or third trimester.

  15. Comparing levocardia and dextrocardia in fetuses with heterotaxy syndrome: prenatal features, clinical significance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Shi, Yifan; Zeng, Shi; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhou, Jia; Yuan, Hongxia; Wang, Lin; Shi, Weiyuan; Zhou, Qichang

    2017-11-23

    To investigate the differences in cardiovascular disease, extracardiac anomalies and outcomes between fetuses with levocardia and dextrocardia. Clinical demographics, prenatal features, postnatal characteristics and the outcomes of fetuses with levocardia or dextrocardia were recorded and analyzed. Sixty-five fetuses with dextrocardia and thirty-eight fetuses with levocardia were enrolled. Right ventricle outlet obstruction, atrioventricular septal defect and intestinal malrotation were common in both groups. Univentricular physiology, transposition of the great arteries and esophageal atresia were more frequent in fetuses with levocardia, whereas abnormal pulmonary venous connection, double outlet of right ventricle, left ventricle outlet obstruction and brain abnormalities were more frequent in the dextrocardia group. The accuracy of evaluating cardiac malformations was high, but the sensitivity in assessing extracardiac abnormalities was low. Although the disorders have certain overlapping features, there are several differences between fetuses with levocardia and dextrocardia. These findings might improve patient counseling and perinatal management.

  16. [Role of ST-analysis of fetal ECG in intrapartal fetus monitoring with presumed growth retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruban, L; Janků, P; Zahradnícková, J; Kurecová, B; Roztocil, A; Kachlík, P; Kucera, M; Jelenek, G

    2006-07-01

    Evaluation of the role of ST analysis of fetus ECG for early detection of developing acute hypoxia in the course of delivery of fetuses with presumed growth retardation. A comparison with present way of intrapartal fetus monitoring. Impact on the number of surgical births for indications of threatening fetus hypoxia. Influence of the method on perinatal results and postnatal adaptation of the newborns. A prospective study. Gynecology-Obstetrics Clinic, Masaryk University and Teaching Hospital Brno. Forty seven women with a growth retardation of the fetus diagnosed before delivery who gave birth in the Teaching Hospital in Brno during 2003-2005 and intrapartal ST analysis of fetus ECG was subsequently used, were enrolled into this prospective study (group A). The control group consisted of 87 deliveries taking place in the same period of time and concerning women with fetuses suffering from growth retardation and monitored by standard methods (group B). The standard methods included cardiotocography (CTG), supplemented with pulse oximetry (IFPO) if needed. The diagnosis of intrauterine fetus growth retardation was established on the basis of the results of repeated prepartal ultrasound fetus biometry with estimation of the mass, which corresponded to a group below 10 percentile for the given gestational age. The numbers of vaginal deliveries and surgically treated delivery due to threatening fetus hypoxia (Cesarean section, forceps delivery) were recorded. The authors evaluated postpartal pH from umbilical artery, independently for the group of values of pH fetal ECG in the course of delivery of fetuses with presumed intrauterine growth retardation did not show any significant difference from the presently used methods (CTG supplemented with IFPO if needed). In using the method there was not any effect on the number of surgically treated deliveries for indications of threatening acute fetus hypoxia or perinatal results and postnatal adaptation of the newborns.

  17. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  18. Academic Pediatric Dentistry is a Rewarding, Financially Viable Career Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L

    2017-09-15

    Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.

  19. How Can We Prevent Violence Becoming a Viable Political Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Justino

    2009-01-01

    A basic issue that conflict analysis investigates is how non-peaceful ways of living and governing become viable political strategies. Macro-level studies provide some important insights but micro-level analysis is vital to understand the mechanisms that make violence possible. This briefing outlines some preliminary findings in this respect from MICROCON, a major research programme analysing violent conflict at the micro level. It also discusses their implications for policies aimed at preve...

  20. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL RISK POSED BY MEDICATIONS TO THE FETUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of evaluating potential risk posed by medications to the fetus during pregnancy. For this purpose various countries use classifications of medications broken down into risk categories during pregnancy. The most popular classification is US FDA classification, which identifies five categories of medications (А, В, С, D and Х depending on the degree of their embryotoxic and teratogenic side effect, which enables physicians to make informed choices in selecting pharmacotherapy during the entire gestational period. The article discusses possible specific fetal and neonatal disorders when administering medications in categories X and D. Medications in category D may be prescribed to pregnant women only in extreme situations. Administering medications in category X is absolutely inadvisable before and during pregnancy. Further research in this area makes it possible to improve the classification of medications by degree of their embryotoxic and teratogenic risk and address the issue of selecting safe medications during pregnancy. Key words: medications, gestational period, embryo, fetus, embryotoxic and teratogenic action, fetal and neonatal disorders. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:78-81

  1. On noninvasive assessment of acoustic fields acting on the fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonets, V. A.; Kazakov, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to verify a noninvasive technique for assessing the characteristics of acoustic fields in the audible range arising in the uterus under the action of maternal voice, external sounds, and vibrations. This problem is very important in view of actively developed methods for delivery of external sounds to the uterus: music, maternal voice recordings, sounds from outside the mother's body, etc., that supposedly support development of the fetus at the prenatal stage psychologically and cognitively. However, the parameters of acoustic signals have been neither measured nor normalized, which may be dangerous for the fetus and hinder actual assessment of their impact on fetal development. The authors show that at frequencies below 1 kHz, acoustic pressure in the uterus may be measured noninvasively using a hydrophone placed in a soft capsule filled with liquid. It was found that the acoustic field at frequencies up to 1 kHz arising in the uterus under the action of an external sound field has amplitude-frequency parameters close to those of the external field; i.e., the external field penetrates the uterus with hardly any difficulty.

  2. Engineering muscle tissue for the fetus: getting ready for a strong life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Joseph Christ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations frequently involve either skeletal, smooth or cardiac tissues. When large parts of those tissues are damaged, the repair of the malformations is challenged by the fact that so much autologous tissue is missing. Current treatments require the use of prostheses or other therapies and are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, affected children have generally good survival rates and mostly normal schooling. As such, new therapeutic modalities need to represent significant improvements with clear safety profiles. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technologies have the potential to dramatically improve the treatment of any disease or disorder involving a lack of viable tissue. With respect to congenital soft tissue anomalies, the development of, for example, implantable muscle constructs would provide not only the usual desired elasticity and contractile proprieties, but should also be able to grow with the fetus and/or in the postnatal life. Such an approach would eliminate the need for multiple surgeries. However, the more widespread clinical applications of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technologies require identification of the optimal indications, as well as further elucidation of the precise mechanisms and best methods (cells, scaffolds/biomaterials for achieving large functional tissue regeneration in those clinical indications. In short, despite some amazing scientific progress, significant safety and efficacy hurdles remain. However, the rapid preclinical advances in the field bode well for future applications. As such, translational researchers and clinicians alike need be informed and prepared to utilize these new techniques for the benefit of their patients, as soon as they are available. To this end, we review herein, the clinical need(s, potential applications, and the relevant preclinical studies that are currently guiding the field toward novel

  3. A rapid biosensor for viable B. anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumner, Antje J; Leonard, Barbara; McElwee, John; Montagna, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    A simple membrane-strip-based biosensor assay has been combined with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction for rapid (4 h) detection of a small number (ten) of viable B. anthracis spores. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from one of the anthrax toxin genes, the protective antigen ( pag), encoded on the toxin plasmid, pXO1, and thus provides high specificity toward B. anthracis. Previously, the anthrax toxins activator ( atxA) mRNA had been used in our laboratory for the development of a biosensor for the detection of a single B. anthracis spore within 12 h. Changing the target sequence to the pag mRNA provided the ability to shorten the overall assay time significantly. The vaccine strain of B. anthracis (Sterne strain) was used in all experiments. A 500-microL sample containing as few as ten spores was mixed with 500 microL growth medium and incubated for 30 min for spore germination and mRNA production. Thus, only spores that are viable were detected. Subsequently, RNA was extracted from lysed cells, selectively amplified using NASBA, and rapidly identified by the biosensor. While the biosensor assay requires only 15 min assay time, the overall process takes 4 h for detection of ten viable B. anthracis spores, and is shortened significantly if more spores are present. The biosensor is based on an oligonucleotide sandwich-hybridization assay format. It uses a membrane flow-through system with an immobilized DNA probe that hybridizes with the target sequence. Signal amplification is provided when the target sequence hybridizes to a second DNA probe that has been coupled to liposomes encapsulating the dye sulforhodamine B. The amount of liposomes captured in the detection zone can be read visually or quantified with a hand-held reflectometer. The biosensor can detect as little as 1 fmol target mRNA (1 nmol L(-1)). Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with 11 organisms tested, among them closely

  4. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  5. Progressive lesions of central nervous system in microcephalic fetuses with suspected congenital Zika virus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, M; Aquino, M; Pimentel, K; Cabral, R; Costa, G; Bastos, F; Brites, C

    2017-12-01

    To describe the pattern and progression of central nervous system (CNS) lesions in microcephalic fetuses with suspected Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. In this prospective study in Salvador, Brazil, we analyzed fetuses diagnosed with microcephaly and suspected ZIKV infection after a routine primary care ultrasound scan between July 2015 and February 2016 raised suspicion of fetal microcephaly. The pregnancies were followed with serial ultrasound scans until delivery at one of the three main referral centers for fetal abnormalities in Salvador, Brazil. Microcephaly was diagnosed when the head circumference was two or more SDs below the mean for gestational age and its relationship with ZIKV infection was defined according to the World Health Organization's criteria. All women were interviewed, to assess potential factors associated with fetal microcephaly. Serology test results for toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, rubella, syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were recorded, as were previous routine ultrasound results. Signs/symptoms of infection during the pregnancy were noted. Of 60 cases of suspected ZIKV-related fetal microcephaly seen during the study period, eight were excluded due to serological evidence of other congenital infections or major ultrasound chromosomal markers. In the remaining 52 fetuses, microcephaly was diagnosed between 19 and 40 (median, 27.7; interquartile range, 23.4-32.0) weeks of gestation. The main ultrasound findings were: ventriculomegaly (65.4% of cases), cerebral calcifications (44.2%) and posterior fossa abnormalities (32.7%). 9.6% presented with arthrogryposis as an associated finding. Microcephaly was an isolated finding in four cases (7.7%). While ventriculomegaly was progressive in 41.2% of cases with this finding, the velocity of head circumference increase decreased progressively in almost all cases. Exanthematic disease was present in the majority (86.5%) of the women, 67.3% presenting in the first trimester of

  6. The teratogenic effects of alprazolam intake on rat fetus

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    Takzare N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Alprazolam belongs to benzodiazepine family and is increasingly used these days by pregnant women. It should be noticed that alprazolam exposure during pregnancy may have teratogenic effects on the fetus. Till now, limited studies have been conducted on the teratogenic effect of alprazolam. In this study, teratogenicity of alprazolam intake during pregnancy and its effects on fetus development was investigated. "n"nMethods: About 20 virgin rats of known age and weight were selected. After being pregnant, they were divided into four groups which contained five animals in each group: Negative and positive control groups. The case group exposed to 1 to 6 mg/kg/day alprazolam. The fetuses were first studied macroscopically regarding anomalies, and then histologically and histochemically to inspect the defects of tissue organogenesis."n"nResults: Our results show that there was significant difference especially at the dose 6 mg/kg weight and length of the cases compared to the control group. It appeared that at the dose of 6 mg/kg/day, cleft lip and palates were seen in the animals. The highest anomalies of limbs were also seen at the dose of 6 mg/kg/day. The statistical results indicate that alprazolam intake during the second half of pregnancy can lead to irreversible anomalies."n"nConclusion: Our results indicate that alprazolam in doses higher than 4 mg/kg/day might cause teratogenic effect. It seems that benzodiazepine therapy among pregnant woman would be better to avoid during the

  7. Exposure to prenatal psychobiological stress exerts programming influences on the mother and her fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia P; Buss, Claudia; Glynn, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from a relatively small number of prospective studies indicates that exposure to prenatal stress profoundly influences the developing human fetus with consequences that persist into childhood and very likely forever. Maternal/fetal dyads are assessed at ∼20, ∼25, ∼31 and ∼36 weeks of gestation. Infant assessments begin 24 h after delivery with the collection of cortisol and behavioral responses to the painful stress of the heel-stick procedure and measures of neonatal neuromuscular maturity. Infant cognitive, neuromotor development, stress and emotional regulation are evaluated at 3, 6 12 and 24 months of age. Maternal psychosocial stress and demographic information is collected in parallel with infant assessments. Child neurodevelopment is assessed with cognitive tests, measures of adjustment and brain imaging between 5 and 8 years of age. Psychobiological markers of stress during pregnancy, especially early in gestation, result in delayed fetal maturation, disrupted emotional regulation and impaired cognitive performance during infancy and decreased brain volume in areas associated with learning and memory in 6- to 8-year-old children. We review findings from our projects that maternal endocrine alterations that accompany pregnancy and influence fetal/infant/child development are associated with decreased affective responses to stress, altered memory function and increased risk for postpartum depression. Our findings indicate that the mother and her fetus both are influenced by exposure to psychosocial and biological stress. The findings that fetal and maternal programming occur in parallel may have important implications for long-term child development and mother/child interactions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Autopsy and Postmortem Studies Are Concordant: Pathology of Zika Virus Infection Is Neurotropic in Fetuses and Infants With Microcephaly Following Transplacental Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David A

    2017-01-01

    -Pathology studies have been important in concluding that Zika virus infection occurring in pregnant women can result in vertical transmission of the agent from mother to fetus. Fetal and infant autopsies have provided crucial direct evidence that Zika virus can infect an unborn child, resulting in microcephaly, other malformations, and, in some cases, death. -To better understand the etiologic role and mechanism(s) of Zika virus in causing birth defects such as microcephaly, this communication analyzes the spectrum of clinical and autopsy studies reported from fetuses and infants who developed intrauterine Zika virus infection, and compares these findings with experimental data related to Zika virus infection. -Retrospective analysis of reported clinical, autopsy, pathology, and related postmortem studies from 9 fetuses and infants with intrauterine Zika virus infection and microcephaly. -All fetuses and infants examined demonstrated an overlapping spectrum of gross and microscopic neuropathologic abnormalities. Direct cytopathic effects of infection by the Zika virus were confined to the brain; in cases where other organs were evaluated, no direct viral effects were identified. -There is concordance of the spectrum of brain damage, reinforcing previous data indicating that the Zika virus has a strong predilection for cells of the fetal central nervous system following vertical transmission. The occurrence of additional congenital abnormalities suggests that intrauterine brain damage from Zika virus interferes with normal fetal development, resulting in fetal akinesia. Experimental in vitro and in vivo studies of Zika virus infection corroborate the human autopsy findings of neural specificity.

  9. A Fetus with Iniencephaly Delivered at the Third Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Cinar Tanriverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iniencephaly is an uncommon neural tube defect, having retroflexion of the head without a neck and severe distortion of the spine. Iniencephaly is classified into two groups, iniencephaly apertus (with encephalocele and iniencephaly clausus (without encephalocele. Incidence ranges from 0.1 to 10 in 10.000 pregnancies and it is seen more frequently in girls. Most of the fetuses with this defect die before birth or soon after birth, while those with the milder forms may live through childhood. Recurrence risk is around 1–5%. Family should be offered termination to reduce maternal risks and counseled for folic acid supplementation before the next planned pregnancy. Here we present a rare case of iniencephaly clausus which was diagnosed at 18th week of gestation by ultrasonography and delivered in the third trimester of pregnancy due to rejection of termination.

  10. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Vial, Yvan [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gengler, Carole [University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Pathology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: (1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and (2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. (orig.)

  11. Oral fetus-in-fetu: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen Toyin Abdulraheem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetus-in-fetu is a rare condition, less than 200 cases have been reported. Its embryopathogenesis is linked to a monozygotic, diamniotic parasitic twin. The presence of a calcified vertebral column and other body parts are key to the diagnosis, and differentiate it from a teratoma. We report a case of a neonate who was admitted immediately after delivery by Caesarian section following a prolonged obstructed labor caused by a huge mass projecting from the hard palate. The mass had identifiable malformed body parts but was anencephalic. Intraoperative findings were a short stalk and cleft of the soft palate. He had excision of the mass and did well post operatively. Persistent mouth breathing and difficult nasal cannulation lead to request for post operative magnetic resonance imaging which showed patent nostrils and absent residual mass. Prompt and skillful anesthesia and surgical intervention assisted in the survival of this patient.

  12. Sonographic evaluation of kidney parenchymal growth in the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Eran; Davidovits, Miriam; Mashiach, Reuven; Vardimon, David; Bardin, Ron; Efrat, Zeev; Danon, David; Roth, Sharon; Meizner, Israel

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to establish a nomogram for renal parenchymal thickness throughout pregnancy. One-hundred and twenty-eight healthy women with singleton, well-dated, uncomplicated second- or third-trimester pregnancies were prospectively evaluated for renal parenchymal thickness on routine ultrasound scans. The renal parenchyma was measured in transverse and sagittal sections using predefined criteria. There were no differences in anterior or posterior parenchymal measurements in either plane by fetal sex. On sagittal-section analysis, no differences were noted between the right and left kidneys. A nomogram was established on the basis of the findings. The results showed constant linear growth of the fetal parenchyma during pregnancy. The normal fetal parenchyma grows at a constant, linear rate throughout pregnancy. The nomogram formulated may serve as a basis of future studies of the correlation of parenchymal thickness with postnatal kidney function in fetuses with urinary tract anomalies.

