WorldWideScience

Sample records for viable fuel source

  1. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  2. Routes to a commercially viable PEM fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.; Foster, S.E.; Hodgson, D.; Marrett, A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the results of a project to design and build a 10 kW{sub e} proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, including membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), bipolar plates and stack hardware. The aim was to prove the design concept and to demonstrate functionality by operating the stack at >1 kW{sub e}/L and 500 W/kg for 200 hours operation. The project was extended to include the assembly and testing of two additional 1 kW{sub e} PEMFC stacks based on coated metal components. Low equivalent weight perfluorinated ionomer ion exchange membranes were prepared and were found to give a superior electrochemical performance to commercial materials. A technique to etch various stainless steel grades and control processes was successfully developed and optimised. Coatings for stainless steel and titanium were successfully developed and met the required performance criteria. All PEMFC stack components were selected and designed to enable subsequent commercial manufacture.

  3. Open source workflow : a viable direction for BPM?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohed, P.; Russell, N.C.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Andersson, B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bellahsène, Z.; Léonard, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing interest in open source software in general and business process management and workflow systems in particular, it is worthwhile investigating the state of open source workflow management. The plethora of these offerings (recent surveys such as [4,6], each contain more than 30 such

  4. Jatropha curcas seed oil as a viable source for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, F.; Jamil, A.; Bhatti, H.N.; Rashid, U.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the utility of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed oil for bio diesel production. The preliminarily evaluated Jatropha oil was transmethylated under optimized set of reaction conditions: methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1), sodium methoxide catalyst concentration (1.00%), temperature (65 deg. C) and mixing intensity (600 rpm) providing 94.00% yield of Jatropha oil methyl esters (JOMEs)/biodiesel. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis showed that JOMEs mainly comprised of six fatty acids: linoleic (49.75%), stearic (16.80%), oleic (13.00%), palmitic (12.15%), arachidic (5.01%) and gadoleic (2.00%) acids. 1H-NMR spectrum of JOMEs was also recorded. The thermal stability of the JOMEs produced was assessed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced were found to be within the standards specifications of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  5. Fuel fired heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortlinghaus, U

    1977-09-08

    Fuel fired heat sources with a valve-controlled ignition and main burner, whose flame is monitored and whose control valve is closed or opened by a controller according to the control deviation between actual and reference heat source temperature, previously suffered the disadvantage of high consumption of ignition gas. According to the invention this disadvantage is avoided by closing the ignition valve from the controller via a delay unit and having the delay time of the delay unit controlled either by the temperature measured by the sensor or increasing it with increasing deviation of the actual value of pre-temperature from the reference value of the pre-temperature.

  6. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  7. Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Bryan W.; Stringer, Brett W.; Wilson, John; Jeffree, Rosalind L.; Jamieson, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid) and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures

  8. Natural environmental water sources in endemic regions of northeastern Brazil are potential reservoirs of viable Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraes, Maria Luisa Bezerra de Macedo; Holanda, Maísa Viana de; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Sabadia, José Antônio Beltrão; Duarte, Cynthia Romariz; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo; Frota, Cristiane Cunha

    2017-12-01

    The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7%) of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.

  9. Accelerator breeder: a viable option for the production of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the growing pains of the US nuclear power industry, our dependence on nuclear energy for the production of electricity and possibly process heat is likely to increase dramatically over the next few deacades. This statement dismisses fusion as being entirely too speculative to be practical within that time frame. Sometime, between the years 2000 and 2050, fissile material will be in short supply whether it is to fuel existing LWR's or to provide initial fuel inventory for FBR's. The accelerator breeder could produce the fuel shortfall predicted to occur during the first half of the 21st century. The accelerator breeder offers the only practical means today of producing, or breeding, large quantities of fissile fuel from fertile materials, albeit at high cost. Studies performed over the last few years at Chalk River Laboratory and at Brookhaven National Laboratory have demonstrated that the accelerator breeder is practical, technically feasible with state-of-the-art technology, and is economically competitive with any other proposed synthetic means of fissile fuel production. This paper gives the parameters of a nearly optimized accelerator-breeder system, then discusses the development needs, and the economics and institutional problems that this breeding concept faces

  10. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  11. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be

  12. Research on bioorganic fuels as power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Markku J.; Spets, Jukka-Pekka [Aalto University, Department of Energy Technology-TKK, Applied Thermodynamics, PO Box 4400, FI-02201 TKK (Finland); Kiros, Yohannes [Royal Institute of Technology-KTH, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, S100-44 Stockholm (Sweden); Anttila, Tomi [Oy Hydrocell Ltd, Minkkikatu 1-3, 04430 Jaervenpaeae (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with the kind of the bioorganic fuel cells that are equipped with or without ion exchange membranes. The bioorganic materials of interest are alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and glucose, which are obtained from renewable energy sources such as biomass. The operation temperatures of the direct fuel cells cover from room temperature up to 150 C. The direct bioorganic fuel cells belong to the subject area of 'Advanced fuel cells' of the Working group 4 in the EU COST Action 543 among the collaborating Universities and Institutes. Bioorganic fuel cells are suitable for application in small portable power sources, such as backups, battery chargers and in electronic devices. A number of current and earlier works are summarised and advances are highlighted in this area with special emphasis on glucose as a fuel. (author)

  13. Clean fuels from fossil sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy availability is determining to sustain the social development, but energy production involves environmental impacts at regional and global level. The central role of oil, natural gas, coal for energy supply will be kept for decades. The development of the engine-fuel combination to satisfy more stringent emissions limitations, is the challenge for an environmentally clean transportation system [it

  14. A Viable Electrode Material for Use in Microbial Fuel Cells for Tropical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Offei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrode materials are critical for microbial fuel cells (MFC since they influence the construction and operational costs. This study introduces a simple and efficient electrode material in the form of palm kernel shell activated carbon (AC obtained in tropical regions. The novel introduction of this material is also targeted at introducing an inexpensive and durable electrode material, which can be produced in rural communities to improve the viability of MFCs. The maximum voltage and power density obtained (under 1000 Ω load using an H-shaped MFC with AC as both anode and cathode electrode material was 0.66 V and 1.74 W/m3, respectively. The power generated by AC was as high as 86% of the value obtained with the extensively used carbon paper. Scanning electron microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE analysis of AC anode biofilms confirmed that electrogenic bacteria were present on the electrode surface for substrate oxidation and the formation of nanowires.

  15. Solar energy as a viable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, F.L.; Ewansiha, K.; Enyeribe, E.

    2007-01-01

    A lot of human and natural resources have been put in the energy sector, but the quantity of supply to consumers is quite inadequate. To sustain industrial output and ensure rapid growth, there is a need for a reliable and efficient supply of energy. A survey was carried out to find out the knowledge of consumers on the use of solar energy as an alternative source of energy.The result indicated that although people are aware of existence, the product is not readily available for man

  16. Storm-generated coral fragments - A viable source of transplants for reef rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, V.; Ward, G.

    2008-01-01

    Coral reefs throughout the world have been damaged by storms, diseases, coral predators, temperature anomalies, and human activities. During the past three decades, recovery has been limited and patchy. Although a damaged coral reef cannot be restored to its original condition, interest in reef restoration is increasing. In a pilot project in the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands), storm-produced fragments of Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, and Porites porites were collected from donor reefs and transplanted to nearby degraded reefs. Sixty coral fragments were attached to dead-coral substrate (usually A. palmata skeletons), at similar depths from which they had been collected (1-3.5 m), using nylon cable ties. Seventy-five intact colonies were designated as controls. Study colonies were assessed at 6-month intervals for 2 years (1999-2001) and annually thereafter (through 2004). One-fourth of the 135 colonies and fragments monitored were alive at the conclusion of the 5-year study. Survival of control and transplanted A. cervicornis and P. porites was very low (median survival 2.4 and 1.8 years, respectively), with no significant differences between transplant and control colonies. Site and depth did not contribute significantly to A. palmata colony survival, but colony size and transplant/control status did. Probability of survival increased with colony size. Median survival for A. palmata was 1.3 years for transplant and 4.3 years for natural colonies when not controlled for size. A. palmata was the only viable candidate for reef rehabilitation. Storm swells were the primary cause of mortality.

  17. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  18. Fuel cells as renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciola, G.; Passalacqua, E.

    2001-01-01

    The technology level achieved in fuel cell (FC) systems in the last years has significantly increased the interest of various manufacturing industries engaged in energy production and distribution even under the perspectives that this technology could provide. Today, the fuel cells (FCs) can supply both electrical and thermal energy without using moving parts and with a high level of affordability with respect to the conventional systems. FCs can utilise every kind of fuel such as hydrocarbons, hydrogen available from the water through renewable sources (wind, solar energy), alcohol etc. Thus, they may find application in many field ranging from energy production in large or small plants to the cogeneration systems for specific needs such as for residential applications, hospitals, industries, electric vehicles and portable power sources. Low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC, DMFC) are preferred for application in the field of transportation and portable systems. The CNR-ITAE research activity in this field concerns the development of technologies, materials and components for the entire system: electrocatalysts, conducting supports, electrolytes, manufacturing technologies for the electrodes-electrolyte assemblies and the attainment of fuel cells with high power densities. Furthermore, some activities have been devoted to the design and realisation of PEFC fuel cell prototypes with rated power lower than I kW for stationary and mobile applications [it

  19. Spent fuel assembly source term parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, P.R.; Foadian, H.; Rashid, Y.R.; Seager, K.D.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Containment of cask contents by a transport cask is a function of the cask body, one or more closure lids, and various bolting hardware, and seals associated with the cavity closure and other containment penetrations. In addition, characteristics of cask contents that impede the ability of radionuclides to move from an origin to the external environment also provide containment. In essence, multiple release barriers exist in series in transport casks, and the magnitude of the releasable activity in the cask is considerably lower than the total activity of its contents. A source term approach accounts for the magnitude of the releasable activity available in the cask by assessing the degree of barrier resistance to release provided by material characteristics and inherent barriers that impede the release of radioactive contents. Standardized methodologies for defining the spent-fuel transport packages with specified regulations have recently been developed. An essential part of applying the source term methodology involves characterizing the response of the spent fuel under regulatory conditions of transport. Thermal and structural models of the cask and fuel are analyzed and used to predict fuel rod failure probabilities. Input to these analyses and failure evaluations cover a wide range of geometrical and material properties. An important issue in the development of these models is the sensitivity of the radioactive source term generated during transport to individual parameters such as temperature and fluence level. This paper provides a summary of sensitivity analyses concentrating on the structural response and failure predictions of the spent fuel assemblies

  20. Fusion as a source of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the near-term, coal derived synthetic fuels will be used; but in the long-term, resource depletion and environmental effects will mandate synthetic fuels from inexhaustible sources - fission, fusion, and solar. Of the three sources, fusion appears uniquely suited for the efficient production of hydrogen-based fuels, due to its ability to directly generate very high process temperatures (up to approx. 2000 0 C) for water splitting reactions. Fusion-based water splitting reactions include high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam, thermochemical cycles, hybrid electrochemical/thermochemical, and direct thermal decomposition. HTE appears to be the simplest and most efficient process with efficiencies of 50 to 70% (fusion to hydrogen chemical energy), depending on process conditions

  1. Neutron source strength associated with FTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroughs, G.L.; Bunch, W.L.; Johnson, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The study presented shows the important effect of shelf life on the neutron source strength anticipated from fuel irradiated in the FTR. The neutron source strength will be enhanced appreciably by extended shelf lives. High neutron source strengths will also be associated with reprocessed LWR plutonium, which is expected to contain a greater abundance of the higher isotopes. The branching ratio and cross section of 241 Am is an important parameter that needs to be defined more precisely to establish calculated values with greater precision

  2. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyev, S. S., E-mail: Ananyev-SS@nrcki.ru; Spitsyn, A. V., E-mail: spitsyn-av@nrcki.ru; Kuteev, B. V., E-mail: Kuteev-BV@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion–fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium–tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m{sup 3}Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium–tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  3. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, S. S.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion-fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m3Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  4. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J; Steinberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  5. Source Reduction Effectiveness at Fuel Contaminated Sites, Technical Summary Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This report assesses the degree to which various types or engineered source-reduction efforts at selected fuel-contaminated sites have resulted in decreasing concentrations of fuel constituents dissolved in groundwater...

  6. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  7. Green Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; DeLaRee, Ana B.; Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark; Hensel, Joseph D.; Kimble, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to produce green aerospace propellants from nonpetroleum sources are outlined. The paper begins with an overview of feedstock processing and relevant small molecule or C1 chemistry. Gas-to-liquid technologies, notably Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processing of synthesis gas (CO and H2), are being optimized to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to aviation (and other transportation) fuels at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Efforts to produce optimized catalysts are described. Given the high cost of space launch, the recycling of human metabolic and plastic wastes to reduce the need to transport consumables to orbit to support the crew of a space station has long been recognized as a high priority. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon or beyond are taken into account, the importance of developing waste recycling systems becomes still more imperative. One promising way to transform organic waste products into useful gases is steam reformation; this well-known technology is currently being optimized by a Colorado company for exploration and planetary surface operations. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. A technology that has successfully demonstrated production of fuels and related chemicals from waste plastics developed in Northeast Ohio is described. Technologies being developed by a Massachusetts company to remove sulfur impurities are highlighted. Common issues and concerns for nonpetroleum fuel production are emphasized. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether a terrestrial operation or on the lunar (or Martian) surface; the term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of grid-energy usage. For space exploration, energy efficiency can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing

  8. Polygeneration microgrids: A viable solution in remote areas for supplying power, potable water and hydrogen as transportation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Dounis, Anastasios I.; Rozakis, Stelios; Arvanitis, Konstantinos G.; Papadakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polygeneration of power, hydrogen and potable water through desalination in remote areas. → Particle Swarm Optimization for the design of Polygeneration microgrid design with TRNSYS, GenOpt and TRNOPT. → Economic evaluation with Monte Carlo simulation for the calculation of NPV distribution. → Polygeneration microgrids are technically feasible and most likely financially profitable. -- Abstract: This paper presents the concept and the design of a hybrid renewable energy polygeneration microgrid along with its technical and economical evaluation. The energy of the sun and the wind is harvested by photovoltaics and a wind turbine. Besides that, the components of the microgrid include a battery bank, a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, a PEM electrolyzer, a metal hydride tank, a reverse osmosis desalination unit using energy recovery and a control system. The microgrid covers the electricity, transport and water needs and thus its products are power, hydrogen as transportation fuel and potable water through desalination. Hydrogen and the desalinated water also act as medium to long term seasonal storage. A design tool based on TRNSYS 16, GenOpt 2.0 and TRNOPT was developed using Particle Swarm Optimization method. The economic evaluation of the concept was based on the discounting cash flow approach. The Monte Carlo Simulation method was used in order to take uncertainty into account. A technically feasible polygeneration microgrid adapted to a small island is financially profitable with a probability of 90% for the present and 100% at the medium term.

  9. Biogas : fuel source for a renewable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijk, J. [GE Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The current status of Ge Energy's Jenbacher gas engines was presented in terms of its product line, electrical output, thermal output and exhaust gases. The unique feature of the engine is that it can operate on natural gas, biogas, landfill or other gaseous fuels. The most important applications for this high efficiency gas engine include on-site power generation, cogeneration, tri-generation, and carbon dioxide fertilization in greenhouses. A map illustrating Canada wide sales and service networks was presented along with a review of opportunities to use biogas for electric power generation. Biogas can be generated from organic matter such as municipal organic waste, manure, yard waste, wood waste, expired food, slaughterhouse waste and energy crops. A graph depicting biogas yields of different feedstocks was presented. It was noted that biogas conversion through anaerobic digestion generates more energy from organic matter than any other technology, while recycling the nutrients. A schematic of a typical biomass anaerobic digestion process was illustrated. In 2005, Germany was among the leaders in biogas production, with 775 biogas utilization plants in operation, producing 550 MW of power. This presentation listed other leaders and highlighted some project examples of biomass conversion plants in Austria, Germany, and Alberta. The opportunities for Ontario were emphasized. Ontario has 5.6 million hectares of agricultural land. Based on the German example, the integrated use for production of food, feed and energy crops could generate 3,700 cubic metres of methane per hectare per year, enough for nearly 9,000 MW of electrical capacity. Biogas power plants with gas storage can operate as peaking plants. It was noted that energy plans should be value driven rather than cost driven, with the objective of reducing overall energy consumption, improving energy efficiency and initiating replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy sources such as wind, water

  10. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  11. The first demonstration of a microbial fuel cell as a viable power supply: Powering a meteorological buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tender, Leonard M.; Gray, Sam A.; Groveman, Ethan; Lowy, Daniel A.; Kauffman, Peter; Melhado, Julio; Tyce, Robert C.; Flynn, Darren; Petrecca, Rose; Dobarro, Joe

    2008-05-01

    Here we describe the first demonstration of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) as a practical alternative to batteries for a low-power consuming application. The specific application reported is a meteorological buoy (ca. 18-mW average consumption) that measures air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and water temperature, and that is configured for real-time line-of-sight RF telemetry of data. The specific type of MFC utilized in this demonstration is the benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC). The BMFC operates on the bottom of marine environments, where it oxidizes organic matter residing in oxygen depleted sediment with oxygen in overlying water. It is maintenance free, does not deplete (i.e., will run indefinitely), and is sufficiently powerful to operate a wide range of low-power marine-deployed scientific instruments normally powered by batteries. Two prototype BMFCs used to power the buoy are described. The first was deployed in the Potomac River in Washington, DC, USA. It had a mass of 230 kg, a volume of 1.3 m3, and sustained 24 mW (energy equivalent of ca. 16 alkaline D-cells per year at 25 °C). Although not practical due to high cost and extensive in-water manipulation required to deploy, it established the precedence that a fully functional scientific instrument could derive all of its power from a BMFC. It also provided valuable lessons for developing a second, more practical BMFC that was subsequently used to power the buoy in a salt marsh near Tuckerton, NJ, USA. The second version BMFC has a mass of 16 kg, a volume of 0.03 m3, sustains ca. 36 mW (energy equivalent of ca. 26 alkaline D-cells per year at 25 °C), and can be deployed by a single person from a small craft with minimum or no in-water manipulation. This BMFC is being further developed to reduce cost and enable greater power output by electrically connecting multiple units in parallel. Use of this BMFC powering the meteorological buoy highlights the potential impact of BMFCs to enable long

  12. Oxygen Source for Underwater Vehicle Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Batton, William

    2002-01-01

    Four successful tests were conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of lithium oxide as a catalyst and manganese as a fuel for the release of oxygen by the decomposition of lithium perchlorate at low temperature...

  13. Ontario Select Committee on Alternative Fuel Sources : Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, D.

    2002-06-01

    On June 28, 2001, the Ontario Legislative Assembly appointed the Select Committee an Alternative Fuel Sources, comprised of representatives of all parties, with a broad mandate to investigate, report and offer recommendations with regard to the various options to support the development and application of environmentally sustainable alternatives to the fossil fuel sources already existing. The members of the Committee elected to conduct extensive public hearings, conduct site visits, attend relevant conferences, do some background research to examine a vast number of alternative fuel and energy sources that could be of relevance to the province of Ontario. A discussion paper (interim report) was issued by the Committee in November 2001, and the present document represents the final report, containing 141 recommendations touching 20 topics. The information contained in the report is expected to assist in the development and outline of policy and programs designed to specifically support alternative fuels and energy sources and applicable technologies. Policy issues were discussed in Part A of the report, along with the appropriate recommendations. The recommendations on specific alternative fuels and energy sources were included in Part B of the report. It is believed that the dependence of Ontario on traditional petroleum-based fuels and energy sources can be reduced through aggressive action on alternative fuels and energy. The benefits of such action would be felt in the area of air quality, with social, and economic benefits as well. 3 tabs

  14. Determination of source term for Krsko NPP extended fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Persic, A.; Zagar, T.; Zefran, B.

    2004-01-01

    The activity and composition of the potential radioactive releases (source term) is important in the decision making about off-site emergency measures in case of a release into environment. Power uprate of Krsko NPP during modernization in 2000 as well as changing of the fuel type and the core design have influenced the source term value. In 2003 a project of 'Jozef Stefan' Institute and Slovenian nuclear safety administration determined a plantspecific source term for new conditions of fuel type and burnup for extended fuel cycle. Calculations of activity and isotopic composition of the core have been performed with ORIGEN-ARP program. Results showed that the core activity for extended 15 months fuel cycle is slightly lower than for the 12 months cycles, mainly due to larger share of fresh fuel. (author)

  15. The source regime for irradiation plant operated with fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckow, W.

    1976-11-01

    The rapid and irregular decay of the gamma radiation from reactor fuel elements requires the establishment of an optimal source regime in order to utilise reactor fuel elements as radiation sources on a technological basis. Critical values have been derived which enable the determination of optimal conditions. In this context all technologically interesting types of source regimes have been examined. Methods to achieve a high gamma yield and a satisfactory dose consistency with time have been developed and important values for these two aspects have been derived. The conditions for optimal radiation source regimes are described in the final conclusions. (author)

  16. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  17. Viable Cancer Cells in the Remnant Stomach are a Potential Source of Peritoneal Metastasis after Curative Distal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Kodama, Hirokazu; Takebayashi, Katsushi; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Miyake, Toru; Tani, Tohru; Kushima, Ryoji; Tani, Masaji

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying peritoneal metastasis (PM) after curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC) are not well elucidated. This study assessed whether viable cancer cells, including cancer stemlike cells (CSCs), were present in the remnant stomach immediately before gastrointestinal (GI) tract reconstruction because these could be a source of PM after gastrectomy. Saline fluid used for remnant stomach lumen irrigation before GI reconstruction was prospectively collected from 142 consecutive patients undergoing distal gastrectomy for GC and cytologically examined. Proliferative activity (Ki67 staining) and stemness (expression of the CSC surface markers CD44s or CD44v6) were evaluated in detected cancer cells. Viable cancer cells were detected in 33 (23.2 %) of the 142 remnant stomachs. These cells formed clusters and stained positively for Ki67, indicating proliferation. Cancer cells in remnant stomachs and surface cancer cells in primary GCs from 10 (30.3 %) of these 33 cases also stained positively for CD44s or CD44v6. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, advanced cancer (odds ratio [OR], 4.65; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.32-16.4; P = 0.017), tumor size of 40 mm or larger (OR, 3.78; 95 % CI, 1.12-12.8; P = 0.033), and histologic differentiation (OR, 3.10; 95 % CI, 1.30-7.40; P = 0.011) were associated independently with the presence of cancer cells in the remnant stomach. Viable, proliferative, and clustered cancer cells, including CSCs, were found in remnant gastric lumens immediately before GI reconstruction, indicating a possible cellular source of PM after curative gastrectomy for GC. Dissemination of gastric contents into the peritoneal cavity should be avoided during GI reconstruction.

  18. Will the United States be a viable source of engineers and constructors at the turn of the century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynerson, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present recent information addressing the next 20 yr in the general arena of American engineering and construction personnel. Also discussed are the basic sources of engineering and construction services in the next generation and the projected needs of the commercial nuclear industry, the governmental nuclear power and weapons sectors, and other nonnuclear industry demands on a growing, limited technical resource. The source of engineers and constructors can be found within the American educational system. With fundamental adjustments in attitudes, Americans can effectively compete. Organizations such as the American Nuclear Society should increase emphasis in all areas of interface with industry, educational institutions, and the American people in order to continue to carry this message to political leaders

  19. The advanced neutron source three-element-core fuel grading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehin, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) pre-conceptual design consists of a two-element 330 MW f nuclear reactor fueled with highly-enriched uranium and is cooled, moderated, and reflected with heavy water. Recently, the ANS design has been changed to a three-element configuration in order to permit a reduction of the enrichment, if required, while maintaining or improving the thermal-hydraulic margins. The core consists of three annular fuel elements composed of involute-shaped fuel plates. Each fuel plate has a thickness of 1.27 mm and consists of a fuel meat region Of U 3 Si 2 -Al (50% enriched in one case that was proposed) and an aluminum filler region between aluminum cladding. The individual plates are separated by a 1.27 mm coolant channel. The three element core has a fuel loading of 31 kg of 235 U which is sufficient for a 17-day fuel cycle. The goal in obtaining a new fuel grading is to maximize important temperature margins. The limits imposed axe: (1) Limit the temperature drop over the cladding oxide layer to less than 119 degrees C to avoid oxide spallation. (2) Limit the fuel centerline temperature to less than 400 degrees C to avoid fuel damage. (3) Limit the cladding wall temperature to less than the coolant. incipient-boiling temperature to avoid coolant boiling. Other thermal hydraulic conditions, such as critical heat flux, are also considered

  20. Energy-Tunable Sources of Entangled Photons: A Viable Concept for Solid-State-Based Quantum Relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Rinaldo; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Daruka, Istvan; Ortix, Carmine; Rastelli, Armando

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new method of generating triggered entangled photon pairs with wavelength on demand. The method uses a microstructured semiconductor-piezoelectric device capable of dynamically reshaping the electronic properties of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) via anisotropic strain engineering. Theoretical models based on k .p theory in combination with finite-element calculations show that the energy of the polarization-entangled photons emitted by QDs can be tuned in a range larger than 100 meV without affecting the degree of entanglement of the quantum source. These results pave the way towards the deterministic implementation of QD entanglement resources in all-electrically-controlled solid-state-based quantum relays.

  1. Analysis of fuel management in the KIPT neutron source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Zhaopeng, E-mail: zzhong@anl.gov [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Gohar, Yousry; Talamo, Alberto [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Fuel management of KIPT ADS was analyzed. > Core arrangement was shuffled in stage wise. > New fuel assemblies was added into core periodically. > Beryllium reflector could also be utilized to increase the fuel life. - Abstract: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an experimental neutron source facility consisting of an electron accelerator driven sub-critical assembly. The neutron source driving the sub-critical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100 KW electron beam with a natural uranium target. The sub-critical assembly surrounding the target is fueled with low enriched WWR-M2 type hexagonal fuel assemblies. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel material is <20%. The facility will be utilized for basic and applied research, producing medical isotopes, and training young specialists. With the 100 KW electron beam power, the total thermal power of the facility is {approx}360 kW including the fission power of {approx}260 kW. The burnup of the fissile materials and the buildup of fission products continuously reduce the system reactivity during the operation, decrease the neutron flux level, and consequently impact the facility performance. To preserve the neutron flux level during the operation, the fuel assemblies should be added and shuffled for compensating the lost reactivity caused by burnup. Beryllium reflector could also be utilized to increase the fuel life time in the sub-critical core. This paper studies the fuel cycles and shuffling schemes of the fuel assemblies of the sub-critical assembly to preserve the system reactivity and the neutron flux level during the operation.

  2. Analysis of fuel management in the KIPT neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry; Talamo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Fuel management of KIPT ADS was analyzed. → Core arrangement was shuffled in stage wise. → New fuel assemblies was added into core periodically. → Beryllium reflector could also be utilized to increase the fuel life. - Abstract: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an experimental neutron source facility consisting of an electron accelerator driven sub-critical assembly. The neutron source driving the sub-critical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100 KW electron beam with a natural uranium target. The sub-critical assembly surrounding the target is fueled with low enriched WWR-M2 type hexagonal fuel assemblies. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel material is <20%. The facility will be utilized for basic and applied research, producing medical isotopes, and training young specialists. With the 100 KW electron beam power, the total thermal power of the facility is ∼360 kW including the fission power of ∼260 kW. The burnup of the fissile materials and the buildup of fission products continuously reduce the system reactivity during the operation, decrease the neutron flux level, and consequently impact the facility performance. To preserve the neutron flux level during the operation, the fuel assemblies should be added and shuffled for compensating the lost reactivity caused by burnup. Beryllium reflector could also be utilized to increase the fuel life time in the sub-critical core. This paper studies the fuel cycles and shuffling schemes of the fuel assemblies of the sub-critical assembly to preserve the system reactivity and the neutron flux level during the operation.

  3. Creep analysis of fuel plates for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source will use closely spaced arrays of fuel plates. The plates are thin and will have a core containing enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminum. The heat load caused by the nuclear reactions within the fuel plates will be removed by flowing high-velocity heavy water through narrow channels between the plates. However, the plates will still be at elevated temperatures while in service, and the potential for excessive plate deformation because of creep must be considered. An analysis to include creep for deformation and stresses because of temperature over a given time span has been performed and is reported herein

  4. Finite element analysis of advanced neutron source fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttrell, C.R.

    1995-08-01

    The proposed design for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor core consists of closely spaced involute fuel plates. Coolant flows between the plates at high velocities. It is vital that adjacent plates do not come in contact and that the coolant channels between the plates remain open. Several scenarios that could result in problems with the fuel plates are studied. Finite element analyses are performed on fuel plates under pressure from the coolant flowing between the plates at a high velocity, under pressure because of a partial flow blockage in one of the channels, and with different temperature profiles

  5. Energy control of supercapacitor/fuel cell hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payman, Alireza; Pierfederici, Serge; Meibody-Tabar, Farid

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a flatness based control principle in a hybrid system utilizing a fuel cell as a main power source and a supercapacitor as an auxiliary power source. The control strategy is based on regulation of the dc bus capacitor energy and, consequently, voltage regulation. The proposed control algorithm does not use a commutation algorithm when the operating mode changes with the load power variation and, thus, avoids chattering effects. Using the flatness based control method, the fuel cell dynamic and its delivered power is perfectly controlled, and the fuel cell can operate in a safe condition. In the hybrid system, the supercapacitor functions during transient energy delivery or during energy recovery situations. To validate the proposed method, the control algorithms are executed in dSPACE hardware, while analogical current loops regulators are employed in the experimental environment. The experimental results prove the validity of the proposed approach

  6. An Open-Source Toolbox for PEM Fuel Cell Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Kone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an open-source toolbox that can be used to accurately predict the distribution of the major physical quantities that are transported within a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell is presented. The toolbox has been developed using the Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM platform, which is an open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD code. The base case results for the distribution of velocity, pressure, chemical species, Nernst potential, current density, and temperature are as expected. The plotted polarization curve was compared to the results from a numerical model and experimental data taken from the literature. The conducted simulations have generated a significant amount of data and information about the transport processes that are involved in the operation of a PEM fuel cell. The key role played by the concentration constant in shaping the cell polarization curve has been explored. The development of the present toolbox is in line with the objectives outlined in the International Energy Agency (IEA, Paris, France Advanced Fuel Cell Annex 37 that is devoted to developing open-source computational tools to facilitate fuel cell technologies. The work therefore serves as a basis for devising additional features that are not always feasible with a commercial code.

