Sample records for viable gas turbine

  1. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.


    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  2. Gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Sik


    This book deals with gs turbine engine, including historical background of development of gas turbine engine, classification, definition and conception of it, torque and power, shock waves, subsonic inlets, basic turbojet cycle, turbo-shaft engine, degree of reaction, gas burner, after-burner and water injection method, design of cycle and analysis of performance, characteristic and control of engine noise of aircraft, materials and use of gas turbine engine.

  3. Integrated Electric Gas Turbine


    Millsaps, Knox T.


    Patent An integrated electric gas turbine comprises a compressor that includes a plurality of airfoils. An electric motor is arranged to drive the compressor, and a combustor is arranged to receive compressed air from the compressor and further arranged to receive a fuel input. A turbine is arranged to receive the combustion gases from the combustor. A generator is integrated with the turbine and arranged to provide a power output. A controller is connected between the...

  4. Gas turbine engine (United States)

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron


    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  5. Gas turbine combustor transition (United States)

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane


    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  6. Gas turbine sealing apparatus (United States)

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H


    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  7. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roode, M. van [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  8. Ceramic gas turbine shroud (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.


    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  9. Radial gas turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausche, S.; Ohlsson, Johan


    The objective of this work was to develop a program dealing with design point calculations of radial turbine machinery, including both compressor and turbine, with as few input data as possible. Some simple stress calculations and turbine metal blade temperatures were also included. This program was then implanted in a German thermodynamics program, Gasturb, a program calculating design and off-design performance of gas turbines. The calculations proceed with a lot of assumptions, necessary to finish the task, concerning pressure losses, velocity distribution, blockage, etc., and have been correlated with empirical data from VAT. Most of these values could have been input data, but to prevent the user of the program from drowning in input values, they are set as default values in the program code. The output data consist of geometry, Mach numbers, predicted component efficiency etc., and a number of graphical plots of geometry and velocity triangles. For the cases examined, the error in predicted efficiency level was within {+-} 1-2% points, and quite satisfactory errors in geometrical and thermodynamic conditions were obtained Examination paper. 18 refs, 36 figs

  10. LM6000 gas turbine plant; LM6000 gas turbine plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, N.; Sato, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The LM6000 gas turbine is a most advanced industrial gas turbine derived from an aero-engine. The gas turbine has a power output of 45 MW with over 42% thermal efficiency, and such features as high efficiency, compactness, and easy maintenance. The gas turbine is used widely for electric power generation, marine propulsion and mechanical drive applications, particularly frequently for medium-capacity power plants because of its high efficiency. This paper summarizes the newest form of this LM6000 gas turbine, and introduces as its application example to power plants two examples of practical use in combined cycle power generation which is anticipated of increased use in the future. A combined cycle power plant for a paper mill in Indonesia is characterized by the gas turbine being a back-pressure turbine, where low pressure steam after having been used for power generation is fed to the paper mill. A combined cycle power plant for the Xinzhu scientific and industrial complex in Taiwan is characterized by adoption of a sucked air cooling device, which cools gas turbine sucked air temperature down to 7.2 deg C, and the gas turbine power generator being operated upto its maximum output of 45 MW. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Gas turbine cooling system (United States)

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.


    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  12. Marine gas turbine; Hakuyo gas turbine suishin plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomi, I.; Shikina, T.; Chiba, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Aero-derivative gas turbines have been used widely worldwide in warship propulsion engines. On the other hand, their application is expanding to high-speed commercial ships, in which their advantage of being small in size and light in weight is most effectively utilized. In particular, the gas turbine LM6000 having high output in excess of 40 MW and high reliability realizes low operation cost in large high-speed ships. In addition, expanded gas turbine utilization may be expected in marine propulsion engines if fuel consumption of the gas turbine is improved, where the recuperated cycle use is one of the directions. IHI is continuing research and development of a heat exchanger which holds the key to the practical application of the recuperated cycle gas turbine, and a power turbine with variable nozzles which will further expand the advantage of the recuperated cycle use. The former turbine is a plate fin type with inner fins arranged off-set. The latter turbine controls air flow rate in the gas turbine by varying nozzle angle to match the output, and maintains the heat exchanger inlet temperature at a high level constantly. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Aircraft propulsion and gas turbine engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii xxxi xxxiii xxxv Part I Aero Engines and Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C...

  14. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.


    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  15. H gas turbine combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corman, J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States)


    A major step has been taken in the development of the Next Power Generation System - {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Technology Combined Cycle. This new gas turbine combined-cycle system increases thermal performance to the 60% level by increasing gas turbine operating temperature to 1430 C (2600 F) at a pressure ratio of 23 to 1. Although this represents a significant increase in operating temperature for the gas turbine, the potential for single digit NOx levels (based upon 15% O{sub 2}, in the exhaust) has been retained. The combined effect of performance increase and environmental control is achieved by an innovative closed loop steam cooling system which tightly integrates the gas turbine and steam turbine cycles. The {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} Gas Turbine Combined Cycle System meets the goals and objectives of the DOE Advanced Turbine System Program. The development and demonstration of this new system is being carried out as part of the Industrial/Government cooperative agreement under the ATS Program. This program will achieve first commercial operation of this new system before the end of the century.

  16. HRSGs for gas turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.


    Waste heat recovery plays a dominant role in power and process plants. Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) are widely used to recover energy from waste gas streams either because of process considerations or for economic reasons. HRSGs in sulfuric acid and hydrogen plants are examples of the former, while HRSGs in gas turbine installations and in incineration plants are examples of the latter. This article outlines the features of HRSGs for gas turbine exhaust, which will be of interest to plant engineers and consultants.

  17. Gas turbine engine turbine blade damaging estimate in maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ель-Хожайрі Хусейн


    Full Text Available  The factors determining character and intensity of corrosive damages of gas turbine blades are analyzed in the article. The classification of detrimental impurities polluting gas turbine airflow duct and injuring blade erosion damages are given. Common features of the method of turbine blade corrosive damage estimation are shown in the article.

  18. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  19. Electricity Cogeneration Using Open Gas Turbine


    Kralj, Anita Kovac


    The inclusion of open gas turbine can increase the operating efficiency of the process. The gas turbine with its pressure and temperature drop can be included in the process cycle. The working fluid comes from the reactor and circulates through the process units: gas turbine, heat exchanger, separator (where the liquid product separates), and the compressor.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  3. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeh, C.M.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas......Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  5. Gas Turbine Plant Modeling for Dynamic Simulation


    Endale Turie, Samson


    Gas turbines have become effective in industrial applications for electric and thermal energy production partly due to their quick response to load variations. A gas turbine power plant is a complex assembly of a varietyof components that are designed on the basis of aero thermodynamiclaws. This thesis work presents model development of a single-shaft gas turbine plant cycle that can operate at wide range of load settings in complete dynamic GTP simulator. The modeling and simulation has been...

  6. Gas turbine vane platform element (United States)

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Schiavo, Anthony L [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL


    A gas turbine CMC shroud plate (48A) with a vane-receiving opening (79) that matches a cross-section profile of a turbine vane airfoil (22). The shroud plate (48A) has first and second curved circumferential sides (73A, 74A) that generally follow the curves of respective first and second curved sides (81, 82) of the vane-receiving opening. Walls (75A, 76A, 77A, 78A, 80, 88) extend perpendicularly from the shroud plate forming a cross-bracing structure for the shroud plate. A vane (22) may be attached to the shroud plate by pins (83) or by hoop-tension rings (106) that clamp tabs (103) of the shroud plate against bosses (105) of the vane. A circular array (20) of shroud plates (48A) may be assembled to form a vane shroud ring in which adjacent shroud plates are separated by compressible ceramic seals (93).

  7. Gas flow path for a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Charron, Richard C.; Snyder, Gary D.; Pankey, William W.; Mayer, Clinton A.; Hettinger, Benjamin G.


    A duct arrangement in a can annular gas turbine engine. The gas turbine engine has a gas delivery structure for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors to an annular chamber that extends circumferentially and is oriented concentric to a gas turbine engine longitudinal axis for delivering the gas flow to a first row of blades A gas flow path is formed by the duct arrangement between a respective combustor and the annular chamber for conveying gases from each combustor to the first row of turbine blades The duct arrangement includes at least one straight section having a centerline that is misaligned with a centerline of the combustor.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький


    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  9. Gas turbine engine control system (United States)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)


    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  10. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)] [and others


    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  11. Report on the fifth gas turbine education symposium; Dai 5 kai gas turbine kyoiku symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports the fifth gas turbine education symposium held by the Gas Turbine Society of Japan. The symposium was held at the IHI Mizuho factory on July 15 and 16, 1999. Its objective is to have young men, who will bear the future of Japan's technologies, get interested in gas turbines. It is a project held once a year to make visits to gas turbine manufacturing factories in operation, together with lectures given by experts actively at work in their respective fields. The symposium was attended as many as 35 students and 70 young engineers, 105 persons in total. In the first day, after lectures have been given on an outline of gas turbines, and gas turbines and fluid engineering, visits were made to the factory manufacturing aircraft gas turbines, the assembly factory, the engine performance testing facilities, and the power generation facility LM6000 (output of 41200 kW) using gas turbines diverted from aircraft use. Furthermore, tours were made to items of equipment constituting a space station, and turbo pumps for Japanese made robots. The second day was used for lectures on gas turbines and heat transfer engineering, gas turbines and combustion engineering, and gas turbines and material engineering. (NEDO)

  12. Method for detecting gas turbine engine flashback (United States)

    Singh, Kapil Kumar; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul


    A method for monitoring and controlling a gas turbine, comprises predicting frequencies of combustion dynamics in a combustor using operating conditions of a gas turbine, receiving a signal from a sensor that is indicative of combustion dynamics in the combustor, and detecting a flashback if a frequency of the received signal does not correspond to the predicted frequencies.

  13. Airfoil for a gas turbine (United States)

    Liang, George [Palm City, FL


    An airfoil is provided for a gas turbine comprising an outer structure comprising a first wall, an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced relative to the first wall such that a cooling gap is defined between at least portions of the first and second walls, and seal structure provided within the cooling gap between the first and second walls for separating the cooling gap into first and second cooling fluid impingement gaps. An inner surface of the second wall may define an inner cavity. The inner structure may further comprise a separating member for separating the inner cavity of the inner structure into a cooling fluid supply cavity and a cooling fluid collector cavity. The second wall may comprise at least one first impingement passage, at least one second impingement passage, and at least one bleed passage.

  14. Desulfurization Of Gas-Turbine Blades (United States)

    Outlaw, Ronald A.


    Sulfur removed from nickel-base superalloy used to make gas-turbine blades by heating alloy and simultaneously subjecting it to sputtering by directed Ar(Sup+) ions from ion gun or from glow discharge. Reduction of sulfur content of superalloy by factor of 10 increases lifetime of turbine blade made of alloy by similar factor, because stability of protective surface oxide formed during operation of turbine increased.

  15. Stabilization of gas turbine unit power (United States)

    Dolotovskii, I.; Larin, E.


    We propose a new cycle air preparation unit which helps increasing energy power of gas turbine units (GTU) operating as a part of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units of thermal power stations and energy and water supply systems of industrial enterprises as well as reducing power loss of gas turbine engines of process blowers resulting from variable ambient air temperatures. Installation of GTU power stabilizer at CCGT unit with electric and thermal power of 192 and 163 MW, respectively, has resulted in reduction of produced electrical energy production costs by 2.4% and thermal energy production costs by 1.6% while capital expenditures after installation of this equipment increased insignificantly.

  16. Advanced technology for aero gas turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Symposium is aimed at highlighting the development of advanced components for new aero gas turbine propulsion systems in order to provide engineers and scientists with a forum to discuss recent progress in these technologies and to identify requirements for future research. Axial flow compressors, the operation of gas turbine engines in dust laden atmospheres, turbine engine design, blade cooling, unsteady gas flow through the stator and rotor of a turbomachine, gear systems for advanced turboprops, transonic blade design and the development of a plenum chamber burner system for an advanced VTOL engine are among the topics discussed.

  17. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.


    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  18. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan


    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  19. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)


    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  20. Method of making an aero-derivative gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.


    A method of making an aero-derivative gas turbine engine (100) is provided. A combustor outer casing (68) is removed from an existing aero gas turbine engine (60). An annular combustor (84) is removed from the existing aero gas turbine engine. A first row of turbine vanes (38) is removed from the existing aero gas turbine engine. A can annular combustor assembly (122) is installed within the existing aero gas turbine engine. The can annular combustor assembly is configured to accelerate and orient combustion gasses directly onto a first row of turbine blades of the existing aero gas turbine engine. A can annular combustor assembly outer casing (108) is installed to produce the aero-derivative gas turbine engine (100). The can annular combustor assembly is installed within an axial span (85) of the existing aero gas turbine engine vacated by the annular combustor and the first row of turbine vanes.

  1. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes. (United States)

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R


    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  2. Gas turbine engines with particle traps (United States)

    Boyd, Gary L.; Sumner, D. Warren; Sheoran, Yogendra; Judd, Z. Daniel


    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  3. Burning naphtha [in gas turbine generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, V.


    The development of naphtha fuel systems for gas turbines by Stewart and Stevenson is described. A GE LM2500 gas-turbine generator set running on naphtha has been operating successfully in Hawaii for over ten years. It is necessary to supply diesel fuel for starting and stopping the machine, however, because the flash point of naphtha makes operation at low power dangerous. Subsequently a naphta burning technology has been developed by the company which eliminates the need for standby diesel fuel and was successfully demonstrated using a LM6000 turbine in October 1996. The first commercial application of this naphtha fired turbine is at a 40MW cogeneration plant in India. Naphta is one of a wide variety of volatile hydrocarbon mixtures derived from petroleum and is likely to be especially attractive for use in power generation equipment throughout Asia in areas remote from gas pipelines. (UK)

  4. Failure analysis of gas turbine blades in a gas turbine engine used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gas turbine blade under examination was operated at elevated temperatures in corrosive environmental attack such as oxidation, hot corrosion and sulphidation etc. The investigation on gas turbine blade included the activities like visual inspection, determination of material composition, microscopic examination and ...

  5. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [National Aerospace Laboratory, Chofu-shi, Tokyo (Japan)


    The CO{sub 2} caused by the consumption of hydrocarbon fuel is one of the main gases which affect the global climate. In order to reduce the formation of CO{sub 2}, it is necessary to conserve energy as effectively as possible. Therefore the heat energy provided by the fuel should be utilized in multi-cascades. The energy at the high temperature should be used for the generation of electric power and the energy at low temperature could be used for making the steam and the hot water. The gas turbine is preferable for this purpose. The heat energy of exhaust gas can be reused more easily. The two systems are proposed by using the gas turbine as the high temperature stage. One is the cogeneration system and the other is the combined cycle. The former generates electric power by the gas turbine and make steam or hot water in the exhaust gas. The latter employs the gas turbine as the high temperature cycle and the steam turbine as the low temperature cycle.

  6. R and D plan for the next-generation marine gas turbine (super marine gas turbine); Jisedaigata hakuyo gas turbine (super marine gas turbine) no kenkyu kaihatsu keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Sugimoto, T.


    This paper describes an R and D plan for next generation marine gas turbines or super marine gas turbines (SMGT) with low environmental load and high efficiency. A gas turbine can make NOx exhaust amount remarkably smaller than a diesel engine because of its combustion pattern, where making marine exhaust gas cleaner can be expected. In addition, demands are made on modernization of ocean vessels, particularly higher speeds applied to domestic vessels, improvement in environment in vessels, and reduction of labors inside vessels. These requirements may be met by such characteristics of gas turbines as small size, light weight, low vibration and noise, and easiness in maintenance. Therefore, it has been decided to develop a marine gas turbine of 2500-kW class assuming a main engine in a domestic vessel. The development is targeted on NOx exhaust amount of 1 g/kwh or less (about 1/10 of diesel engines), thermal efficiency of 38 to 40% (nearly equivalent to high-speed diesel engines), and use of heavy oil A as fuel. The R&D activities have begun upon inauguration of the Technology Study Association in April 1997. Time period scheduled for the development is six years. (NEDO)

  7. Optical Temperature Sensor For Gas Turbines (United States)

    Mossey, P. W.


    New design promises accuracy even in presence of contamination. Improved sensor developed to measure gas temperatures up to 1,700 degree C in gas-turbine engines. Sensor has conical shape for mechanical strengths and optical configuration insensitive to deposits of foreign matter on sides of cone.

  8. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)


    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  9. Endwall aerodynamic losses from turbine components within gas turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Ligrani


    Full Text Available A survey of research on aerodynamic loss investigations for turbine components of gas turbine engines is presented. Experimental and numerically predicted results are presented from investigations undertaken over the past 65 plus years. Of particular interest are losses from the development of secondary flows from airfoil/endwall interactions. The most important of the airfoil/endwall secondary flows are passage vortices, counter vortices, and corner vortices. The structure and development of these secondary flows are described as they affect aerodynamic performance within and downstream of turbine passage flows in compressible, high speed flows with either subsonic or transonic Mach number distributions, as well as within low-speed, incompressible flows. Also discussed are methods of endwall contouring, and its consequences in regard to airfoil/endwall secondary flows.

  10. Performance of nickel base superalloy components in gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter


    The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine......The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine...

  11. Gas turbine engine active clearance control (United States)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)


    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  12. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.K. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)


    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  13. Gas Turbine Engine with Air/Fuel Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Karam, Michael Abraham (Inventor); Donovan, Eric Sean (Inventor); Krautheim, Michael Stephen (Inventor); Vetters, Daniel Kent (Inventor); Chouinard, Donald G. (Inventor)


    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique aircraft propulsion gas turbine engine. Another embodiment is a unique gas turbine engine. Another embodiment is a unique gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engines with heat exchange systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  14. AGT (Advanced Gas Turbine) technology project (United States)


    An overall summary documentation is provided for the Advanced Gas Turbine Technology Project conducted by the Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors. This advanced, high risk work was initiated in October 1979 under charter from the U.S. Congress to promote an engine for transportation that would provide an alternate to reciprocating spark ignition (SI) engines for the U.S. automotive industry and simultaneously establish the feasibility of advanced ceramic materials for hot section components to be used in an automotive gas turbine. As this program evolved, dictates of available funding, Government charter, and technical developments caused program emphases to focus on the development and demonstration of the ceramic turbine hot section and away from the development of engine and powertrain technologies and subsequent vehicular demonstrations. Program technical performance concluded in June 1987. The AGT 100 program successfully achieved project objectives with significant technology advances. Specific AGT 100 program achievements are: (1) Ceramic component feasibility for use in gas turbine engines has been demonstrated; (2) A new, 100 hp engine was designed, fabricated, and tested for 572 hour at operating temperatures to 2200 F, uncooled; (3) Statistical design methodology has been applied and correlated to experimental data acquired from over 5500 hour of rig and engine testing; (4) Ceramic component processing capability has progressed from a rudimentary level able to fabricate simple parts to a sophisticated level able to provide complex geometries such as rotors and scrolls; (5) Required improvements for monolithic and composite ceramic gas turbine components to meet automotive reliability, performance, and cost goals have been identified; (6) The combustor design demonstrated lower emissions than 1986 Federal Standards on methanol, JP-5, and diesel fuel. Thus, the potential for meeting emission standards and multifuel capability has been initiated

  15. Flame Imaging of Gas-Turbine Relight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Robert; Rogerson, J.W.; Hochgreb, S.


    High-altitude relight inside a lean-direct-injection gas-turbine combustor is investigated experimentally by highspeed imaging. Realistic operating conditions are simulated in a ground-based test facility, with two conditions being studied: one inside and one outside the combustor ignition loop...

  16. Impingement jet cooling in gas turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S


    Due to the requirement for enhanced cooling technologies on modern gas turbine engines, advanced research and development has had to take place in field of thermal engineering. Impingement jet cooling is one of the most effective in terms of cooling, manufacturability and cost. This is the first to book to focus on impingement cooling alone.

  17. Mixer Assembly for a Gas Turbine Engine (United States)

    Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor); Smith, Lance L. (Inventor); Hautman, Donald J. (Inventor)


    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer with fuel injection holes located between at least one radial swirler and at least one axial swirler, wherein the fuel injected into the main mixer is atomized and dispersed by the air flowing through the radial swirler and the axial swirler.


    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  19. Airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Liang, George


    An airfoil for a turbine of a gas turbine engine is provided. The airfoil comprises a main body comprising a wall structure defining an inner cavity adapted to receive a cooling air. The wall structure includes a first diffusion region and at least one first metering opening extending from the inner cavity to the first diffusion region. The wall structure further comprises at least one cooling circuit comprising a second diffusion region and at least one second metering opening extending from the first diffusion region to the second diffusion region. The at least one cooling circuit may further comprise at least one third metering opening, at least one third diffusion region and a fourth diffusion region.

  20. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)


    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  1. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.


    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  2. The methodology of the gas turbine efficiency calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz


    Full Text Available In the paper a calculation methodology of isentropic efficiency of a compressor and turbine in a gas turbine installation on the basis of polytropic efficiency characteristics is presented. A gas turbine model is developed into software for power plant simulation. There are shown the calculation algorithms based on iterative model for isentropic efficiency of the compressor and for isentropic efficiency of the turbine based on the turbine inlet temperature. The isentropic efficiency characteristics of the compressor and the turbine are developed by means of the above mentioned algorithms. The gas turbine development for the high compressor ratios was the main driving force for this analysis. The obtained gas turbine electric efficiency characteristics show that an increase of pressure ratio above 50 is not justified due to the slight increase in the efficiency with a significant increase of turbine inlet combustor outlet and temperature.

  3. The methodology of the gas turbine efficiency calculation (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin; Brzęczek, Mateusz; Nawrat, Krzysztof; Mędrych, Janusz


    In the paper a calculation methodology of isentropic efficiency of a compressor and turbine in a gas turbine installation on the basis of polytropic efficiency characteristics is presented. A gas turbine model is developed into software for power plant simulation. There are shown the calculation algorithms based on iterative model for isentropic efficiency of the compressor and for isentropic efficiency of the turbine based on the turbine inlet temperature. The isentropic efficiency characteristics of the compressor and the turbine are developed by means of the above mentioned algorithms. The gas turbine development for the high compressor ratios was the main driving force for this analysis. The obtained gas turbine electric efficiency characteristics show that an increase of pressure ratio above 50 is not justified due to the slight increase in the efficiency with a significant increase of turbine inlet combustor outlet and temperature.

  4. Micro-combustor for gas turbine engine (United States)

    Martin, Scott M.


    An improved gas turbine combustor (20) including a basket (26) and a multiplicity of micro openings (29) arrayed across an inlet wall (27) for passage of a fuel/air mixture for ignition within the combustor. The openings preferably have a diameter on the order of the quenching diameter; i.e. the port diameter for which the flame is self-extinguishing, which is a function of the fuel mixture, temperature and pressure. The basket may have a curved rectangular shape that approximates the shape of the curved rectangular shape of the intake manifolds of the turbine.

  5. Casing for a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.; Little, David A.; Charron, Richard C.


    A casing for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a compressed air section (40) spanning between a last row of compressor blades (26) and a first row of turbine blades (28), the compressed air section (40) having a plurality of openings (50) there through, wherein a single combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) extends through each opening (50); and one top hat (68) associated with each opening (50) configured to enclose the associated combustor/advanced duct assembly (64) and seal the opening (50). A volume enclosed by the compressed air section (40) is not greater than a volume of a frustum (54) defined at an upstream end (56) by an inner diameter of the casing at the last row of compressor blades (26) and at a downstream end (60) by an inner diameter of the casing at the first row of turbine blades (28).

  6. Advanced coal fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Final report, June 1986--April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.


    Demonstration of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine system that is environmentally, technically, and economically viable depends on the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Solar Turbines, Incorporates technical approach to these issues was to advance a complete direct coal-fueled gas turbine system that incorporated near-term technology solutions to both historically demonstrated problem areas such as deposition, erosion, and hot end corrosion, and to the emergent environmental constraints based on NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates. Solar`s program approach was keyed to the full commercialization of the coal-fueled cogeneration gas turbine which would occur after extended field verification demonstrations conducted by the private sector. The program was structured in three phases plus an optional fourth phase: Phase 1 -- system description; Phase 2 -- component development; Phase 3 -- prototype system verification; and Phase 4 -- field evaluation.

  7. Bimetallic Blisks with Shrouded Turbine Blades for Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Magerramova


    Full Text Available The paper discusses prospects of using blisks with shrouded blades. Increasing an engine life and efficiency as well as mass reduction can also be achieved by increasing blade numbers and decreasing disk diameter. But design engineers are faced with the problem of blade placement because of the disk size and root dimensions.The problem of increasing life and cyclic durability, vibration strength, and lightweight design of the turbine gas turbine wheels, can be solved by an elimination of blade - disk locks.The technology of manufacturing one-piece blisks by connecting the blades with the disc part using hot isostatic pressing was developed. This technology allows us to use blades with shrouds. It is necessary to increase efficiency and to improve high cycle fatigue performance of rotor blades.One of the pressing problems is to ensure the necessary position of shrouds in relation to each other in the manufacturing process as well as in the service. Numerical studies of the influence of the shroud mounting position on blade strength during operation allowed us to develop a methodology of choosing a shroud mounting position.Based on the two turbine wheels (LPT and HPT calculations advantages of blisk design with respect to the lock-based design were shown. Application of bimetallic blisks with shrouded blades resulted in a lifespan increase and weight reduction.In addition, other advantages of blisk design are as follows: possible reduction in the number of parts, elimination of leaks and fretting that take place in the blade - disk locks, exception of expensive broaching operations and disk alloy saving. The shortcoming is elimination of damping in root connection. In addition, there are no widely used repair methods.Despite these disadvantages the usage of bimetallic turbine blisks with shrouded blades is very promising.

  8. Combustion heating value gas in a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G. [CTDD, British Coal Corporation, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Cannon, M. [European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)


    Advanced coal and/or biomass based power generation systems offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component for many of these advanced power generation cycles is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at turbine inlet temperatures of typically 1 100 - 1 260 deg C and with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key issue. A phased combustor development programme is under-way burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6 - 4.1 MJ/m{sup 3}) with low emissions, particularly NO{sub x} derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first and second phases of the combustor development programme have been completed. The first phase used a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor based on conventional design principles. Combustor performance for this first prototype combustor was encouraging. The second phase assessed five design variants of the prototype combustor, each variant achieving a progressive improvement in combustor performance. The operating conditions for this assessment were selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine operating as part of an Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC). The test conditions assessed therefore included the capability to operate the combustor using natural gas as a supplementary fuel, to suit one possible start-up procedure for the cycle. The paper presents a brief overview of the ABGC development initiative and discusses the general requirements for a gas turbine operating within such a cycle. In addition, it presents full combustor performance results for the second phase of turbine combustor development and discusses the rationale for the progressive design modifications made within that programme. The strategy for the further development of the combustor to burn low calorific value fuel gas with very low conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} is presented. (orig.) 6 refs.

  9. Large eddy simulation applications in gas turbines. (United States)

    Menzies, Kevin


    The gas turbine presents significant challenges to any computational fluid dynamics techniques. The combination of a wide range of flow phenomena with complex geometry is difficult to model in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers. We review the potential for large eddy simulation (LES) in modelling the flow in the different components of the gas turbine during a practical engineering design cycle. We show that while LES has demonstrated considerable promise for reliable prediction of many flows in the engine that are difficult for RANS it is not a panacea and considerable application challenges remain. However, for many flows, especially those dominated by shear layer mixing such as in combustion chambers and exhausts, LES has demonstrated a clear superiority over RANS for moderately complex geometries although at significantly higher cost which will remain an issue in making the calculations relevant within the design cycle.

  10. Gas turbine for high speed trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenard, J.-L. [Turbomeca (France)


    This presentation will show how the gas turbine engines can be the right compromise to face the challenges raised by the demand for high speed trains through out the world. From the steam locomotive still in use in China to the TGV or ICE in Europe and Shinkensen in Japan able to run at more than 300 kms/hour, the modes of traction for trains have been greatly improved during the last fifty years. Even more faster trains are under studies for the future with the magnetic levitation system. Three main propulsion system, diesel, electric and gas turbines are actually competing in the high speed train market. They will have to comply with the new environmental regulations, better efficiency and customers` requirements for the developed countries, and with the necessity to use the existing tracks for most of the applications

  11. Squeeze Film Damping for Aircraft Gas Turbines


    R. W. Shende; S. K. Sane


    Modern aircraft gas turbine engines depend heavily on squeeze film damper supports at the bearings for abatement of vibrations caused by a number of probable excitation sources. This design ultimately results in light-weight construction together with higher efficiency and reliability of engines. Many investigations have been reported during past two decades concerning the functioning of the squeeze film damper, which is simple in construction yet complex in behaviour with its non-linearity a...

  12. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.


    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  13. Gas turbine applications in the drying industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, R.C.


    The purpose of this report is to determine if it is feasible to utilize the hot exhaust gas discharged from gas turbines in direct applications. This report illustrates the technical feasibility and economic viability of using gas turbines in drying applications. The size of turbines in this investigation ranges from 2 MW to 10 MW. In addition, an implementation strategy has been developed to employ this new system. The method used to structure the scope of this undertaking is as follows: Step 1. Collecting information by contacting dryer manufacturer and companies drying different products. Information was also gathered by literature studies and the internet. Thomas register is a great tool when it comes to company and market searches. Step 2. Looking into if it is technically possible to use the exhaust gas directly into dryers. The parameters needed for these calculations were gathered in step 1, and some of the more important are temperature, mass flow, heat demand, and information about how the dryer works. The computer program Gatecycle is a great help when it comes to finding the right turbine for a dryer. Step 3. When it was obvious that it would work for some drying applications, the profitability was tested with the help of some spreadsheets. Step 4. The market was also evaluated as a last step. Market analysis was performed with the help of Porter's (Porter is one of the most famous strategy gurus) different models. The point of this is to find ways to be unique so that competitors will have a harder time copying the new system. It is shown in the report that for the right kind of projects, this new application for turbines is profitable. It is important to realize that this new system is not profitable for every drying plant. This is a general study with general input parameters. Every plant has its' own in-parameters and has to be evaluated individually. The most important factors determining if it is profitable or not are: Local electricity

  14. Gas turbine engine with supersonic compressor (United States)

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.


    A gas turbine engine having a compressor section using blades on a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes one or more of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions for deceleration of the gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure gas to combustors. The aerodynamic ducts include structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of two to one (2:1) or more, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  15. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik


    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part......-load performance. Subsequently, in another paper, the effects of variable geometry on the part-load performance for combined cycles used for ship propulsion will be presented. Moreover, this paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis......-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part...

  16. Gas turbine structural mounting arrangement between combustion gas duct annular chamber and turbine vane carrier (United States)

    Wiebe, David J.; Charron, Richard C.; Morrison, Jay A.


    A gas turbine engine ducting arrangement (10), including: an annular chamber (14) configured to receive a plurality of discrete flows of combustion gases originating in respective can combustors and to deliver the discrete flows to a turbine inlet annulus, wherein the annular chamber includes an inner diameter (52) and an outer diameter (60); an outer diameter mounting arrangement (34) configured to permit relative radial movement and to prevent relative axial and circumferential movement between the outer diameter and a turbine vane carrier (20); and an inner diameter mounting arrangement (36) including a bracket (64) secured to the turbine vane carrier, wherein the bracket is configured to permit the inner diameter to move radially with the outer diameter and prevent axial deflection of the inner diameter with respect to the outer diameter.

  17. Engineered Materials for Advanced Gas Turbine Engine Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop innovative composite powders and composites that will surpass the properties of currently identified materials for advanced gas turbine...

  18. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system (United States)

    Webb, W. L.


    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  19. Efficient, Low Pressure Ratio Propulsor for Gas Turbine Engines (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Monzon, Byron R. (Inventor)


    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, and a propulsor that is coupled to be driven by the turbine through the spool. A gear assembly is coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extends from the hub. The row includes no more than 20 of the propulsor blades.

  20. Gas turbine powerhouse the development of the power generation gas turbine at BBC - ABB - Alstom

    CERN Document Server

    Eckardt, Dietrich


    This book tells the story of the power generation gas turbine from the perspective of one of the leading companies in the field over a period of nearly 100 years, written by an engineer. Especially in times of imminent global economic crises it appears to be worthwhile to reflect on real economic values based on engineering ingenuity and enduring management of technological leadership.

  1. Gas Turbine Engine Inlet Wall Design (United States)

    Florea, Razvan Virgil (Inventor); Matalanis, Claude G. (Inventor); Stucky, Mark B. (Inventor)


    A gas turbine engine has an inlet duct formed to have a shape with a first ellipse in one half and a second ellipse in a second half. The second half has an upstream most end which is smaller than the first ellipse. The inlet duct has a surface defining the second ellipse which curves away from the first ellipse, such that the second ellipse is larger at an intermediate location. The second ellipse is even larger at a downstream end of the inlet duct leading into a fan.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The combustion system discussed here incorporates a modular three- stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; also in the first stage, sulfur is captured with sorbent; coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed from the combustion gases by inertial means in the second stage by the use of an impact separator and slagging cyclone separator in series. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The objective of this contract is to establish the technology required for subsequent commercial development and application by the private sector of utility-size direct coal-fueled gas turbines. Emissions from these units are to meet or be lower than the Environment Protection Agency's (EPA's) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for a pulverized coal-=fired steam turbine generator plant.

  3. Turbine Inlet Air Cooling for Industrial and Aero-derivative Gas Turbine in Malaysia Climate (United States)

    Nordin, A.; Salim, D. A.; Othoman, M. A.; Kamal, S. N. Omar; Tam, Danny; Yusof, M. KY


    The performance of a gas turbine is dependent on the ambient temperature. A higher temperature results in a reduction of the gas turbine’s power output and an increase in heat rate. The warm and humid climate in Malaysia with its high ambient air temperature has an adverse effect on the performance of gas turbine generators. In this paper, the expected effect of turbine inlet air cooling technology on the annual performance of an aero-derivative gas turbine (GE LM6000PD) is compared against that of an industrial gas turbine (GEFr6B.03) using GT Pro software. This study investigated the annual net energy output and the annual net electrical efficiency of a plant with and without turbine inlet air cooling technology. The results show that the aero-derivative gas turbine responds more favorably to turbine inlet air cooling technology, thereby yielding higher annual net energy output and higher net electrical efficiency when compared to the industrial gas turbine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Compression and combustion are two important functions of a gas turbine power plant. It is generally used to drive generators and works as a combinatorial plant with conventional steam boilers. The most significant and valuable fact of the gas turbine power plant is that it requires air instead of water to generate electricity. The main components of gas turbine power plant are compressor, combustor, turbine and auxiliaries such as starting device, lubricant pump, fuel system, etc. In this paper, the authors have assumed the different types of component failure such as compressor, combustor, turbine, auxiliaries and human failure with some other auxiliary’s failures and determined the different reliability characteristics of gas turbine power plant by using supplementary variable techniques, Laplace transformation and Markov process. Some numerical examples on the basis of past research are also developed for the practical utility of the plant.

  5. Durability Challenges for Next Generation of Gas Turbine Engine Materials (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.


    Aggressive fuel burn and carbon dioxide emission reduction goals for future gas turbine engines will require higher overall pressure ratio, and a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature. These goals can be achieved by increasing temperature capability of turbine engine hot section materials and decreasing weight of fan section of the engine. NASA is currently developing several advanced hot section materials for increasing temperature capability of future gas turbine engines. The materials of interest include ceramic matrix composites with 1482 - 1648 C temperature capability, advanced disk alloys with 815 C capability, and low conductivity thermal barrier coatings with erosion resistance. The presentation will provide an overview of durability challenges with emphasis on the environmental factors affecting durability for the next generation of gas turbine engine materials. The environmental factors include gaseous atmosphere in gas turbine engines, molten salt and glass deposits from airborne contaminants, impact from foreign object damage, and erosion from ingestion of small particles.

  6. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath


    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  7. Gas turbine vane cooling air insert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W.E.; Hultgren, K.G.; Dishman, C.D.; Van Heusden, G.S.


    This patent describes a gas turbine. It comprises turbine vanes, each of the vanes supplied with cooling air and having: an airfoil portion forming a first cavity having an insert disposed therein for directing the flow of the cooling air, the insert having first and second insert ends; a shroud portion from which the airfoil portion extends, the insert attached to the shroud portion at the first insert end; an insert extension extending through a portion of the insert and extending beyond the first insert end, the insert extension and the insert forming an annular gap therebetween separating the insert from the insert extension; a plate covering at least a portion of the shroud, the plate having a first hole formed therein through which the insert extension extends; and at least a first seal extending between the insert extension and the insert, and sealing the annular gap therebetween. This patent also describes a method of making a gas turbine. It comprises welding a first tubular insert adjacent its first end to a vane outer shroud; partially inserting a second tubular insert into the first tubular member and attaching the second tubular insert thereto; placing a plate having a hole formed therein on the outer shroud so that the hole surrounds the second tubular insert; and attaching the second tubular insert to the plate by placing a first seal between the first and second tubular inserts and attaching the first seal to each of the first and second tubular inserts, and placing a second seal between the second tubular insert and the plate and welding the second seal to the second tubular insert and the plate.

  8. More-Electric Gas Turbine Engines (United States)

    Kascak, Albert F.


    A new NASA Lewis Research Center and U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) thrust, the more-electric commercial engine, is creating significant interest in industry. This engine would have an integral starter-generator on the gas generator shaft and would be fully supported by magnetic bearings. The NASA/Army emphasis is on a high-temperature magnetic bearing for future gas turbine engines. Magnetic bearings could increase the reliability and reduce the weight of such engines by eliminating the lubrication system. They could also increase the DN (diameter of the bearing times the rpm) limit on engine speed and allow active vibration cancellation systems to be used, resulting in a more efficient, more-electric engine.