  13. NUMERIC ANALYSIS OF HEART-RATE VARIATION IN INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDED FETUSES - A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SNIJDERS, RJM; RIBBERT, LSM; VISSER, GHA; MULDER, EJH

    OBJECTIVE: We attempted to determine changes occurring with time in fetal heart rate and its variation in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation in whom late antepartum fetal heart rate decelerations eventually develop. STUDY DESIGN: Thirteen fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation were

  14. The responses to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation in a fetus with trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heteren, C F; Focco Boekkooi, P; Jongsma, H W; Nijhuis, J G

    2001-05-01

    Observation of the fetal movement and fetal heart rate responses to repeated vibroacoustic stimulation might be useful as a measure to assess fetal well-being. Studies of abnormal fetuses are needed to gain insight in the spectrum of possible responses to stimulation. We present a case of a fetus with trisomy 18 that failed to respond to repeated stimulation.

  15. Delivery Outcomes after Term Induction of Labor in Small-for-Gestational Age Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Janine S; Rampersad, Roxane M; Tuuli, Methodius G; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G; Stout, Molly J

    2017-05-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the delivery outcomes after induction of labor (IOL) at term in patients with small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses. Study Design A secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of all term, singleton deliveries from 2010 to 2014. Patients who underwent an IOL for any indication were included. Delivery outcomes were compared between patients with and without SGA fetuses (defined as birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age). Analysis was stratified by parity. Indication for cesarean was compared between the two groups for those who did not achieve vaginal delivery. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Results Of 3,787 patients who underwent an IOL, 644 patients had SGA fetuses and 3,143 were included in the non-SGA group. There was no significant difference in rate of successful vaginal delivery for patients with and without SGA fetuses (77.2 vs. 72.0% [adjusted odds ratio: 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.50]). Of the patients who were delivered by cesarean, women with SGA fetuses were more likely to undergo cesarean for nonreassuring fetal status and less likely for arrest disorders than women without an SGA fetus. Conclusion Term patients undergoing IOL with SGA fetuses are as likely to achieve a vaginal delivery as patients with non-SGA fetuses. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Hepatic artery Doppler in trisomy 21 and euploid fetuses at 11-13 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvanca, Mona; Gielchinsky, Yuval; Abdeljawad, Firas; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Nicolaides, Kypros H.

    Objective To determine possible differences in hepatic artery flow between trisomy 21 and euploid fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Methods Hepatic artery pulsatility index (PI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) were measured in fetuses at low risk of aneuploidies (n = 350) and another group at high

  17. Premaxillary protrusion assessment by the maxillanasionmandible angle in fetuses with facial clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Pleij, E. A. P.; Pistorius, L. R.; Ribbert, L. S. M.; Breugem, C. C.; Bakker, Merel; Tromp, E.; Bilardo, C. M.

    Objective The aim of the study was to measure the degree of premaxillary protrusion in fetuses with orofacial clefts of various severities. Methods The maxillanasionmandible (MNM) angle was measured retrospectively on by multiplanar corrected volumes. Sixty-two fetuses with orofacial clefts and

  18. Premaxillary protrusion assessment by the maxilla-nasion-mandible angle in fetuses with facial clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Pleij, E. A. P.; Pistorius, L. R.; Ribbert, L. S. M.; Breugem, C. C.; Bakker, M.; Tromp, E.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the degree of premaxillary protrusion in fetuses with orofacial clefts of various severities. The maxilla-nasion-mandible (MNM) angle was measured retrospectively on by multiplanar corrected volumes. Sixty-two fetuses with orofacial clefts and known outcome

  19. Inconsistency of Phenotypic and Genomic Characteristics of Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Requires Reevaluation of Current Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloois, van L.; Miller, W.G.; Yee, E.; Rijnsburger, M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, B.

    2014-01-01

    Classifications of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis were first described in 1959 and were based on the source of isolation (intestinal versus genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in the genital tract of cows. Two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and

  20. Prenatal diagnostic testing of the Noonan syndrome genes in fetuses with abnormal ultrasound findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, Ellen A.; Nillesen, Willy M.; Stuurman, Kyra E.; Oudesluijs, Gretel; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. M.; Martens, Liesbeth; Ockeloen, Charlotte; Mathijssen, Inge B.; Schepens, Marga; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, Martina; Scheffer, Hans; Faas, Brigitte H. W.; van der Burgt, Ineke; Yntema, Helger G.

    2013-01-01

    In recent studies on prenatal testing for Noonan syndrome (NS) in fetuses with an increased nuchal translucency (NT) and a normal karyotype, mutations have been reported in 9-16% of cases. In this study, DNA of 75 fetuses with a normal karyotype and abnormal ultrasound findings was tested in a

  1. abdominal pregnancy with a full term live fetus:case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    ultrasound diagnosis aided by the balloon of a Foley's catheter in the uterine cavity was reported in. Nigeria.2. Most cases of advanced abdominal pregnancy are associated with dead fetuses.2,4,5 A case of advance abdominal pregnancy with live fetus following 15-year of primary infertility is hereby presented. Case report.

  2. Transient early preeclampsia in twin pregnancy with a triploid fetus : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, C.; Schukken, T.; van Pampus, M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Triploid pregnancies have an increased risk of early preeclampsia. Twin pregnancies consisting of one healthy fetus and one complete or partial molar, with or without a triploid fetus, are rare and management is complex. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a

  3. Outcome for Fetuses with Prenatally Detected Congenital Heart Disease and Cardiac Arrhythmias in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Mou Hsiao

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Outcome for fetuses with prenatally detected CHD remains poor, with the prognosis negatively influenced by the presence of complex heart defects as well as extracardiac and chromosomal anomalies. However, prognosis is good for fetuses with cardiac arrhythmia, except with long QT syndrome or hydrops fetalis.

  4. VAGINAL DELIVERY OF GIANT FETUS – SHOULDER DYSTOCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Popović

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder dystocia (SD is defined as unpredictable and urgent obstetric complication that happens when the pelvis of a mother is spread sufficiently to deliver fetal head, but insufficiently to deliver fetal shoulders. It is associated with high percentage of maternal and fetal morbidity. Fetal lethality from hypoxia ranges from 2-16%.We observed the case of vaginal delivery in a multiparous woman in the 39th gestational week. Head delivery was performed by using vacuum extraction. Because of the shoulder dystocia, we applied McRoberts’ maneuver with Resnik’s suprapubic pressure and performed one more episiotomy. Since these maneuvers did not give the expected result, we did the aspiration of the upper respiratory paths of the fetus, after which we performed Hibbard’s cord with simultaneous Kristeler’s maneuver. It led to releasing the shoulders and fetal delivery. On delivery, male fetus was 6000 g/60 cm, estimated with Apgar 1. The urgent reanimation was undertaken. After few hours, the baby was transferred to Pediatric Surgical Clinic for further treatment of present pneumotorax and humerus fracture. After many days, the baby being in normal state, was referred to physical rehabilitation treatment. Today, the baby is without sequelae.SD is one of the most difficult, hardly predictable perilous obstetric complications with high percentage of maternal morbidity and fetal morbidity and mortality. It requires caution, training and skills of obstetric-neonatal team. Liberalization of the use of Caesarian section in managing SD decreases the appearance of injuries in both mother and child. However, regardless of very rapid development of perinatology and the use of modern diagnostic-therapeutic protocols, some questions from classical, practical obstetrics remain unanswered.

  5. Quantification of maceration changes using post mortem MRI in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, P; Addison, S; Oliveira, V; Lally, P J; Taylor, A M; Sebire, N J; Thayyil, S; Arthurs, O J

    2016-04-27

    Post mortem imaging is playing an increasingly important role in perinatal autopsy, and correct interpretation of imaging changes is paramount. This is particularly important following intra-uterine fetal death, where there may be fetal maceration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any changes seen on a whole body fetal post mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR) correspond to maceration at conventional autopsy. We performed pre-autopsy PMMR in 75 fetuses using a 1.5 Tesla Siemens Avanto MR scanner (Erlangen, Germany). PMMR images were reported blinded to the clinical history and autopsy data using a numerical severity scale (0 = no maceration changes to 2 = severe maceration changes) for 6 different visceral organs (total 12). The degree of maceration at autopsy was categorized according to severity on a numerical scale (1 = no maceration to 4 = severe maceration). We also generated quantitative maps to measure the liver and lung T2. The mean PMMR maceration score correlated well with the autopsy maceration score (R(2) = 0.93). A PMMR score of ≥4.5 had a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 64%, for detecting moderate or severe maceration at autopsy. Liver and lung T2 were increased in fetuses with maceration scores of 3-4 in comparison to those with 1-2 (liver p = 0.03, lung p = 0.02). There was a good correlation between PMMR maceration score and the extent of maceration seen at conventional autopsy. This score may be useful in interpretation of fetal PMMR.

  6. Laparoscopic Removal of an Intramyometrial Fetus After Uterine Curettage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobías González, Pablo; Mateos Guillem, Alejandra; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Diestro, María Dolores; De Santiago, Javier

    2015-01-01

    To show the removal of an intramyometrial fetus after uterine curettage using laparoscopy as a safe surgical technique that offers excellent results and fewer complications than laparotomy. Presentation of the clinical case and step-by-step explanation of the technique. Uterine curettage is a frequently performed gynecologic abortion procedure. Dilatation and curettage is considered to be a safe surgical technique, with a low percentage of complications. The most common is uterine perforation, with higher risks in advanced gestational age, retroflexed uterus, or uterine leiomyomas. After institutional review board approval, we present the case of a 29-year-old women referred to our hospital from another clinic with a suspected uterine perforation after an elective curettage for a 14-week pregnancy. She presented with moderate abdominal pain. Vaginal ultrasound revealed intramyometrial fetal parts on isthmus and right parametrium and minimal free fluid in the pouch of Douglas. A laparoscopic approach was chosen. After a complete revision of the abdominal cavity, the right paravesical space was dissected, confirming no right uterine artery or ureter injury. One cavity was objectified in the posterior leaf of the broad ligament related to a uterine perforation and containing fetal bone parts, which were removed. The myometrial defect and the peritoneum were closed with intracorporeal sutures. The removal of fetal parts was done with a surgical glove thimble. After the procedure, the patient was treated with clindamycin and gentamycin, with a satisfactory recovery. The presence of an intramyometrial fetus is not a common complication of curettage. The use of laparoscopy is feasible and offers excellent results and advantages versus laparotomy regarding its treatment. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aplasia cutis congenita with fetus papyraceus: report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Shwayder, Tor A

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of a 2-week-old white female who presented with large stellate atrophic skin defects on bilateral thighs and knees at birth. The pregnancy was complicated by the death of monozygotic twin at the 16th week of gestation. This represents aplasia cutis congenita with fetus papyraceus. This rare condition is defined as the congenital skin defect and intrauterine death of fetus with or without a stillborn fetus pressed flat by the growing twin (fetus papyraceus) at delivery time. Aplasia cutis congenita coexisting with fetus papyraceus has a distinctive and reproducible distribution pattern of bilateral symmetrical truncal, buttock, and thigh lesions related to fetal death during the late first to early second trimester. There are at least 44 reported cases of this disorder in the English literature. We discuss our case and review the literature. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Wang, Taiji; Feng, Cuiping; Lin, Gang; Zhu, Yuhua; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory; Wang, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation). Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals. PMID:26554841

  9. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  10. 1st and 2nd Trimester Headsize in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Høj; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vestergaard, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with neuro-developmental disorders. The influence of CHD on the brain may be present in the fetus. We hypothesize that fetal cerebral growth is impaired as early as 2nd trimester. Aim: To investigate if fetal cerebral growth is associated...... with major and minor CHD.: Pregnant women in Denmark (more than 95%) attend two publicly funded ultrasound scans; around 12 and 20 weeks gestational age (GA). During the first scan fetal bi-parietal-diameter (BPD) is routinely obtained. During the second scan fetal head- circumference (HC) is obtained...... birth. Results 276 fetuses with CHD were identified. 114 (41%) were genetically screened primarily by chromosomal microarray analysis (n=82). Fetuses with identified chromosomal abnormalities were excluded as were multiple gestation fetuses and fetuses with major extra cardiac malformations. Data from...

  11. Natural environmental water sources in endemic regions of northeastern Brazil are potential reservoirs of viable Mycobacterium leprae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bezerra de Macedo Arraes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. METHODS Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. FINDINGS M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7% of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.

  12. Application value of chromosomal microarray analysis in prenatal diagnosis of lateral ventriculomegaly fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting SONG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the genetic etiology of lateral ventriculomegaly fetal on the genome-wide level with chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA, and investigate the relationship between copy number variations (CNVs and lateral ventriculomegaly and the application value of CMA in prenatal diagnosis of fetuses with lateral ventriculomegaly. Methods Seventy fetuses with lateral ventriculomegaly but normal or uncertain karyotype were selected and invasive prenatal diagnosis was performed in Xi Jing Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University from Jan. 2015 to Nov. 2016. Microarray testing was performed using Affymetrix CytoScanTM 750k arrays and the results were analyzed according to biological information science database. The fetal development was regularly inspected, and follow up was conducted to find out the pregnancy outcome and fetal postnatal conditions. Results In 70 cases of lateral ventriculomegaly fetuses,there were 9 fetuses with pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs, 3 fetuses with likely pathogenic CNVs and 1 fetus with likely pathogenic 1oss of heterozygosity (LOH. During the 70 fetuses with lateral ventriculomegaly, 2 pathogenic CNVs were detected in 6 fetuses with severe and non isolated lateral ventriculomegaly (33.3%. Pathogenic CNVs was not detected but 1 likely pathogenic CNV was detected in 3 fetuses with severe and isolated lateral ventriculomegaly (33.3%. Six pathogenic CNVs were detected in 31 mild and non isolated lateral ventriculomegaly (19.4%, and 2 likely pathogenic CNVs were also detected in these group (6.5%. One pathogenic CNV and 1 likely pathogenic CNV were detected in 30 fetuses with mild and isolated fetal lateral ventriculomegaly. Conclusions CMA can identify chromosome abnormality microdeletion/microduplication which was unrecognizable by conventional karyotyping analysis. The application of CMA may increase the detection rate of pathogenic CNVs in fetuses with lateral ventriculomegaly, and benefit

  13. CONCEIVING AND GENERATING A VIABLE COMPLEXITY MODEL FOR PERSONAL AND/OR ENTREPRENEURIAL CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Niculescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes on the one hand to do research and study – with a genuine approach, inspiredand deep-rooted in the method of the sociological school in Bucharest and creatively renewed and integrating thenewest acquisitions of complexity science – the representative intricate entity “man as an economic actor (resourceand potential within the industrial organization and corporation in mono-industrial area (region in the period inwhich the phenomenon of transition from an industrial society to knowledge society takes place; and on the otherhand our project proposes to conceive a viable model of change and career of the human resources in the ElectricPlant of Rovinari as well as to conceive and accomplish a pilot-model of a platform in order to support the efficientimplement through a research-action approach of the model of personal and/or entrepreneurship change and careerof the human resources in the Electric Plant of Rovinari.

  14. Sirenomelia: a review on embryogenic enviromental theories, novel three-dimensional ultrasound imaging and first trimester diagnosis in a case of mosaic 69,XXX/46,XX fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Gabriele, Tonni; Grisolia, Gianpaolo; Gianpaolo, Grisolia

    2013-07-01

    Sirenomelia is caused by atrophy of the lower extremities that is commonly associated with gastrointestinal and urogenital malformations. Embryogenic environmental theories and systematic review of the literature are reported. Genetic basis of the condition has been demonstrated in the animal model. In humans, association with de novo balanced translocation has only recently been documented. A case of triploidy mosaic fetus with sirenomelia and posterior fossa anomaly diagnosed at first trimester using novel three-dimensional ultrasound imaging techniques is presented.