  7. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  8. Corrosion in batteries and fuel-cell power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslak, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Batteries and fuel cells, as electrochemical power sources, provide energy through controlled redox reactions. Because these devices contain electrochemically active components, they place metals in contact with environments in which the metals may corrode. The shelf lives of batteries, particularly those that operate at ambient temperatures depend on very slow rates of corrosion of the electrode materials at open circuit. The means of reducing this corrosion must also be evaluated for its influence on performance. A second major corrosion consideration in electrochemical power sources involves the hardware. Again, shelf lives and service lives depend on very good corrosion resistance of the containment materials and inactive components, such as separators. In those systems in which electrolyte purity is important, even small amounts of corrosion that have not lessened structural integrity can degrade performance. There is a wide variety of batteries and fuel cells, and new systems are constantly under development. Therefore, to illustrate the types of corrosion phenomena that occur, this article will discuss the following systems: lead-acid batteries, alkaline batteries (in terms of the sintered nickel electrode only), lithium ambient-temperature batteries, aluminum/air batteries, sodium/sulfur batteries, phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) fuel cells, and molten carbonate fuel cells

  9. Algae as a Biofuel: Renewable Source for Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kant Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels produced by algae may provide a feasible alternative to fossil fuels like petroleum sourced fuels. However, looking to limited fossil fuel associated with problems, intensive efforts have been given to search for alternative biofuels like biodiesel. Algae are ubiquitous on earth, have potential to produce biofuel. However, technology of biofuel from algae facing a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly organized. Different challenges include strain identification and improvement of algal biomass, both in terms of biofuel productivity and the production of other products to improve the economics of the entire system. Algal biofuels could be made more cost effective by extracting other valuable products from algae and algal strains. Algal oil can be prepared by culture of algae on municipal and industrial wastewaters. Photobioreactors methods provide a controlled environment that can be tailored to the specific demands of high production of algae to attain a consistently good yield of biofuel. The algal biomass has been reported to yield high oil contents and have good amount of the biodiesel production capacity. In this article, it has been attempted to review to elucidate the approaches for making algal biodiesel economically competitive with respect to petrodiesel. Consequently, R & D work has been carried out for the growth, harvesting, oil extraction and conversion to biodiesel from algal sources.

  10. Fuel-cycle financing, capital requirements and sources of funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderbach, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An issue of global importance today is the economic case fro nuclear power and the conservation of precious fossil resources. An important question is whether sufficient financial resources can be attracted to the nuclear industry in order to develop a complete fuel-cycle industry capable of meeting the requirements of a global nuclear power industry. Future growth of the nuclear power industry will depend largely on the timely development of a private competitive industry covering the total fuel cycle. The report of the Edison Electric Institute on Nuclear Fuels Supply estimates that by 1985 initial capital investmentor in the nuclear fuel cycle will total US$15x10 9 and by the year 2000, US$60x10 9 will be required. Although the amount of funding projected is manageable from a global availability standpoint, there is a hesitancy to commit financial resources to certain segments of the fuel cycle, because of the many unresolved problems in connection with the nuclear industry - uncertainty regarding local and international governmental regulations and legislation, environmental and alternative technological considerations coupled with the substantial long-term capital commitments needed in each of the several segments of the processes. Activities associated with the nuclear fuel cycle have unique investment requirements, which are needed in many diverse unrelated fields such as resource development and high technology process. This paper examines sources of capital on a national scale, such as net earnings, depreciation, capital market and public subsidies; and, in the broader context, capital investments in highly industrialized and developing countries. Possible areas of government guarantees and financing; and the situation on financing fuel-cycle projects in the USA and in other countries is also discussed. Comments are included on the money market and investment climate in developing countries, particularly regarding the development of uranium resources

  11. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  12. Nuclear fuel: sustainable source of energy or burden on society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.; Klaiber, G.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, the question concerning the sustainability of a resource primarily addressed its finite nature. Accordingly, electricity production using renewable energies was clearly sustainable. Contrasting this are systems based on oil, gas, coal or uranium. However, from the perspective of 'neo-sustainability' being analyzed today, this assessment appears less clear-cut, especially in light of the definition of sustainability as provided by the Brundtland report. Nowadays, the depletion time of fuel resources is thus not the only significant aspect, but factors such as efficiency, ecofriendliness and social responsibility also figure in. The nuclear fuel supply is analyzed from a sustainability perspective. After a short description of the supply chain, each of the most important aspects of sustainability are related to the individual stages of the supply chain and evaluated. This method aims at answering the question concerning to what extent nuclear fuel is a sustainable source of energy. Although the recycling of fissile materials from reprocessing and the deployment of advanced reactors are key factors as regards the issue of sustainability, these topics are deliberately only touched on. The main focus lies on the sustainability of the nuclear fuel cycle as it is currently utilized in light water reactors, without discussing the subject of reprocessing. (orig.)

  13. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE WITHVEGETABLE OIL: AN ALTERNATIVE BIO-FUEL SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study offers comprehensive details on the use of bio-fuel as a viable and alternative source of energy. The bio-fuel was prepared from vegetable oil, i.e., mustard oil and tested in a diesel engine in both pure form and as a diesel blend. The mustard oil blend proportions were 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and named as bio-diesel blends B20, B30, B40 and B50. A fuel-testing laboratory determined the properties of the pure mustard oil fuel and its blends, i.e., density, viscosity, dynamic viscosity, carbon residue, flash point, fire point and calorific value. An assessment of engine performance, i.e., brake horsepower (bhp, brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc, brake thermal efficiency (bte and brake mean effective pressure (bmep etc., was carried out for pure diesel, pure mustard and the blends, both in laboratory conditions and under British Standard (BS conditions. Finally, an analysis and comparison was made of the effects of the various fuels on the different engine properties.

  14. Fuel cycle financing, capital requirements and sources of funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderbach, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An issue of global importance today is the economic case for nuclear power and the conservation of precious fossil resources. A question important to all of us is can sufficient financial resources be attracted to the nuclear industry in order to develop a complete fuel cycle industry capable of meeting the requirements of a global nuclear power industry. Future growth of the nuclear power industry will depend to a large extent on the timely development of a private competitive industry covering the total fuel cycle. The report of the Edison Electric Institute on Nuclear Fuels Supply estimates that by 1985 initial capital investment in the nuclear fuel cycle will total $15 billion and by the year 2000, $60 billion will be required. Although undoubtedly the amount of funding projected is manageable from a global availability standpoint, there is a hesitancy to commit financial resources to certain segments of the fuel cycle. This is because of the many unresolved problems in connection with the nuclear industry such as uncertainty regarding local and international governmental regulations and legislation, environmental and alternative technological considerations coupled, of course, with the substantial capital long term commitments needed in each of the several segments of the processes. Activities associated with the nuclear fuel cycle have unique investment requirements. Investments are needed in many diverse unrelated fields such as resource development and high technology process some of which are not yet fully commercialized. Sources of capital will be examined on a national scale, such as net earnings, depreciation, capital market and public subsidies. The paper also examines, in the broader context, capital investments in highly industrialized and developing countries as well as discussing the possible areas of Government guarantees and financing. The intensive capital required in certain segments of the cycle, which are to be developed by private

  15. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  16. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs

  17. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  18. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  19. Fuel cells show promise as vehicle power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel-cell-powered vehicles appear to offer great promise for energy-saving, high-efficiency transportation. Fuel cells are both highly efficient (50% thermal efficiency has been demonstrated by some) and non-polluting (water being the main by-product). Dramatic improvements in performance have occurred recently due to aerospace and utility RandD efforts. The primary vehicle considered at workshops of laboratory and industrial investigators was a fuel cell/battery hybrid, in which fuel cells are paralleled by batteries. Fuel cells are used for cruising power and battery recharge, while batteries supply transient power for acceleration and starting

  20. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  1. Renewable and nuclear sources of energy reduce the share of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources reduce the share of fossil fuels.

  2. Renewable and nuclear sources of energy decreases of share of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper author presents a statistical data use of nuclear energy, renewable sources and fossil fuels in the share of energy production in the Slovak Republic. It is stated that use of nuclear energy and renewable sources decreases of share of fossil fuels.

  3. 78 FR 21008 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... products) for calendar year 2012. DATES: The 2012 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  4. 76 FR 19524 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... products) for calendar year 2010. DATES: The 2010 inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  5. 77 FR 22067 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... calendar year 2011. DATES: The 2011 inflation adjustment factor and nonconventional source fuel credit... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...

  6. Emissions from laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: Emission factors and source profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.-W. Anthony Chen; Hans Moosmuller; W. Patrick Arnott; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Ronald A. Susott; Ronald E. Babbitt; Cyle E. Wold; Emily N. Lincoln; Wei Min Hao

    2007-01-01

    Combustion of wildland fuels represents a major source of particulate matter (PM) and light-absorbing elemental carbon (EC) on a national and global scale, but the emission factors and source profiles have not been well characterized with respect to different fuels and combustion phases. These uncertainties limit the accuracy of current emission inventories, smoke...

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell technology coupled with methane dry reforming: A viable option for high efficiency plant with reduced CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Ottaviano, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the control of greenhouse gas is probably the most challenging environmental policy issue. Since CO 2 is considered the major greenhouse gas (GHG) that contributes to the global warming, enforcing technological strategies aiming to avoid or reuse CO 2 emissions becomes crucial, in order to mitigate GHG environmental impact. Currently, solutions conventionally adopted to this purpose are carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. In this context, instead, the followed strategy aims to further improvements in energetic conversion efficiency with related reduced specific CO 2 emissions (per produced kWh e ). Therefore, with particular reference to the electric power generation, this paper proposes an innovative energy conversion system, based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), characterized by higher efficiency and reduced CO 2 emission factor respect to an analogous conventional energy plant. In particular, the innovative solution consists of combining SOFC to methane dry reforming technology, while the conventional system refers to steam methane reforming-SOFC coupling. The innovative system performance up to 65% electric efficiency as cited in the paper, was validated through simulations carried out in Aspen Plus environment. - Highlights: • An innovative high efficiency plant with low CO 2 emissions is presented. • The new solution combined SOFC to methane dry reforming technology (CDR–SOFC). • A comparison between CDR–SOFC and SMR–SOFC system was carried out in Aspen Plus. • CDR–SOFC efficiency is greater of 6.4% percentage points respect to SMR–SOFC. • A CO 2 emission factor reduction of about 10% was achieved by CDR–SOFC plant

  8. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  9. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits.

  10. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  11. Understory biomass from southern pine forests as a fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, T.T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Monticello, AR (United States); Baker, J.B. [USDA Forest Service, Monticello, AR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The energy crisis in the US in the late 1970s led to accelerated research on renewable energy resources. The use of woody biomass, harvested from pine forests in the southern US, as a renewable energy source would not only provide an efficient energy alternative to forest industries, but its use would also reduce understory competition and accelerate growth of overstory crop trees. This study was initiated in the early 1980s to investigate the feasibility and applicability of the use of understory vegetation as a possible energy fuel resource. All woody understory vegetation [<14 cm (<5.5 in) in dbh], on 0.2 ha (0.5 ac) plots that represented a range of stand/site conditions of pine stands located in twelve southern Arkansas counties and two northern Louisiana parishes were characterized, quantified, and harvested. Based on the biomass yield from 720 subplots nested within 40 main plots, the top five dominant species in the understory, based on number and size were: Red maple, red oaks, pines, sweetgum, and winged elm. Some other species occurring, but in smaller proportions, were flowering dogwood, beautyberry, white oaks, black gum, wax myrtle, hickories, persimmon, and ashes. Most of these species are deciduous hardwoods that provide high BTU output upon burning. The average yield of chipped understory biomass was 23.5 T/ha with no difference occurring between summer and winter harvests. A predictive model of understory biomass production was developed using a step-wise multivariate regression analysis. In relation to forest type, high density pine stands produced 53% more understory biomass than high density pine-hardwood stands. The average moisture content of biomass was significantly lower when harvested in winter than when harvested in summer.

  12. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  13. Source convergence problems in the application of burnup credit for WWER-440 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hordosy, Gabor

    2003-01-01

    The problems in Monte Carlo criticality calculations caused by the slow convergence of the fission source are examined on an example. A spent fuel storage cask designed for WWER-440 fuel used a sample case. The influence of the main parameters of the calculations is investigated including the initial fission source. A possible strategy is proposed to overcome the difficulties associated by the slow source convergence. The advantage of the proposed strategy that it can be implemented using the standard MCNP features. (author)

  14. ANL calculational methodologies for determining spent nuclear fuel source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade Argonne National Laboratory has developed reactor depletion methods and models to determine radionuclide inventories of irradiated EBR-II fuels. Predicted masses based on these calculational methodologies have been validated using available data from destructive measurements--first from measurements of lead EBR-II experimental test assemblies and later using data obtained from processing irradiated EBR-II fuel assemblies in the Fuel Conditioning Facility. Details of these generic methodologies are described herein. Validation results demonstrate these methods meet the FCF operations and material control and accountancy requirements

  15. Achieving high performance in intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cells with renewable carbon as a fuel source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Wenbin; He, Xiaojin; Mi, Yongli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bamboo fiber and waste paper were pyrolyzed to generate bamboo carbon and waste paper carbon as anode fuels of IT-DCFC. • Superior cell performance was achieved with the waste paper carbon. • The results suggested the high performance was due to the highest thermal reactivity and the catalytic inherent impurities. • Calcite and kaolinite as inherent impurities favored the thermal decomposition and the electrooxidation of carbon. - Abstract: Three kinds of carbon sources obtained from carbon black, bamboo fiber and waste paper were investigated as anode fuels in an intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cell. The carbon sources were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, etc. The results indicated that the waste paper carbon was more abundant in calcite and kaolinite, and showed higher thermal reactivity in the intermediate temperature range compared with the other two carbon sources. The cell performance was tested at 650 °C in a hybrid single cell, using Sm 0.20 Ce 0.80 O 2−x as the electrolyte. As a result, the cell fed with waste paper carbon showed the highest performance among the three carbon sources, with a peak power density of 225 mW cm −2 . The results indicated that its inherent impurities, such as calcite and kaolinite, might favor the thermal gasification of renewable carbon sources, which resulted in the enhanced performance of the intermediate temperature direct carbon fuel cell

  16. Wood wastes and residues generated along the Colorado Front Range as a potential fuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie E. Ward; Kurt H. Mackes; Dennis L. Lynch

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States there is interest in utilizing renewable fuel sources as an alternative to coal and nat-ural gas. This project was initiated to determine the availability of wood wastes and residues for use as fuel in ce-ment kilns and power plants located along the Colorado Front Range. Research was conducted through literature searches, phone surveys,...

  17. Fuel Wood: A Conventional Source Of Energy In Mountains Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of fuel wood in the Garhwal Himalaya as a primary source of energy for domestic purposes is causing severe deforestation in the Garhwal Himalaya. The fuel wood consumption patterns have been studied in six villages selected two each in tropical (Ganga Bhogpur and Kunow), sub-tropical (Bhainswara and ...

  18. Spatial Autocorrelation, Source Water and the Distribution of Total and Viable Microbial Abundances within a Crystalline Formation to a Depth of 800 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Beaton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Proposed radioactive waste repositories require long residence times within deep geological settings for which we have little knowledge of local or regional subsurface dynamics that could affect the transport of hazardous species over the period of radioactive decay. Given the role of microbial processes on element speciation and transport, knowledge and understanding of local microbial ecology within geological formations being considered as host formations can aid predictions for long term safety. In this relatively unexplored environment, sampling opportunities are few and opportunistic. We combined the data collected for geochemistry and microbial abundances from multiple sampling opportunities from within a proposed host formation and performed multivariate mixing and mass balance (M3 modeling, spatial analysis and generalized linear modeling to address whether recharge can explain how subsurface communities assemble within fracture water obtained from multiple saturated fractures accessed by boreholes drilled into the crystalline formation underlying the Chalk River Laboratories site (Deep River, ON, Canada. We found that three possible source waters, each of meteoric origin, explained 97% of the samples, these are: modern recharge, recharge from the period of the Laurentide ice sheet retreat (ca. ∼12000 years before present and a putative saline source assigned as Champlain Sea (also ca. 12000 years before present. The distributed microbial abundances and geochemistry provide a conceptual model of two distinct regions within the subsurface associated with bicarbonate – used as a proxy for modern recharge – and manganese; these regions occur at depths relevant to a proposed repository within the formation. At the scale of sampling, the associated spatial autocorrelation means that abundances linked with geochemistry were not unambiguously discerned, although fine scale Moran’s eigenvector map (MEM coefficients were correlated with

  19. Is Photolytic Production a Viable Source of HCN and HNC in Astrophysical Environments? A Laboratory-based Feasibility Study of Methyl Cyanoformate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michael J.; Martínez-Núñez, Emilio; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Vázquez, Saulo A.; Smith, Jonathan M.; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the possibility that cyano-containing hydrocarbons may act as photolytic sources for HCN and HNC in astrophysical environments, we conducted a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the 193 nm photolysis of the cyano-ester, methyl cyanoformate (MCF). Experimentally, nanosecond time-resolved infrared emission spectroscopy was used to detect the emission from nascent products generated in the photolysis reaction. The time-resolved spectra were analyzed using a recently developed spectral reconstruction analysis, which revealed spectral bands assignable to HCN and HNC. Fitting of the emission band shape and intensity allowed determination of the photolysis quantum yields of HCN, HNC, and {CN}({A}2{{{\\Pi }}}1) and an HNC/HCN ratio of ˜0.076 ± 0.059. Additionally, multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations were used to characterize photoexcitation-induced reactions in the ground and four lowest singlet excited states of MCF. At 193 nm excitation, dissociation is predicted to occur predominantly on the repulsive S 2 state, with minor pathways via internal conversion from S 2 to highly excited ground state. An automated transition-state search algorithm was employed to identify the corresponding ground-state dissociation channels, and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus and Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the associated branching ratios. The proposed mechanisms were validated using the experimentally measured and quasi-classical trajectory-deduced nascent internal energy distributions of HCN and HNC. This work, along with previous studies, illustrates the propensity for cyano-containing hydrocarbons to act as photolytic sources for astrophysical HCN and HNC and may help explain the observed overabundance of HNC in astrophysical environments.

  20. Some neutron and gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium cermet fuel for isotopic power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, R. A.; Anderson, M. E.; Campbell, A. R.; Haas, F. X.

    1972-01-01

    Gamma and neutron measurements on various types of plutonium sources are presented in order to show the effects of O-17, O-18 F-19, Pu-236, age of the fuel, and size of the source on the gamma and neutron spectra. Analysis of the radiation measurements shows that fluorine is the main contributor to the neutron yields from present plutonium-molybdenum cermet fuel, while both fluorine and Pu-236 daughters contribute significantly to the gamma ray intensities.

  1. Aviation Management Perception of Biofuel as an Alternative Fuel Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticek, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore lived experiences and perceptions from a population of 75 aviation managers in various locations in Pennsylvania about the use of aviation biofuel and how it will impact the aviation industry. The primary research question for this study focused on the impact of biofuel on the airline industry and how management believes biofuel can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel. Grounded in the conceptual framework of sustainability, interview data collected from 27 airline and fueling leaders were analyzed for like terms, coded, and reduced to 3 themes. Data were organized and prioritized based on frequency of mention. The findings represented themes of (a) flight planning tools, (b) production, and (c) costs that are associated with aviation fuel. The results confirmed findings addressed in the literature review, specifically that aviation biofuel will transform the airline industry through lower cost and production. These findings have broad applicability for all management personnel in the aviation industry. Implications for social change and improved business environments could be realized with a cleaner environment, reduced fuel emissions, and improved air quality.

  2. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term - Metal Fuel Radionuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabaskas, David; Bucknor, Matthew; Jerden, James

    2016-01-01

    The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pool-type sodium fast reactors. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of radionuclides from metal fuel pins to the primary sodium coolant during fuel pin failures at a variety of temperature conditions. These release estimates were based on the findings of an extensive literature search, which reviewed past experimentation and reactor fuel damage accidents. Data sources for each radionuclide of interest were reviewed to establish release fractions, along with possible release dependencies, and the corresponding uncertainty levels. Although the current knowledge base is substantial, and radionuclide release fractions were established for the elements deemed important for the determination of offsite consequences following a reactor accident, gaps were found pertaining to several radionuclides. First, there is uncertainty regarding the transport behavior of several radionuclides (iodine, barium, strontium, tellurium, and europium) during metal fuel irradiation to high burnup levels. The migration of these radionuclides within the fuel matrix and bond sodium region can greatly affect their release during pin failure incidents. Post-irradiation examination of existing high burnup metal fuel can likely resolve this knowledge gap. Second, data regarding the radionuclide release from molten high burnup metal fuel in sodium is sparse, which makes the assessment of radionuclide release from fuel melting accidents at high fuel burnup levels difficult. This gap could be addressed through fuel melting experimentation with samples from the existing high burnup metal fuel inventory.

  3. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term - Metal Fuel Radionuclide Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pool-type sodium fast reactors. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of radionuclides from metal fuel pins to the primary sodium coolant during fuel pin failures at a variety of temperature conditions. These release estimates were based on the findings of an extensive literature search, which reviewed past experimentation and reactor fuel damage accidents. Data sources for each radionuclide of interest were reviewed to establish release fractions, along with possible release dependencies, and the corresponding uncertainty levels. Although the current knowledge base is substantial, and radionuclide release fractions were established for the elements deemed important for the determination of offsite consequences following a reactor accident, gaps were found pertaining to several radionuclides. First, there is uncertainty regarding the transport behavior of several radionuclides (iodine, barium, strontium, tellurium, and europium) during metal fuel irradiation to high burnup levels. The migration of these radionuclides within the fuel matrix and bond sodium region can greatly affect their release during pin failure incidents. Post-irradiation examination of existing high burnup metal fuel can likely resolve this knowledge gap. Second, data regarding the radionuclide release from molten high burnup metal fuel in sodium is sparse, which makes the assessment of radionuclide release from fuel melting accidents at high fuel burnup levels difficult. This gap could be addressed through fuel melting experimentation with samples from the existing high burnup metal fuel inventory.

  4. SOURCE OF BURNUP VALUES FOR COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BSC

    2004-01-01

    Waste packages are loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that satisfies the minimum burnup requirements of a criticality loading curve. The burnup value assigned by the originating nuclear utility to each SNF assembly (assigned burnup) is used to load waste packages in compliance with a criticality loading curve. The burnup provided by a nuclear utility has uncertainties, so conservative calculation methods are used to characterize those uncertainties for incorporation into the criticality loading curves. Procedural safety controls ensure that the correct assembly is loaded into each waste package to prevent a misload that could create a condition affecting the safety margins. Probabilistic analyses show that procedural safety controls can minimize the chance of a misload but can not completely eliminate the possibility. Physical measurements of burnup with instrumentation in the surface facility are not necessary due to the conservative calculation methods used to produce the criticality loading curves. The reactor records assigned burnup of a commercial SNF assembly contains about two percent uncertainty, which is increased to five-percent to ensure conservatism. This five-percent uncertainty is accommodated by adjusting the criticality loading curve. Also, the record keeping methods of nuclear utilities are not uniform and the level of detail required by the NRC has varied over the last several decades. Thus, some SNF assemblies may have assigned burnups that are averages for a batch of assemblies with similar characteristics. Utilities typically have access to more detailed core-follow records that allow the batch average burnup to be changed to an assembly specific burnup. Alternatively, an additional safety margin is incorporated into the criticality loading curve to accommodate SNF assemblies with batch average burnups or greater uncertainties due to the methodology used by the nuclear utility. The utility records provide the assembly identifier

  5. Color profiles and stability of acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins as novel pigment sources in a lipstick model: A viable alternative to synthetic colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Alexandra; Giusti, Mónica

    Cosmetics, such as lipstick, can affect an individual's perception of attractiveness and morale. Consumer concern with the safety of synthetic colorants has made the need for alternative natural color sources increasingly urgent. Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of anthocyanin (ACN) extracts as colorants in lipstick formulations. Lipstick formulations were colored with ACN-rich materials. Accelerated environmental testing typical of the cosmetic industry were used: incubation at 20°, 37°, and 45°C for 12 weeks and temperature abuse cycles between 20°/37°C or -20°/20°C. Color (CIELab) and total monomeric ACN (pH-differential) changes were monitored to determine shelf stability of the product. All formulations exhibited acceptable color for lipsticks. Shelf stability was determined to exceed 2 year based on the accelerated testing conditions. Formulations containing cyanidin as their main ACN were the most stable (elderberry, purple corn, and purple sweet potato). ACNs could be used as suitable alternatives to synthetic colorants in lipid-based topical formulations.

  6. A low temperature investigation of the gas-phase N(2D) + NO reaction. Towards a viable source of N(2D) atoms for kinetic studies in astrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-Reyes, Dianailys; Hickson, Kevin M

    2018-06-18

    The gas-phase reaction of metastable atomic nitrogen N(2D) with nitric oxide has been investigated over the 296-50 K temperature range using a supersonic flow reactor. As N(2D) could not be produced photolytically in the present work, these excited state atoms were generated instead through the C(3P) + NO → N(2D) + CO reaction while C(3P) atoms were created in situ by the 266 nm pulsed laser photolysis of CBr4 precursor molecules. The kinetics of N(2D) atoms were followed on-resonance by vacuum ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence at 116.7 nm. The measured rate constants for the N(2D) + NO reaction are in excellent agreement with most of the earlier work at room temperature and represent the only available kinetic data for this process below 296 K. The rate constants are seen to increase slightly as the temperature falls to 100 K with a more substantial increase at even lower temperature; a finding which is not reproduced by theoretical work. The prospects for using this chemical source of N(2D) atoms in future studies of a wide range of N(2D) atom reactions are discussed.

  7. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, Allister; Phillips, Al; Morales, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  8. Review of the accident source terms for aluminide fuel: Application to the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joppen, F.

    2005-01-01

    A major safety review of the BR2, a material test reactor, is to be conducted for the year 2006. One of the subjects selected for the safety review is the definition of source terms for emergency planning and in particular the development of accident scenarios. For nuclear power plants the behaviour of fuel under accident conditions is a well studied object. In case of non-power reactors this basic knowledge is rather scarce. The usefulness of information from power plant fuels is limited due to the differences in fuel type, power level and thermohydraulical conditions. First investigation indicates that using data from power plant fuel leads to an overestimation of the source terms. Further research on this subject could be very useful for the research reactor community, in order to define more realistic source terms and to improve the emergency preparedness. (author)

  9. Chlorine in solid fuels fired in pulverized fuel boilers sources, forms, reactions, and consequences: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Tillman; Dao Duong; Bruce Miller [Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Chlorine is a significant source of corrosion and deposition, both from coal and from biomass, and in PF boilers. This investigation was designed to highlight the potential for corrosion risks associated with once-through units and advanced cycles. The research took the form of a detailed literature investigation to evaluate chlorine in solid fuels: coals of various ranks and origins, biomass fuels of a variety of types, petroleum cokes, and blends of the above. The investigation focused upon an extensive literature review of documents dating back to 1991. The focus is strictly corrosion and deposition. To address the deposition and corrosion issues, this review evaluates the following considerations: concentrations of chlorine in available solid fuels including various coals and biomass fuels, forms of chlorine in those fuels, and reactions - including reactivities - of chlorine in such fuels. The assessment includes consideration of alkali metals and alkali earth elements as they react with, and to, the chlorine and other elements (e.g., sulfur) in the fuel and in the gaseous products of combustion. The assessment also includes other factors of combustion: for example, combustion conditions including excess O{sub 2} and combustion temperatures. It also considers analyses conducted at all levels: theoretical calculations, bench scale laboratory data and experiments, pilot plant experiments, and full scale plant experience. Case studies and plant surveys form a significant consideration in this review. The result of this investigation focuses upon the concentrations of chlorine acceptable in coals burned exclusively, in coals burned with biomass, and in biomass cofired with coal. Values are posited based upon type of fuel and combustion technology. Values are also posited based upon both first principles and field experience. 86 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Utilization of opium poppy wastes as a fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.; Cengiz, M.; Yayli, N. (KT University, Akcaabat-Trabzon (Turkey). Educational Faculty)

    1994-01-01

    Air dried and ground opium poppy stalks suspended in water containing sodium carbonate catalysts have been completely converted into liquid fuels and water soluble- chemicals at 573[degree]K in a 0.1 liter autoclave. Extractives and oil properties obtained from stalks and poppy seed were studied. Major components of the oil were linoleic acid (60.2%) and oleic acid (22.3%). Alcohol-benzene extractives of the stalks were 28.8% while ether solubility was 7.5%. 15 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. A miniature fuel reformer system for portable power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Belavič, Darko; Hrovat, Marko; Hočevar, Stanko; Pohar, Andrej; Petrovčič, Janko; Musizza, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    A miniature methanol reformer system has been designed and built to technology readiness level exceeding a laboratory prototype. It is intended to feed fuel cells with electric power up to 100 W and contains a complete setup of the technological elements: catalytic reforming and PROX reactors, a combustor, evaporators, actuation and sensing elements, and a control unit. The system is engineered not only for performance and quality of the reformate, but also for its lightweight and compact design, seamless integration of elements, low internal electric consumption, and safety. In the paper, the design of the system is presented by focussing on its miniaturisation, integration, and process control.

  12. Diversifying bio-petro fuel sources for future energy sustainability and its challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. R.; Helwani, Z.; Idris, I.