  9. Static and dynamic modelling of gas turbines in advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jan-Olof


    Gas turbines have been in operation for at least 50 years. The engine is used for propulsion of aircraft and high speed ships. It is used for power production in remote locations and for peak load and emergency situations. Gas turbines have been used in combined cycles for 20 to 30 years. Highly efficient power plants based on gas turbines are a competitive option for the power industry today. The thermal efficiency of the simple cycle gas turbine has increased due to higher turbine inlet temperatures and improved compressor and expander designs. Equally important are the improved cycles in which the gas turbine operates. One example is the combined cycle that uses steam for turbine cooling. Steam is extracted from the bottoming cycle, then used as airfoil coolant in a closed loop and returned to the bottoming cycle. The Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), also known as the Humid Air Turbine (HAT), is another advanced cycle. A mixture of air and water vapour is used as working media. Air from the compressor outlet is humidified and then preheated in a recuperator prior to combustion. The static and dynamic performance is changed when the gas turbine is introduced in an evaporative cycle. The cycle is gaining in popularity, but so far it has not been demonstrated. A Swedish joint program to develop the cycle has been in operation since 1993. As part of the program, a small pilot plant is being erected at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH). The plant is based on a 600 kW gas turbine, and demonstration of the EvGT cycle started autumn 1998 and will continue, in the present phase, for one year. This thesis presents static and dynamic models for traditional gas turbine components, such as, the compressor, combustor, expander and recuperator. A static model for the humidifier is presented, based on common knowledge for atmospheric humidification. All models were developed for the pilot plant at LTH with the objective to support evaluation of the process and individual

  10. Cooled gas turbine blade edge flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Marcio Teixeira de [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica Aeronautica ITA/IEM, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:


    The flow on the rotating blades of a turbine is unsteady due to the wake of the stator blade row upstream. This unsteadiness is a source of losses and complex flow structures on the rotor blade due to the variation on the turbulence levels and location of the boundary layer laminar to turbulent transition. Convective cooled blades often time have cooling air ejected at the trailing edge right at the blade wake. The present investigation presents an analysis of a canonical flow consistent with the flow topology found at the trailing edge of a gas turbine blade with coolant ejection. A hydrodynamic stability analysis is performed for the combined wake and jet velocity profiles given by a gaussian distribution representing the turbulent rms wake and a laminar jet superposed. The growth rate of any instability found on the flow is an indication of faster mixing, resulting in a reduction on the wake velocity defect and consequently on the complexity associated with it. The results show that increasing the Mach number or the three-dimensionality of the disturbances result in a reduction of the amplification rate. When the flow at the trailing edge is modified by a jet, the amplification rates are lower, but the range of unstable stream wise wavenumbers is larger. (author)

  11. Airfoil for a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Liang, George [Palm City, FL


    An airfoil is provided for a turbine of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil comprises: an outer structure comprising a first wall including a leading edge, a trailing edge, a pressure side, and a suction side; an inner structure comprising a second wall spaced from the first wall and at least one intermediate wall; and structure extending between the first and second walls so as to define first and second gaps between the first and second walls. The second wall and the at least one intermediate wall define at least one pressure side supply cavity and at least one suction side supply cavity. The second wall may include at least one first opening near the leading edge of the first wall. The first opening may extend from the at least one pressure side supply cavity to the first gap. The second wall may further comprise at least one second opening near the trailing edge of the outer structure. The second opening may extend from the at least one suction side supply cavity to the second gap. The first wall may comprise at least one first exit opening extending from the first gap through the pressure side of the first wall and at least one second exit opening extending from the second gap through the suction side of the second wall.

  12. Gas Turbine Blade Damper Optimization Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Giridhar


    Full Text Available The friction damping concept is widely used to reduce resonance stresses in gas turbines. A friction damper has been designed for high pressure turbine stage of a turbojet engine. The objective of this work is to find out effectiveness of the damper while minimizing resonant stresses for sixth and ninth engine order excitation of first flexure mode. This paper presents a methodology that combines three essential phases of friction damping optimization in turbo-machinery. The first phase is to develop an analytical model of blade damper system. The second phase is experimentation and model tuning necessary for response studies while the third phase is evaluating damper performance. The reduced model of blade is developed corresponding to the mode under investigation incorporating the friction damper then the simulations were carried out to arrive at an optimum design point of the damper. Bench tests were carried out in two phases. Phase-1 deals with characterization of the blade dynamically and the phase-2 deals with finding optimal normal load at which the blade resonating response is minimal for a given excitation. The test results are discussed, and are corroborated with simulated results, are in good agreement.

  13. Natural gas turbine topping for the iris reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriani, L.; Lombardi, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Paramonov, D. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Nuclear power plant designs are typically characterized by high capital and low fuel costs, while the opposite is true for fossil power generation including the natural gas-fired gas turbine combined cycle currently favored by many utilities worldwide. This paper examines potential advantages of combining nuclear and fossil (natural gas) generation options in a single plant. Technical and economic feasibility and attractiveness of a gas turbine - nuclear reactor combined cycle where gas turbine exhaust is used to superheat saturated steam produced by a low power light water reactor are examined. It is shown that in a certain range of fuel and capital costs of nuclear and fossil options, the proposed cycle offers an immediate economic advantage over stand-alone plants resulting from higher efficiency of the nuclear plant. Additionally, the gas turbine topping will result in higher fuel flexibility without the economic penalty typically associated with nuclear power. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indi-rectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supple-mentary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas or pyrolysis gas. Intuitively, sup-plementary firing is expected ...

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indirectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas, or pyrolysis gas. {The interest in this cycle arise from a recent ...

  16. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.


    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  17. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon


    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  18. Influence of Cycle Air Parameters and Flue Gas Path Aerodynamics on Efficiency of Gas Turbine and Steam Gas Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Grinchouk


    Full Text Available The paper considers an influence of gas-air path aerodynamic resistance for a gas-turbine plant, barometric pressure, air moisture and outside air temperature on parameters, efficiency and characteristics of electric power plants with gas-turbine and combined-cycle sets. Calculations and analysis have been executed for Alstom GT13E2 gas-turbine which is included in composition of Steam Gas Plant-230 at the Minsk Thermal Power Plant No.3.

  19. Topology optimization of a gas-turbine engine part (United States)

    Faskhutdinov, R. N.; Dubrovskaya, A. S.; Dongauzer, K. A.; Maksimov, P. V.; Trufanov, N. A.


    One of the key goals of aerospace industry is a reduction of the gas turbine engine weight. The solution of this task consists in the design of gas turbine engine components with reduced weight retaining their functional capabilities. Topology optimization of the part geometry leads to an efficient weight reduction. A complex geometry can be achieved in a single operation with the Selective Laser Melting technology. It should be noted that the complexity of structural features design does not affect the product cost in this case. Let us consider a step-by-step procedure of topology optimization by an example of a gas turbine engine part.

  20. Gas turbines: gas cleaning requirements for biomass-fired systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John


    Full Text Available Increased interest in the development of renewable energy technologies has been hencouraged by the introduction of legislative measures in Europe to reduce CO2 emissions from power generation in response to the potential threat of global warming. Of these technologies, biomass-firing represents a high priority because of the modest risk involved and the availability of waste biomass in many countries. Options based on farmed biomass are also under development. This paper reviews the challenges facing these technologies if they are to be cost competitive while delivering the supposed environmental benefits. In particular, it focuses on the use of biomass in gasification-based systems using gas turbines to deliver increased efficiencies. Results from recent studies in a European programme are presented. For these technologies to be successful, an optimal balance has to be achieved between the high cost of cleaning fuel gases, the reliability of the gas turbine and the fuel flexibility of the overall system. Such optimisation is necessary on a case-by-case basis, as local considerations can play a significant part.

  1. Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

  2. Analysis of regenerative thermal storage geometries for solar gas turbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P


    Full Text Available Ceramic heat regenerators are suited to providing thermal storage for concentrating solar power stations based on a recuperated gas turbine cycle. Randomly packed beds of spheres and saddles; honeycombs and checker bricks were identified...

  3. Development of Micromachine Gas Turbine for Portable Power Generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ISOMURA, Kousuke; TANAKA, Shuji; TOGO, Shinichi; KANEBAKO, Hideki; MURAYAMA, Motohide; SAJI, Nobuyoshi; SATO, Fumihiro; ESASHI, Masayoshi


    Micromachine gas turbine with centrifugal impellers of 10mm diameter fabricated by 5-axis micro-milling is under development at Tohoku University, in conjunction with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI...

  4. Generation of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of natural gas in a gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, R.; Tober, E.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.


    The application of partial oxidation in a gas turbine (PO-GT) in the production of synthesis gas for methanol production is explored. In PO-GT, methane is compressed, preheated, partial oxidized and expanded. For the methanol synthesis a 12% gain in thermal efficiency has been calculated for the

  5. Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.


    In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

  6. Gas-path leakage seal for a gas turbine (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher E.; Dinc, Osman S.; Bagepalli, Bharat S.; Correia, Victor H.; Aksit, Mahmut F.


    A gas-path leakage seal for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a gas turbine (such as combustor casing segments). The seal includes a generally imperforate foil-layer assemblage which is generally impervious to gas and is located in the leakage-gap. The seal also includes a cloth-layer assemblage generally enclosingly contacting the foil-layer assemblage. In one seal, the first edge of the foil-layer assemblage is left exposed, and the foil-layer assemblage resiliently contacts the first member near the first edge to reduce leakage in the "plane" of the cloth-layer assemblage under conditions which include differential thermal growth of the two members. In another seal, such leakage is reduced by having a first weld-bead which permeates the cloth-layer assemblage, is attached to the metal-foil-layer assemblage near the first edge, and unattachedly contacts the first member.

  7. Integrated Heat Exchange For Recuperation In Gas Turbine Engines (United States)


    DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTEGRATED HEAT EXCHANGE FOR RECUPERATION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR...ship gas turbines is difficult due the size and weight of the heat exchanger components required. An alternate approach would be to embed a heat ... exchange system within the engine using existing blade surfaces to extract and insert heat . Due to the highly turbulent and transient flow, heat

  8. Note: thermal imaging enhancement algorithm for gas turbine aerothermal characterization. (United States)

    Beer, S K; Lawson, S A


    An algorithm was developed to convert radiation intensity images acquired using a black and white CCD camera to thermal images without requiring knowledge of incident background radiation. This unique infrared (IR) thermography method was developed to determine aerothermal characteristics of advanced cooling concepts for gas turbine cooling application. Compared to IR imaging systems traditionally used for gas turbine temperature monitoring, the system developed for the current study is relatively inexpensive and does not require calibration with surface mounted thermocouples.



    Siahaya, Yusuf


    A gas turbine power plant, which will be located in Jakarta, will analyzed with the aid of exergy, exergoeconomics and optimization. An exergy analysis identifies the real thermodynacs inefficiency due to irreversibility destroyed within a gas turbine power plant system. An exergoeconomics or thermodynamic analysis consists of an exergy, an economic, an exergy costing, an exergoeconomic, and an exergoeconomic optimization aims at minimizing the thermodynamic inefficiencies (exergy...

  10. Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others


    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (BP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path. The thermodynamic analyses of gas turbine cycles with modifications such as intercooling, recuperating, and reheating have shown that intercooling is important to achieving high efficiency gas turbines. The gas turbine industry has considerable interest in adopting intercooling to advanced gas turbines of different capacities. This observation is reinforced by the US Navys Intercooled-Recuperative (ICR) gas turbine development program to power the surface ships. In an intercooler system, the air exiting the LP compressor must be decelerated to provide the necessary residence time in the heat exchanger. The cooler air must subsequently be accelerated towards the inlet of the HP compressor. The circumferential flow nonuniformities inevitably introduced by the heat exchanger, if not isolated, could lead to rotating stall in the compressors, and reduce the overall system performance and efficiency. Also, the pressure losses in the intercooler flow path adversely affect the system efficiency and hence, must be minimized. Thus, implementing intercooling requires fluid dynamically efficient flow path with minimum flow nonuniformities and consequent pressure losses.

  11. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E


    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  12. Use of Expansion Turbines in Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poživil Jaroslav


    Full Text Available Through the use of expansion turbines in natural gas pressure reduction stations it is possible to produce clean, “green” electricity.Such energy recovery unit utilize the potential energy of natural gas being delivered under high pressure. Expansion turbines are not onlyefficient and profitable but meet the environmental criteria – no emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or carbon dioxide.

  13. Concentrated Solar Power Gas Turbine Hybrid with Thermal Storage


    Wallentinsen, Bård Sve


    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology and shows promise for large-scale renewable electric power generation. CSP is suitable for development in conjunction with other technologies, and this thesis examines the combination of CSP technology with natural gas turbines in order to boost operating temperatures and efficiencies in a resulting solar hybrid gas turbine (SHGT) power plant. Thermal energy storage and a bottoming cycle are included in the design to increase both performance and rene...

  14. Integrated operation of a pressurized fixed-bed gasifier, hot gas desulfurization system, and turbine simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, S.; Ayala, R.E.; Feitelberg, A.; Furman, A.


    The overall objective of the General Electric Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) Program is to develop a commercially viable technology to remove sulfur, particulates, and halogens from a high-temperature fuel gas stream using a moving bed, regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbent based process. The HGCU Program is based on the design and demonstration of the HGCU system in a test facility made up of a pilot-scale fixed bed gasifier, a HGCU system, and a turbine simulator in Schenectady, NY, at the General Electric Research and Development Center. The objectives of the turbine simulator testing are (1) to demonstrate the suitability of fuel gas processed by the HGCU system for use in state-of-the-art gas turbines firing at 2,350 F rotor inlet temperature and (2) to quantify the combustion characteristics and emissions on low-Btu fuel gas. The turbine simulator program also includes the development and operation of experimental combustors based on the rich-quench-lean concept (RQL) to minimize the conversion of ammonia and other fuel-bound nitrogen species to NO{sub x} during combustion. The HGCU system and turbine simulator have been designed to process approximately 8,000 lb/hr of low heating value fuel gas produced by the GE fixed bed gasifier. The HGCU system has utilized several mixed metal oxide sorbents, including zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-Sorb, with the objective of demonstrating good sulfur removal and mechanical attrition resistance as well as economic cost characteristics. Demonstration of halogen removal and the characterization of alkali and trace metal concentrations in the fuel gas are subordinate objectives of the overall program. This report describes the results of several long-duration pilot tests.

  15. Technology Review of Modern Gas Turbine Inlet Filtration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Wilcox


    Full Text Available An inlet air filtration system is essential for the successful operation of a gas turbine. The filtration system protects the gas turbine from harmful debris in the ambient air, which can lead to issues such as FOD, erosion, fouling, and corrosion. These issues if not addressed will result in a shorter operational life and reduced performance of the gas turbine. Modern day filtration systems are comprised of multiple filtration stages. Each stage is selected based on the local operating environment and the performance goals for the gas turbine. Selection of these systems can be a challenging task. This paper provides a review of the considerations for selecting an inlet filtration system by covering (1 the characteristics of filters and filter systems, (2 a review of the many types of filters, (3 a detailed look at the different environments where the gas turbine can operate, (4 a process for evaluating the site where the gas turbine will be or is installed, and (5 a method to compare various filter system options with life cycle cost analysis.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected advanced gas turbine cycles (United States)

    Pandey, Devendra; Bade, Mukund H.


    This paper deals with thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle. To analyse the thermodynamic performance of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycles, a methodology based on pinch analysis is proposed. This graphical methodology is a systematic approach proposed for a selection of gas turbine with steam injection. The developed graphs are useful for selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) for optimal operation of it and helps designer to take appropriate decision. The selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle can be done either at minimum steam ratio (ratio of mass flow rate of steam to air) with maximum efficiency or at maximum steam ratio with maximum net work conditions based on the objective of plants designer. Operating the steam injection based advanced gas turbine plant at minimum steam ratio improves efficiency, resulting in reduction of pollution caused by the emission of flue gases. On the other hand, operating plant at maximum steam ratio can result in maximum work output and hence higher available power.

  17. Flashback mechanisms in lean premixed gas turbine combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Benim, Ali Cemal


    Blending fuels with hydrogen offers the potential to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions in gas turbines, but doing so introduces potential new problems such as flashback.  Flashback can lead to thermal overload and destruction of hardware in the turbine engine, with potentially expensive consequences. The little research on flashback that is available is fragmented. Flashback Mechanisms in Lean Premixed Gas Turbine Combustion by Ali Cemal Benim will address not only the overall issue of the flashback phenomenon, but also the issue of fragmented and incomplete research.Presents a coherent review of f

  18. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine (United States)

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.


    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  19. Generic Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Performance: The development of the gas turbine simulation program GSP


    Visser, W.P.J.


    Numerical modelling and simulation have played a critical role in the research and development towards today’s powerful and efficient gas turbine engines for both aviation and power generation. The simultaneous progress in modelling methods, numerical methods, software development tools and methods, and computer platform technology has provided the gas turbine community with ever more accurate design, performance prediction and analysis tools. An important element is the development towards g...

  20. Method and system to facilitate sealing in gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Victor John; Foster, Gregory Thomas; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar


    A method and system for sealing between components within a gas turbine is provided. A first recess defined in a first component receives a seal member. A second recess defined in a second component adjacent the first component also receives the seal member. The first and second recesses are located proximate a hot gas path defined through the gas turbine, and define circumferential paths about the turbine axis. The seal member includes a sealing face that extends in a direction substantially parallel to the turbine axis. The seal member also includes a plurality of seal layers, wherein at least one of the seal layers includes at least one stress relief region for facilitating flexing of the first seal member.

  1. High-temperature turbine technology program. Turbine subsystem design report: Low-Btu gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M.W.


    The objective of the US Department of Energy High-Temperature Turbine Technology (DOE-HTTT) program is to bring to technology readiness a high-temperature (2600/sup 0/F to 3000/sup 0/F firing temperature) turbine within a 6- to 10-year duration, Phase II has addressed the performance of component design and technology testing in critical areas to confirm the design concepts identified in the earlier Phase I program. Based on the testing and support studies completed under Phase II, this report describes the updated turbine subsystem design for a coal-derived gas fuel (low-Btu gas) operation at 2600/sup 0/F turbine firing temperature. A commercial IGCC plant configuration would contain four gas turbines. These gas turbines utilize an existing axial flow compressor from the GE product line MS6001 machine. A complete description of the Primary Reference Design-Overall Plant Design Description has been developed and has been documented. Trends in overall plant performance improvement at higher pressure ratio and higher firing temperature are shown. It should be noted that the effect of pressure ratio on efficiency is significally enhanced at higher firing temperatures. It is shown that any improvement in overall plant thermal efficiency reflects about the same level of gain in Cost of Electricity (COE). The IGCC concepts are shown to be competitive in both performance and cost at current and near-term gas turbine firing temperatures of 1985/sup 0/F to 2100/sup 0/F. The savings that can be accumulated over a thirty-year plant life for a water-cooled gas turbine in an IGCC plant as compared to a state-of-the-art coal-fired steam plant are estimated. A total of $500 million over the life of a 1000 MW plant is projected. Also, this IGCC power plant has significant environmental advantages over equivalent coal-fired steam power plants.

  2. Proceedings of the flexible, midsize gas turbine program planning workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission (CEC) held a program planning workshop on March 4--5, 1997 in Sacramento, California on the subject of a flexible, midsize gas turbine (FMGT). The workshop was also co-sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the Gas Turbine Association (GTA), and the Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine Program (CAGT). The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a broad cross section of knowledgeable people to discuss the potential benefits, markets, technical attributes, development costs, and development funding approaches associated with making this new technology available in the commercial marketplace. The participants in the workshop included representatives from the sponsoring organizations, electric utilities, gas utilities, independent power producers, gas turbine manufacturers, gas turbine packagers, and consultants knowledgeable in the power generation field. Thirteen presentations were given on the technical and commercial aspects of the subject, followed by informal breakout sessions that dealt with sets of questions on markets, technology requirements, funding sources and cost sharing, and links to other programs.

  3. Development of biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, J T [Aerospace Research Corp., Roanoke, VA (USA)


    A program to develop biomass as an alternative fuel for gas turbines was started at Aerospace Research Corporation in 1980. The research culminated in construction and installation of a power generation system using an Allison T-56 gas turbine at Red Boiling Springs, Tennessee. The system has been successfully operated with delivery of power to the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Emissions from the system meet or exceed EPA requirements. No erosion of the turbine has been detected in over 760 hours of operation, 106 of which were on line generating power for the TVA. It was necessary to limit the turbine inlet temperature to 1450{degrees}F to control the rate of ash deposition on the turbine blades and stators and facilitate periodic cleaning of these components. Results of tests by researchers at Battelle Memorial Institute -- Columbus Division, give promise that deposits on the turbine blades, which must be periodically removed with milled walnut hulls, can be eliminated with addition of lime to the fuel. Operational problems, which are centered primarily around the feed system and engine configuration, have been adequately identified and can be corrected in an upgraded design. The system is now ready for development of a commercial version. The US Department of Energy (DOE) provided support only for the evaluation of wood as an alternative fuel for gas turbines. However, the system appears to have high potential for integration into a hybrid system for the production of ethanol from sorghum or sugar cane. 7 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. A Review of Materials for Gas Turbines Firing Syngas Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Thomas [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL


    Following the extensive development work carried out in the 1990's, gas turbine combined-cycle (GTCC) systems burning natural gas represent a reliable and efficient power generation technology widely used in many parts of the world. A critical factor was that, in order to operate at the high turbine entry temperatures required for high efficiency operation, aero-engine technology, i.e., single-crystal blades, thermal barrier coatings, and sophisticated cooling techniques had to be rapidly scaled up and introduced into these large gas turbines. The problems with reliability that resulted have been largely overcome, so that the high-efficiency GTCC power generation system is now a mature technology, capable of achieving high levels of availability. The high price of natural gas and concern about emission of greenhouse gases has focused attention on the desirability of replacing natural gas with gas derived from coal (syngas) in these gas turbine systems, since typical systems analyses indicate that IGCC plants have some potential to fulfil the requirement for a zero-emissions power generation system. In this review, the current status of materials for the critical hot gas path parts in large gas turbines is briefly considered in the context of the need to burn syngas. A critical factor is that the syngas is a low-Btu fuel, and the higher mass flow compared to natural gas will tend to increase the power output of the engine. However, modifications to the turbine and to the combustion system also will be necessary. It will be shown that many of the materials used in current engines will also be applicable to units burning syngas but, since the combustion environment will contain a greater level of impurities (especially sulfur, water vapor, and particulates), the durability of some components may be prejudiced. Consequently, some effort will be needed to develop improved coatings to resist attack by sulfur-containing compounds, and also erosion.

  5. Development of gas turbines simplified mathematical models; Desenvolvimento de modelos matematicos simplificados das turbinas a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Leonardo Vinicius; Mendes, Pedro Paulo C. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Eletrotecnica; Ferreira, Claudio [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    This paper presents the development and analysis of various mathematical models for gas turbine which can be incorporated to dynamic stability or to electric power systems. The work provides answers for questions such as: the dynamic behaviour of gas turbine driven generator unities, the influence of those equipment in the other elements and the best operational conditions for the equipment.

  6. Biomass & Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Fuel For Gas Turbine (Power Generation) (United States)

    Significant progress has been made by major power generation equipment manufacturers in the development of market applications for hydrogen fuel use in gas turbines in recent years. Development of a new application using gas turbines for significant reduction of power plant CO2 e...

  7. Reduction of gas flow nonuniformity in gas turbine engines by means of gas-dynamic methods (United States)

    Matveev, V.; Baturin, O.; Kolmakova, D.; Popov, G.


    Gas flow nonuniformity is one of the main sources of rotor blade vibrations in the gas turbine engines. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity occurs near the annular frames, located in the flow channel of the engine. This leads to the increased dynamic stresses in blades and as a consequence to the blade damage. The goal of the research was to find an acceptable method of reducing the level of gas flow nonuniformity as the source of dynamic stresses in the rotor blades. Two different methods were investigated during this research. Thus, this study gives the ideas about methods of improving the flow structure in gas turbine engine. On the basis of existing conditions (under development or existing engine) it allows the selection of the most suitable method for reducing gas flow nonuniformity.

  8. Dynamic gas bearing turbine technology in hydrogen plants (United States)

    Ohlig, Klaus; Bischoff, Stefan


    Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbines - although applied for helium refrigerators and liquefiers for decades - experienced limitations for hydrogen applications due to restrictions in axial bearing capacity. With a new design concept for gas bearing turbines developed in 2004, axial bearing capacity was significantly improved enabling the transfer of this technology to hydrogen liquefiers. Prior to roll-out of the technology to industrial plants, the turbine bearing technology passed numerous tests in R&D test benches and subsequently proved industrial scale demonstration at Linde Gas' hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany. Since its installation, this turbine has gathered more than 16,000 successful operating hours and has outperformed its oil bearing brother in terms of performance, maintainability as well as reliability. The present paper is based on Linde Kryotechnik AG's paper published in the proceedings of the CEC 2009 concerning the application of Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbines in hydrogen applications. In contrast to the former paper, this publication focuses on the steps towards final market launch and more specifically on the financial benefits of this turbine technology, both in terms of capital investment as well as operating expenses.

  9. Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle (United States)

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Sudhoff, Frederick A.


    A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

  10. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)


    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as

  12. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  13. Gas turbine engine with radial diffuser and shortened mid section (United States)

    Charron, Richard C.; Montgomery, Matthew D.


    An industrial gas turbine engine (10), including: a can annular combustion assembly (80), having a plurality of discrete flow ducts configured to receive combustion gas from respective combustors (82) and deliver the combustion gas along a straight flow path at a speed and orientation appropriate for delivery directly onto the first row (56) of turbine blades (62); and a compressor diffuser (32) having a redirecting surface (130, 140) configured to receive an axial flow of compressed air and redirect the axial flow of compressed air radially outward.

  14. Practical Techniques for Modeling Gas Turbine Engine Performance (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Litt, Jonathan S.


    The cost and risk associated with the design and operation of gas turbine engine systems has led to an increasing dependence on mathematical models. In this paper, the fundamentals of engine simulation will be reviewed, an example performance analysis will be performed, and relationships useful for engine control system development will be highlighted. The focus will be on thermodynamic modeling utilizing techniques common in industry, such as: the Brayton cycle, component performance maps, map scaling, and design point criteria generation. In general, these topics will be viewed from the standpoint of an example turbojet engine model; however, demonstrated concepts may be adapted to other gas turbine systems, such as gas generators, marine engines, or high bypass aircraft engines. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of gas turbine model generation and system performance analysis for educational uses, such as curriculum creation or student reference.

  15. Entropy generation in a channel resembling gas turbine cooling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Flow into a passage resembling a gas turbine blade cooling passage is considered and entropy .... for the flow systems associated with the cooling applications. In the present study, rectangular .... Since we are using ideal gas law to incorporate the density variation with temperature, the code does not permit use of ...

  16. Gas Foil Bearing Technology Advancements for Closed Brayton Cycle Turbines (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.


    Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) turbine systems are under consideration for future space electric power generation. CBC turbines convert thermal energy from a nuclear reactor, or other heat source, to electrical power using a closed-loop cycle. The operating fluid in the closed-loop is commonly a high pressure inert gas mixture that cannot tolerate contamination. One source of potential contamination in a system such as this is the lubricant used in the turbomachine bearings. Gas Foil Bearings (GFB) represent a bearing technology that eliminates the possibility of contamination by using the working fluid as the lubricant. Thus, foil bearings are well suited to application in space power CBC turbine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center is actively researching GFB technology for use in these CBC power turbines. A power loss model has been developed, and the effects of a very high ambient pressure, start-up torque, and misalignment, have been observed and are reported here.

  17. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine (United States)

    None, None


    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  18. Full hoop casing for midframe of industrial gas turbine engine (United States)

    Myers, Gerald A.; Charron, Richard C.


    A can annular industrial gas turbine engine, including: a single-piece rotor shaft spanning a compressor section (82), a combustion section (84), a turbine section (86); and a combustion section casing (10) having a section (28) configured as a full hoop. When the combustion section casing is detached from the engine and moved to a maintenance position to allow access to an interior of the engine, a positioning jig (98) is used to support the compressor section casing (83) and turbine section casing (87).

  19. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.


    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  20. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Major


    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  1. Gas turbine power plant with supersonic shock compression ramps (United States)

    Lawlor, Shawn P [Bellevue, WA; Novaresi, Mark A [San Diego, CA; Cornelius, Charles C [Kirkland, WA


    A gas turbine engine. The engine is based on the use of a gas turbine driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. The supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdynamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by use of a lean pre-mix system, a pre-swirl compressor, and a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor to the combustion gas outlet. Use of a stationary low NOx combustor provides excellent emissions results.

  2. Selection of technology for the low calorific synthetic gas combustion in the gas turbine combustion chamber (United States)

    Filippov, Prokopy; Levin, Evgeny; Ryzhkov, Alexander


    The leading gas turbines manufacturers are developing the technologies of the environmental friendly combustion of industrial and synthetic gases of low calorific values. In this case they are faced with critical problems concerning combustion stability assurance and the necessity of the gas turbines significant modernization due to the differences between the low calorific and natural gases. The numerical simulation results of the low calorific value synthetic gas combustion in the combustion chamber by means of different technologies are considered in the paper.

  3. Low-leakage modular regenerators for gas-turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluka, J.A. [Pratt and Whitney, Middletown, CT (United States); Wilson, D.G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    One of the significant problems plaguing regenerator designs is seal leakage resulting in a reduction of thermal efficiency. This paper describes the preliminary design and analysis of a new regenerative heat-exchanger concept, called a modular regenerator, that promises to provide improved seal-leakage performance. The modular regenerator concept consists of a ceramic-honeycomb matrix discretized into rectangular blocks, called modules. Separating the matrix into modules substantially reduces the transverse sealing lengths and substantially increases the longitudinal sealing lengths as compared with typical rotary designs. Potential applications can range from small gas-turbine engines for automotive applications to large stationary gas turbines for industrial power generation. Descriptions of two types of modular regenerators are presented including sealing concepts. Results of seal leakage analysis for typical modular regenerators sized for a small gas-turbine engine (120 kW) predict leakage rates under one percent for most seal-clearance heights.

  4. Development of Micromachine Gas Turbine for Portable Power Generation (United States)

    Isomura, Kousuke; Tanaka, Shuji; Togo, Shinichi; Kanebako, Hideki; Murayama, Motohide; Saji, Nobuyoshi; Sato, Fumihiro; Esashi, Masayoshi

    Micromachine gas turbine with centrifugal impellers of 10mm diameter fabricated by 5-axis micro-milling is under development at Tohoku University, in conjunction with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), Tohoku-Gakuin University, and Sankyo Seiki Mfg. Co., Ltd. The development is currently at the stage of proving the feasibility of the gas turbine cycle by component tests. Micro-combustors have been developed for both hydrogen and methane fuel. Over 99.9% of the combustion efficiency has been realized in both combustors and the baseline configuration of the combustor for the gas turbine is set. A compressor of 10mm diameter has been developed as a micromachined turbocharger. The performance test of the micromachined turbocharger has been started, and ran up to 566000rpm, which is approximately 65% of the design speed. Compressor performance has been successfully measured along a constant speed line at 55% of the design speed.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.


    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  6. Simulation modelling for new gas turbine fuel controller creation. (United States)

    Vendland, L. E.; Pribylov, V. G.; Borisov, Yu A.; Arzamastsev, M. A.; Kosoy, A. A.


    State of the art gas turbine fuel flow control systems are based on throttle principle. Major disadvantage of such systems is that they require high pressure fuel intake. Different approach to fuel flow control is to use regulating compressor. And for this approach because of controller and gas turbine interaction a specific regulating compressor is required. Difficulties emerge as early as the requirement definition stage. To define requirements for new object, his properties must be known. Simulation modelling helps to overcome these difficulties. At the requirement definition stage the most simplified mathematical model is used. Mathematical models will get more complex and detailed as we advance in planned work. If future adjusting of regulating compressor physical model to work with virtual gas turbine and physical control system is planned.

  7. Experimental study on the heavy-duty gas turbine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonovsky, V.; Ahn, Kook Young [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The results of stand and field testing of a combustion chamber for a heavy-duty 150 MW gas turbine are discussed. The model represented one of 14 identical segments of a tubular multican combustor constructed in the scale 1:1. The model experiments were executed at a pressure smaller than in the real gas turbine. The combustion efficiency, pressure loss factor, pattern factor, liner wall temperature, flame radiation, fluctuating pressure, and NOx emission were measured at partial and full load for both model and on-site testing. The comparison of these items of information, received on similar modes in the stand and field tests, has allowed the development of a method of calculation and the improvement of gas turbine combustors.

  8. Experimental study on the heavy-duty gas turbine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V, Antonovsky; Ahn, K.Y. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Taejon (Korea)


    The results of stand and field testing of a combustion chamber for a heavy-duty 150 MW gas turbine are discussed. The model represented one of 14 identical segments of a tubular multican combustor constructed in the scale 1:1. The model experiments were executed at a pressure smaller than in the real gas turbine. The combustion efficiency, pressure loss factor, pattern factor, liner wall temperature, flame radiation, fluctuating pressure, and NOx emission were measured at partial and full load for both model and on-site testing. The comparison of these items of information, received on similar modes in the stand and field tests, has allowed the development of a method of calculation and the improvement of gas turbine combustors. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Perspective on thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbine applications (United States)

    Mutasim, Zaher; Brentnall, William


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used in high thrust aircraft engines for many years, and have proved to be very effective in providing thermal protection and increasing engine efficiencies. TBC life requirements for aircraft engines are typically less than those required for industrial gas turbines. This paper describes current and future applications of TBC's in industrial gas turbine engines. Early testing and applications of TBC's is reviewed. Areas of concern from the engine designer's and materials engineer's perspective are identified and evaluated. This paper focuses on the key factors that are expected to influence utilization of TBC's in advanced industrial gas turbine engines. It is anticipated that reliable, durable and highly effective coating systems will be produced that will ultimately improve engine efficiency and performance.

  10. Performance of low-Btu fuel gas turbine combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, S.; Bowen, J.H.; Feitelberg, A.S.; Hung, S.L.; Lacey, M.A.; Manning, K.S.


    This reports on a project to develop low BTU gas fuel nozzle for use in large gas turbine combustors using multiple fuel nozzles. A rich-quench-lean combustor is described here which reduces the amount of NO{sub x} produced by the combustion of the low BTU gas. The combustor incorporates a converging rich stage combustor liner, which separates the rich stage recirculation zones from the quench stage and lean stage air.

  11. Modular approach to analysis of chemically recuperated gas turbine cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcasci, C.; Facchini, B. [University of Florence, `Sergio Stecco` (Italy). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Harvey, S. [Chalmers Institute of Technology, Goeteberg (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Technology


    Current research programmes such as the CAGT programme investigate the opportunity for advanced power generation cycles based on state-of-the-art aeroderivative gas turbine technology. Such cycles would be primarily aimed at intermediate duty applications. Compared to industrial gas turbines, aeroderivatives offer high simple cycle efficiency, and the capability to start quickly and frequently without a significant maintenance cost penalty. A key element for high system performance is the development of improved heat recovery systems, leading to advanced cycles such as the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle, the chemically recuperated gas turbine (CRGT) cycle and the Kalina combined cycle. When used in combination with advanced technologies and components, screening studies conducted by research programmes such as the CAGT programme predict that such advanced cycles could theoretically lead to net cycle efficiencies exceeding 60%. In this paper, the authors present the application of the modular approach to cycle simulation and performance predictions of CRGT cycles. The paper first presents the modular simulation code concept and the main characteristics of CRGT cycles. The paper next discusses the development of the methane-steam reformer unit model used for the simulations. The modular code is then used to compute performance characteristics of a simple CRGT cycle and a reheat CRGT cycle, both based on the General Electric LM6000 aeroderivative gas turbine. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz(Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)


    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  13. Performance assessment of simple and modified cycle turboshaft gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barinyima Nkoi


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigations encompassing comparative assessment of gas turbine cycle options. More specifically, investigation was carried out of technical performance of turboshaft engine cycles based on existing simple cycle (SC and its projected modified cycles for civil helicopter application. Technically, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and power output are of paramount importance to the overall performance of gas turbine engines. In course of carrying out this research, turbomatch software established at Cranfield University based on gas turbine theory was applied to conduct simulation of a simple cycle (baseline two-spool helicopter turboshaft engine model with free power turbine. Similarly, some modified gas turbine cycle configurations incorporating unconventional components, such as engine cycle with low pressure compressor (LPC zero-staged, recuperated engine cycle, and intercooled/recuperated (ICR engine cycle, were also simulated. In doing so, design point (DP and off-design point (OD performances of the engine models were established. The percentage changes in performance parameters of the modified cycle engines over the simple cycle were evaluated and it was found that to a large extent, the modified engine cycles with unconventional components exhibit better performances in terms of thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption than the traditional simple cycle engine. This research made use of public domain open source references.

  14. Methods of Si based ceramic components volatilization control in a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John; Dion Ouellet, Noemie


    A method of controlling volatilization of silicon based components in a gas turbine engine includes measuring, estimating and/or predicting a variable related to operation of the gas turbine engine; correlating the variable to determine an amount of silicon to control volatilization of the silicon based components in the gas turbine engine; and injecting silicon into the gas turbine engine to control volatilization of the silicon based components. A gas turbine with a compressor, combustion system, turbine section and silicon injection system may be controlled by a controller that implements the control method.