  15. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells.We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria.This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis of streptococcal soft tissue infections

  16. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  17. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  18. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  19. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  20. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with dopaminergic agonist (cabergoline. A second ultrasound scan revealed the presence of two gestational vesicles in the right uterine horn that were successfully carried to term. Unusually, while pyometra persisted in the left uterine horn, two viable puppies were delivered by caesarean section from the right uterine horn.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF MATERNAL HYPEROXIA ON FETAL BREATHING MOVEMENTS, BODY MOVEMENTS AND HEART-RATE VARIATION IN GROWTH RETARDED FETUSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEKEDAM, DJ; MULDER, EJH; SNIJDERS, RJM; VISSER, GHA

    1991-01-01

    In hypoxemic intrauterine growth-retarded fetuses (IUGR) there is a reduction in the incidence of fetal movements and in fetal heart rate variation. A causal relationship with the impairment of fetal oxygenation has been suggested. In 16 IUGR fetuses and in 13 normally grown fetuses maternal

  2. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  3. Assessment of cardiac functions in fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, Sevket; Pac, Feyza Aysenur; Ece, İbrahim; Oflaz, Mehmet Burhan; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Kandemir, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    We investigated cardiac function in 67 fetuses of gestational diabetic mothers (FGDMs) and 122 fetuses of healthy mothers between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation. Cardiac functions were evaluated by M-mode, pulsed-wave, and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Fetal echocardiograms were performed at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks of gestation. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were obtained from all pregnant women at 24 weeks of gestation. The mean age of diabetic pregnant women was significantly greater than that of controls. Serum HbA1c values of both groups were within normal limits, but they were significantly greater in the diabetic group (p = 0.003). The increase in peak aortic and pulmonary artery velocities were greater in FGDM (p < 0.001). No pathological interventricular septal (IVS) hypertrophy was observed. There was a significant increase in IVS thickness in FGDM compared with controls, which was more prominent at the end of the third trimester (p < 0.001). During the course of pregnancy, mitral E-wave (p < 0.001), A-wave (p = 0.007), tricuspid E-wave (p < 0.001) and A-wave (p = 0.002) velocities were greater in FGDM. The increases in mitral E/A and tricuspid E/A ratios were lower in FGDM with advancing gestation. The E a-wave (p = 0.02), A a-wave (p = 0.04), and S a-wave (p < 0.001) velocities of the right-ventricular (RV) free wall and the E a (p = 0.02) and A a (p = 0.01) velocities of the left-ventricle (LV) posterior wall were greater in FGDM during the course of pregnancy. The E a/A a ratio of the RV posterior wall was greater in FGDM with advancing gestation (p < 0.03). LV and RV E/E a ratios were similar in both groups. The LV myocardial performance index measured by pulsed-wave Doppler was greater in FGDM (p < 0.001). We detected diastolic dysfunction in FGDM. The data suggest that gestational diabetes mellitus may impair ventricular diastolic functions without causing pathological fetal myocardial hypertrophy. We detected

  4. Melatonin for women in pregnancy for neuroprotection of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic; Shepherd, Emily; Wallace, Euan M

    2016-03-29

    Melatonin is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Animal studies have supported a fetal neuroprotective role for melatonin when administered maternally. It is important to assess whether melatonin, given to the mother, can reduce the risk of neurosensory disabilities (including cerebral palsy) and death, associated with fetal brain injury, for the preterm or term compromised fetus. To assess the effects of melatonin when used for neuroprotection of the fetus. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2016). We planned to include randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing melatonin given to women in pregnancy (regardless of the route, timing, dose and duration of administration) for fetal neuroprotection with placebo, no treatment, or with an alternative agent aimed at providing fetal neuroprotection. We also planned to include comparisons of different regimens for administration of melatonin. Two review authors planned to independently assess trial eligibility, trial quality and extract the data. We found no randomised trials for inclusion in this review. One study is ongoing. As we did not identify any randomised trials for inclusion in this review, we are unable to comment on implications for practice at this stage.Although evidence from animals studies has supported a fetal neuroprotective role for melatonin when administered to the mother during pregnancy, no trials assessing melatonin for fetal neuroprotection in pregnant women have been completed to date. However, there is currently one ongoing randomised controlled trial (with an estimated enrolment target of 60 pregnant women) which examines the dose of melatonin, administered to women at risk of imminent very preterm birth (less than 28 weeks' gestation) required to reduce brain damage in the white matter of the babies that were born very preterm.Further high-quality research is needed and research

  5. Prenatal MRI Findings of Fetuses with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V. A.; Linam, Leann E.; Kline-Fath, Beth M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    To define the MRI findings of congenital high airway obstruction sequence (CHAOS) in a series of fetuses. Prenatal fetal MR images were reviewed in seven fetuses with CHAOS at 21 to 27 weeks of gestation. The MRI findings were reviewed. The MRI parameters evaluated included the appearance of the lungs and diaphragm, presence or absence of hydrops, amount of amniotic fluid, airway appearance, predicted level of airway obstruction, and any additional findings or suspected genetic syndromes. All the fetuses viewed (7 of 7) demonstrated the following MRI findings: dilated airway below the level of obstruction, increased lung signal, markedly increased lung volumes with flattened or inverted hemidiaphragms, massive ascites, centrally positioned and compressed heart, as well as placentomegaly. Other frequent findings were anasarca (6 of 7) and polyhydramnios (3 of 7). MRI identified the level of obstruction as laryngeal in five cases and tracheal in two cases. In four of the patients, surgery or autopsy confirmed the MRI predicted level of obstruction. Associated abnormalities were found in 4 of 7 (genetic syndromes in 2). Postnatal radiography (n = 3) showed markedly hyperinflated lungs with inverted or flattened hemidiaphragms, strandy perihilar opacities, pneumothoraces and tracheotomy. Two fetuses were terminated and one fetus demised in utero. Four fetuses were delivered via ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. MRI shows a consistent pattern of abnormalities in fetuses with CHAOS, accurately identifies the level of airway obstruction, and helps differentiate from other lung abnormalities such as bilateral congenital pulmonary airway malformation by demonstrating an abnormally dilated airway distal to the obstruction.

  6. Use of Continuous Electronic Fetal Monitoring in a Preterm Fetus: Clinical Dilemmas and Recommendations for Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Afors

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of intrapartum continuous electronic fetal monitoring using a cardiotocograph (CTG is to identify a fetus exposed to intrapartum hypoxic insults so that timely and appropriate action could be instituted to improve perinatal outcome. Features observed on a CTG trace reflect the functioning of somatic and autonomic nervous systems and the fetal response to hypoxic or mechanical insults during labour. Although, National Guidelines on electronic fetal monitoring exist for term fetuses, there is paucity of recommendations based on scientific evidence for monitoring preterm fetuses during labour. Lack of evidence-based recommendations may pose a clinical dilemma as preterm births account for nearly 8% (1 in 13 live births in England and Wales. 93% of these preterm births occur after 28 weeks, 6% between 22–27 weeks, and 1% before 22 weeks. Physiological control of fetal heart rate and the resultant features observed on the CTG trace differs in the preterm fetus as compared to a fetus at term making interpretation difficult. This review describes the features of normal fetal heart rate patterns at different gestations and the physiological responses of a preterm fetus compared to a fetus at term. We have proposed an algorithm “ACUTE” to aid management.

  7. Use of continuous electronic fetal monitoring in a preterm fetus: clinical dilemmas and recommendations for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afors, Karolina; Chandraharan, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of intrapartum continuous electronic fetal monitoring using a cardiotocograph (CTG) is to identify a fetus exposed to intrapartum hypoxic insults so that timely and appropriate action could be instituted to improve perinatal outcome. Features observed on a CTG trace reflect the functioning of somatic and autonomic nervous systems and the fetal response to hypoxic or mechanical insults during labour. Although, National Guidelines on electronic fetal monitoring exist for term fetuses, there is paucity of recommendations based on scientific evidence for monitoring preterm fetuses during labour. Lack of evidence-based recommendations may pose a clinical dilemma as preterm births account for nearly 8% (1 in 13) live births in England and Wales. 93% of these preterm births occur after 28 weeks, 6% between 22-27 weeks, and 1% before 22 weeks. Physiological control of fetal heart rate and the resultant features observed on the CTG trace differs in the preterm fetus as compared to a fetus at term making interpretation difficult. This review describes the features of normal fetal heart rate patterns at different gestations and the physiological responses of a preterm fetus compared to a fetus at term. We have proposed an algorithm "ACUTE" to aid management.

  8. Intrapartum electrocardiogram alteration in fetuses with congenital heart disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Estelle; Bornallet, Géraldine; Gaucherand, Pascal; Doret, Muriel

    2015-11-01

    To assess if the fetal electrocardiogram especially ST segment is modified by congenital heart diseases: modifications in frequencies of the different ST events and modifications in signal quality. A retrospective case-control study, comparing frequencies of the different ST events and the quality of the signal between fetuses with congenital heart diseases and fetuses without congenital heart disease. From 2000 to 2011, fifty-eight fetuses with congenital heart disease had their heart rate recording using a STAN device during labor. Control group was fetuses who were born just before a case and had a STAN as a second line for intrapartum surveillance. Cases and controls were matched on parity, gestational age at birth, presence of growth restriction and umbilical artery pH. Frequencies of the different ST event and quality of the signal were first analyzed for the global labor recording, and then separately for the first and the second phase of labor. No statistically significant difference in ST event frequencies between fetuses with congenital heart disease and the control group was found. Regarding the quality of the signal, 11.49% (±18.82) of recording time is a signal loss for fetus with congenital heart disease whereas only 5.18% (±10.67) for the control group (p=0.028). This is the first study investigating for intrapartum electrocardiogram modification in fetus with congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases do not modify frequencies of ST events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perinatal Management and Outcome of Fetuses with Single Umbilical Artery Diagnosed Prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee; Cheng; Lai; Cheng; Shih; Shyu; Kau; Hsieh

    1998-12-01

    > Objective: To investigate the perinatal management and outcome of fetuses diagnosed prenatally with single umbilical artery. Methods: Sixty-one consecutive fetuses with single umbilical artery diagnosed prenatally by ultrasonography were included. Thorough prenatal ultrasonographic screening was carried out to detect associated congenital anomalies. Chromosome study by either amniocentesis or cordocentesis was performed for all 61 of the fetuses with single umbilical artery. Thorough physical examination or autopsy was performed after delivery. Results: All 61 fetuses were confirmed to have single umbilical artery after delivery. Ten (16.4%) of the 61 fetuses with single umbilical artery had abnormal karyotypes. In the single umbilical artery group with abnormal karyotyping, 8 had detectable structural abnormalities, 1 had symmetrical intrauterine growth retardation, and 1 had no apparent congenital anomalies. For the 51 fetuses with normal karyotyping, 28 had abnormal ultrasonographic findings. In 23 fetuses with single umbilical artery without chromosomal or structural anomalies diagnosed in utero, 7 (30.4%) were found to have structural anomalies (3 with congenital heart disease, 3 with congenital renal disease, and 1 with limb deformity) after birth. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of single umbilical artery should be made with caution to avoid false positive cases. When single umbilical artery is diagnosed prenatally, we suggest 1) targeted ultrasonography for detection of anomalies with cardiovascular, genitorenal, and limb-skeletal systems; 2) chromosome study for those with intrauterine growth retardation or other associated defects; and 3) thorough investigation after birth.

  10. [Genetic analysis of two cases with Dandy-Walker deformed fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Juan; Fang, Rong; Shen, Xueping; Shen, Guosong; Zhang, Su

    2017-10-10

    To explore the genetic etiology of two fetuses with Dandy-Walker malformation using single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-array). The fetuses and their parents were subjected to G banding karyotype analysis. The fetuses were also subjected to SNP-array analysis. The parents of both fetuses showed a normal karyotype. One fetus has a 46,X,?i(X)(q10), while for another conventional cell culture has failed. SNP-array showed that one fetus carried a 6p25.3p25.2 microdeletion, and another carried a Xp22.33p22.2 deletion and a Yq11.221q11 duplication. The abnormal fragments have involved FOXC1, SHOX and STS genes, which are associated with Dandy-Walker malformation. Alteration of 6p25.3p25.2, Xp22.33p22.2 copy numbers probably underlies the Dandy-Walker syndrome in the fetuses. The disorder may be attributed to abnormal expression of FOXC1, SHOX, and STS genes. SNP-array can provide an important supplement for prenatal diagnosis.

  11. Monte Carlo calculation of the neutron dose to a fetus at commercial flight altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M. C.; Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Hunt, John G.; d'Errico, Francesco; Souza, S. O.; de Carvalho Júnior, A. B.

    2017-11-01

    Aircrew members are exposed to primary cosmic rays as well as to secondary radiations from the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere and with the aircraft. The radiation field at flight altitudes comprises neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, photons, muons and pions. Generally, 50% of the effective dose to airplane passengers is due to neutrons. Care must be taken especially with pregnant aircrew members and frequent fliers so that the equivalent dose to the fetus will not exceed prescribed limits during pregnancy (1 mSv according to ICRP, and 5 mSv according to NCRP). Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the equivalent dose to a fetus in the maternal womb. Up to now, the equivalent dose rate to a fetus at commercial flight altitudes was obtained using stylized pregnant-female phantom models. The aim of this study was calculating neutron fluence to dose conversion coefficients for a fetus of six months of gestation age using a new, realistic pregnant-female mesh-phantom. The equivalent dose rate to a fetus during an intercontinental flight was also calculated by folding our conversion coefficients with published spectral neutron flux data. The calculated equivalent dose rate to the fetus was 2.35 μSv.h-1, that is 1.5 times higher than equivalent dose rates reported in the literature. The neutron fluence to dose conversion coefficients for the fetus calculated in this study were 2.7, 3.1 and 3.9 times higher than those from previous studies using fetus models of 3, 6 and 9 months of gestation age, respectively. The differences between our study and data from the literature highlight the importance of using more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms to estimate doses to a fetus in pregnant aircrew members.

  12. Identification of Viable Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water Supplies by Cultural and Molecular Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paula; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, M Antonía

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infection in humans, directly related to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It has been suggested that H. pylori can be acquired through different transmission routes, including water. In this study, culture and qPCR were used to detect and identify the presence of H. pylori in drinking water. Furthermore, the combined techniques PMA-qPCR and DVC-FISH were applied for detection of viable cells of H. pylori. Among 24 drinking water samples, 16 samples were positive for the presence of H. pylori, but viable cells were only detected in six samples. Characteristic colonies, covered by a mass of bacterial unspecific growth, were observed on selective agar plates from an only sample, after enrichment. The mixed culture was submitted to DVC-FISH and qPCR analysis, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Molecular techniques confirmed the growth of H. pylori on the agar plate. Our results demonstrate for the first time that H. pylori can survive and be potentially infective in drinking water, showing that water distribution systems could be a potential route for H. pylori transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. in a Biorefinery Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johansson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals.

  14. Economically viable components from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Hovmalm, Helena Persson

    2015-04-22

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals.

  15. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: Comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C.; Santos, Anderson R.

    2012-01-01

    , and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Significantly, many of those genes were found in genomic regions with signals of horizontal gene transfer and, therefore, predicted as putative pathogenicity islands. We found CRISPR loci and dam genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus, and T4SS and sap genes....... The potential candidate factors identified for attenuation and/or subunit vaccine development against C. fetus subspecies contain: nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), type IV secretion systems (T4SS), outer membrane proteins (OMP), substrate binding proteins CjaA and CjaC, surface array proteins, sap gene...

  16. Twin fetuses papyraeci in a spontaneous triplet pregnancy presenting with unexplained preterm contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, M; Chama, Cm; Bako, Bg; Jonathan, Bi

    2013-11-01

    Fetus papyracie in a triplet pregnancy is indeed rare and can pose serious management challenges. These challenges are more pronounced where facilities for monitoring are either inadequate or nonexistent. A 39-year-old, grand multipara multipara was referred to the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital at 27 weeks gestation with preterm contractions. Materno fetal monitoring did not reveal the cause of the preterm contractions. She was delivered via caesarean section, at 36 weeks of gestation, on account of decreased fetal movement and the products were a live female fetus weighing 2.3 kg and two male papyraceous fetuses weighing 150 g and 130 g, respectively.

  17. Detection of bluetongue virus in bovine fetuses using the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G A; Phillips, D L; Waldvogel, A S; Osburn, B I

    1989-01-01

    The avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase technique was adapted for use in detecting bluetongue virus (BTV) antigens in BTV serotype 11-infected bovine fetuses. Fetuses were infected with BTV serotype 11 at 120 days of gestation and then removed 20 days later by Cesarean section. Blood and tissue samples were collected from each animal and used for virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs, the immunofluorescent antibody test, and the avidin-biotin complex test. The avidin-biotin complex method successfully identified BTV antigens in both fresh and autolyzed fetal brains. Thus, the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method has potential as a possible procedure for diagnosing bluetongue disease in aborted bovine fetuses.

  18. Entry of Yersinia Pestis into the Viable but Nonculturable State in a Low-Temperature Tap Water Microcosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    pestis has been the cause of some the most devastating disease epidemics in human history, including at least three world- wide pandemics [1]. The...non-culturable state. Past studies suggest that the later possibility is the most likely, for example, Oliver et al. showed that E. coli and Salmonella ...Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium into the viable but nonculturable state following chlorination of wastewater. J Water Health 3: 249–257

  19. Echobiometrics kidney and renal artery triplex doppler of canine fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the sogographic parameters and biometry of canine fetal kidneys using the B mode, and to determinate the vascular index of the fetal renal arteries using the Doppler Triplex. Twenty four Shi-tzu and Pug, weighting between 4 and 10kg, aging between 4 and 6 years old were evaluated. The B mode, the fetal renal echobiometry and regularity of the renal surface, echotexture and cortex:medular ratio were evaluated during the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th weeks of pregnancy. At the same time point of the B mode evaluation, the Doppler Triplex was carried out to assess the sistolic peak velocity (SPV, end diastolic velocity (EDV, vascular resistive (RI and pulsatility index (PI. B mode revealed no fetal renal abnormalities and echobiometry showed important measurements during fetal development (P0.05. B mode and Doppler Triplex were important tools for the assessment of fetal renal development, using echobiometry and renal arterial index in canie fetuses.

  20. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Radiologie, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Besnard, Marianne [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service de Reanimation Neo-natale, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique [Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise, Service d' Obstetrique, Pirae, Tahiti (Country Unknown); Jouannic, Jean-Marie [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Service de Medecine Foetale, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Paris (France); Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2016-06-15

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (orig.)