    2018-04-01

    Petroleum has been important in the energy industry since 19th century when the refining of paraffin from crude oil began. The industry recently appears to be in a downtown and fragile moment despite the price of oil is slowly rising. Renewable alternatives such as biofuels have gained increasing traction while petroleum fuel seemingly concedes to bio-fuels due to the rising public concern on the environment and stricter emission regulations. To be a strategic fuel in the energy security matrix, both fossil and bio-fuels options should be considered. However, the use of bio-fuels to achieve a degree of carbon neutrality is not without challenges. Among the challenges are land development and socio-political issue, carbon neutrality due to ILUC, high 2G bio-fuel feedstock and production cost, competing technology from electric vehicles and the impending fourth industrial revolution, NOx emissions and variation in biodiesel quality. This paper briefly reviews the potential of fuels source diversification and the challenges and how they can raise up to the challenges in order to be sustainable and attractive. In order to achieve this objective, first carbon credit through carbon trading needs to continue to stabilize the energy price. Second, 1G bio-fuel needs to forgo the use of natural, peat forest, rubber estate since these are an effective carbon sink and oxygen source. Third, advanced bio-fuels with high yield, process economics and sustainability need to be innovated. Fourth, the quality and standard bio-fuel that reduces NOx emission need to be improved. Finally and most importantly, carbon capture technology needs to be deployed immediately in fossil fuel power plants.

  13. A viable axion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.; Wu Taitsun; Yanagida, T.

    1986-02-01

    We discuss whether an axion like excitation can be the source for the monoenergetic positrons observed at GSI. Although a direct extension of the original Peccei Quinn model is experimentally ruled out, it is possible to construct an alternative model which avoids all previous axion bounds, involving quarkonia decays, K decays, nuclear decays and beam dump experiments. The model predicts, at some level, the possibility of flavor changing interactions involving charmed quarks and suggests an appealing regularity for the quark and lepton masses. The expectations of the model for resonant e + e - scattering are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  14. Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are reviewed. The likely parameter ranges for tokamak neutron sources that could produce an interesting transmutation rate of 100s to 1000s of kg/FPY (where FPY stands for full power year) are identified (P fus ∼ 10-100 MW, β N ∼ 2-3, Q p ∼ 2-5, R ∼ 3-5 m, I ∼ 6-10 MA). The electrical and thermal power characteristics of transmutation reactors driven by fusion and accelerator spallation neutron sources are compared. The status of fusion development vis-a-vis a neutron source is reviewed. (author)

  15. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part III. Consumer Behavior and Attitudes Toward Fuel Efficient Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part III consists of studies and reviews on: consumer awareness of fuel efficiency issues; consumer acceptance of fuel efficient vehicles; car size ch...

  16. Heat and mass release for some transient fuel source fires: A test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.

    1986-10-01

    Nine fire tests using five different trash fuel source packages were conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. This report presents the findings of these tests. Data reported includes heat and mass release rates, total heat and mass release, plume temperatures, and average fuel heat of combustion. These tests were conducted as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored fire safety research program. Data from these tests were intended for use in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment fire analyses. The results were also used as input to a fire test program at Sandia investigating the vulnerability of electrical control cabinets to fire. The fuel packages tested were chosen to be representative of small to moderately sized transient trash fuel sources of the type that would be found in a nuclear power plant. The highest fire intensity encountered during these tests was 145 kW. Plume temperatures did not exceed 820 0 C

  17. Evaluating the use of renewable fuel sources to heat flue-cured tobacco barns

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert T

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating the use of renewable fuel sources to heat flue-cured tobacco barns Robert Taylor Brown ABSTRACT The curing of flue-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is an energy intensive process and represents a significant portion of the overall cost of production. Given the goal of the industry to reduce the environmental footprint of tobacco production and the energy demand of curing, attention has been directed to explore options for the use of renewable fuels for heating to...

  18. Microcontroller based implementation of fuel cell and battery integrated hybrid power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahad, A.; Ali, S.M.; Bhatti, A.A.; Nasir, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a digitally controlled hybrid power source system, composed of fuel cell and battery. Use of individual fuel cell stacks as a power source, encounters many problems in achieving the desired load characteristics. A battery integrated, digitally controlled hybrid system is proposed for high pulse requirements. The proposed hybrid power source fulfils these peak demands with efficient flow of energy as compared to individual operations of fuel cell or battery system. A dc/dc converter is applied which provides an optimal control of power flow among fuel cell, battery and load. The proposed system efficiently overcomes the electrochemical constraints like over current, battery leakage current, and over and under voltage dips. By formulation of an intelligent algorithm and incorporating a digital technology (AVR Microcontroller), an efficient control is achieved over fuel cell current limit, battery charge, voltage and current. The hybrid power source is tested and analyzed by carrying out simulations using MATLAB simulink. Along with the attainment of desired complex load profiles, the proposed design can also be used for power enhancement and optimization for different capacities. (author)

  19. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  20. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Lemar, Paul [Resource Dynamics Corporation, McLean, VA (United States

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  1. Market integration among electricity markets and their major fuel source markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjelde, James W.; Bessler, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic price information flows among U.S. electricity wholesale spot prices and the prices of the major electricity generation fuel sources, natural gas, uranium, coal, and crude oil, are studied. Multivariate time series methods applied to weekly price data show that in contemporaneous time peak electricity prices move natural gas prices, which in turn influence crude oil. In the long run, price is discovered in the fuel sources market (except uranium), as these prices are weakly exogenous in a reduced rank regression representation of these energy prices.

  2. Validating criticality calculations for spent fuel with 252Cf-source-driven noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Krass, A.W.; Valentine, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    The 252 Cf-Source-driven noise analysis method can be used for measuring the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k of arrays of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This type of measurement provides a parameter that is directly related to the criticality state of arrays of LWR fuel. Measurements of this parameter can verify the criticality safety margins of spent LWR fuel configurations and thus could be a means of obtaining the information to justify burnup credit for spent LWR transportation/storage casks. The practicality of a measurement depends on the ability to install the hardware required to perform the measurement. Source chambers containing the 252 Cf at the required source intensity for this application have been constructed and have operated successfully for ∼10 years and can be fabricated to fit into control rod guide tubes of PWR fuel elements. Fission counters especially developed for spent-fuel measurements are available that would allow measurements of a special 3 x 3 spent fuel array and a typical burnup credit rail cask with spent fuel in unborated water. Adding a moderator around these fission counters would allow measurements with the typical burnup credit rail cask with borated water and the special 3 x 3 array with borated water. The recent work of Ficaro on modifying the KENO Va code to calculate by the Monte Carlo method the time sequences of pulses at two detectors near a fissile assembly from the fission chain multiplication process, initiated by a 252 Cf source in the assembly allows a direct computer calculation of the noise analysis data from this measurement method

  3. Source term for the bounding assessment of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavelle, P.

    1996-02-01

    This is the second in a series to derive the bounds of the post-closure hazard of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, based on the premise that it is unnecessary to predict accurately the real hazard if the bounding hazard can be shown to be acceptable. In this report a reference used (Bruce A fuel, 865 GJ/kgU average burnup) is used to derive the source term for contaminant releases from the emplacement canisters. This requires development of a container failure function which defines the age of the fuel when the canister is perforated and flooded. The source term is expressed as the time-dependent fractional release rate from the used fuel or as the time-dependent contaminant concentrations in the canister porewater. It is derived as the superposition of an instant release, comprising the upper bound of the gap and grain boundary inventory in the used fuel, and the long-term dissolution of the used fuel matrix. Several dissolution models (stoichiometric dissolution/preferential leaching) under different conditions (matrix solubility limited/ unlimited; oxidizing/ reducing solubility limits; groundwater flow/ no flow) are evaluated and the one resulting in the highest release rate/ highest porewater concentration is adopted as the bounding case. Comparisons between the models are made on the basis of the potential ingestion hazard of the canister porewater, to account for differences in the hazard of different radionuclides. (author) 20 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs

  4. A study on the safety of spent fuel management. Radioactive source term modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Lee, Hoo Keun; Park, Keun Il; Hwoang, Jung Ki; Chung, Choong Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-02-01

    The types and probabilities of events which may occur during the process of reception, transfer and storage of spent fuels in an away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility were analyzed in order to calculate the amount of radioactive material released to operation area and atmosphere, and the basic model for predicting the radioactive source-term under normal and abnormal operations were developed. Also, oxidation and dissolution of U0{sub 2} pellet was investigated to estimate the amount of radioactive materials released from spent fuel and the release characteristics of radionuclides from defected spent fuel rods was analyzed. Basic information using FIRAC code to analyze the ventilation system during fire accident was prepared and FIRIN was detached from FIRAC modified to simulate the compartment fire by personal computer. (Author).

  5. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  6. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  7. [Life cycle assessment of the infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wen; Wang, Shujuan; Ni, Weidou; Chen, Changhe

    2003-05-01

    In order to promote the application of life cycle assessment and provide references for China to make the project of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles in the near future, 10 feasible plans of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles were designed according to the current technologies of producing, storing and transporting hydrogen. Then life cycle assessment was used as a tool to evaluate the environmental performances of the 10 plans. The standard indexes of classified environmental impacts of every plan were gotten and sensitivity analysis for several parameters were carried out. The results showed that the best plan was that hydrogen will be produced by natural gas steam reforming in central factory, then transported to refuelling stations through pipelines, and filled to fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen gas at last.

  8. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are provided for under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning refining business in the enforcement order for the law. The basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose, accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. Refining facilities listed in the application for designation shall be classified into clushing and leaching, thickning, refining facilities, storage facilities of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, disposal facilities of contaminated substances and building for refining, etc. Business program attached to the application shall include expected time of beginning of refining, estimated production amount of nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel materials for the first three years and funds necessary for construction, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods on delivery and storage of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, control of radiation, maintenance and accidents of refining facilities. Safety securing, application of internationally regulated substances and measures in dangerous situations are stipulated respectively. Exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be reported by the refiner yearly to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  9. Nitrogen Isotope Composition of Thermally Produced NOx from Various Fossil-Fuel Combustion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Wendell W; Tharp, Bruce D; Fang, Huan; Kozak, Brian J; Michalski, Greg

    2015-10-06

    The nitrogen stable isotope composition of NOx (δ(15)N-NOx) may be a useful indicator for NOx source partitioning, which would help constrain NOx source contributions in nitrogen deposition studies. However, there is large uncertainty in the δ(15)N-NOx values for anthropogenic sources other than on-road vehicles and coal-fired energy generating units. To this end, this study presents a broad analysis of δ(15)N-NOx from several fossil-fuel combustion sources that includes: airplanes, gasoline-powered vehicles not equipped with a three-way catalytic converter, lawn equipment, utility vehicles, urban buses, semitrucks, residential gas furnaces, and natural-gas-fired power plants. A relatively large range of δ(15)N-NOx values was measured from -28.1‰ to 8.5‰ for individual exhaust/flue samples that generally tended to be negative due to the kinetic isotope effect associated with thermal NOx production. A negative correlation between NOx concentrations and δ(15)N-NOx for fossil-fuel combustion sources equipped with selective catalytic reducers was observed, suggesting that the catalytic reduction of NOx increases δ(15)N-NOx values relative to the NOx produced through fossil-fuel combustion processes. Combining the δ(15)N-NOx measured in this study with previous published values, a δ(15)N-NOx regional and seasonal isoscape was constructed for the contiguous U.S., which demonstrates seasonal and regional importance of various NOx sources.

  10. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tonnes. Lignin is synthesised in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with

  11. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hwei-Ting; Corbin, Kendall R.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tons. Lignin is synthesized in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with intrinsically higher energy

  12. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  13. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  14. Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for Poverty Alleviation in the Rural Areas of Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... a source of income, also the paper focus on the roles of women in aquaculture, ...

  15. Towards a Future of District Heating Systems with Low-Temperature Operation together with Non-Fossil Fuel Heat Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dinçer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigation of non-fossil fuel heat sources to be supplied to low-energy district heating systems operating in low temperature such as 55 C and 25 C in terms of, respectively, supply and return. Vast variety of heat sources classed in categories such as fossil fuel...

  16. Evaluation of source term parameters for spent fuel disposal in foreign countries. (1) Instant release fraction from spent fuel matrices and composition materials for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Masanobu; Chikazawa, Takahiro; Kitamura, Akira; Tachi, Yukio; Akahori, Kuniaki

    2016-01-01

    Although spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed after reprocessing and vitrification of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), feasibility study on direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SF) has been started as one of the alternative disposal options to flexibly apply change of future energy situation in Japan. Radionuclide inventories and their release behavior after breaching spent fuel container should be assessed to confirm safety of the SF disposal. Especially, instant release fractions (IRFs), which are fractions of radionuclide released relatively faster than those released with congruent dissolution with SF and construction materials after breaching spent fuel container, may have an impact on safety assessment of the direct disposal of SF. However, detailed studies on evaluation / estimation of IRF have not been performed in Japan. Therefore, we investigated some foreign safety assessment reports on direct disposal of SF by focusing on IRF for the safety assessment of Japanese SF disposal system. As a result of comparison between the safety assessment reports in foreign countries, although some fundamental data have been referred to the reports in common, the final source term dataset was seen differences between countries in the result of taking into account the national circumstances (reactor types and burnups, etc.). We also found the difference of assignment of uncertainties among the investigated reports; a report selected pessimistic values and another report selected mean values and their deviations. It is expected that these findings are useful as fundamental information for the safety assessment of Japanese SF disposal system. (author)

  17. Nuclear Forensics Attributing the Source of Spent Fuel Used in an RDD Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    An RDD attack against the U.S. is something America needs to prepare against. If such an event occurs the ability to quickly identify the source of the radiological material used in an RDD would aid investigators in identifying the perpetrators. Spent fuel is one of the most dangerous possible radiological sources for an RDD. In this work, a forensics methodology was developed and implemented to attribute spent fuel to a source reactor. The specific attributes determined are the spent fuel burnup, age from discharge, reactor type, and initial fuel enrichment. It is shown that by analyzing the post-event material, these attributes can be determined with enough accuracy to be useful for investigators. The burnup can be found within a 5% accuracy, enrichment with a 2% accuracy, and age with a 10% accuracy. Reactor type can be determined if specific nuclides are measured. The methodology developed was implemented into a code call NEMASYS. NEMASYS is easy to use and it takes a minimum amount of time to learn its basic functions. It will process data within a few minutes and provide detailed information about the results and conclusions

  18. Nuclear Forensics Attributing the Source of Spent Fuel Used in an RDD Event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mark Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2005-05-01

    An RDD attack against the U.S. is something America needs to prepare against. If such an event occurs the ability to quickly identify the source of the radiological material used in an RDD would aid investigators in identifying the perpetrators. Spent fuel is one of the most dangerous possible radiological sources for an RDD. In this work, a forensics methodology was developed and implemented to attribute spent fuel to a source reactor. The specific attributes determined are the spent fuel burnup, age from discharge, reactor type, and initial fuel enrichment. It is shown that by analyzing the post-event material, these attributes can be determined with enough accuracy to be useful for investigators. The burnup can be found within a 5% accuracy, enrichment with a 2% accuracy, and age with a 10% accuracy. Reactor type can be determined if specific nuclides are measured. The methodology developed was implemented into a code call NEMASYS. NEMASYS is easy to use and it takes a minimum amount of time to learn its basic functions. It will process data within a few minutes and provide detailed information about the results and conclusions.

  19. The change from fossil fuel dependence to sustainable energy sources in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwu, C.; Ajedegba, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nigeria faces a serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants. Although the country is highly dependent on fossil fuel resources, Nigeria has a range of unexploited biomass and hydro power resources, as well as extensive solar energy potential. This paper presented a current energy balance of Nigeria and examined ways of reaching an environmentally sustainable energy balance through the use of a mix of renewable resources. Supply and consumption details of domestic, industrial and transportation sectors as well as electricity production statistics were presented. Total hydropower potential based on the country's river system was estimated to be 10,000 MW. It was estimated that Nigeria has an average of 1.804 x 10 15 of incident solar energy annually, which is 27 times the nation's total conventional energy resources in energy units. It was noted that Nigeria also possesses a significant amount of biomass resources from several large forests that may be used to supply domestic cooking and heating needs as well as for ethanol production. It was noted that wind energy may not be a viable alternative for large scale electricity production in Nigeria. Recommendations to promote the use of renewable resources in the national energy mix included encouraging the decentralization of energy supplies; discouraging the use of wood as fuel; promoting efficient methods in the use of biomass energy resources; private sector participation; and global partnerships. 15 refs., 7 tabs

  20. Sources of variation in δ13C of fossil fuel emissions in Salt Lake City, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.E.; Pataki, D.E.; Ehleringer, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The isotopic composition of fossil fuels is an important component of many studies of C sources and sinks based on atmospheric measurements of CO 2 . In C budget studies, the isotopic composition of crude petroleum and CH 4 are often used as a proxy for the isotopic composition of CO 2 emissions from combustion. In this study, the C isotope composition (δ 13 C) of exhaust from the major fossil fuel emission sources in Salt Lake City, USA, was characterized with 159 measurements of vehicle exhaust of various types and eight measurements of residential furnace exhaust. These two sources were found to be isotopically distinct, and differed from global-scale estimates based on average values for crude petroleum and CH 4 . Vehicle-specific factors such as engine load and operation time had no effect on δ 13 C of vehicle exhaust. A small difference was found between the mean δ 13 C of vehicle exhaust collected randomly from different vehicles and the mean δ 13 C of gasoline collected from multiple fueling stations representing major gasoline distributors in Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. However, a paired comparison of δ 13 C of exhaust and gasoline for six different vehicles did not show any consistent C isotope fractionation during vehicle combustion. The mean δ 13 C of crude petroleum processed for local distribution differed slightly from refined gasoline collected at multiple fueling stations, but time lags between processing and transportation cannot be ruled out as an uncontrollable contributing factor. Measured isotope ratios were then combined with fuel consumption statistics to predict the annual cycle of δ 13 C of fossil fuel emissions for the Salt Lake City metropolitan area. The results showed that the isotopic composition of CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion varied by almost 3 per mille over the course of the 2002 calendar year. This study illustrates that on a regional scale, the isotopic composition of fossil fuel emissions shows

  1. Power sources involving ~ 300W PEMFC fuel cell stacks cooled by different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two constructions of ~300W PEMFC stacks, cooled by different media, were analysed. An open-cathode ~300W PEMFC stack cooled by air (Horizon, Singapore and a PEMFC F-42 stack cooled by a liquid medium (Schunk, Germany were chosen for all of the investigations described in this paper. The potential for the design and construction of power sources involving fuel cells, as well as of a hybrid system (fuel cell-lithium battery for mobile and stationary applications, is presented and discussed. The impact of certain experimental parameters on PEMFC stack performance is analysed and discussed.

  2. Physiology limits commercially viable photoautotrophic production of microalgal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Philip; Flynn, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential. We demonstrate how physiological and operational trade-offs combine to restrict the potential for solar-powered algal-biodiesel production in open ponds to a ceiling of ca. 8000 L ha -1 year -1 . For industrial-scale operations, practical considerations limit production to ca. 6000 L ha -1 year -1 . According to published economic models and life cycle analyses, such production rates cannot support long-term viable commercialisation of solar-powered cultivation of natural microalgae strains exclusively as feedstock for biofuels. The commercial viability of microalgal biofuels depends critically upon limitations in microalgal physiology (primarily in rates of C-fixation); we discuss the scope for addressing this bottleneck concluding that even deployment of genetically modified microalgae with radically enhanced characteristics would leave a very significant logistical if not financial burden.

  3. Monte Carlo criticality source convergence in a loosely coupled fuel storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, Roger N.; Gelbard, Ely M.

    2003-01-01

    The fission source convergence of a very loosely coupled array of 36 fuel subassemblies with slightly non-symmetric reflection is studied. The fission source converges very slowly from a uniform guess to the fundamental mode in which about 40% of the fissions occur in one corner subassembly. Eigenvalue and fission source estimates are analyzed using a set of statistical tests similar to those used in MCNP, including the 'drift-in-mean' test and a new drift-in-mean test using a linear fit to the cumulative estimate drift, the Shapiro-Wilk test for normality, the relative error test, and the '1/N' test. The normality test does not detect a drifting eigenvalue or fission source. Applied to eigenvalue estimates, the other tests generally fail to detect an unconverged solution, but they are sometimes effective when evaluating fission source distributions. None of the tests provides completely reliable indication of convergence, although they can detect nonconvergence. (author)

  4. Source Term Characterization for Structural Components in 17 x 17 KOFA Spent Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Dong Keun; Kook, Dong Hak; Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Source terms of metal waste comprising a spent fuel assembly are relatively important when the spent fuel is pyroprocessed, because cesium, strontium, and transuranics are not a concern any more in the aspect of source term of permanent disposal. In this study, characteristics of radiation source terms for each structural component in spent fuel assembly was analyzed by using ORIGEN-S with a assumption that 10 metric tons of uranium is pyroprocessed. At first, mass and volume for each structural component of the fuel assembly were calculated in detail. Activation cross section library was generated by using KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S module for top-end piece and bottom-end piece, because those are located at outer core with different neutron spectrum compared to that of inner core. As a result, values of radioactivity, decay heat, and hazard index were reveled to be 1.40 x 10{sup 15} Bequerels, 236 Watts, 4.34 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}-water, respectively, at 10 years after discharge. Those values correspond to 0.7 %, 1.1 %, 0.1 %, respectively, compared to that of spent fuel. Inconel 718 grid plate was shown to be the most important component in the all aspects of radioactivity, decay heat, and hazard index although the mass occupies only 1 % of the total. It was also shown that if the Inconel 718 grid plate is managed separately, the radioactivity and hazard index of metal waste could be decreased to 20 {approx} 45 % and 30 {approx} 45 %, respectively. As a whole, decay heat of metal waste was shown to be negligible in the aspect of disposal system design, while the radioactivity and hazard index are important.

  5. Source Term Characteristics Analysis for Structural Components in PWR spent fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Dong Hak; Choi, Heui Joo; Cho, Dong Keun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Source terms of metal waste comprising a spent fuel assembly are relatively important when the spent fuel is pyroprocessed, because cesium, strontium, and transuranics are not a concern any more in the aspect of source term of permanent disposal. In this study, characteristics of radiation source terms for each structural component in spent fuel assembly was analyzed by using ORIGEN-S with a assumption that 10 metric tons of uranium is pyroprocessed. At first, mass and volume for each structural component of the fuel assembly were calculated in detail. Activation cross section library was generated by using KENO-VI/ORIGEN-S module for top-end piece and bottom-end piece, because those are located at outer core under different neutron spectrum compared to that of inner core. As a result, values of radioactivity, decay heat, and hazard index were reveled to be 1.32x1015 Bequerels, 238 Watts, 4.32x109 m3 water, respectively, at 10 years after discharge. Those values correspond to 0.6 %, 1.1 %, 0.1 %, respectively, compared to that of spent fuel. Inconel 718 grid plate was shown to be the most important component in the all aspects of radioactivity, decay heat, and hazard index although the mass occupies only 1 % of the total. It was also shown that if the Inconel 718 grid plate is managed separately, the radioactivity and hazard index of metal waste could be decreased to 25{approx}50 % and 35{approx}40 %, respectively. As a whole, decay heat of metal waste was shown to be negligible in the aspect of disposal system design, while the radioactivity and hazard index are important

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Supercapacitor-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Source for HY-IEL Scooter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bujlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of development of a hybrid fuel cell supercapacitor power system for vehicular applications that was developed and investigated at the Energy Sources Research Section of the Wroclaw Division of Electrotechnical Institute (IEL/OW. The hybrid power source consists of a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC stack and an energy-type supercapacitor that supports the system in time of peak power demands. The developed system was installed in the HY-IEL electric scooter. The vehicle was equipped with auxiliary components (e.g., air compressor, hydrogen tank, and electromagnetic valves needed for proper operation of the fuel cell stack, as well as electronic control circuits and a data storage unit that enabled on-line recording of system and vehicle operation parameters. Attention is focused on the system energy flow monitoring. The experimental part includes field test results of a vehicle powered with the fuel cell-supercapacitor system. Values of currents and voltages recorded for the system, as well as the vehicle’s velocity and hydrogen consumption rate, are presented versus time of the experiment. Operation of the hybrid power system is discussed and analysed based on the results of measurements obtained.

  7. Projected Source Terms for Potential Sabotage Events Related to Spent Fuel Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Vigil, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Two major studies, one sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, were conducted in the late 1970s and early 1980s to provide information and source terms for an optimally successful act of sabotage on spent fuel casks typical of those available for use. This report applies the results of those studies and additional analysis to derive potential source terms for certain classes of sabotage events on spent fuel casks and spent fuel typical of those which could be shipped in the early decades of the 21st century. In addition to updating the cask and spent fuel characteristics used in the analysis, two release mechanisms not included in the earlier works were identified and evaluated. As would be expected, inclusion of these additional release mechanisms resulted in a somewhat higher total release from the postulated sabotage events. Although health effects from estimated releases were addressed in the earlier study conducted for U.S. Department of Energy, they have not been addressed in this report. The results from this report maybe used to estimate health effects

  8. Feasibility of landfill gas as a liquefied natural gas fuel source for refuse trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Josias; Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Rand, Aaron J; Gokhale, Bhushan; Lord, Dominique; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to evaluate the feasibility of using landfill gas (LFG) as a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel source for heavy-duty refuse trucks operating on landfills. Using LFG as a vehicle fuel can make the landfills more self-sustaining, reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, and reduce emissions and greenhouse gases. Acrion Technologies Inc. in association with Mack Trucks Inc. developed a technology to generate LNG from LFG using the CO2 WASH process. A successful application of this process was performed at the Eco Complex in Burlington County, PA. During this application two LNG refuse trucks were operated for 600 hr each using LNG produced from gases from the landfill. The methodology developed in this paper can evaluate the feasibility of three LFG options: doing nothing, electricity generation, and producing LNG to fuel refuse trucks. The methodology involved the modeling of several components: LFG generation, energy recovery processes, fleet operations, economic feasibility, and decision-making. The economic feasibility considers factors such as capital, maintenance, operational, and fuel costs, emissions and tax benefits, and the sale of products such as surplus LNG and food-grade carbon dioxide (CO2). Texas was used as a case study. The 96 landfills in Texas were prioritized and 17 landfills were identified that showed potential for converting LFG to LNG for use as a refuse truck fuel. The methodology was applied to a pilot landfill in El Paso, TX. The analysis showed that converting LFG to LNG to fuel refuse trucks proved to be the most feasible option and that the methodology can be applied for any landfill that considers this option.

  9. Combustion quality analysis of briquettes from variety of agricultural waste as source of alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Mulyana, C.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing in world population and the industrial sector led to increased demand for energy sources. To do this by utilizing the agricultural waste as a fuel source of alternative energy in the form of bio briquette. The aim at this study was to obtain data onto the characteristics of a wide variety of biomass briquettes from waste agricultural industry. The basic ingredients used are biomass waste from coconut husks, sawdust, rice husks and coffee husks. Each of these biomass residues are dried, crushed, then mixed with starch adhesives. This mixture is molded and dried using sunlight. Each type of briquettes was characterized and analyzed the physical-chemical properties, including calorific value, water content, fixed carbon content and the results were compared with charcoal and coal that was used as fuel in public. The results showed that bio briquettes from coconut husks get the highest calorific value of 4,451 cal/g.

  10. Magnox fuel inventories. Experiment and calculation using a point source model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1978-08-01

    The results of calculations of Magnox fuel inventories using the point source code RICE and associated Magnox reactor data set have been compared with experimental measurements for the actinide isotopes 234 , 235 , 236 , 238 U, 238 , 239 , 240 , 241 , 242 Pu, 241 , 243 Am and 242 , 244 Cm and the fission product isotopes 142 , 143 , 144 , 145 , 146 , 150 Nd, 95 Zr, 134 , 137 Cs, 144 Ce and daughter 144 Pr produced in four samples of spent Magnox fuel spanning the burnup range 3000 to 9000 MWd/Te. The neutron emissions from a further two samples were also measured and compared with RICE predictions. The results of the comparison were such as to justify the use of the code RICE for providing source terms for environmental impact studies, for the isotopes considered in the present work. (author)

  11. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1979-12-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed hear are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues

  12. Calculation of source term in spent PWR fuel assemblies for dry storage and shipping cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J. L.; Lopez, J.

    1986-01-01

    Using the ORIGEN-2 Coda, the decay heat and neutron and photon sources for an irradiated PWR fuel element have been calculated. Also, parametric studies on the behaviour of the magnitudes with the burn-up, linear heat power and irradiation and cooling times were performed. Finally, a comparison between our results and other design calculations shows a good agreement and confirms the validity of the used method. (Author) 6 refs

  13. Coconut endocarp and mesocarp as both biosorbents of dissolved hydrocarbons in fuel spills and as a power source when exhausted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Zarate, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Mayra Cecilia; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis Felipe; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2018-04-01

    Health and environmental problems associated with the presence of toxic aromatic compounds in water from oil spills have motivated research to develop effective and economically viable strategies to remove these pollutants. In this work, coconut shell (endocarp), coconut fiber (mesocarp) and coconut shell with fiber (endocarp and mesocarp) obtained from coconut (Cocos nucifera) waste were evaluated as biosorbents of benzene, toluene and naphthalene from water, considering the effect of the solution pH (6-9) and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water (14 mg/L). In addition, the heat capacity of saturated biosorbents was determined to evaluate their potential as an alternative power source to conventional fossil fuels. Tests of N 2 physisorption, SEM, elemental and fiber analysis, ATR-FTIR and acid-based titrations were performed in order to understand the materials' characteristics, and to elucidate the biosorbents' hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism. Coconut fiber showed the highest adsorption capacities (222, 96 and 5.85 mg/g for benzene, toluene and naphthalene, respectively), which was attributed to its morphologic characteristics and to its high concentration of phenolic groups, associated with the lignin structure. The pH of the solution did not have a significant influence on the removal of the contaminants, and the presence of DOM improved the adsorption capacities of aromatic hydrocarbons. The adsorption studies showed biphasic isotherms, which highlighted the strong affinity between the molecules adsorbed on the biosorbents and the aromatic compounds remaining in the solution. Finally, combustion heat analysis of coconut waste saturated with soluble hydrocarbons showed that the heat capacity increased from 4407.79 cal/g to 5064.43 ± 11.6 cal/g, which is comparable with that of woody biomass (3400-4000 cal/g): this waste biomass with added value could be a promising biofuel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Source apportionment of air pollution exposures of rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Baumgartner, Jill; Zhang, Yuanxun; Wang, Yuqin; Schauer, James J.