  15. Hardware simulation of fuel cell/gas turbine hybrids (United States)

    Smith, Thomas Paul

    Hybrid solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine (SOFC/GT) systems offer high efficiency power generation, but face numerous integration and operability challenges. This dissertation addresses the application of hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) to explore the performance of a solid oxide fuel cell stack and gas turbine when combined into a hybrid system. Specifically, this project entailed developing and demonstrating a methodology for coupling a numerical SOFC subsystem model with a gas turbine that has been modified with supplemental process flow and control paths to mimic a hybrid system. This HILS approach was implemented with the U.S. Department of Energy Hybrid Performance Project (HyPer) located at the National Energy Technology Laboratory. By utilizing HILS the facility provides a cost effective and capable platform for characterizing the response of hybrid systems to dynamic variations in operating conditions. HILS of a hybrid system was accomplished by first interfacing a numerical model with operating gas turbine hardware. The real-time SOFC stack model responds to operating turbine flow conditions in order to predict the level of thermal effluent from the SOFC stack. This simulated level of heating then dynamically sets the turbine's "firing" rate to reflect the stack output heat rate. Second, a high-speed computer system with data acquisition capabilities was integrated with the existing controls and sensors of the turbine facility. In the future, this will allow for the utilization of high-fidelity fuel cell models that infer cell performance parameters while still computing the simulation in real-time. Once the integration of the numeric and the hardware simulation components was completed, HILS experiments were conducted to evaluate hybrid system performance. The testing identified non-intuitive transient responses arising from the large thermal capacitance of the stack that are inherent to hybrid systems. Furthermore, the tests demonstrated the

  16. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa


    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  17. Thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine and diesel engines (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.; Brindley, William J.; Bailey, M. Murray


    The present state of development of thin thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines and thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines is assessed. Although current thermal barrier coatings are flying in certain gas turbine engines, additional advances will be needed for future engines. Thick thermal barrier coatings for truck diesel engines have advanced to the point where they are being seriously considered for the next generation of engine. Since coatings for truck engines is a young field of inquiry, continued research and development efforts will be required to help bring this technology to commercialization.

  18. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for commercial gas turbine engines (United States)

    Meier, Susan Manning; Gupta, Dinesh K.; Sheffler, Keith D.


    The paper provides an overview of the short history, current status, and future prospects of ceramic thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines. Particular attention is given to plasma-sprayed and electron beam-physical vapor deposited yttria-stabilized (7 wt pct Y2O3) zirconia systems. Recent advances include improvements in the spallation life of thermal barrier coatings, improved bond coat composition and spraying techniques, and improved component design. The discussion also covers field experience, life prediction modeling, and future directions in ceramic coatings in relation to gas turbine engine design.

  19. Erosion-Resistant Nanocoatings for Improved Energy Efficiency in Gas Turbine Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to test and substantiate erosion-resistant (ER) nanocoatings for application on compressor airfoils for gas turbine engines in both industrial gas turbines and commercial aviation.

  20. Research and Development of Mixed and Standard Type Biomass Gas Turbine System with Enhanced Fuel Applicability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MATSUBARA, Koji; TAMAI, Hiroki; TANUMA, Hayato; MATSUDAIRA, Yusaku; DAS, Piyali; ACHARJEE, Paltu; MORIMOTO, Sousuke


    .... This paper describes a mixed and standard type gas turbine system for this purpose. The mixed type gas turbine employs a regenerated Brayton cycle with a secondary combustor to burn various fuels...

  1. Conceptual design study of an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain (United States)

    Wagner, C. E. (Editor); Pampreen, R. C. (Editor)


    Automotive gas turbine concepts with significant technological advantages over the spark ignition (SI) engine were assessed. Possible design concepts were rated with respect to fuel economy and near-term application. A program plan which outlines the development of the improved gas turbine (IGT) concept that best met the goals and objectives of the study identifies the research and development work needed to meet the goal of entering a production engineering phase by 1983. The fuel economy goal is to show at least a 20% improvement over a conventional 1976 SI engine/vehicle system. On the basis of achieving the fuel economy goal, of overall suitability to mechanical design, and of automotive mass production cost, the powertrain selected was a single-shaft engine with a radial turbine and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Design turbine inlet temperature was 1150 C. Reflecting near-term technology, the turbine rotor would be made of an advanced superalloy, and the transmission would be a hydromechanical CVT. With successful progress in long-lead R&D in ceramic technology and the belt-drive CVT, the turbine inlet temperature would be 1350 C to achieve near-maximum fuel economy.

  2. 46 CFR 112.20-10 - Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. 112... Power Source § 112.20-10 Diesel or gas turbine driven emergency power source. Simultaneously with the operation of the transfer means under § 112.20-5, the diesel engine or gas turbine driving the final...

  3. 40 CFR 1042.670 - Special provisions for gas turbine engines. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for gas turbine... AND VESSELS Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.670 Special provisions for gas turbine engines. The provisions of this section apply for gas turbine engines. (a) Implementation schedule. The requirements of...

  4. Gas turbine cooling modeling - Thermodynamic analysis and cycle simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordal, Kristin


    Considering that blade and vane cooling are a vital point in the studies of modern gas turbines, there are many ways to include cooling in gas turbine models. Thermodynamic methods for doing this are reviewed in this report, and, based on some of these methods, a number of model requirements are set up and a Cooled Gas Turbine Model (CGTM) for design-point calculations of cooled gas turbines is established. Thereafter, it is shown that it is possible to simulate existing gas turbines with the CGTM. Knowledge of at least one temperature in the hot part of the turbine (TET, TRIT or possibly TIT) is found to be vital for a complete heat balance over the turbine. The losses, which are caused by the mixing of coolant and main flow, are in the CGTM considered through a polytropic efficiency reduction factor S. Through the study of S, it can be demonstrated that there is more to gain from coolant reduction in a small and/or old turbine with poor aerodynamics, than there is to gain in a large, modern turbine, where the losses due to interaction between coolant and main flow are, relatively speaking, small. It is demonstrated, at the design point (TET=1360 deg C, {pi}=20) for the simple-cycle gas turbine, that heat exchanging between coolant and fuel proves to have a large positive impact on cycle efficiency, with an increase of 0.9 percentage points if all of the coolant passes through the heat exchanger. The corresponding improvement for humidified coolant is 0.8 percentage points. A design-point study for the HAT cycle shows that if all of the coolant is extracted after the humidification tower, there is a decrease in coolant requirements of 7.16 percentage points, from 19.58% to 12.52% of the compressed air, and an increase in thermal efficiency of 0.46 percentage points, from 53.46% to 53.92%. Furthermore, it is demonstrated with a TET-parameter variation, that the cooling of a simple-cycle gas turbine with humid air can have a positive effect on thermal efficiency

  5. Structure and properties of deformable nickel alloys for gas turbines (United States)

    Filatova, M. A.; Sudakov, V. S.


    The construction of high power gas turbine installations necessitates the development and use of new high-strength heat-resistant nickel alloys for large forged turbine blades. The blade material must possess not only superior properties (high temperature strength, ductility, fatigue and thermal fatigue strength, stability in the fuel combustion products) but also the required level of metallurgical and manufacturing producibility. The results of a study of the deformable nickel alloys KhN65KVMYuTB (ÉK78), KhN65KMVYuB (ÉP800), and KhN60KVYuMB (ÉP957), which have substantially better properties than the alloy now used for gas turbine blades (KhN65VMTYu) (ÉI893), are presented in this article.

  6. Combustion of Syngas Fuel in Gas Turbine Can Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouki Ghenai


    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of the combustion of syngas fuel mixture in gas turbine can combustor is presented in this paper. The objective is to understand the impact of the variability in the alternative fuel composition and heating value on combustion performance and emissions. The gas turbine can combustor is designed to burn the fuel efficiently, reduce the emissions, and lower the wall temperature. Syngas mixtures with different fuel compositions are produced through different coal and biomass gasification process technologies. The composition of the fuel burned in can combustor was changed from natural gas (methane to syngas fuel with hydrogen to carbon monoxide (H2/CO volume ratio ranging from 0.63 to 2.36. The mathematical models used for syngas fuel combustion consist of the k-ε model for turbulent flow, mixture fractions/PDF model for nonpremixed gas combustion, and P-1 radiation model. The effect of syngas fuel composition and lower heating value on the flame shape, gas temperature, mass of carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx per unit of energy generation is presented in this paper. The results obtained in this study show the change in gas turbine can combustor performance with the same power generation when natural gas or methane fuel is replaced by syngas fuels.

  7. Radial inflow gas turbine engine with advanced transition duct (United States)

    Wiebe, David J


    A gas turbine engine (10), including: a turbine having radial inflow impellor blades (38); and an array of advanced transition combustor assemblies arranged circumferentially about the radial inflow impellor blades (38) and having inner surfaces (34) that are adjacent to combustion gases (40). The inner surfaces (34) of the array are configured to accelerate and orient, for delivery directly onto the radial inflow impellor blades (38), a plurality of discrete flows of the combustion gases (40). The array inner surfaces (34) define respective combustion gas flow axes (20). Each combustion gas flow axis (20) is straight from a point of ignition until no longer bound by the array inner surfaces (34), and each combustion gas flow axis (20) intersects a unique location on a circumference defined by a sweep of the radial inflow impellor blades (38).

  8. Gas turbine performance enhancement via utilizing different integrated turbine inlet cooling techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A. El-Shazly


    Full Text Available Regions that experience ambient temperatures rising during hot seasons have significant losses and impacts on both output power and efficiency of the gas turbine. When the ambient temperature increases, the air mass flow rate decreases, and hence leads to reduce the gas turbine produced power. Ambient air can be cooled by using either evaporative cooler or absorption chiller. Currently, the performance was simulated thermodynamically for a natural gas operated gas turbine. The performance was tested for the base case without any turbine inlet cooling (TIC systems and compared with the performance for both evaporative cooler and absorption chiller separately in terms of output power, thermal efficiency, heat rate, specific fuel consumption, consumed fuel mass flow rate, and economics. Results showed that at air ambient temperature equals to 37 °C and after deducting all the associated auxiliaries power consumption for both evaporative cooler and absorption chiller, the absorption chiller with regenerator can achieve an augmentation of 25.47% in power and 33.66% in efficiency which provides a saving in average power price about 13%, while the evaporative cooler provides only an increase of 5.56% in power and 1.55% in efficiency, and a saving of 3% in average power price.

  9. Entropy generation in a channel resembling gas turbine cooling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flow into a passage resembling a gas turbine blade cooling passage is considered and entropy generation rate in the passage is examined for unique rotation number and density ratios. In the simulations, leading and trailing walls of the passage are assumed to be at constant temperature. A control volume approach is ...

  10. Maintenance management of gas turbine power plant systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following maintenance procedures and bottlenecks as some of the serious constraints affecting maintenance of Gas Turbine Power Plants in Nigeria. Maintenance models that could be considered in Afam power station are highlighted and analyzed in the context of these constraints. Also necessary recommendations that ...

  11. Development of 100MW Gas Turbine Shaft Sleeve Puller | Sadjere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We utilized statically indeterminate approach to design the platform to very high flexural rigidity to avoid deflection, a necessary condition, to prevent damage to the generator field winding. The design was successful; the system constructed and used to pull-out/pull-in six rotors of the gas turbine generators; and is still being ...

  12. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, Gerard


    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that

  13. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest (United States)

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles


    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  14. High temperature, low expansion, corrosion resistant ceramic and gas turbine (United States)

    Rauch, Sr., Harry W.


    The present invention relates to ZrO.sub.2 -MgO-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -SiO.sub.2 ceramic materials having improved thermal stability and corrosion resistant properties. The utilization of these ceramic materials as heat exchangers for gas turbine engines is also disclosed.

  15. Electrical Resistivity Survey For Conductive Soils At Gas Turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger configuration were carried out to delineate subsurface conductive soils for the design of earthling grid for electrical materials installation at the Gas Turbine Station, Ajaokuta, SW Nigeria. Interpretation of the resistivity data revealed three major geoelectric ...

  16. Static Structural and Modal Analysis of Gas Turbine Blade (United States)

    Ranjan Kumar, Ravi; Pandey, K. M., Prof.


    Gas turbine is one of the most versatile items of turbo machinery nowadays. It is used in different modes such as power generation, oil and gas, process plants, aviation, domestic and related small industries. This paper is based on the problems concerning blade profile selection, material selection and turbine rotor blade vibration that seriously impact the induced stress-deformation and structural functioning of developmental gas turbine engine. In this paper for generating specific power by rotating blade at specific RPM, blade profile and material has been decided by static structural analysis. Gas turbine rotating blade RPM is decided by Modal Analysis so that the natural frequency of blade should not match with the excitation frequency. For the above blade profile has been modeled in SOLIDWORKS and analysis has been done in ANSYS WORKBENCH 14. Existing NACA6409 profile has been selected as base model and then it is modified by bending it through 72.5° and 145°. Hence these three different blade profiles have been analyzed for three different materials viz. Super Alloy X, Nimonic 80A and Inconel 625 at three different speed viz. 20000, 40000 and 60000RPM. It is found that NACA6409 with 72.5° bent gives best result for all material at all speed. Among all the material Inconel 625 gives best result. Hence Blade of Inconel 625 having 72.5° bent profile is the best combination for all RPM.

  17. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit


    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been

  18. Compressive stress system for a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin


    The present application provides a compressive stress system for a gas turbine engine. The compressive stress system may include a first bucket attached to a rotor, a second bucket attached to the rotor, the first and the second buckets defining a shank pocket therebetween, and a compressive stress spring positioned within the shank pocket.

  19. Demand of the power industry of Russia for gas turbines: the current state and prospects (United States)

    Filippov, S. P.; Dil'man, M. D.; Ionov, M. S.


    The use of gas-turbine plants (GTPs) in the power industry of Russia is analyzed. Attention is paid to microturbines and low-, medium-, high-, and superhigh-power GTPs. The efficiency of the gas-turbine plants of domestic and foreign manufacture is compared. The actual values of the installed capacity utilization factor and the corresponding efficiency values are calculated for most GTPs operating in the country. The long-term demand of the country's electric power industry for GTPs for the period until 2040 is determined. The estimates have been obtained for three basic applications of the gas turbines, viz., for replacement of the GTPs that have exhausted their lifetime, replacement of outdated gas-turbine plants at gas-and-oilburning power plants, and construction of new thermal power plants to cover the anticipated growing demand for electric power. According to the findings of the research, the main item in the structure of the demand for GTPs will be their use to replace the decommissioned steam-turbine plants, predominantly those integrated into combined-cycle plants. The priority of the reconstruction of the thermal power plants in operation over the construction of new ones is determined by the large excess of accumulated installed capacities in the country and considerable savings on capital costs using production sites with completed infrastructure. It is established that medium- and high-power GTPs will be the most in-demand plants in the electric power industry. The demand for low-power GTPs will increase at high rates. The demand for microturbines is expected to be rather great. The demand for superhigh-power plants will become quantitatively significant after 2025 and grow rapidly afterwards. The necessity of accelerated development of competitive domestic GTPs with a wide range of capacities and mastering of their series manufacture as well as production of licensed gas turbines at a high production localization level on the territory of the country

  20. Survey of gas tubine control for application to marine gas turbine propulsion system control


    Smith, David L.; Metz Stephen D.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Marine Gas Turbine control systems in present use in the US Navy are significant technological age that new design techniques and micro-processing abilities could lead to more optimal performance and increased plant efficiency. This paper reviews current design theory approaches for aviation gas turbine control advances in digital control. This review shows that todays technology presents the opportunity to redesign control syst...

  1. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.


    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  2. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system (United States)

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield


    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  3. Computational Analysis of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Gas Turbine for Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Wi S.; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Energy demands at a remote site are increased as the world energy requirement diversifies so that they should generate power on their own site. A Small Modular Reactor (SMR) becomes a viable option for these sites. Generally, the economic feasibility of a high power reactor is greater than that for SMR. As a result the supercritical fluid driven Brayton cycle is being considered for a power conversion system to increase economic competitiveness of SMR. The Brayton cycle efficiency is much higher than that for the Rankine cycle. Moreover, the components of the Brayton cycle are smaller than Rankine cycle's due to high heat capacity when a supercritical fluid is adopted. A lead (Pb) cooled SMR, BORIS, and a supercritical fluid driven Brayton cycle, MOBIS, are being developed at the Seoul National University (SNU). Dostal et al. have compared some advanced power cycles and proposed the use of a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) driven Brayton cycle. According to their suggestion SCO{sub 2} is adopted as a working fluid for MOBIS. The turbo machineries are most important components for the Brayton cycle. The turbo machineries of Brayton cycle consists of a turbine to convert kinetic energy of the fluid into mechanical energy of the shaft, and a compressor to recompress and recover the driving force of the working fluid. Therefore, turbine performance is one of the pivotal factors in increasing the cycle efficiency. In MOBIS a supercritical gas turbine is designed in the Gas Advanced Turbine Operation (GATO) and analyzed in the Turbine Integrated Numerical Analysis (TINA). A three-dimensional (3D) numerical analysis is employed for more detailed design to account for the partial flow which the one-dimensional (1D) analysis cannot consider.

  4. Generic Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Performance : The development of the gas turbine simulation program GSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.P.J.


    Numerical modelling and simulation have played a critical role in the research and development towards today’s powerful and efficient gas turbine engines for both aviation and power generation. The simultaneous progress in modelling methods, numerical methods, software development tools and methods,

  5. Combustor nozzles in gas turbine engines (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Ostebee, Heath Michael


    A micro-mixer nozzle for use in a combustor of a combustion turbine engine, the micro-mixer nozzle including: a fuel plenum defined by a shroud wall connecting a periphery of a forward tube sheet to a periphery of an aft tubesheet; a plurality of mixing tubes extending across the fuel plenum for mixing a supply of compressed air and fuel, each of the mixing tubes forming a passageway between an inlet formed through the forward tubesheet and an outlet formed through the aft tubesheet; and a wall mixing tube formed in the shroud wall.

  6. The Combination of Internal-Combustion Engine and Gas Turbine (United States)

    Zinner, K.


    While the gas turbine by itself has been applied in particular cases for power generation and is in a state of promising development in this field, it has already met with considerable success in two cases when used as an exhaust turbine in connection with a centrifugal compressor, namely, in the supercharging of combustion engines and in the Velox process, which is of particular application for furnaces. In the present paper the most important possibilities of combining a combustion engine with a gas turbine are considered. These "combination engines " are compared with the simple gas turbine on whose state of development a brief review will first be given. The critical evaluation of the possibilities of development and fields of application of the various combustion engine systems, wherever it is not clearly expressed in the publications referred to, represents the opinion of the author. The state of development of the internal-combustion engine is in its main features generally known. It is used predominantly at the present time for the propulsion of aircraft and road vehicles and, except for certain restrictions due to war conditions, has been used to an increasing extent in ships and rail cars and in some fields applied as stationary power generators. In the Diesel engine a most economical heat engine with a useful efficiency of about 40 percent exists and in the Otto aircraft engine a heat engine of greatest power per unit weight of about 0.5 kilogram per horsepower.

  7. Techno-economic sensitivity study of heliostat field parameters for micro-gas turbine CSP (United States)

    Landman, Willem A.; Gauché, Paul; Dinter, Frank; Myburgh, J. T.


    Concentrating solar power systems based on micro-gas turbines potentially offer numerous benefits should they become commercially viable. Heliostat fields for such systems have unique requirements in that the number of heliostats and the focal ratios are typically much lower than conventional central receiver systems. This paper presents a techno-economic sensitivity study of heliostat field parameters for a micro-gas turbine central receiver system. A 100 kWe minitower system is considered for the base case and a one-at-a-time strategy is used to investigate parameter sensitivities. Increasing heliostat focal ratios are found to have significant optical performance benefits due to both a reduction in astigmatic aberrations and a reduction in the number of facet focal lengths required; confirming the hypothesis that smaller heliostats offer a techno-economic advantage. Fixed Horizontal Axis tracking mechanism is shown to outperform the conventional Azimuth Zenith tracking mechanism in high density heliostat fields. Although several improvements to heliostat field performance are discussed, the capex fraction of the heliostat field for such system is shown to be almost half that of a conventional central receiver system and optimum utilization of the higher capex components, namely; the receiver and turbine subsystems, are more rewarding than that of the heliostat field.

  8. Gas turbine combustor exit piece with hinged connections (United States)

    Charron, Richard C.; Pankey, William W.


    An exit piece (66) with an inlet throat (67) that conducts a combustion gas flow (36A) in a path (82) from a combustor (63) to an annular chamber (68) that feeds the first blade section (37) of a gas turbine (26). The exit piece further includes an outlet portion (69) that forms a circumferential segment of the annular chamber. The outlet portion interconnects with adjacent outlet portions by hinges (78A, 78B, 80A, 80B). Each hinge may have a hinge axis (82A, 82B) parallel to a centerline (21) of the turbine. Respective gas flows (36A) are configured by an assembly (60) of the exit pieces to converge on the feed chamber (68) into a uniform helical flow that drives the first blade section with minimal circumferential variations in force.

  9. Gas-path leakage seal for a turbine (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Farrell, Thomas Raymond


    A gas-path leakage seal for generally sealing a gas-path leakage-gap between spaced-apart first and second members of a turbine (such as combustor casing segments of a gas turbine). The seal includes a flexible and generally imperforate metal sheet assemblage having opposing first and second surfaces and two opposing raised edges extending a generally identical distance above and below the surfaces. A first cloth layer assemblage has a thickness generally equal to the previously-defined identical distance and is superimposed on the first surface between the raised edges. A second cloth layer assemblage is generally identical to the first cloth layer assemblage and is superimposed on the second surface between the raised edges.

  10. Windage rise and flowpath gas ingestion in turbine rim cavities (United States)

    Haaser, Fred; Jack, James; McGreehan, William


    A method for modeling the windage rise and flowpath gas ingestion in turbine rim cavities on a macroscopic scale is presented, with application to the minimization of the necessary required cooling air in order to provide optimum turbine cycle performance and hardware durability. Comparison is made between measured and predicted results for: (1) the prediction of critical flow in a turbine aeroperformance rig; (2) a boltless blade retainer design; (3) the impact of instrumentation wire; and (4) a modulated throughflow test. It is noted that the effects of inner and outer flow extraction, rotor and stator drag, rotor and stator bolt drag, leakages, and injection momentum must be accounted for to accurately model the wheel space.

  11. Chaotic gas turbine subject to augmented Lorenz equations. (United States)

    Cho, Kenichiro; Miyano, Takaya; Toriyama, Toshiyuki


    Inspired by the chaotic waterwheel invented by Malkus and Howard about 40 years ago, we have developed a gas turbine that randomly switches the sense of rotation between clockwise and counterclockwise. The nondimensionalized expressions for the equations of motion of our turbine are represented as a starlike network of many Lorenz subsystems sharing the angular velocity of the turbine rotor as the central node, referred to as augmented Lorenz equations. We show qualitative similarities between the statistical properties of the angular velocity of the turbine rotor and the velocity field of large-scale wind in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection reported by Sreenivasan et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 056306 (2002)]. Our equations of motion achieve the random reversal of the turbine rotor through the stochastic resonance of the angular velocity in a double-well potential and the force applied by rapidly oscillating fields. These results suggest that the augmented Lorenz model is applicable as a dynamical model for the random reversal of turbulent large-scale wind through cessation.

  12. Construction of a Simulator for the Siemens Gas Turbine SGT-600


    Nordström, Lisa


    This thesis covers the development of a simulator for the Siemens Gas Tur-bine SGT-600. An explanation on how a gas turbine works is also given, as well as the principles behind the control system used by Siemens to control the turbine. For Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery to be able to test its control sys-tem before delivering a gas turbine to the customer, a simulator is needed. The control system needs to be adjusted for every unique gas turbine, since there are several options for the c...

  13. Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) power plant combines the high temperature capabilities of the MHR with the efficiency and reliability of modern gas turbines. While the passive safety features of the steam cycle MHR (SC-MHR) are retained, generation efficiencies are projected to be in the range of 48% and steam power conversion systems, with their attendant complexities, are eliminated. Power costs are projected to be reduced by about 20%, relative to the SC-MHR or coal. This report documents the second, and final, phase of a two-part evaluation that concluded with a unanimous recommendation that the direct cycle (DC) variant of the GT-MHR be established as the commercial objective of the US Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. This recommendation has been endorsed by industrial and utility participants and accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Phase II effort, documented herein, concluded that the DC GT-MHR offers substantial technical and economic advantages over both the IDC and SC systems. Both the DC and IDC were found to offer safety advantages, relative to the SC, due to elimination of the potential for water ingress during power operations. This is the dominant consequence event for the SC. The IDC was judged to require somewhat less development than the direct cycle, while the SC, which has the greatest technology base, incurs the least development cost and risk. While the technical and licensing requirements for the DC were more demanding, they were judged to be incremental and feasible. Moreover, the DC offers significant performance and cost improvements over the other two concepts. Overall, the latter were found to justify the additional development needs.

  14. Perancangan Termal Heat Recovery Steam Generator Sistem Tekanan Dua Tingkat Dengan Variasi Beban Gas Turbin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anson Elian


    Full Text Available Seiring dengan meningkatnya perkembangan ekonomi suatu negara, maka akan meningkat juga kebutuhan terhadap energi terkhusus pada energi listrik. Salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan guna meningkatkan produksi tenaga listrik dengan penggunaan energi bahan bakar fosil seefisien mungkin adalah menggunakan siklus kombinasi PLTGU (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Gas dan Uap. Pada sistem PLTGU tersebut terdapat komponen Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG yang bekerja dengan cara menggunakan sisa panas dari gas buang (exhaust gas turbin yang kemudian digunakan untuk memproduksi uap (steam. Studi perancangan termal ini dilakukan dengan menganalisa data input berupa laju alir massa keluaran gas turbin, temperatur keluaran gas turbin, kandungan keluaran gas turbin, temperatur uap keluar HRSG, dan tekanan uap keluar HRSG. Langkah awal adalah menentukan beban kalor pada setiap modul agar dapat menentukan distribusi temperatur pada HRSG. Kemudian masing-masing dari modul HRSG ditentukan luas permukaan perpindahan panas. Lalu, pressure drop dan efisiensi pada sistem HRSG diukur. Terdapat 4 variasi beban turbin gas yaitu saat 100 %, 90%, 80%, dan 70%. Dari variasi tersebut, dapat ditinjau perbedaan laju alir massa uap/air yang dibutuhkan dari masing-masing beban gas turbin. Hasil yang diperoleh dari perancangan ini adalah untuk mengubah air dari 70oC menjadi uap 401oC menggunakan gas buang turbin bertemperatur 437oC, dibutuhkan luas perpindahan panas total sebesar 25.966 m2. Dari analisa variasi beban gas turbin, didapat bahwa semakin tinggi beban gas turbin maka akan semakin tinggi laju alir massa air/uap yang dapat dihasilkan, yaitu pada beban gas turbin 70% didapat 15 kg/s, pada beban gas turbin 80% didapat 15,3 kg/s, pada beban gas turbin 90% didapat 17,37 kg/s, dan pada beban gas turbin 100% didapat 18,59 kg/s.

  15. Verification of creep performance of a ceramic gas turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H.T.; Becher, P.F.; Ferber, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Parthasarathy, V. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    Tensile creep tests were carried out on a Norton NT164 silicon nitride ceramic turbine blade containing 4 wt. % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering additive at 1,370 C in air under selected stress levels. The objective of this study was to measure the creep properties of test specimens extracted from a complex shaped ceramic gas turbine blade to verify the response of actual components. The creep results indicated that specimens from both the airfoil and dovetail sections exhibited creep rates that were about 4 to 100 times higher than those obtained from both the buttonhead and dogbone creep specimens machined from the developmental billets fabricated with the same composition and processing procedures. Electron microscopy analyses suggested that high creep rates and short lifetimes observed in specimens extracted from the turbine blade resulted from a higher glassy phase(s) content and smaller number density of elongated grain microstructure. Silicon nitride ceramics with an in-situ reinforced elongated microstructure have been the primary candidates for both advanced automotive and land-based gas turbine engine applications.

  16. Cycle of a closed gas-turbine plant with a gas-dynamic energy-separation device (United States)

    Leontiev, A. I.; Burtsev, S. A.


    The efficiency of closed gas-turbine space-based plants is analyzed. The weight-size characteristics of closed gas-turbine plants are shown in many respects as determined by the refrigerator-radiator parameters. The scheme of closed gas-turbine plants with a gas-dynamic temperature-stratification device is proposed, and a calculation model is developed. This model shows that the cycle efficiency decreases by 2% in comparison with that of the closed gas-turbine plants operating by the traditional scheme with increasing temperature at the output from the refrigerator-radiator by 28 K and decreasing its area by 13.7%.

  17. Carbone dioxide capture and utilization in gas turbine plants via the integration of power to gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Boubenia


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is growing rapidly over recent years and this can lead to major dangers for the planet. This growth is mainly due to the emissions from fossil power source such as diesel plants and gas turbines. The purpose of the present paper is to study the feasibility of integrating a technique based on power to gas concept in fossil power plants such as gas turbine. This work is based on the reduction of pollutant gas emissions produced from a gas turbine plant, especially the carbon dioxide. This captured gas (CO2 can be converted once again into energy via the technique of power to gas concept. This concept starts by extracting CO2 from exhaust gases which is carried out by multiple chemical process. On the other side, H2 is produced from water electrolysis using the excess electricity which is produced but not consumed by the existing loads. finally the production of Methane (CH4 can be achieved by combination of the captured CO2 and the extracted H2 via a reactor known as a reactor of Sabatier, this operation is called methanation or hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. Simulation results are presented for the validation of the proposed technique based on real data obtained on site from a gas turbine plant.

  18. Enhancing efficiency and power output of gas turbines using either renewable energy or heat recovery cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasser, A.E.M. [Higher Technological Inst., Tenth of Ramadan (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    An absorption system to cool intake air to the compressor of an air conditioning system was presented. The system used both solar energy and the waste heat of the exhaust gases to obtain higher temperatures during the summer months. The lithium bromide-water absorption system increased power output by more than 20 per cent during the summer months without consuming more fuel. The system was designed to conserve energy and output power in gas turbine power stations. The system operated by using hot effluent gases leaving the turbine and entered the flue stacks, where heat exchangers recovered the heat energy. Excess electricity produced by the turbine was then used to cool the ambient air before it entered the compressor. Studies have confirmed that the system is financially viable and suited for use in Arabian Gulf countries where temperatures regularly exceed 40 degrees C. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Ducting arrangement for cooling a gas turbine structure (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Morrison, Jay A.


    A ducting arrangement (10) for a can annular gas turbine engine, including: a duct (12, 14) disposed between a combustor (16) and a first row of turbine blades and defining a hot gas path (30) therein, the duct (12, 14) having raised geometric features (54) incorporated into an outer surface (80); and a flow sleeve (72) defining a cooling flow path (84) between an inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) and the duct outer surface (80). After a cooling fluid (86) traverses a relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90), the inner surface (78) of the flow sleeve (72) is effective to direct the cooling fluid (86) toward a landing (94) separating the relatively upstream raised geometric feature (90) from a relatively downstream raised geometric feature (94).

  20. Flow and Combustion in Advanced Gas Turbine Combustors

    CERN Document Server

    Janicka, Johannes; Schäfer, Michael; Heeger, Christof


    With regard to both the environmental sustainability and operating efficiency demands, modern combustion research has to face two main objectives, the optimization of combustion efficiency and the reduction of pollutants. This book reports on the combustion research activities carried out within the Collaborative Research Center (SFB) 568 “Flow and Combustion in Future Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). This aimed at designing a completely integrated modeling and numerical simulation of the occurring very complex, coupled and interacting physico-chemical processes, such as turbulent heat and mass transport, single or multi-phase flows phenomena, chemical reactions/combustion and radiation, able to support the development of advanced gas turbine chamber concepts.

  1. Thermal-barrier coatings for utility gas turbines (United States)

    Levine, S. R.; Miller, R. A.


    The potential of thermal barrier coatings for use in utility gas turbines was assessed. Pressurized passage and ambient pressure doped fuel burner rig tests revealed that thermal barrier coatings are not resistant to dirty combustion environments. However, present thermal barrier coatings, such as duplex partially stabilized zirconia and duplex Ca2SiO4 have ample resistance to the thermo-mechanical stress and temperature levels anticipated for heavy duty gas turbines firing clean fuel as revealed by clean fuel pressurized passage and ambient pressure burner rig tests. Thus, it is appropriate to evaluate such coatings on blades, vanes and combustors in the field. However, such field tests should be backed up with adequate effort in the areas of coating application technology and design analysis so that the field tests yield unequivocal results.

  2. Depletion of a fuel mixture in gas turbine engine chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoylov, I.B.; Murashov, A.F.; Ozerov, Ye.A.; Sokolov, Ye.G.


    The process of the depletion of fuel mixture in combustion booster chambers of gas turbine engines with continuous injection of air to the combustion zone is examined. A conclusion based on the experiment finds that one of the basic kinetic factors which affect the depletion process is the chemical activity of the products of combustion of the rich mixtures. This activity is due to the CO and H/sub 2/ content in these products.



    Dr. R. Saravanan*, G. Vinod Reddy


    Nowadays Gas turbine inlet temperature is raised to improve overall thermal efficiency and net power output. The cooling of guide vanes is imperative to avoid their thermal damages and forced deterioration of their life span. The cooling designs influence the structural stability of such guide vanes. This research paper considered two kinds of cooling design, namely impingement cooling and showerhead cooling. The vanes are made up of Nimonic 901. The structural analyses were carried out for b...

  4. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine


    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit


    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been performed on the production and improvement of pyrolysis oil but only few investigations were carried out on its utilization. The latter have shown a major difference in behavior of pyrolysis oil compared...

  5. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra


    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  6. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Viktor N.


    Full Text Available The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and stationary modes of gas turbine engines is that the energy balance of the compressor and turbine becomes not applicable. The computer-aided system of virtual gas turbine engine testing was created using the developed transient modes simulator. This system solves the tasks of operational (throttling, speed, climatic, altitude characteristics calculation, analysis of transient dynamics and selection of optimal control laws. Besides, the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is a clear demonstration of gas turbine engine working process and the regularities of engine elements collaboration. The interface of the system of virtual gas turbine engine testing is described in the article and some screenshots of the interface elements are provided. The developed system of virtual gas turbine engine testing provides means for reducing the laboriousness of gas turbine engines testing. Besides, the implementation of this system in the learning process allows the diversification of lab works and therefore improve the quality of training.

  7. Helium turbine power generation in high temperature gas reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yasuo [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    This paper presents studies on the helium turbine power generator and important components in the indirect cycle of high temperature helium cooled reactor with multi-purpose use of exhaust thermal energy from the turbine. The features of this paper are, firstly the reliable estimation of adiabatic efficiencies of turbine and compressor, secondly the introduction of heat transfer enhancement by use of the surface radiative heat flux from the thin metal plates installed in the hot helium and between the heat transfer coil rows of IHX and RHX, thirdly the use of turbine exhaust heat to produce fresh water from seawater for domestic, agricultural and marine fields, forthly a proposal of plutonium oxide fuel without a slight possibility of diversion of plutonium for nuclear weapon production and finally the investigation of GT-HTGR of large output such as 500 MWe. The study of performance of GT-HTGR reduces the result that for the reactor of 450 MWt the optimum thermal efficiency is about 43% when the turbine expansion ratio is 3.9 for the turbine efficiency of 0.92 and compressor efficiency of 0.88 and the helium temperature at the compressor inlet is 45degC. The produced amount of fresh water is about 8640 ton/day. It is made clear that about 90% of the reactor thermal output is totally used for the electric power generation in the turbine and for the multi-puposed utilization of the heat from the turbine exhaust gas and compressed helium cooling seawater. The GT-Large HTGR is realized by the separation of the pressure and temperature boundaries of the pressure vessel, the increase of burning density of the fuel by 1.4 times, the extention of the nuclear core diameter and length by 1.2 times, respectively, and the enhancement of the heat flux along the nuclear fuel compact surface by 1.5 times by providing riblets with the peak in the flow direction. (J.P.N.).

  8. Baseline gas turbine development program. Eighteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E [comps.


    Progress is reported for a program whose goals are to demonstrate an experimental upgraded gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, compact-size American automobile. Initial running of the upgraded engine took place on July 13, 1976. The engine proved to be mechanically sound, but was also 43% deficient in power. A continuing corrective development effort has to date reduced the power deficiency to 32%. Compressor efficiency was increased 2 points by changing to a 28-channel diffuser and tandem deswirl vanes; improved processing of seals has reduced regenerator leakage from about 5 to 2.5% of engine flow; a new compressor turbine nozzle has increased compressor turbine stage efficiency by about 1 point; and adjustments to burner mixing ports has reduced pressure drop from 2.8 to 2.1% of engine pressure. Key compressor turbine component improvements are scheduled for test during the next quarterly period. During the quarter, progress was also made on development of the Upgraded Vehicle control system; and instrumentation of the fourth program engine was completed by NASA. The engine will be used for development efforts at NASA LeRC.