  1. Prenatal brain MRI of fetuses with Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Besnard, Marianne; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Garel, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    An outbreak of Zika virus was observed in French Polynesia in 2013-2014. Maternal Zika virus infection has been associated with fetal microcephaly and severe cerebral damage. To analyze the MRI cerebral findings in fetuses with intrauterine Zika virus infection. We retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria comprised cases with (1) estimated conception date between June 2013 and May 2014, (2) available US and MRI scans revealing severe fetal brain lesions and (3) positive polymerase chain reaction for Zika virus in the amniotic fluid. We recorded pregnancy history of Zika virus infection and analyzed US and MRI scans. Three out of 12 cases of severe cerebral lesions fulfilled all inclusion criteria. History of maternal Zika virus infection had been documented in two cases. Calcifications and ventriculomegaly were present at US in all cases. MRI showed micrencephaly (n = 3), low cerebellar biometry (n = 2), occipital subependymal pseudocysts (n = 2), polymicrogyria with laminar necrosis and opercular dysplasia (n = 3), absent (n = 1) or hypoplastic (n = 1) corpus callosum and hypoplastic brainstem (n = 1). Severe cerebral damage was observed in our series, with indirect findings suggesting that the germinal matrix is the principal target for Zika virus. The lesions are very similar to severe forms of congenital cytomegalovirus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections.

  2. The teratogenic effects of imatinib mesylate on rat fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El Gendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the first line treatment against chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of imatinib mesylate on the pregnant rats and their fetuses. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups; the first group served as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered imatinib at doses of 36 mg/kg body weight or 54 mg/kg b.wt. on gestation days (SDs 6 through 13 or SDs 13 through 19, respectively. All animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of gestation. Treatment with imatinib caused a reduction of maternal body weight gain, uterine and placental weights, increased rate of abortion and fetal resorptions. High dose of imatinib caused fetal congenital deformities represented in harelip, contraction of the fore limbs, and paralysis of the hind limbs, exencephaly, encephalocoele and distended abdominal wall, besides occurrence of wavy ribs and absence of other ribs in addition to skeletal growth retardation and lack of ossification of the most skeletal elements. The present work concluded that imatinib is teratogenic when given orally to pregnant rats at 54 mg/kg b.wt. and causes direct maternal or developmental toxicity.

  3. Diagnostic laboratory technologies for the fetus and neonate with isoimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaghan, Sharon Markham

    2011-06-01

    Maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility is common but less commonly results in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). HDFN is associated with greater peak bilirubin, at an earlier age, and for longer duration than other causes of hyperbilirubinemia. It poses a substantial risk for kernicterus and accounts for the majority of exchange transfusions for hyperbilirubinemia. Advances in diagnosis and management are described, from identification of the alloimmunized pregnancy by maternal ABO and Rh typing, antibody screen (indirect Coombs test), identification and titration; laboratory evaluation of the maternal-fetal unit with a critical maternal antibody titer to prompt fetal antigen status determination; assessment of fetomaternal hemorrhage by conventional Kleihauer-Betke testing or by flow cytometric methodology; to antenatal management of isoimmunization and fetal status assessments using the systems of Liley, Queenan, and serial Doppler fetal middle cerebral artery peak velocity measurements. The utility of laboratory diagnostics in the approach to hemolysis in the neonate, including hematology, chemistry, and peripheral blood smear review, is reviewed. The goal of management, to deliver a healthy infant at or near term, is attained for the majority of cases using current modalities; future directions include noninvasive genotyping of fetal blood from maternal serum to fully eliminate RhD alloimmunization and HDFN; and development of prophylaxis and intervention strategies for non-RhD alloimmunizations for which immune globulin is currently unavailable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from aborted goat fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H C; Biswas, S K; Chand, K; Rehman, W; Das, B; Dadawala, A I; Chandel, B S; Kher, H N; Mondal, B

    2014-12-01

    Abortions and stillbirths were noticed in pregnant goats on a farm in the state of Gujarat, India. About 50% of the pregnant goats aborted or gave birth to dead kids. Bluetongue virus (BTV) antibody in the sera of affected goats was detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral antigen in the blood of these goats and in the aborted fetal spleens was detected using a sandwich ELISA. Two viruses (SKN-9, SKN-10) were isolated in cell culture from aborted fetal spleens and were confirmed as Orbivirus by demonstration of ten bands in RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified as BTV-1 by sequencing of the VP2 gene. Sequence analyses revealed thatthese isolates were very closely related to a BTV-1 (strain SKN-8) isolated from Culicoides vectors captured on the same farm one month after the occurrence of abortion. Isolation of BTV-1 from fetuses is probably evidence of transplacental transmission of the wild-type strain, because attenuated or laboratory-adapted BTV-1 strains have never been used in this region. This may have important implications in the epidemiology of bluetongue, considering the presence of many BTV serotypes in India.

  5. Fetus Sound Stimulation: Cilia Memristor Effect of Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Jankovic-Raznatovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This experimental study evaluates fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA circulation after the defined prenatal acoustical stimulation (PAS and the role of cilia in hearing and memory and could explain signal transduction and memory according to cilia optical-acoustical properties. Methods. PAS was performed twice on 119 no-risk term pregnancies. We analyzed fetal MCA circulation before, after first and second PAS. Results. Analysis of the Pulsatility index basic (PIB and before PAS and Pulsatility index reactive after the first PAS (PIR 1 shows high statistical difference, representing high influence on the brain circulation. Analysis of PIB and Pulsatility index reactive after the second PAS (PIR 2 shows no statistical difference. Cilia as nanoscale structure possess magnetic flux linkage that depends on the amount of charge that has passed between two-terminal variable resistors of cilia. Microtubule resistance, as a function of the current through and voltage across the structure, leads to appearance of cilia memory with the “memristor” property. Conclusion. Acoustical and optical cilia properties play crucial role in hearing and memory processes. We suggest that fetuses are getting used to sound, developing a kind of memory patterns, considering acoustical and electromagnetically waves and involving cilia and microtubules and try to explain signal transduction.

  6. Biochemical composition of fetal fluids in at term, normal developed, healthy, viable dogs and preliminary data from pathologic littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Bolis, B; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Mollo, A

    2018-03-01

    A proper canine neonatal assistance, required to reduce the high perinatal loss rate, imply a full knowledge about the fetal-to-neonatal physiology. Because fetal fluids play an important role throughout mammals pregnancy, influencing fetal growth and development, fetal well being, and contributing to guarantee the most suitable environment for the fetus, the knowledge about fetal fluids biochemical composition is of major importance. At first, the biochemical composition of fetal fluids collected by normal developed, healthy and viable newborns, is necessary to depict the normal features, and represent the first step for the further detection of abnormalities associated to fetal/neonatal distress and useful for the early identification of newborns needing special attention, immediately after birth. The present study was aimed to define the biochemical composition of amniotic and allantoic fluids collected from fetus delivered by caesarean section at term of pregnancy. To reduce the possible confounding effect of maternal labor or troubles at parturition, fetal fluids were collected only from puppies born by elective caesaeran section, at term of normal pregnancies. Fetal fluids from 76 puppies, 70 normal and six pathologic newborns, born by elective caesarean section were collected and analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine-kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, amylase, lipase, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), triglycerides, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, globulins, glucose, magnesium, potassium, chloride, sodium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolarity. No significant differences were found between biochemical composition of amniotic or allantoic fluid in normal and pathologic newborns, maybe due to the small number of the pathologic puppies. Although some correlations between the two fluids were found (albumin, phosphorus, glucose and

  7. A Cytolethal Distending Toxin Gene-Based Multiplex PCR Assay for Campylobacter jejuni, C. fetus, C. coli, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis, and C. lari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Kawabata, Hiroki; Asakura, Masahiro; Samosornsuk, Worada; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    In this study, we devised a multiplex PCR assay based on the gene of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) B subunit to simultaneously detect and discriminate Campylobacter jejuni, C. fetus, C. coli, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis, and C. lari. Species-specific PCR products were successfully obtained from all 38 C. jejuni, 12 C. fetus, 39 C. coli, 22 C. upsaliensis, 24 C. hyointestinalis, and 7 C. lari strains tested. On the other hand, no specific PCR products were obtained from other campylobacters and bacterial species tested (41 strains in total). The proposed multiplex PCR assay is a valuable tool for detection and descrimination of 6 major Campylobacter species, that are associated with gastrointestinal diseases in humans.

  8. Cerebral Oxygenation Measurements by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Fetuses With and Without Heart Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette H; Uldbjerg, Niels; Henriksen, Tine B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with major congenital heart defects are risking impaired cerebral growth, delayed cerebral maturation, and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to compare the cerebral tissue oxygenation of fetuses with major heart defects to that of fetuses without heart defects as estimated...... by the magnetic resonance imaging modality T2*. T2* is low in areas with high concentrations of deoxyhemoglobin. METHODS AND RESULTS: At gestational age mean 32 weeks (early) and mean 37 weeks (late), we compared the fetal cerebral T2* in 28 fetuses without heart defects to that of 15 fetuses with major heart...... defects: transposition of the great arteries (n=7), coarctation of the aorta/hypoplastic aortic arch (n=5), tetralogy of Fallot (n=1), hypoplastic right heart (n=1), and common arterial trunk (n=1). The women were scanned with a 1.5 T Philips scanner using a breath-hold multiecho gradient echo sequence...

  9. Evaluation of a PCR assay for identification and differentiation of Campylobacter fetus subspecies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hum, S.; Quinn, K.; Brunner, J.

    1997-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Campylobacter fetus and differentiation of the defined subspecies. Design Characterisation of bacterial strains by traditional phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction, a probabilistic identification scheme and macrorestr......Objective To evaluate a polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Campylobacter fetus and differentiation of the defined subspecies. Design Characterisation of bacterial strains by traditional phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction, a probabilistic identification scheme...... by traditional phenotypic methods and the PCR assay was found to be 80.8%. The polymerase chain reaction proved to be a reliable technique for the species and subspecies identification of C fetus; equivocal results were obtained in only two instances. Initial misidentifications by conventional phenotyping...... methods were attributed to methodological differences used in various laboratories. Conclusion Our results indicate that misidentification of C fetus in routine diagnostic laboratories may be relatively common. The PCR assay evaluated gave rapid and reproducible results and is thus a valuable adjunctive...

  10. Survey of porcine parvovirus infection in swine fetuses and their dams at a Minnesota abattoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, B.J.; Leman, A.D.; Hurtgen, J.P.; Sauber, T.E.; Joo, H.S.

    1981-05-01

    Reproductive tracts were recovered from 209 sow and 32 gilt carcasses at slaughter; animals had been pregnant not less than 27 days. Of 241 litters examined, 28 (11.6%) contained one or more porcine parvovirus (PPV)-infected fetuses, as determined by immunofluorescent microscopy. The frequencies in sow and gilt litters were 12.0% and 9.4%, respectively. The PPV antigen was detected in 219 of 334 (65.6%) dead or mummified fetuses and in 12 of 2,172 (0.5%) live fetuses examined. The 18 litters which contained only dead or mummified fetuses were infected with PPV. As the percentage of litter mummification increased, the likelihood of finding PPV increased. The PPV antibody was detected in ovarian follicular fluids of 94.3% of the sows and 78.1% of the gilts. These findings indicate that PPV is highly associated with fetal mummification and that some pregnant gilts and sows are susceptible to infection.

  11. Evaluation of the Fetal Heart Rate during Amniocentesis in Fetuses with Normal and Abnormal Karyotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marija Hadzi-Lega; Ana Daneva-Markova; Eva Sozovska

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. We monitored the fetal heart rate (FHR) during amniocentesis in fetuses at 16-22 weeks of gestation and investigated whether an abnormal FHR was associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Methods...

  12. Heart Risks to Fetus from Bipolar Drug May Be Lower Than Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fetus From Bipolar Drug May Be Lower Than Thought Pregnant women taking lithium should discuss any concerns ... still need to use judgment when you are thinking about keeping patients on lithium," Kramer said. "Some ...

  13. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  14. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  15. Is Greenberg’s “Macro-Carib” viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg’s primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib ‘etymologies’ and another 64 Amerind ‘etymologies’. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg’s Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg’s morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg’s 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable.

  16. Case-based anatomy teaching: a viable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseonu, Onyedikachi; Carachi, Robert; Brindley, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a decline in the amount of time available for anatomy teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum, and new methods of anatomy teaching have been adopted for pragmatic reasons, with little evidence base to support their proposed educational benefits. This study seeks to establish the effect of a case-based teaching method on students' confidence in anatomy. Forty-three student volunteers in the clinical phase of the Glasgow medical course were given weekly anatomy teaching sessions based on clinical case presentations over 4 weeks. The students were given an anatomy test, and were asked to rate their confidence in their anatomy knowledge before and after the teaching sessions. There was a two-point increase in students' self-rated confidence, and a 10.9 per cent increase in average test score after the case-based anatomy teaching sessions. Both of these increases were statistically significant (p teaching was also highly rated by students, which may make it a viable option for the teaching of anatomy in the modern medical curriculum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  18. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  19. SMA actuators: a viable practical technology (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Hodgson, Darel E.

    2015-04-01

    Diverse products either based solely on or incorporating Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have and are being made in a wide range of industries, and IP is being captured. Why then compared to SE (superelastic) Nitinol, and especially conventional technology, do so few ideas reach production? This presentation delves deeply into this topic in reaching the final assessment that SMA actuators are indeed now a viable practical technology. The presentation begins with an introduction to and description of the fundamental basis of SMA actuator technology. Examples of multiple commercially available geometric forms of SMA actuators are given and the functionalities that they provide are described. This is followed by examples of multiple commercial products incorporating such SMA actuators. Given that there are literally millions of commercial products incorporating conventional actuator technologies, indications are given as to why there are their less than 1000 that utilize SMA. Experience based challenges to the commercial use of SMA actuators are described. Besides having to compete with existing non-SMA technology which is quite mature additional challenges that are unique to SM actuators are indicated these including a wider than expected set of technical engineering problems and challenges and that a broader scope of dynamics is required.

  20. Strontium transfer from maternal skeleton to the fetus estimated on the basis of the Techa river data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Burmistrov, D. S.; Neta, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of 90Sr in human bone of inhabitants of the Techa river region were started in 1951, and since 1974 the Techa river population has been studied with a whole-body counter. One of the dosimetric tasks that could be decided using data on 90Sr measurements is direct evaluation of strontium transfer to the fetus from the maternal skeleton. Six cases were selected for which 90Sr measurements were available both for stillborn infants and their mothers. The ratio of 90Sr concentrations in fetal bone to maternal bone for the year of pregnancy has been evaluated. Two clusters of values were found and the difference between clusters could be explained by age-dependent features of maternal bone formation and remodelling. When the mother's 90Sr intake occurred in the period of intensive compact bone growth, the transfer coefficient was very low (0.012-0.032). If 90Sr ingestion occurred during the woman's reproductive age, the transfer to fetus was equal to 0.21-0.26.

  1. Strontium transfer from maternal skeleton to the fetus estimated on the basis of the Techa River data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolstykh, E.I.; Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Burmistrov, D.S

    1998-07-01

    Measurements of {sup 90}Sr in human bone of inhabitants of the Techa river region were started in 1951, and since 1974 the Techa river population has been studied with a whole-body counter. One of the dosimetric tasks that could be decided using data on {sup 90}Sr measurements is direct evaluation of strontium transfer to the fetus from the maternal skeleton. Six cases were selected for which {sup 90}Sr measurements were available both for stillborn infants and their mothers. The ratio of {sup 90}Sr concentrations in fetal bone to maternal bone for the year of pregnancy has been evaluated. Two clusters of values were found and the difference between clusters could be explained by age-dependent features of maternal bone formation and remodelling. When the mother's {sup 90}Sr intake occurred in the period of intensive compact bone growth, the transfer coefficient was very low (0.012-0.032). If {sup 90}Sr ingestion occurred during the woman's reproductive age, the transfer to fetus was equal to 0.21-0.26. (author)

  2. Successful management of mummified fetus in a heifer by prostaglandin therapy and episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetal mummification is one of the gestation- al accidents that occur due to intra-uterine death of fetus commonly at fourth, fifth and six months of gestation. This report describes the successful management of the mummified fetus in a five year old graded Holstein Friesian heifer cow using single dose of prostaglandin F2α analogue and by performing episiotomy. Antibiotic therapy was given to avoid any uterine infection.