    2015-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from different sources may differentially affect human health. Few studies have assessed the main sources of personal exposure to PM and their contributions among residents of developing countries, where pollution sources differ from those in higher-income settings. 116 daily (24-h) personal PM2.5 exposure samples were collected among 81 women cooking with biomass fuels in two villages in rural Yunnan, China. The PM samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, including water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), black carbon (BC), and molecular markers. We found black carbon, n-alkanes and levoglucosan dominated the most abundant fractions of the total measured species and average personal PM2.5 exposure was higher in winter than that in summer in both villages. The composition data were then analyzed using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model to identify the main PM emission sources contributing to women's exposures and to assess their spatial (between villages) and seasonal variation in our study setting. The 6-factor solution provided reasonably stable profiles and was selected for further analysis. Our results show that rural Chinese women cooking with biomass fuels are exposed to a variety of sources. The identified factors include wood combustion (41.1%), a cooking source (35.6%), a mobile source (12.6%), plant waxes (6.7%), pyrolysis combustion (3.0%), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA; 1.0%). The mean source contributions of the mobile source, cooking source, and wood combustion factor to PM2.5 exposure were significantly different between women living in the two study villages, whereas the mean SOA, wood combustion, and plant waxes factors differed seasonally. There was no relationship between source contributions and questionnaire-based measurements of source-specific exposures, implying that the impacts of source contributions on exposure are affected by complex spatial, temporal and behavioral patterns

  15. Design of an hybrid source with fuel cell and super-capacitors; Conception d'une source hybride utilisant une pile a combustible et des supercondensateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Ph

    2005-12-15

    The design and testing of a purely super-capacitor energy storage device as auxiliary power source in electrical vehicle applications having a PEM fuel cell as main source are presented. The two control strategies are explained. The control algorithms are that fuel cell is simply operating in almost steady state conditions in order to lessen the mechanical stresses of fuel cell and to ensure a good synchronization between fuel flow and fuel cell current. Super-capacitors are functioning during absence of energy from fuel cell, transient energy delivery or transient energy recovery. The system utilizes two modules of SAFT super-capacitive storage device. This device is connected to a 42 V DC bus by a 2-quadrant dc/dc converter, and fuel cell is connected to the dc bus by a boost converter. The system structure is realized by analogical current loops and digital control (dSPACE) for voltage loops and estimation algorithms. Experimental results with a 500 W PEM fuel cell point out the slow dynamics naturally of fuel cell because of thermodynamic and mechanical operation, and also substantiate that the super-capacitors can improve dynamics and power conditioning for automotive electrical system. (author)

  16. Design of an hybrid source with fuel cell and super-capacitors; Conception d'une source hybride utilisant une pile a combustible et des supercondensateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Ph.

    2005-12-15

    The design and testing of a purely super-capacitor energy storage device as auxiliary power source in electrical vehicle applications having a PEM fuel cell as main source are presented. The two control strategies are explained. The control algorithms are that fuel cell is simply operating in almost steady state conditions in order to lessen the mechanical stresses of fuel cell and to ensure a good synchronization between fuel flow and fuel cell current. Super-capacitors are functioning during absence of energy from fuel cell, transient energy delivery or transient energy recovery. The system utilizes two modules of SAFT super-capacitive storage device. This device is connected to a 42 V DC bus by a 2-quadrant dc/dc converter, and fuel cell is connected to the dc bus by a boost converter. The system structure is realized by analogical current loops and digital control (dSPACE) for voltage loops and estimation algorithms. Experimental results with a 500 W PEM fuel cell point out the slow dynamics naturally of fuel cell because of thermodynamic and mechanical operation, and also substantiate that the super-capacitors can improve dynamics and power conditioning for automotive electrical system. (author)

  17. Design of current source DC/DC converter and inverter for 2kW fuel cell application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreiciks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.

    2013-01-01

    In order to use hydrogen fuel cell in domestic applications either as main power supply or backup power source, the low DC output voltage of the fuel cell has to be matched to the voltage level and frequency of the utility grid AC voltage. The interfacing power converter systems usually consist...... system is designed for interfacing a 2kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell....

  18. Moisture content of PuO2 fuel used for the milliwatt generator heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotelli, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the moisture content of 238 Pu dioxide fuel for use in Milliwatt Generator heat sources was studied in an attempt to more clearly define the production fuel preloading procedures. The study indicated that water was not present or being adsorbed at various steps of the process (or during storage) that could lead to compatibility problems during pretreatment or long-term storage. The moisture content of the plutonium dioxide was analyzed by a commercial moisture analyzer. The moisture content at all steps of the process including storage averaged from 0.002% to 0.005%. The moisture content of the plutonium dioxide exposed to moist atmosphere for 7 days was 0.001%. These values indicated that no significant amount of moisture was adsorbed by the plutonium dioxide fuel charges. The only significant moisture content found was an average of 3.47%, after self-calcination. This was expected since no additional steps, other than self-heating of the fuel, are taken to remove the water

  19. Determining plasma-fueling sources with an end-loss ion spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, D.P.; Foote, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    To help identify the major sources of fueling gas in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), we mounted a mass-sensitive, E parallel to B, end-loss ion spectrometer (ELIS) near the machine's centerline. We set the electric field in the ELIS to simultaneously measure the axial loss currents of both hydrogen and deuterium. We then initiated plasma discharges, where we injected either hydrogen or deuterium gas into the central cell. We also selected and deselected the central-cell neutral beams that were fueled with hydrogen gas. The end-cell neutral beams were always selected and fueled with deuterium. By taking the ratio of the hydrogen end-loss current to the deuterium end-loss current (with a known deuterium-gas feed rate), we were able to infer the effective fueling rates that were due to wall reflux, central-cell beams, and end-cell beams. The results were the following: wall reflux, 6 Torr.l/s; central-cell beams, 15 Torr.l/s; and end-cell beams 1 Torr.l/s. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to perform regulations on enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing of nuclear source and fuel materials and on establishment and operation of reactors to realize the peaceful and deliberate utilization of atomic energy according to the principle of the atomic energy basic law. Regulations of use of internationally regulated substances are also envisaged to observe international agreements. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear source material; reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing and internationally regulated substance. Any person besides the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Material Developing Corporation who undertakes refining shall be designated by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. An application shall be filed to the ministers concerned, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the refining works, equipment and method of refining, etc. The permission of the Prime Minister is necessary for any person who engages in processing. An application shall be filed to the Prime Minister, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the processing works and equipment and method of processing, etc. Permission of the Prime Minister, the Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transport is necessary for any person who sets up reactors. An application shall be filed to the minister concerned, listing name and address of the person, purpose of operation, style, thermal output of reactor and number of units, etc. (Okada, K.)

  1. PEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinton Dwi Atmaja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Page HeaderOpen Journal SystemsJournal HelpUser You are logged in as...aulia My Journals My Profile Log Out Log Out as UserNotifications View (27 new ManageJournal Content SearchBrowse By Issue By Author By Title Other JournalsFont SizeMake font size smaller Make font size default Make font size largerInformation For Readers For Authors For LibrariansKeywords CBPNN Displacement FLC LQG/LTR Mixed PMA Ventilation bottom shear stress direct multiple shooting effective fuzzy logic geoelectrical method hourly irregular wave missile trajectory panoramic image predator-prey systems seawater intrusion segmentation structure development pattern terminal bunt manoeuvre Home About User Home Search Current Archives ##Editorial Board##Home > Vol 23, No 1 (2012 > AtmajaPEMFC Optimization Strategy with Auxiliary Power Source in Fuel Cell Hybrid VehicleTinton Dwi Atmaja, Amin AminAbstractone of the present-day implementation of fuel cell is acting as main power source in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV. This paper proposes some strategies to optimize the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC implanted with auxiliary power source to construct a proper FCHV hybridization. The strategies consist of the most updated optimization method determined from three point of view i.e. Energy Storage System (ESS, hybridization topology and control system analysis. The goal of these strategies is to achieve an optimum hybridization with long lifetime, low cost, high efficiency, and hydrogen consumption rate improvement. The energy storage system strategy considers battery, supercapacitor, and high-speed flywheel as the most promising alternative auxiliary power source. The hybridization topology strategy analyzes the using of multiple storage devices injected with electronic components to bear a higher fuel economy and cost saving. The control system strategy employs nonlinear control system to optimize the ripple factor of the voltage and the current

  2. Methodology for the calculation of source terms related to irradiated fuel accumulated away from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Filho, R.M.; Oliveira, L.F.S. de

    1984-01-01

    A general method for the calculation of the time evolution of source terms related to irradiated fuel is presented. Some applications are discussed which indicated that the method can provide important informations for the engineering design and safety analysis of a temporary storage facility of irradiated fuel elements. (Author) [pt

  3. Effect of nitrogen sources on the biodegradation of diesel fuel in unsaturated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, T. R.; Stiver, W. H.; Zytner, R. G.

    1997-01-01

    The various factors involved in controlling the rate and efficiency of the bioremediation process were studied, among them the type and concentration of contaminants, temperature, oxygen content and nutrient status. This study emphasized the effect of the nitrogen source on the degradation rate of diesel fuel in nutrient-limited soil. Various nitrogen sources were studied, including ammonium nitrate, urea, and urea oligomers. Treatment with urea produced the highest rate of hydrocarbon degradation, but ammonium levels were a better indicator of nutrient performance than total inorganic nitrogen. Other nitrogen sources produced little or no effect on the rate of biodegradation; there was no evidence that nitrate at 0.5 mg N/g concentration was inhibitory. 11 refs., 6 figs

  4. Passivity-Based Control applied to DC hybrid power source using fuel cell and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, M.Y.; Wack, M.; Laghrouche, S. [SeT, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); Becherif, M. [SeT, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); FC-Lab, UTBM, Belfort (cedex) 90010 (France); Henni, A. [Alstom Power System, Energy Management Business, Alstom (France); Aboubou, A. [LMSE Laboratory, Biskra University, 07000 (Algeria)

    2010-07-15

    Nowadays, energy management becomes an absolute necessity. To reduce systems consumption, the idea is to recover energy when it is possible and to reuse it when the system is in need. Energy can be saved in peak power unit (electric double layer capacitors called supercapacitors). Those latter can absorb or supply power peaks. This paper deals with the conception of hybrid power sources using fuel cell as main source, a DC link and supercapacitors as transient power source. The whole system is modeled in state space equations. The energy management is reached using Passivity-Based Control (PBC). PBC is a very powerful nonlinear technique dealing with important system information like the system's total energy. Stability proof and simulation results are given. In this proposed control laws only few measurement are needed (two or three depending on the presented solutions one or two). (author)

  5. Fuel plate stability experiments and analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    The planned Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) and several existing reactors use closely spaced arrays of involute shaped fuel-plates which are cooled by water flowing through the channels between the plates. There is concern that at certain coolant flow velocities adjacent plates may deflect and touch, with resulting failure of the plates. Experiments have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to examine this potential phenomenon. Results of the experiments and comparison with analytical predictions are reported in this paper. The tests were conducted using full scale epoxy plate models of the aluminum/uranium silicide ANS involute shaped fuel plates. Use of epoxy plates and model theory allowed lower flow velocities and pressures to explore the potential failure mechanism. Plate deflections and channel pressures as function of the flow velocity are examined. Comparisons with mathematical models are noted. 12 refs

  6. Fuel plate stability experiments and analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1993-05-01

    The planned reactor for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will use closely spaced arrays of involute-shaped fuel plates that will be cooled by water flowing through the channels between the plates. There is concern that at certain coolant flow velocities, adjacent plates may deflect and touch, with resulting failure of the plates. Experiments have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to examine this potential phenomenon. Results of the experiments and comparison with analytical predictions are reported. The tests were conducted using full-scale epoxy plate models of the aluminum/uranium silicide ANS involute-shaped fuel plates. Use of epoxy plates and model theory allowed lower flow velocities and pressures to explore the potential failure mechanism. Plate deflections and channel pressures as functions of the flow velocity are examined. Comparisons with mathematical models are noted

  7. Algal biomass as a global source of transport fuels: Overview and development perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the global fuel crisis of the early 1970s, coupled with concerns for the environment, the use of biofuel has been on the increase in many regions throughout the world. At present, a total of approximately 30 billion (30×109 liters of biofuel are utilized worldwide annually, although most countries rely hugely on the first generation biofuel. The limitations of the first and second generation biofuel gave rise to current interest in algae as a promising alternative to these conventional biofuel sources. Algal biomass could provide a lion׳s share of the global transport fuel requirements in future. The present review highlights some important developments in, and potentials of algaculture as a major biomass resource of the future. However, the major constraint to commercial-scale algae farming for energy production is the cost factor, which must be addressed adequately before its potentials can be harnessed.

  8. Ambient measurements and source apportionment of fossil fuel and biomass burning black carbon in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sofowote, U.; Su, Y.; Debosz, J.; Noble, M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Wang, J. M.; Hilker, N.; Evans, G. J.; Doerksen, G.; Jones, K.; Munoz, A.

    2017-07-01

    Black carbon (BC) is of significant interest from a human exposure perspective but also due to its impacts as a short-lived climate pollutant. In this study, sources of BC influencing air quality in Ontario, Canada were investigated using nine concurrent Aethalometer datasets collected between June 2015 and May 2016. The sampling sites represent a mix of background and near-road locations. An optical model was used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning to ambient concentrations of BC at every site. The highest annual mean BC concentration was observed at a Toronto highway site, where vehicular traffic was found to be the dominant source. Fossil fuel combustion was the dominant contributor to ambient BC at all sites in every season, while the highest seasonal biomass burning mass contribution (35%) was observed in the winter at a background site with minimal traffic contributions. The mass absorption cross-section of BC was also investigated at two sites, where concurrent thermal/optical elemental carbon data were available, and was found to be similar at both locations. These results are expected to be useful for comparing the optical properties of BC at other near-road environments globally. A strong seasonal dependence was observed for fossil fuel BC at every Ontario site, with mean summer mass concentrations higher than their respective mean winter mass concentrations by up to a factor of two. An increased influence from transboundary fossil fuel BC emissions originating in Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York was identified for the summer months. The findings reported here indicate that BC should not be considered as an exclusively local pollutant in future air quality policy decisions. The highest seasonal difference was observed at the highway site, however, suggesting that changes in fuel composition may also play an important role in the seasonality of BC mass concentrations in the near-road environment

  9. Energy management of fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor hybrid power source for vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Rael, Stephane; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), CNRS, Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM 2, avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2009-08-01

    This paper proposes a perfect energy source supplied by a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as a main power source and storage devices: battery and supercapacitor, for modern distributed generation system, particularly for future fuel cell vehicle applications. The energy in hybrid system is balanced by the dc bus voltage regulation. A supercapacitor module, as a high dynamic and high power density device, functions for supplying energy to regulate a dc bus voltage. A battery module, as a high energy density device, operates for supplying energy to a supercapacitor bank to keep it charged. A FC, as a slowest dynamic source in this system, functions to supply energy to a battery bank in order to keep it charged. Therefore, there are three voltage control loops: dc bus voltage regulated by a supercapacitor bank, supercapacitor voltage regulated by a battery bank, and battery voltage regulated by a FC. To authenticate the proposed control algorithm, a hardware system in our laboratory is realized by analog circuits and numerical calculation by dSPACE. Experimental results with small-scale devices (a PEMFC: 500-W, 50-A; a battery bank: 68-Ah, 24-V; and a supercapacitor bank: 292-F, 30-V, 500-A) corroborate the excellent control principle during motor drive cycle. (author)

  10. Description of apparatus for determining radiological source terms of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.L.; Woodley, R.E.; Holt, F.E.; Archer, D.V.; Steele, R.T.; Whitkop, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    New apparatus have been designed, built and are currently being employed to measure the release of volatile fission products from irradiated nuclear fuel. The system is capable of measuring radiological source terms, particularly for cesium-137, cesium-134, iodine-129 and krypton-85, in various atmospheres at temperatures up to 1200 0 C. The design allows a rapid transient heatup from ambient to full temperature, a hold at maximum temperature for a specified period, and rapid cooldown. Released fission products are measured as deposition on a platinum thermal gradient tube or in a filter/charcoal trap. Noble gases pass through to a multi-channel gamma analyzer. 1 ref., 4 figs

  11. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work

  12. Circular arc fuel plate stability experiments and analyses for the advanced neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Yahr, G.T.

    1995-08-01

    The thin fuel plates planned for the Advanced Neutron Source are to be cooled by forcing heavy water at high velocity, 25 m/s, through thin cooling channels on each side of each plate. Because the potential for structural failure of the plates is a design concern, considerable effort has been expended in assessing this potential. As part of this effort, experimental flow tests and analyses to evaluate the structural response of circular arc plates have been conducted, and the results are given in this report

  13. Analysis of Fuel Cell Driven Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Community Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Keun Shin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuel cell driven ground source heat pump (GSHP system is applied in a community building and heat pump system performance is analyzed by computational methods. Conduction heat transfer between the brine pipe and ground is analyzed by TEACH code in order to predict the performance of the heat pump system. The predicted coefficient of performance (COP of the heat pump system and the energy cost were compared with the variation of the location of the objective building, the water saturation rate of the soil, and the driven powers of the heat pump system. Compared to the late-night electricity driven system, a significant reduction of energy cost can be accomplished by employing the fuel cell driven heat pump system. This is due to the low cost of electricity production of the fuel cell system and to the application of the recovered waste heat generated during the electricity production process to the heating of the community building.

  14. CryoFuel gas : capture and purification of methane at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.

    2002-01-01

    The mandate of CFS Alternative Fuels Incorporated, located in Victoria, British Columbia, which came into operation in 1995, is the installation and operation of gas purification and liquefaction systems using the patented small-scale cryogenic technologies which were designed by an affiliate, CryoFuel Systems Incorporated in Monroe, Washington. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) at 97 per cent is produced using gas processing systems from a variety of gases such as unutilized sources like stranded gas wells and coalbed methane. Waste gases like flares, landfills and bio-digesters, as well as pipeline natural gas are also used to produce LNG. The recovery of carbon dioxide at 99.8 per cent purity is possible from landfill and biogas streams. No new emissions are generated by the autonomous, modular, skid-mounted cryofuel plants. Additionally, no external utilities are required. Some of the applications of LNG are the replacement of conventional fuels in the transportation sector and in commercial and industrial applications. The technology's core design and process capabilities were verified in a one-year demonstration project. Firm orders for eight full-scale systems have been received as of April 2002

  15. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Copyright 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  16. Line-Interactive Transformerless Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS with a Fuel Cell as the Primary Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iftikhar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents line-interactive transformerless Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS with a fuel cell as the prime energy source. The proposed UPS consists of three major parts (i.e., an output inverter, a unidirectional DC–DC converter, and a battery charger/discharger. Non-isolated topologies of both the unidirectional converter and battery charger/discharger ensure transformerless operation of the UPS system. A new topology of high gain converter is employed for boosting the low voltage of the fuel cell to a higher DC link voltage, with minimum semiconductor count, and high efficiency. A high-gain battery charger/discharger realizes the bidirectional operation between the DC link and the battery bank. Besides, it regulates the DC link voltage during the cold start of fuel cells and keeps the battery bank voltage to only 24 V. A new inverter control scheme is introduced that regulates the output voltage and minimizes the total harmonic distortion for non-linear loading condition. The proposed control scheme integrates proportional-resonant control with slide mode control, which improves the controller’s performance in transient conditions. The proposed UPS system is validated by developing a 1-kVA experimental prototype.

  17. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two 238 PuO 2 pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported

  18. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  19. The Feasibility of Onsite Electrolysis as Primary and Clean Production Source of Fuel Hydrogen in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSTA, Andre R

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the International Monetary Fund Brazil is currently the world's 12. largest and Latin America's largest economy, with a nominal GPD in the amount of US dollars 732,078 millions. Despite the fact that energy production is still heavily based on hydrocarbons, such as oil, natural gas and coal, the country is often indicated as one of the worldwide leaders in implementing renewable energy sources, primarily due to the spread utilization of bio-ethanol in transportation and the electricity production from hydropower. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of onsite electrolysis as primary and clean source of fuel hydrogen in Brazil, indicating the main advantages of this production method. A perspective of the most significant challenges and actions to be taken regarding the accomplishment of a clean Brazilian hydrogen economy will be presented herein. (author)

  20. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  1. Effect of Fuel Structure Materials on Radiation Source Term in Reactor Core Meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Ha, Kwang Soon

    2014-01-01

    The fission product (Radiation Source) releases from the reactor core into the containment is obligatorily evaluated to guarantee the safety of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) under the hypothetical accident involving a core meltdown. The initial core inventory is used as a starting point of all radiological consequences and effects on the subsequent results of accident assessment. Hence, a proper evaluation for the inventory can be regarded as one of the most important part over the entire procedure of accident analysis. The inventory of fission products is typically evaluated on the basis of the uranium material (e.g., UO2 and USi2) loaded in nuclear fuel assembly, except for the structure materials such as the end fittings, grids, and some kinds of springs. However, the structure materials are continually activated by the neutrons generated from the nuclear fission, and some nuclides of them (e.g., 14 C and 60 Co) can significantly influence on accident assessment. During the severe core accident, the structure components can be also melted with the melting points of temperature relatively lower than uranium material. A series of the calculation were performed by using ORIGEN-S module in SCALE 6.1 package code system. The total activity in each part of structure materials was specifically analyzed from these calculations. The fission product inventory is generally evaluated based on the uranium materials of fuel only, even though the structure components of the assembly are continually activated by the neutrons generated from the nuclear fission. In this study, the activation calculation of the fuel structure materials was performed for the initial source term assessment in the accident of reactor core meltdown. As a result, the lower end fitting and the upper plenum greatly contribute to the total activity except for the cladding material. The nuclides of 56 Mn, '5 1 Cr, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 54 Mn, and 60 Co are analyzed to mainly effect on the activity. This result

  2. Feasibility of fissile mass assay of spent nuclear fuel using 252Cf-source-driven frequency-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattingly, J.K.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility was evaluated using MCNP-DSP, an analog Monte Carlo transport cod to simulate source-driven measurements. Models of an isolated Westinghouse 17x17 PWR fuel assembly in a 1500-ppM borated water storage pool were used. In the models, the fuel burnup profile was represented using seven axial burnup zones, each with isotopics estimated by the PDQ code. Four different fuel assemblies with average burnups from fresh to 32 GWd/MTU were modeled and analyzed. Analysis of the fuel assemblies was simulated by inducing fission in the fuel using a 252 Cf source adjacent to the assembly and correlating source fissions with the response of a bank of 3 He detectors adjacent to the assembly opposite the source. This analysis was performed at 7 different axial positions on each of the 4 assemblies, and the source-detector cross-spectrum signature was calculated for each of these 28 simulated measurements. The magnitude of the cross-spectrum signature follows a smooth upward trend with increasing fissile material ( 235 U and 239 Pu) content, and the signature is independent of the concentration of spontaneously fissioning isotopes (e.g., 244 Cm) and (α,n) sources. Furthermore, the cross-spectrum signature is highly sensitive to changes in fissile material content. This feasibility study indicated that the signature would increase ∼100% in response to an increase of only 0.1 g/cm 3 of fissile material

  3. Design and simulation of front end power converter for a microgrid with fuel cells and solar power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevargi, Chetankumar; Lodhi, Anuj; Sateeshkumar, Allu; Elangovan, D.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    The need for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is increasing due to increased demand for the supply of power and it is also environment friendly.In the recent few years, the cost of generation of the power from the RES has been decreased. This paper aims to design the front end power converter which is required for integrating the fuel cells and solar power sources to the micro grid. The simulation of the designed front end converter is carried out in the PSIM 9.1.1 software. The results show that the designed front end power converter is sufficient for integrating the micro grid with fuel cells and solar power sources.

  4. Isotopic evidence for enhanced fossil fuel sources of aerosol ammonium in the urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuepeng; Tian, Shili; Liu, Dongwei; Fang, Yunting; Zhu, Xiaying; Gao, Meng; Gao, Jian; Michalski, Greg; Wang, Yuesi

    2018-04-20

    The sources of aerosol ammonium (NH 4 + ) are of interest because of the potential of NH 4 + to impact the Earth's radiative balance, as well as human health and biological diversity. Isotopic source apportionment of aerosol NH 4 + is challenging in the urban atmosphere, which has excess ammonia (NH 3 ) and where nitrogen isotopic fractionation commonly occurs. Based on year-round isotopic measurements in urban Beijing, we show the source dependence of the isotopic abundance of aerosol NH 4 + , with isotopically light (-33.8‰) and heavy (0 to +12.0‰) NH 4 + associated with strong northerly winds and sustained southerly winds, respectively. On an annual basis, 37-52% of the initial NH 3 concentrations in urban Beijing arises from fossil fuel emissions, which are episodically enhanced by air mass stagnation preceding the passage of cold fronts. These results provide strong evidence for the contribution of non-agricultural sources to NH 3 in urban regions and suggest that priority should be given to controlling these emissions for haze regulation. This study presents a carefully executed application of existing stable nitrogen isotope measurement and mass-balance techniques to a very important problem: understanding source contributions to atmospheric NH 3 in Beijing. This question is crucial to informing environmental policy on reducing particulate matter concentrations, which are some of the highest in the world. However, the isotopic source attribution results presented here still involve a number of uncertain assumptions and they are limited by the incomplete set of chemical and isotopic measurements of gas NH 3 and aerosol NH 4 + . Further field work and lab experiments are required to adequately characterize endmember isotopic signatures and the subsequent isotopic fractionation process under different air pollution and meteorological conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ORIGAMI Automator Primer. Automated ORIGEN Source Terms and Spent Fuel Storage Pool Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, Stephen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Joshua L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Source terms and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage pool decay heat load analyses for operating nuclear power plants require a large number of Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion (ORIGEN) calculations. SNF source term calculations also require a significant amount of bookkeeping to track quantities such as core and assembly operating histories, spent fuel pool (SFP) residence times, heavy metal masses, and enrichments. The ORIGEN Assembly Isotopics (ORIGAMI) module in the SCALE code system provides a simple scheme for entering these data. However, given the large scope of the analysis, extensive scripting is necessary to convert formats and process data to create thousands of ORIGAMI input files (one per assembly) and to process the results into formats readily usable by follow-on analysis tools. This primer describes a project within the SCALE Fulcrum graphical user interface (GUI) called ORIGAMI Automator that was developed to automate the scripting and bookkeeping in large-scale source term analyses. The ORIGAMI Automator enables the analyst to (1) easily create, view, and edit the reactor site and assembly information, (2) automatically create and run ORIGAMI inputs, and (3) analyze the results from ORIGAMI. ORIGAMI Automator uses the standard ORIGEN binary concentrations files produced by ORIGAMI, with concentrations available at all time points in each assembly’s life. The GUI plots results such as mass, concentration, activity, and decay heat using a powerful new ORIGEN Post-Processing Utility for SCALE (OPUS) GUI component. This document includes a description and user guide for the GUI, a step-by-step tutorial for a simplified scenario, and appendices that document the file structures used.

  6. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  7. Briquetting soda weed (Salsola tragus) to be used as a rural fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumak, Hasan [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey); Ucar, Tamer [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bozok University, 66200 Yozgat (Turkey); Seyidbekiroglu, Nesim [Agricultural Machinery Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65080 Van (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Amount of traditional fuel sources in the world has been decreasing and there is a definite need to produce and utilize alternative fuels such as biomass materials. In this study, briquetting conditions of Russian tumbleweed, Salsola tragus, (commonly named soda weed in Turkey) which grows in salty soils were investigated. Soda weeds were first chopped coarsely in a local tresher, then chopped finely in a hammer mill. Weed materials at three moisture levels (7%, 10%, and 13%) were prepared in the lab. Chopped weed materials were filled in cylindrical and square dies and compressed using a hydraulic press at three pressure levels of 15.7, 19.6 and 31.4 MPa. Optimum temperature, moisture rate, and pressure values were determined to produce stable briquettes. Further experiments were conducted to produce briquettes using sawdust and walnut shells as additives in conical dies of two different sizes. Results of a statistical analysis of parameters to produce briquettes in different dies indicated that moisture rates of 7-10%, pressure of 31.4 MPa, and temperatures of 85-105 C were suitable for briquetting soda weed. Furthermore, sawdust and walnut shells additives increased briquette density without any negative effects on production process and product stability. (author)

  8. Study on recriticality of fuel debris during hypothetical severe accidents in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Shin, S.T.

    1995-09-01

    A study has been performed to measure the potential of recriticality during hypothetical severe accident in Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). For the lumped debris configuration in the Reactor Coolant System (RCS), as found in the previous study, recriticality potential may be very low. However, if fuel debris is dispersed and mixed with heavy water in RCS, recriticality potential has been predicted to be substantial depending on thermal-hydraulic conditions surrounding fuel debris mixture. The recriticality potential in RCS is substantially reduced for the three element core design with 50% enrichment. Also, as observed in the previous study, strong dependencies of k eff on key thermal hydraulic parameters are shown. Light water contamination is shown to provide a positive reactivity, and void formation due to boiling of mixed water provides enough negative reactivity and to bring the system down to subcritical. For criticality potential in the subpile room, the lumped debris configuration does not pose a concern. Dispersed configuration in light water pool of the subpile room is also unlikely to result in criticality. However, if the debris is dispersed in the pool that is mixed with heavy water, the results indicate that a substantial potential exists for the debris to reach the criticality. However, if prompt recriticality disperses the debris completely in the subpile room pool, subsequent recriticality may be prevented since neutron leakage effects become large enough

  9. Glycerol (byproduct of biodiesel production) as a source of fuels and chemicals : mini review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Burton, R. [Piedmont Biofuels Industrial, Pittsboro, NC (United States); Zhou, Y. [Yonezawa Hamari Chemical, Ltd., Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, is a potential renewable feedstock for the production of functional chemicals. This paper reviewed recent developments in the conversion of glycerol into value-added products, including citric acid, lactic acid, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), dichloro-2-propanol (DCP), acrolein, hydrogen, and ethanol. The new applications of glycerol will improve the economic viability of the biodiesel industry and capitalize on the oversupply of crude glycerol that the biodiesel industry has produced. Increasing abundance and attractive pricing make glycerol an attractive feedstock for deriving value-added chemical compounds. The processes turn glycerol into chemicals, materials, and fuels and fuel additives. Whereas glycerol from first-generation biodiesel production has low purity, glycerol from second-generation biodiesel production, which uses non-edible oil as a feedstock, produces a higher purity glycerol, minimizing the related impurity problem and potentially increasing the applications of glycerol. Glycerol is also being looked at as a carbon source for algal biomass fermentation. 36 refs.