  9. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program twelfth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E


    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. The endurance engine was modified to incorporate a power turbine drive to the regenerators in order to simulate free rotor (upgraded) conditions. A portable baseline engine fixture complete with controls, intake, exhaust, and transmission is being assembled for odor evaluation. An additional 502 engine hours were accumulated on ceramic regenerators and seals. No core or seal failures were experienced during engine test. Initial fixture tests of zirconia seals show torque levels comparable with nickle oxide seals against the same matrix. An ambient compensation schedule was devised for the upgraded engine integrated control, and the integrated control system specifications were updated. A proposed hydromechanical automotive continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT) was evaluated and approved for preliminary development. Tests of heat rejection to the oil for lined versus linerless insulated engine assemblies indicated no heat loss penalty in omitting the metal liners. A study was made of various power turbine rotor assemblies and a final design was selected. Optimization studies of the two-stage power turbine reduction gears and regenerator spur and worm gears were completed. Initial tests on the fixture for simulating the scaled S-26 upgraded burner have begun.

  10. Gas Turbine Design & Analysis Tool: Turbomachinery Components.


    Garcia Soto, David


    Este proyecto se centra en la creación de un programa el cual ha de ser una herramienta de ayuda en el diseño y simulación de aplicaciones de motores de turbina de gas, permitiendo al usuario realizar los cálculos necesarios para poder implementar posteriormente los resultados en sus diseños. Por ello, dicha herramienta debe ser versátil y permitir trabajar tanto con un solo módulo como con diversos acoplados según las necesidades del usuario. Además el hecho de modularizar permite acotar y r...

  11. Study on integration potential of gas turbines and gas engines into parabolic trough power plants (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Oeljeklaus, Gerd; Görner, Klaus


    Hybrid power plants represent an important intermediate step on the way to an energy supply structure based substantially on renewable energies. Natural gas is the preferred fossil fuel for hybridization of solar thermal power plants, due to its low specific CO2-emission and technical advantages by means of integration into the power plant process. The power plant SHAMS ONE serves as an exemplary object of this study. In order to facilitate peaker gas turbines in an economical way to a combined cycle approach, with the SGT-400 an industrial gas turbine of the 10-20 MWel class have been integrated into the base case power plant. The concept has been set up, to make use of the gas turbine waste heat for power generation and increasing the overall power plant efficiency of the hybrid power plant at the same time. This concept represents an alternative to the widely used concept of combined cycle power plants with solar heat integration. Supplementary, this paper also dedicates the alternative to use gas engines instead of gas turbines.

  12. Turbines. NO{sub x} processing on Solar gas turbines; Turbines. Traitement des NO{sub x} sur les turbines a gaz solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chausse, X. [Spie-Trindel, 95 - Cergy (France)


    This paper presents the SoLoNOx process developed by the Solar Turbines Incorporated company for the prevention of NO{sub x} production in his gas turbines. The formation of combustion products, by-products and NO{sub x} are recalled first and then the different existing processes for the reduction of pollutants are reviewed: water or steam injection, and purification of exhaust gases. The SoLoNOx process uses a dry, weak and pre-mixed mixture and allows better NO{sub x} and CO reductions than the water injection process. (J.S.)

  13. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system (United States)

    Musa, Abdullatif; Alaktiwi, Abdulsalam; Talbi, Mosbah


    High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR) fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR) cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  14. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)


    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  15. Cycle analysis of MCFC/gas turbine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abdullatif


    Full Text Available High temperature fuel cells such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC are considered extremely suitable for electrical power plant application. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC performances is evaluated using validated model for the internally reformed (IR fuel cell. This model is integrated in Aspen Plus™. Therefore, several MCFC/Gas Turbine systems are introduced and investigated. One of this a new cycle is called a heat recovery (HR cycle. In the HR cycle, a regenerator is used to preheat water by outlet air compressor. So the waste heat of the outlet air compressor and the exhaust gases of turbine are recovered and used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the gas turbine, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. The cycles are simulated in order to evaluate and compare their performances. Moreover, the effects of an important parameters such as the ambient air temperature on the cycle performance are evaluated. The simulation results show that the HR cycle has high efficiency.

  16. Numerical prediction of combustion induced vibro-acoustical instabilities in a gas turbine combustor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; M. Pawelczyk, D. Bismor


    Introduction of lean premixed combustion to gas turbine technology reduced the emission of harmful exhaust gas species, but due to the high sensitivity of lean flames to acoustic perturbations, the average life time of gas turbine engines was decreased significantly. Very dangerous to the integrity

  17. Dynamic simulation of carbonate fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid systems


    Roberts, RA; Brouwer, J; Liese, E; Gemmen, RS


    Hybrid fuel cell/gas turbine systems provide an efficient means of producing electricity from fossil fuels with ultra low emissions. However, there are many significant challenges involved in integrating the fuel cell with the gas turbine and other components of this type of system. The fuel cell and the gas turbine must maintain efficient operation and electricity production while protecting equipment during perturbations that may occur when the system is connected to the utility grid or in ...

  18. Teaching Risk Analysis in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Design Capstone Course (United States)


    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Teaching Risk Analysis in an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Design Capstone Course...5 from the contempory Level of Technology 4. The design point for this example is a supercruise mission leg at Mach 1.5 and altitude of 36,000 feet...Gas Turbine Engine Course. Feb 2012, ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power , Vol. 134, pp. 021601-1. Byerley, Aaron R., Rolling

  19. Science Underpinning TBC Design to Overcome the CMAS Threat to Progress in Gas Turbine Technology (United States)


    Science Underpinning TBC Design to Overcome the CMAS Threat to Progress in Gas Turbine Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER NOOO 14-08-1-0522 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...degradation in current and future gas turbine engines with expected material temperatures :::=:: 1300°C. The overarching goal was to elucidate the...Z39.1t Final Report on ONR Grant No. N00014-08-1-0522 SCIENCE UNDERPINNING TBC DESIGN TO OVERCOME THE CMAS THREAT TO PROGRESS IN GAS TURBINE

  20. Baseline gas turbine development program. Sixteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E


    Progress is reported for a program whose goals are to demonstrate an experimental ungraded gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, compact-size American automobile. Initial running of the upgraded engine took place on July 13, 1976. The engine proved to be mechanically sound but was also seriously deficient in power. Principal program effort has therefore been in the area of diagnostic testing and corrective development. To date, three upgraded engines were assembled and two were run in the test cell. Special diagnostic instrumentation was installed on Engine 3 to evaluate the compressor, turbine, and hot engine leakage. Engine airflow, starting characteristics, oil flow/heat rejection/blowby, emissions, leakage, and component performance tests were conducted in this quarter.

  1. Advanced gas turbine cycles a brief review of power generation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Horlock, JH


    Primarily this book describes the thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles. The search for high gas turbine efficiency has produced many variations on the simple ""open circuit"" plant, involving the use of heat exchangers, reheating and intercooling, water and steam injection, cogeneration and combined cycle plants. These are described fully in the text. A review of recent proposals for a number of novel gas turbine cycles is also included. In the past few years work has been directed towards developing gas turbines which produce less carbon dioxide, or plants from which the CO2 can be d

  2. Thermoeconomic and thermoenvironomic modeling and analysis of selected gas turbine power plants in Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyedepo, Sunday O; Fagbenle, Richard O; Adefila, Samuel S; Alam, Md. Mahbub


    This study presents comprehensive thermoeconomic and thermoenvironomic modeling and analysis of selected gas turbine power plants in Nigeria using the first and second laws of thermodynamics (exergy) concept...

  3. Control strategies for gas turbine generators for grid connected and islanding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    fine while a DG is connected to a grid, might not work as desired while it is islanded and vise versa. This paper presents a strategy to operate distribution systems with a small gas turbine generator (GTG), which is capable of supplying local loads, in both islanding and grid connected conditions......Islanding operation of distribution systems with distributed generations (DG) is becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, there are various issues to be resolved before it can be a reality. One of the main issues is control of the DG. Control strategies, that may work....... Separate strategies are used to control the GTG while it is connected to the grid and while it is islanded. Switching between the control strategies is achieved through a state detection algorithm that includes islanding and grid re-connection detections. An existing islanding detection technique has been...

  4. Method for Making Measurements of the Post-Combustion Residence Time in a Gas Turbine Engine (United States)

    Miles, Jeffrey H. (Inventor)


    A method of measuring a residence time in a gas-turbine engine is disclosed that includes measuring a combustor pressure signal at a combustor entrance and a turbine exit pressure signal at a turbine exit. The method further includes computing a cross-spectrum function between the combustor pressure signal and the turbine exit pressure signal, calculating a slope of the cross-spectrum function, shifting the turbine exit pressure signal an amount corresponding to a time delay between the measurement of the combustor pressure signal and the turbine exit pressure signal, and recalculating the slope of the cross-spectrum function until the slope reaches zero.

  5. Utilization of gas mixtures having high inert content generated from biomass in gas-engine and in gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninger, A.; Meggyes, A.; Berxzky, A.; Grof, G.; Koenczoel, S.; Lezsovits, F.; Sztanko, K.; Kovacs, V.B. [Budapest Univ. of Tech. and Economics (BME) (Hungary). Dept. of Energy Engineering


    Topic of this article is investigation of utilization of gasification-gas or digester gas generated from biomass in gas-engines or in gas-turbines. In the first step burning behavior of possible gas compositions were tested by means of some available combustion simulation software. We have investigated affects of different burnable and inert components to flame velocity and adiabatic flame temperature. Than improvement of combustibility was investigated by means of enrichment of oxygen content in air. In the second phase we have designet and installed a synthetic gas-mixture supply system, which is suitable for generating wide range of gas mixtures with pressure range of 0 - 6 bar. Furthermore an oxygen enrichment system was also installed. Last but not least a flue-gas emission measurement system was build up on order to check combustion processes. Then follows installation an appropriate gas-engine and a gas-turbine into our laboratory. Then we have investigated operation of these engines with different fuel-mixture compositions at continuous emission measurement. In the end the gas turbine was amended with a parallel fuel supply system, which was suitable to feed fuel at high temperature up to 300 C. This gas-turbine was installed next to the high pressure biomass gasification system realized in the Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Kraftanlagen at the University of Munich, and we have performed successful cooperation with it. Furthermore gas-engine was installed next to a Hungarian animal fertilizer digester system and was tested and operated with real digester-gas. Tests and investigations proved the viability of these type of energy generation. But tests brought out several additional conditions and troubles which should not neglect in the future. (orig.)

  6. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)


    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  7. SiC/SiC Leading Edge Turbine Airfoil Tested Under Simulated Gas Turbine Conditions (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig; Hatton, Kenneth S.


    Silicon-based ceramics have been proposed as component materials for use in gas turbine engine hot-sections. A high pressure burner rig was used to expose both a baseline metal airfoil and ceramic matrix composite leading edge airfoil to typical gas turbine conditions to comparatively evaluate the material response at high temperatures. To eliminate many of the concerns related to an entirely ceramic, rotating airfoil, this study has focused on equipping a stationary metal airfoil with a ceramic leading edge insert to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of such a configuration. Here, the idea was to allow the SiC/SiC composite to be integrated as the airfoil's leading edge, operating in a "free-floating" or unrestrained manner. and provide temperature relief to the metal blade underneath. The test included cycling the airfoils between simulated idle, lift, and cruise flight conditions. In addition, the airfoils were air-cooled, uniquely instrumented, and exposed to the same internal and external conditions, which included gas temperatures in excess of 1370 C (2500 F). Results show the leading edge insert remained structurally intact after 200 simulated flight cycles with only a slightly oxidized surface. The instrumentation clearly suggested a significant reduction (approximately 600 F) in internal metal temperatures as a result of the ceramic leading edge. The object of this testing was to validate the design and analysis done by Materials Research and Design of Rosemont, PA and to determine the feasibility of this design for the intended application.

  8. Forty-fourth ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress, Exposition and Users Symposium. Pt. 2. Aircraft gas turbine; 1999 nen dai 44 kai ASME kokusai gas turbine kaigi. kokuyo gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeyama, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports aircraft gas turbine presented at the 44th ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Technical Congress 1999. What has drawn the strongest interest was the session related to the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS) being developed by NASA. The simulation links into a network about 1000 computers possessed by aero-industry related companies, research institutes and universities. The network uses common models to perform analysis under parallel processing on aerodynamics, heat transfer and structures, while taking interactions into consideration. It is planned that the whole jet engines will be subjected to non-steady calculation using three-dimensional models by the year 2007. The cost will be 8% or less of that when large super computers are used. The keys to realization of a supersonic passenger aircraft are noise, exhaust gas and impulse wave, whereas there would be no market unless a method for absorbing the impulse wave is developed and the aircraft can fly over the ground. Presentations were made on a wind tunnel testing equipment for jet engines and studies on turbo-fan engines for civilian aircraft. (NEDO)

  9. Hourly weather forecasts for gas turbine power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giunta


    Full Text Available An hourly short-term weather forecast can optimize processes in Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT plants by helping to reduce imbalance charges on the national power grid. Consequently, a reliable meteorological prediction for a given power plant is crucial for obtaining competitive prices for the electric market, better planning and stock management, sales and supplies of energy sources. The paper discusses the short-term hourly temperature forecasts, at lead time day+1 and day+2, over a period of thirteen months in 2012 and 2013 for six Italian CCGT power plants of 390 MW each (260 MW from the gas turbine and 130 MW from the steam turbine. These CCGT plants are placed in three different Italian climate areas: the Po Valley, the Adriatic coast, and the North Tyrrhenian coast. The meteorological model applied in this study is the eni-Kassandra Meteo Forecast (e‑kmf™, a multi-model approach system to provide probabilistic forecasts with a Kalman filter used to improve accuracy of local temperature predictions. Performance skill scores, computed by the output data of the meteorological model, are compared with local observations, and used to evaluate forecast reliability. In the study, the approach has shown good overall scores encompassing more than 50,000 hourly temperature values. Some differences from one site to another, due to local meteorological phenomena, can affect the short-term forecast performance, with consequent impacts on gas-to-power production and related negative imbalances. For operational application of the methodology in CCGT power plant, the benefits and limits have been successfully identified.

  10. Combustion Characteristics of a Swirl Dry Low Emission Burner Concept for Gas Turbine Application : Experiments and Simulations


    Kundu, Atanu


    In the current global energy scenario, gas turbine can provide delicate balance between the booming worlds energy requirement and a pollutant free sustainable society. Cleaner combustion of fuel (particular natural gas), efficient, reliable, low maintenance and cost effective operation of gas turbine attracted scientific community to push the limit further (high efficiency and zero emission gas turbine). Gas turbine combustion process is complex by nature as it interacts with turbulence, chem...

  11. Aeroderivative technology: A more efficient use of gas turbine technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacek, Edward; Moreau, Robert


    Today's power industry has had many recent challenges that have changed the way a 'business is done'. Examples of such challenges include grid systems that are looking to retire older less efficient generation, as well as the addition of renewables that further challenge the characteristics of the grid. These changes are impacting the thermal generation in terms of what is needed to support the grid. Technology innovation is a key driver to meeting these key industry issues. Aeroderivative gas turbines currently play a key role in providing necessary flexible generation and are a major component to many operators' power generating portfolios.

  12. Evaluation of premature failure of a gas turbine component

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dedekind, MO


    Full Text Available about the actual engine operating histories. KEYWORDS Life assessment; MAR-M509; Gas turbine engines; CFD; finite element analysis. NOMENCLATURE a crack length E Young’s modulus k heat transfer coefficient N number of cycles Nf cycles to failure... of fatigue cracks of up to 10 mm in length at the leading and trailing edges. No cracks were visible anywhere else on the component. The material in question is MAR- M509, a cast cobalt-based superalloy commonly used in nozzle guide vanes. In this alloy...

  13. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor (United States)

    Laster, Walter R.; Bandaru, Ramarao V.


    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  14. Gas-turbine critical research and advanced technology support project (United States)

    Clark, J. S.; Lowell, C. E.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.; Nainiger, J. J.


    The technical progress made during the first 15 months of a planned 40-month project to provide a critical-technology data base for utility gas-turbine systems capable of burning coal-derived fuels is summarized. Tasks were included in the following areas: (1) combustion, to study the combustion of coal-derived fuels and conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen to NOx; (2) materials, to understand and prevent hot corrosion; and (3) system studies, to integrate and guide the other technologies. Significant progress was made.

  15. Ceramic thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines (United States)

    Miller, R. A.


    Research and development into thermal barrier coatings for electric utility gas turbine engines is reviewed critically. The type of coating systems developed for aircraft applications are found to be preferred for clear fuel electric utility applications. These coating systems consists of a layer of plasma sprayed zirconia-yttria ceramic over a layer of MCrAly bond coat. They are not recommended for use when molten salts are presented. Efforts to understand coating degradation in dirty environments and to develop corrosion resistant thermal barrier coatings are discussed.

  16. Soot content in a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarev, A.V.; Antonovsky, V.I. (VTUS - Leningrad Metal Plant - LMZ, Leningrad (USSR))


    The measurement complex within the liner space, including the determination of concentration of soot particles, gaseous products, completeness of fuel combustion, was carried out on the gas turbine combustion model. The soot distribution lengthwise the liner for the investigated class of combustors and the distillate liquid fuel was determined by means of the pressure in the combustion chamber and the air excess ratio in the liner cross-section. The design formulae for determination of the fuel combustion completeness and the soot content by the flame length are recommended.

  17. Gas turbine cogeneration: the use of heat pipes to recover exhaust gas energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, J. L.; Perella Balestieri, J. A.; Masanobu Tanisho, P.; Araujo Zanardi, M.; Murcia, N. [Paulista State University, Guaratingueta (Brazil)


    Heat pipe heat exchangers for the recovery of exhaust gas heat from gas turbines for the simultaneous cogeneration of electricity were described. Technical and economic implications were reviewed. The overall conclusion was that cogeneration systems using heat pipe heat exchanger technology could be a useful alternative in the supply and use of energy, of particular interest for application in industrial, hospital, hotel or other large building system environment. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann


    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  19. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  20. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.


    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  1. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program fourth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, C.E.


    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Reasonably firm delivery schedules were arranged for all of the critical Task 1 engine parts. However, the program will likely have to continue to function with loaner turbine wheels for the next few months. Vehicle A was built and utilized for running demonstrations at both EPA and NASA. Engine 5 (Vehicle B) was built and is being checked out. Upgraded Engine design guidelines were jointly worked out and agreed to with EPA and NASA. Life testing on the loaner endurance engine was extended beyond the 3500-hour milestone. Improvements are being made to extend low emissions Baseline burner life, currently under 300 hours. State-of-the-art ceramic regenerator cores were received from two sources and are being bench checked. Drive and seal system procurement is delaying hot rig testing. Analytical studies were made to determine suitability for the upgraded engine. AiResearch was awarded the integrated control system subcontract. They have initiated work on a simulation model. An elasto-plastic turbine wheel disc analysis program, required for analysis of a ''Gatorized'' non-ribbed turbine wheel disc, was checked out and is being refined to improve convergence. Free-rotor low speed fuel flow tests showed negligible difference from a normal geared rotor arrangement. Preparations are being made for vehicle evaluations. Design of a variable inlet guide vane test rig installation was completed. An initial upgraded engine layout has commenced.

  2. Nonintrusive transceiver and method for characterizing temperature and velocity fields in a gas turbine combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko


    An acoustic transceiver is implemented for measuring acoustic properties of a gas in a turbine engine combustor. The transceiver housing defines a measurement chamber and has an opening adapted for attachment to a turbine engine combustor wall. The opening permits propagation of acoustic signals between the gas in the turbine engine combustor and gas in the measurement chamber. An acoustic sensor mounted to the housing receives acoustic signals propagating in the measurement chamber, and an acoustic transmitter mounted to the housing creates acoustic signals within the measurement chamber. An acoustic measurement system includes at least two such transceivers attached to a turbine engine combustor wall and connected to a controller.

  3. Influence of coating quality on the service life of land-based gas turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio (United States)


    The land-based gas turbine blades operate at severe operating conditions: higher metal temperatures and stresses, and severe duty cycles. Metallic coatings with or without a top ceramic coating have been used to protect the turbine blades. The durability of the coating system is one of the prime life-limiting factors of modem gas turbine blades. The quality of the coating plays a critical role on the coating life. This paper discusses the failure mechanisms of the coatings and describes how the quality of the coating affects the service life of a gas turbine blade. A few case studies are presented in the paper. (orig.)

  4. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeffrey


    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and

  5. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  6. Development of repair mechanism of FSX-414 based 1st stage nozzle of gas turbine (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Tawfiqur


    This paper describes the failure mechanism and repair technology of 1st stage nozzle or vane of industrial gas turbine which is made of cobalt based super alloy FSX-414. 1st stage nozzles or vanes are important stationery components of gas turbine based power plant. Those are the parts of hot gas path components of gas turbine and their manufacturing process is casting. At present, it is widely accepted that gas turbine based combined cycle power plant is the most efficient and cost effective solution to generate electricity. One of the factors of high efficiency of this type of gas turbine is the increase of its turbine inlet temperature. As an effect of this factor and in conjunction with some other factors, the 1st stage nozzle of gas turbine operates under extremely high temperature and thermal stresses. As a result, the design lifetime of these components becomes limited. Furthermore, attention on nozzles or vanes is required in order to achieve their design lifetime. However, due to unfriendly operational condition and environmental effect, anytime failure can occur on these heat resistant alloy based components which may lead to severe damage of gas turbine. To mitigate these adverse effects, schedule maintenance is performed on a predetermined time interval of hot gas path components of gas turbine based power plant. This paper addresses common failures in gas turbine's 1st stage nozzles or vanes. Usually these are repaired by using ADH process but for several reasons ADH process is not used here. Hence the challenging task is performed using gas tungsten arc welding which is presented in this article systematically.

  7. Condition Based Monitoring of Gas Turbine Combustion Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulerich, Nancy; Kidane, Getnet; Spiegelberg, Christine; Tevs, Nikolai


    The objective of this program is to develop sensors that allow condition based monitoring of critical combustion parts of gas turbines. Siemens teamed with innovative, small companies that were developing sensor concepts that could monitor wearing and cracking of hot turbine parts. A magnetic crack monitoring sensor concept developed by JENTEK Sensors, Inc. was evaluated in laboratory tests. Designs for engine application were evaluated. The inability to develop a robust lead wire to transmit the signal long distances resulted in a discontinuation of this concept. An optical wear sensor concept proposed by K Sciences GP, LLC was tested in proof-of concept testing. The sensor concept depended, however, on optical fiber tips wearing with the loaded part. The fiber tip wear resulted in too much optical input variability; the sensor could not provide adequate stability for measurement. Siemens developed an alternative optical wear sensor approach that used a commercial PHILTEC, Inc. optical gap sensor with an optical spacer to remove fibers from the wearing surface. The gap sensor measured the length of the wearing spacer to follow loaded part wear. This optical wear sensor was developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. It was validated in lab tests and installed on a floating transition seal in an F-Class gas turbine. Laboratory tests indicate that the concept can measure wear on loaded parts at temperatures up to 800{degrees}C with uncertainty of < 0.3 mm. Testing in an F-Class engine installation showed that the optical spacer wore with the wearing part. The electro-optics box located outside the engine enclosure survived the engine enclosure environment. The fiber optic cable and the optical spacer, however, both degraded after about 100 operating hours, impacting the signal analysis.

  8. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.


    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  9. High-speed gears for gas turbine drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J.


    Recently, Lufkin Industries, Power Transmission Div., full-load tested a high-speed gear designed to couple a 50 Hz electric power generator to a GE LM6000 gas turbine for a power generation project in Australia. The gear is rated 52.2 MW to match the output of the LM6000 gas turbine believed to be one of the largest gear testing operations for this type and size of gear. Each gear drive manufactured by Lufkin is full-speed tested to verify its performance. Tests performed on high-speed units duplicate field conditions, as closely as possible, in order to verify critical speed analysis results and new bearing designs, if used. Lufkin also tests design techniques used in the development of new products. The finite element analysis performed to predict housing deflection in the thrust bearing area of a new extruder driveline was verified by testing of a prototype unit housing. Recently, housing structure stiffness and natural frequencies were predicted and verified on the test stand for some 50 MW vertically offset gear units. A complete data acquisition system is used to gather data from bearing, inlet and drain temperature monitoring points. The temperature monitoring system will accommodate type T,K,J, and E thermocouples and platinum and nickel RTDs.

  10. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Leto, Anthony


    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  11. Prediction of temperature front in a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, F.Z.; Kubiak, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Urquiza, G. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    Numerical computation has been applied to investigate the temperature field in a gas turbine combustion chamber. The simulation assumed that pressure imbalance conditions of air flow between primary and secondary inlets occur. The combustion chamber under study is part of a 70 MW gas turbine from an operating combined cycle power plant. The combustion was simulated with normal fuel-air flow rate assuming stoichiometric conditions. Under these conditions characteristic temperature and pressure fields were obtained provided equity of boundary conditions at air inlets applies. However, with pressure distribution imbalances of the order of 3 kPa between primary and secondary air inlets, excessive heating in regions other than the combustion chamber core were obtained. Over heating in these regions helped to explain what was observed to produce permanent damage to auxiliary equipment surrounding the combustion chamber core, like the cross flame pipes. It is observed that high temperatures which normally develop in the central region of the combustion chamber may reach other surrounding upstream regions by modifying slightly the air pressure. Microscope scanning of the damaged pipes confirmed that the material was exposed to high temperatures such as predicted through the numerical computation. (Author)

  12. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for... (United States)


    ... Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... regulations, the FAA proposed and the EPA accepted the idea that referring to these engines as exceptions to...

  13. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari


    Full Text Available The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT, a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG, and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG. The results show that (1 a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2 at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the lowest value of exergy efficiency is calculated for the fog cooler, where the mixing of air and water at greatly different temperatures causes the high exergy destruction; and (3 utilization of the fogging cooler in the steam injection cycle increases the exergy destruction in the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the simple gas turbine cycle is found to be more economic as its relative cost difference, total unit product cost, and exergoeconomic factors are less than those for the two other configurations. However, its efficiency and net power output are notably lower than for the gas turbine with steam injection and/or fog cooling. The total unit product cost is highest for the simple gas turbine with steam injection.

  14. Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Technologies Inc. and its subcontractors, during the period April 1, 1993 through October 31, 1994 under Phase II of the DOE Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development program. The objective of the program is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through the implementation of selected ceramic components.

  15. Non-intrusive measurement of hot gas temperature in a gas turbine engine (United States)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko; Yan, Michelle Xiaohong; Rosca, Justinian; Ulerich, Nancy H.


    A method and apparatus for operating a gas turbine engine including determining a temperature of a working gas at a predetermined axial location within the engine. An acoustic signal is encoded with a distinct signature defined by a set of predetermined frequencies transmitted as a non-broadband signal. Acoustic signals are transmitted from an acoustic transmitter located at a predetermined axial location along the flow path of the gas turbine engine. A received signal is compared to one or more transmitted signals to identify a similarity of the received signal to a transmitted signal to identify a transmission time for the received signal. A time-of-flight is determined for the signal and the time-of-flight for the signal is processed to determine a temperature in a region of the predetermined axial location.

  16. Micro cogeneration - rich-methane gasifier and micro gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Danuta


    Full Text Available The study presents a concept of integration a gasifier system with distributed generation of electricity and heat cogeneration system based on a gas microturbine. The gas generator is supplied by the RDF fuel from waste and biomass fuel Bio-CONOx. In the scale considered, the cogeneration system is designed to produce 30kWe of electricity and approx. 50kW of heat. Important perspective directions of technology development are: (i the possibility of gas microturbine to cooperate with the gasifier (up to date, in such systems were used, and continue to apply only piston engines, (ii the production of syngas in the gasifier (for efficient cogeneration in the composition of which there is a high content of methane (CH4 = 18%-22%. In the first step of possible commercialization a mathematical model to simulate single shaft gas turbine cogeneration plant has been developed. In conceptual design is application of microturbine as the prime mover of Combined Heat and Power (CHP system but with especial emphasis on possible use of a low calorific gas attainable from presented in details a gasifier unit. To support the calculations for preliminary design analysis, a computer program is developed in EES software environment.

  17. Large eddy simulation for predicting turbulent heat transfer in gas turbines. (United States)

    Tafti, Danesh K; He, Long; Nagendra, K


    Blade cooling technology will play a critical role in the next generation of propulsion and power generation gas turbines. Accurate prediction of blade metal temperature can avoid the use of excessive compressed bypass air and allow higher turbine inlet temperature, increasing fuel efficiency and decreasing emissions. Large eddy simulation (LES) has been established to predict heat transfer coefficients with good accuracy under various non-canonical flows, but is still limited to relatively simple geometries and low Reynolds numbers. It is envisioned that the projected increase in computational power combined with a drop in price-to-performance ratio will make system-level simulations using LES in complex blade geometries at engine conditions accessible to the design process in the coming one to two decades. In making this possible, two key challenges are addressed in this paper: working with complex intricate blade geometries and simulating high-Reynolds-number (Re) flows. It is proposed to use the immersed boundary method (IBM) combined with LES wall functions. A ribbed duct at Re=20 000 is simulated using the IBM, and a two-pass ribbed duct is simulated at Re=100 000 with and without rotation (rotation number Ro=0.2) using LES with wall functions. The results validate that the IBM is a viable alternative to body-conforming grids and that LES with wall functions reproduces experimental results at a much lower computational cost. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced Noise Gas Turbine Engine System and Supersonic Exhaust Nozzle System Using Elector to Entrain Ambient Air (United States)

    Sokhey, Jagdish S. (Inventor); Pierluissi, Anthony F. (Inventor)


    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique gas turbine engine system. Another embodiment is a unique exhaust nozzle system for a gas turbine engine. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for gas turbine engine systems and exhaust nozzle systems for gas turbine engines. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  19. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Phase 1, Erosion of turbine hot gas path blading: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.


    The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

  20. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.E. Fuchs


    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials

  1. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines (United States)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.


    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  2. Accuracy improvement of the modified EDM model for non-premixed turbulent combustion in gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Li


    Full Text Available Eight bluff body and swirl turbulent diffusion flames resembling the flow field and combustion inside gas turbine combustors are simulated and the simulation results are compared with experimental data. It is revealed that the original modified EDM model could not predict the temperature profile accurately. A more accurate model is developed and validated for gas turbine combustion application. However, this model under predicts the flame temperature for the regular round jet flames indicating that no universal form of the modified EDM model could be achieved for the combustion simulation of both gas furnaces and gas turbines.

  3. Utilization and mitigation of VAM/CMM emissions by a catalytic combustion gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Yoshino, Y.; Kashihara, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Kajita, S.


    A system configured with a catalytic combustion gas turbine generator unit is introduced. The system has been developed using technologies produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., such as small gas turbines, recuperators and catalytic combustors, and catalytic oxidation units which use exhaust heat from gas turbines. The system combusts (oxidizes) ventilation air methane (less than 1% concentration) and low concentration coal mine methane (30% concentration or less) discharged as waste from coal mines. Thus, it cannot only reduce the consumption of high- quality fuel for power generation, but also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine (United States)

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Salamah, Samir A.; DeStefano, Thomas Daniel


    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  5. Linking gas turbine with lignite fired steam generators: alternatives, limitations, benefits and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelopoulos, G.N.; Leithner, R.; Karakas, E.; Papageorgiou, N. [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Waerme und Breunnstofftechnik


    In this paper the possibility of linking high efficiency gas turbines with lignite fired steam generators is examined. The possible combinations of gas and steam turbine and the experience gained from their practical application are presented. The technical limitations set by the existing boilers and steam turbines are discussed. For the efficiency and power output increase of the power plant Kardia in Northern Greece the following alternatives are suggested: supplementary firing of oil or natural gas together with lignite; topping of every steam generator with small gas turbines and installation of a gas turbine with turbine with heat recovery steam generator and water/steam side link with every steam generator. The possibility of using the exhaust gas from the gas turbine as the only oxygen carrier is also discussed. These alternatives are calculated with a process simulation program and are compared to each other with emphasis on the technical and the economical aspects. A sensitivity analysis concerning the natural gas price was carried out in order to evaluate its influence on the costs and the affectivity of the investment. 16 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines (United States)

    Tougas, Ian M.; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J.


    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples. PMID:24217356

  7. Metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples for gas turbine engines. (United States)

    Tougas, Ian M; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J


    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples.

  8. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa


    Full Text Available A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled “Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines.” This is one of the topics covered in the course “Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” which is offered in the second year of Mechanical Engineering at the Defense University Center at the Naval Academy in Vigo, Spain. While participating in the activity, students will be divided into groups of no more than 10 for seminars. The groups will create PowerPoint presentations that include all of the analyzed aspects. The topics to be discussed during the workshop on power plant turbines are the: (1 principles of operation; (2 processes involved; (3 advantages and disadvantages; (4 efficiency; (5 combined cycle; and (6 transversal competences, such as teamwork, oral and written presentations, and analysis and synthesis of information. This paper presents the use of Google Sites as a guide to the WebQuest so that students can access all information online, including instructions, summaries, resources, and information on qualifications.

  9. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program ninth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.


    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed the first phase of their baseline engine heat balance tests, and an upgraded engine compressor is being scaled for test. EPA completed their report on vehicle tests including emissions and vehicle performance, and a new endurance engine is on test. Significant development progress was made on both fixed and variable geometry combustors. After 45 hours of engine operation with Vendor A ceramic regenerator, no significant deterioration of the matrix, seals, or elastomeric mount was encountered. Ceramic regenerator stress analysis has commenced. Additional developments in non-nickel oxide regenerator rubbing seals are encouraging. The first preprototype integrated control system is in vehicle operation. Control adaptation for variable inlet guide vanes and water injection is progressing. AiRefrac turbine wheels were verified dimensionally and are being processed for engine testing. Water injection tests with a four nozzle system were run, and additional performance documentation of variable inlet guide vanes was obtained. Linerless insulation is on test in the free rotor engine, the new endurance engine, and a performance engine. The free rotor engine completed test cell checkout and was installed in a vehicle. Vehicle checkout, including a preprototype integrated control, is underway. Detailed specifications of the upgraded engine were written.

  10. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto J. Gregory


    Full Text Available Temperatures of hot section components in today’s gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today’s engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire thermocouples.

  11. Development of a micro-turbine plant to run on gasifier producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents the results of a work programme to test a Capstone micro gas turbine using producer gas (1) in a test facility using synthetic producer gas at Advantca's research laboratories and (2) at the premises of Biomass Engineering Ltd where the micro gas turbine was coupled to an existing 80 kWe downdraft gasifier operating on clean wood and wood wastes. The initial tests at Advantica achieved successful operation of the Capstone micro gas turbine on 100% producer gas at a net electrical output of 5.5 kWe and with very low NOx emissions (<2 ppm). The micro turbine was then moved and recommissioned at a site belonging to Biomass Engineering where 350 hours of operation were achieved using producer gas and over 800 hours using natural gas. Problems were experienced during start-up due to limited access to control software and late delivery of the gas compressor for the micro turbine. Gas emissions and performance were deemed satisfactory. The report describes the test work at Advantica and at Biomass Engineering and discusses the technical and economic aspects of biomass gasification and micro turbine systems.

  12. Demonstration of Enabling Spar-Shell Cooling Technology in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, James [Florida Turbine Technologies Inc., Jupiter, FL (United States)


    In this Advanced Turbine Program-funded Phase III project, Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) has developed and tested, at a pre-commercial prototypescale, spar-shell turbine airfoils in a commercial gas turbine. The airfoil development is based upon FTT’s research and development to date in Phases I and II of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants. During this program, FTT has partnered with an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Siemens Energy, to produce sparshell turbine components for the first pre-commercial prototype test in an F-Class industrial gas turbine engine and has successfully completed validation testing. This project will further the commercialization of this new technology in F-frame and other highly cooled turbine airfoil applications. FTT, in cooperation with Siemens, intends to offer the spar-shell vane as a first-tier supplier for retrofit applications and new large frame industrial gas turbines. The market for the spar-shell vane for these machines is huge. According to Forecast International, 3,211 new gas turbines units (in the >50MW capacity size range) will be ordered in ten years from 2007 to 2016. FTT intends to enter the market in a low rate initial production. After one year of successful extended use, FTT will quickly ramp up production and sales, with a target to capture 1% of the market within the first year and 10% within 5 years (2020).

  13. Gas Turbine Combustion and Ammonia Removal Technology of Gasified Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Hasegawa


    Full Text Available From the viewpoints of securing a stable supply of energy and protecting our global environment in the future, the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC power generation of various gasifying methods has been introduced in the world. Gasified fuels are chiefly characterized by the gasifying agents and the synthetic gas cleanup methods and can be divided into four types. The calorific value of the gasified fuel varies according to the gasifying agents and feedstocks of various resources, and ammonia originating from nitrogenous compounds in the feedstocks depends on the synthetic gas clean-up methods. In particular, air-blown gasified fuels provide low calorific fuel of 4 MJ/m3 and it is necessary to stabilize combustion. In contrast, the flame temperature of oxygen-blown gasified fuel of medium calorie between approximately 9–13 MJ/m3 is much higher, so control of thermal-NOx emissions is necessary. Moreover, to improve the thermal efficiency of IGCC, hot/dry type synthetic gas clean-up is needed. However, ammonia in the fuel is not removed and is supplied into the gas turbine where fuel-NOx is formed in the combustor. For these reasons, suitable combustion technology for each gasified fuel is important. This paper outlines combustion technologies and combustor designs of the high temperature gas turbine for various IGCCs. Additionally, this paper confirms that further decreases in fuel-NOx emissions can be achieved by removing ammonia from gasified fuels through the application of selective, non-catalytic denitration. From these basic considerations, the performance of specifically designed combustors for each IGCC proved the proposed methods to be sufficiently effective. The combustors were able to achieve strong results, decreasing thermal-NOx emissions to 10 ppm (corrected at 16% oxygen or less, and fuel-NOx emissions by 60% or more, under conditions where ammonia concentration per fuel heating value in unit volume was 2.4 × 102 ppm

  14. Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation (United States)

    Miller, William John; Predmore, Daniel Ross; Placko, James Michael


    A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders flex the bodies toward and to engage standoffs against wall portions of the nozzle whereby the designed impingement gap between the outer wall portions of the insert bodies and the nozzle wall portions is achieved. The spreaders are secured to the inner wall portions of the insert bodies and the bodies are secured to one another and to the nozzle vane by welding or brazing.