  3. Longitudinal changes in fetal biometry and cerebroplacental hemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, A; Cruz-Lemini, M; Masoller, N; Sanz-Cortés, M; Ferrer, Q; Ribera, I; Martínez, J M; Crispi, F; Arévalo, S; Gómez, O; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Carreras, E; Gratacós, E; Llurba, E

    2017-03-01

    To determine the longitudinal behavior of fetal biometric measures and cerebroplacental hemodynamics throughout gestation in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD). Fetal biometry and Doppler hemodynamics (uterine artery (UtA), umbilical artery (UA) and fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA)) were measured serially in a cohort of consecutive fetuses diagnosed with CHD. Evaluations were made at various time points, from diagnosis (20-25 weeks) to delivery, with at least two measurements per fetus that were at least 2 weeks apart. Fetuses were classified into three groups according to the pattern of blood supply to the brain (placental vs systemic) that would be expected on the basis of the type of CHD. All parameters were transformed into Z-scores. A linear mixed model to analyze repeated measurements was constructed for each parameter to assess its behavior throughout gestation. Four hundred and forty-four ultrasound examinations were performed in 119 CHD fetuses, with a median of two measurements per fetus. The fetuses presented a small head at diagnosis (biparietal diameter (BPD) Z-score, -1.32 ± 0.99; head circumference (HC) Z-score, -0.79 ± 1.02), which remained small throughout gestation. UtA and UA pulsatility indices (PI) showed a significant increase towards the end of pregnancy, whereas no significant changes were observed in MCA-PI or cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) with gestational age. Both MCA and CPR presented significant differences in longitudinal behavior between CHD groups, while BPD and HC did not. CHD fetuses have a relatively small head from the second trimester of pregnancy, regardless of the type of CHD anomaly, and increasing resistance in the UtA and UA as pregnancy progresses, suggestive of increasing degree of placental impairment. Our findings indicate the early onset of mechanisms that could lead to poorer neurodevelopment later in life. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by

  4. Intrauterine Treatment of a Fetus with Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Secondary to MYH7 Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Meghan G; Sekhon, Mehtab K; Reed, Kathryn L; Anderson, Caroline F; Borjon, Nydia D; Tardiff, Jil C; Barber, Brent J

    2015-12-01

    There is no clear consensus on optimal management of fetuses affected by familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Intrauterine treatment of the condition has not been attempted in any standardized fashion. We report the case of a fetus treated by maternal propranolol during the third trimester after septal hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed on fetal echocardiogram. The pregnancy went successfully to term, and fetal septal hypertrophy was noted to improve prior to delivery.

  5. Cardiotocographic and Doppler Ultrasonographic Findings in a Fetus with Brain Death Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Tien; Tseng, Jenn-Jhy; Chen, Wei-Chih; Ho, Esther Shih-Chu; Chou, Min-Min

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis of brain death syndrome by cardiotocography (CTG) and Doppler ultrasonography (US) is reported in a fetus at 35 weeks of gestation. Case Report: A 23-year-old, gravida 2, para 0, woman was referred to our hospital because of the absence of fetal movements. CTG showed fixed fetal heart rate (FHR) pattern. A detailed Doppler US examination of the fetus showed extensive cystic lesions of both cerebral hemispheres, polyhydramnios, total absence of neuromuscular paramet...

  6. Anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758])

    OpenAIRE

    Mariangela de Toledo Barbino; Claudia Marinovic Oliveira; Erika Toledo Fonseca; Phelipe de Oliveira Favaron; Márcio Nogueira Rodrigues; Maria Angélica Miglino

    2011-01-01

    To describe the anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758]) fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Three fetuses of Guinea pig in late gestation have been used, which were dissected and had their livers removed. These were analized, described, and photographed macroscopically and microscopically through light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microsc...

  7. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in ear punch samples collected from bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Julia F; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Waldbillig, Jill; Neill, John D

    2009-05-01

    Fourteen first-calf heifers were tested free of antibodies against Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) by serum neutralization and free of BVDV by polymerase chain reaction. Twelve were exposed to BVDV-1b strain CA0401186a at 84-86 days of gestation, and 2 were exposed to mock inoculum and served as negative controls. Fetuses were harvested by cesarean section at 115-117 days of gestation. The 12 fetuses removed from the BVDV-exposed heifers were BVDV positive based on virus isolation from kidney, thymus, cerebellum, and spleen. It can be assumed that these fetuses would have developed into persistently infected calves had they been allowed to go to term. Virus was not isolated from the fetuses of control animals. Ear punch samples were collected from all fetuses at time of harvest. Antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE), using a commercial kit, was performed on ear punch samples that were frozen within 5 hr of collection and stored at -20 degrees C until tested, tested after storage for 7 days at room temperature (18-25 degrees C), or tested after storage for 7 days at 37 degrees C. Samples stored for 7 days at room temperature or 37 degrees C lost an average of 34% of their starting weight. All samples from BVDV isolation-positive fetuses tested positive by ACE, whereas samples from nonexposed fetuses tested negative, regardless of storage conditions. These results suggest that ACE testing of skin samples collected from aborted fetuses and stillborn calves found in the field may represent a practical surveillance method for BVDV-induced reproductive disease.

  8. Anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758])

    OpenAIRE

    Mariangela de Toledo Barbino; Claudia Marinovic Oliveira; Erika Toledo Fonseca; Phelipe de Oliveira Favaron; Márcio Nogueira Rodrigues; Maria Angélica Miglino

    2011-01-01

    This study has been developed in order to describe the anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeu,1758]) fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Fetuses have been collected from three female in late gestation, which were described and photographed macroscopically, trhough light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. The fetal heart is divided into four...

  9. [Occurrence of congenital malformations in dead fetuses and neonates autopsied between 1991 and 2001 at the Institute of Pathology and Histology in Novi Sad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erić, Mirela; Vucković, Nada; Pilija, Vladimir; Misolić, Mirjana

    2003-01-01

    Congenital malformations are morphological developmental anomalies visible during clinical examination or autopsy (in case of death, stillborn or abortion). Their incidence in human population is estimated to be between 5-10%, and perinatal mortality rate varies from 20-25%. The research was conducted at the Department of Pathology and Histology and at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Novi Sad. We analyzed autopsy reports of newborns (under 28 days old), stillborns and miscarried fetuses in 1991 and 2001. Data on type and incidence of malformations in 1991 and 2001 were compared in order to determine statistically significant differences. Autopsy reports for 1991 revealed malformations in 21 cases, whereas autopsies were performed in 103 fetuses and newborns. The total number of deliveries at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Novi Sad was 6,160. Autopsy reports for 2001 revealed malformations in 33 cases, and autopsies were performed in 126 fetuses and newborns. The total number of deliveries at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Novi Sad was 6,101. Comparison regarding incidence of malformations in 1991 and 2001, showed no statistically significant difference. Congenital malformations are the most important cause of prenatal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. One reason for that is better treatment of other diseases, but on the other side, there are more toxic materials in human environment. It is concluded that the incidence of congenital malformations in mortality of fetuses and newborns is high (20.39% in 1991, and 26.19% in 2001). We can also point to increase of central nervous system malformations in comparison with malformations of other organ systems.

  10. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waliszewski Stefan M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a consequence of environmental exposure, organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich-tissues such as maternal adipose tissue and partition to maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum. To establish their distribution in the human body, the concentration gradients of organochlorine pesticides between these compartments were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal adipose tissue, blood serum and umbilical blood serum samples from 64 volunteers admitted for cesarean delivery at Hospital Benito Coquet Lagunes were studied in Veracruz during 1997 and 1998. The pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography and results obtained from different sample groups were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and simple lineal regression. RESULTS: Significant results expressed on fat basis of organochlorine pesticides indicate that 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenylethane (DDT levels are higher in maternal adipose tissue (4.51 mg/kg DDE and 1.27 mg/kg pp'DDT, maternal blood serum (4.45 mg/kg DDE and 0.78 mg/kg pp'DDT, and umbilical blood serum (4.70 mg/kg DDE and 0.88 mg/kg pp'DDT, due to greater affinity of DDT for lipids. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical evaluation of results and the pairing of samples analyzed indicate that absorbed organochlorine pesticides cross the placental barrier and reach a balanced state between mother and fetus.

  12. Carry-over of persistent organochlorine pesticides through placenta to fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Siliceo, J

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of environmental exposure, organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich-tissues such as maternal adipose tissue and partition to maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum. To establish their distribution in the human body, the concentration gradients of organochlorine pesticides between these compartments were determined. Maternal adipose tissue, blood serum and umbilical blood serum samples from 64 volunteers admitted for cesarean delivery at Hospital Benito Coquet Lagunes were studied in Veracruz during 1997 and 1998. The pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography and results obtained from different sample groups were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients and simple lineal regression. Significant results expressed on fat basis of organochlorine pesticides indicate that 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) levels are higher in maternal adipose tissue (4.51 mg/kg DDE and 1.27 mg/kg pp'DDT), maternal blood serum (4.45 mg/kg DDE and 0.78 mg/kg pp'DDT), and umbilical blood serum (4.70 mg/kg DDE and 0.88 mg/kg pp'DDT), due to greater affinity of DDT for lipids. The statistical evaluation of results and the pairing of samples analyzed indicate that absorbed organochlorine pesticides cross the placental barrier and reach a balanced state between mother and fetus.

  13. Ectogenesis, abortion and a right to the death of the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Joona

    2017-11-01

    Many people believe that the abortion debate will end when at some point in the future it will be possible for fetuses to develop outside the womb. Ectogenesis, as this technology is called, would make possible to reconcile pro-life and pro-choice positions. That is because it is commonly believed that there is no right to the death of the fetus if it can be detached alive and gestated in an artificial womb. Recently Eric Mathison and Jeremy Davis defended this position, by arguing against three common arguments for a right to the death of the fetus. I claim that their arguments are mistaken. I argue that there is a right to the death of the fetus because gestating a fetus in an artificial womb when genetic parents refuse it violates their rights not to become a biological parent, their rights to genetic privacy and their property rights. The right to the death of the fetus, however, is not a woman's right but genetic parents' collective right which only can be used together. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Doppler velocimetry of ductus venous in preterm fetuses with brain sparing effect: neonatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmo, Ynesmara Coelho; Araujo Júnior, Edward; de Sá, Renato Augusto Moreira; de Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Nassar; Mattar, Rosiane; Lopes, Laudelino Marques; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; de Souza, Eduardo; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-07-01

    to evaluate the relationship between ductus venous (DV) and Doppler velocimetry in neonatal outcome in severe compromised preterm fetuses. the study was designed as an observational and cross-sectional study with 52 premature neonates with brain sparing effect. The criteria of neonatal severe morbidity were: severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grades 3 or 4), retinopathy of prematurity (grade 3 or 4), cystic periventricular leukomalatia, bronchopneumo dysplasia and neonatal mortality. The fetuses were divided in two groups: group 0 - all the fetuses with ventricular systole/atrial contraction (S/A) in DV ratio values less them 3.4; group 1 - fetuses with values of S/A ratio greater than 3.4. 42% of fetuses showed abnormal S/A ratio in DV and 48% showed birth weight below percentile 3 for gestational age. There was no statistical significance comparing the 02 groups according to bronchopneumo dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity (grade 3 or 4) and intraventricular hemorrhage (grade 3 or 4). Only one fetus presented cystic periventricular leukomalatia. We found statistically significant association between abnormal DV S/A ratio and neonatal mortality (CI 95%, 1.28 -38.22, pDoppler examination isn't associated with severe neonatal morbidity but with neonatal mortality.

  15. Widening of the femoral proximal diaphysis--metaphysis angle in fetuses with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A; Morales-Roselló, J; Morlando, M; Bhide, A; Papageorghiou, A; Thilaganathan, B

    2014-07-01

    It has recently been reported that fetuses with achondroplasia have a wider than expected femoral proximal diaphysis-metaphysis angle (femoral angle). The aim of this case-control study was to investigate this finding. Cases with confirmed achondroplasia (n = 6), small-for-gestational-age fetuses (n = 70) and a group of normal fetuses (n = 377) were included in this study. The ultrasound image of the femur was examined by two independent experienced observers blinded to the diagnosis, who measured the femoral angle. These values were converted into multiples of the expected median (MoM), after adjustment for gestational age and femur length. Prevalence of various prenatal ultrasound signs of achondroplasia was determined in affected fetuses. Intra- and interobserver agreement of measurement of femoral angle was assessed using 95% limits of agreement and kappa statistics. The femoral angle can be measured accurately by ultrasound, and increases with both increasing gestational age and increasing femur length. The femoral angle-MoM was significantly higher in fetuses with achondroplasia than in the control group (1.36 vs 1.00 MoM, P achondroplasia (83.3%), which was the most consistent finding other than shortening of the long bones. The femoral angle is wider in fetuses with achondroplasia. This new ultrasound sign appears promising as an additional discriminatory marker when clinicians are faced with a case of short long bones in the third trimester. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Subarachnoid space diameter in chromosomally abnormal fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carolina; Rouxinol-Dias, Ana Lidia; Loureiro, Teresa; Nicolaides, Kypros

    2018-01-16

    To examine the subarachnoid space diameters in chromosomally abnormal fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Stored three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes of the fetal head at 11-13 weeks' gestation from 407 euploid and 88 chromosomally abnormal fetuses (trisomy 21, n = 40; trisomy 18, n = 19; trisomy 13, n = 7; triploidy, n = 14; Turner syndrome, n = 8) were analyzed. The subarachnoid space diameters, measured in the sagittal and transverse planes of the fetal head, in relation to biparietal diameter (BPD) in each group of aneuploidies was compared to that in euploid fetuses. A total of 20 head volumes were randomly selected and all the measurements were recorded by two different observers to examine the interobserver variability in measurements. In euploid fetuses, the anteroposterior, transverse and sagittal diameters of the subarachnoid space increased with BPD. The median of the observed to expected diameters for BPD were significantly increased in triploidy and trisomy 13 but were not significantly altered in trisomies 21 and 18 or Turner syndrome. In triploidy, the subarachnoid space diameters for BPD were above the 95th centile of euploid fetuses in 92.9% (13 of 14) cases. The intraclass reliability or agreement was excellent for all three subarachnoid space diameters. Most fetuses with triploidy at 11-13 weeks' gestation demonstrate increased subarachnoid space diameters.

  17. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

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    Hernán López-Suescún

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La acupuntura es una antigua técnica terapéutica desarrollada en China, que ha evidenciado ser efectiva en síntomas como las náuseas, vómito y dolor dentario. A pesar del sustento fisiológico que posibilitaría un uso efectivo en otras patologías, incluyendo el campo de las adicciones, los estudios son contradictorios, posiblemente por la diferencias de visión entre la medicina oriental y la occidental. El consumo de psicoactivos es un problema de salud pública en Colombia y en el mundo que genera grandes costos tangibles e intangibles, los cuales, en países desarrollados, puede llegar hasta el 1,6 % del PIB. En contraste, el beneficio económico del tratamiento de las adicciones, según las Naciones Unidas Contra la Droga y el Delito (UNODC, está entre 1:3 a 1:13; por lo tanto, cualquier esfuerzo que se realice en favor de los consumidores es una ganancia. Con base en estos datos, los organismos internacionales han generado políticas que ayudan a aminorar estos efectos. Colombia, como integrante de estos organismos, ha realizado varios compromisos para llevar a cabo dichas metas. Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  18. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  19. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  1. Antenatal Steroids and the IUGR Fetus: Are Exposure and Physiological Effects on the Lung and Cardiovascular System the Same as in Normally Grown Fetuses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Janna L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; Soo, Poh Seng; McGillick, Erin V.; Hiscock, Jennifer; Zhang, Song; McMillen, I. Caroline; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia. PMID:23227338

  2. Antenatal steroids and the IUGR fetus: are exposure and physiological effects on the lung and cardiovascular system the same as in normally grown fetuses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Janna L; Botting, Kimberley J; Soo, Poh Seng; McGillick, Erin V; Hiscock, Jennifer; Zhang, Song; McMillen, I Caroline; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia.

  3. Antenatal Steroids and the IUGR Fetus: Are Exposure and Physiological Effects on the Lung and Cardiovascular System the Same as in Normally Grown Fetuses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna L. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia.

  4. Transgenic mice overproducing human thioredoxin-1, an antioxidative and anti-apoptotic protein, prevents diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimoto, Y; Sugiyama, T; Kihira, T; Zhang, L; Murabayashi, N; Umekawa, T; Nagao, K; Ma, N; Toyoda, N; Yodoi, J; Sagawa, N

    2010-09-01

    Experimental studies have suggested that apoptosis is involved in diabetic embryopathy through oxidative stress. However, the precise mechanism of diabetic embryopathy is not yet clear. Thioredoxin (TRX) is a small, ubiquitous, multifunctional protein, which has recently been shown to protect cells from oxidative stress and apoptosis. Using transgenic mice that overproduce human TRX-1 (TRX-Tg mice), we examined whether oxidative stress is involved in fetal dysmorphogenesis in diabetic pregnancies. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (DM) female mice were mated with male TRX-Tg mice. Pregnant mice were killed either at day 10 or day 17 of gestation, and viable fetuses and their placentas were recovered, weighed and assessed for gross and histological morphology, biochemical markers and gene expression. In both wild-type (WT) and transgenic (Tg) groups, fetal and placental weights in the diabetic group were significantly decreased compared with the non-diabetic group. The incidence of malformation was higher in the diabetic group, and was significantly decreased in the TRX-Tg group (DM-WT vs DM-Tg; 28.6% vs 10.4%). Oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were increased in DM-WT group fetuses but were decreased in fetuses from the DM-Tg group. Furthermore, immunohistochemically assayed apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 production in embryonic neuroepithelial cells was significantly increased in the DM-WT group, and was significantly decreased in the DM-Tg group. These results indicate that oxidative stress is involved in diabetic embryopathy, and that the antioxidative protein TRX at least partially prevents diabetic embryopathy via suppression of apoptosis.