  10. A Transition Strategy from Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy Sources in the Mexican Electricity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Vidal-Amaro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources exploitation acquires special importance for creating low-carbon energy systems. In Mexico a national regulation limits the fossil fuel-based electricity generation to 65%, 60% and 50% by years 2024, 2030 and 2050 respectively. This study evaluates several scenarios of renewables incorporation into the Mexican electricity system to attend those targets as well as a 75% renewables-based electricity share target towards a 100% renewable system. By its size, the Mexican electricity system, with a generation of 260.4 TWh/year (85% based on fossil fuels, can be regarded as an illustrating reference. The impact of increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaic solar, biomass, biogas, geothermal, hydro and concentrating solar power on the system’s capacity to attend demand on a one-hour timescale resolution is investigated utilizing the EnergyPLAN model and the minimum total mix capacity method. Possible excess of electricity production is also assessed. For every target year, a solution is obtained corresponding to the combination resulting in the minimum total generation capacity for the electricity system. A transition strategy to a system with a high share of renewables-based electricity is designed where every transition step corresponds to the optimal energy mix for each of the target years.

  11. Study of source term evaluation from fuel solution under simulated nuclear criticality accident in TRACY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Nagai, Hitoshi; Koike, Tadao; Okagawa, Seigo; Murata, Mikio

    1999-01-01

    In a accident at the dissolver in a reprocessing plant, various fission products and radiolysis gases will be produced in the fuel solution and volatile radioactive nuclides and radiolysis gases and nitrogen oxide will be released into vent-gas spontaneously. Moreover other on-volatile nuclide will be releases as radioactive aerosol (mist) with bursting bubbles at surface of the solution. Therefore quantitative estimation of release and transport behavior of the radioactive material from solution as source term is very important. TRACY is a transient criticality experimental facility for studying the transient criticality characteristics of low enriched uranium. In this paper, experiment methods and results about the release behavior of the hydrogen, radioactive aerosol and iodine species from the fuel solutions are reported. As the results of the experiments, release patterns of H 2 , 140 Ba and 131 I could be grasped. Concentrations of H 2 in the vent-gas and 140 Ba in the gas phase in the core tank attained to the peak just after the transient criticality and decreased exponentially with time. On the other hand, concentrations of 131 I in the gas phase of the tank began to increase with a time lag of several minutes from the transient criticality and attained approximately constant values. (J.P.N.)

  12. A computational study of droplet evaporation with fuel vapor jet ejection induced by localized heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2015-05-12

    Droplet evaporation by a localized heat source under microgravity conditions was numerically investigated in an attempt to understand the mechanism of the fuel vapor jet ejection, which was observed experimentally during the flame spread through a droplet array. An Eulerian-Lagrangian method was implemented with a temperature-dependent surface tension model and a local phase change model in order to effectively capture the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It was found that the surface tension gradient caused by the temperature variation within the droplet creates a thermo-capillary effect, known as the Marangoni effect, creating an internal flow circulation and outer shear flow which drives the fuel vapor into a tail jet. A parametric study demonstrated that the Marangoni effect is indeed significant at realistic droplet combustion conditions, resulting in a higher evaporation constant. A modified Marangoni number was derived in order to represent the surface force characteristics. The results at different pressure conditions indicated that the nonmonotonic response of the evaporation rate to pressure may also be attributed to the Marangoni effect.

  13. A Mechanistic Source Term Calculation for a Metal Fuel Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David; Bucknor, Matthew; Jerden, James

    2017-06-26

    A mechanistic source term (MST) calculation attempts to realistically assess the transport and release of radionuclides from a reactor system to the environment during a specific accident sequence. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has repeatedly stated its expectation that advanced reactor vendors will utilize an MST during the U.S. reactor licensing process. As part of a project to examine possible impediments to sodium fast reactor (SFR) licensing in the U.S., an analysis was conducted regarding the current capabilities to perform an MST for a metal fuel SFR. The purpose of the project was to identify and prioritize any gaps in current computational tools, and the associated database, for the accurate assessment of an MST. The results of the study demonstrate that an SFR MST is possible with current tools and data, but several gaps exist that may lead to possibly unacceptable levels of uncertainty, depending on the goals of the MST analysis.

  14. On material and energy sources of formation of fuel-containing materials during Chernobyl NPP UNIT 4 accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Mikhailov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of detailed analysis of material substance of lava-like fuel-containing materials sources (FCM and clusters with high uranium concentration were presented. Material and energy balance are aggregated in a process model for optimal composition of sacrificial materials and FCM. Quantitative estimate is given for spent nuclear fuel’ afterheat in a number of other heat energy sources in reactor vault. Conclusion was made that upon condition of 50 % heat loss, remained amount of “useful” heat would be sufficient for proceeding of blast furnace version of fuel-containing materials.

  15. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; George, T. G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M. W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results

  16. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M.W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238 Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  17. A Fuel-Based Assessment of On-Road and Off-Road Mobile Source Emission Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sources contribute significantly to emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States. These emissions lead to a variety of environmental concerns including adverse human health effects and climate change. In the electric power sector, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and NOx emissions from power plants are measured directly using continuous emission monitoring systems. In contrast for mobile sources, statistical models are used to estimate average emissions from a very large and diverse population of engines. Despite much effort aimed at improving them, mobile source emission inventories continue to have large associated uncertainties. Alternate methods are needed to help evaluate estimates of mobile source emissions and quantify and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this study, a fuel-based approach is used to estimate emissions from mobile sources, including on-road and off-road gasoline and diesel engines. In this approach, engine activity is measured by fuel consumed (in contrast EPA mobile source emission models are based on vehicle km of travel and total amount of engine work output for on-road and off-road engines, respectively). Fuel consumption is defined in this study based on highway fuel tax reports for on-road engines, and from surveys of fuel wholesalers who sell tax-exempt diesel fuel for use in various off-road sectors such as agriculture, construction, and mining. Over the decade-long time period (1996-2006) that is the focus of the present study, national sales of taxable gasoline and diesel fuel intended for on-road use increased by 15 and 43%, respectively. Diesel fuel use by off-road equipment increased by about 20% over the same time period. Growth in fuel consumption offset some of the reductions in pollutant emission factors that occurred during this period. This study relies on in-use measurements of mobile source emission factors, for example from roadside and tunnel studies, remote sensing, and

  18. Economically viable biochemical processes for the advanced rural biorefinery and downstream recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural biorefineries offer an alternative to traditional ethanol production by providing the opportunity to produce fuel on site to reduce costs associated with biomass transportation thus making the fuel economically viable. Widespread installation of rural biorefineries could lead to increased upt...

  19. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  20. Biodiesel from Mandarin Seed Oil: A Surprising Source of Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin (Citrus reticulata is one of the most popular fruits in tropical and sub-tropical countries around the world. It contains about 22–34 seeds per fruit. This study investigated the potential of non-edible mandarin seed oil as an alternative fuel in Australia. The seeds were prepared after drying in the oven for 20 h to attain an optimum moisture content of around 13.22%. The crude oil was extracted from the crushed seed using 98% n-hexane solution. The biodiesel conversion reaction (transesterification was designed according to the acid value (mg KOH/g of the crude oil. The study also critically examined the effect of various reaction parameters (such as effect of methanol: oil molar ratio, % of catalyst concentration, etc. on the biodiesel conversion yield. After successful conversion of the bio-oil into biodiesel, the physio-chemical fuel properties of the virgin biodiesel were measured according to relevant ASTM standards and compared with ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD and standard biodiesel ASTM D6751. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were analysed by gas chromatography (GC using the EN 14103 standard. The behaviour of the biodiesel (variation of density and kinematic viscosity at various temperatures (10–40 °C was obtained and compared with that of diesel fuel. Finally, mass and energy balances were conducted for both the oil extraction and biodiesel conversion processes to analyse the total process losses of the system. The study found 49.23 wt % oil yield from mandarin seed and 96.82% conversion efficiency for converting oil to biodiesel using the designated transesterification reaction. The GC test identified eleven FAMEs. The biodiesel mainly contains palmitic acid (C16:0 26.80 vol %, stearic acid (C18:0 4.93 vol %, oleic acid (C18:1 21.43 vol % (including cis. and trans., linoleic acid (C18:2 4.07 vol %, and less than one percent each of other fatty acids. It is an important source of energy because it has a higher

  1. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  2. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-01

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot "mix" may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields—not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or "grains" of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. We describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulations and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.

  3. The effect of the volumetric heat source distribution of the fuel pellet on the minimum DNBR ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hordosy, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Maroti, L.; Trosztel, I.

    1995-01-01

    The radial power distribution in a VVER-440 type fuel assembly is strongly non-uniform as a result of the water-gap between the shrouds and the moderator filled central tube. Consequently, it can be expected that the power density inside a single fuel rod is inhomogeneous, as well. In the paper the methodology and the results of coupled thermohydraulic and neutronic calculations are presented. The objective of the analysis was the investigation of the heat source distribution and the determination of the possible extent of the power non-uniformity in a corner rod which has always the highest peaking factor in a VVER-440 type assembly. The results of the analysis revealed that there can be a strong non-uniformity of power distribution inside a fuel pellet, and the effect depends first of all on the general assembly conditions, while the local subchannel parameters have only a slight influence on the pellet heat source distribution. (author)

  4. Model predictive control of hybrid fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor power sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.; Trilaksono, B.R.; Sasongko, A.; Rohman, A.S.; Dronkers, C.J.; Ortega, R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fuel cell as future energy for vehicle application is very promising due to its environmentally friendly, efficient, and flexible properties. When applied to the vehicle, one drawback of fuel cells is that it is unable to supply sudden load changes since the dynamics of fuel cells is

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents the technical approach and results achieved while developing a grab sampling method and an automated, on-line gas chromatography method suitable to characterize nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fossil fuel combustion sources. The two methods developed have...

  6. Investigation of black and brown carbon multiple-wavelength-dependent light absorption from biomass and fossil fuel combustion source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Olson; Mercedes Victoria Garcia; Michael A. Robinson; Paul Van Rooy; Mark A. Dietenberger; Michael Bergin; James Jay Schauer

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) components of source emissions is critical to understanding the impact combustion aerosols have on atmospheric light absorption. Multiple-wavelength absorption was measured from fuels including wood, agricultural biomass, coals, plant matter, and petroleum distillates in controlled combustion settings....

  7. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  8. Design and evaluation of aircraft heat source systems for use with high-freezing point fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives were the design, performance and economic analyses of practical aircraft fuel heating systems that would permit the use of high freezing-point fuels on long-range aircraft. Two hypothetical hydrocarbon fuels with freezing points of -29 C and -18 C were used to represent the variation from current day jet fuels. A Boeing 747-200 with JT9D-7/7A engines was used as the baseline aircraft. A 9300 Km mission was used as the mission length from which the heat requirements to maintain the fuel above its freezing point was based.

  9. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source DEMO-FNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyev, Sergey S., E-mail: Ananyev_SS@nrcki.ru; Spitsyn, Alexander V.; Kuteev, Boris V.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We presented the concept of a deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of stationary thermonuclear reactor. • Data of fuel cycles for nuclear facility (DEMO-FNS) with 2 variants of the fuel mixture for NBI system are presented. • The amount of tritium which is required for operation of DEMO-FNS is estimated. - Abstract: The paper describes the concept of a deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of a steady-state thermonuclear reactor with a fusion power over 10 MW. Parameters of fuel cycle for nuclear facility (JET scale) with different types of fuel mixtures for neutral beam injection system are presented. Optimization of fuel cycle characteristics was aimed at reducing flows and inventory of hydrogen isotopes and tritium in fuel cycle subsystems. The calculations were carried out using computer code TC-FNS to estimate tritium distribution in fusion reactor systems and components of “tritium plant”. The code enables calculations of tritium flows and inventory in the tokamak systems. Calculations of tritium flows and accumulation have been carried out for two different cases of the fuel mixture for neutral beam injection (NBI) system. The amounts of tritium which is required for operation of all fuel cycle systems in two different cases of the fuel mixture for NBI are 0.45 “” kg (D:T = 1:0) and 0.9 kg (D:T = 1:1) respectively.

  10. Global Partitioning of NOx Sources Using Satellite Observations: Relative Roles of Fossil Fuel Combustion, Biomass Burning and Soil Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaegle, Lyatt; Steinberger, Linda; Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    This document contains the following abstract for the paper "Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions." Satellite observations have been used to provide important new information about emissions of nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are significant in atmospheric chemistry, having a role in ozone air pollution, acid deposition and climate change. We know that human activities have led to a three- to six-fold increase in NOx emissions since pre-industrial times, and that there are three main surface sources of NOx: fuel combustion, large-scale fires, and microbial soil processes. How each of these sources contributes to the total NOx emissions is subject to some doubt, however. The problem is that current NOx emission inventories rely on bottom-up approaches, compiling large quantities of statistical information from diverse sources such as fuel and land use, agricultural data, and estimates of burned areas. This results in inherently large uncertainties. To overcome this, Lyatt Jaegle and colleagues from the University of Washington, USA, used new satellite observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. As the spatial and seasonal distribution of each of the sources of NOx can be clearly mapped from space, the team could provide independent topdown constraints on the individual strengths of NOx sources, and thus help resolve discrepancies in existing inventories. Jaegle's analysis of the satellite observations, presented at the recent Faraday Discussion on "Atmospheric Chemistry", shows that fuel combustion dominates emissions at northern mid-latitudes, while fires are a significant source in the Tropics. Additionally, she discovered a larger than expected role for soil emissions, especially over agricultural regions with heavy fertilizer use. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  11. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  12. Perspective use of direct human blood as an energy source in air-breathing hybrid microfluidic fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dector, A.; Escalona-Villalpando, R. A.; Dector, D.; Vallejo-Becerra, V.; Chávez-Ramírez, A. U.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a flexible and light air-breathing hybrid microfluidic fuel cell (HμFC) operated under biological conditions. A mixture of glucose oxidase, glutaraldehyde, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and vulcan carbon (GOx/VC-MWCNT-GA) was used as the bioanode. Meanwhile, integrating an air-exposed electrode (Pt/C) as the cathode enabled direct oxygen delivery from air. The microfluidic fuel cell performance was evaluated using glucose obtained from three different sources as the fuel: 5 mM glucose in phosphate buffer, human serum and human blood. For the last fuel, an open circuit voltage and maximum power density of 0.52 V and 0.20 mW cm-2 (at 0.38 V) were obtained respectively; meanwhile the maximum current density was 1.1 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the stability of the device was measured in terms of recovery after several polarization curves, showing excellent results. Although this air-breathing HμFC requires technological improvements before being tested in a biomedical device, it represents the best performance to date for a microfluidic fuel cell using human blood as glucose source.

  13. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This law has following two purposes. At first, it exercises necessary controls concerning nuclear source material, nuclear fuel material and reactors in order to: (a) limit their uses to those for the peaceful purpose; (b) ensure planned uses of them; and (c) ensure the public safety by preventing accidents from their uses. Necessary controls are to be made concerning the refining, fabricating and reprocessing businesses, as well as the construction and operation of reactors. The second purpose of the law is to exercise necessary controls concerning internationally controlled material in order to execute the treaties and other international agreements on the research, development and use of atomic energy (the first chapter). In the second and following chapters the law prescribes controls for the persons who wish to carry on the refining and fabricating businesses, to construct and operate reactors, and to conduct the reprocessing business, as well as for those who use the internationally controlled material, respectively in separate chapters by the category of those businesses. For example, the controls to the person who wishes to construct and operate reactors are: (a) the permission of the business after the examination; (b) the examination and approval of the design and methods of construction prior to the construction; (c) the inspection of the facilities prior to their use; (d) periodic inspections of the facilities; (e) the establishment of requirements for safety measures and punishments to their violations. (Matsushima, A.)

  14. Optimal operation management of fuel cell/wind/photovoltaic power sources connected to distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Taher; Kavousifard, Abdollah; Tabatabaei, Sajad; Aghaei, Jamshid

    2011-10-01

    In this paper a new multiobjective modified honey bee mating optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is presented to investigate the distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR) problem considering renewable energy sources (RESs) (photovoltaics, fuel cell and wind energy) connected to the distribution network. The objective functions of the problem to be minimized are the electrical active power losses, the voltage deviations, the total electrical energy costs and the total emissions of RESs and substations. During the optimization process, the proposed algorithm finds a set of non-dominated (Pareto) optimal solutions which are stored in an external memory called repository. Since the objective functions investigated are not the same, a fuzzy clustering algorithm is utilized to handle the size of the repository in the specified limits. Moreover, a fuzzy-based decision maker is adopted to select the 'best' compromised solution among the non-dominated optimal solutions of multiobjective optimization problem. In order to see the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two standard distribution test systems are used as case studies.

  15. Natural rubber, a potential alternative source for the synthesis of renewable fuels via Hydrous Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N.; Dayana, S. A. S.; Abnisa, F.; Mohd, W. A. W. D.

    2018-03-01

    Natural rubber is a humid agricultural harvest, which mostly contains hydrocarbon cis-1, 4-Poly isoprene. Through depolymerisation technology, the natural rubber can be changed into liquid product, and then it can be subsequently utilized as a fuel or chemical feedstock. This article aims to provide an outlook on the natural rubber and its sources, which are available globally. Numerous depolymerisation processes, which include pyrolysis, gasification, chemical degradation, catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, were introduced in this paper, while the focus of discussion was emphasized on the hydrous pyrolysis process. Many studies have shown that the use of hydrous pyrolysis able to improve the depolymerisation process, e.g. the raw material can be feed without drying, the process can be carried out at lower temperature, only the water is used as the reaction medium, and it is easy to separate the water from oil product. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature, water to rubber mass ratio, reaction time and type of gases on the product yield and composition were reviewed in this paper. In addition, this paper also highlighted the eco-friendly and economic viability of the hydrous pyrolysis process.

  16. LMFBR source term experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrykowski, J.C.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) aerosol through liquid sodium was studied in a series of ten experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The experiments were designed to provide a mechanistic basis for evaluating the radiological source term associated with a postulated, energetic core disruptive accident (CDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Aerosol was generated by capacitor discharge vaporization of UO 2 pellets which were submerged in a sodium pool under an argon cover gas. Measurements of the pool and cover gas pressures were used to study the transport of aerosol contained by vapor bubbles within the pool. Samples of cover gas were filtered to determine the quantity of aerosol released from the pool. The depth at which the aerosol was generated was found to be the most critical parameter affecting release. The largest release was observed in the baseline experiment where the sample was vaporized above the sodium pool. In the nine ''undersodium'' experiments aerosol was generated beneath the surface of the pool at depths varying from 30 to 1060 mm. The mass of aerosol released from the pool was found to be a very small fraction of the original specimen. It appears that the bulk of aerosol was contained by bubbles which collapsed within the pool. 18 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Flexibility as a source of value in the production of alternative fuels: The ethanol case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastian-Pinto, Carlos; Brandao, Luiz; Hahn, Warren J.

    2009-01-01

    There is typically a high degree of flexibility associated with the production of alternative fuels due to the ability to source from different input raw materials or to produce different output products based on market conditions. In this paper, we consider the particular example of ethanol and seek to quantify the incremental value from flexibility in its production from sugarcane in Brazil. We accomplish this by first jointly modeling the stochastic processes for the prices of the two relevant commodities, sugar (a food commodity) and ethanol (an energy commodity) in discrete time as a bivariate lattice. This framework allows us to value the option to switch output products based on the respective price signals of the two commodities. However, unlike the usual assumption of geometric Brownian motion stochastic processes, we use the more realistic case of mean reverting commodity price processes. We estimate the parameters for these processes by applying a regression-based procedure to empirical sugar and ethanol data collected during a period from 1998 through 2008. Our results show that the option to switch outputs has significant value, even under the assumption of mean reverting prices, which has implications for both producers and policy-makers alike.

  18. Reactors as a Source of Antineutrinos: Effects of Fuel Loading and Burnup for Mixed-Oxide Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel S.; Erickson, Anna S.

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional light-water reactor loaded with a range of uranium and plutonium-based fuel mixtures, the variation in antineutrino production over the cycle reflects both the initial core fissile inventory and its evolution. Under an assumption of constant thermal power, we calculate the rate at which antineutrinos are emitted from variously fueled cores, and the evolution of that rate as measured by a representative ton-scale antineutrino detector. We find that antineutrino flux decreases with burnup for low-enriched uranium cores, increases for full mixed-oxide (MOX) cores, and does not appreciably change for cores with a MOX fraction of approximately 75%. Accounting for uncertainties in the fission yields in the emitted antineutrino spectra and the detector response function, we show that the difference in corewide MOX fractions at least as small as 8% can be distinguished using a hypothesis test. The test compares the evolution of the antineutrino rate relative to an initial value over part or all of the cycle. The use of relative rates reduces the sensitivity of the test to an independent thermal power measurement, making the result more robust against possible countermeasures. This rate-only approach also offers the potential advantage of reducing the cost and complexity of the antineutrino detectors used to verify the diversion, compared to methods that depend on the use of the antineutrino spectrum. A possible application is the verification of the disposition of surplus plutonium in nuclear reactors.

  19. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low-enriched uranium (20% 235 U) or medium-enriched uranium (35% 235 U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which was initially designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235 U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology

  20. Calculation Of Fuel Burnup And Radionuclide Inventory In The Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor Using The GETERA Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.; Dawahra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Calculations of the fuel burnup and radionuclide inventory in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) after 10 years (the reactor core expected life) of the reactor operation time are presented in this paper using the GETERA code. The code is used to calculate the fuel group constants and the infinite multiplication factor versus the reactor operating time for 10, 20, and 30 kW operating power levels. The amounts of uranium burnup and plutonium produced in the reactor core, the concentrations and radionuclides of the most important fission product and actinide radionuclides accumulated in the reactor core, and the total radioactivity of the reactor core were calculated using the GETERA code as well. It is found that the GETERA code is better than the WIMSD4 code for the fuel burnup calculation in the MNSR reactor since it is newer and has a bigger library of isotopes and more accurate. (author)

  1. Lead Isotopic Compositions of Selected Coals, Pb/Zn Ores and Fuels in China and the Application for Source Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiang-Yang; Li, Zhong-Gen; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Rui; Liu, Jin-Ling; Yang, Hong-Mei; Guo, Ming-Zhi

    2017-11-21

    Lead (Pb) pollution emission from China is becoming a potential worldwide threat. Pb isotopic composition analysis is a useful tool to accurately trace the Pb sources of aerosols in atmosphere. In this study, a comprehensive data set of Pb isotopes for coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels from China was presented. The ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb in the coals were in the range of 1.114-1.383 and 1.791-2.317, similar to those from Europe, Oceania, and South Asia, but different from those from America (p fuels from in coals. Urban aerosols demonstrated similar Pb isotopic compositions to coals, Pb/Zn ores, and fuels in China. After removing the leaded gasoline, the Pb in aerosols is more radiogenic, supporting the heavy contribution of coal combustion to the atmospheric Pb pollution.

  2. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  3. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.K.; Rehman, A.; Sarviya, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  4. Forecasting production of fossil fuel sources in Turkey using a comparative regression and ARIMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Akar, Sertac; Ugurlu, Berkin

    2006-01-01

    This study aims at forecasting the most possible curve for domestic fossil fuel production of Turkey to help policy makers to develop policy implications for rapidly growing dependency problem on imported fossil fuels. The fossil fuel dependency problem is international in scope and context and Turkey is a typical example for emerging energy markets of the developing world. We developed a decision support system for forecasting fossil fuel production by applying a regression, ARIMA and SARIMA method to the historical data from 1950 to 2003 in a comparative manner. The method integrates each model by using some decision parameters related to goodness-of-fit and confidence interval, behavior of the curve, and reserves. Different forecasting models are proposed for different fossil fuel types. The best result is obtained for oil since the reserve classifications used it is much better defined them for the others. Our findings show that the fossil fuel production peak has already been reached; indicating the total fossil fuel production of the country will diminish and theoretically will end in 2038. However, production is expected to end in 2019 for hard coal, in 2024 for natural gas, in 2029 for oil and 2031 for asphaltite. The gap between the fossil fuel consumption and production is growing enormously and it reaches in 2030 to approximately twice of what it is in 2000

  5. Utilization of waste coconut coir dust as a source of fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festin, T.F.; Jose, W.I.

    1979-01-01

    A review on the production of a gaseous fuel by the pyrolysis of waste coir dust, which is a by-product in the manufacturing of coir fibers from coconut husks. Experimental and pilot-plant studies on the pyrolysis of coir dust are discussed and the properties of the dust and the fuel gas produced are given. (Refs. 13).

  6. Fuel from Wastewater - Harnessing a Potential Energy Source in Canada through the Co-location of Algae Biofuel Production to Sources of Effluent, Heat and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Roach, J. D.; Passell, H. D.; Moreland, B. D.; O'Leary, S. J.; Pienkos, P. T.; Whalen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the “production” footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada’s NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific

  7. Role of fuel bubble phenomenology in assessment of LMFBR source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, D.H.; Condiff, D.W.; Chan, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Phenomenological aspects of a fuel vapor bubble formed in the sodium pool in a hypothetical severe accident are considered. The potential for fuel bubble collapse in the sodium pool is analyzed. It appears that for a wide range of hypothetical LMFBR accidents involving core vaporization, the fuel vapor bubble would likely be quenched and collapse prior to migration to the cover gas region. Such rapid quenching is due mainly to radiative heat transfer from the fuel bubble, coupled with the inherent capability of the sodium pool (large subcooling and high thermal conductivity) to dissipate thermal energy. Major uncertainty in the analysis concerns fuel vapor condensation phenomena at the sodium interface and its effect on the sodium surface radiation absorptivity. This is discussed in detail

  8. Neutron source, linear-accelerator fuel enricher and regenerator and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Meyer; Powell, James R.; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Grand, Pierre; Kouts, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    A device for producing fissile material inside of fabricated nuclear elements so that they can be used to produce power in nuclear power reactors. Fuel elements, for example, of a LWR are placed in pressure tubes in a vessel surrounding a liquid lead-bismuth flowing columnar target. A linear-accelerator proton beam enters the side of the vessel and impinges on the dispersed liquid lead-bismuth columns and produces neutrons which radiate through the surrounding pressure tube assembly or blanket containing the nuclear fuel elements. These neutrons are absorbed by the natural fertile uranium-238 elements and are transformed to fissile plutonium-239. The fertile fuel is thus enriched in fissile material to a concentration whereby they can be used in power reactors. After use in the power reactors, dispensed depleted fuel elements can be reinserted into the pressure tubes surrounding the target and the nuclear fuel regenerated for further burning in the power reactor.

  9. The Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) model: Analysis of spent fuel as a nuclear waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Engel, D.W.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of spent fuel as a final waste form. The release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel has been simulated for the three repository sites that were nominated for site characterization in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The simulation is based on waste package designs that were presented in the environmental assessments prepared for each site. Five distinct distributions for containment failure have been considered, and the release for nuclides from the UO 2 matrix, gap (including grain boundary), crud/surface layer, and cladding has been calculated with the Analytic Repository Source-Term (AREST) code. Separate scenarios involving incongruent and congruent release from the UO 2 matrix have also been examined using the AREST code. Congruent release is defined here as the condition in which the relative mass release rates of a given nuclide and uranium from the UO 2 matrix are equal to their mass ratios in the matrix. Incongruent release refers to release of a given nuclide from the UO 2 matrix controlled by its own solubility-limiting solid phase. Release of nuclides from other sources within the spent fuel (e.g., cladding, fuel/cladding gap) is evaluated separately from either incongruent or congruent matrix release. 51 refs., 200 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Source identification of underground fuel spills by solid-phase microextraction/high-resolution gas chromatography/genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, B K; Ritter, J; Moores, A J; Wilson, M; Faruque, A; Mayfield, H T

    2000-01-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), capillary column gas chromatography, and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of gas chromatograms from 180 neat jet fuel samples representing common aviation turbine fuels found in the United States (JP-4, Jet-A, JP-7, JPTS, JP-5, JP-8). SPME sampling of the fuel's headspace afforded well-resolved reproducible profiles, which were standardized using special peak-matching software. The peak-matching procedure yielded 84 standardized retention time windows, though not all peaks were present in all gas chromatograms. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to identify features (in the standardized chromatograms of the neat jet fuels) suitable for pattern recognition analysis. The GA selected peaks, whose two largest principal components showed clustering of the chromatograms on the basis of fuel type. The principal component analysis routine in the fitness function of the GA acted as an information filter, significantly reducing the size of the search space, since it restricted the search to feature subsets whose variance is primarily about differences between the various fuel types in the training set. In addition, the GA focused on those classes and/or samples that were difficult to classify as it trained using a form of boosting. Samples that consistently classify correctly were not as heavily weighted as samples that were difficult to classify. Over time, the GA learned its optimal parameters in a manner similar to a perceptron. The pattern recognition GA integrated aspects of strong and weak learning to yield a "smart" one-pass procedure for feature selection.