  15. Development of impact design methods for ceramic gas turbine components (United States)

    Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H.


    Impact damage prediction methods are being developed to aid in the design of ceramic gas turbine engine components with improved impact resistance. Two impact damage modes were characterized: local, near the impact site, and structural, usually fast fracture away from the impact site. Local damage to Si3N4 impacted by Si3N4 spherical projectiles consists of ring and/or radial cracks around the impact point. In a mechanistic model being developed, impact damage is characterized as microcrack nucleation and propagation. The extent of damage is measured as volume fraction of microcracks. Model capability is demonstrated by simulating late impact tests. Structural failure is caused by tensile stress during impact exceeding material strength. The EPIC3 code was successfully used to predict blade structural failures in different size particle impacts on radial and axial blades.

  16. Degradation of gas turbine coatings and life assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheruvu, N.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)


    MCrAlY coatings are widely used on hot section components of gas turbines to provide hot corrosion and/or oxidation protection by formation of an oxide layer on the surface. As the protective oxide scale exfoliates during service, aluminum from the coating diffuses outward for reformation of the protective scale. Aluminum may also diffuse inward due to the differences in composition between the coating and the substrate. Thus, the coatings degrade due to oxidation, oxide scale spallation, and inward and outward diffusion of aluminum. Service life of these coatings is controlled by the aluminum content in the coating, operating temperature and start- shutdown cycles. In-service degradation of CoCrAlY and CoNiCrAlY coatings is presented. A procedure to predict the remaining service life of coatings under oxidizing conditions is discussed. (orig.) 12 refs.

  17. Gas turbine coatings eddy current quantitative and qualitative evaluation (United States)

    Ribichini, Remo; Giolli, Carlo; Scrinzi, Erica


    Gas turbine blades (buckets) are among the most critical and expensive components of the engine. Buckets rely on protective coatings in order to withstand the harsh environment in which they operate. The thickness and the microstructure of coatings during the lifespan of a unit are fundamental to evaluate their fitness for service. A frequency scanning Eddy Current instrument can allow the measurement of the thickness and of physical properties of coatings in a Non-Destructive manner. The method employed relies on the acquisition of impedance spectra and on the inversion of the experimental data to derive the coating properties and structure using some assumptions. This article describes the experimental validation performed on several samples and real components in order to assess the performance of the instrument as a coating thickness gage. The application of the technique to support residual life assessment of serviced buckets is also presented.

  18. Swirling midframe flow for gas turbine engine having advanced transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Charron, Richard C.; Rodriguez, Jose L.; Kusters, Bernhard W.; Morrison, Jay A.; Beeck, Alexander R.


    A gas turbine engine can-annular combustion arrangement (10), including: an axial compressor (82) operable to rotate in a rotation direction (60); a diffuser (100, 110) configured to receive compressed air (16) from the axial compressor; a plenum (22) configured to receive the compressed air from the diffuser; a plurality of combustor cans (12) each having a combustor inlet (38) in fluid communication with the plenum, wherein each combustor can is tangentially oriented so that a respective combustor inlet is circumferentially offset from a respective combustor outlet in a direction opposite the rotation direction; and an airflow guiding arrangement (80) configured to impart circumferential motion to the compressed air in the plenum in the direction opposite the rotation direction.

  19. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system (United States)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)


    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  20. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemad, Shahrokh [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Baird, Benjamin [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Alavandi, Sandeep [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States); Pfefferle, William [Precision Combustion, Inc., North Haven, CT (United States)


    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOE's goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar

  1. Recuperated atmosphere SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne


    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  2. Recuperated atmospheric SOFC/gas turbine hybrid cycle (United States)

    Lundberg, Wayne


    A method of operating an atmospheric-pressure solid oxide fuel cell generator (6) in combination with a gas turbine comprising a compressor (1) and expander (2) where an inlet oxidant (20) is passed through the compressor (1) and exits as a first stream (60) and a second stream (62) the first stream passing through a flow control valve (56) to control flow and then through a heat exchanger (54) followed by mixing with the second stream (62) where the mixed streams are passed through a combustor (8) and expander (2) and the first heat exchanger for temperature control before entry into the solid oxide fuel cell generator (6), which generator (6) is also supplied with fuel (40).

  3. Catalytic combustion for the automotive gas turbine engine (United States)

    Anderson, D. N.


    Fuel-air premixing-prevaporizing systems and commercial catalysts were studied as part of a demonstration of a low emissions combustor for an automotive gas turbine engine. A fuel preparation system which would supply a fuel-air mixture which was uniform to within + or - 10 percent of the mean fuel-air ratio, with 90 percent fuel vaporization and with no autoignition is described. The catalytic reactor was required to produce emissions which were low enough to meet the most stringent proposed U.S. automotive standards. The overall pressure drop for both systems was to be less than 3 percent, with 1 percent allowed in the fuel-air preparation system and the remainder in the catalytic reactor.

  4. Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Gas Turbine and Diesel Engines (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.


    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCS) have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, durability issues of these thermal barrier coatings under high temperature cyclic conditions are still of major concern. The coating failure depends not only on the coating, but also on the ceramic sintering/creep and bond coat oxidation under the operating conditions. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermomechanical and thermophysical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic transient and steady state temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. This paper presents detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coating systems, thus providing a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  5. Thermal barrier coating life modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines (United States)

    Nissley, David M.


    Analytical models for predicting ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) spalling life in aircraft gas turbine engines are presented. Electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) and plasma sprayed TBC systems are discussed. An overview of the following TBC spalling mechanisms is presented: metal oxidation at the ceramic-metal interface, ceramic-metal interface stress singularities at edges and corners, ceramic-metal interface stresses caused by radius of curvature and interface roughness, material properties and mechanical behavior, temperature gradients, component design features and object impact damage. TBC spalling life analytical models are proposed based on observations of TBC spalling and plausible failure theories. TBC spalling was assumed to occur when the imposed stresses exceed the material strength (at or near the ceramic-metal interface). TBC failure knowledge gaps caused by lack of experimental evidence and analytical understanding are noted. The analytical models are considered initial engineering approaches that capture observed TBC failure trends.

  6. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration; Turbina de gas reactor modular con helio en cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, G. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail:


    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  7. Thermodynamic performance of gas turbine; Comportamiento termodinamico de las turbinas de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo Leyte, Raul [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Velazquez Toledo, Miguel; Hernandez Fernandez, Angel [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecananica y Electrica, Academia Mecanica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Torres Aldaco, Alejandro [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This work presents a computer code developed to simulate thermodynamic performance of a gas turbine cycle. The predicted performance is determined by measurements, in terms of various thermodynamics performance parameters which are defined and discussed in this paper. These parameters include the output, efficiency, fuel flow rate and air flow rate in relation to variations in the ambient temperature, pressure ratio, turbine entry temperature, compressor isentropic efficiency and turbine isentropic efficiency. [Spanish] Se presenta el comportamiento termodinamico de las centrales termicas que operan con turbinas de gas al variar los siguientes parametros: condiciones ambientales, relacion de presiones, temperatura de los gases a la entrada de la turbina de gas y las eficiencias isentropicas de compresion y expansion. Los resultados obtenidos son la eficiencia termica, el trabajo motor generado, el exceso de aire y los flujos de combustible en funcion de los parametros citados anteriormente. El analisis parametrico se realizo con el simulador TURBOGAS disenado en el laboratorio de ingenieria termica e hidraulica aplicada de la seccion de estudios de posgrado e investigacion de la escuela superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica del Instituto Politecnico Nacional.

  8. Performance Prediction and Simulation of Gas Turbine Engine Operation for Aircraft, Marine, Vehicular, and Power Generation (United States)


    Overall performances of an LM6000 type gas turbine are shown in this figure, where comparison of predictions to manufacturer published data is shown. The...of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, July 1987, Vol. 109. Anon., “ LM6000 Control Solutions Benefit Operations”, Woodward Governor Company...Organowski, G., “GE LM6000 Development of the First 40% Thermal Efficiency Gas Turbine”, GE Marine & Industrial Engine and Service Division”. Meher Homji

  9. Design, techno-economic and environmental risk assessment of aero-derivative industrial gas turbine


    Abaad, Abdelmanam


    Increased availability of natural gas has boosted research and development efforts to further increase gas turbine performance. Performance has been increased remarkably and unit cost reduced due to achievements gained in improving thermodynamic cycles and cooling technologies. However, increased complexity in power industry regulations and fluctuations in fuel price have indicated that all the aforementioned improvements in gas turbine performance could not cope with the in...

  10. Benefits of maintenance agreements for GE`s LM2500 and LM6000 gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.G. [Northland Power Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)


    The six-year gas turbine maintenance agreement that Northland Power has signed with General Electric Marine and Industrial Engines for the Cochrane, Kirkland Lake and Iroquois Falls plants was discussed. Power at the plants is generated by one GE LM2500PH, three LM2500PE and two LM6000PA aeroderivative gas turbines. For each of the three plants, Northland considered the benefits and limitations of aeroderivative gas turbines versus industrial gas turbines. Aeroderivatives could have higher capital costs per MWh, higher operating and maintenance cost per MWh and irregular maintenance costs. However, they also offer significant benefits such as short delivery, installation and commissioning, greater peaking capacity and accommodation of starts and stops, suitable size for mechanical drive and many cogeneration projects, higher efficiency, and rapid changeouts. The outsourcing of the contract has been very beneficial to stockholders because Northland has reduced the risk in its gas turbine maintenance projections by up to 20 per cent and is able to focus more on its core business of power plant development, operations and general maintenance. Northland management is strongly convinced that gas turbine agreements form an integral component of the aeroderivative gas turbine solution.4 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Promising Direction of Perfection of the Utilization Combine Cycle Gas Turbine Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdullina Albina I.


    Full Text Available Issues of improving the efficiency of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT recovery type have been presented. Efficiency gas turbine plant reaches values of 45 % due to rise in temperature to a gas turbine to 1700 °C. Modern technologies for improving the cooling gas turbine components and reducing the excess air ratio leads to a further increase of the efficiency by 1-2 %. Based on research conducted at the Tomsk Polytechnic University, it shows that the CCGT efficiency can be increased by 2-3 % in the winter time due to the use of organic Rankine cycle, low-boiling substances, and air-cooled condensers (ACC. It is necessary to apply the waste heat recovery with condensation of water vapor from the flue gas, it will enhance the efficiency of the CCGT by 2-3 % to increase the efficiency of the heat recovery steam boiler (HRSB to 10-12 %. Replacing electric pumps gas turbine engine (GTE helps to reduce electricity consumption for auxiliary needs CCGT by 0.5-1.5 %. At the same time the heat of flue gas turbine engine may be useful used in HRSB, thus will increase the capacity and efficiency of the steam turbine.

  12. Parametric Analysis of a Two-Shaft Aeroderivate Gas Turbine of 11.86 MW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lugo-Leyte


    Full Text Available The aeroderivate gas turbines are widely used for power generation in the oil and gas industry. In offshore marine platforms, the aeroderivative gas turbines provide the energy required to drive mechanically compressors, pumps and electric generators. Therefore, the study of the performance of aeroderivate gas turbines based on a parametric analysis is relevant to carry out a diagnostic of the engine, which can lead to operational as well as predictive and/or corrective maintenance actions. This work presents a methodology based on the exergetic analysis to estimate the irrevesibilities and exergetic efficiencies of the main components of a two-shaft aeroderivate gas turbine. The studied engine is the Solar Turbine Mars 100, which is rated to provide 11.86 MW. In this engine, the air is compressed in an axial compressor achieving a pressure ratio of 17.7 relative to ambient conditions and a high pressure turbine inlet temperature of 1220 °C. Even if the thermal efficiency associated to the pressure ratio of 17.7 is 1% lower than the maximum thermal efficiency, the irreversibilities related to this pressure ratio decrease approximately 1 GW with respect to irreversibilities of the optimal pressure ratio for the thermal efficiency. In addition, this paper contributes to develop a mathematical model to estimate the high turbine inlet temperature as well as the pressure ratio of the low and high pressure turbines.

  13. Artificial neural networks for monitoring the gas turbine; Artificiella neuronnaet foer gasturbinoevervakning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [Inst. foer Energivetenskaper, Lunds Univ. (Sweden)


    Through available historical operational data from gas turbines, fast, accurate, easy to use and reliable models can be developed. These models can be used for monitoring of gas turbines and assist in the transition from today's time-based maintenance to condition based maintenance. For the end user this means that, because only operational data is needed, they can easily develop their own tools independent of the manufacturer. Traditionally these types of models are constructed with physical relations for e.g., mass, energy and momentum. To develop a model with physical relations is often laborious and requires classified information which the end user does not have access to. Research has shown that by producing models using operational data a very high model precision can be achieved. When implementing these models in a power plant computer system the gas turbine's performance can be monitored in real time. This can facilitate fault detection at an early stage, and if necessary, stop the gas turbine before major damage occurs. For the power plant owner, this means that the gas turbine reliability is increased since the need for maintenance is minimized and the downtime is reduced. It also means that a measure of the gas turbine's overall status is continuously available, with respect to e.g. degradation, which helps in the planning of service intervals. The tool used is called artificial neural networks (ANN), a collective name for a number of algorithms for information processing that attempts to mimic the nerve cell function. Just like real networks of neurons in a brain, these artificial neural networks have the ability to learn. In this case, neural networks are trained to mimic the behavior of gas turbines by introducing them to data from real gas turbines. After a neural network is trained it represents a very accurate model of the gas turbine that it is trained to emulate.

  14. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels. (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L


    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  15. The gas turbine: Present technology and future developments; La turbina a gas: Tecnologie attuali e gli sviluppi futuri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minghetti, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)


    The gas turbine is the most widely used prime mover all over the world for either power generation or mechanical drive applications. The above fact is due to the recent great improvements that have been done especially in terms of efficiency, availability and reliability. The future for gas turbine technological development looks very promising. In fact, although tremendous growth has already taken place, there is still the potential for dramatic improvements in performance. Compared with the competitive prime movers (conventional steam power plants and reciprocating piston engines) the gas turbine technology is younger and still following a strong growth curve. The coming decades will witness the continued increasing in turbine inlet temperature, the development of new materials and refrigeration systems and the commercialization of inter cooled system and steam cooled turbines. With the very soon introduction of the {sup G }and {sup H }technology, expected single and combined cycle efficiencies for heavy duty machines are respectively 40% and 60%, while maintaining single digit levels in pollutant emissions. In this report are given wide information on gas turbine present technology (Thermodynamics, features, design, performances, emission control, applications) and are discussed the main lines for the future developments. Finally are presented the research and technological development activities on gas turbine of Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department.

  16. Some Experimental Investigations on Gas Turbine Cooling Performed with Infrared Thermography at Federico II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Astarita


    Full Text Available This paper reviews some experimental measurements of convective heat transfer coefficient distributions which are connected with the cooling of gas turbines, performed by the authors’ research group at the University of Naples Federico II with infrared thermography. Measurements concern impinging jets, cooling of rotating disks, and gas turbine blades, which are either stationary or rotating. The heated thin foil sensor, associated with the detection of surface temperature by means of infrared thermography, is exploited to accurately measure detailed convective heat transfer coefficient maps. The paper also intends to show how to correctly apply the infrared technique in a variety of gas turbines cooling problems.

  17. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications report (United States)


    This report describes progress and work performed during January through June 1984 to develop technology for an Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) engine for automotive applications. Work performed during the first eight periods initiated design and analysis, ceramic development, component testing, and test bed evaluation. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System Program. This program is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the high-risk long-range techology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. Technology resulting from this program is intended to reach the marketplace by the early 1990s.

  18. Lean-rich axial stage combustion in a can-annular gas turbine engine (United States)

    Laster, Walter R.; Szedlacsek, Peter


    An apparatus and method for lean/rich combustion in a gas turbine engine (10), which includes a combustor (12), a transition (14) and a combustor extender (16) that is positioned between the combustor (12) and the transition (14) to connect the combustor (12) to the transition (14). Openings (18) are formed along an outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16). The gas turbine (10) also includes a fuel manifold (28) to extend along the outer surface (20) of the combustor extender (16), with fuel nozzles (30) to align with the respective openings (18). A method (200) for axial stage combustion in the gas turbine engine (10) is also presented.

  19. Fuel flexibility via real-time Raman fuel-gas analysis for turbine system control (United States)

    Buric, M.; Woodruff, S.; Chorpening, B.; Tucker, D.


    The modern energy production base in the U.S. is increasingly incorporating opportunity fuels such as biogas, coalbed methane, coal syngas, solar-derived hydrogen, and others. In many cases, suppliers operate turbine-based generation systems to efficiently utilize these diverse fuels. Unfortunately, turbine engines are difficult to control given the varying energy content of these fuels, combined with the need for a backup natural gas supply to provide continuous operation. Here, we study the use of a specially designed Raman Gas Analyzer based on capillary waveguide technology with sub-second response time for turbine control applications. The NETL Raman Gas Analyzer utilizes a low-power visible pump laser, and a capillary waveguide gas-cell to integrate large spontaneous Raman signals, and fast gas-transfer piping to facilitate quick measurements of fuel-gas components. A U.S. Department of Energy turbine facility known as HYPER (hybrid performance system) serves as a platform for apriori fuel composition measurements for turbine speed or power control. A fuel-dilution system is used to simulate a compositional upset while simultaneously measuring the resultant fuel composition and turbine response functions in real-time. The feasibility and efficacy of system control using the spontaneous Raman-based measurement system is then explored with the goal of illustrating the ability to control a turbine system using available fuel composition as an input process variable.

  20. Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying the Criticality Index Model. ... However, Turbine maintenance in Nigerian power generating Plants is unimaginably low; there are incessant plant shut downs, and up to 95% of both foreign and local manufacturers have either shut down production or have ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Liscinsky


    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  2. Pulse Combustor Driven Pressure Gain Combustion for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Lisanti, Joel


    The gas turbine engine is an essential component of the global energy infrastructure which accounts for a significant portion of the total fossil fuel consumption in transportation and electric power generation sectors. For this reason there is significant interest in further increasing the efficiency and reducing the pollutant emissions of these devices. Conventional approaches to this goal, which include increasing the compression ratio, turbine inlet temperature, and turbine/compressor efficiency, have brought modern gas turbine engines near the limits of what may be achieved with the conventionally applied Brayton cycle. If a significant future step increase in gas turbine efficiency is to be realized some deviation from this convention is necessary. The pressure gain gas turbine concept is a well established new combustion technology that promises to provide a dramatic increase in gas turbine efficiency by replacing the isobaric heat addition process found in conventional technology with an isochoric process. The thermodynamic benefit of even a small increase in stagnation pressure across a gas turbine combustor translates to a significant increase in cycle efficiency. To date there have been a variety of methods proposed for achieving stagnation pressure gains across a gas turbine combustor and these concepts have seen a broad spectrum of levels of success. The following chapter provides an introduction to one of the proposed pressure gain methods that may be most easily realized in a practical application. This approach, known as pulse combustor driven pressure gain combustion, utilizes an acoustically resonant pulse combustor to approximate isochoric heat release and thus produce a rise in stagnation pressure.

  3. Investigations of thermal barrier coatings of turbine parts using gas flame heating (United States)

    Lepeshkin, A. R.; Bichkov, N. G.; Ilinskaja, O. I.; Nazarov, V. V.


    The development of methods for the calculated and experimental investigations thermal barrier coatings and thermal state of gas-turbine engine parts with a thermal barrier coatings is actual work. The gas flame heating was demonstrated to be effectively used during investigations of a thermal ceramic barrier coatings and thermal state of such gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC as the cooled turbine blades and vanes and combustion liner components. The gas-flame heating is considered to be preferable when investigating the gas-turbine engine parts with a TBC in the special cases when both the convective and radiant components of thermal flow are of great importance. The small-size rig with gas-flame flow made it possible to conduct the comparison investigations with the purpose of evaluating the efficiency of thermal protection of the ceramic deposited thermal barrier coatings on APS and EB techniques. The developed design-experiment method was introduced in bench tests of turbine blades and combustion liner components of gas turbine engines.

  4. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A; Wilson, Chris W; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas


    .... The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment...

  5. Progress Toward a Microfabricated Gas Turbine Generator for Soldier Portable Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, S. A; Das, S; Savoulides, N; Steyn, J. L; Lang, J; Li, H. Q; Livermore, C; Schmidt, M. A; Teo, C. J; Umans, S. D; Epstein, A. H; Arnold, D. P; Park, J-W; Zana, I; Allen, M. G


    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) turbocharger and electric generator devices have been fabricated and tested as part of a program at MIT to develop a microfabricated gas turbine generator for portable power applications...

  6. Fault detection and diagnosis for gas turbines based on a kernelized information entropy model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Weiying; Xu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Rui; Li, Shuying; Wu, Wei


    Gas turbines are considered as one kind of the most important devices in power engineering and have been widely used in power generation, airplanes, and naval ships and also in oil drilling platforms...

  7. A Physics-Based Starting Model for Gas Turbine Engines Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing an integrated starting model for gas turbine engines using a new physics-based...

  8. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry in a generic can-type gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC


    Full Text Available Frodermann, M., Heinze, J., Hassa, C., Meier, U., Wolff-Gassmann, D., Hohmann, S., Zarzalis, N., ?Experimenal and Numerical Investigation of a Planar Combustor Sector at Realistic Operating Conditions?, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power...

  9. Robust High Fidelity Large Eddy Simulation Tool for Gas Turbine Combustors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to develop and demonstrate the use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for computations of gas turbine combustor flow and transport processes, using the...

  10. Research on Simulink/Fluent Collaborative Simulation Zooming of Marine Gas Turbine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhi-tao Wang; Jian Li; Tie-lei Li; Shu-ying Li


      Based on the detailed analysis of collaborative running interface of Simulink/Fluent, a system simulation for the rated working condition as well as variable working condition of marine gas turbine...

  11. Low-Emission combustion of fuel in aeroderivative gas turbines (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.


    The paper is the first of a planned set of papers devoted to the world experience in development of Low Emission combustors (LEC) for industrial Gas Turbines (GT). The purpose of the article is to summarize and analyze the most successful experience of introducing the principles of low-emission combustion of the so-called "poor" (low fuel concentration in air when the excess air ratio is about 1.9-2.1) well mixed fuelair mixtures in the LEC for GTs and ways to reduce the instability of combustion. The consideration examples are the most successful and widely used aero-derivative GT. The GT development meets problems related to the difference in requirements and operation conditions between the aero, industrial, and power production GT. One of the main problems to be solved is the LEC development to mitigate emissions of the harmful products first of all the Nitrogen oxides NOx. The ways to modify or convert the initial combustors to the LEC are shown. This development may follow location of multiburner mixers within the initial axial envelope dimensions or conversion of circular combustor to the can type one. The most interesting are Natural Gas firing GT without water injection into the operating process or Dry Low emission (DLE) combustors. The current GT efficiency requirement may be satisfied at compressor exit pressure above 3 MPa and Turbine Entry temperature (TET) above 1500°C. The paper describes LEC examples based on the concept of preliminary prepared air-fuel mixtures' combustion. Each combustor employs its own fuel supply control concept based on the fuel flow-power output relation. In the case of multiburner combustors, the burners are started subsequently under a specific scheme. The can type combustors have combustion zones gradually ignited following the GT power change. The combustion noise problem experienced in lean mixtures' combustion is also considered, and the problem solutions are described. The GT test results show wide ranges of stable

  12. Using LQG/LTR Optimal Control Method to Improve Stability and Performance of Industrial Gas Turbine System


    Fereidoon Shabaninia; Kazem Jafari


    The gas turbine is a power plant, which produces a great amount of energy for its size and weight. Its compactness, low weigh, and multiple fuels make it a natural power plant for various industries such as power generation or oil and gas process plants. In any of these applications, the performance and stability of the gas turbines are the end products that strongly influence the profitability of the business that employs them. Control and analyses of gas turbines for achieving stability and...

  13. Computer-Aided System of Virtual Testing of Gas Turbine Engines


    Rybakov Viktor N.; Tkachenko Andrey Y.; Kuz’michev Venedikt S.; Krupenich Ilia N.


    The article describes the concept of a virtual lab that includes subsystem of gas turbine engine simulation, subsystem of experiment planning, subsystem of measurement errors simulation, subsystem of simulator identification and others. The basis for virtual lab development is the computer-aided system of thermogasdynamic research and analysis “ASTRA”. The features of gas turbine engine transient modes simulator are described. The principal difference between the simulators of transient and s...

  14. Variations on the Kalman filter for enhanced performance monitoring of gas turbine engines


    Borguet, Sébastien


    Since their advent in the 1940's, gas turbines have been used in a wide range of land, sea and air applications due to their high power density and reliability. In today's competitive market, gas turbine operators need to optimise the dispatch availability (it i.e., minimise operational issues such as aborted take-offs or in-flight shutdowns) as well as the direct operating costs of their assets. Besides improvements in the design and manufacture processes, proactive maintenance pract...

  15. A baseline expert control system for marine gas turbine compressor surge


    Davitt, James A.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited United States Navy gas turbine ships are in need of casualty control system updating to reduce demanding conditions on engineering watch standers, to increase equipment longevity, and reduce operating costs. This thesis presents a baseline computer-based expert system controller concept developed for the critical casualty control problem of gas turbine compressor surge. The controller design rests on the building-block components of re...

  16. Off-Design Behavior Analysis and Operating Curve Design of Marine Intercooled Gas Turbine


    Nian-kun Ji; Shu-ying Li; Zhi-tao Wang; Ning-bo Zhao


    The intercooled gas turbine obtained by adopting an indirect heat exchanger into an existing gas turbine is one of the candidates for developing high-power marine power units. To simplify such a strong coupled nonlinear system reasonably, the feasibility and availability of qualifying equivalent effectiveness as the only parameter to evaluate the intercooler behavior are investigated. Regarding equivalent effectiveness as an additional degree of freedom, the steady state model of a marine int...

  17. A unified approach to reheat in gas and steam turbine cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewins, J. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Magdalene College


    A model of fluid behaviour is proposed for both air and steam in Joule, Brayton, and Rankine cycles by assuming that enthalpy is a function of temperature only. This enables reheat to be treated in a unified manner for both gas and steam turbines. Theorems for maximum power and maximum thermal efficiency are presented, with extensions to inter-cooling in gas turbines and afterburners in turbo-jet craft. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine (United States)

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  19. System definition and analysis gas-fired industrial advanced turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, G.M.


    The objective is to define and analyze an engine system based on the gas fuel Advanced Turbine from Task 3. Using the cycle results of Task 3, a technical effort was started for Task 6 which would establish the definition of the engine flowpath and the key engine component systems. The key engine systems are: gas turbine engine overall flowpath; booster (low pressure compressor); intercooler; high pressure compressor; combustor; high pressure turbine; low pressure turbine and materials; engine system packaging; and power plant configurations. The design objective is to use the GE90 engine as the platform for the GE Industrial Advanced Turbine System. This objective sets the bounds for the engine flowpath and component systems.

  20. Off-Design Behavior Analysis and Operating Curve Design of Marine Intercooled Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-kun Ji


    Full Text Available The intercooled gas turbine obtained by adopting an indirect heat exchanger into an existing gas turbine is one of the candidates for developing high-power marine power units. To simplify such a strong coupled nonlinear system reasonably, the feasibility and availability of qualifying equivalent effectiveness as the only parameter to evaluate the intercooler behavior are investigated. Regarding equivalent effectiveness as an additional degree of freedom, the steady state model of a marine intercooled gas turbine is developed and its off-design performance is analyzed. With comprehensive considerations given to various phase missions of ships, operational flexibility, mechanical constraints, and thermal constraints, the operating curve of the intercooled gas turbine is optimized based on graphical method in three-dimensional performance space. The resulting operating curve revealed that the control strategy at the steady state conditions for the intercooled gas turbine should be variable cycle control. The necessity of integration optimization design for gas turbine and intercooler is indicated and the modeling and analysis method developed in this paper should be beneficial to it.

  1. Mechanical support of a ceramic gas turbine vane ring (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.; Mosher, Daniel A.; Holowczak, John E.; Reinhardt, Gregory E.


    An assembly for mounting a ceramic turbine vane ring onto a turbine support casing comprises a first metal clamping ring and a second metal clamping ring. The first metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a first side of a tab member of the ceramic turbine vane ring. The second metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a second side of the tab member such that the tab member is disposed between the first and second metal clamping rings.

  2. An evaluation of thermal energy storage options for precooling gas turbine inlet air (United States)

    Antoniak, Z. I.; Brown, D. R.; Drost, M. K.


    Several approaches have been used to reduce the temperature of gas turbine inlet air. One of the most successful uses off-peak electric power to drive vapor-compression-cycle ice makers. The ice is stored until the next time high ambient temperature is encountered, when the ice is used in a heat exchanger to cool the gas turbine inlet air. An alternative concept would use seasonal thermal energy storage to store winter chill for inlet air cooling. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and economics of seasonal thermal energy storage in aquifers with diurnal ice thermal energy storage for gas turbine inlet air cooling. The investigation consisted of developing computer codes to model the performance of a gas turbine, energy storage system, heat exchangers, and ancillary equipment. The performance models were combined with cost models to calculate unit capital costs and levelized energy costs for each concept. The levelized energy cost was calculated for three technologies in two locations (Minneapolis, Minnesota and Birmingham, Alabama). Precooling gas turbine inlet air with cold water supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage system provided lower cost electricity than simply increasing the size of the turbine for meteorological and geological conditions existing in the Minneapolis vicinity. A 15 to 20 percent cost reduction resulted for both 0.05 and 0.2 annual operating factors. In contrast, ice storage precooling was found to be between 5 and 20 percent more expensive than larger gas turbines for the Minneapolis location. In Birmingham, aquifer thermal energy storage precooling was preferred at the higher capacity factor and ice storage precooling was the best option at the lower capacity factor. In both cases, the levelized cost was reduced by approximately 5 percent when compared to larger gas turbines.

  3. 300 kW ceramic gas turbine. Overview (summary for eleven years); 300kW ceramic gas turbine. Zentai gaiyo (11 nenkan no sokatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, A.; Sugiura, T. [Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The ceramic gas turbine (CGT) project had been authorized of its inauguration as a large-scale energy saving technology research and development project, at the inquiry commission for industrial technologies and the energy saving technology development working group held in August 1987. Since a great number of insurmountable barriers had been anticipated ahead in this project, parallel development was performed on multiple number of technologies with an objective of verifying the technological possibility of the CGT. Results of the research and development works revealed that ceramic parts were upscaled successfully, and expansion and deformation of metallic parts due to high temperature operation in small gas turbines can affect more severely than has been thought. Although the bi-axial turbines have succeeded to reach thermal efficiency exceeding 42% and operation of 1000 hours, the mono-axial turbines were not possible of solving such problems as deformation, with the thermal efficiency staying at 34.7%. The fact that ceramics was verified usable as structural members of gas turbines is a very good news for people related with ceramics in the world. (NEDO)

  4. Application of plasma spray technique to heavy duty gas turbine. Hatsuden yo gas turbine ni okeru plasma yosha gijutsu no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Tsuji, I. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Gas turbines are regarded useful for the effective use of energy resources, and are expected for their high efficiency and improved reliability, especially in the area of power generation. This report introduces an application of the plasma flame coating technology as one of the most advance technology in the production of a gas turbine for power generation of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. This report describes the following items. Progress diagram for higher performance of Mitsubishi gas turbines. Heat-shielding coating for the burner (top coat being ZrO {sub 2}-24 MgO). Wear-resistant coating (Cr {sub 3} C {sub 2}-25 NiCr). Cross sectional micro-structure of high temperature corrosion resistant coating (CoNiCrAlY). Application of low pressure plasma flame coating. Turbine blade TBC (Fender coat CoNiCrAlY, top coat ZrO {sub 2}-8Y {sub 2} O {sub 3}). Effect of TBC application to the parent material strength. TBC application to the static blade of the turbine. 10 figs.

  5. A study of low emissions gas turbine combustions (United States)

    Adelman, Henry G.


    Analytical studies have been conducted to determine the best methods of reducing NO(x) emissions from proposed civilian supersonic transports. Modifications to the gas turbine engine combustors and the use of additives were both explored. It was found that combustors which operated very fuel rich or lean appear to be able to meet future emissions standards. Ammonia additives were also effective in removing NO(x), but residual ammonia remained a problem. Studies of a novel combustor which reduces emissions and improves performance were initiated. In a related topic, a study was begun on the feasibility of using supersonic aircraft to obtain atmospheric samples. The effects of shock heating and compression on sample integrity were modeled. Certain chemical species, including NO2, HNO3, and ClONO2 were found to undergo changes to their composition after they passed through shock waves at Mach 2. The use of detonation waves to enhance mixing and combustion in supersonic airflows was also investigated. This research is important to the use of airbreathing propulsion to obtain orbital speeds and access to space. Both steady and pulsed detonation waves were shown to improve engine performance.

  6. Increased Reliability of Gas Turbine Components by Robust Coatings Manufacturing (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Dudykevych, T.; Sansom, D.; Subramanian, R.


    The expanding operational windows of the advanced gas turbine components demand increasing performance capability from protective coating systems. This demand has led to the development of novel multi-functional, multi-materials coating system architectures over the last years. In addition, the increasing dependency of components exposed to extreme environment on protective coatings results in more severe penalties, in case of a coating system failure. This emphasizes that reliability and consistency of protective coating systems are equally important to their superior performance. By means of examples, this paper describes the effects of scatter in the material properties resulting from manufacturing variations on coating life predictions. A strong foundation in process-property-performance correlations as well as regular monitoring and control of the coating process is essential for robust and well-controlled coating process. Proprietary and/or commercially available diagnostic tools can help in achieving these goals, but their usage in industrial setting is still limited. Various key contributors to process variability are briefly discussed along with the limitations of existing process and product control methods. Other aspects that are important for product reliability and consistency in serial manufacturing as well as advanced testing methodologies to simplify and enhance product inspection and improve objectivity are briefly described.

  7. The effect of local parameters on gas turbine emissions (United States)

    Kauffman, C. W.; Correa, S. M.; Orozco, N. J.


    Gas turbine engine inlet parameters reflect changes in local atmospheric conditions. The pollutant emissions for the engine reflects these changes. In attempting to model the effect of the changing ambient conditions on the emissions it was found that these emissions exhibit an extreme sensitivity to some of the details of the combustion process such as the local fuel-air ratio and the size of the drops in the fuel spray. Fuel-air ratios have been mapped under nonburning conditions using a single JT8D-17 combustion can at simulated idle conditions, and significant variations in the local values have been found. Modelling of the combustor employs a combination of perfectly stirred and plug flow reactors including a finite rate vaporization treatment of the fuel spray. Results show that a small increase in the mean drop size can lead to a large increase in hydrocarbon emissions and decreasing the value of the CO-OH rate constant can lead to large increases in the carbon monoxide emissions. These emissions may also be affected by the spray characteristics with larger drops retarding the combustion process. Hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emissions calculated using the model accurately reflect measured emission variations caused by changing engine inlet conditions.

  8. Methodology for Structural Integrity Analysis of Gas Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Oliveira Vale


    Full Text Available One of the major sources of stress arising in turbomachinery blades are the centrifugal loads acting at any section of the airfoil. Accounting for this phenomenon stress evaluation of the blade attachment region in the disc has to be performed in order to avoid blade failure. Turbomachinery blades are generally twisted, and the cross section area varies from the root of the blade to the tip. The blade root shape at the attachment region is of great concern. Stress concentrations are predictable at this contact region. In this paper, a finite element model has been created for the purpose of assessing stress at the joint region connecting the blade to the disc slot. Particular attention was paid to the geometric modeling of the "fir-tree" fixing, which is now used in the majority of gas turbine engines. This study has been performed using the commercial software ANSYS 13.0. The disc and blade assembly are forced to move with a certain rotational velocity. Contact connections are predicted on the common faces of the blade and on the disc at the root. Solutions can be obtained to allow the evaluation of stresses. Results can be compared with the mechanical properties of the adopted material.

  9. Fluid Mechanics of Lean Blowout Precursors in Gas Turbine Combustors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Muruganandam


    Full Text Available Understanding of lean blowout (LBO phenomenon, along with the sensing and control strategies could enable the gas turbine combustor designers to design combustors with wider operability regimes. Sensing of precursor events (temporary extinction-reignition events based on chemiluminescence emissions from the combustor, assessing the proximity to LBO and using that data for control of LBO has already been achieved. This work describes the fluid mechanic details of the precursor dynamics and the blowout process based on detailed analysis of near blowout flame behavior, using simultaneous chemiluminescence and droplet scatter observations. The droplet scatter method represents the regions of cold reactants and thus help track unburnt mixtures. During a precursor event, it was observed that the flow pattern changes significantly with a large region of unburnt mixture in the combustor, which subsequently vanishes when a double/single helical vortex structure brings back the hot products back to the inlet of the combustor. This helical pattern is shown to be the characteristic of the next stable mode of flame in the longer combustor, stabilized by double helical vortex breakdown (VBD mode. It is proposed that random heat release fluctuations near blowout causes VBD based stabilization to shift VBD modes, causing the observed precursor dynamics in the combustor. A complete description of the evolution of flame near the blowout limit is presented. The description is consistent with all the earlier observations by the authors about precursor and blowout events.