  5. The analysis of the frequency of detection of congenital heart disease of the fetus in carryingout of penatal diagnosis in the Zaporozhye region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Avramenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the clinic of Zaporozhye regional center of human reproduction at the prenatal formal care conferences for the period 2011-2012years was examined 1139 pregnant. All the examination in the prenatal formal care conferences during this period diagnosed 177 cases of congenital malformations of the heart. The age of the pregnant women have been registered cases of congenital heart diseases of the fetus, varied from 18 to 45 years. Risk factors for the development of fetal cardiac pathology were a viral infection in the 1st trimester of pregnancy at 13 pregnant(7,3%, the accompanying intrauterine infection in 5 (2,8%, weighed down by the course of pregnancy and complicated obstetric-gynaecological history had 16 (9%, mother’s age older than 35 years in 39 (22%, occupational hazards in 8 (4,5% of the studied. The most frequent percentage of detection of congenital heart defects in the fetus would be the second trimester of pregnancy (62,2%, the minimum of the first trimester (4%. The most common form of congenital heart diseases of the fetus is a defect of the ventricular septum. Total atrioventricular canal diagnosed at 8.5% of the cases and refers to a heavy vices, which is an indication for abortion and is combined with chromosomal pathology in 26,6% of cases, which is an indication for abortion.

  6. Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R

    2003-11-10

    than spin-based techniques like PB on a Linux platform. Third, the proposed HYBRID scheduling provides the best performance-energy behavior and can be implemented on any cluster with little effort. All these results suggest that blocking-based coscheduling techniques are viable candidates to be used instead of batching scheme for significant performance-energy benefits.

  7. Skeletal abnormalities in fetuses with Down`s syndrome: a radiographic post-mortem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempfle, N.; Brisse, H. [Department of Radiology, R. Debre Hospital, Paris (France); Huten, Y.; Fredouille, C.; Nessmann, C. [Department of Developmental Biology, R. Debre Hospital, Paris (France)

    1999-09-01

    Objective. To evaluate skeletal abnormalities on post-mortem radiographs of fetuses with Down`s syndrome. Materials and methods. Biometrical and morphological criteria, which are used for US prenatal detection of trisomy 21, were assessed. Limb long bones, biparietal diameter (BPD)/occipito-frontal diameter (OFD) ratio, ossification of nasal bones and appearance of the middle phalanx of the fifth digit (P2) in 60 fetuses with Down`s syndrome were analysed and compared with 82 normal fetuses matched for gestational age (GA) from 15 to 40 weeks` gestation (WG). Results. We observed reduced growth velocity of limb long bones during the third trimester in both groups, but the reduction was more pronounced in the trisomic group. Brachycephaly was found as early as 15 WG in Down`s syndrome and continued throughout gestation (sensitivity 0.28, specificity 1). Ossification of the nasal bones, which can be detected in normal fetuses from 14 WG, was absent in one quarter of trisomic fetuses, regardless of GA. The middle phalanx of the fifth digit was evaluated by comparison with the distal phalanx (P3) of the same digit. We found that P2 was not ossified in 11/31 trisomic fetuses before 23 WG, and was either not ossified or hypoplastic in 17/29 cases after 24 WG (sensitivity 0.56, specificity 1). Conclusions. Three key skeletal signs were present in trisomic fetuses: brachycephaly, absence of nasal bone ossification, and hypoplasia of the middle phalanx of the fifth digit. All these signs are appropriate to prenatal US screening. When present, they fully justify determination of the fetal karyotype by amniocentesis. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 25 refs.

  8. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocimetry among healthy fetuses with a single umbilical artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Reli; Sheiner, Eyal; Mazor, Moshe

    2006-11-01

    A single umbilical artery (SUA) is an independent risk factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality in healthy fetuses. The aims of the study were (1) to determine middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocimetric values among fetuses without structural or chromosomal anomalies with an SUA and to compare them with nomograms of patients with a 3-vessel cord and (2) to measure the pulsatility index (PI) of the umbilical artery among these patients. The PI values of the MCA and umbilical arteries were determined prospectively among 98 healthy fetuses with an SUA. The PI values were compared with nomograms of patients with a 3-vessel umbilical cord. For the MCA, peak systolic velocity (PSV) was also measured. Patients carrying fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction or congenital anomalies were excluded from the study. Middle cerebral artery PI values below the fifth percentile and PSV values above the 95th percentile adjusted for gestational age were considered abnormal. Gestational age ranged between 22 and 37.9 weeks (median, 30.3 weeks). After adjusting for gestational age, no alterations in the MCA PI and umbilical PI were found in comparison with the normal range for a 3-vessel cord known in the literature. Middle cerebral artery PSV values were also within the normal range for gestational age in all patients. The MCA PI and PSV values among healthy fetuses with an isolated SUA were similar to nomograms for fetuses with a 3-vessel umbilical cord. Therefore, abnormal MCA PI and PSV values among fetuses with an SUA should be treated the same as in patients with a 3-vessel umbilical cord.

  9. Structural and molecular regulation of lung maturation by intratracheal vascular endothelial growth factor administration in the normally grown and placentally restricted fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillick, Erin V; Orgeig, Sandra; Morrison, Janna L

    2016-03-01

    Inhibition of hypoxia signalling leads to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), whereas administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the most widely characterized hypoxia responsive factor, protects from RDS. In the lung of the chronically hypoxaemic placentally restricted (PR) fetus, there is altered regulation of hypoxia signalling. This leads to reduced surfactant maturation in late gestation and provides evidence for the increased risk of RDS in growth restricted neonates at birth. We evaluated the effect of recombinant human VEGF administration with respect to bypassing the endogenous regulation of hypoxia signalling in the lung of the normally grown and PR sheep fetus. There was no effect of VEGF administration on fetal blood pressure or fetal breathing movements. We examined the effect on the expression of genes regulating VEGF signalling (FLT1 and KDR), angiogenesis (ANGPT1, AQP1, ADM), alveolarization (MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, COL1A1, ELN), proliferation (IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, MKI67, PCNA), inflammation (CCL2, CCL4, IL1B, TNFA, TGFB1, IL10) and surfactant maturation (SFTP-A, SFTP-B, SFTP-C, SFTP-D, PCYT1A, LPCAT, LAMP3, ABCA3). Despite the effects of PR on the expression of genes regulating airway remodelling, inflammatory signalling and surfactant maturation, there were very few effects of VEGF administration on gene expression in the lung of both the normally grown and PR fetus. There were, however, positive effects of VEGF administration on percentage tissue, air space and numerical density of SFTP-B positive alveolar epithelial cells in fetal lung tissue. These results provide evidence for the stimulatory effects of VEGF administration on structural maturation in the lung of both the normally grown and PR fetus. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  10. Effect of myocardial revascularisation on left ventricular systolic function in patients with and without viable myocardium: should non-viable segments be revascularised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipac, Alja Vlahovic; Stankovic, Ivan; Vidakovic, Radosav; Putnikovic, Biljana; Ilic, Ivan; Milicic, Biljana; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of surgical revascularisation on left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with viable and non-viable dysfunctional LV segments determined by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Prospective observational cohort study. Single tertiary care centre. Consecutive patients referred to surgical revascularisation (n=115). DSE and surgical revascularisation. Functional recovery defined as increase in ejection fraction ≥ 5% 1 year after revascularisation in patients with and without viable myocardium (viability defined as improvement of contractility in ≥ 4 LV segments on DSE). The mean age, ejection fraction and wall motion score index (WMSi) of patients were 59 ± 9 years, 44 ± 9% and 1.82 ± 0.31, respectively. There was no difference between DSE positive and DSE negative patients for any of those parameters at baseline study (p>0.05 for all). After 12 months, the ejection fraction increased 11 ± 1% in patients with viable myocardium vs 7 ± 1% in patients without viable myocardium (p=0.002). Moreover, in patients with viable myocardium, the greatest increase of ejection fraction occurred 1 month after surgery (9 ± 1%), whereas in those patients with negative DSE the ejection fraction increased more gradually (2±1% after 1 month, p=0.002 between groups for 1 month vs preoperative value), but still improved after 12 months follow-up (pmyocardial revascularisation. Functional recovery continuously occurs throughout the first year after surgical treatment.

  11. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  12. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  13. [Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of Hb Bart's hydrops fetus using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xing-Jiang; Long, Gui-Fang; Lin, Wei-Xiong

    2009-03-01

    To explore a new noninvasive method for Hb Bart' s hydrops fetus by using PCR amplification efficiency discrimination between cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) and cell-free maternal DNA in maternal plasma. CffDNA samples from pregnant women bearing possible Hb Bart's hydrops fetus were collected. Fluorescent PCR and capillary electrophoresis (CE) were performed. Hb Bart's hydrops fetus was conclusively identified by different peak area ratio of products. The peak area ratio of 30 cffDNA samples from Hb Bart' s hydrops fetus was much less than 1. However, the ratio of cffDNA sample from hydrops fetus due to other reasons was approximately equal to 1. By using cffDNA fluorescent PCR and CE, a prenatal screening method for Hb Bart' s hydrops fetus was developed.

  14. Review of the correlation between blood flow velocity and polycythemia in the fetus, neonate and adult: appropriate diagnostic levels need to be determined for twin anemia-polycythemia sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucewicz, A; Fisher, K; Henry, A; Welsh, A W

    2016-02-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is recognized increasingly antenatally by the demonstration of an anemic twin and a polycythemic cotwin using the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV). While the MCA-PSV has been shown to correlate well with anemia in singleton fetuses, the evidence to support its use to diagnose fetal polycythemia appears to be less clear-cut. We aimed to evaluate fetal, neonatal and adult literature used to support the use of MCA-PSV for the diagnosis of polycythemia. Comprehensive literature searches were performed for ultrasound evidence of polycythemia in the human fetus, neonate and adult using key search terms. Only manuscripts in the English language with an abstract were considered for the review, performed in June 2014. Fifteen manuscripts were found for the human fetus, including 38 cases of TAPS. Nine of these defined fetal polycythemia as MCA-PSV polycythemia and a consequent increase with hemodilution. In the adult, five studies (57 polycythemic adults) demonstrated increased flow or velocity with hemodilution. Neither neonatal nor adult studies conclusively defined levels for screening for polycythemia. Despite widespread adoption of a cut-off of < 0.8 MoM in the published literature for the polycythemic fetus in TAPS, this is based upon minimal evidence, with unknown sensitivity and specificity. We recommend caution in excluding TAPS based purely upon the absence of a reduced MCA-PSV. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Poverty alleviation in Uganda: the case for a viable optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation is a long and painstaking process. It involves knowing what poverty is, its causes and means of alleviating it. Poverty is one of the scourges including disease and ignorance a combination of which deprives humanity of the basic needs for living. Among the strategies to alleviate poverty is effective ...

  16. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  17. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  18. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    is slowed, although oxygen consumption is unaltered when corrected for fetal mass. Similarly, birth weight is reduced in humans living at high altitude even if the effect is tempered in those with a long highland ancestry. Placental mass changes little during sustained hypoxia in sheep or humans at high...

  19. Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring in five fetuses with Ebstein's anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Mamoru; Endo, Daisuke; Yamada, Takahiro; Cho, Kazutoshi; Yamada, Takashi; Minakami, Hisanori

    2014-02-01

    It is not clear whether fetuses with Ebstein's anomaly are likely to show abnormalities on electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor. We performed retrospective analysis of FHR monitoring results obtained between 2.5 and 0.5 h prior to delivery in all of five fetuses prenatally diagnosed as having Ebstein's anomaly and born at our institution during the period between March 2005 and July 2011. All five mothers attempted to give birth vaginally. The results of FHR monitoring in 100 consecutive women with otherwise healthy singletons who attempted vaginal delivery were included as controls. The absence of FHR acceleration (4/5 [80%]), decreased baseline FHR variability (3/5 [60%]) and late deceleration (4/5 [80%]) were seen significantly more often in the five fetuses with Ebstein's anomaly than the 100 fetuses born to control women (6.0%, 6.0%, and 10%, respectively). Fetuses with Ebstein's anomaly during labor were likely to exhibit absent acceleration, decreased baseline FHR variability and late deceleration compared to infants without cardiac structural anomalies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. The identification of a spontaneous 47, XX, +21/46, XY chimeric fetus with male genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kuei-Fang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 30 sex-chromosome discordant chimera cases have been reported to date, of which only four cases carried trisomy 21. Here, we present an additional case, an aborted fetus with a karyotype of 47,XX, +21/46,XY. Case presentation Autopsy demonstrated that this fetus was normally developed and had male genitalia. Major characteristics of Down syndrome were not observed except an enlarged gap between the first and second toes. Karyotyping of tissues cultured from the fetus revealed the same chimeric chromosomal composition detected in the amniotic fluid but with a different ratio of [47,XX,+21] to [46,XY]. Further short tandem repeat analysis indicated a double paternal contribution and single maternal contribution to the fetus, with the additional chromosome 21 in the [47,XX,+21] cell lineage originating from the paternal side. Conclusion We thus propose that this chimeric fetus was formed via the dispermic fertilization of a parthenogenetic ovum with one (Y sperm and one (X,+21 sperm.

  1. Efek Toksin T-2 terhadap Perkembangan Embrio Praimplantasi dan Fetus Mencit Swiss Webster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS HARYONO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a toxic and teratogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium tricintum which may contaminate cereal, seed, and food. The aim of this research is to find out the effects of T-2 Toxin on preimplantion embryos and fetuses of Swiss Webster mice. Pregnant female of Swiss Webster mice on 0 or 2 day of gestation was injected intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin at doses 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg body weight (bw and the dam was observed at 3.5 and 18 days of gestation. At 0 day of gestation, embryos were arrested at one to eight cell and uncompacted morulae stages (P < 0.01 compared to control, in both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg bw doses. The cell numbers of late blastocyst at all treated groups were decreased significantly compared to control. At 2 day of gestation, most of embryos were arrested on compacted morulae stage at dose 0.10 mg/kg bw (P < 0.01, the late blastocyst and its cell number were dose-dependently decreased. The live fetuses decreased significantly at all dose of T-2 toxin. No external malformation occurred in the fetuses. Results showed that T-2 toxin given at preimplantation stages inhibited development of preimplantation embryos as indicated by decreased number of live fetuses. Therefore, it was grouped as embryotoxic agent but those dosages did not cause malformation of the external appearance of Swiss Webster mice fetuses.

  2. Fetuses of Mothers with Thyroid Disease May Be at Higher Risk of Developing Supraventricular Tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer A; Williams, Paula; Lu, Zengqi; Kavanaugh-McHugh, Ann; Fish, Frank A; Killen, Stacy A S

    2015-11-01

    Fetal tachyarrhythmias complicate 0.5% of pregnancies, with high morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that maternal factors may predispose to fetal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). We reviewed medical records of all 124 mothers who presented to the Vanderbilt Fetal Cardiology Clinic from 2004 to 2010 for fetal arrhythmias, excluding heart block. Maternal factors were compared between 28 fetuses with SVT and a control group of 112 fetuses screened for noncardiac conditions. The proportions were analyzed using chi-square or Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables. Of maternal factors, thyroid disease was statistically significant compared with controls. Among mothers whose fetuses had SVT, 21% had thyroid disease (83% hypothyroidism) compared with 3% of controls (p < 0.001). In this cohort, the maternal thyroid disease was more common in fetuses with SVT compared with controls (odds ratio = 9.8, 95% confidence interval 2.3-42.3), suggesting closer screening for fetal arrhythmias and SVT in mothers with thyroid disease. Also, routine screening of thyroid functions and thyroid autoantibodies may be warranted in mothers of fetuses with SVT. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Choroid plexus separation in fetuses without ventriculomegaly: Natural course and postnatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Ali; Sayit, Asli Tanrivermis; Idilman, Ilkay S; Kurt, Aydın; Cay, Nurdan; Unal, Ozlem; Karabulut, Erdem; Keskin, Huseyin Levent; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate fetuses with choroid plexus separation without ventriculomegaly in terms of fetal malformations, behavior of the separation during follow-up, and postnatal outcome. In total, 172 fetuses with choroid plexus separation without ventriculomegaly were included in this prospective study. Fetal sonography was performed at 2- to 4-week intervals, and detailed physical and neurologic examinations were performed after their delivery. Fetuses were categorized into normal and abnormal subgroups according to the outcome. Sixteen fetuses (9.3%) were included in the abnormal-outcome group and 156 fetuses (90.7%) were included in the normal-outcome group. Both the initial mean lateral ventricular diameter (9.3 mm versus 8.6 mm) and the initial mean choroid plexus separation (4.8 mm versus 3.3 mm) were greater in the abnormal group than in the normal group (p plexus separation to detect a major anomaly, with 87.5% sensitivity and 93.6% specificity. Choroid plexus separation without ventriculomegaly often resolves within the third trimester and does not affect postnatal outcome. It can be associated with various fetal malformations; however, with a comprehensive examination, all fetal malformations can be detected prenatally. Follow-up sonography studies would be useful, especially in the case of suspected corpus callosum agenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients

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    Camargo da C, E.; Ribeiro da R, L. A.; Santos B, D. V., E-mail: etieli@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria / CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, 22783-127 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Each year a considerable amount of pregnant women needs to be submitted to radiotherapeutic procedures to combat malignant tumors. Radiation therapy is often a treatment of choice for these patients. It is possible to use shielding and beam positioning such that the potential dose to the fetus can be minimized. In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. The patient was simulated by an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated using micro-rod TLD-100 detectors in two conditions, namely protecting the patients abdomen with a 7 cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the abdomen protection in reducing the fetus absorbed dose. Irradiations were performed with a Trilogy linear accelerator using x-rays of 6 MV. A total dose of 50 Gy to the target volume was delivered. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and (0.88±0.052) c Gy, corresponding to a dose reduction of 59%. The dose (0.52±0.039) c Gy is within the zone of biological tolerance for the fetus. (Author)

  5. Fetal growth assessment and neonatal birth weight in fetuses with an isolated single umbilical artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predanic, Mladen; Perni, Sriram C; Friedman, Alexander; Chervenak, Frank A; Chasen, Stephen T

    2005-05-01

    To evaluate interval fetal growth and compare the incidence of small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns between fetuses with an isolated single umbilical artery and those with a 3-vessel umbilical cord. A retrospective, case-controlled study in which 84 singleton pregnancies with an isolated single umbilical artery were compared with 3-vessel umbilical cord fetuses as the control group. There was no statistical difference between the groups in maternal demographic data, except for ethnicity and neonatal outcomes, respectively. The mean newborn birth weight was similar between the isolated single umbilical artery and the control groups, 3,268 +/- 596 g and 3,274 +/- 627 g, respectively. The prevalence of SGA newborns was 7.1% (6 of 84) in the isolated single umbilical artery group and 4.8% (4 of 84) in the control group. An ultrasound examination demonstrated fetal growth restriction in 50% of cases (3 of 6) in the isolated single umbilical artery group and in 25% of subjects (1 of 4) in the control group, respectively. Fetuses with an isolated single umbilical artery are at similar risk for SGA compared with fetuses with 3-vessel umbilical cords. It appears that antepartum serial ultrasound examination does not provide more information for interval fetal growth assessment in fetuses with an isolated single umbilical artery.