  11. Usability of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) fruits as an energy source for diesel-like fuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Yakup; Şen, Nejdet; Deveci, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This is the first study conducted on the obtaining of bio-oil from terebinth. ► Maximum bio-oil yield was obtained as 58.99 wt.% from optimum pyrolysis conditions. ► Bio-oil and its aliphatic sub-fraction were almost similar to diesel fuel. ► Content of bio-oil is made from the high paraffinic and others with added value. ► Bio-oil has the usability as a feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of varying pyrolysis parameters, including final temperature, heating rate, particle size, and nitrogen flow rate, on the yields of terebinth as a source of bio-oil. The maximum bio-oil yield of 58.99 wt.% was almost equal to diesel fuel in terms of its major fuel properties (H/C = 1.73, 38.50 MJ/kg, 0.954 g/cm 3 , and flash point of 59 °C). The GC–MS and 1 H-NMR analysis results showed that bio-oil predominantly comprised aliphatic hydrocarbons with high heating value and other valuable compounds with potential added value. The results show that the bio-oil can be used as a feedstock for the production of the diesel-like fuels or refined chemicals.

  12. Methanol as a High Purity Hydrogen Source for Fuel Cells: A Brief Review of Catalysts and Rate Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej-Lachowska Maria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, therefore many hydrogen production methods are developed. At present, fuel cells are of great interest due to their energy efficiency and environmental benefits. A brief review of effective formation methods of hydrogen was conducted. It seems that hydrogen from steam reforming of methanol process is the best fuel source to be applied in fuel cells. In this process Cu-based complex catalysts proved to be the best. In presented work kinetic equations from available literature and catalysts are reported. However, hydrogen produced even in the presence of the most selective catalysts in this process is not pure enough for fuel cells and should be purified from CO. Currently, catalysts for hydrogen production are not sufficiently active in oxidation of carbon monoxide. A simple and effective method to lower CO level and obtain clean H2 is the preferential oxidation of monoxide carbon (CO-PROX. Over new CO-PROX catalysts the level of carbon monoxide can be lowered to a sufficient level of 10 ppm.

  13. Compact PEM fuel cell system combined with all-in-one hydrogen generator using chemical hydride as a hydrogen source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jincheol; Kim, Taegyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compact fuel cell system was developed for a portable power generator. • Novel concept using an all-in-one reactor for hydrogen generation was proposed. • Catalytic reactor, hydrogen chamber and separator were combined in a volume. • The system can be used to drive fuel cell-powered unmanned autonomous systems. - Abstract: Compact fuel cell system was developed for a portable power generator. The power generator features a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using a chemical hydride as a hydrogen source. The hydrogen generator extracted hydrogen using a catalytic hydrolysis from a sodium borohydride alkaline solution. A novel concept using an all-in-one reactor was proposed in which a catalyst, hydrogen chamber and byproduct separator were combined in a volume. In addition, the reactor as well as a pump, cooling fans, valves and controller was integrated in a single module. A 100 W PEMFC stack was connected with the hydrogen generator and was evaluated at various load conditions. It was verified that the stable hydrogen supply was achieved and the developed system can be used to drive fuel cell-powered unmanned autonomous systems.

  14. Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasibhatla, P.; Arellano, A.; Logan, J.A.; Palmer, P.I.; Novelli, P. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States). Nicholas School of Environmental & Earth Science

    2002-10-01

    Deriving robust regional estimates of the sources of chemically and radiatively important gases and aerosols to the atmosphere is challenging. Using an inverse modeling methodology, it was found that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion in Asia during 1994 was 350-380 Tg yr{sup -1}, which is 110-140 Tg yr{sup -1} higher than bottom-up estimates derived using traditional inventory-based approaches. This discrepancy points to an important gap in our understanding of the human impact on atmospheric chemical composition.

  15. A projection of motor fuel tax revenue and analysis of alternative revenue sources in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Motor fuel tax revenue currently supplies the majority of funding for : transportation agencies at the state and federal level. Georgia uses excise and sales taxes : to generate revenue for the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT). Inflation a...

  16. Accident-generated radioactive particle source term development for consequence assessment of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, S.L.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Halverson, M.A.; Mishima, J.

    1983-04-01

    Consequences of nuclear fuel cycle facility accidents can be evaluated using aerosol release factors developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These experimentally determined factors are compiled and consequence assessment methods are discussed. Release factors can be used to estimate the fraction of material initially made airborne by postulated accident scenarios. These release fractions in turn can be used in models to estimate downwind contamination levels as required for safety assessments of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 20 references, 4 tables

  17. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Vol 1 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lakey, L. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1983-07-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This first volume includes the overview and the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Argentina to Italy.

  18. Operation of molten carbonate fuel cells with different biogas sources: A challenging approach for field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogisch, S.; Hoffmann, J.; Daza Bertrand, L.

    In the past years research in the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) area has been focusing its efforts on the utilisation of natural gas as fuel (S. Geitmann, Wasserstoff- & Brennstoffzellen-Projekte, 2002, ISBN 3-8311-3280-1). In order to increase the advantages of this technology, an international consortium has worked on the utilisation of biogas as fuel in MCFC. During the 4 years lasting RTD project EFFECTIVE two different gas upgrading systems have been developed and constructed together with two mobile MCFC test beds which were operated at different locations for approximately 2.000-5.000 h in each run with biogas from different origins and quality. The large variety of test locations has enabled to gather a large database for assessing the effect of the different biogas qualities on the complete system consisting of the upgrading and the fuel cell systems. The findings are challenging. This article also aims at giving an overview of the advantages of using biogas as fuel for fuel cells.

  19. A prototype machine using thermal type Stirling solar energy and bio fuel as a primary energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Cesar; Sousa, Regina Celia de; Santos, Jose Maria Ramos dos; Oliveira, Antonio Jose Silva [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Depending on the energy crisis and global warming became necessary to seek new sources of energy that could minimize the serious problems arising from this situation. The energy base that supported our growth in recent decades has supported - heavily on fossil fuel, highly polluting since its extraction and consumption, causing great environmental impact. Before his coal, also harmful to human health and nature. Modern life has been moved at the expense of exhaustible resources that took millions of years to form and will end one day. In this work we developed a prototype that uses a heat engine cycle of the Stirling engine with a heat source, arising from the burning of bio fuels or solar power. The main bio fuel used was ethanol. Ethanol is a product of today's diverse market applications, widely used as automotive fuel in hydrated form or blended with gasoline. The main layout of our prototype are: the four-cylinder, two for expansion and the other two for compression, a heat spreader and heat sinks. These simple components can be arranged in various configurations allowing a large space to the adequacy and efficiency of the machine. In experimental measurements made in our prototype, we have an angular speed of 360.1 rpm (revolutions per minute) with an average temperature of 215.6 deg C camera hot (expansion cylinder) and 30 deg C cold source (compression cylinders) and torque generated by our machine is 0.388 Nm Our device is multi-fuel and can be used virtually any source of energy: gasoline, ethanol, methanol, natural gas, diesel, biogas, LPG and solar energy. The construction of this device allowed us to investigate the processes of transformation of energy: chemical, thermal, and mechanical and maximize efficiency of the Stirling engine. To complete the monitoring apparatus, use equipment such as notebook, digital tachometer and a data acquisition Agilent 34970A model. These devices were used in monitoring the angular velocity and

  20. Novel design of a compacted micro-structured air-breathing PEM fuel cell as a power source for mobile phones

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2010-01-01

    The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems for application in portable electronic devices. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. There are many new miniaturized applications which can only be realized if a higher energy density power source is available compared to button cells and other small batteries. In small-scale applications, the fuel cell should b...

  1. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment

  2. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  3. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is

  4. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The law intends under the principles of the atomic energy act to regulate the refining, processing and reprocessing businesses of nuclear raw and fuel metarials and the installation and operation of reactors for the peaceful and systematic utilization of such materials and reactors and for securing public safety by preventing disasters, as well as to control internationally regulated things for effecting the international agreements on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; nuclear reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing; internationally regulated thing. Any person who is going to engage in refining businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade Industry. Any person who is going to engage in processing businesses shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister. Any person who is going to establish reactors shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister, The Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transportation according to the kinds of specified reactors, respectively. Any person who is going to engage in reprocessing businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister. The employment of nuclear fuel materials and internationally regulated things is defined in detail. (Okada, K.)

  5. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for designation of undertakings of refining (spallation and eaching filtration facilities, thickening facilities, refining facilities, nuclear material substances or nuclear fuel substances storage facilities, waste disposal facilities, etc.), application for permission for alteration (business management plan, procurement plan, fund raising plan, etc.), application for approval of merger (procedure, conditions, reason and date of merger, etc.), submission of report on alteration (location, structure, arrangements processes and construction plan for refining facilities, etc.), revocation of designation, rules for records, rules for safety (personnel, organization, safety training for employees, handling of important apparatus and tools, monitoring and removal of comtaminants, management of radioactivity measuring devices, inspection and testing, acceptance, transport and storage of nuclear material and fuel, etc.), measures for emergency, submission of report on abolition of an undertaking, submission of report on disorganization, measures required in the wake of revocation of designation, submission of information report (exposure to radioactive rays, stolen or missing nuclear material or nuclear fuel, unusual leak of nuclear fuel or material contaminated with nuclear fuel), etc. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Development of unfolding method to obtain pin-wise source strength distribution from PWR spent fuel assembly measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitompul, Yos Panagaman; Shin, Hee-Sung; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong Myeong; Seo, Hee; Kim, Ho Dong

    2013-01-01

    An unfolding method has been developed to obtain a pin-wise source strength distribution of a 14 × 14 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assembly. Sixteen measured gamma dose rates at 16 control rod guide tubes of an assembly are unfolded to 179 pin-wise source strengths of the assembly. The method calculates and optimizes five coefficients of the quadratic fitting function for X-Y source strength distribution, iteratively. The pin-wise source strengths are obtained at the sixth iteration, with a maximum difference between two sequential iterations of about 0.2%. The relative distribution of pin-wise source strength from the unfolding is checked using a comparison with the design code (Westinghouse APA code). The result shows that the relative distribution from the unfolding and design code is consistent within a 5% difference. The absolute value of the pin-wise source strength is also checked by reproducing the dose rates at the measurement points. The result shows that the pin-wise source strengths from the unfolding reproduce the dose rates within a 2% difference. (author)

  7. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    According to the provisions of The Law, those stipulated as internationally controlled materials are nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials, moderating materials, reactors and facilities, transferred from such as the U.S.A., the U.K. and Canada on the agreements of peaceful uses of atomic energy, and nuclear fuel materials accruing therefrom. (Mori, K.)

  8. Sycamore produces viable seed after six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Ike

    1966-01-01

    In the early stages of any tree improvement program it is desirable to know how soon progenies of selected parents can themselves be included in a breeding program. How soon will they produce viable pollen and seed? In the case of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), the information is meager: the Woody- Plant Seed Manual lists the minimum commercial seedbearing age...

  9. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions concerning refining business in the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as: exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area and worker. The application for the designation for refining business under the law shall be classified into the facilities for crushing and leaching-filtration, thikening, and refining, the storage facilities for nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, etc. To the application, shall be attached business plans, the explanations concerning the technical abilities of applicants and the prevention of hazards by nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials regarding refining facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, the maintenance of and accidents in refining facilities, and kept for specified periods, respectively. Security regulations shall be enacted for each works or enterprise on the functions and organizations of persons engaged in the control of refining facilities, the operation of the apparatuses which must be controlled for the prevention of accidents, and the establishment of control area and surrounding monitoring area, etc. The report on the usage of internationally regulated goods and the measures taken at the time of danger are defined particularly. (Okada, K.)

  10. The PEM fuel cell as a residential power source; Die PEMFC in der Hausenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gummert, G [HGC Hamburg Gas Consult GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    The firm HGC, Hamburg Gas Consult GmbH, has been offering CHP systems based on fuel cells since 1996. There still is only one series product on the market, the 200 kW{sub el} or 220 kW{sub th} PC 25 system produced by ONSI, South Windsor, USA. Seven phosphoric acid fuel cell-driven CHPs with a total capacity of 1.4 MW{sub el} have been designed, installed and put into operation by the HGC engineers. Whereas the PC 25 system of ONSI is optimal for applications such as integration into a local heating network, fabrication of small-size phosphoric acid fuel cell systems with a capacity of just 50 kW{sub el} has been found to be non-profitable. For applications requiring 50 kW{sub el} or less, another fuel cell type is much more promising: the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Seit 1996 bietet die HGC Hamburg Gas Consult GmbH Kraft-Waermekopplung mit Brennstoffzellen an. Das einzige Serienprodukt ist damals wie heute die bei der Fa. ONSI in South Windsor, USA, gebaute PC 25 mit 200 kW{sub el} und 220 kW{sub th}. Sieben phosphorsaure Brennstoffzellen-BHKW mit einer Gesamtleistung von 1,4 MW{sub el} wurden bereits von den HGC-Ingenieuren geplant, installiert und in Betrieb genommen. Waehrend die ONSI PC 25 ideal als Blockheizkraftwerk an einem Nahwaermenetz eingesetzt werden kann, rentiert sich die Herstellung kleinerer phosphorsaurer Brennstoffzellenaggregate z.B. mit 50 kW{sub el} Leistung nicht. Fuer Anwendungen im Bereich <50 kW{sub el} bietet sich deshalb ein anderer Brennstoffzellentyp an: Die Polymer Electrolyt Membran Brennstoffzelle (PFMFC). (orig.)

  11. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochurov, B.P. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA - Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  12. Evaluation of source term parameters for spent fuel disposal in foreign countries. (2) Dissolution rates of spent fuel matrices and construction materials for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Chikazawa, Takahiro; Tachi, Yukio; Akahori, Kuniaki

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese geological disposal program has started researching disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SF) in deep geological strata (hereafter 'direct disposal of SF') as an alternative management option other reprocessing followed by vitrification and geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. We conducted literature survey of dissolution rate of SF matrix and constructing materials (e.g. zircaloy cladding and control rods) selected in safety assessment reports for direct disposal of SF in Europe and United States. We also investigated basis of release rate determination and assignment of uncertainties in the safety assessment reports. Furthermore, we summarized major conclusions proposed by some European projects governed by European Commission. It was found that determined release rates are fairly similar to each other due to use of similar literature data in all countries of interest. It was also found that the determined release rates were including conservativeness because it was difficult to assign uncertainties quantitatively. It is expected that these findings are useful as fundamental information for determination of the release rates for the safety assessment of Japanese SF disposal system. (author)

  13. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Artur Braun; Yuanzhi Chen; J. David Robertson; Joseph Kyger; Adel F. Sarofim; Ronald J. Pugmire; Henk L.C. Meuzelaar; JoAnn Lighty

    2003-07-31

    The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the

  14. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of 238 PuO 2 in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work

  15. Ecological aspects of the use of fuels and lubricants from plant and animal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, I.G.; Evdokimov, A.Yu.; Dzhamalov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    In attacking the problems involved in preventing or mitigating the growing ecological crisis and its consequences, the leading place is occupied by the search for an alternative ecologically clean raw material for the production of various types of energy and the manufacture of chemical products. Fuels and lubricants, whether of petroleum or synthetic origin, pose a significant threat to the environment. Here, the authors are generally speaking of ecologically dangerous products, but in many cases even toxic products. They pollute the air, soil, and water with automotive exhaust, spills of used oils, and the incineration and burial of wastes. Vegetable and animal fats do not have any of the shortcomings that are enumerated above. They are biodegradable, nontoxic, and do not form xenobiotics. The use of fats and oils as base stocks or components of fuels and lubricants may well facilitate and accelerate the solution of certain ecological problems. 26 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. Preliminary correlation of organic molecular tracers in residential wood smoke with the source of fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Laurel J.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Polar cyclic di- and triterpenoids were analyzed in the extracts of residential wood combustion aerosols collected in suburban sections of Eugene, Oakridge and Corvallis, Oregon. Additional samples collected included alder wood, smoke from two wood stoves burning only alder or pine as fuel, soot from a stove burning alder and a fireplace where oak was the predominant fuel. Due to the relatively cooler temperatures present under the smoldering conditions of residential wood combustion, as compared to the active burning of forest fires and slash burns, incomplete combustion resulted in the preservation of high levels of the natural products. There were three distinct signatures which could be used to trace relative input from coniferous, alder and oak combustion products, i.e. diterpenoids, lupane-derived triterpenoids and friedelin, respectively. Conifer combustion products dominated the suburban smoke aerosols.

  17. The dynamic and steady state behavior of a PEM fuel cell as an electric energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, R.A. [Fundacao Educacional de Barretos (FEB), School of Electrical Engineering, Av. Prof. Roberto Frade Monte, 389 Aeroporto, 14783.226, Barretos, SP (Brazil); Camacho, J.R. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, School of Electrical Engineering, Rural Electricity and Alternative Energy Sources Lab., Av. Joao N. de Avila, 2121, 38400.902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2006-10-27

    The main objective of this work is to extract information on the internal behavior of three small polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells under static and dynamic load conditions. A computational model was developed using Scilab [SCILAB 4, Scilab-a free scientific software package, http://www.scilab.org/, INRIA, France, December, 2005] to simulate the static and dynamic performance [J.M. Correa, A.F. Farret, L.N. Canha, An analysis of the dynamic performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using an electrochemical model, in: 27th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2001, pp. 141-146] of this particular type of fuel cell. This dynamic model is based on electrochemical equations and takes into consideration most of the chemical and physical characteristics of the device in order to generate electric power. The model takes into consideration the operating, design parameters and physical material properties. The results show the internal losses and concentration effects behavior, which are of interest for power engineers and researchers. (author)

  18. The dynamic and steady state behavior of a PEM fuel cell as an electric energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R. A.; Camacho, J. R.

    The main objective of this work is to extract information on the internal behavior of three small polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells under static and dynamic load conditions. A computational model was developed using Scilab [SCILAB 4, Scilab-a free scientific software package, http://www.scilab.org/, INRIA, France, December, 2005] to simulate the static and dynamic performance [J.M. Correa, A.F. Farret, L.N. Canha, An analysis of the dynamic performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells using an electrochemical model, in: 27th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2001, pp. 141-146] of this particular type of fuel cell. This dynamic model is based on electrochemical equations and takes into consideration most of the chemical and physical characteristics of the device in order to generate electric power. The model takes into consideration the operating, design parameters and physical material properties. The results show the internal losses and concentration effects behavior, which are of interest for power engineers and researchers.

  19. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    General provisions specify the purpose of the Law and definitions of terms used in it. Provisions relating to control of business management for refining cover designation of business operation, requirements for designation, permission and report of alteration, report of commencement of business operation, revocation of designation, recording, and measures for wastes. Provisions relating to control of business management for processing cover permission of operation, requirements for permission, approval of design and construction plan, inspection of facilities, report of commencement of business management, measures for maintenance, suspension of use of facilities, responsible personnel for handling nuclear fuel, and permit, obligations, etc. of responsible personnel for handing nuclear fuel. Provisions relating to control of construction and operation of nuclear reactor cover permission of construction, permission concerning nuclear reactor mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, requirements for permission, etc. Other articles stipulate provisions relating to control of business management for reprocessing, use of nuclear fuel substances, use of materials and substances covered by international regulations, designation of inspection organizations, and other rules. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Implications of wall recycling and carbon source locations on core plasma fueling and impurity content in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M.; Porter, G.D.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Lasnier, C.J.; Meyer, W.M.; Rensink, M.E.; Wolf, N.S.; Boedo, J.A.; Moyer, R.A.; Rudakov, D.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Petrie, T.W.; Owen, L.W.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Watkins, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Measurement and modeling of the 2-D poloidal D α intensity distribution in DIII-D low and medium density L-mode and ELMy H-mode plasmas indicate that hydrogen neutrals predominantly fuel the core from the divertor X-point region. The 2-D distribution of neutral deuterium and low-charge-state carbon were measured in the divertor and the high-field side midplane scrape-off layer (SOL) using tangentially viewing cameras. The emission in the high-field SOL at the equatorial plane was found to be three to four orders of magnitude lower than at the strike points in the divertor, suggesting a strong divertor particle source. Modeling using the UEDGE/DEGAS codes predicted the poloidal fueling distribution to be dependent on the direction of the ion Bx∇B drift. In plasmas with the Bx∇B drift into the divertor stronger fueling from the inner divertor than from the outer is predicted, due to a lower-temperature and higher-density plasma in the inner leg. UEDGE simulations with carbon produced by both physical and chemical sputtering at the divertor plates and walls only are in agreement with a large set of diagnostic data. The simulations indicate flow reversal in the inner divertor that augments the leakage of carbon ions from the divertor into the core. (author)

  1. Heat Source Characterization In A TREAT Fuel Particle Using Coupled Neutronics Binary Collision Monte-Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunert, Sebastian; Schwen, Daniel; Ghassemi, Pedram; Baker, Benjamin; Zabriskie, Adam; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Gleicher, Frederick; DeHart, Mark; Martineau, Richard

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a multi-physics, multi-scale approach to modeling the Transient Test Reactor (TREAT) currently prepared for restart at the Idaho National Laboratory. TREAT fuel is made up of microscopic fuel grains (r ˜ 20µm) dispersed in a graphite matrix. The novelty of this work is in coupling a binary collision Monte-Carlo (BCMC) model to the Finite Element based code Moose for solving a microsopic heat-conduction problem whose driving source is provided by the BCMC model tracking fission fragment energy deposition. This microscopic model is driven by a transient, engineering scale neutronics model coupled to an adiabatic heating model. The macroscopic model provides local power densities and neutron energy spectra to the microscpic model. Currently, no feedback from the microscopic to the macroscopic model is considered. TREAT transient 15 is used to exemplify the capabilities of the multi-physics, multi-scale model, and it is found that the average fuel grain temperature differs from the average graphite temperature by 80 K despite the low-power transient. The large temperature difference has strong implications on the Doppler feedback a potential LEU TREAT core would see, and it underpins the need for multi-physics, multi-scale modeling of a TREAT LEU core.

  2. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  3. Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays From The Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.

    2003-01-01

    The fuel distribution and degree of atomization in the combustion chamber is a primary factor in the formation of emissions in diesel engines. A number of diagnostics to study sprays have been developed over the last twenty years; these are primarily based on visible light measurement techniques. However, visible light scatters strongly from fuel droplets surrounding the spray, which prevents penetration of the light. This has made quantitative measurements of the spray core very difficult, particularly in the relatively dense near- nozzle region [1-3]. For this reason we developed the x-ray technique to study the properties of fuel sprays in a quantitative way [4]. The x-ray technique is not limited by scattering, which allows it to be used to make quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution. These measurements are particularly effective in the region near the nozzle where other techniques fail. This technique has led to a number of new insights into the structure of fuel sprays, including the discovery and quantitative measurement of shock waves generated under some conditions by high-pressure diesel sprays [5]. We also performed the first-ever quantitative measurements of the time-resolved mass distribution in the near-nozzle region, which demonstrated that the spray is atomized only a few nozzle diameters from the orifice [6]. Our recent work has focused on efforts to make measurements under pressurized ambient conditions. We have recently completed a series of measurements at pressures up to 5 bar and are looking at the effect of ambient pressure on the structure of the spray. The enclosed figure shows the mass distributions measured for 1,2, and 5 bar ambient pressures. As expected, the penetration decreases as the pressure increases. This leads to changes in the measured mass distribution, including an increase in the density at the leading edge of the spray. We have also observed a narrowing in the cone angle of the spray core as the pressure

  4. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  5. Pressing device for producing compacts from source material in powder form in particular pulverized nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, G.; Adelmann, M.; Konigs, W.; Wendorf, W.

    1984-01-01

    Pressing device for producing compacts from source material in powder form, in particular pulverized nuclear reactor fuel having a die-plate contained in platen and a bore associated with a ram, for receiving source material powder, a filling shoe, and a reservoir for powder connected by a hose to the filling shoe. The device is characterized by a passing wheel in the filling shoe as filling aid means; a tube containing a feedscrew disposed between the reservoir and hose as metering means; the reservoir having a bottom part with a can type place-on part with an opening eccentric to the axis; a coupling part and a cover part are placed on the open part of the can, these parts are also provided with a passageway to the feedscrew eccentric to the longitudinal axis

  6. The comparison of source contributions from residential coal and low-smoke fuels, using CMB modeling in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrech, J.P.; Swanepoel, L.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.; Egami, R.T. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (USA)

    2002-04-01

    D-grade residential coal is being widely used for heating and cooking by most of the lower-income urban communities in South Africa. The adverse health effects resulting from exposure to residential coal combustion emissions have been a major public concern for many years. The Department of Minerals and Energy of South Africa conducted a macro-scale experiment in the township of Qalabotjha during the winter of 1997 to assess the technical and social benefits of combusting low-smoke fuels. This paper reports the PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} chemical mass-balance (CMB) source apportionment results from Qalabotjha during a 30-day sampling period, including a 10-day period when a large proportion of low-smoke fuels was burnt. Residential coal combustion was found to be the greatest source of air pollution, accounting for 62.1% of PM{sub 2.5} and 42.6% of PM{sub 10} at the three Qalabotjha sites. Biomass burning is also a major source, accounting for 13.8% of PM{sub 2.5} and 19.9% of PM{sub 10}. Fugitive dust is only significant in the coarse particle fraction, accounting for 11.3% of PM{sub 10}. Contributions from secondary ammonium sulfate are three-four times greater than from ammonium nitrate, accounting for 5-6% of PM mass. Minor contributions were found for power plant fly ash, motor vehicle exhaust, and agricultural lime. Average PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} mass decreased by 20 and 25%, respectively, from the D-grade coal combustion period (days 1-10) to the majority of the low-smoke fuel period (days 11-20). Relative source contribution estimates were similar among the three sampling periods for PM{sub 2.5}, and were quite different for PM{sub 10} during the second period when 14% higher residential coal combustion and 9% lower biomass burning source contributions were found.

  7. Regulation of Viable and Optimal Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: aubin.jp@gmail.com [VIMADES (Viabilité, Marchés, Automatique, Décisions) (France)

    2015-10-15

    This study deals with the evolution of (scalar) attributes (resources or income in evolutionary demography or economics, position in traffic management, etc.) of a population of “mobiles” (economic agents, vehicles, etc.). The set of mobiles sharing the same attributes is regarded as an instantaneous cohort described by the number of its elements. The union of instantaneous cohorts during a mobile window between two attributes is a cohort. Given a measure defining the number of instantaneous cohorts, the accumulation of the mobile attributes on a evolving mobile window is the measure of the cohort on this temporal mobile window. Imposing accumulation constraints and departure conditions, this study is devoted to the regulation of the evolutions of the attributes which are1.viable in the sense that the accumulations constraints are satisfied at each instant;2.and, among them, optimal, in the sense that both the duration of the temporal mobile window is maximum and that the accumulation on this temporal mobile window is the largest viable one. This value is the “accumulation valuation” function. Viable and optimal evolutions under accumulation constraints are regulated by an “implicit Volterra integro-differential inclusion” built from the accumulation valuation function, solution to an Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman partial differential equation under constraints which is constructed for this purpose.

  8. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the above mentioned law this order prescribes the procedures of controls given to the persons who wish to conduct refining and fabricating businesses, to construct and operate reactors, and to use nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and internationally controlled materials. The common controlling principle prescribed is that the permission or authorization necessary for above listed businesses should be applied for at each factory or each place of business. Based on the principle, the order prescribes: the procedures to apply for the authorization of the refining business, the permission of the change thereof, and the permission of the fabricating business and the change, thereof (the 1st chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission of the construction of reactors and of the change of the construction, as well as the procedure to do periodic inspections of reactor facilities (the 2nd chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials and to change the use thereof, the submission of the report to use nuclear source materials, as well as the procedure to apply for the permission to use internationally controlled materials. In the 4th chapter the order lists up the items on which the competent Ministers may require reports from the person who carries on the relevant business. (Matsushima, A.)

  9. Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report. [200 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.

    1982-05-15

    The economics of liquid-fuels production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for fuel conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-fuels processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.

  10. On the Development of Fuel-Free Power Supply Sources on Pneumatic Energy Conversion Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E. E.; Nikolaev, V. G.; Kudryashov, Yu. I.; Nikolaev, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    The article is devoted to the evaluation of capabilities and problems of creation of fuel-free power supply of isolated and autonomous Russian consumers of low (up to several hundreds kW) power based on the joint use of wind power plants and progressive systems of pneumatic accumulation and conversion of energy. The basic and functional schemes and component structure of the system prototype are developed and proposed, the evaluations of the expected technical and economic indicators of system are presented, and the ways of its further practical implementation are planned.

  11. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...... to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relocate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby improve the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by advanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing...

  12. Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass at Bakersfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA), known to form in the atmosphere from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by anthropogenic and biogenic sources, are a poorly understood but substantial component of atmospheric particles. In this study, we examined the chemic...

  13. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Concerning refining, fabrication and reprocessing operations of such materials as well as the installation and operation of reactors, necessary regulations are carried out. Namely, in case of establishing the business of refining, fabricating and reprocessing nuclear materials as well as installing nuclear reactors, applications for the permission of the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry should be filed. Change of such operations should be permitted after filing applications. These permissions are retractable. As regards the reactors installed aboard foreign ships, it must be reported to enter Japanese waters and the permission by the Prime Minister must be obtained. In case of nuclear fuel fabricators, a chief technician of nuclear fuel materials (qualified) must be appointed per each fabricator. In case of installing nuclear reactors, the design and methods of construction should be permitted by the Prime Minister. The standard for such permission is specified, and a chief engineer for operating reactors (qualified) must be appointed. Successors inherit the positions of ones who have operated nuclear material refining, fabrication and reprocessing businesses or operated nuclear reactors. (Rikitake, Y.)

  14. Lithium polymer batteries and proton exchange membrane fuel cells as energy sources in hydrogen electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, P.; Migliardini, F.; Veneri, O.

    This paper deals with the application of lithium ion polymer batteries as electric energy storage systems for hydrogen fuel cell power trains. The experimental study was firstly effected in steady state conditions, to evidence the basic features of these systems in view of their application in the automotive field, in particular charge-discharge experiments were carried at different rates (varying the current between 8 and 100 A). A comparison with conventional lead acid batteries evidenced the superior features of lithium systems in terms of both higher discharge rate capability and minor resistance in charge mode. Dynamic experiments were carried out on the overall power train equipped with PEM fuel cell stack (2 kW) and lithium batteries (47.5 V, 40 Ah) on the European R47 driving cycle. The usage of lithium ion polymer batteries permitted to follow the high dynamic requirement of this cycle in hard hybrid configuration, with a hydrogen consumption reduction of about 6% with respect to the same power train equipped with lead acid batteries.