  10. 40 CFR 60.4325 - What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil... (United States)


    ... NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil (or some other combination of fuels)? 60... percent natural gas, you must meet the corresponding limit for a natural gas-fired turbine when you are... Combustion Turbines Emission Limits § 60.4325 What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine burns...

  11. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna


    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  12. Effective utilization of fossil fuels for low carbon world -- IGCC and high performance gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Takao; Sakamoto, Koichi; Komori, Toyoaki; Kishine, Takashi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro


    The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is required to minimize the effect of hydrocarbon based power generation on global warming. In pursue of this objective, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is dedicating considerable efforts on two different ways to reduce the environmental impact. The first one involves gas turbine performance improvement by raising firing temperature for Natural-gas and LNG applications. In this regard, the latest J class gas turbine was designed to operate at 1600 deg C and expected combined cycle efficiency in excess of 60%. The other approach involves the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants to burn solid fuel like coal.

  13. Advantages of air conditioning and supercharging an LM6000 gas turbine inlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolp, D.A. [Kolp Engineering, Avon, CT (United States); Flye, W.M. [Stewart and Stevenson, Houston, TX (United States); Guidotti, H.A. [Energy Services, Inc., Framington, CT (United States)


    Of all the external factors affecting a gas turbine, inlet pressure and temperature have the greatest impact on performance. The effect of inlet temperature variations is especially pronounced in the new generation of high-efficiency gas turbines typified by the 40 MW GE LM6000. A reduction of 50 F (28 C) in inlet temperature can result in a 30 percent increase in power and a 4.5 percent improvement in heat rate. An elevation increase to 5,000 ft (1,524 m) above sea level decreases turbine output 17 percent; conversely supercharging can increase output more than 20 percent. This paper addresses various means of heating, cooling and supercharging LM6000 inlet air. An economic model is developed and sample cases are cited to illustrate the optimization of gas turbine inlet systems, taking into account site conditions, incremental equipment cost and subsequent performance enhancement.

  14. Gaz Türbinlerinin Optimal Performans Analizi = Optimal Performance Analysis of Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanettin ÇETİN


    Full Text Available The usage of gas turbines increases rapidly in the electricity production and cogeneration systems in recent years. Decreasing performance of gas turbines causes not only reducing their capacity of electricity production but also increasing production cost. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis of the open cycle gas turbine model is examined. The power output and the thermal efficiency of system are chosen as the performance criteria and the effects of compressor pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, isentropic efficiencies and pressure losses on the performance are analyzed. Developed model has been solved by using the computer program written in Visual Basic language and the design parameters giving maximum power and efficiency are determined.

  15. Methods of increasing thermal efficiency of steam and gas turbine plants (United States)

    Vasserman, A. A.; Shutenko, M. A.


    Three new methods of increasing efficiency of turbine power plants are described. Increasing average temperature of heat supply in steam turbine plant by mixing steam after overheaters with products of combustion of natural gas in the oxygen. Development of this idea consists in maintaining steam temperature on the major part of expansion in the turbine at level, close to initial temperature. Increasing efficiency of gas turbine plant by way of regenerative heating of the air by gas after its expansion in high pressure turbine and before expansion in the low pressure turbine. Due to this temperature of air, entering combustion chamber, is increased and average temperature of heat supply is consequently increased. At the same time average temperature of heat removal is decreased. Increasing efficiency of combined cycle power plant by avoiding of heat transfer from gas to wet steam and transferring heat from gas to water and superheated steam only. Steam will be generated by multi stage throttling of the water from supercritical pressure and temperature close to critical, to the pressure slightly higher than condensation pressure. Throttling of the water and separation of the wet steam on saturated water and steam does not require complicated technical devices.

  16. Aerodynamic design of a free power turbine for a 75 KW gas turbine automotive engine (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Schumann, L. F.


    A single stage axial-flow turbine having a tip diameter of 15.41 centimeters was designed. The design specifications are given and the aerodynamic design procedure is described. The design includes the transition duct and the turbine exit diffuser. The aerodynamic information includes typical results of a parametric study, velocity diagrams, blade surface and wall velocities, and blade profile and wall coordinates.

  17. Ion beam analysis of gas turbine blades: evaluation of refurbishment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ration industry, include two turbine blades corroded during operation in the power plant and two refurbished turbine blades by applying the MCrAlY thermal barrier ..... revealed the cluster distribution of rather large amounts of. Si in the refurbished coating layer. The cluster distribution of Si, which could reduce the lifetime of ...

  18. Effects of Fuel and Nozzle Characteristics on Micro Gas Turbine System: A Review (United States)

    Akasha Hashim, Muhammad; Khalid, Amir; Salleh, Hamidon; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed


    For many decades, gas turbines have been used widely in the internal combustion engine industry. Due to the deficiency of fossil fuel and the concern of global warming, the used of bio-gas have been recognized as one of most clean fuels in the application of engine to improve performance of lean combustion and minimize the production of NOX and PM. This review paper is to understand the combustion performance using dual-fuel nozzle for a micro gas turbine that was basically designed as a natural gas fuelled engine, the nozzle characteristics of the micro gas turbine has been modelled and the effect of multi-fuel used were investigated. The used of biogas (hydrogen) as substitute for liquid fuel (methane) at constant fuel injection velocity, the flame temperature is increased, but the fuel low rate reduced. Applying the blended fuel at constant fuel rate will increased the flame temperature as the hydrogen percentages increased. Micro gas turbines which shows the uniformity of the flow distribution that can be improved without the increase of the pressure drop by applying the variable nozzle diameters into the fuel supply nozzle design. It also identifies the combustion efficiency, better fuel mixing in combustion chamber using duel fuel nozzle with the largest potential for the future. This paper can also be used as a reference source that summarizes the research and development activities on micro gas turbines.

  19. Exergy costing analysis and performance evaluation of selected gas turbine power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Oyedepo


    Full Text Available In this study, exergy costing analysis and performance evaluation of selected gas turbine power plants in Nigeria are carried out. The results of exergy analysis confirmed that the combustion chamber is the most exergy destructive component compared to other cycle components. The exergetic efficiency of the plants was found to depend significantly on a change in gas turbine inlet temperature (GTIT. The increase in exergetic efficiency with the increase in turbine inlet temperature is limited by turbine material temperature limit. This was observed from the plant efficiency defect curve. As the turbine inlet temperature increases, the plant efficiency defect decreases to minimum value at certain GTIT (1,200 K, after which it increases with GTIT. This shows degradation in performance of gas turbine plant at high turbine inlet temperature. Exergy costing analysis shows that the combustion chamber has the greatest cost of exergy destruction compared to other components. Increasing the GTIT, both the exergy destruction and the cost of exergy destruction of this component are found to decrease. Also, from exergy costing analysis, the unit cost of electricity produced in the power plants varies from cents 1.99/kWh (N3.16/kWh to cents 5.65/kWh (N8.98/kWh.

  20. Survey on the feasibility of high-efficiency gas turbine power generation system; Kokoritsu gas turbine hatsuden system ni kansuru jitsuyo kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For higher-efficiency power generation cycle plants with less restrained conditions for a location, the conceptual design of an inter-cooled regenerative two-fluid cycle plant (ISTIG) was attempted using a modified aircraft gas turbine. A high-performance turbo fan engine is used for middle-class power generation. The first stage combustion gas drives the first stage turbine, and its exhaust gas is used for the second stage combustion. Because of two-axial type of high and low pressure, improvement of thermal efficiency is expected by easy-to-install inter-cooler. ISTIG superior in operability is suitable for medium load or distributed power generation facilities, and aims at higher efficiency of a 60% level. ISTIG includes a large amount of water vapor in combustion air by adopting a diffusion type combustor eliminating back fire, and can reduce exergy loss by preheating fuel gas. Since load of the high-pressure turbine shifts toward low-pressure one by the inter-cooler, some considerations are necessary for low-pressure side cooling together with reheating cycle. Because of unnecessary steam turbine, the construction cost per kW can be reduced by 20%. 41 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Biogas and sewage gas in Stirling engines and micro gas turbines. Results of a field study; Bio- und Klaergas in Stirlingmotoren und Mikrogasturbinen. Ergebnisse einer Feldstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Bernd; Wyndorps, Agnes [Hochschule Reutlingen (Germany); Bekker, Marina; Oechsner, Hans [Hohenheim Univ., Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie, Stuttgart (Germany); Kelm, Tobias [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)


    In decentral heat and power generation from biogas, sewage gas, landfill gas and methane in systems with a capacity below 100 kWe, Stirling engines and micro gas turbines may have advantages over gas engines, gasoline engines, and diesel engines. This was proved in a research project in which the operation of a Stirling engine with sewage gas and a micro gas turbine with biogas were investigated. (orig.)

  2. The Gas turbine Engine-based Power Technology Plant Using Wood Waste Gasification Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Danilova


    Full Text Available The paper outlines the problems of energy supply and waste utilization of the forest industries. As a solution, it proposes to use gasification to utilize wood leftovers, which is followed by electric power generation from combustion of producer gas. The plant was expected to have a power of 150 kW. The proposed power technology plant comprises a line for pre-treatment of wood chips, a gas generator (gasifier and a gas turbine unit.The paper justifies a need for preliminary preparation of wood waste, particularly chipping and drying. Various drying schemes have been analyzed. A line for pre-treatment of wood chips comprises a drum chipper, a receiving raw material wood container and a drum dryer using fume gases.A co-current gasifier is chosen because of the high content of tar in the original fuel. In the co-current gasifier, most of the tar, passing through the high temperature area, is burned. The paper offers high temperature dry cleaning of producer gas in the cyclone separator. Such a scheme of cleaning provides high efficiency of the plant and simplifies its design, but suspended particles still remain in the producer gas. When analyzing the schemes of power converters this is taken into account.A choice of the gas turbine as a power converter is justified. To reduce the erosion damage of the turbine blades there is a proposal to use an unconventional gas turbine scheme with air turbine and a combustion chamber located downstream of the turbine. In this plant the air rather than the combustion gas passes through the turbine. The air from turbine goes into the combustion chamber, the combustion gas passes through the air heater, where it transfers heat to the air. Such scheme allows reducing power costs for the fuel gas compression before the combustion chamber.Optimization of the gas turbine cycle is performed. The optimum compressor pressure ratio is 3,7. The plant efficiency for this pressure ratio is 25,7%. Calculation results of the

  3. Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas (United States)


    diluted gas stream - downstream of where the LFG feed gas and dilution air are mixed before entering the FP250 compressor. However, due to the...worldwide, including landfill and biogas , coal mines, associated petroleum gas , and mainstream power generation markets. Ener-Core is hopeful that the...FINAL REPORT Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas ESTCP Project EW

  4. Turbine bucket for use in gas turbine engines and methods for fabricating the same (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres


    A turbine bucket for use with a turbine engine. The turbine bucket includes an airfoil that extends between a root end and a tip end. The airfoil includes an outer wall that defines a cavity that extends from the root end to the tip end. The outer wall includes a first ceramic matrix composite (CMC) substrate that extends a first distance from the root end to the tip end. An inner wall is positioned within the cavity. The inner wall includes a second CMC substrate that extends a second distance from the root end towards the tip end that is different than the first distance.

  5. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    Most of the studies on the low cycle fatigue life prediction have been reported under isothermal conditions where the deformation of the material is strain dependent. In the development of gas turbines, components such as blades and vanes are exposed to temperature variations in addition to strain cycling. As a result, the deformation process becomes temperature and strain dependent. Therefore, the life of the component becomes sensitive to temperature-strain cycling which produces a process known as {open_quotes}thermomechanical fatigue, or TMF{close_quotes}. The TMF fatigue failure phenomenon has been modeled using conventional fatigue life prediction methods, which are not sufficiently accurate to quantitatively establish an allowable design procedure. To add to the complexity of TMF life prediction, blade and vane substrates are normally coated with aluminide, overlay or thermal barrier type coatings (TBC) where the durability of the component is dominated by the coating/substrate constitutive response and by the fatigue behavior of the coating. A number of issues arise from TMF depending on the type of temperature/strain phase cycle: (1) time-dependent inelastic behavior can significantly affect the stress response. For example, creep relaxation during a tensile or compressive loading at elevated temperatures leads to a progressive increase in the mean stress level under cyclic loading. (2) the mismatch in elastic and thermal expansion properties between the coating and the substrate can lead to significant deviations in the coating stress levels due to changes in the elastic modulii. (3) the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} corrosion resistance coatings applied to the substrate may act as primary crack initiation sites. Crack initiation in the coating is a function of the coating composition, its mechanical properties, creep relaxation behavior, thermal strain range and the strain/temperature phase relationship.

  6. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Dubiel-Jurgaś, Klaudia


    Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P) technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  7. Analysis of Energy Storage System with Distributed Hydrogen Production and Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz


    Full Text Available Paper presents the concept of energy storage system based on power-to-gas-to-power (P2G2P technology. The system consists of a gas turbine co-firing hydrogen, which is supplied from a distributed electrolysis installations, powered by the wind farms located a short distance from the potential construction site of the gas turbine. In the paper the location of this type of investment was selected. As part of the analyses, the area of wind farms covered by the storage system and the share of the electricity production which is subjected storage has been changed. The dependence of the changed quantities on the potential of the hydrogen production and the operating time of the gas turbine was analyzed. Additionally, preliminary economic analyses of the proposed energy storage system were carried out.

  8. Risk assessment of failure modes of gas diffuser liner of V94.2 siemens gas turbine by FMEA method (United States)

    Mirzaei Rafsanjani, H.; Rezaei Nasab, A.


    Failure of welding connection of gas diffuser liner and exhaust casing is one of the failure modes of V94.2 gas turbines which are happened in some power plants. This defect is one of the uncertainties of customers when they want to accept the final commissioning of this product. According to this, the risk priority of this failure evaluated by failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) method to find out whether this failure is catastrophic for turbine performance and is harmful for humans. By using history of 110 gas turbines of this model which are used in some power plants, the severity number, occurrence number and detection number of failure determined and consequently the Risk Priority Number (RPN) of failure determined. Finally, critically matrix of potential failures is created and illustrated that failure modes are located in safe zone.

  9. HTGR gas-turbine program. Semiannual progress report for period ending March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report describes the conceptual design and analysis performed by General Atomic Company and its subcontractors for the US Department of Energy on the direct cycle gas turbine high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The primary accomplishments for this period were cost reduction studies, turbomachinery failure analysis, and alternate plant concept evaluation.

  10. Energy and economic effects of CHP with combined technologies of corn cobs gasification and gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guteša Milana M.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance and economic analysis of the gas turbine with co-firing gas from corn cob gasification and natural gas. Adiabatic and non-adiabatic expansion in the turbine is considered. The analysis is performed parametrically with corn cob gasification gas and natural gas ratio. The volumetric energy content of fuels with different share of gas from the corn cob gasification therefore, with different calorific values, is compared by means of the Wobbe Index. In energy and economic analyses, the following configurations are dealt with: single manifold, dual manifold and separate gas systems. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 33049: The Development of CHP Demonstration Plant with Biomass Gasification

  11. Laboratory studies of the effects of pressure and dissolved gas supersaturation on turbine-passed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, B. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Designing advanced turbine systems requires knowledge of environmental conditions that injure or kill fish such as the stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes fish experience during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. The study investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination.

  12. Methodologies for predicting the part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian


    Prediction of the part-load performance of gas turbines is advantageous in various applications. Sometimes reasonable part-load performance is sufficient, while in other cases complete agreement with the performance of an existing machine is desirable. This paper is aimed at providing some guidance...... on methodologies for predicting part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines. Two different design models – one simple and one more complex – are created. Subsequently, for each of these models, the part-load performance is predicted using component maps and turbine constants, respectively. Comparisons...... with manufacturer data are made. With respect to the design models, the simple model, featuring a compressor, combustor and turbines, results in equally good performance prediction in terms of thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature as does a more complex model. As for part-load predictions, the results suggest...

  13. Steady State Structural Analysis of High Pressure Gas Turbine Blade using Finite Element Analysis (United States)

    Mazarbhuiya, Hussain Mahamed Sahed Mostafa; Murari Pandey, Krishna


    In gas turbines the major portion of performance dependency lies upon turbine blade design. Turbine blades experience very high centrifugal, axial and tangential force during power generation. While withstanding these forces blades undergo elongation. Different methods have proposed for better enhancement of the mechanical properties of blade to withstand in extreme condition. Present paper describes the stress and elongation for blades having properties of different materials. Steady state structural analysis have performed in the present work for different materials (In 625, In 718, In 738, In 738 LC, MAR M246, Ni-Cr, Ti-alloy, Ti-Al, Ti-T6, U500). Remarkable finding is that the root of the blade is subjected to maximum stress for all blade materials and the blade made of MAR M246 has less stress and deformation among all other blade materials which can be selected as a suitable material for gas turbine blade.

  14. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System (United States)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris


    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  15. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Marra, John J


    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  16. Application of low pressure plasma spray technique to heavy duty gas turbine. Hatsuden yo gas turbine ni okeru gen prime atsu plasma yosha gijutsu no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, I.; Takahashi, K.; Hirota, N. (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Efficiency of gas turbine depends upon many factors and turbine inlet gas temperature is one of them. In order to obtain high efficiency, it is necessary to increase turbine inlet gas temperature. As the above temperature becomes higher, the surface treatment by plasma spray has been applied as the technique for thermal insulation, antifriction, and hot corrosion resistance. In this article, the low pressure plasma spray (LPPS) equipment, Swiss make, which the Takasago Plant, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries introduced in 1986 and the other one introduced likewise later, the features of LPPS coating and examples of application of LPPS are stated. Concerning LPPS, its powder particle has big impact energy because of its very high flying velocity, hence dense coating is obtained. In case when metallic powder is sprayed, no contamination of the powder is made by oxidation during the spray, and the amount of oxide in the coating is extremely few. Mechanical strength and corrosion resistance of the coating is better than those of atmospheric pressure spray (APS). LPPS is applied to hot corrosion resisting coating and insulation coating, etc. of turbine blades, etc.. 12 figs.

  17. Potential benefits of a ceramic thermal barrier coating on large power generation gas turbine (United States)

    Clark, J. S.; Nainiger, J. J.


    Thermal barrier coating design option offers benefit in terms of reduced electricity costs when used in utility gas turbines. Options considered include: increased firing temperature, increased component life, reduced cooling air requirements, and increased corrosion resistance (resulting in increased tolerance for dirty fuels). Performance and cost data were obtained. Simple, recuperated and combined cycle applications were considered, and distillate and residual fuels were assumed. The results indicate that thermal barrier coatings could produce large electricity cost savings if these coatings permit turbine operation with residual fuels at distillate-rated firing temperatures. The results also show that increased turbine inlet temperature can result in substantial savings in fuel and capital costs.

  18. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.


    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  19. The new 6 MW industrial gas turbine from MAN; Die neue 6 MW Industriegasturbine von MAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beukenberg, M.; Wiedermann, A.; Orth, U.; Aschenbruck, E.; Reiss, F. [MAN Diesel und Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)


    The development of a completely new series of gas turbines requires significant capital, resources and know-how. MAN Diesel and Turbo strategically decided to create a small gas turbine in the 6 MW-class. The construction of the Gas Turbine has been on the basis of opportunities in current and future markets and the positioning of the competition, this has determined the characteristics and technical parameters which have been optimised in the 6 MW design. The construction uses extremely high precision engineering so that the assembly of sub-components to modules is a smooth flowing process and can guarantee the high standards both quality and performance which MAN Diesel and Turbo are operating to. The individual components must be tested and thoroughly validated many months before actual assembly of the first machine. These include in particular the compressor of the gas turbine and the combustion chamber. The combustion system required special attention, since the emissions are strongly focused to satisfy stringent environmental requirements. The planned tests are a prerequisite for the construction of such a prototype and must be successfully completed before the Gas Turbine will be accepted into service. (orig.)

  20. Strategies for Optimization and Automated Design of Gas Turbine Engines (Les strategies pour l’optimisation et la conception automatique de turbines a gaz) (United States)


    Sep 2010 Strategies for Optimization and Automated Design of Gas Turbine Engines (Les Stratégies pour l’optimisation et la conception automatique de...Engines (Les Stratégies pour l’optimisation et la conception automatique de turbines à gaz) The material in this publication was assembled to support

  1. Impact of inlet fogging and fuels on power and efficiency of gas turbine plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basha Mehaboob


    Full Text Available A computational study to assess the performance of different gas turbine power plant configurations is presented in this paper. The work includes the effect of humidity, ambient inlet air temperature and types of fuels on gas turbine plant configurations with and without fogger unit. Investigation also covers economic analysis and effect of fuels on emissions. GT frames of various sizes/ratings are being used in gas turbine power plants in Saudi Arabia. 20 MWe GE 5271RA, 40 MWe GE-6561B and 70 MWe GE-6101FA frames are selected for the present study. Fogger units with maximum mass flow rate of 2 kg/s are considered for the present analysis. Reverse Osmosis unit of capacity 4 kg/s supplies required water to the fogger units. GT PRO software has been used for carrying out the analysis including; net plant output and net efficiency, break even electricity price and break even fuel LHV price etc., for a given location of Saudi Arabia. The relative humidity and temperature have been varied from 30 to 45 % and from 80 to 100° F, respectively. Fuels considered in the study are natural gas, diesel and heavy bunker oil. Simulated gas turbine plant output from GT PRO has been validated against an existing gas turbine plant output. It has been observed that the simulated plant output is less than the existing gas turbine plant output by 5%. Results show that variation of humidity does not affect the gas turbine performance appreciably for all types of fuels. For a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to increase by 5 and 2 %, respectively for all fuels, for GT only situation. However, for GT with Fogger scenario, for a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to further increase by 3.2 and 1.2 %, respectively for all fuels. For all GT frames with fogger, the net plant output and efficiency are relatively higher as compared to GT only case for all

  2. Acoustic transducer in system for gas temperature measurement in gas turbine engine (United States)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko


    An apparatus for controlling operation of a gas turbine engine including at least one acoustic transmitter/receiver device located on a flow path boundary structure. The acoustic transmitter/receiver device includes an elongated sound passage defined by a surface of revolution having opposing first and second ends and a central axis extending between the first and second ends, an acoustic sound source located at the first end, and an acoustic receiver located within the sound passage between the first and second ends. The boundary structure includes an opening extending from outside the boundary structure to the flow path, and the second end of the surface of revolution is affixed to the boundary structure at the opening for passage of acoustic signals between the sound passage and the flow path.

  3. Magnetogasdynamic Power Extraction and Flow Conditioning for a Gas Turbine (United States)

    Adamovich, Igor V.; Rich, J. William; Schneider, Steven; Blankson, Isaiah


    An extension of the Russian AJAX concept to a turbojet is being explored. This magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy bypass engine cycle incorporating conventional gas turbine technology has MHD flow conditioning at the inlet to electromagnetically extract part of the inlet air kinetic energy. The electrical power generated can be used for various on-board vehicle requirements including plasma flow control around the vehicle or it may be used for augmenting the expanding flow in the high speed nozzle by MHD forces to generate more thrust. In order to achieve this interaction, the air needs to be ionized by an external means even up to fairly high flight speeds, and the leading candidates may be classified as electrical discharge devices. The present kinetic modeling calculations suggest that the use of electron beams with characteristics close to the commercially available e-beam systems (electron energy approx. 60 keV, beam current approx. 0.2 mA/sq cm) to sustain ionization in intermediate pressure, low-temperature (P = 0.1 atm, T = 300 K) supersonic air flows allows considerable reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 10 to 20 percent in M = 3 flows). The calculations also suggest that this can be achieved at a reasonable electron beam efficiency (eta approx. 5), even if the e-beam window losses are taken into account. At these conditions, the exit NO and O atom concentrations due to e-beam initiated chemical reactions do not exceed 30 ppm. Increasing the beam current up to approx. 2 mA/sq cm, which corresponds to a maximum electrical conductivity of sigma(sub max) approx. 0.8 mho/m at the loading parameter of K = 0.5, would result in a much greater reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 30 to 40 percent). The MHD channel efficiency at these conditions would be greatly reduced (to eta approx. 1) due to increased electron recombination losses in the channel. At these conditions, partial energy conversion from kinetic energy to heat would result in a

  4. Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandsburger, U.; Desu, S.B. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Roe, L.A.


    During the second half of fiscal year 1995 progress was made in all three funded subject areas of the project as well as in a new area. Work in the area of mixing and combustion management through flow actuation was transferred into an enclosed facility. Jet mixing in a ducted co-flow was examined. The same jets were also subjected to a strong acoustic field established in the duct. Excitation of the jet with static spatial modes was shown to be effective even in the presence of co-flow and the acoustic field. Only when a wall is placed at the jet exit plane did the acoustic field dominate the jet dispersion (as expected due to reflective boundary conditions and the jet shear layer receptivity). This case is, however, not the most relevant to gas turbine combustors since it precludes co-flow. In the area of combustor testing, the design, fabrication, and assembly of a modular combustor test rig for project has been completed at the University of Arkansas. In the area of high temperature piezoceramic actuator materials development, Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} powders have been synthesized, and bulk samples and thick films sintered. These materials have a curie temperature of about 1400{degrees}C compared with 300{degrees}C for the commercially available PZT. While at room temperature the new materials show a piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) which is a factor of 100 lower than PZT, at high temperatures they can exhibit significant action. A new area of non-linear, neural-net based, controllers for mixing and combustion control has been added during the second contract year. This work is not funded by the contract. Significant progress was made in this area. Neural nets with up to 15 neurons in the hidden layer were trained with experimental data and also with data generated using linear stability theory. System ID was performed successfully. The network was then used to predict the behavior of jets excited at other modes not used for the training.

  5. Signal-based Gas Leakage Detection for Fluid Power Accumulators in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Sepehri, Nariman; N. Soltani, Mohsen


    This paper describes the development and application of a signal-based fault detection method for identifying gas leakage in hydraulic accumulators used in wind turbines. The method uses Multiresolution Signal Decomposition (MSD) based on wavelets for feature extraction from a~single fluid pressure...... on an experimental setup allowing for the replication of the conditions for accumulators in wind turbines. Robustness is tested in a multi-fault environment where gas and external fluid leakage occurs simultaneously. In total, 24 experiments are performed, which show that the method is sensitive to gas leakage...... in the desired range and can be isolated from external fluid leakage. Additionally, the robustness to other operating conditions, such as wind speeds between rated and cut-off, turbulence intensity and ambient temperature is evaluated via simulations of a pitch system in a wind turbine using the Fatigue...

  6. Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine. (United States)

    Najimi, Ebrahim; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein


    In this paper, an H(∞) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modification and testing of an engine and fuel control system for a hydrogen fuelled gas turbine (United States)

    Funke, H. H.-W.; Börner, S.; Hendrick, P.; Recker, E.


    The control of pollutant emissions has become more and more important by the development of new gas turbines. The use of hydrogen produced by renewable energy sources could be an alternative. Besides the reduction of NOx emissions emerged during the combustion process, another major question is how a hydrogen fuelled gas turbine including the metering unit can be controlled and operated. This paper presents a first insight in modifications on an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) GTCP 36300 for using gaseous hydrogen as a gas turbine fuel. For safe operation with hydrogen, the metering of hydrogen has to be fast, precise, and secure. So, the quality of the metering unit's control loop has an important influence on this topic. The paper documents the empiric determination of the proportional integral derivative (PID) control parameters for the metering unit.

  8. High-Density Fiber Optical Sensor and Instrumentation for Gas Turbine Operation Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xia


    Full Text Available Gas turbine operation control is normally based on thermocouple-measured exhaust temperatures. Due to radiation shielding and bulky package, it is difficult to provide high spatial resolution for measuring can-to-can combustion temperature profile at the exhaust duct. This paper has demonstrated that wavelength-division-multiplexing-based fiber Bragg grating sensors could provide high spatial resolution steady and dynamic temperature measurements. A robust sensor package can be designed with either circumferential sensing cable or radial sensing rake for quasi-distributing multiple fiber sensors in the gas turbine environment. The field validations have demonstrated that quasi-distributed fiber sensors have not only demonstrated its temperature measurement accuracy compared to existing thermocouple sensors but also shown its unique dynamic response amplitude and power spectra that could be utilized for gas turbine transient operation condition monitoring and diagnostics.

  9. Repowering of an Existing Power Plant by Means of Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud


    Repowering is a process consisting in a transformation of an old power plant in order to have a greater nameplate capacity or more efficiency, which result in a net increase of power generated. As a consequence of the higher efficiency, the repow ered plant is characterized by higher power output...... for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbine on the top. This is also the target of this study, r epowering of an existing power plant with SOFC as well as gas turbines. The plant used here for repowering is the Kyndby power station is an emergency and peak load facility for Zealand in Denmark....... This means the facilities at the station can be started up within minutes if operational irregularities occur in the high voltage electricity grid or problems arise at other power stations. Nowadays this station is repowered with two gas turbines but the current study is about the original steam plant before...

  10. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.


    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  11. Numerical design and simulation of gas turbines; Numerische Auslegung und Simulation von Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaber, R.W.


    Purpose of this thesis is the development of a universal tool for the conceptual design phase of gas turbine engines. The software concept for the tool especially for tasks in industry will be provided and examples will be shown. The Gas Turbine Simulation and Design Program GTSDP given, developed in this theses, will augment the quality of work and reduce the calculation time. In parameter studies, gas turbine designs can be easily compared with respect to component efficiencies, mass, cost, and life. [German] Ziel der Arbeit ist, unter besonderer Beachtung industrieller Aufgabenstellungen ein neues universelles Auslegungsverfahren fuer die Vorauslegung von Gasturbinen zu entwickeln, die Voraussetzungen fuer ein derartiges Programmsystem bereitzustellen und die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten an ersten Beispielen aufzuzeigen. Mit dem entwickelten Gasturbinen-Vorauslegungsprogramm GTSDP wird ein Werkzeug vorgestellt, das die Arbeitsqualitaet bei gleichzeitiger Reduzierung der Durchlaufzeiten, insbesondere durch die schnelle Vergleichbarkeit von Triebwerken hinsichtlich Wirkungsgraden, Gewicht, Kosten und Lebensdauer verbessert.

  12. Analysis of main gaseous emissions of heavy duty gas turbines burning several syngas fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacartegui, R.; Torres, M.; Sanchez, D.; Jimenez, F.; Munoz, A.; Sanchez, T. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Sevilla (Spain)


    This work presents the development of a simple analytical model of performance for heavy duty gas turbine combustors and its use for the analysis of main emissions for a set of syngas fuels. This set of syngas fuels has been selected as a wide representation of different compositions of syngas fuels, from fossil or vegetal origins. Their combustion processes have been modelled as a set of chemical reactors in serial and a detailed kinetic model, simulating a conventional diffusion flame combustor. In each slice, the thermodynamics and the kinetics have been modelled using perfect stirred reactor models. The combustor model has been validated with the GE MS7001F gas turbine experimental data. From this validation the model applicability range has been established for combustor outlet temperatures above 1200 K. Finally the combustor model has been applied to the comparison of different syngas fuels emissions in three new generation gas turbines. (author)

  13. Anomaly Detection in Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Using a Sequential Symbolic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li


    Full Text Available Anomaly detection plays a significant role in helping gas turbines run reliably and economically. Considering the collective anomalous data and both sensitivity and robustness of the anomaly detection model, a sequential symbolic anomaly detection method is proposed and applied to the gas turbine fuel system. A structural Finite State Machine is used to evaluate posterior probabilities of observing symbolic sequences and the most probable state sequences they may locate. Hence an estimation-based model and a decoding-based model are used to identify anomalies in two different ways. Experimental results indicate that both models have both ideal performance overall, but the estimation-based model has a strong robustness ability, whereas the decoding-based model has a strong accuracy ability, particularly in a certain range of sequence lengths. Therefore, the proposed method can facilitate well existing symbolic dynamic analysis- based anomaly detection methods, especially in the gas turbine domain.

  14. Performance based diagnostics of a twin shaft aeroderivative gas turbine: water wash scheduling


    Baudin Lastra, Tomas


    Aeroderivative gas turbines are used all over the world for different applications as Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Oil and Gas, ship propulsion and others. They combine flexibility with high efficiencies, low weight and small footprint, making them attractive where power density is paramount as off shore Oil and Gas or ship propulsion. In Western Europe they are widely used in CHP small and medium applications thanks to their maintainability and efficiency. Reliability, Av...

  15. Gas-Dynamic Foil Bearings Application in High-Speed Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giemza Bolesław


    Full Text Available Authors present the general characteristics of the gas-dynamic foil bearings in the paper. The short analysis of the application and possibilities of using gas-dynamic bearings in turbo machinery, especially in the aspect of aviation technology were described. Authors also pointed out possible directions of development and gas-dynamic foil bearings application in high-speed turbines, especially working in high temperature.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.R. Rajagopal; I.J. Rao


    The demand for increased efficiency of gas turbines used in power generation and aircraft applications has fueled research into advanced materials for gas turbine blades that can withstand higher temperatures in that they have excellent resistance to creep. The term ''Superalloys'' describes a group of alloys developed for applications that require high performance at elevated temperatures. Superalloys have a load bearing capacity up to 0.9 times their melting temperature. The objective of the investigation was to develop a thermodynamic model that can be used to describe the response of single crystal superalloys that takes into account the microstructure of the alloy within the context of a continuum model. Having developed the model, its efficacy was to be tested by corroborating the predictions of the model with available experimental data. Such a model was developed and it is implemented in the finite element software ABAQUS/STANDARD through a user subroutine (UMAT) so that the model can be used in realistic geometries that correspond to turbine blades.

  17. Multi-spectral pyrometer for gas turbine blade temperature measurement (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi


    To achieve the highest possible turbine inlet temperature requires to accurately measuring the turbine blade temperature. If the temperature of blade frequent beyond the design limits, it will seriously reduce the service life. The problem for the accuracy of the temperature measurement includes the value of the target surface emissivity is unknown and the emissivity model is variability and the thermal radiation of the high temperature environment. In this paper, the multi-spectral pyrometer is designed provided mainly for range 500-1000°, and present a model corrected in terms of the error due to the reflected radiation only base on the turbine geometry and the physical properties of the material. Under different working conditions, the method can reduce the measurement error from the reflect radiation of vanes, make measurement closer to the actual temperature of the blade and calculating the corresponding model through genetic algorithm. The experiment shows that this method has higher accuracy measurements.

  18. An integrated framework for gas turbine based power plant operational modeling and optimization (United States)

    Zhao, Yongjun

    The deregulation of the electric power market introduced a strong element of competition. Power plant operators strive to develop advanced operational strategies to maximize the profitability in the dynamic electric power market. New methodologies for gas turbine power plant operational modeling and optimization are needed for power plant operation to enhance operational decision making, and therefore to maximize power plant profitability by reducing operations and maintenance cost and increasing revenue. In this study, a profit based, lifecycle oriented, and unit specific methodology for gas turbine based power plant operational modeling was developed, with the power plant performance, reliability, maintenance, and market dynamics considered simultaneously. The generic methodology is applicable for a variety of optimization problems, and several applications were implemented using this method. A multiple time-scale method was developed for gas turbine power plants long term generation scheduling. This multiple time-scale approach allows combining the detailed granularity of the day-to-day operations with global (seasonal) trends, while keeping the resulting optimization model relatively compact. Using the multiple time-scale optimization method, a profit based outage planning method was developed, and the key factors for this profit based approach include power plant aging, performance degradation, reliability degradation, and, importantly, the energy market dynamics. Also a novel approach for gas turbine based power plant sequential preventive maintenance scheduling was introduced, and a profit based sequential preventive maintenance scheduling was developed for more effective maintenance scheduling. Methods to evaluate the impact of upgrade packages on gas turbine power plant performance, reliability, and economics were developed, and TIES methodology was applied for effective evaluation and selection of gas turbine power plant upgrade packages.

  19. A Fully Non-metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.


    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI), represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies for fabricating polymer matrix composite (PMC) and ceramic matrix composite (CMC) gas turbine engine components. The benefits of the proposed effort include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs due to less machining and no tooling requirements, reduced part count due to net shape single component fabrication, and rapid design change and production iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature capable polymer filaments. The first component is an acoustic panel treatment with a honeycomb structure with an integrated back sheet and perforated front sheet. The second component is a compressor inlet guide vane. The CMC effort, which is starting at a lower technology readiness level, will use a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. The polymer and ceramic additive manufacturing efforts will advance from monolithic materials toward silicon carbide and carbon fiber reinforced composites for improved properties. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The proposed effort will be focused on a small 7000 lbf gas turbine engine. However, the concepts are equally applicable to large gas turbine engines. The proposed effort includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in

  20. CMC Technology Advancements for Gas Turbine Engine Applications (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.


    CMC research at NASA Glenn is focused on aircraft propulsion applications. The objective is to enable reduced engine emissions and fuel consumption for more environmentally friendly aircraft. Engine system studies show that incorporation of ceramic composites into turbine engines will enable significant reductions in emissions and fuel burn due to increased engine efficiency resulting from reduced cooling requirements for hot section components. This presentation will describe recent progress and challenges in developing fiber and matrix constituents for 2700 F CMC turbine applications. In addition, ongoing research in the development of durable environmental barrier coatings, ceramic joining integration technologies and life prediction methods for CMC engine components will be reviewed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Matulić


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hybrid concept that increases the overall efficiency of the propulsion system on ships. The hybrid concept of the marine propulsion system was examined in 1D CFD internal combustion engine model where the turbine and compressor are not mechanically connected. Such a configuration makes possible different turbine designs than needed in the conventional turbocharger. The advantage is an increased recuperation of energy from exhaust gases. By means of computer simulation and optimization, this study proves that the hybrid concept significantly increases the propulsion system efficiency and lower emissions in maritime environment.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations of the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion chamber of an industrial gas turbine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haj Ayed, A; Kusterer, K; Funke, H.H.-W; Keinz, J; Striegan, C; Bohn, D


    .... Due to the large difference in the physical properties of hydrogen compared to other fuels such as natural gas, well established gas turbine combustion systems cannot be directly applied for dry-low-NOx (DLN...