  6. Prenatal management, pregnancy and pediatric outcomes in fetuses with septated cystic hygroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Y. Sanhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that, compared with simple increased nuchal translucency, fetal cases with septated cystic hygroma (CH are more likely to face perinatal handicaps. However, pediatric outcomes and proper prenatal counseling for this anomaly have not yet been truly defined. We performed this study to determine pregnancy and pediatric outcomes of fetuses with septated CH. We searched records for cases with septated CH and collected data for structural abnormalities, karyotype analysis, and pregnancy outcomes. Fetuses born with septated CH were also evaluated for their pediatric outcomes. Sixty-nine fetuses with septated CH were enrolled in the study. Results showed that chromosomal abnormalities were present in 28 fetuses (40.6%, and the most common aneuploidy was Turner syndrome (n=14, 20.3%; 16 (23.2% of the remaining cases, in which aneuploidy was not found, had coexistent structural malformations; 25 (36.2% cases had normal karyotype and morphology. The total number of live births and infants with unfavorable neurologic follow-up were 13 (18.8% and 2 (2.9%, respectively. Septated CH is associated with poor perinatal outcomes; therefore, karyotype analysis and ultrasonographic anomaly screening should be performed as initial steps, and expectant management should be offered to couples with euploid fetuses that have normal morphology.

  7. Functional brain development in growth-restricted and constitutionally small fetuses: a fetal magnetoencephalography case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, E C; Schleger, F; Preissl, H; Braendle, J; Eswaran, H; Abele, H; Brucker, S; Kiefer-Schmidt, I

    2015-08-01

    Fetal magnetoencephalography records fetal brain activity non-invasively. Delayed brain responses were reported for fetuses weighing below the tenth percentile. To investigate whether this delay indicates delayed brain maturation resulting from placental insufficiency, this study distinguished two groups of fetuses below the tenth percentile: growth-restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity (IUGR) and constitutionally small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler findings (SGA) were compared with fetuses of adequate weight for gestational age (AGA), matched for age and behavioural state. A case-control study of matched pairs. Fetal magnetoencephalography-Center at the University Hospital of Tuebingen. Fourteen IUGR fetuses and 23 SGA fetuses were matched for gestational age and fetal behavioural state with 37 healthy, normal-sized fetuses. A 156-channel fetal magentoencephalography system was used to record fetal brain activity. Light flashes as visual stimulation were applied to the fetus. The Student's t-test for paired groups was performed. Latency of fetal visual evoked magnetic responses (VER). The IUGR fetuses showed delayed VERs compared with controls (IUGR, 233.1 ms; controls, 184.6 ms; P = 0.032). SGA fetuses had similar evoked response latencies compared with controls (SGA, 216.1 ms; controls, 219.9 ms; P = 0.828). Behavioural states were similarly distributed. Visual evoked responses are delayed in IUGR fetuses, but not in SGA. Fetal behavioural state as an influencing factor of brain response latency was accounted for in the comparison. This reinforces that delayed brain maturation is the result of placental insufficiency. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Propidium monoazide combined with real-time quantitative PCR to quantify viable Alternaria spp. contamination in tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Estiarte, Núria; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2013-08-01

    Alternaria is a common contaminating genus of fungi in fruits, grains, and vegetables that causes severe economic losses to farmers and the food industry. Furthermore, it is claimed that Alternaria spp. are able to produce phytotoxic metabolites, and mycotoxins that are unsafe for human and animal health. DNA amplification techniques are being increasingly applied to detect, identify, and quantify mycotoxigenic fungi in foodstuffs, but the inability of these methods to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells might lead to an overestimation of mycotoxin-producing living cells. A promising technique to overcome this problem is the pre-treatment of samples with nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA selectively penetrates cells with a damaged membrane inhibiting DNA amplification during qPCRs. In our study, a primer pair (Alt4-Alt5) to specifically amplify and quantify Alternaria spp. by qPCR was designed. Quantification data of qPCR achieved a detection limit of 10(2)conidia/g of tomato. Here, we have optimized for the first time a DNA amplification-based PMA sample pre-treatment protocol for detecting viable Alternaria spp. cells. Artificially inoculated tomato samples treated with 65μM of PMA, showed a reduction in the signal by almost 7cycles in qPCR between live and heat-killed Alternaria spp. conidia. The tomato matrix had a protective effect on the cells against PMA toxicity, reducing the efficiency to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells. The results reported here indicate that the PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantifying viable Alternaria cells, which could be useful for estimating potential risks of mycotoxin contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Mummified fetus in the thoracic cavity of a domestic short-haired cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planellas, Marta; Martin, Núria; Pons, Carles; Font, Josep; Cairo, Jordi

    2012-02-01

    This short communication describes the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical course of a domestic short-haired cat with diaphragmatic hernia in which the herniated structure in the thoracic cavity contained a mummified fetus. The cat was pregnant when rescued from the street and, days later, gave birth without abnormalities. Some months later, during an ovariohysterectomy, an abnormal localization of the uterus was observed, and at that time the case was referred to our center. A thoracic radiograph showed an abnormal thoracic mass cranial to the heart. The main suspicion was the presence of a thoracic hernia with the uterus herniated and containing a mummified fetus. A thoracotomy was performed to confirm the nature of the mass and reduce the diaphragmatic hernia. Although this clinical case is quite rare, a mummified fetus can be observed in thoracic hernias. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fetus papyraceus: congenital pulmonary anomalies associated with congenital aplasia cutis on the surviving twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louise, Lagier; Annabel, Maruani; Hubert, Lardy; Isabelle, Gibertini; Gerard, Lorette

    2013-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) can be associated with fetus papyraceus. We report here the first case of ACC linked to fetus papyraceus with pulmonary anomalies. At birth, the patient presented with skin lesions of the trunk consisting of well-defined, symmetrically distributed, bilateral atrophic ulcerations. Physical examination was otherwise normal. Persistent bronchospasm occurred at the age of 7 months; computed tomography images showed small bilateral pulmonary bullae. At the age of 5 years, skin and pulmonary lesions had not extended. Although the mechanisms of ACC linked to fetus papyraceus are unclear, vascular ischemia is strongly suggested, and could explain the bilateral and symmetric congenital skin and lung aplasia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Virtual autopsy and forensic anthropology of a mummified fetus: a report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedouit, Fabrice; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Telmon, Norbert; Gainza, David; Otal, Philippe; Joffre, Francis; Rougé, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    A jar containing the mummified body of a fetus was found in a bush near a building. Full-body multislice computed tomography (MSCT) was performed prior to autopsy to study the bones and internal organs. Age was estimated by measuring femoral and tibial lengths and examining the temporal and occipital bones. The results were then compared with the autopsy and histopathological findings. MSCT was superior to autopsy for examination of the bones and internal organs. Autopsy was difficult because of the fragility of the dried corpse. MSCT determined the gestational age of the fetus and excluded skeletal abnormalities. Estimated age was similar with the two methods used. However, the major advantage of MSCT was rapid measurement of bones or anatomical regions which are difficult to examine during autopsy and which required specific preparation for further anthropological study. This case report illustrates the possibilities offered by MSCT for studying mummified bodies, even fetuses.

  13. OPPORTUNITIES OF TRANSVAGINAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY FOR EARLY PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF INBORN HEART DISEASES IN FETUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Shevchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature data, transvaginal echocardiography (Echocg is the method, used for the doppler diagnostics in early terms of pregnancy (if principles of safety are observed. This method allows detecting about 70–97% of all prognostic cally significant inborn heart diseases in fetus, beginning at 12 week of pregnancy. a scheme of research includes estimation of four chamber cut of fetus heart, and study of state of its main arteries. This is an expert investigation, because it needs special grounding of specialist, high resolution ultrasonic equipment, and considerable expense of time. Wile parameters are estimated, it is necessary to use normative rates of sizes of ventricles and main arteries of fetus, developed by Russian experts, taking into account individual variations.Key words: transvaginal echocardiography, diagnosis, inborn heart disease.

  14. Monitoring the progressive increase of the longest episode of spontaneous movements in Guinea pig fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the changes in the duration of spontaneous movements in the guinea pig fetus after the appearance of its first movements. Every day from the 25th to the 35th gestation day, one fetus from each of twenty pregnant animals was examined by ultrasound. Fetal movements were observed for 5 min. The episode with the longest period of movement was taken into consideration and was recorded as: 3 s. Days 25 and 26 were characterized by episodes lasting 3 s (χ2 = 140.51 p <0.05. Tracking the dynamics of progressive increases in the longest episode of spontaneous movement could be a useful factor in estimating the maturity and condition of a fetus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175006/2011

  15. EARLY PRENATAL DIAGNOSTICS OF INBORN HEART DISEASES OF FETUSES WITH NUCHAL TRANSLUCENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Shevchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents an analysis of 38 events of inborn heart diseases of fetus with nuchal translucency, diagnosing on 11–16 weeks of pregnancy during consultative procedure. The spectrum of registered inborn heart diseases is represented by following nosologic forms: defect of interventricular partition, heart ectopy, atrioventricular canal, general arterial trunk, hypoplastic syndrome of the left sections of heart, fallot's tetrad, combination of defects of intracardiac partitions with diverticulum of ventricle. Frequency of registered inborn heart diseases and negative perinatal outcomes increased with the rise of thickness of nuchal translucency of fetus. transvaginal echocardiography with use of highly resolving ultra sonic equipment and new technology should be carried out in all cases of registration of widened nuchal translucency of fetus. It is decisive in improvement of diagnostics of inborn heart diseases, especially on early terms.Key words: inborn heart diseases, transvaginal echocardiography, prenatal diagnostics.

  16. Histotopography of the female cavernous nerve: a study using donated fetuses and adult cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masao; Niikura, Hitoshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Murakami, Gen; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Matsubara, Akio

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the histotopography of the female cavernous nerve. The study used semi-serial horizontal sections of seven fetuses and ten adult cadavers. In fetuses, the female cavernous nerve ran anteriorly between the distal vagina and the levator ani and entered the corpus cavernosum clitoridis. Its course through the argental hiatus was similar to that of the male cavernous nerve. However, the fascial arrangement along the female cavernous nerve was different from that of the three male fetuses included in this study. In female adults, the putative cavernous nerve was found running along the lateral aspect of the rhabdosphincter, along the superior surface of the urethrovaginal sphincter and around the lateral end of the latter sphincter. Because the female cavernous nerve and lateral vaginal wall are closely related, surgical treatment along the mid- and distal urethra should be conducted cautiously so as not to injure the perivaginal autonomic nerves.

  17. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  18. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  1. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  9. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design

  10. High fetal splenic artery peak velocity in fetuses with hemoglobin Bart disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Luewan, Suchaya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the splenic artery (SPA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) in identifying fetuses with hemoglobin (Hb) Bart disease among pregnancies at risk for the disease. Pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart disease scheduled for cordocentesis at 18 to 25 weeks' gestation at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital were recruited into the study. The SPA PSV was measured before cordocentesis, and the final fetal diagnosis of Hb Bart disease was based on fetal Hb typing using high-performance liquid chromatography. Seventy-six singleton pregnancies at risk for fetal Hb Bart disease were sonographically evaluated for the SPA PSV and underwent cordocentesis for fetal blood analysis. Among the 76 recruited pregnancies, 17 fetuses with Hb Bart disease were finally diagnosed by fetal blood analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography, and the remainder had no abnormalities or had the alpha-thalassemia 1 trait and were defined as unaffected fetuses. The mean SPA PSVs +/- SD for the unaffected and affected fetuses were significantly different: 21.17 +/- 3.7 cm/s (range, 13.8-29.9 cm/s) and 26.12 +/- 3.6 cm/s (range, 20.4-31.5 cm/s) respectively. The SPA PSV of the affected fetuses was higher than that of the unaffected ones (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P Hb Bart disease. Further studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the SPA PSV in differentiating affected from unaffected fetuses among pregnancies at risk are desirable.

  11. The fetuses-at-risk approach: survival analysis from a fetal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Kramer, Michael S

    2017-07-25

    Several phenomena in contemporary perinatology create challenges for analyzing pregnancy outcomes. These include recent increases in iatrogenic delivery at late preterm and early term gestation, which are incongruent with the belief that stillbirth and neonatal death risks decrease exponentially with advancing gestational age. Perinatal epidemiologists have also puzzled over the paradox of intersecting birthweight-specific and gestational age-specific perinatal mortality curves for decades. For example, neonatal mortality rates among preterm infants of women who smoke are substantially lower than neonatal mortality rates among preterm infants of non-smoking women, whereas the reverse pattern occurs at term gestation. This mortality crossover is observed across several contrasts (e.g. women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy versus normotensive women, older versus younger women, twins versus singletons) and outcomes (stillbirth, neonatal death, sudden infant death syndrome and cerebral palsy), and irrespective of how advancing "maturity" is defined (birthweight or gestational age). One approach proposed to address and explain these unexpected phenomena is the fetuses-at-risk model. This formulation involves a reconceptualization of the denominator for perinatal outcome rates from births to surviving fetuses. In this overview of the fetuses-at-risk model, we discuss the central tenets of the births-based and the fetuses-based formulations. We also describe the extension of the fetuses-at-risk approach to outcomes into and beyond the neonatal period and to a multivariable adaptation. Finally, we provide a substantive context by discussing biological mechanisms underlying the fetuses-at-risk model and contemporary obstetric phenomena that are better understood from that model than from one based on births. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics

  12. Diarrhea due to Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni. A clinical review of 63 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, A A; Gilchrist, M J; Washington, J A; Huizenga, K A; Van Scoy, R E

    1981-07-01

    Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni was isolated fom the feces of 63 (3.2%) of the 1,953 patients who had stools cultured at the Mayo Clinic in 1979. In contrast, Salmonella and Shigella combined were isolated from 31 (1.6%) patients. Two patients had double infections with Salmonella species and C. fetus subsp jejuni. Three patients had no diarrhea at the time of stool culture. One patient, who had chronic lymphocytic leukemia, had both blood and stool cultures positive for C. fetus subsp jejuni. There was a seasonal incidence that peaked in July when 7.8% of all patients who had stools cultured had C. fetus subsp jejuni isolated. Thirteen cases occurred in children 5 years of age and younger and 29 cases occurred between the ages of 15 and 30 years. Clinical features often included a prodrome of malaise, which preceded the onset of abdominal cramps, diarrhea, anorexia, fever, nausea, and vomiting. Grossly bloody diarrhea occurred in 33 patients, and massive intestinal bleeding occurred in 1 patient as a late complication after diarrhea had resolved. Transient splenomegaly was attributed to C. fetus subsp jejuni on one occasion. Proctoscopic findings may be similar to those seen in inflammatory bowel disease or pseudomembranous colitis. Three patients were referred to this institution with newly diagnosed chronic ulcerative colitis, and one patient was referred with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease. C. fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from their stools, and the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease was subsequently dropped. A selected review of cases illustrates the variety of gastrointestinal manifestations seen with this organism.

  13. Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

    1991-04-01

    When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice.

  14. Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus is a rare condition with an incidence of 1 in 22000 to 1 in 100000 pregnancies. Clinical information is limited and management is difficult due to the risk of pregnancy complications such as fetal death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, and the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. Thus, the report described about the change of size and implantation site of the molar mass coexisting with a live fetus is rare especially about sonographic findings such as echo patterns. Recently we experienced a case of complete hydatidiform mole with a healthy infant delivered at term.

  15. Conceiving a fetus for bone marrow donation: an ethical problem in prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R D; Fletcher, J; Petersen, G

    1989-05-01

    We present a family who sought prenatal diagnosis in order to bear a healthy child to serve as an HLA-identical bone marrow donor for their son affected with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. They intended to abort HLA-incompatible fetuses who would have been unsuitable bone marrow donors. This case led us to conclude that prenatal diagnosis should not be used to benefit a third party or facilitate the conception or abortion of a fetus for the purpose of generating an organ for transplantation. The limits of parental autonomy and physician responsibility are discussed.