  15. Logging slash from regeneration cuttings as a source of fuel; Paeaetehakkuualojen hakkuutaehde polttoainelaehteenae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland); Asikainen, A [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland); Nurmi, J [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Logging slash from regeneration areas is the major reserve of forest biomass for the production of renewable energy in Finland. Typically, about 52 m{sup 3} of unmerchantable stemwood and crown mass per hectare is left in a clear-cutting area of Scots pine, and 116 m{sup 3} per hectare in a clear-cutting area of Norway spruce. These figures correspond to 9,6 and 22,4 tons of oil equivalent per hectare. In addition to the abundant availability, logging slash is made attractive from the utilization point of view by moderate costs of recovery. This paper reviews the studies carried out by Project 114 of the national Bioenergy Research Program in 1995. The following aspects were included: The effect of the recovery of logging slash for fuel on the work techniques and productivity of one-grip harvesters in clear-cutting of Norway spruce; off-road transport of logging slash with a forwarder equipped with an enlarged load space; chipping of logging slash; and outside storage of fuel crushed from fresh logging slash. The participating research organizations are the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu

  16. Logging slash from regeneration cuttings as a source of fuel; Paeaetehakkuualojen hakkuutaehde polttoainelaehteenae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland); Asikainen, A. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland); Nurmi, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Logging slash from regeneration areas is the major reserve of forest biomass for the production of renewable energy in Finland. Typically, about 52 m{sup 3} of unmerchantable stemwood and crown mass per hectare is left in a clear-cutting area of Scots pine, and 116 m{sup 3} per hectare in a clear-cutting area of Norway spruce. These figures correspond to 9,6 and 22,4 tons of oil equivalent per hectare. In addition to the abundant availability, logging slash is made attractive from the utilization point of view by moderate costs of recovery. This paper reviews the studies carried out by Project 114 of the national Bioenergy Research Program in 1995. The following aspects were included: The effect of the recovery of logging slash for fuel on the work techniques and productivity of one-grip harvesters in clear-cutting of Norway spruce; off-road transport of logging slash with a forwarder equipped with an enlarged load space; chipping of logging slash; and outside storage of fuel crushed from fresh logging slash. The participating research organizations are the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu

  17. Characterization of two diesel fuel degrading microbial consortia enriched from a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varese Giovanna C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bioremediation of soils impacted by diesel fuels is very often limited by the lack of indigenous microflora with the required broad substrate specificity. In such cases, the soil inoculation with cultures with the desired catabolic capabilities (bioaugmentation is an essential option. The use of consortia of microorganisms obtained from rich sources of microbes (e.g., sludges, composts, manure via enrichment (i.e., serial growth transfers on the polluting hydrocarbons would provide bioremediation enhancements more robust and reproducible than those achieved with specialized pure cultures or tailored combinations (co-cultures of them, together with none or minor risks of soil loading with unrelated or pathogenic allocthonous microorganisms. Results In this work, two microbial consortia, i.e., ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2, were enriched from ENZYVEBA (a complex commercial source of microorganisms on Diesel (G1 and HiQ Diesel (G2, respectively, and characterized in terms of microbial composition and hydrocarbon biodegradation capability and specificity. ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 exhibited a comparable and remarkable biodegradation capability and specificity towards n-C10 to n-C24 linear paraffins by removing about 90% of 1 g l-1 of diesel fuel applied after 10 days of aerobic shaken flask batch culture incubation at 30°C. Cultivation dependent and independent approaches evidenced that both consortia consist of bacteria belonging to the genera Chryseobacterium, Acinetobacter, Psudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes and Gordonia along with the fungus Trametes gibbosa. However, only the fungus was found to grow and remarkably biodegrade G1 and G2 hydrocarbons under the same conditions. The biodegradation activity and specificity and the microbial composition of ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 did not significantly change after cryopreservation and storage at -20°C for several months. Conclusions ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 are very similar highly enriched consortia

  18. Characterization of two diesel fuel degrading microbial consortia enriched from a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaroli, Giulio; Di Toro, Sara; Todaro, Daniela; Varese, Giovanna C; Bertolotto, Antonio; Fava, Fabio

    2010-02-16

    The bioremediation of soils impacted by diesel fuels is very often limited by the lack of indigenous microflora with the required broad substrate specificity. In such cases, the soil inoculation with cultures with the desired catabolic capabilities (bioaugmentation) is an essential option. The use of consortia of microorganisms obtained from rich sources of microbes (e.g., sludges, composts, manure) via enrichment (i.e., serial growth transfers) on the polluting hydrocarbons would provide bioremediation enhancements more robust and reproducible than those achieved with specialized pure cultures or tailored combinations (co-cultures) of them, together with none or minor risks of soil loading with unrelated or pathogenic allocthonous microorganisms. In this work, two microbial consortia, i.e., ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2, were enriched from ENZYVEBA (a complex commercial source of microorganisms) on Diesel (G1) and HiQ Diesel (G2), respectively, and characterized in terms of microbial composition and hydrocarbon biodegradation capability and specificity. ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 exhibited a comparable and remarkable biodegradation capability and specificity towards n-C10 to n-C24 linear paraffins by removing about 90% of 1 g l-1 of diesel fuel applied after 10 days of aerobic shaken flask batch culture incubation at 30 degrees C. Cultivation dependent and independent approaches evidenced that both consortia consist of bacteria belonging to the genera Chryseobacterium, Acinetobacter, Psudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes and Gordonia along with the fungus Trametes gibbosa. However, only the fungus was found to grow and remarkably biodegrade G1 and G2 hydrocarbons under the same conditions. The biodegradation activity and specificity and the microbial composition of ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 did not significantly change after cryopreservation and storage at -20 degrees C for several months. ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 are very similar highly enriched consortia of bacteria and a fungus capable of

  19. Sliding mode control of an autonomous parallel fuel cell-super capacitor power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, Jeronimo J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Lab. de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion], Email: jmore@ing.unlp.edu.ar; Puleston, Paul F [Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kunusch, Cristian; Colomer, Jordi Riera I [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (IRII)

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) based systems emerge as one promising renewable alternative to fossil fuel systems in automotive and residential applications. However, their output dynamic response is relatively slow, mostly due to water and reactant gases dynamics. To overcome this limitation, FC-super capacitors (SCs) topologies can be used. The latter is capable of managing very fast power variations, presenting in addition high power density, long life cycle and good charge/discharge efficiency. In this work, a FC-SCs-based autonomous hybrid system for residential applications is considered. The FC and SCs are connected in parallel, through two separate DC/DC converters, to a DC bus. Under steady state conditions, the FC must deliver the load power requirement, while maintaining the SCs voltage regulated to the desired value. Under sudden load variations, the FC current rate must be limited to assure a safe transition to the new point of operation. During this current rate limitation mode, the SCs must deliver or absorb the power difference. To this end, a sliding mode strategy is proposed to satisfy to control objectives. The main one is the robust regulation of the DC bus voltage, even in the presence of system uncertainties and disturbances, such as load changes and FC voltage variations. Additionally, a second control objective is attained, namely to guarantee the adequate level of charge in the SCs, once the FC reaches the new steady state operation point. In this way, the system can meet the load power demand, even under sudden changes, and it can also satisfy a power demand higher than the nominal FC power, during short periods. The proposed control strategy is evaluated exhaustively by computer simulation considering fast load variations. The results presented in this work, corresponds to the first stage of a R and D collaboration project for the design and development of a novel FC-SCs-based autonomous hybrid system. In the next phase, the proposed

  20. Sliding mode control of an autonomous parallel fuel cell-super capacitor power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, Jeronimo J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Lab. de Electronica Industrial, Control e Instrumentacion], Email: jmore@ing.unlp.edu.ar; Puleston, Paul F. [Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kunusch, Cristian; Colomer, Jordi Riera I. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (IRII)

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, hydrogen fuel cell (FC) based systems emerge as one promising renewable alternative to fossil fuel systems in automotive and residential applications. However, their output dynamic response is relatively slow, mostly due to water and reactant gases dynamics. To overcome this limitation, FC-super capacitors (SCs) topologies can be used. The latter is capable of managing very fast power variations, presenting in addition high power density, long life cycle and good charge/discharge efficiency. In this work, a FC-SCs-based autonomous hybrid system for residential applications is considered. The FC and SCs are connected in parallel, through two separate DC/DC converters, to a DC bus. Under steady state conditions, the FC must deliver the load power requirement, while maintaining the SCs voltage regulated to the desired value. Under sudden load variations, the FC current rate must be limited to assure a safe transition to the new point of operation. During this current rate limitation mode, the SCs must deliver or absorb the power difference. To this end, a sliding mode strategy is proposed to satisfy to control objectives. The main one is the robust regulation of the DC bus voltage, even in the presence of system uncertainties and disturbances, such as load changes and FC voltage variations. Additionally, a second control objective is attained, namely to guarantee the adequate level of charge in the SCs, once the FC reaches the new steady state operation point. In this way, the system can meet the load power demand, even under sudden changes, and it can also satisfy a power demand higher than the nominal FC power, during short periods. The proposed control strategy is evaluated exhaustively by computer simulation considering fast load variations. The results presented in this work, corresponds to the first stage of a R and D collaboration project for the design and development of a novel FC-SCs-based autonomous hybrid system. In the next phase, the proposed

  1. Axenic isolation of viable Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, K D; Buret, A; Olson, M E

    1991-06-01

    Large numbers of viable Giardia muris trophozoites were isolated from the duodenum of experimentally infected mice 6 days after inoculation with 1,000 G. muris cysts. A series of shaking, incubation, and washing steps in the presence of the broad-spectrum antibiotic piperacillin readily provided 4.9 +/- 1.5 x 10(5) G. muris trophozoites per mouse, free of detectable contaminant organisms. Anaerobic and microaerophilic culturing and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated axenic status and high purity of the isolates. The viability of trophozoites was 98 +/- 2%. Application of this technique should permit novel immunological and epidemiological analyses of G. muris infection and biochemical investigations of this protozoan parasite.

  2. Emulsified fuels. Its use in stationary sources; Combustibles emulsionados. Su utilizacion en fuentes estacionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Morales, Gilberto; Magdaleno Molina, Moises; Vargas Y, Victor M; Gavira D, A [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    Basic aspects are set forth of the heavy hydrocarbon fuels, the principles, preparation and particularities of the combustion with emulsions, that currently represent one option, either by themselves or in combination with other technologies to utilize heavy hydrocarbons, obtaining advantages in the reduction of polluting emissions, particulate matter and NOx, which allow continuing operating the operation within the limits established by the technical ecological standards. [Espanol] Se exponen aspectos basicos de los combustibles de hidrocarburos pesados (HC), los principios, preparacion y particularidades de la combustion con emulsiones, que actualmente representan una alternativa por si solos o en combinacion con otras tecnologias para utilizar hidrocarburos pesados, obteniendose ventajas en la reduccion de emisiones de contaminantes de particulas y NOx, lo cual permite continuar operando dentro de los limites que establecen las normas tecnicas ecologicas.

  3. Capabilities to improve corrosion resistance of fuel claddings by using powerful laser and plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, V. M., E-mail: borisov@triniti.ru; Trofimov, V. N.; Sapozhkov, A. Yu.; Kuzmenko, V. A.; Mikhaylov, V. B.; Cherkovets, V. Ye.; Yakushkin, A. A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Yakushin, V. L.; Dzhumayev, P. S. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The treatment conditions of fuel claddings of the E110 alloy by using powerful UV or IR laser radiation, which lead to the increase in the corrosion resistance at the high-temperature (T = 1100°C) oxidation simulating a loss-of-coolant accident, are determined. The possibility of the complete suppression of corrosion under these conditions by using pulsed laser deposition of a Cr layer is demonstrated. The behavior of protective coatings of Al, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Cr planted on steel EP823 by pulsed laser deposition, which is planned to be used in the BREST-OD-300, is studied. The methods of the almost complete suppression of corrosion in liquid lead to the temperature of 720°C are shown.

  4. Emulsified fuels. Its use in stationary sources; Combustibles emulsionados. Su utilizacion en fuentes estacionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Morales, Gilberto; Magdaleno Molina, Moises; Vargas Y, Victor M.; Gavira D, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Basic aspects are set forth of the heavy hydrocarbon fuels, the principles, preparation and particularities of the combustion with emulsions, that currently represent one option, either by themselves or in combination with other technologies to utilize heavy hydrocarbons, obtaining advantages in the reduction of polluting emissions, particulate matter and NOx, which allow continuing operating the operation within the limits established by the technical ecological standards. [Espanol] Se exponen aspectos basicos de los combustibles de hidrocarburos pesados (HC), los principios, preparacion y particularidades de la combustion con emulsiones, que actualmente representan una alternativa por si solos o en combinacion con otras tecnologias para utilizar hidrocarburos pesados, obteniendose ventajas en la reduccion de emisiones de contaminantes de particulas y NOx, lo cual permite continuar operando dentro de los limites que establecen las normas tecnicas ecologicas.

  5. Renewable fuels from agricultural sources - ethanol, biodiesel, biogas; Foernybara drivmedel fraan jordbruket - etanol, biodiesel, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolke, Camilla L; Einarson, Elin; Ekloef, Patrik

    2011-07-01

    In this report we give a status report of the biofuels market. We describe some of the issues which are linked to environmental and land use. We also explain why different actors reach different assessments regarding the greenhouse gas emissions, land use and food security. Biofuels have been highlighted as a way to reduce the transport sector large emissions of greenhouse gases and thus as a climate measure. But when several countries have increased their production and consumption and set targets for bio-renewable fuels the biofuels impact has been questioned. Are emissions really reduced? What happens to the direct and indirect land use? How does the production of more biofuels affect the security in food production?

  6. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The internationally controlled materials determined according to the law for nuclear source materials, etc. are the following: nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials, moderating materials, facilities including reactors, etc. sold, transferred, etc. to Japan according to the agreements for peaceful uses of atomic energy between Japan, and the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and France by the respective governments and those organs under them; nuclear fuel materials resulting from usage of the above sold and transferred materials, facilities; nuclear fuel materials sold to Japan according to agreements set by the International Atomic Energy Agency; nuclear fuel materials involved with the safeguards in nuclear weapons non-proliferation treaty with IAEA. (Mori, K.)

  7. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  8. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  9. Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

  10. Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.; Smith, V.; Dilling-Hansen, M.

    1996-01-01

    CO 2 -emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs

  11. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new type of electro-Fenton system was developed for wastewater treatment. ► Degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. ► Operation cost was greatly reduced compared to other microbial fuel cell designs. -- Abstract: Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H 2 O 2 generation and Fe 2+ release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants

  12. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-01

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  13. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  14. Residential home heating: The potential for air source heat pump technologies as an alternative to solid and liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J. Andrew; Fu, Miao; Clinch, J. Peter

    2016-01-01

    International commitments on greenhouse gases, renewables and air quality warrant consideration of alternative residential heating technologies. The residential sector in Ireland accounts for approximately 25% of primary energy demand with roughly half of primary home heating fuelled by oil and 11% by solid fuels. Displacing oil and solid fuel usage with air source heat pump (ASHP) technology could offer household cost savings, reductions in emissions, and reduced health impacts. An economic analysis estimates that 60% of homes using oil, have the potential to deliver savings in the region of €600 per annum when considering both running and annualised capital costs. Scenario analysis estimates that a grant of €2400 could increase the potential market uptake of oil users by up to 17% points, whilst a higher oil price, similar to 2013, could further increase uptake from heating oil users by 24% points. Under a combined oil-price and grant scenario, CO_2 emissions reduce by over 4 million tonnes per annum and residential PM_2_._5 and NO_X emissions from oil and peat reduce close to zero. Corresponding health and environmental benefits are estimated in the region of €100m per annum. Sensitivity analyses are presented assessing the impact of alternate discount rates and technology performance. This research confirms the potential for ASHP technology and identifies and informs policy design considerations with regard to oil price trends, access to capital, targeting of grants, and addressing transactions costs. - Highlights: • Air Source Heat Pumps can offer substantial savings over oil fired central heating. • Significant residential air and climate emission reductions are possible. • Associated health and environmental benefits are estimated up to €100m per annum. • Results can inform policy interventions in the residential market to support change.

  15. The integration of major fuel source markets in China. Evidence from panel cointegration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hengyun; Oxley, Les

    2010-01-01

    The paper tests for energy price co-movement in China over the 'new regime' as part of a strategy to test for the existence of a national energy market. Panel cointegration test statistics suggest that not all energy commodities are spatially homogenous in prices and the processes of energy price cointegration are different over time and over groups of fuels. The statistics demonstrate China's gradual, spatially partial and idiosyncratic energy reform process. Coal and electricity price series have co-moved since 2003, while the national panel cointegration test statistics suggest that gasoline and diesel price series have co-moved since 1997. Regional panel tests also show that there are apparently differences in the emergence of energy price co-movement. This suggests that regional energy markets have emerged in China. One of the important lessons of the research is that an energy market has, to some extent, already emerged in China and, as a consequence, energy prices are much less distorted than previously. If correct, this fact is of major global significance both in terms of future environmental effects and future trade and investment negotiations as China is seen internationally as a 'market driven economy'. (author)

  16. Assessment of bio-fuel options for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiefeng

    Rising concerns of inadequate petroleum supply, volatile crude oil price, and adverse environmental impacts from using fossil fuels have spurred the United States to promote bio-fuel domestic production and develop advanced energy systems such as fuel cells. The present dissertation analyzed the bio-fuel applications in a solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit from environmental, economic, and technological perspectives. Life cycle assessment integrated with thermodynamics was applied to evaluate the environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emission, fossil energy consumption) of producing bio-fuels from waste biomass. Landfill gas from municipal solid wastes and biodiesel from waste cooking oil are both suggested as the promising bio-fuel options. A nonlinear optimization model was developed with a multi-objective optimization technique to analyze the economic aspect of biodiesel-ethanol-diesel ternary blends used in transportation sectors and capture the dynamic variables affecting bio-fuel productions and applications (e.g., market disturbances, bio-fuel tax credit, policy changes, fuel specification, and technological innovation). A single-tube catalytic reformer with rhodium/ceria-zirconia catalyst was used for autothermal reformation of various heavy hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel-diesel, and biodiesel-ethanol-diesel) to produce a hydrogen-rich stream reformates suitable for use in solid oxide fuel cell systems. A customized mixing chamber was designed and integrated with the reformer to overcome the technical challenges of heavy hydrocarbon reformation. A thermodynamic analysis, based on total Gibbs free energy minimization, was implemented to optimize the operating environment for the reformations of various fuels. This was complimented by experimental investigations of fuel autothermal reformation. 25% biodiesel blended with 10% ethanol and 65% diesel was determined to be viable fuel for use on a truck travelling with

  17. Potential Use of Lime as Nitric Acid Source for Alternative Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianto, V.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find `natural plantation' which have no direct link to `food chain' (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc.).

  18. EvoBot: An Open-Source, Modular Liquid Handling Robot for Nurturing Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Nejatimoharrami, Farzad; Støy, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    makes it difficult to apply conventional liquid handling robots as they are designed to automate a predefined task. In order to address these issues, we have developed an open source liquid handling robot, EvoBot. It uses a modular approach, which gives us the possibility to reconfigure the robot...... for different experiments and make it possible for users to add functionality by just developing a function specific module. In addition, it provides sensors and extra functionality for monitoring an experiment, which allows researchers to perform interactive experiments with the aim of prolonging non...

  19. Applicablitiy Determinations on the PSD 100 tpy Major Source Threshold Catergory for Fossil Fuel Boilers Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Governmental interventions in the energy market. Study of the Dutch level playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Visser, E.; Winkel, T.; De Jager, D.; De Vos, R.; Blom, M.; Afman, M.

    2011-06-01

    This study has made an inventory of 53 governmental interventions in the Dutch energy market. Moreover, the consequences for the playing field for fossil fuels, renewable sources, nuclear energy and energy saving have been quantified. It shows that the government still stimulates the use of energy and fossil fuels more than it stimulates use of renewable energy sources. Policy that focuses on decreasing the price differences between sustainable and fossil should therefore focus on the phase-out of this support and subsequently on bridging the remaining financial gap. [nl

  1. Nuclear energy: the most viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2006-01-01

    In this article various forms of electric power generation considered clean are discussed. The paper approaches the nuclear, aeolian, solar and fuel cells, and a resume of the vantage and advantage of each one are discussed, emphasizing their impact on the environment

  2. Senior health clinics: are they financially viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Robin E; Crandall, Debra; Wright, Larry D; Beverly, Claudia J

    2009-07-01

    Are hospital-based outpatient interdisciplinary clinics a financially viable alternative for caring for our burgeoning population of older adults in America? Although highly popular, with high patient satisfaction rates among older adults and their families, senior health clinics (SHCs) can be expensive to operate, with limited quantifiable health outcomes. This study analyzed three geriatric hospital-based interdisciplinary clinics in rural Arkansas by examining their patient profiles, revenues, and expenses. It closely examined the effects of the downstream revenue using the multiplier effect and acknowledged other factors that weigh heavily on the success of SHCs and the care of older adults. The findings highlight the similarities and differences in the three clinics' operating and financial structures in addition to the clinics' and providers' productivity. The analysis presents an evidence-based illustration that SHCs can break even or lose large amounts of money.

  3. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  4. Introduce of Viable But Nonculturable Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viable-But-Nonculturable-State (VBNC is the condition in which bacteria fail to grow on their routine bacteriological media where they would normally grow and develop into colonies, but are still alive and capable of renewed metabolic activity. VBNC state is useful for evaluating public health and for ascertaining the sterility of drinking water, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuff. A number of bacteria, mostly pathogenic to humans, have been proved to enter into this state in response to natural stresses such as starvation, incubation out of optimum growth temperature, increased osmotic pressure, etc. Once in the VBNC state, they undergo various physiological, structural, and genetic alterations. These alterations result in reduced cell size, conversion from bacilli to coccid, thickened cell walls, and peptidoglycan gaining many cross links. Metabolic changes also occur that include reductions in growth, nutrient transport, and respiratory rate; biosynthesis of new protein, and ATP remaining at a constant level. It has been shown that in the VBNC state, some pathogens conserve their virulence properties. Gene expression continues in the VBNC cell. Nucleic acids remain intact in the early VBNC phase but they gradually undergo degradation with prolonged VBNC. Cytological methods such as direct viable count and reduction of tetrazolium salts, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and green fluorescent protein have been used for the study of VBNC. Resuscitation from VBNC state starts when the inducing factor(s is/are lifted. Factors that help the resuscitation of VBNC bacteria include addition of certain nutrients and chemicals, introduction of a few culturable cells into the VBNC cell population, and passage through the animal host. As virulence properties are sustained during the VBNC phase, special care must be paid when evaluating sterility of drinking water.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  6. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  7. Application of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignored. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  8. Applications of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignore. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  9. Open innovation and external sources of innovation. An opportunity to fuel the R&D pipeline and enhance decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Alexander; Gassmann, Oliver; McCracken, Nigel; Hinder, Markus

    2018-05-08

    Historically, research and development (R&D) in the pharmaceutical sector has predominantly been an in-house activity. To enable investments for game changing late-stage assets and to enable better and less costly go/no-go decisions, most companies have employed a fail early paradigm through the implementation of clinical proof-of-concept organizations. To fuel their pipelines, some pioneers started to complement their internal R&D efforts through collaborations as early as the 1990s. In recent years, multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors induced an opening for external sources of innovation and resulted in new models for open innovation, such as open sourcing, crowdsourcing, public-private partnerships, innovations centres, and the virtualization of R&D. Three factors seem to determine the breadth and depth regarding how companies approach external innovation: (1) the company's legacy, (2) the company's willingness and ability to take risks and (3) the company's need to control IP and competitors. In addition, these factors often constitute the major hurdles to effectively leveraging external opportunities and assets. Conscious and differential choices of the R&D and business models for different companies and different divisions in the same company seem to best allow a company to fully exploit the potential of both internal and external innovations.

  10. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  11. Discrimination of source reactor type by multivariate statistical analysis of uranium and plutonium isotopic concentrations in unknown irradiated nuclear fuel material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Martin; Kristo, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    The problem of identifying the provenance of unknown nuclear material in the environment by multivariate statistical analysis of its uranium and/or plutonium isotopic composition is considered. Such material can be introduced into the environment as a result of nuclear accidents, inadvertent processing losses, illegal dumping of waste, or deliberate trafficking in nuclear materials. Various combinations of reactor type and fuel composition were analyzed using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) of the concentrations of nine U and Pu isotopes in fuel as a function of burnup. Real-world variation in the concentrations of (234)U and (236)U in the fresh (unirradiated) fuel was incorporated. The U and Pu were also analyzed separately, with results that suggest that, even after reprocessing or environmental fractionation, Pu isotopes can be used to determine both the source reactor type and the initial fuel composition with good discrimination.

  12. Postirradiation evaluations of capsules HANS-1 and HANS-2 irradiated in the HFIR target region in support of fuel development for the advanced neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes the design, fabrication, irradiation, and evaluation of two capsule tests containing U 3 Si 2 fuel particles in contact with aluminum. The tests were in support of fuel qualification for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor, a high-powered research reactor that was planned for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. At the time of these tests, the fuel consisted of U 3 Si 2 , containing highly enriched uranium dispersed in aluminum at a volume fraction of ∼0.15. The extremely high thermal flux in the target region of the High Flux Isotope Reactor provided up to 90% burnup in one 23-d cycle. Temperatures up to 450 degrees C were maintained by gamma heating. Passive SiC temperature monitors were employed. The very small specimen size allowed only microstructural examination of the fuel particles but also allowed many specimens to be tested at a range of temperatures. The determination of fission gas bubble morphology by microstructural examination has been beneficial in developing a fuel performance model that allows prediction of fuel performance under these extreme conditions. The results indicate that performance of the reference fuel would be satisfactory under the ANS conditions. In addition to U 3 Si 2 , particles of U 3 Si, UAl 2 , UAl x , and U 3 O 8 were tested

  13. Renewable Hydrogen-Economically Viable: Integration into the U.S. Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Peters, Mike; Muratori, Matteo; Gearhart, Chris

    2018-03-01

    The U.S. transportation sector is expected to meet numerous goals in differing applications. These goals address security, safety, fuel source, emissions reductions, advanced mobility models, and improvements in quality and accessibility. Solutions to meeting these goals include a variety of alternative-fuel technologies, including batteries, fuel cells, synthetic fuels, and biofuels, as well as modifying how current transportation systems are used and integrating new systems, such as storing renewable energy. Overall, there are many combinations of problems, objectives, and solutions.

  14. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  15. An economically viable space power relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  16. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  17. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  18. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  19. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  20. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  1. Biodiesel production from Norouzak (Salvia lerifolia) seeds as an indigenous source of bio fuel in Iran using ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajinezhad, Ahmad; Abedi, Sepideh; Ghobadian, Barat; Noorollahi, Younes

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Salvia lerifolia seed oil is introduced as an indigenous source of biodiesel production in Iran. • Biodiesel was obtained from the samples by basic trans-esterification method using ultrasounds device. • Norouzak oil profile was extracted based on BF3 method, and it was determined by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Metcalf method. • The produced biodiesel characteristics from Norouzak oil seed is suitable for use in CI engines with low air pollutions. - Abstract: Population growth with increased demand for fossil fuels and also significant increases in air pollution has confirmed necessity of using alternative fuels such as biodiesel. In this paper, Norouzak (Salvia lerifolia) seed oil is introduced as an indigenous source of biodiesel production in Iran. The seeds were collected from desert area of South Khorasan province Northeastern-Iran. In this regards, kinematic and dynamic viscosity, density, amount of free fatty acids, soap value, acid value and water content of the Noruzak oil are measured which are 28.435 (mP s), 31.433 (mm 2 /s), 0.9046 (g/cm 2 ), 0.71%, 160.25 (mg/1 g), 1.4139 (mg) and 0/3% respectively. Also, fatty acid methyl esters C 16:0 , C 16:1 , C 18:0 , C 18:1 , C 18:1c , C 18:2 , C 18:2c , C 18:3 , C 20 , C 20:1 , C 22 , C 22:1 , C 24 , C 24:1 are known by Gas Chromatography (GC) and BF 3 method which results shows C 18:2 (40.8%) and C 18:1 (24) have the highest proportion of methyl ester in this oil. Norouzak biodiesel was obtained by basic trans-esterification method using ultrasounds device as a new sustainable and environmentally-friendly green technique under ultrasonic amplitude of 60% and 9 min at 45 °C, with methanol ratio of 1:5, 1:6, 1:7 and 1% potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The results showed that there is maximum performance of methyl ester production (97.60) with methanol molar ratio of 1:6 which shows significant improvement in the bio fuel production yield using ultrasound technology under the operating

  2. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  3. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is enacted under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. Any person who engages in refining business shall get designation for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be filed through the director of International Trade and Industry Office in charge of the location of the works or the enterprise with a business program and other specified documents attached. Any person who undertakes processing business shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be submitted with a business program and other documents defined by the Ordinance of the Prime Minister's Office. Any person who sets up reactor shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be presented with a financial project and other documents stipulated by the ordinance. Fast breeding reactor, heavy-water moderated boiling water reactor and light-water moderated pressurized water reactor are designated as reactor in the phase of research and development. Each foreign nuclear ship equipped with reactor which enters into Japanese waters shall get permission of the Minister of Transport. The application shall be presented with the papers explaining safety of reactor facilities and other documents provided by the ordinance of the ministry concerned. (Okada, K.)

  4. A fast-acting hydrogen gas source for staged pneumatic high-speed acceleration of fusion plasma fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, S.A.; Baekmark, L.