  3. Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine (United States)

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony


    A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

  4. Dynamic properties of combustion instability in a lean premixed gas-turbine combustor. (United States)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Nikimoto, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Takaya; Tachibana, Shigeru


    We experimentally investigate the dynamic behavior of the combustion instability in a lean premixed gas-turbine combustor from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. A nonlinear time series analysis in combination with a surrogate data method clearly reveals that as the equivalence ratio increases, the dynamic behavior of the combustion instability undergoes a significant transition from stochastic fluctuation to periodic oscillation through low-dimensional chaotic oscillation. We also show that a nonlinear forecasting method is useful for predicting the short-term dynamic behavior of the combustion instability in a lean premixed gas-turbine combustor, which has not been addressed in the fields of combustion science and physics.

  5. Aeroderivative Pratt & Whitney FT8-3 gas turbine – an interesting solution for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorinel-Gicu TALIF


    Full Text Available The intermediate load electric power stations become more and more interesting for theelectric power market in Romania. In this context, the Combined Cycle Power Plants came as a veryattractive solution. This paper presents the results of a study regarding the use of the aeroderivativePratt & Whitney FT8-3 gas turbine, available in Romania, for the electric power generation in aCombined Cycle Power Plant. It is also analyzed the Combined Heat in Power generation with FT8-3gas turbine when saturated steam or hot water are required.

  6. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.


    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to

  7. Non-Uniformity of the Combustor Exit Flow Temperature in Front of the Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błachnio Józef


    Full Text Available Various types of damages to gas-turbine components, in particular to turbine blades, may occur in the course of gas turbine operation. The paper has been intended to discuss different forms of damages to the blades due to non-uniformity of the exit flow temperature. It has been shown that the overheating of blade material and thermal fatigue are the most common reasons for these damages. The paper presents results from numerical experiments with use of the computer model of the aero jet engine designed for simulations. The model has been purposefully modified to take account of the assumed non-homogeneity of the temperature field within the working agent at the turbine intake. It turned out that such non-homogeneity substantially affects dynamic and static properties of the engine considered as an object of control since it leads to a lag of the acceleration time and to increase in fuel consumption. The summarized simulation results demonstrate that the foregoing properties of a jet engine are subject to considerable deterioration in pace with gradual increase of the assumed non-homogeneity of the temperature field. The simulations made it possible to find out that variations of the temperature field nonhomogeneity within the working agent at the turbine intake lead to huge fluctuation of the turbine rpm for the idle run.

  8. Modelling of cogeneration systems by using gas turbines; Modelagem de sistemas de cogeracao utilizando turbinas a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Julio S.; Silveira, Jose L.; Balestieri, Jose P. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia


    In this paper a computational code to select the gas turbine cogeneration system is presented. The technical and economical studies are presented to permit the choice of the best system commercially available. In the first step the energoeconomic method for this study is applied in payback period base. Finally, the exergoeconomic method is applied in irreversibility base. (author)

  9. Ambient air cooling arrangement having a pre-swirler for gas turbine engine blade cooling (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Tham, Kok-Mun; Schroeder, Eric; Meeroff, Jamie; Miller, Jr., Samuel R; Marra, John J


    A gas turbine engine including: an ambient-air cooling circuit (10) having a cooling channel (26) disposed in a turbine blade (22) and in fluid communication with a source (12) of ambient air: and an pre-swirler (18), the pre-swirler having: an inner shroud (38); an outer shroud (56); and a plurality of guide vanes (42), each spanning from the inner shroud to the outer shroud. Circumferentially adjacent guide vanes (46, 48) define respective nozzles (44) there between. Forces created by a rotation of the turbine blade motivate ambient air through the cooling circuit. The pre-swirler is configured to impart swirl to ambient air drawn through the nozzles and to direct the swirled ambient air toward a base of the turbine blade. The end walls (50, 54) of the pre-swirler may be contoured.

  10. Impact design methods for ceramic components in gas turbine engines (United States)

    Song, J.; Cuccio, J.; Kington, H.


    Methods currently under development to design ceramic turbine components with improved impact resistance are presented. Two different modes of impact damage are identified and characterized, i.e., structural damage and local damage. The entire computation is incorporated into the EPIC computer code. Model capability is demonstrated by simulating instrumented plate impact and particle impact tests.

  11. Radiation pyrometer for gas turbine blades. [in LOX turbopump engine (United States)

    Rohy, D. A.; Compton, W. A.


    A turbine blade temperature measuring system for liquid oxygen turbopumps is reported. The system includes a three mode, two-input optical signal processor, interconnecting cable, and four sensor heads. Two of the heads are aperture type, while the other two are lens type. This system is applicable to a temperature range of 1400 to 2200 F.

  12. development of 100 mw gas turbine shaft sleeve puller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 3, 2012 ... Power generating stations are built in many coun- tries and oftentimes they are built in remote areas ... different forms of energy, include wave, wind-turbine, solar-thermal, solar-photovoltaic, fuel-cells and ... modeled essentially of the stationary field winding and the rotor of wound coils [3]. The power plant ...

  13. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David


    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  14. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Combined cycle performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik


    The part-load performance of combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry gas turbines on the part-load efficiency for combined...... cycles used for ship propulsion. Moreover, the paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various components within combined cycle power plants. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero......-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. The results suggest that by the use of variable geometry gas turbines, the combined cycle part-load performance can be improved. In order to minimise the voyage fuel consumption, a combined cycle featuring two-shaft gas turbines with VAN control...

  15. Schemes and New Developments in Combinations of Gasification with Fuel Gas Cleaning for Power Generation in Piston Gas Engines and Gas Turbines


    Skoblia, S.; Beňo, Z.; Picek, I.; Pohořelý, M


    In the contribution, possibilities are presented and discussed in details, how to employ the internal combustion engines and gas (combustion) turbines or their suitable combination for producing the electric power and heat from the gas produced by the partial oxidation (gasification) of biomass and alternative solid fuels.

  16. FY 1998 annual report. Research and development on ceramic gas turbine (300kW class)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Research and development have been made on a small ceramic gas turbine which is high in efficiency, low in pollutant emission, capable of corresponding to different fuels, and can be utilized in cogeneration and/or movable electric power generation systems. Fundamental researches in developing and researching heat resistant ceramic parts have been carried out on a method for fabricating turbine nozzles using heat resistant silicon nitride, improvement in accuracy in fabricating combustors using the heat resistant silicon nitride, and casting of turbine blades made from sialon. In developing the devices, researches were made on reliability of bond between a ceramic blade and a metallic disk, air-fuel ratio in a combustor, distribution of fuel concentrations, fuel injection methods, reduction of loss in a diffuser in a compressor, and matching of the diffuser with an impeller. In addition, research and development were performed on a single shaft ceramic gas turbine for cogeneration and a double shaft ceramic gas turbine. Researches were executed on reliability of ceramic materials. (NEDO)

  17. Device to lower NOx in a gas turbine engine combustion system (United States)

    Laster, Walter R; Schilp, Reinhard; Wiebe, David J


    An emissions control system for a gas turbine engine including a flow-directing structure (24) that delivers combustion gases (22) from a burner (32) to a turbine. The emissions control system includes: a conduit (48) configured to establish fluid communication between compressed air (22) and the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24). The compressed air (22) is disposed at a location upstream of a combustor head-end and exhibits an intermediate static pressure less than a static pressure of the combustion gases within the combustor (14). During operation of the gas turbine engine a pressure difference between the intermediate static pressure and a static pressure of the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24) is effective to generate a fluid flow through the conduit (48).

  18. A Plan for Revolutionary Change in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.


    The implementation of Distributed Engine Control technology on the gas turbine engine has been a vexing challenge for the controls community. A successful implementation requires the resolution of multiple technical issues in areas such as network communications, power distribution, and system integration, but especially in the area of high temperature electronics. Impeding the achievement has been the lack of a clearly articulated message about the importance of the distributed control technology to future turbine engine system goals and objectives. To resolve these issues and bring the technology to fruition has, and will continue to require, a broad coalition of resources from government, industry, and academia. This presentation will describe the broad challenges facing the next generation of advanced control systems and the plan which is being put into action to successfully implement the technology on the next generation of gas turbine engine systems.

  19. A comprehensive method for preliminary design optimization of axial gas turbine stages. II - Code verification (United States)

    Jenkins, R. M.


    The present effort represents an extension of previous work wherein a calculation model for performing rapid pitchline optimization of axial gas turbine geometry, including blade profiles, is developed. The model requires no specification of geometric constraints. Output includes aerodynamic performance (adiabatic efficiency), hub-tip flow-path geometry, blade chords, and estimates of blade shape. Presented herein is a verification of the aerodynamic performance portion of the model, whereby detailed turbine test-rig data, including rig geometry, is input to the model to determine whether tested performance can be predicted. An array of seven (7) NASA single-stage axial gas turbine configurations is investigated, ranging in size from 0.6 kg/s to 63.8 kg/s mass flow and in specific work output from 153 J/g to 558 J/g at design (hot) conditions; stage loading factor ranges from 1.15 to 4.66.

  20. Theoretical modelling of hot gas ingestion through turbine rim seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Owen


    The nozzle guide vanes create three-dimensional (3D variations in the distribution of pressure in the mainstream annulus and the turbine blades create unsteady effects. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is both time-consuming and expensive for these 3D unsteady flows, and engine designers tend to use correlations or simple models to predict ingress. This paper describes the application of simple ‘orifice models’, the analytical solutions of which can be used to calculate the sealing effectiveness of turbine rim seals. The solutions agree well with available data for externally-induced ingress, where the effects of rotation are negligible, for rotationally-induced ingress, where the effects of the external flow are small, and for combined ingress, where the effects of both external flow and rotation are significant.

  1. Analysis of the behaviour of biofuel-fired gas turbine power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero Marcos


    Full Text Available The utilisation of biofuels in gas turbines is a promising alternative to fossil fuels for power generation. It would lead to a significant reduction of CO2 emissions using an existing combustion technology, although considerable changes appear to be required and further technological development is necessary. The goal of this work is to conduct energy and exergy analyses of the behaviour of gas turbines fired with biogas, ethanol and synthesis gas (bio-syngas, compared with natural gas. The global energy transformation process (i.e., from biomass to electricity also has been studied. Furthermore, the potential reduction of CO2 emissions attained by the use of biofuels has been determined, after considering the restrictions regarding biomass availability. Two different simulation tools have been used to accomplish this work. The results suggest a high interest in, and the technical viability of, the use of Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BioIGCC systems for large scale power generation.

  2. Experimental investigation into a packed bed thermal storage solution for solar gas turbine systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P


    Full Text Available High temperature thermal storage in randomly packed beds of ceramic particles is proposed as an effective storage solution for Solar Gas Turbine (SGT) cycles in the near term. Numerical modelling of these systems allows for optimised thermal storage...

  3. High temperature thermal storage for solar gas turbines using encapsulated phase change materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P


    Full Text Available The development of high temperature thermal storage systems is required to increase the solar share of solar-hybrid gas turbine cycles. This paper proposes a pressurised packed bed of Encapsulated Phase Change Materials (EPCM) as a thermal storage...

  4. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud


    in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of an SOFC is fed wherein...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Karnitsky


    Full Text Available The paper has reviewed main world tendencies in power consumption and power system structure. Main schemes of combined cycle gas turbines have been considered in the paper. The paper contains an operational analysis of CCGT blocks that are operating within the Belarusian energy system. The analysis results have been given in tables showing main operational indices of power blocks

  6. History of the Gas Turbine Engine in the United States: Bibliography (United States)


    WRDC-TR-89-2062 HISTORY OF THE GAS TURBINE ENGINE IN THE __ UNITED STATES: BIBLIOGRAPHY James J. St.Peter D TIC Universal Energy Systems, Inc. F L £C...and to the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum (NASM) in Washington, D.C. to talk to Rick Leyes , the Engine historian in their Aeronautical

  7. Impact of Dissociation and Sensible Heat Release on Pulse Detonation and Gas Turbine Engine Performance (United States)

    Povinelli, Louis A.


    A thermodynamic cycle analysis of the effect of sensible heat release on the relative performance of pulse detonation and gas turbine engines is presented. Dissociation losses in the PDE (Pulse Detonation Engine) are found to cause a substantial decrease in engine performance parameters.

  8. On Rotor-Blade Deterioration and Pressure Losses in a Gas-Turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was achieved by measuring certain performance characteristics of an operational gas-turbine. Corresponding theoretical predictions were obtained from computer simulations. Rotor-blade deterioration result in 1.2 percent drop in pressure ratio across the compressor, with a corresponding drop in isentropic efficiency ...

  9. The Gas Turbine: Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 5. (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the gas turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  10. Numerical study of pyrolysis oil combustion in an industrial gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Brem, Gerrit


    The growing demand for the use of biofuels for decentralized power generation initiates new research in gas turbine technology. However, development of new combustors for low calorific fuels is costly in terms of time and money. To give momentum to biofuels application for power generation robust

  11. Parametric analysis of a high temperature packed bed thermal storage design for a solar gas turbine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P


    Full Text Available The development of a high temperature Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system will allow for high solar shares in Solar Gas Turbine (SGT) plants. In this research a pressurised storage solution is proposed that utilises a packed bed of alumina spheres...

  12. Testing of a Hydrogen Diffusion Flame Array Injector at Gas Turbine Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Nathan T.; Sidwell, Todd G.; Strakey, Peter A.


    High-hydrogen gas turbines enable integration of carbon sequestration into coal-gasifying power plants, though NO{sub x} emissions are often high. This work explores nitrogen dilution of hydrogen diffusion flames to reduce thermal NO{sub x} emissions and avoid problems with premixing hydrogen at gas turbine pressures and temperatures. The burner design includes an array of high-velocity coaxial fuel and air injectors, which balances stability and ignition performance, combustor pressure drop, and flame residence time. Testing of this array injector at representative gas turbine conditions (16 atm and 1750 K firing temperature) yields 4.4 ppmv NO{sub x} at 15% O{sub 2} equivalent. NO{sub x} emissions are proportional to flame residence times, though these deviate from expected scaling due to active combustor cooling and merged flame behavior. The results demonstrate that nitrogen dilution in combination with high velocities can provide low NO{sub x} hydrogen combustion at gas turbine conditions, with significant potential for further NO{sub x} reductions via suggested design changes.

  13. Prediction of limit cycle pressure oscillations in gas turbine combustion systems using the flame describing function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, H.J.


    Thermo-acoustic analysis is crucial for a successful development of new gas turbine combustion systems. In this context, it becomes more and more necessary to predict the limit cycle pressure amplitude of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities to figure out if they are within the critical design

  14. Exergy analysis of a gas turbine power plant | Oko | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exergy analysis of a 100MW gas turbine power plant that works on the. Brayton cycle is presented. The average increase in the thermodynamic degradation of the plant over the period of six (6) years at three different levels of load was assessed. The exergy analysis of the plant was done on two sets of data: one from the ...

  15. Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, M. De; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E. (Univ. di Firenze (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica)


    Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

  16. Starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.М. Іщенко


    Full Text Available  In the article the questions of the starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter is considered. In the same way in the article are determined the main requirements to steady-state converter for feeding electric starter.

  17. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors (United States)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)


    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  18. Bibliography of Books and Published Reports on Gas Turbines, Jet Propulsion, and Rocket Power Plants (United States)


    316 (1949). Naval jet. Flight 55, 72 (1949). A new Meteor fighter. Aeroplane 77, 365 (1949). Newcomers at Farnborough. Aeroplane 77, 385 (1949). RAF "s... Custer , Allis-Chalmers 3500-hp gas turbine undergoing high-tempera- ture tests. Automotive and Aviation Inds. 94, 28 (Apr. 15, 1946). The combustion

  19. Vibro-acoustical instabilities induced by combustion dynamics in gas turbine combustors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof


    The lean premixed combustion suffers from a high sensitivity to thermo-acoustic instabilities which may occur in acombustion chamber of a gas turbine. The high level of acoustic excitation is hazardous to the combustion chamber walls(liner). The situation is even worse when mutual interaction

  20. Status of the Ford program to evaluate ceramics for stator applications in automotive gas turbine engines (United States)

    Trela, W.


    The paper reviews the progress of the major technical tasks of the DOE/NASA/Ford program Evaluation of Ceramics for Stator Applications in Automotive Gas Turbine Engines: reliability prediction, stator fabrication, material characterization, and stator evaluation. A fast fracture reliability model was prepared for a one-piece ceramic stator. Periodic inspection results are presented.

  1. The generation of electricity by gas turbines using the catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, O.P.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn


    Various systems for the generation of electricity by gas turbines using catalytic combustion of low-Btu gases have been investigated. Parametric studies of three configurations that are deemed to be practically feasible have been completed. It is shown that thermodynamic efficiency of these systems...

  2. Bioethanol combustion in an industrial gas turbine combustor: simulations and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Beran, Martin; Axelsson, L.; Brem, Gerrit


    Combustion tests with bioethanol and diesel as a reference have been performed in OPRA's 2 MWe class OP16 gas turbine combustor. The main purposes of this work are to investigate the combustion quality of ethanol with respect to diesel and to validate the developed CFD model for ethanol spray

  3. Progress toward life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines (United States)

    Miller, R. A.


    Progress toward developing life models for simulating the behavior of thermal barrier coatings in aircraffft gas turbine engines is discussed. A preliminary laboratory model is described as are current efforts to develop engine-capable models. Current understanding of failure mechanisms is also summarized.

  4. Development of gas temperature probes for 1700 degrees C hydrogen-combustion turbine combustors; 1700 degrees C suiso nensho turbine yo nenshokino gas ondo keisoku probe no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, H.; Kasai, Y.; Fukahori, O. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Dodo, S. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In the development of the Hydrogen-oxygen combustor for 1700 degrees C Hydrogen-combustion turbines, it is important to measure gas temperature distribution at combustor outlet where local temperatures are estimated over 1800 degrees C in order to evaluate the performance of combustors. Multi point gas temperature probes consisting of Pt/Rh 40% Pt/Rh 20% thermocouples are developed to measure gas temperature distribution in the combustion tests of the Hydrogen-Oxygen combustors. Two types of probes no cooled and water-cooled, are designed and tested on the high pressure combustion tests. The test results demonstrate that the water-cooled type probes enable us to measure local gas temperatures up to 1850 degrees C in 2.5 Mpa, 130 m/s steam flow, and are applicable to the combustion tests of the combustor. (author)

  5. Thermal Impact of Operating Conditions on the Performance of a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir K. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available The combined cycle gas-turbine (CCGT power plant is a highly developed technology which generates electricalpower at high efficiencies. The first law of thermodynamics is used for energy analysis of the performance of theCCGT plant. The effects of varying the operating conditions (ambient temperature, compression ratio, turbine inlettemperature, isentropic compressor and turbine efficiencies, and mass flow rate of steam on the performance of theCCGT (overall efficiency and total output power were investigated. The programming of the performance model forCCGT was developed utilizing MATLAB software. The simulation results for CCGT show that the overall efficiencyincreases with increases in the compression ratio and turbine inlet temperature and with decreases in ambienttemperature. The total power output increases with increases in the compression ratio, ambient temperature, andturbine inlet temperature. The peak overall efficiency was reached with a higher compression ratio and low ambienttemperature. The overall efficiencies for CCGT were very high compared to the thermal efficiency of GT plants. Theoverall thermal efficiency of the CCGT quoted was around 57%; hence, the compression ratios, ambient temperature,turbine inlet temperature, isentropic compressor and turbine efficiencies, and mass flow rate of steam have a stronginfluence on the overall performance of the CCGT cycle.

  6. A New Superalloy Enabling Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Wheels for Improved Combined Cycle Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiDomizio, Richard; Detor, Andrew; McAllister, Don; Sampson, Erica; Shi, Rongpei; Zhou, Ning


    The drive to increase combined cycle turbine efficiency from 62% to 65% for the next-generation advanced cycle requires a new heavy duty gas turbine wheel material capable of operating at 1200°F and above. Current wheel materials are limited by the stability of their major strengthening phase (gamma double prime), which coarsens at temperatures approaching 1200°F, resulting in a substantial reduction in strength. More advanced gamma prime superalloys, such as those used in jet engine turbine disks, are also not suitable due to size constraints; the gamma prime phase overages during the slow cooling rates inherent in processing thick-section turbine wheels. The current program addresses this need by screening two new alloy design concepts. The first concept exploits a gamma prime/gamma double prime coprecipitation reaction. Through manipulation of alloy chemistry, coprecipitation is controlled such that gamma double prime is used only to slow the growth of gamma prime during slow cooling, preventing over-aging, and allowing for subsequent heat treatment to maximize strength. In parallel, phase field modeling provides fundamental understanding of the coprecipitation reaction. The second concept uses oxide dispersion strengthening to improve on two existing alloys that exhibit excellent hold time fatigue crack growth resistance, but have insufficient strength to be considered for gas turbine wheels. Mechanical milling forces the dissolution of starting oxide powders into a metal matrix allowing for solid state precipitation of new, nanometer scale oxides that are effective at dispersion strengthening.

  7. An ensemble of dynamic neural network identifiers for fault detection and isolation of gas turbine engines. (United States)

    Amozegar, M; Khorasani, K


    In this paper, a new approach for Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) of gas turbine engines is proposed by developing an ensemble of dynamic neural network identifiers. For health monitoring of the gas turbine engine, its dynamics is first identified by constructing three separate or individual dynamic neural network architectures. Specifically, a dynamic multi-layer perceptron (MLP), a dynamic radial-basis function (RBF) neural network, and a dynamic support vector machine (SVM) are trained to individually identify and represent the gas turbine engine dynamics. Next, three ensemble-based techniques are developed to represent the gas turbine engine dynamics, namely, two heterogeneous ensemble models and one homogeneous ensemble model. It is first shown that all ensemble approaches do significantly improve the overall performance and accuracy of the developed system identification scheme when compared to each of the stand-alone solutions. The best selected stand-alone model (i.e., the dynamic RBF network) and the best selected ensemble architecture (i.e., the heterogeneous ensemble) in terms of their performances in achieving an accurate system identification are then selected for solving the FDI task. The required residual signals are generated by using both a single model-based solution and an ensemble-based solution under various gas turbine engine health conditions. Our extensive simulation studies demonstrate that the fault detection and isolation task achieved by using the residuals that are obtained from the dynamic ensemble scheme results in a significantly more accurate and reliable performance as illustrated through detailed quantitative confusion matrix analysis and comparative studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations of the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion chamber of an industrial gas turbine


    Haj Ayed, A.; Kusterer, K; Funke, H.H.-W.; J. Keinz; Striegan, C.; Bohn, D


    Combined with the use of renewable energy sources for its production, hydrogen represents a possible alternative gas turbine fuel within future low emission power generation. Due to the large difference in the physical properties of hydrogen compared to other fuels such as natural gas, well established gas turbine combustion systems cannot be directly applied for dry-low-NOx (DLN) hydrogen combustion. Thus, the development of DLN combustion technologies is an essential and challenging task fo...

  9. The Off-Design Performance Simulation of Marine Gas Turbine Based on Optimum Scheduling of Variable Stator Vanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Wang


    Full Text Available As one of the antisurge techniques, the adjusting scheme of VSV under off-design conditions has a significant impact on the performance of gas turbines. In this paper, the one-dimensional characteristic of the compressor calculation program is embedded into the zero-dimensional overall gas turbine model, which replaces the original compressor characteristic module. Based on the assembling relationship of the actual components of the marine gas turbine, the architecture of the modular model library is designed, and an integrated simulation platform of marine gas turbine is developed by using MATLAB/GUI software. The influence of the first 3 rows of variable stator vanes of the 9-stage axial compressor working alone on the performance of the compressor at different speeds and different angles was analyzed by the HARIKA compressor characteristic calculation program. Taking the economics and stability of the gas turbine as the optimization objective, the optimization of the first three-stage stator vanes regulation schemes under different working conditions was carried out. The steady-state performance parameters under each working condition of gas turbine of power generation with or without variable stator vane mode were calculated. The study results can provide references for the adjusting scheme of VSV under gas turbine off-design conditions operating process.

  10. Advanced Method for Single Crystal Casting of Turbine Blades for Gas Turbine Engines and Plants (United States)

    Toloraiya, V. N.; Orekhov, N. G.; Kablov, E. N.


    A method for fabricating single crystal blades that combines the techniques of seed crystals and selection is suggested. The method realizes the advantages of both techniques, i.e., the high structural perfection and the possibility of fabricating single crystals with specified spatial orientation. Metallographic and x-ray diffraction analyses are used to study the processes of nucleation of the single crystal structure of blade castings fabricated from high-temperature nickel alloys by the method of selection and seed crystals. A commercial process for fabricating cast single crystal turbine blades by the new method is suggested.

  11. Thermal barrier coating experience in the gas turbine engine (United States)

    Bose, S.; Demasi-Marcin, J.


    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC), provide thermal insulation and oxidation resistance in an environment consisting of hot combustion gases. TBC's consist of a two layer system. The outer ceramic layer provides good thermal insulation due to the low thermal conductivity of the ceramic coatings used, while the inner metallic bond coat layer provides needed oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy. Pratt & Whitney has over a decade of experience with several generations of TBC systems on turbine airfoils. This paper will focus on the latest TBC field experience along with a proposed durability model.

  12. Surface Modification Concepts for Enhancement of the High-Temperature Corrosion Resistance of Gas Turbine Superalloys, (United States)


    based turbine superalloy is NIONIC 115 (a trademark of H. Wiggins & Co. Ltd., Hereford, England) which is - Ni-15Cr-15Co-5Al-4Ti-IFe-.15C-.15Zn-.02B (wt...cent, while twice this thickness reduces this strength by about 15 per cent. (iii) Fatigue strength of Nimonic 105 is reduced by aluminizing, but this...10-1 FeO -263 5 x 10 3 NiO * 238 10- 2 2.3 CoO * 234 10 - 1 Cu20 164 5 x 102 2.2 * contained e.g. in NIMONIC 105 Gas Turbine 1 000 Int. Comb. Engine

  13. Cooling supply system for stage 3 bucket of a gas turbine (United States)

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin; Burns, James Lee; Palmer, Gene David; Leone, Sal Albert; Drlik, Gary Joseph; Gibler, Edward Eugene


    In a land based gas turbine including a compressor, a combustor and turbine section including at least three stages, an improvement comprising an inlet into a third stage nozzle from the compressor for feeding cooling air from the compressor to the third stage nozzle; at least one passageway running substantially radially through each airfoil of the third stage nozzle and an associated diaphragm, into an annular space between the rotor and the diaphragm; and passageways communicating between the annular space and individual buckets of the third stage.

  14. Cooling system having reduced mass pin fins for components in a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J


    A cooling system having one or more pin fins with reduced mass for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The cooling system may include one or more first surfaces defining at least a portion of the cooling system. The pin fin may extend from the surface defining the cooling system and may have a noncircular cross-section taken generally parallel to the surface and at least part of an outer surface of the cross-section forms at least a quartercircle. A downstream side of the pin fin may have a cavity to reduce mass, thereby creating a more efficient turbine airfoil.

  15. History of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Engines: Emphasizing NASA's Role from 1942 to 1990 (United States)

    Miller, Robert A.


    NASA has played a central role in the development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbine applications. This report discusses the history of TBCs emphasizing the role NASA has played beginning with (1) frit coatings in the 1940s and 1950s; (2) thermally sprayed coatings for rocket application in the 1960s and early 1970s; (3) the beginnings of the modern era of turbine section coatings in the mid 1970s; and (4) failure mechanism and life prediction studies in the 1980s and 1990s. More recent efforts are also briefly discussed.

  16. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith


    This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

  17. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay


    In a NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) sponsored program entitled "A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing", evaluation of emerging materials and additive manufacturing technologies was carried out. These technologies may enable fully non-metallic gas turbine engines in the future. This paper highlights the results of engine system trade studies which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. In addition, feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composite were demonstrated. A wide variety of prototype components (inlet guide vanes (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included first stage nozzle segments and high pressure turbine nozzle segments for a cooled doublet vane. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Gas Turbine Engine Embedded with Pulse Detonation Combustor (United States)

    Deng, Jun-Xiang; Yan, Chuan-Jun; Zheng, Long-Xi; Huang, Xi-Qiao


    The numerical investigations of performance evaluation of a hybrid gas turbine engine embedded with a pulse detonation combustor (PDC) were performed to examine the improvement of the performance of the hybrid propulsion system. The calculation model and method were described. The architecture, configuration and size of detonation tubes were investigated in the calculation. Two models of detonation tube exit temperature were utilized. Eight configuration choices for the PDC based on the calculation model were designed. Specific fuel consumption of a hybrid gas turbine engine was compared with that of the baseline engine at the condition of the same engine net thrust. The experimental research of a PDC interacted with a radial flow turbine of a turbocharger was conducted. The numerical results show that if the net thrust of hybrid PDC engine is matched to that of baseline engine, specific fuel consumption of hybrid PDC engine is 20-25% less than that of baseline engine. The total volume of the hybrid engine combustor is reduced. The incorporation of PDC into gas turbine engine can improve the performance of hybrid PDC engine, decrease the combustor weight, and increase the thrust-weight ratio. The experimental results show that the fully developed detonation waves are achieved in the experimental apparatus.

  19. Gas turbine control : Modifications for: availability and limitation of spinning reserve and limitation of non-desired unloading


    Agüero, Jorge Luis; Beroqui, Mario César; Di Pasquo, H.


    This paper presents several modifications developed in a gas turbine control system. One of the modifications made in turbine control limits speed deviations to the governor. Consequently, this modification limits turbine power delivered -positive and negative- for Primary Control of Frequency purposes. In addition, this modification avoids that large, sudden power unloading takes place when the grid frequency recovers from a big dip, while original operational control modes are active. To...

  20. First Operating Results of a Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbine in AN Industrial Hydrogen Liquefier (United States)

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.


    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  1. Flash Atomization: A New Concept to Control Combustion Instability in Water-Injected Gas Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Iyengar


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to explore methods to reduce combustor rumble in a water-injected gas turbine. Attempts to use water injection as a means to reduce NOX emissions in gas turbines have been largely unsuccessful because of increased combustion instability levels. This pulsation causes chronic fretting, wear, and fatigue that damages combustor components. Of greater concern is that liberated fragments could cause extensive damage to the turbine section. Combustion instability can be tied to the insufficient atomization of injected water; large water droplets evaporate non-uniformly that lead to energy absorption in chaotic pulses. Added pulsation is amplified by the combustion process and acoustic resonance. Effervescent atomization, where gas bubbles are injected, is beneficial by producing finely atomized droplets; the gas bubbles burst as they exit the nozzles creating additional energy to disperse the liquid. A new concept for effervescent atomization dubbed “flash atomization” is presented where water is heated to just below its boiling point in the supply line so that some of it will flash to steam as it leaves the nozzle. An advantage of flash atomization is that available heat energy can be used rather than mechanical energy to compress injection gas for conventional effervescent atomization.

  2. Modeling the Control Systems of Gas-Turbines to Ensure Their Reliable Parallel Operation in the UPS of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, A. Yu., E-mail:; Gerasimov, A. S.; Kozlov, A. V.; Smirnov, A. N. [JSC “STC UPS” (Russian Federation)


    Consideration is given to different approaches to modeling the control systems of gas turbines as a component of CCPP and GTPP to ensure their reliable parallel operation in the UPS of Russia. The disadvantages of the approaches to the modeling of combined-cycle units in studying long-term electromechanical transients accompanied by power imbalance are pointed out. Examples are presented to support the use of more detailed models of gas turbines in electromechanical transient calculations. It is shown that the modern speed control systems of gas turbines in combination with relatively low equivalent inertia have a considerable effect on electromechanical transients, including those caused by disturbances not related to power imbalance.

  3. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth A. Yackly


    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, was re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for coal/IGCC powerplants. The new program was re-titled ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants''. This final report summarizes the work accomplished from March 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004 on the four original tasks, and the work accomplished from April 1, 2004 to July 30, 2005 on the two re-directed tasks. The program Tasks are summarized below: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: The first task was refocused to address IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials used in gas turbines. This task screened material performance and quantified the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in coal/IGCC applications. The materials of interest included those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: The second task was reduced in scope to demonstrate new technologies to determine the inservice health of advanced technology coal/IGCC powerplants. The task focused on two critical sensing needs for advanced coal/IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation. (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware. Task 3--Advanced Methods for Combustion Monitoring and Control: The third task was originally to develop and validate advanced monitoring and control methods for coal/IGCC gas

  4. Analysis of gas turbine cogeneration plants in Italy; Indagine sulla funzionalita` degli impianti di cogenerazione conturbina a gas operanti in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, Rino; Vignati, Sigfrido [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia


    The purpose of this study is to improve, by random analysis, the current knowledge about functional and running data of gas turbine cogeneration plants in Italy. The analysis consider simple and combined cycle gas turbines plant with electric power less 30.000 k W per unit and involves a sample of 44 units according to a randomized model consisting of 112 gas turbines. The collected data show different plant selection criteria, energy performances, reliability and availability values as well as maintenance costs. These data support some general suggestions and recommendations for a better selection and utilization of these plants.

  5. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others


    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  6. Constructing the universal characteristic of a compressor based on the results of thermal tests of gas turbine units and using it to calculate variable operating modes (United States)

    Ol'Khovskii, G. G.; Trushechkin, V. P.; Chadovskaya, I. I.


    A procedure for constructing the universal characteristic of a compressor at different positions of its inlet guide vane using experimentally obtained characteristics of the compressor and turbine, and a computer program for simulating variable operating modes of a gas turbine unit are described. Results from a comparison between calculated data and data obtained from tests of similar types of gas turbines units are presented.

  7. Fiscal 1998 research report on the R and D of ceramic gas turbines; 1998 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu kenkyu seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For development of high-efficiency environment-friendly fuel-unrestricted small- and middle-size engines for cogeneration, this project researches ceramic gas turbines (CGT). Accordingly, the project studies heat-resistant ceramic members and elementary technologies, and verifies the prototype CGT fabricated by integrating the obtained results. Two kinds of CGTs for cogeneration are studied, a single- shaft regenerative turbine and a dual-shaft one, aiming at more than 42% in engine thermal efficiency, 1,350 degreesC in turbine inlet temperature, and 300kW in shaft output. Ceramic parts aim at 400MPa in minimum proof strength and more than 20 in Weibull coefficient at 1,500 degreesC. In fiscal 1998, for the single-shaft system, production technology and elementary technologies for ceramic parts, and design and operation of the prototype CGT were studied. For the dual-shaft system, parts production technology, evaluation technology and elementary technologies were studied. The reliability verification test of ceramic parts was also studied. (NEDO)

  8. Inductive sensors for blade tip-timing in gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przysowa Radosław


    Full Text Available The paper reviews features and applications of the upgraded inductive sensor for BTT, which is able to operate in contact with exhaust gases of temperature even as high as 1200 K. The new design includes metal-ceramic housing ensuring proper heat transfer, magnetic circuit containing set of permanent magnets with various magnetic field values and Curie temperatures, completely redesigned windings and current/voltage converter used instead of an electromotive force amplifier. Its principle of operation is based on electro-dynamical interaction and therefore it may be referred as a passive eddy-current sensor. The sensor technique has been demonstrated on four stages of a surplus military turbofan including the high pressure turbine as part of the engine health monitoring system. We present signal samples and review methods used for online processing of time-of-arrival signals when only a limited number of sensors is available.

  9. Apparatus for mixing fuel in a gas turbine nozzle (United States)

    Barker, Carl Robert


    A fuel nozzle in a combustion turbine engine that includes: a fuel plenum defined between an circumferentially extending shroud and axially by a forward tube-sheet and an aft tube-sheet; and a mixing-tube that extends across the fuel plenum that defines a passageway connecting an inlet formed through the forward tube-sheet and an outlet formed through the aft tube-sheet, the mixing-tube comprising one or more fuel ports that fluidly communicate with the fuel plenum. The mixing-tube may include grooves on an outer surface, and be attached to the forward tube-sheet by a connection having a fail-safe leakage path.

  10. Characterization of real gas properties for space shuttle main engine fuel turbine and performance calculations (United States)

    Harloff, G. J.


    Real thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen, steam, the SSME mixture, and air are developed. The SSME mixture properties are needed for the analysis of the space shuttle main engine fuel turbine. The mixture conditions for the gases, except air, are presented graphically over a temperature range from 800 to 1200 K, and a pressure range from 1 to 500 atm. Air properties are given over a temperature range of 320 to 500 K, which are within the bounds of the thermodynamics programs used, in order to provide mixture data which is more easily checked (than H2/H2O). The real gas property variation of the SSME mixture is quantified. Polynomial expressions, needed for future computer analysis, for viscosity, Prandtl number, and thermal conductivity are given for the H2/H2O SSME fuel turbine mixture at a pressure of 305 atm over a range of temperatures from 950 to 1140 K. These conditions are representative of the SSME turbine operation. Performance calculations are presented for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) fuel turbine. The calculations use the air equivalent concept. Progress towards obtaining the capability to evaluate the performance of the SSME fuel turbine, with the H2/H2O mixture, is described.