  16. PrPSc accumulation in fetal cotyledons of scrapie-resistant lambs is influenced by fetus location in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Janet; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Baszler, Timothy V

    2006-04-01

    Placentae from scrapie-infected ewes have been shown to accumulate PrPSc when the genotype of the fetus is of a susceptible genotype (VRQ/VRQ, ARQ/VRQ or ARQ/ARQ). Cotyledons from fetuses of genotypes ARR/ARR, ARQ/ARR and ARQ/VRR have previously been shown to be resistant to PrPSc accumulation. By using ewes from a naturally infected scrapie flock, cotyledons from fetuses of multiple births of different genotypes were examined. PrPSc was detected in fetal cotyledons of genotype ARQ/ARQ, but not in cotyledons from their dizygotic twin of genotype ARQ/ARR. This confirms earlier reports of single fetuses of these genotypes, but is the first description of such a finding in twin fetuses, one of each genotype. It is also demonstrated that cotyledons from sibling fetuses of genotypes ARQ/VRQ and ARQ/ARQ have different patterns of PrPSc accumulation depending on whether the dam is of genotype ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/VRQ. Lastly, it is shown that cotyledons from fetuses with resistant genotypes are weakly positive for PrPSc when they have shared the same pregnant uterine horn with a fetus of a susceptible genotype with cotyledons positive for the detection of PrPSc. Additionally, a PCR product for the Sry gene, a product specific to males, was found in cotyledons from female fetuses that had shared a uterine horn with a male fetus. This indicates that some sharing of fetal blood occurs between placentomes and fetuses residing in the same uterine horn, which can result in PrPSc accumulation in cotyledons with resistant genotypes.

  17. The Teratogenic Effect of The Mindi (Melia azedarach L Leaves Ethanol Extract on Mice (Mus musculus Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisti Erlina Sutomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mindi leaves (Melia azeradach L. were used by Indonesians as a traditional medicine for pregnant women because it was considered to be safe. Mindi leaves contain several active compounds and one of them is suspected as a teratogen and can disrupt fetus growth in gestation. This research aims to know about the teratogenic effect of ethanol extract of Mindi leaves by using mice. Methods: This was a laboratory experimental study using 27 pregnant female mice (Mus musculus of Swiss Webster strain which were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=9 controlled (Carboxymethyl cellulose 1% for day 1–18 of pregnancy, group I (mindi leaves ethanol extract 3.22 mg+Carboxymethyl cellulose 1% day 1–5 of pregnancy, and group II (mindi leaves ethanol extract 3.22 mg+Carboxymethyl cellulose 1% day 6–18 of pregnancy. Observation was done to see total amount of fetus, live normal fetus count, length and weight of fetus, abnormal fetus count consisting of dead fetus count with normal and abnormal external morphology, and resorbed fetus count. This research was done from October to November 2012 in Pharmacological laboratory of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjajdjaran. Data analysis utilized unpaired t-test. Results: The result showed a significant difference (p<0.05, seen from live normal fetus count and abnormal fetus count consisting of dead fetus count with normal and abnormal external morphology, and resorpted fetus count. Conclusions: Administration of Mindi leaves extract during pregnancy of mices can cause teratogenic effect.

  18. Estimation of placental and lactational transfer and tissue distribution of atrazine and its main metabolites in rodent dams, fetuses, and neonates with physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhoumeng [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Wang, Ran [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Institute of Food Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Ross, Matthew K. [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Filipov, Nikolay M., E-mail: filipov@uga.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used chlorotriazine herbicide, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, and a potential developmental toxicant. To quantitatively evaluate placental/lactational transfer and fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry of ATR and its major metabolites, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed for rat dams, fetuses and neonates. These models were calibrated using pharmacokinetic data from rat dams repeatedly exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR followed by model evaluation against other available rat data. Model simulations corresponded well to the majority of available experimental data and suggest that: (1) the fetus is exposed to both ATR and its major metabolite didealkylatrazine (DACT) at levels similar to maternal plasma levels, (2) the neonate is exposed mostly to DACT at levels two-thirds lower than maternal plasma or fetal levels, while lactational exposure to ATR is minimal, and (3) gestational carryover of DACT greatly affects its neonatal dosimetry up until mid-lactation. To test the model's cross-species extrapolation capability, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted with pregnant C57BL/6 mice exposed (oral gavage; 5 mg/kg) to ATR from gestational day 12 to 18. By using mouse-specific parameters, the model predictions fitted well with the measured data, including placental ATR/DACT levels. However, fetal concentrations of DACT were overestimated by the model (10-fold). This overestimation suggests that only around 10% of the DACT that reaches the fetus is tissue-bound. These rodent models could be used in fetal/neonatal tissue dosimetry predictions to help design/interpret early life toxicity/pharmacokinetic studies with ATR and as a foundation for scaling to humans. - Highlights: • We developed PBPK models for atrazine in rat dams, fetuses, and neonates. • We conducted pharmacokinetic (PK) study with atrazine in pregnant mice. • Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental rat and mouse PK data

  19. High macrosomia rate in healthy fetuses after enlarged nuchal translucency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, E.; Pajkrt, E.; Snijders, R. J. M.; Bilardo, C. M.

    ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the association of the first trimester screening variables nuchal translucency (NT), pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP-A), and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and birth weight, with a focus on the prediction of macrosomia.

  20. High macrosomia rate in healthy fetuses after enlarged nuchal translucency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, E.; Pajkrt, E.; Snijders, R. J. M.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the first trimester screening variables nuchal translucency (NT), pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP-A), and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG) and birth weight, with a focus on the prediction of macrosomia. The database

  1. Buenos Aires, a new Leptospira serovar of serogroup Djasiman, isolated from an aborted dog fetus in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossetti, Carlos A.; Liem, Marije; Samartino, Luis E.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the isolation of a new leptospiral serovar from the Djasiman group from an Argentinean aborted fetus of a dog. The strain was isolated from a culture of mixed liver and kidney tissue from one aborted dog fetus. Bitch's serum showed a titre of 1:800 against the new serovar and

  2. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of Environment... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ...

  3. CONCANAVALIN-A VARIANTS OF ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FIRST TRIMESTER FETUSES WITH TRISOMY-21 AND WITH NORMAL KARYOTYPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; JANSE, HC; BRANDENBURG, H; DEVRIJ, RW; DEBRUIJN, HWA

    1995-01-01

    Total alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations and proportions of AFP non-reactive with the lectin concanavalin A (Con A) were studied in extracellular fluid of 22 first-trimester fetuses. Total AFP concentrations were significantly lower in fetuses with Down's syndrome than in those with

  4. First reported case of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome in a female fetus diagnosed prenatally with chromosomal microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støve, Heidi Kristine; Becher, Naja; Gjørup, Vibike

    2017-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is a rare X-linked syndrome. Female carriers may have mild manifestations. Macrosomia, polyhydramnios, and kidney and urinary tract anomalies are common findings in male fetuses. We present the first case of a severely affected female fetus with stigmata...

  5. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.303 Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women...

  6. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Brah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.

  7. Prototype to product—developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

  8. Prototype to product-developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

  9. Agouti regulation of intracellular calcium: Role in the insulin resistance of viable yellow mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemel, M.B.; Kim, J.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Woychik, R.P.; Michaud, E.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadwell, S.H.; Patel, I.R.; Wilkison, W.O. [Research Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-05-23

    Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse cause a syndrome of marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Although it is known that the agouti gene is expressed in an ectopic manner in these mutants, the precise mechanism by which the agouti gene product mediates these effects is unclear. Since intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is believed to play a role in mediating insulin action and dysregulation of Ca{sup 2+} flux is observed in diabetic animals and humans, we examined the status of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in mice carrying the dominant agouti allele, viable yellow (A{sup vy}). We show here that in mice carrying this mutation, the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is elevated in skeletal muscle, and the degree of elevation is closely correlated with the degree to which the mutant traits are expressed in individual animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that the agouti gene product is capable of inducing increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in cultured and freshly isolated skeletal muscle myocytes from wild-type mice. Based on these findings, we present a model in which we propose that the agouti polypeptide promotes insulin resistance in mutant animals through its ability to increase [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (hemoglobin-vesicle) is not transferred from mother to fetus at the late stage of pregnancy in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Maiko; Li, Heng; Ohta, Hidenobu; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ogaki, Shigeru; Izumi, Hitomi; Inagaki, Masumi; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Okamura, Kunihiro; Otagiri, Masaki; Sakai, Hiromi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2012-10-05

    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (hemoglobin vesicles: HbV; diameter 250 nm) is reconstructed from human hemoglobin and developed as an artificial oxygen carrier for use as a transfusion alternative. Previous studies using rodent models closely investigated the safety of daily repeated infusions (DRI) of HbV and reported that the reticuloendothelial system was physiologically capable of degrading HbV to maintain plasma clinical chemistry within normal ranges. The present study examined the effect of DRI of HbV on the pregnant rat mother and fetal development, focusing on placental transfer of HbV in pregnancy. Pregnant rats intravenously received HbV bolus injections at 2 ml/kg/day for the last 7 consecutive days till term. The cumulative infusion volume (14 ml/kg) was equal to 25% of the whole blood volume (56 ml/kg). Maternal DRI of HbV had no obvious side effects on the pregnant mother or on fetal development. Maternal vital signs, plasma clinical chemistry, and blood gas parameters were overall normal after DRI of HbV. In addition, maternal/fetal transfer of HbV was limited to the placenta and HbV did not reach the fetus. Histopathological examination with human hemoglobin antibody detected HbV accumulation in the maternal spleen, liver, kidney, and placenta, but not in the fetuses. These results were also confirmed by a pharmacokinetic study using (125)I-labeled HbV. This safety study of HbV use in the pregnant mother and fetus will contribute to a possible application of HbV as a potential treatment for fetal hypoxia by supplying oxygen through the placenta. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Abdominal Pregnancy with Live Fetus at Term at the South N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of abdominal pregnancy with live fetus at term was diagnosed in a patient living in the rural area of N'Djamena and who had no follow-up. The laparotomy made it possible to extract a healthy child without any defect. The maternal prognosis was marked by anemia related to cataclysmic hemorrhaging during surgery.

  12. Pregnancy outcome and nuchal translucency measurements in fetuses with a normal karyotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajkrt, E.; Mol, B. W.; Bleker, O. P.; Bilardo, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nuchal translucency thickness and pregnancy and fetal outcome in fetuses with a normal karyotype and without structural malformations. Fetal nuchal translucency measurements were performed in 2088 chromosomally and structurally normal

  13. Guidance for Thyroid Assays in Pregnant Animals, Fetuses and Postnatal Animals, and Adult Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study may be done in place of a rat DNT study for thyroid disrupting chemicals. This special study is intended to provide LOAEL or NOAEL to derive RfDs to be protective of thyroid development in pregnant women, fetuses or newborns.

  14. Optimal timing of delivery in small for gestational age fetuses near term: a national cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazemier, B. M.; Voskamp, B. J.; Ravelli, A. C. J.; Pajkrt, E.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to study the competing risks of antepartum versus intrapartum/neonatal death in small for gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA fetuses. We performed a national cohort study using all singletons delivered between 36 and 42(6/7) weeks without hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, congenital

  15. Terminating the pregnancy of a brain-dead mother: Does a fetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent Texas case of Munoz v. John Peter Smith Hospital, the court granted a husband an order for the removal of life support from his brain-dead pregnant wife whose body was decaying, after a hospital had tried to keep her on 'life support' until the fetus was born. In South Africa the court would have issued a similar ...

  16. Histopathological and molecular study of Neospora caninum infection in bovine aborted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Kamali

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed N. caninum infection was detected in high percentage of aborted fetuses. In addition, at least one fourth of abortions caused by Neospora infection. These results indicate increasing number of abortions associated with the protozoa more than reported before in Iran.

  17. [Unexpected discovery of a fetus with DMD gene deletion using single nucleotide polymorphism array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaobin; Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Bingyi; Gu, Heng

    2017-08-10

    To investigate the value of single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) for the identification of de novo mutations in the DMD gene among fetuses. G-banded karyotyping and SNP array were performed on a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction but without family history of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was subsequently applied on amniocytes and maternal peripheral blood sample to detect DMD gene deletion/duplication mutations. Karyotyping of amniocytes showed a normal 46, XY karyotype. SNP array on amniocytes detected a 116 kb deletion (chrX: 32 455 741-32 571 504) at Xp21.1 with breakpoints at introns 16 and 30 respectively, encompassing exons 17-29 of the DMD gene. In addition, MLPA analysis of the DMD gene on amniocytes confirmed the deletion of exons 17 to 29 identified by SNP array. However, no deletion/duplication mutation was detected by MLPA in the mother. The de novo deletion of exons 17 to 29 of the DMD gene detected in the fetus may result in BMD or DMD. SNP array can improve the efficiency for detecting genomic disorders in fetuses with unidentified pathogenic genes, negative family history and nonspecific phenotypes.

  18. Fetal MRI lung volumes are predictive of perinatal outcomes in fetuses with congenital lung masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Irving J; Sheikh, Fariha; Cassady, Christopher I; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R; Ruano, Rodrigo; Lee, Timothy C; Welty, Stephen E; Belfort, Michael A; Ethun, Cecilia G; Kim, Michael E; Cass, Darrell L

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a modality for predicting perinatal outcomes and lung-related morbidity in fetuses with congenital lung masses (CLM). The records of all patients treated for CLM from 2002 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal MRI-derived lung mass volume ratio (LMVR), observed/expected normal fetal lung volume (O/E-NFLV), and lesion-to-lung volume ratio (LLV) were calculated. Multivariate regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses were applied to determine the predictive accuracy of prenatal imaging. Of 128 fetuses with CLM, 93% (n=118) survived. MRI data were available for 113 fetuses. In early gestation (26weeks), LMVR, LLV, and O/E-NFLV correlated with neonatal respiratory distress, intubation, NICU admission and need for neonatal surgery. On multivariate regression, LMVR was the strongest predictor for development of fetal hydrops (OR: 6.97, 1.58-30.84; p=0.01) and neonatal respiratory distress (OR: 12.38, 3.52-43.61; p≤0.001). An LMVR >2.0 predicted worse perinatal outcome with 83% sensitivity and 99% specificity (AUC=0.94; p<0.001). Fetal MRI volumetric measurements of lung masses and residual normal lung are predictive of perinatal outcomes in fetuses with CLM. These data may assist in perinatal risk stratification, counseling, and resource utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SULF 1 gene polymorphism, rs6990375 is in significant association with fetus failure in IVF technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Taghizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfatase 1 (SULF1 function is to remove the 6-O-sulphate group from heparan sulfate. This action changes the binding sites of extracellular growth factors. SULF1 expression has been reported to be changed in angiogenesis. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of SULF1 would impact clinicopathologic characteristics. Objective: Study of SULF1 gene polymorphism with fetus failure in in vitro fertilization (IVF technique. Materials and Methods: We studied one common (minor allele frequency >0.05 regulatory SNP, rs6990375, with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method, in 53 infertile women with fetus failure in IVF technique and 53 women with at least one healthy child as controls. Results: We found that rs6990375 is significantly associated with an early failure in IVF and frequency of G allele is high in women with fetus failure in IVF technique (p<0.001. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SULF1genetic variations may play a role in IVF technique fetus failure. Further studies with large sample sizes on SULF1 SNPs may be useful in support of this claim.

  20. Prenatal diagnostic testing of the Noonan syndrome genes in fetuses with abnormal ultrasound findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonen, Ellen A; Nillesen, Willy M; Stuurman, Kyra E; Oudesluijs, Gretel; van de Laar, Ingrid M B M; Martens, Liesbeth; Ockeloen, Charlotte; Mathijssen, Inge B; Schepens, Marga; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, Martina; Scheffer, Hans; Faas, Brigitte H W; van der Burgt, Ineke; Yntema, Helger G

    2013-09-01

    In recent studies on prenatal testing for Noonan syndrome (NS) in fetuses with an increased nuchal translucency (NT) and a normal karyotype, mutations have been reported in 9-16% of cases. In this study, DNA of 75 fetuses with a normal karyotype and abnormal ultrasound findings was tested in a diagnostic setting for mutations in (a subset of) the four most commonly mutated NS genes. A de novo mutation in either PTPN11, KRAS or RAF1 was detected in 13 fetuses (17.3%). Ultrasound findings were increased NT, distended jugular lymphatic sacs (JLS), hydrothorax, renal anomalies, polyhydramnios, cystic hygroma, cardiac anomalies, hydrops fetalis and ascites. A second group, consisting of anonymized DNA of 60 other fetuses with sonographic abnormalities, was tested for mutations in 10 NS genes. In this group, five possible pathogenic mutations have been identified (in PTPN11 (n=2), RAF1, BRAF and MAP2K1 (each n=1)). We recommend prenatal testing of PTPN11, KRAS and RAF1 in pregnancies with an increased NT and at least one of the following additional features: polyhydramnios, hydrops fetalis, renal anomalies, distended JLS, hydrothorax, cardiac anomalies, cystic hygroma and ascites. If possible, mutation analysis of BRAF and MAP2K1 should be considered.