  11. Capabilities to Assess Health/Maintenance Status of Gas Turbine Blades with Non-Destructive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błachnio Józef


    Full Text Available The paper has been intended to discuss non-destructive testing methods and to present capabilities of applying them to diagnose objectively changes in the microstructure of a turbine blade with computer software engaged to assist with the analyses. The following techniques are discussed: a visual method, based on the processing of images of the material surface in visible light, active thermography, based on the detection of infrared radiation, and the X-ray computed tomography. All these are new non-destructive methods of assessing technical condition of structural components of machines. They have been intensively developed at research centers worldwide, and in Poland. The computer-aided visual method of analyzing images enables diagnosis of the condition of turbine blades, without the necessity of dismantling of the turbine. On the other hand, the active thermography and the X-ray computed tomography, although more sensitive and more reliable, can both be used with the blades dismounted from the turbine. If applied in a complex way, the non-destructive methods presented in this paper, are expected to increase significantly probability of detecting changes in the blade's condition, which in turn would be advantageous to reliability and safety of gas turbine service.

  12. Effect of H2 and CO contents in syngas during combustion using Micro Gas Turbine (United States)

    Othman, N. F.; Boosroh, M. H.


    Synthetic gas or syngas is produced from the gasification process. Its main compositions are hydrogen, H2; carbon monoxide, CO; methane, CH4; carbon dioxide, CO2 and nitrogen, N2. Syngas is a substitute for the depleting natural gas (80-90%.vol. CH4). Natural gas is combusted in gas turbine in gas-fired power plant to produce electricity. However, combustion of syngas using gas turbine is expected to show different behavior compared to natural gas combustion. This is because of H2 and CO contents in syngas have higher adiabatic flame temperature than CH4. In this study, different quality of syngas with different contents of H2 (0.6-0.8 %.vol.) and CO (1-3 %.vol.) were combusted using 30kW Micro Gas Turbine (MGT). Performances of different syngas quality were studied using NOx, CO, CO2 emissions and combustion efficiency parameters. NOx and CO are the main pollutants from the combustion process. NOx emissions were the highest for syngas with H2 contents of 0.8 %.vol. and CO contents of 3 %.vol. CO emissions were in the range of 220-310 ppm for all the tested syngas. While, CO2 emissions were in the range of 0.96-1.06 % for all the tested syngas. Combustion efficiencies were reduced for syngas with CO contents of 1 %.vol. and H2 contents of 0.6-0.8 %.vol. This is most probably due to the dilution effect of N2 in syngas.

  13. Coaxial fuel and air premixer for a gas turbine combustor (United States)

    York, William D; Ziminsky, Willy S; Lacy, Benjamin P


    An air/fuel premixer comprising a peripheral wall defining a mixing chamber, a nozzle disposed at least partially within the peripheral wall comprising an outer annular wall spaced from the peripheral wall so as to define an outer air passage between the peripheral wall and the outer annular wall, an inner annular wall disposed at least partially within and spaced from the outer annular wall, so as to define an inner air passage, and at least one fuel gas annulus between the outer annular wall and the inner annular wall, the at least one fuel gas annulus defining at least one fuel gas passage, at least one air inlet for introducing air through the inner air passage and the outer air passage to the mixing chamber, and at least one fuel inlet for injecting fuel through the fuel gas passage to the mixing chamber to form an air/fuel mixture.

  14. Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Gas Turbines Based on a Kernelized Information Entropy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiying Wang


    Full Text Available Gas turbines are considered as one kind of the most important devices in power engineering and have been widely used in power generation, airplanes, and naval ships and also in oil drilling platforms. However, they are monitored without man on duty in the most cases. It is highly desirable to develop techniques and systems to remotely monitor their conditions and analyze their faults. In this work, we introduce a remote system for online condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of gas turbine on offshore oil well drilling platforms based on a kernelized information entropy model. Shannon information entropy is generalized for measuring the uniformity of exhaust temperatures, which reflect the overall states of the gas paths of gas turbine. In addition, we also extend the entropy to compute the information quantity of features in kernel spaces, which help to select the informative features for a certain recognition task. Finally, we introduce the information entropy based decision tree algorithm to extract rules from fault samples. The experiments on some real-world data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  15. Fault detection and diagnosis for gas turbines based on a kernelized information entropy model. (United States)

    Wang, Weiying; Xu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Rui; Li, Shuying; Wu, Wei


    Gas turbines are considered as one kind of the most important devices in power engineering and have been widely used in power generation, airplanes, and naval ships and also in oil drilling platforms. However, they are monitored without man on duty in the most cases. It is highly desirable to develop techniques and systems to remotely monitor their conditions and analyze their faults. In this work, we introduce a remote system for online condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of gas turbine on offshore oil well drilling platforms based on a kernelized information entropy model. Shannon information entropy is generalized for measuring the uniformity of exhaust temperatures, which reflect the overall states of the gas paths of gas turbine. In addition, we also extend the entropy to compute the information quantity of features in kernel spaces, which help to select the informative features for a certain recognition task. Finally, we introduce the information entropy based decision tree algorithm to extract rules from fault samples. The experiments on some real-world data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  16. Design and Performance of a Low Btu Fuel Rich-Quench-Lean Gas Turbine Combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitelberg, A.S.; Jackson, M.R.; Lacey, M.A.; Manning, K.S.; Ritter, A.M.


    General Electric Company is developing gas turbines and a high temperature desulfurization system for use in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. High temperature desulfurization, or hot gas cleanup (HGCU), offers many advantages over conventional low temperature desulfurization processes, but does not reduce the relatively high concentrations of fuel bound nitrogen (FBN) that are typically found in low Btu fuel. When fuels containing bound nitrogen are burned in conventional gas turbine combustors, a significant portion of the FBN is converted to NO{sub x}. Methods of reducing the NO{sub x} emissions from IGCC power plants equipped with HGCU are needed. Rich-quench-lean (RQL) combustion can decrease the conversion of FBN to NO{sub x} because a large fraction of the FBN is converted into non-reactive N{sub 2} in a fuel rich stage. Additional air, required for complete combustion, is added in a quench stage. A lean stage provides sufficient residence time for complete combustion. Objectives General Electric has developed and tested a rich-quench-lean gas turbine combustor for use with low Btu fuels containing FBN. The objective of this work has been to design an RQL combustor that has a lower conversion of FBN to N{sub x} than a conventional low Btu combustor and is suitable for use in a GE heavy duty gas turbine. Such a combustor must be of appropriate size and scale, configuration (can-annular), and capable of reaching ``F`` class firing conditions (combustor exit temperature = 2550{degrees}F).

  17. Flow and heat transfer in gas turbine disk cavities subject to nonuniform external pressure field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R.P.; Kim, Y.W.; Tong, T.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)


    Injestion of hot gas from the main-stream gas path into turbine disk cavities, particularly the first-stage disk cavity, has become a serious concern for the next-generation industrial gas turbines featuring high rotor inlet temperature. Fluid temperature in the cavities increases further due to windage generated by fluid drag at the rotating and stationary surfaces. The resulting problem of rotor disk heat-up is exacerbated by the high disk rim temperature due to adverse (relatively flat) temperature profile of the mainstream gas in the annular flow passage of the turbine. A designer is concerned about the level of stresses in the turbine rotor disk and its durability, both of which are affected significantly by the disk temperature distribution. This distribution also plays a major role in the radial position of the blade tip and thus, in establishing the clearance between the tip and the shroud. To counteract mainstream gas ingestion as well as to cool the rotor and the stator disks, it is necessary to inject cooling air (bled from the compressor discharge) into the wheel space. Since this bleeding of compressor air imposes a penalty on the engine cycle performance, the designers of disk cavity cooling and sealing systems need to accomplish these tasks with the minimum possible amount of bleed air without risking disk failure. This requires detailed knowledge of the flow characteristics and convective heat transfer in the cavity. The flow in the wheel space between the rotor and stator disks is quite complex. It is usually turbulent and contains recirculation regions. Instabilities such as vortices oscillating in space have been observed in the flow. It becomes necessary to obtain both a qualitative understanding of the general pattern of the fluid motion as well as a quantitative map of the velocity and pressure fields.

  18. Application of additive laser technologies in the gas turbine blades design process (United States)

    Shevchenko, I. V.; Rogalev, A. N.; Osipov, S. K.; Bychkov, N. M.; Komarov, I. I.


    An emergence of modern innovative technologies requires delivering new and modernization existing design and production processes. It is especially relevant for designing the high-temperature turbines of gas turbine engines, development of which is characterized by a transition to higher parameters of working medium in order to improve their efficient performance. A design technique for gas turbine blades based on predictive verification of thermal and hydraulic models of their cooling systems by testing of a blade prototype fabricated using the selective laser melting technology was presented in this article. Technique was proven at the time of development of the first stage blade cooling system for the high-pressure turbine. An experimental procedure for verification of a thermal model of the blades with convective cooling systems based on the comparison of heat-flux density obtained from the numerical simulation data and results of tests in a liquid-metal thermostat was developed. The techniques makes it possible to obtain an experimentally tested blade version and to exclude its experimental adjustment after the start of mass production.

  19. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.


    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  20. Computational fluid dynamics analysis for a combustion chamber in an industrial gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Thiago Koichi; Fontes, Carlo Eduardo; Ropelato, Karolline [Engineering Simulation and Scientic Software (ESSS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mails:,,; Silva, Luis Fernando Figueira da; Alva Huapaya, Luis Enrique [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mails:,


    The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions from a gas turbine combustion chamber is a major concern when the equipment is subjected to long operational periods beyond its design point. Under such conditions, the flow field itself might also show big differences from the design point, leading, for instance, to undesirable hot spots or instabilities in the combustion process. A study of all possible operational conditions is economically unfeasible. Also a Direct Numerical Simulation of industrial combustors is beyond the capacity of the foreseeable computational resources, therefore models must be used to analyze such issues. This study presents the results for an industrial gas turbine combustion chamber using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The model used contained an ad-hoc parameter for which a new formulation is proposed. The influence of this new formulation is examined both in terms of the flow field structure and the combustion stabilization mechanism. (author)

  1. Where does the GT-MHR [Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor] go from here?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wistrom, J.D.; Simon, W.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The withdrawal of US Congressional funding for development work on the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) constitutes a major setback. Despite this, the developers, General Atomic (GA) believe the reactor design is too promising to be abandoned and are committed to continuing their programme. Because of its helium coolant, the GT-MHR is unique in nuclear plant design in that it can be coupled to closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion equipment and has a wide range of industrial process heat and cogeneration applications. A GA evaluation shows that the GT-MHR has the highest safety margins of any current or proposed reactor, about 50% higher efficiency than other nuclear generating systems, highly competitive generating costs, the least environmental impact of any nuclear alternative and, because of its ceramically coated fuel, the most proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and superior radionuclide retention. (UK).

  2. Small, medium, or large-scale power plants benefit from efficient, cost-effective gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S. [Westinghouse Canada Ltd., Hamilton, ON (Canada)


    The performance and success of the GE LM6000 Aeroderivative Gas Turbine was highlighted. This model of Gas Turbine was considered to be the world`s most fuel-efficient. It is manufactured by GE Marine and Industrial Engines. Examples of efficient power generation and cogeneration were cited. These included tomato producers in Colorado, the JFK Airport in New York, the University of Florida, and the East Syracuse power generating plant. Economic and technical features of the GE LM6000 were explained, and compared (i.e. its technical capabilities) to GE`s CF6-80C2 aircraft engine. Its adaptability to different scales of power and thermal energy generation was emphasized.

  3. Geometry and Simulation Results for a Gas Turbine Representative of the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) (United States)

    Claus, Russell W.; Beach, Tim; Turner, Mark; Hendricks, Eric S.


    This paper describes the geometry and simulation results of a gas-turbine engine based on the original EEE engine developed in the 1980s. While the EEE engine was never in production, the technology developed during the program underpins many of the current generation of gas turbine engines. This geometry is being explored as a potential multi-stage turbomachinery test case that may be used to develop technology for virtual full-engine simulation. Simulation results were used to test the validity of each component geometry representation. Results are compared to a zero-dimensional engine model developed from experimental data. The geometry is captured in a series of Initial Graphical Exchange Specification (IGES) files and is available on a supplemental DVD to this report.

  4. Active bypass flow control for a seal in a gas turbine engine (United States)

    Ebert, Todd A.; Kimmel, Keith D.


    An active bypass flow control system for controlling bypass compressed air based upon leakage flow of compressed air flowing past an outer balance seal between a stator and rotor of a first stage of a gas turbine in a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The active bypass flow control system is an adjustable system in which one or more metering devices may be used to control the flow of bypass compressed air as the flow of compressed air past the outer balance seal changes over time as the outer balance seal between the rim cavity and the cooling cavity wears. In at least one embodiment, the metering device may include a valve formed from one or more pins movable between open and closed positions in which the one pin at least partially bisects the bypass channel to regulate flow.

  5. An Adaptive Instability Suppression Controls Method for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Combustors (United States)

    Kopasakis, George; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.


    An adaptive controls method for instability suppression in gas turbine engine combustors has been developed and successfully tested with a realistic aircraft engine combustor rig. This testing was part of a program that demonstrated, for the first time, successful active combustor instability control in an aircraft gas turbine engine-like environment. The controls method is called Adaptive Sliding Phasor Averaged Control. Testing of the control method has been conducted in an experimental rig with different configurations designed to simulate combustors with instabilities of about 530 and 315 Hz. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in suppressing combustor instabilities. In addition, a dramatic improvement in suppression of the instability was achieved by focusing control on the second harmonic of the instability. This is believed to be due to a phenomena discovered and reported earlier, the so called Intra-Harmonic Coupling. These results may have implications for future research in combustor instability control.

  6. A computational model for the study of gas turbine combustor dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costura, D.M.; Lawless, P.B.; Fankel, S.H. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    A dynamic combustor model is developed for inclusion into a one-dimensional full gas turbine engine simulation code. A flux-difference splitting algorithm is used to numerically integrate the quasi-one-dimensional Euler equations, supplemented with species mass conservation equations. The combustion model involves a single-step, global finite-rate chemistry scheme with a temperature-dependent activation energy. Source terms are used to account for mass bleed and mass injection, with additional capabilities to handle momentum and energy sources and sinks. Numerical results for cold and reacting flow for a can-type gas turbine combustor are presented. Comparisons with experimental data from this combustor are also made.

  7. Idealized gas turbine combustor for performance research and validation of large eddy simulations. (United States)

    Williams, Timothy C; Schefer, Robert W; Oefelein, Joseph C; Shaddix, Christopher R


    This paper details the design of a premixed, swirl-stabilized combustor that was designed and built for the express purpose of obtaining validation-quality data for the development of large eddy simulations (LES) of gas turbine combustors. The combustor features nonambiguous boundary conditions, a geometrically simple design that retains the essential fluid dynamics and thermochemical processes that occur in actual gas turbine combustors, and unrestrictive access for laser and optical diagnostic measurements. After discussing the design detail, a preliminary investigation of the performance and operating envelope of the combustor is presented. With the combustor operating on premixed methane/air, both the equivalence ratio and the inlet velocity were systematically varied and the flame structure was recorded via digital photography. Interesting lean flame blowout and resonance characteristics were observed. In addition, the combustor exhibited a large region of stable, acoustically clean combustion that is suitable for preliminary validation of LES models.

  8. Progress towards understanding and predicting convection heat transfer in the turbine gas path (United States)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Simon, Frederick F.


    A new era is drawing in the ability to predict convection heat transfer in the turbine gas path. We feel that the technical community now has the capability to mount a major assault on this problem, which has eluded significant progress for a long time. We hope to make a case for this bold statement by reviewing the state of the art in three major heat transfer, configuration-specific experiments, whose data have provided the big picture and guided both the fundamental modeling research and the code development. Following that, we review progress and directions in the development of computer codes to predict turbine gas path heat transfer. Finally, we cite examples and make observations on the more recent efforts to do all this work in a simultaneous, interactive, and more synergistic manner. We conclude with an assessment of progress, suggestions for how to use the current state of the art, and recommendations for the future.

  9. Future Issues and Approaches to Health Monitoring and Failure Prevention for Oil-Free Gas Turbines (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher


    Recent technology advances in foil air bearings, high temperature solid lubricants and computer based modeling has enabled the development of small Oil-Free gas turbines. These turbomachines are currently commercialized as small (gas turbine propulsion systems to proliferate future markets. Since an Oil-Free engine has no oil system, traditional approaches to health monitoring and diagnostics, such as chip detection, oil analysis, and possibly vibration signature analyses (e.g., ball pass frequency) will be unavailable. As such, new approaches will need to be considered. These could include shaft orbit analyses, foil bearing temperature measurements, embedded wear sensors and start-up/coast down speed analysis. In addition, novel, as yet undeveloped techniques may emerge based upon concurrent developments in MEMS technology. This paper introduces Oil-Free technology, reviews the current state of the art and potential for future turbomachinery applications and discusses possible approaches to health monitoring, diagnostics and failure prevention.

  10. Long duration blade loss simulations including thermal growths for dual-rotor gas turbine engine (United States)

    Sun, Guangyoung; Palazzolo, Alan; Provenza, A.; Lawrence, C.; Carney, K.


    This paper presents an approach for blade loss simulation including thermal growth effects for a dual-rotor gas turbine engine supported on bearing and squeeze film damper. A nonlinear ball bearing model using the Hertzian formula predicts ball contact load and stress, while a simple thermal model estimates the thermal growths of bearing components during the blade loss event. The modal truncation augmentation method combined with a proposed staggered integration scheme is verified through simulation results as an efficient tool for analyzing a flexible dual-rotor gas turbine engine dynamics with the localized nonlinearities of the bearing and damper, with the thermal growths and with a flexible casing model. The new integration scheme with enhanced modeling capability reduces the computation time by a factor of 12, while providing a variety of solutions with acceptable accuracy for durations extending over several thermal time constants.

  11. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions (United States)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)


    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  12. Bibliography of Books and Published Reports on Gas Turbines, Jet Propulsion, and Rocket Power Plants, January 1950 through December 1953 (United States)


    Calore 23,566. (’. M. Cock, Motive power for railways. Engineer 194, 428; Engineering 174, 421 and 453. (4. R. Higgs , 3,000-H. P. gas turbine locomotive...combustion at high temperature. Pubs. sci. et tech. ministere air No. 248; Actes colloque intern. mecan . Poitiers 1950, 169 (Pub. 1951). C. J. Walker...Dig. 67,22 (Sept.). H. J. Higgs , Some investigations into the design of wind tunnels with gas turbine jet engine drive. Ministry of Supply, Aeronaut

  13. Development and application of noninvasive technology for study of combustion in a combustion chamber of gas turbine engine (United States)

    Inozemtsev, A. A.; Sazhenkov, A. N.; Tsatiashvili, V. V.; Abramchuk, T. V.; Shipigusev, V. A.; Andreeva, T. P.; Gumerov, A. R.; Ilyin, A. N.; Gubaidullin, I. T.


    The paper formulates the issue of development of experimental base with noninvasive optical-electronic tools for control of combustion in a combustion chamber of gas turbine engine. The design and specifications of a pilot sample of optronic system are explained; this noninvasive system was created in the framework of project of development of main critical technologies for designing of aviation gas turbine engine PD-14. The testbench run data are presented.

  14. Investigation of a ceramic vane with a metal disk thermal and mechanical contact in a gas turbine impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnick S.V.


    Full Text Available Promising directions of a new generation gas turbine engines development include using in gas turbines ceramic materials blades with high strength, thermal and chemical stability. One of the serious problems in developing such motors is insufficient knowledge of contact phenomena occurring in ceramic and metal details connection nodes. This work presents the numerical modeling results of thermal processes on ceramic and metal details rough boundaries. The investigation results are used in conducting experimental researches in conditions reproducing operating.

  15. Comparative performance of combined gas turbine systems under three different blade cooling schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Y.S.H. [Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Alghamdi, A.S.; Al-Beirutty, M.H. [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Recent advances in gas turbine development have led to wider usage of combined power plant for electrical power generation, and made it possible to reach a thermal efficiency of 55-60%. This was a result of introducing higher turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and other factors. However, this temperature is restricted by the metallurgical limit of turbine blades of about 800{sup o}C. Thus, need arises to design efficient cooling systems to cool the turbine components subjected to such high temperatures. The performance of a combined system with different cooling techniques in the high temperature section of the turbine is evaluated. A general model of the combined system is developed and used to compare the performance relevant to the three main schemes of blade cooling, namely air-cooling, open-circuit steam cooling (OCSC) and closed-loop steam cooling (CLSC). The performance results of the combined system are expressed in terms of overall efficiency and specific power as functions of three primary variables and some other secondary variables, which depend on the considered type of cooling. The primary variables are the TIT, compressor pressure ratio (R{sub c}), and the cooling mass ratio ({phi}{sub c}). The secondary variables are related to the geometry, aerothermodynamics, and heat transfer parameters of the gas turbine blades. The specific power and efficiency of the gas turbine are found to be sensitive to the type of cooling technique used. The combined system with CLSC is found to outperform the OCSC system in specific power and overall efficiency. Thus, it is clear that more power is created when the cooling steam in the closed-loop is not thrown away. Under the given conditions the power of the lower steam cycle with CLSC is increased by 6%, accompanied by 19% rise in cycle efficiency relative to OCSC at similar conditions. The CLSC results in 11% enhancement in power and 3.2% in efficiency relative to air-cooling. The CLSC is less sensitive to variations of

  16. Nonintrusive performance measurement of a gas turbine engine in real time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSilva, Upul P.; Claussen, Heiko


    Performance of a gas turbine engine is monitored by computing a mass flow rate through the engine. Acoustic time-of-flight measurements are taken between acoustic transmitters and receivers in the flow path of the engine. The measurements are processed to determine average speeds of sound and gas flow velocities along those lines-of-sound. A volumetric flow rate in the flow path is computed using the gas flow velocities together with a representation of the flow path geometry. A gas density in the flow path is computed using the speeds of sound and a measured static pressure. The mass flow rate is calculated from the gas density and the volumetric flow rate.

  17. Performance prediction of gas turbines by solving a system of non-linear equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J.


    This study presents a novel method for implementing the performance prediction of gas turbines from the component models. It is based on solving the non-linear set of equations that corresponds to the process equations, and the mass and energy balances for the engine. General models have been presented for determining the steady state operation of single components. Single and multiple shad arrangements have been examined with consideration also being given to heat regeneration and intercooling. Emphasis has been placed upon axial gas turbines of an industrial scale. Applying the models requires no information of the structural dimensions of the gas turbines. On comparison with the commonly applied component matching procedures, this method incorporates several advantages. The application of the models for providing results is facilitated as less attention needs to be paid to calculation sequences and routines. Solving the set of equations is based on zeroing co-ordinate functions that are directly derived from the modelling equations. Therefore, controlling the accuracy of the results is easy. This method gives more freedom for the selection of the modelling parameters since, unlike for the matching procedures, exchanging these criteria does not itself affect the algorithms. Implicit relationships between the variables are of no significance, thus increasing the freedom for the modelling equations as well. The mathematical models developed in this thesis will provide facilities to optimise the operation of any major gas turbine configuration with respect to the desired process parameters. The computational methods used in this study may also be adapted to any other modelling problems arising in industry. (orig.) 36 refs.

  18. Features and status of IHI-GE new aeroderivative gas turbines (United States)


    The aeroderivative LM1600 and LM6000 gas turbines, of which the later was derived from a CF6-80C2 turbofan engine's core, are the most efficient and compact engines of their power output class in the world. Both marine and electrical power-generation applications are envisioned for the aeroderivatives. Attention is given to the engines' design features and performance capabilities.

  19. Cascade Testing and CFD Applied to Gas Turbine Performance Improvement with Compressor Cleaning


    Gannan, Aiad


    With the growing interest in life cycle costs for heavy-duty gas turbines, equipment operators are investigating the trade off between performance improvements and associated maintenance costs. One of the key factors leading to performance degradation during plant operation is compressor fouling especially in harsh environments. These results from the adherence of dust or sand particles mixed with small oil droplets to compressor blade surfaces. The result is a reduction in com...

  20. A study of external fuel vaporization. [for aircraft gas turbine engines (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.; Baker, C. E.


    Candidate external vaporizer designs for an aircraft gas turbine engine are evaluated with respect to fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. The selected concept is shown to offer potential gains in engine performance in terms of reduced specific fuel consumption and improved engine thrust/weight ratio. The thrust/weight improvement can be traded against vaporization system weight.

  1. Engineering computer graphics in gas turbine engine design, analysis and manufacture (United States)

    Lopatka, R. S.


    A time-sharing and computer graphics facility designed to provide effective interactive tools to a large number of engineering users with varied requirements was described. The application of computer graphics displays at several levels of hardware complexity and capability is discussed, with examples of graphics systems tracing gas turbine product development, beginning with preliminary design through manufacture. Highlights of an operating system stylized for interactive engineering graphics is described.

  2. On-line combustion monitoring on dry low NOx industrial gas turbines (United States)

    Rea, S.; James, S.; Goy, C.; Colechin, M. J. F.


    To reduce the NOx emissions levels produced by industrial gas turbines most manufacturers have adopted a lean premixed approach to combustion. Such combustion systems are susceptible to combustion-driven oscillations, and much of the installed modern gas turbines continue to suffer from reduced reliability due to instability-related problems. The market conditions which now exist under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements provide a strong driver for power producers to improve the reliability and availability of their generating units. With respect to low-emission gas turbines, such improvements can best be achieved through a combination of sophisticated monitoring, combustion optimization and, where appropriate, plant modifications to reduce component failure rates. On-line combustion monitoring (OLCM) provides a vital contribution to each of these by providing the operator with increased confidence in the health of the combustion system and also by warning of the onset of combustion component deterioration which could cause significant downstream damage. The OLCM systems installed on Powergen's combined cycle gas turbine plant utilize high-temperature dynamic pressure transducers mounted close to the combustor to enable measurement of the fluctuating pressures experienced within the combustion system. Following overhaul, a reference data set is determined over a range of operating conditions. Real-time averaged frequency spectra are then compared to the reference data set to enable identification of abnormalities. Variations in the signal may occur due to changes in ambient conditions, fuel composition, operating conditions, and the onset of component damage. The systems on Powergen's plant have been used successfully to detect each of the above, examples of which are presented here.

  3. Laser diagnosis of gas turbine fuel sprays; scaling effects on NOx emissions and stability


    Hussain, Mazhur


    This thesis first provided strategic recommendations for the research sponsor, Rolls- Royce plc (RR) and then applied optical diagnostics to measure aero gas turbine fuel spray properties in order to predict Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions and combustion instability. Analysis of the large civil aero engine sector suggested possible courses of action for RR to protect itself from short-term market volatilities and also prepare for three long term changes in strategic operatin...

  4. Application of the aqueous coating suspension for the protection of Gas Turbine Engine parts from corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ivanov


    Full Text Available The article considers the physical nature of receiving diffusion coatings from aqueous suspensions of various alloys for various conditions and their further exploitation. Structure of coatings, advantages and features of the production of coatings from aqueous suspensions are shown. Based on the analysis of thermodynamic reactions in the systems of elements formulations of aqueous suspensions were developed and practical recommendations for their application to the parts of gas turbine engine were given.

  5. Method of joining a vane cavity insert to a nozzle segment of a gas turbine (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian


    An insert containing apertures for impingement cooling a nozzle vane of a nozzle segment in a gas turbine is inserted into one end of the vane. The leading end of the insert is positioned slightly past a rib adjacent the opposite end of the vane through which the insert is inserted. The end of the insert is formed or swaged into conformance with the inner margin of the rib. The insert is then brazed or welded to the rib.

  6. Thermodynamic, Economic and Emissions Analysis of a Micro Gas Turbine Cogeneration System operating on Biofuels


    Kunte, Benjamin [UNESP


    The most promising methods to reduce greenhouse gases as well as counteract against the imminent depletion of fossil fuels are: a) the use of alternative fuels obtained from biomass, such as biogas or bio-syngas; b) enhancing the power plant efficiency by decreasing the percentage of useful energy lost to the environment. Whereas efficiency optimisation of a particular machine in a power plant, e.g. gas turbine or compressor, is a very longsome development, cogeneration can quickly and signif...

  7. Advanced gas turbine systems research. Quarterly report, January--March, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy is sponsoring a series of studies related to advanced gas turbine systems. Ten universities participated in the first round studies, and an additional 13 studies have been funded this year. The five areas being covered are heat transfer, aerodynamics, materials, combustion, and dynamics. Summaries are given for the 6-month progress on the 1993 subcontract studies and on the planned research for the new subcontract studies.

  8. High-Density Fiber Optical Sensor and Instrumentation for Gas Turbine Operation Condition Monitoring


    Hua Xia; Doug Byrd; Sachin Dekate; Boon Lee


    Gas turbine operation control is normally based on thermocouple-measured exhaust temperatures. Due to radiation shielding and bulky package, it is difficult to provide high spatial resolution for measuring can-to-can combustion temperature profile at the exhaust duct. This paper has demonstrated that wavelength-division-multiplexing-based fiber Bragg grating sensors could provide high spatial resolution steady and dynamic temperature measurements. A robust sensor package can be designed with ...

  9. Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzinger, G J [Economics, Environment and Regulation, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility.

  10. An Investigation into Performance Modelling of a Small Gas Turbine Engine (United States)


    gas turbine engine is a single spool turbojet engine. It is comprised of a standard inlet , single stage centrifugal compressor with vaned diffusers...consists of an impeller, radial vaned diffuser and axial guide vanes . The impeller has seven blades and seven splitter vanes . The radial diffuser...contains fifteen vanes followed by thirty axial guide vanes . The compressor is arguably the most challenging component for thermodynamic performance

  11. A study on reduced chemical mechanisms of ammonia/methane combustion under gas turbine conditions


    Xiao, Hua; Howard, Michael; Valera Medina, Agustin; Dooley, Stephen; Bowen, Philip John


    As an alternative fuel and hydrogen carrier, ammonia is believed to have good potential for future power generation. To explore the feasibility of co-firing ammonia with methane, studies involving robust numerical analyses with detailed chemistry are required to progress towards industrial implementation. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine a reduced mechanism for simulation studies of ammonia/methane combustion in practical gas turbine combustor conditions. Firstly, five d...

  12. Flow and heat transfer investigations in swirl tubes for gas turbine blade cooling


    Biegger, Christoph


    A swirl tube is a very effective cooling technique for high thermal loaded components like gas turbine blades. Such a tube consists of one or more tangential inlet jets, which induce a highly 3D swirling flow. This swirling flow is characterized by large velocities near the wall and an enhanced turbulence in the tube which both increase the convective heat transfer. In the present work, the flow phenomena and the heat transfer in swirl tubes are studied experimentally and numerically. Therefo...

  13. Dynamic performance of a combined gas turbine and air bottoming cycle plant for off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, Alberto; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik


    When the Norwegian government introduced the CO2 tax for hydrocarbon fuels, the challenge became to improve the performance of off-shore power systems. An oil and gas platform typically operates on an island (stand-alone system) and the power demand is covered by two or more gas turbines. In order...... and the air bottoming cycle turbogenerator includes dynamic equations for the combustion chamber, the shell-and-tube recuperator and the turbine shafts. Turbines are modelled by the Stodola equation and by a correlation between the isentropic efficiency and the non-dimensional flow coefficient. Compressors...

  14. Fault diagnosis for micro-gas turbine engine sensors via wavelet entropy. (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Tianhong


    Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can't be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient.

  15. Study on Performance Improvement and Economical Aspect of Gas Turbine Power Plant Using Evaporative Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilman Syaeful Alam


    Full Text Available The study is intended to improve the performance of gas turbine engines in order to meet both electrical power demand and peak load in the power plant. In this paper, evaporative cooling system had been applied to improve the performance of gas turbine in Pesanggaran power plant in southern Bali Island, Indonesia. Moreover, the economic analysis was conducted to determine the capacity cost, operating cost and payback period due to the investment cost of the system. Based on the evaluation results, the power improvement for the three gas turbine units (GT1, GT2 and GT3 are 2.09%, 1.38%, and 1.28%, respectively. These results were not very significant when compared to the previous studies as well as on the aspects of SFC (Specific Fuel Consumption, heat rate and thermal efficiency. Based on the evaluation of the economic aspects, the reduction of production costs due to the application of evaporative cooling system was not economical, because it could not compensate the investment cost of the system and it resulted a very long payback period. These unsatisfactory results could be caused by the high relative humidity. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the other alternative technologies which are more suitable to the climate conditions in Indonesia.

  16. Feasibility study of ultra-low NOx Gas turbine combustor using the RML combustion concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van, Tien Giap; Hwang, Jeong Jae; Kim, Min Kuk; Ahn, Kook Young [Environment and Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A new combustion concept, the so called RML, was investigated to validate its application as a gas turbine combustor for combustor outlet temperatures over 1973 K. The feasibility study of the RML combustor was conducted with zero dimensional combustion calculations. The emission characteristics of RQL, LEAN, EGR and RML combustors were compared. The calculation results showed that the RQL combustor has lower NOx emissions than the LEAN at high outlet temperature. NOx emissions of the RML combustor at equivalence ratio of the rich chamber of 2.0 can be reduced by 30 % compared with the EGR combustor, and lower than the RQL combustor at a combustor outlet temperature over 1973 K. However, the CO emissions of the RML combustor were higher than those of the LEAN and EGR combustors. Also, the possibility of applying the RML combustor to gas turbines was discussed considering residence time, equivalence ratio of the rich chamber and recirculation rate. Although further research to design and realize the proposed RML combustor is needed, this study verified that the RML concept can be successfully used in a gas turbine combustor.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Medentsov


    Full Text Available The article considers the choice of the lubricants for using in the bolted joints of the serial gas-turbine engine AL-31. In a modern gas turbine engine complex bolted joints operating in various conditions are used. They are subject to demolition in the repair process, in which they break as the result of burning and thus the increase of the breakaway mo- ment. On the basis of maintenance conditions analysis there were determined the most characteristic defects in bolted joints, as well as the reasons for their occurrence. It was established that the main cause of failure of bolted joints is the increase breakaway moment of bolted joint. To reduce the breakaway moment one should choose such lubricants as to re- duce the thermal influence on the bolt and prevent it from being destroyed in the disassembly process. For choosing lubri- cations the analysis of the requirements for lubricants for bolted joints used at high temperatures was conducted. Lubricants choice was made based on the results of a comparative study of various compositions of lubricant application in the process of field testing. This research work is aimed to improve the efficiency of bolted connections in a wide operating range and to prevent the increase breakaway moments in gas-turbine engine repair. Obtained in the process of field testing results allow to suggest a lubricant that can be used in the bolt connection operating at high temperatures and to reduce the break- away moment compared to the commercially used one.

  18. Progress towards understanding and predicting heat transfer in the turbine gas path (United States)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Simon, Frederick F.


    A new era is dawning in the ability to predict convection heat transfer in the turbine gas path. We feel that the technical community now has the capability to mount a major assault on this problem, which has eluded significant progress for a long time. In this paper we hope to make a case for this bold statement by reviewing the state of the art in three major and related areas, which we believe are indispensable to the understanding and accurate prediction of turbine gas path heat transfer: configuration-specific experiments, fundamental physics and model development, and code development. We begin our review with the configuration-specific experiments, whose data have provided the big picture and guided both the fundamental modeling research and the code development. Following that, we examine key modeling efforts and comment on what will be needed to incorporate them into the codes. In this region we concentrate on bypass transition, 3D endwalls, and film cooling. We then review progress and directions in the development of computer codes to predict turbine gas path heat transfer. Finally, we cite examples and make observations on the more recent efforts to do all this work in a simultaneous, interactive, and more synergistic manner. We conclude with an assessment of progress, suggestions for how to use the current state of the art, and recommendations for the future.

  19. Data-driven fault detection, isolation and estimation of aircraft gas turbine engine actuator and sensors (United States)

    Naderi, E.; Khorasani, K.


    In this work, a data-driven fault detection, isolation, and estimation (FDI&E) methodology is proposed and developed specifically for monitoring the aircraft gas turbine engine actuator and sensors. The proposed FDI&E filters are directly constructed by using only the available system I/O data at each operating point of the engine. The healthy gas turbine engine is stimulated by a sinusoidal input containing a limited number of frequencies. First, the associated system Markov parameters are estimated by using the FFT of the input and output signals to obtain the frequency response of the gas turbine engine. These data are then used for direct design and realization of the fault detection, isolation and estimation filters. Our proposed scheme therefore does not require any a priori knowledge of the system linear model or its number of poles and zeros at each operating point. We have investigated the effects of the size of the frequency response data on the performance of our proposed schemes. We have shown through comprehensive case studies simulations that desirable fault detection, isolation and estimation performance metrics defined in terms of the confusion matrix criterion can be achieved by having access to only the frequency response of the system at only a limited number of frequencies.

  20. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades operated in-service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tong, Jinyan [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)


    Highlights: • Gas turbine blades operated in-service have been investigated. • Two primary MC decomposition reactions take place during servicing. • Deformation features during servicing have been analyzed. - Abstract: The nickel based superalloy GH4037 is employed in gas turbine blades because of its high temperature strength and oxidation resistance. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades after 1600 h service have been investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The microstructure of blade changes according to complex and comprehensive temperature and stress fields applied on it. Microstructural observations show that minor carbide precipitates dispersedly precipitate in the matrix. Two MC decomposition reactions occur: MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + γ′ and MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + η. Blocky, closely spaced M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles continuously distribute along grain boundaries. The main deformation features, such as slip bands, APB-coupled dislocation pairs, stacking faults bound by partial dislocations and deformation twinning, have also been analyzed in terms of fundamental deformation mechanisms and environmental effects.