    1990-02-01

    This report describes a possible design of a fast, high-temperature, arc-driven hydrogen gas source module, to be used in a scheme for multistage high-speed pneumatic acceleration of fusion plasma fuel pellets. The potential of this scheme for operating with a moderate driving pressure at long acceleration path lengths is particular attractive for accelerating fragile hydrogen isotope ice pellets. From experiments with an ethanol-based arc unit, design parameters for a propeller module were assessed, and with a barrel-mounted ethanol module staged pneumatic acceleration of a plastic dummy pellet was demonstrated. In experiments with a hydrogenbased, cryogenic arc unit in which 200 joules of electrical energy were dissipated with a power level approaching 5 MW within 30 mus, the velocity of a 23-mg plastic pellet was increased from 1.7 to 2.4 km/s. Results in terms of barrel pressure transients and arc characteristics are described. (author) 20 ills., 8 refs

  5. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-05-01

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe2+ release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75±2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Study on severe accident fuel dispersion behavior in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.; Xiang, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Core flow blockage events are a leading contributor to core damage initiation risk in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. During such an accident, insufficient cooling of the fuel could result in core heatup and melting under full coolant flow condition. Coolant inertia forces acting on the melt surface would likely break up the melt into small particles. Under thermal-hydraulic conditions of ANS coolant channel, micro-fine melt particles are expected. Heat transfer between melt particle and coolant, which affects particle breakup, was studied. The study indicates that the thermal effect on melt fragmentation seems to be negligible because the time corresponding to the breakup due to hydrodynamic forces is much shorter than the time for the melt surface to solidify. The study included modeling and analyses to predict transient behavior and transport of debris particles throughout the coolant system. The transient model accounts for the surface forces acting on the particle that results from the pressure variation on the surface, inertia, virtual mass, viscous force due to relative motion of particle in the coolant, gravitation, and resistance due to inhomogenous coolant velocity radially across piping due to possible turbulent coolant motions. Results indicate that debris particles would reside longest in heat exchangers because of lower coolant velocity there. Also core debris tends to move together upon melting and entrainment

  7. Study on severe accident fuel dispersion behavior in the advanced neutron source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Core flow blockage events have been determined to represent a leading contributor to core damage initiation risk in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. During such an accident, insufficient cooling of the fuel in a few adjacent blocked coolant channels out of several hundred channels, could also result in core heatup and melting under full coolant flow condition in other coolant channels. Coolant inertia forces acting on the melt surface would likely break up the melt into small particles. Under thermal-hydraulic conditions of ANS coolant channel, micro-fine melt particles are expected. Hat transfer between melt particle and coolant, which affects the particle breakup characteristics, was studied. The study indicates that the thermal effect on melt fragmentation seems to be negligible because the time corresponding to the breakup due to hydrodynamic forces is much shorter than the time for the melt surface to solidify. The study included modeling and analyses to predict transient behavior and transport of debris particles throughout the coolant system. The transient model accounts for the surface forces acting on the particle that results from the pressure variation on the surface, inertia, virtual mass, viscous force due to the relative motion of the particle in the coolant, gravitation, and resistance due to inhomogenous coolant velocity radially across piping due to possible turbulent coolant motions. The results indicate that debris particles would reside longest in heat exchangers because of lower coolant velocity there. Also they are entrained and move together in a cloud.

  8. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudio Filippone

    1999-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency

  9. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    Single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive technology commonly used for predicting lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and water content of agricultural products. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prospects of NIR spectroscopy in classifying viable and non...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable......-viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...

  10. Sources of variance in BC mass measurements from a small marine engine: Influence of the instruments, fuels and loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Yang, Jiacheng; Gagné, Stéphanie; Chan, Tak W.; Thomson, Kevin; Fofie, Emmanuel; Cary, Robert A.; Rutherford, Dan; Comer, Bryan; Swanson, Jacob; Lin, Yue; Van Rooy, Paul; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Jung, Heejung; Barsanti, Kelley; Karavalakis, Georgios; Cocker, David; Durbin, Thomas D.; Miller, J. Wayne; Johnson, Kent C.

    2018-06-01

    Knowledge of black carbon (BC) emission factors from ships is important from human health and environmental perspectives. A study of instruments measuring BC and fuels typically used in marine operation was carried out on a small marine engine. Six analytical methods measured the BC emissions in the exhaust of the marine engine operated at two load points (25% and 75%) while burning one of three fuels: a distillate marine (DMA), a low sulfur, residual marine (RMB-30) and a high-sulfur residual marine (RMG-380). The average emission factors with all instruments increased from 0.08 to 1.88 gBC/kg fuel in going from 25 to 75% load. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested BC emissions against instrument, load, and combined fuel properties and showed that both engine load and fuels had a statistically significant impact on BC emission factors. While BC emissions were impacted by the fuels used, none of the fuel properties investigated (sulfur content, viscosity, carbon residue and CCAI) was a primary driver for BC emissions. Of the two residual fuels, RMB-30 with the lower sulfur content, lower viscosity and lower residual carbon, had the highest BC emission factors. BC emission factors determined with the different instruments showed a good correlation with the PAS values with correlation coefficients R2 >0.95. A key finding of this research is the relative BC measured values were mostly independent of load and fuel, except for some instruments in certain fuel and load combinations.

  11. The Efficient Use of the Productive Potential of Technical Plant Cultures With the Purpose of Providing an Alternative Energetic Fuel Source

    OpenAIRE

    Florica Morar

    2009-01-01

    The identification of secure, non-polluting and renewable sources of biofuel, as an alternative to the fossil fuel, which are finite in time, constituted a concern of scientists long before the energetic crisis of 1973. According to Directive 2003/30/CE, the European Union policy considers the decrease of dependency and of the energetic import, as well as the decrease of gas emissions. By 2020, EU Member States, need to replace gasoline and diesel at a rate of 20%, with renewable fuels. In ou...

  12. An open-source library for the numerical modeling of mass-transfer in solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaresio, Valerio; García-Camprubí, María; Izquierdo, Salvador; Asinari, Pietro; Fueyo, Norberto

    2012-01-01

    The generation of direct current electricity using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) involves several interplaying transport phenomena. Their simulation is crucial for the design and optimization of reliable and competitive equipment, and for the eventual market deployment of this technology. An open-source library for the computational modeling of mass-transport phenomena in SOFCs is presented in this article. It includes several multicomponent mass-transport models ( i.e. Fickian, Stefan-Maxwell and Dusty Gas Model), which can be applied both within porous media and in porosity-free domains, and several diffusivity models for gases. The library has been developed for its use with OpenFOAM ®, a widespread open-source code for fluid and continuum mechanics. The library can be used to model any fluid flow configuration involving multicomponent transport phenomena and it is validated in this paper against the analytical solution of one-dimensional test cases. In addition, it is applied for the simulation of a real SOFC and further validated using experimental data. Program summaryProgram title: multiSpeciesTransportModels Catalogue identifier: AEKB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 140 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 64 285 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language:: C++ Computer: Any x86 (the instructions reported in the paper consider only the 64 bit case for the sake of simplicity) Operating system: Generic Linux (the instructions reported in the paper consider only the open-source Ubuntu distribution for the sake of simplicity) Classification: 12 External routines: OpenFOAM® (version 1.6-ext) ( http://www.extend-project.de) Nature of problem: This software provides a library of models for

  13. System modeling of an air-independent solid oxide fuel cell system for unmanned undersea vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G.

    To examine the feasibility of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-powered unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV), a system level analysis is presented that projects a possible integration of the SOFC stack, fuel steam reformer, fuel/oxidant storage and balance of plant components into a 21-in. diameter UUV platform. Heavy hydrocarbon fuel (dodecane) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are chosen as the preferred reactants. A maximum efficiency of 45% based on the lower heating value of dodecane was calculated for a system that provides 2.5 kW for 40 h. Heat sources and sinks have been coupled to show viable means of thermal management. The critical design issues involve proper recycling of exhaust steam from the fuel cell back into the reformer and effective use of the SOFC stack radiant heat for steam reformation of the hydrocarbon fuel.

  14. Where Full-Text Is Viable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    Defines two types of online databases: source, referring to those intended to be complete in themselves, whether full-text or abstracts; and bibliographic, meaning those that are not complete. Predictions are made about the future growth rate of these two types of databases, as well as full-text versus abstract databases. (EM)

  15. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  16. Fuel rod D07/B15 from Ringhals 2 PWR: Source material for corrosion/leach tests in groundwater. Fuel rod/pellet characterization program. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, R.

    1987-03-01

    A joint SKB/STUDSVIK experimental program to determine the corrosion rates and to establish the corrosion mechanisms of spent UO 2 fuel in groundwater under both oxidizing and reducing conditions is in progress in the Hot Cell Laboratory of Studsvik Energiteknik AB. High burnup fuel of both BWR and PWR type are studied. Characterization of the spent fuel at both rod and pellet level is an important part of the experimental program. Experiments on PWR fuel have been concentrated so far on specimens from one rod, manufacturer's number 03688, which had occupied position B15 in assembly D07. This assembly had been irradiated for 5 cycles in the Ringhals 2 reactor between 1977 and 1983. The calculated assembly burnup was 41.3 MWd/kg U. The present report is a collection of separate reports describing those items in the characterization program which have been performed so far. No overall summary of the experimental results is given here, and the report should be viewed as a collection of reference data. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of the 252Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method for measuring the subcriticality of LWR fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method was evaluated to determine if it could be used to measure the subcriticality of storage casks of burnt LWR fuel submerged in fuel storage pools, fully loaded and as they are being loaded. The motivation for this evaluation was that measurements of k/sub eff/ would provide the parameter most directly related to the criticality safety of storage cask configurations of LWR fuel and could allow proper credit for fuel burnup without reliance on calculations. This in turn could lead to more cost-effective cask designs. Evaluation of the method for this application was based on (1) experiments already completed at a critical experiments facility using arrays of PWR fuel pins typical of the size of storage cask configurations, (2) the existence of neutron detectors that can function in shipping cask environments, and (3) the ability to construct ionization chambers containing 252 Cf of adequate intensity for these measurements. These three considerations are discussed

  18. Development of lean burn gas engines using pilot fuel for ignition source; Developpement d'un moteur a gaz avec pre-injection de carburant pour la source d'allumage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakonji, T.; Saito, H.; Sakurai, T. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Hirashima, T.; Kanno, K. [Nissan Diesel Motor Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    A development was conducted to investigate the performance of an open chamber gas engine with pilot fuel for ignition source. Experiments were conducted by using a gas engine equipped with a common-rail injection system. Main gas fuel is supplied to the engine cylinder, and then a small quantity of diesel fuel (approximately 1 % of total fuel energy input) was injected into the main chamber for ignition. The single cylinder prototype gas engine has demonstrated superior performance, such as, a shaft-end thermal efficiency of 36.7% with NO{sub x} level of 0.4 g/kW-h, which equals those of conventional spark ignited pre-chamber lean burn gas engines. For the next step, the multi-cylinder gas engine has been developed. That has 138 mm bore, 142 mm stroke, V8 configuration and 229 kW engine output 1500 rpm. This engine can also run with only diesel fuel for Standby-Power-Concurrent Co-generation. (authors)

  19. Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretu, Ileana; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Ionila, Maria; Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NO x and CO 2 , and about 90% from SO 2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy

  20. Transition from non-renewable to renewable energy sources: fuel cells in Antarctica as an economically attractive niche

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschoff, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence that indicates that fuel cells might be commercially attractive in several market niches in Latin America; however, political approval of demonstration projects has been elusive. In this paper, the results of an economic study carried out on the assumption of introducing an environmentally friendly fuel, such as methanol, for feeding fuel cell systems for electricity generation and heat production in the six bases that Argentina has in Antarctica are reported. It is seen that, in this particular case, there is a net cost benefit, even if the assets resulting from diminishing pollution in Antarctica are not taken into account. (Author)

  1. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  2. Nuclear weapon relevant materials and preventive arms control. Uranium-free fuels for plutonium elimination and spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Englert, Matthias; Pistner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    technological challenges of nuclear non-proliferation, which are directly connected with the central role of weapon-relevant materials, and it is trying to present practical solutions on a technical basis: - Discover paths for the disposal of existing amounts of nuclear weapon-relevant materials elaborating on the example of technically-based plutonium disposal options: central technical questions of the possible use of uranium-free inert matrix fuel (IMF) in currently used light water reactors will be addressed in order to clarify which advantages or disadvantages do exist in comparison to other disposal options. The investigation is limited on the comparison with one other reactor-based option, the use of uranium-plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels. - Analysis of proliferation relevant potentials of new nuclear technologies (accessibility of weapon materials): Exemplary investigation of spallation neutron sources in order to improve this technology by a more proliferation resistant shaping. Although they are obviously capable to breed nuclear weapon-relevant materials like plutonium, uranium-233 or tritium, there is no comprehensive analysis of nonproliferation aspects of spallation neutron sources up to now. Both project parts provide not only contributions to the concept of preventive arms control but also to the shaping of technologies, which is oriented towards the criteria of proliferation resistance.

  3. Global zero-carbon energy pathways using viable mixes of nuclear and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A proper mix of nuclear power and renewables achieves sustainable energy future. • A high nuclear share provides cost and land effectiveness compared to nuclear-free. • Only-renewable mix will increase negative economic and environmental impacts. • A deployment of advanced reactor technologies is essential to overcome limitations. - Abstract: What are the most viable global pathways for a major expansion of zero-carbon emissions electricity sources given the diversity of regional technical, socio-political and economic constraints? We modelled a range of zero-emissions energy scenarios across nations that were designed to meet projected final energy demand in 2060, and optimised to derive the best globally aggregated results in terms of minimising costs and land use (a surrogate for environmental impacts). We found that a delayed energy transition to a zero-emissions pathway will decrease investment costs (−$3,431 billion), but increase cumulative CO 2 emissions (additional 696 Gt). A renewable-only scenario would convert >7.4% of the global land area to energy production, whereas a maximum nuclear scenario would affect <0.4% of land area, including mining, spent-fuel storage, and buffer zones. Moreover, a nuclear-free pathway would involve up to a 50% greater cumulative capital investment compared to a high nuclear penetration scenario ($73.7 trillion). However, for some nations with a high current share of renewables and a low projected future energy demand (e.g., Norway), pursuit of a higher nuclear share is suboptimal. In terms of the time frame for replacement of fossil fuels, achieving a global nuclear share of about 50% by 2060 would be a technically and economically plausible target if progressing at a pace of the average historical growth of nuclear power penetration in France from 1970 to 1986 (0.28 MWh person −1 year -1 ). For effective climate-change mitigation, a high penetration of nuclear in association with a nationally

  4. Viable Solutions for seemingly Intractable Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Life is filled with seemingly intractable problems. But life wisdom affirms that if there is a problem, there must be a solution. Or better yet, the solution to the problem lies within the problem itself. Problems have their roots in disharmony. Disharmony arises when a part separates itself from the whole and acts independently of the wider reality of which it is a part, as financial markets have separated themselves from the real economy and economy has detached itself from social and ecological consequences. Insistence on out-moded approaches under new conditions generates intractable problems, as when the framework of a heterogeneous nation-state is employed for the dominance of a single ethnic or religious group. Knowledge and culture are the supreme values of a society and core element of its capacity for accomplishment and development, yet both tend to be exclusively possessed by elites for their own benefit, rather than freely distributed to maximize their impact on society as a whole. Society evolves by the transformation of ignorance into knowledge. Life evolves by organization. The linking and integration of social organizations spur development. Mind itself is an organization and powerful force for development. Energy makes organization more efficient. Any problem can be solved by raising the effectiveness of energy by converting it into skill or capacity and transforming it into power through organization. What one person sees as a problem is an opportunity for another with wider vision. The difference in perception accounts for the difference in levels of accomplishment. So, those with the right perspective see opportunities where others see insolvable problems. Current problems are the result of irrationality, refusal to benefit from past experience and insistence on repeating past errors. Modern science, which was born to fight the superstition of religion, has become a source of superstition. Fully availing of the latest

  5. Valveless piezoelectric micropump for fuel delivery in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qing-Ming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, PA 15261 (United States)

    2005-01-10

    Fuel cells are being considered as an important technology that can be used for various power applications. For portable electronic devices such as laptops, digital cameras, cell phone, etc., the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is a very promising candidate as a power source. Compared with conventional batteries, DMFC can provide a higher power density with a long-lasting life and recharging which is almost instant. However, many issues related to the design, fabrication and operation of miniaturized DMFC power systems still remain unsolved. Fuel delivery is one of the key issues that will determine the performance of the DMFC. To maintain a desired performance, an efficient fuel delivery system is required to provide an adequate amount of fuel for consumption and remove carbon dioxide generated from fuel cell devices at the same time. In this paper, a novel fuel delivery system combined with a miniaturized DMFC is presented. The core component of this system is a piezoelectric valveless micropump that can convert the reciprocating movement of a diaphragm activated by a piezoelectric actuator into a pumping effect. Nozzle/diffuser elements are used to direct the flow from inlet to outlet. As for DMFC devices, the micropump system needs to meet some specific requirements: low energy consumption but a sufficient fuel flow rate. Based on theoretical analysis, the effect of piezoelectric materials properties, driving voltage, driving frequency, nozzle/diffuser dimension, and other factors on the performance of the whole fuel cell system will be discussed. As a result, a viable design of a micropump system for fuel delivery can be achieved and some simulation results will be presented as well. (author)

  6. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2018-04-03

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  7. Standardized Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuels Matrix

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Bakor, Radwan; AlRamadan, Abdullah; Almansour, Mohammed; Sim, Jaeheon; Ahmed, Ahfaz; Viollet, Yoann; Chang, Junseok

    2018-01-01

    Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.

  8. On the role of fusion neutron source with thorium blanket in forming the nuclide composition of the nuclear fuel cycle of the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G., E-mail: ggkulikov@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The possible role of available thorium resources of the Russian Federation in utilization of thorium in the closed (U–Pu)-fuel cycle of nuclear power is considered. The efficiency of application of fusion neutron sources with thorium blanket for economical use of available thorium resources is demonstrated. The objective of this study is the search for a solution of such major tasks of nuclear power as reduction of the amount of front-end operations in the nuclear fuel cycle and enhancement of its protection against uncontrolled proliferation of fissile materials with the smallest possible alterations in the fuel cycle. The earlier results are analyzed, new information on the amount of thorium resources of the Russian Federation is used, and additional estimates are made. The following basic results obtained on the basis of the assumption of involving fusion reactors with Th-blanket in future nuclear power for generation of the light uranium fraction {sup 232+233+234}U and {sup 231}Pa are formulated. (1) The fuel cycle would shift from fissile {sup 235}U to {sup 233}U, which is more attractive for thermal power reactors. (2) The light uranium fraction is the most “protected” in the uranium fuel component, and being mixed with regenerated uranium, it would become reduced-enrichment uranium fuel, which would relieve the problem of nonproliferation of the fissile material. (3) The addition of {sup 231}Pa into the fuel would stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties, thus making it possible to implement a long fuel residence time and, as a consequence, increase the export potential of the whole nuclear power technology. (4) The available thorium resource in the vicinity of Krasnoufimsk is sufficient for operation of the large-scale nuclear power industry of the Russian Federation with an electric power of 70 GW for more than one quarter of a century. The general conclusion is that involvement of a small number of fusion reactors with Th-blanket in the future

  9. Study of a Slightly Enriched R Reactor Fuel by Means of a Pulsed Neutron Source; Etude d'un reacteur a combustible legerement enrichi (rubeole) a l'aide de sources pulsees de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagot, M.; Tellier, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-04-01

    A Be O moderated reactor using slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel was studied by the pulsed neutron source technique. The neutron lifetime was measured in two different cores without reflector, then attempts were made at the measurement of great negative reactivities introduced into the reactor under the following forms: decrease of the volume of the un reflected core, introduction of absorbing cadmium rods, removal of fuel at the periphery of the critical core while maintaining a constant height, and substitution of fuel elements by less reactive elements. In all cases, the results are compared with the data obtained by another type of experiment or by computation. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode des sources pulsees de neutrons a un reacteur utilisant de l'oxyde d'uranium legerement enrichi, modere a l'oxyde de beryllium et, apres avoir mesure le temps de vie des neutrons dans deux coeurs differents non reflechis, nous avons porte notre effort, sur la mesure de reactivites negatives importantes introduites dans le reacteur sous differentes formes: - diminution du volume du coeur non reflechi, - introduction de barres absorbantes en cadmium, - enlevement de combustible a la peripherie du coeur critique, tout en conservant une hauteur constante, - substitution d'elements de combustible par des elements moins reactifs. Dans tous les cas, les resultats sont compares aux valeurs obtenues par un autre type d'experience ou par le calcul. (auteur)

  10. Study of a Slightly Enriched R Reactor Fuel by Means of a Pulsed Neutron Source; Etude d'un reacteur a combustible legerement enrichi (rubeole) a l'aide de sources pulsees de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagot, M; Tellier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-04-01

    A Be O moderated reactor using slightly enriched uranium oxide as fuel was studied by the pulsed neutron source technique. The neutron lifetime was measured in two different cores without reflector, then attempts were made at the measurement of great negative reactivities introduced into the reactor under the following forms: decrease of the volume of the un reflected core, introduction of absorbing cadmium rods, removal of fuel at the periphery of the critical core while maintaining a constant height, and substitution of fuel elements by less reactive elements. In all cases, the results are compared with the data obtained by another type of experiment or by computation. (author) [French] Nous avons applique la methode des sources pulsees de neutrons a un reacteur utilisant de l'oxyde d'uranium legerement enrichi, modere a l'oxyde de beryllium et, apres avoir mesure le temps de vie des neutrons dans deux coeurs differents non reflechis, nous avons porte notre effort, sur la mesure de reactivites negatives importantes introduites dans le reacteur sous differentes formes: - diminution du volume du coeur non reflechi, - introduction de barres absorbantes en cadmium, - enlevement de combustible a la peripherie du coeur critique, tout en conservant une hauteur constante, - substitution d'elements de combustible par des elements moins reactifs. Dans tous les cas, les resultats sont compares aux valeurs obtenues par un autre type d'experience ou par le calcul. (auteur)

  11. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  12. Cost and prices of electricity. Fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources in comparison; Kosten und Preise fuer Strom. Fossile, Atomstrom und Erneuerbare Energien im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenhoff, Joerg

    2011-09-15

    Consumers of electricity pay for production, transport and distribution as well as for taxes and dues. Electricity rates depend on various influencing factors, e.g. different fuel and capital cost of the power plants and the ratio of supply and demand in the electricity stock markets. End user electricity rats also include taxes and dues as well as the cost of power transmission. The publication presents background information on the formation of electricity rates in Germany. In a second step, the different cost factors of fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewable energy sources are compared. In particular, the external cost is gone into which often tends to be neglected in the electricity markets.

  13. The Efficient Use of the Productive Potential of Technical Plant Cultures With the Purpose of Providing an Alternative Energetic Fuel Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of secure, non-polluting and renewable sources of biofuel, as an alternative to the fossil fuel, which are finite in time, constituted a concern of scientists long before the energetic crisis of 1973. According to Directive 2003/30/CE, the European Union policy considers the decrease of dependency and of the energetic import, as well as the decrease of gas emissions. By 2020, EU Member States, need to replace gasoline and diesel at a rate of 20%, with renewable fuels. In our country, in order to obtain biodiesel from vegetable oils researches are made on some crops such as sunflower, soybean, apeseed. In Mures County, have done research on the composition and production of oil of rapeseed cultivation for autumn and spring. As a mean value for the three years, varieties Bolero (spring and Digger (autumn accumulated the highest oil content.

  14. Calculations of fuel burn-up and radionuclide inventory in the syrian miniature neutron source reactor using the WIMSD4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of the fuel burn up and radionuclide inventory in the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor after 10 years (the reactor core expected life) of the reactor operating time are presented in this paper. The WIMSD4 code is used to generate the fuel group constants and the infinite multiplication factor versus the reactor operating time for 10, 20, and 30 kW operating power levels. The amounts of uranium burnt up and plutonium produced in the reactor core, the concentrations and radioactivities of the most important fission product and actinide radionuclides accumulated in the reactor core, and the total radioactivity of the reactor core are calculated using the WIMSD4 code as well

  15. Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisoning in raptors. Ngaio Richards, Irene Zorrilla, Joseph Lalah, Peter Otieno, Isabel Fernandez, Monica Calvino, Joaquin Garcia ...

  16. Rural and Renewable Energy Project: Renewable and Alternative Energy Devices and Viable Alternatives to Fuelwood and Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The need for conservation of the nation's trees and other forestry resources so as to make the Government's reafforestation, soil erosion and desertification control programs successful, is a matter that requires serious attention. This is because the bulk of the people of this country, who are in the rural areas, depend massively on fuelwood as their source of energy for cooking. For a large percentage of the urban dwellers, the situation is not much different since the recent increases in the prices of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas has forced many to opt for fuelwood for cooking. Viable renewable and alternative energy systems like solar cookers, biogas plants, improved wood burning stoves, briquetted biomass and smokeless coal briquettes and stoves are essential for the provision of alternative cooking fuels and methodologies. Furthermore, the inefficient open-to-sun drying method is prevalent, while the rural areas are particularly starved of petroleum products and grid electricity. Modern solar dryers, solar-PV, wind and hydropower can be used to meet some of the energy needs of the rural population. This paper discusses these renewable and alternative devices and how they can be integrated into the Nigerian rural energy system. (author)

  17. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  18. Matlab Source Code for Species Transport through Nafion Membranes in Direct Ethanol, Direct Methanol, and Direct Glucose Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    JH, Summerfield; MW, Manley

    2016-01-01

    A simple simulation of chemical species movement is presented. The species traverse a Nafion membrane in a fuel cell. Three cells are examined: direct methanol, direct ethanol, and direct glucose. The species are tracked using excess proton concentration, electric field strength, and voltage. The Matlab computer code is provided.

  19. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, N; Ravel, J; Straube, W L; Hill, R T; Colwell, R R

    2002-01-01

    Physiological responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts, direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. Vibrio harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C in nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d in microcosms of 35 ppt and 10 ppt ASW, respectively. In contrast, V. fischeri became nonculturable at approximately 55 and 31 d in similar microcosms. Recovery of both culturability and luminescence of cells in the viable but nonculturable state was achieved by addition of nutrient broth or nutrient broth supplemented with a carbon source, including luminescence-stimulating compounds. Temperature upshift from 22 degrees C to 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C did not result in recovery from nonculturability. The study confirms entry of V. harveyi and V. fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state under low-nutrient conditions and demonstrates nutrient-dependent resuscitation from this state. This study confirms loss of luminescence of V. harveyi and V. fischeri on entry into the viable but nonculturable state and suggests that enumeration of luminescent cells in water samples may be a rapid method to deduce the nutrient status of a water sample.

  20. Lifecycle Cost Assessment of Fuel Cell Technologies for Soldier Power System Applications. Paper and Presentation for the 43rd Power Sources Conference held 8-9 July 2008, Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-09

    PEMFC in Federal Markets,” 2007 Fuel Cell Seminar, San Antonio, TX, 17 October 2007. 7. Fok, K., “Metal Hydride Fuel Cells: Increases in Power...Lauderdale, FL, March 17-20, 2008. 10. Zhao J., et al, “Reclaim/recycle of Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC ,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 48...hydrogen PEMFC or SOFC systems – Baratto et al, Journal of Power Sources – Citigroup, Dist. Telecom Backup – Battelle, Fuel Cell Seminar 2007 • Fuel

  1. Source study for a concept of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, A.; Trtilek, R.; Tarasova, J.; Popelova, E.; Podlaha, J.; Krmela, J.; Vojtechova, H.; Uhlir, J.

    2013-02-01

    The sections of the study are as follows: Purpose of the study; Basic principles of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management; Basic starting facts and assumptions and assessment of the fulfilment of the targets; Low-level and medium-level radioactive waste management; Management of spent nuclear fuels and wastes not admitted to near-surface repositories; Description of / proposal for the methodology of transparency policy and proposal for a method to involve the entities affected, including municipalities and the public; Current financial arrangements (reserves for decommissioning, nuclear account); Refinement/modification of the plans and technical solutions; Proposed schedule and milestones for attaining the targets; Proposal for a research and development programme; Assessment of the costs of implementation of the targets. (P.A.)

  2. Solar energy as an alternate energy source to mixed oxide fuels in light-water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    Supplemental information pertaining to the generic environmental impact statement on the Pu recycling process for mixed oxide light-water cooled reactors (GESMO) was requested from several sources. In particular, the role of alternate sources of energy was to be explored and the implications of these alternate sources to the question of Pu recycle in LWRs were to be investigated. In this vein, solar energy as an alternate source is the main subject of this report, along with other information related to solar energy. The general conclusion is that solar energy should have little effect on the decisions concerning GESMO

  3. Spent Fuel Dissolution and Source Term Modelling in Safety Assessment. Report from a Workshop. Synthesis and extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    This report describes a workshop that was organised by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for assessment of the handling of near-field radionuclide retention processes by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The general objective with this type of meeting is to improve the knowledge and awareness of recent developments and to provide preliminary review comments. A number of SKB reports provided the general background for the workshop discussions. One report addresses the release of radionuclides from spent fuel, another the concentration limits related to radionuclide solubility and a third buffer radionuclide sorption and migration parameters. These reports comprise a basis for the handling of the spent fuel, solubility and sorption processes in new complete safety assessment SR-Can. The discussion and analysis of these background reports at the workshop therefore provide an essential element of preparation for the planned review of SR-Can. The review comments provided in this report are nonetheless of a preliminary character since the SR-Can report was not available at the time of the workshop and details about the incorporation of various potential safety features into the entirety of safety assessment were not known. The present report sets out the detailed objectives and format of the workshop in Section 2. Section 3 provides a high-level overview of processes that need to be taken into account. In Section 4, there is a brief discussion about the chemical and physical environment near the engineered barriers. Section 5 gives a more detailed description of spent fuel processes that affect the radionuclide releases. In Section 6, the key issues for radionuclide chemistry and the estimation of concentration limits for various radionuclides are discussed. Section 7 discusses radionuclide sorption and migration in the buffer and Section 8 presents overall conclusions from the workshop.

  4. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Chapeter 1 specifies regulations concerning business management for refining and processing, which cover application for designation of refining operation, application for permission for processing operation, and approval of personnel responsible for handling nuclear fuel. Chapter 2 specifies regulations concerning construction and operation of nuclear reactors, which cover application for construction of nuclear reactors, reactors in a research and development stage, application for permission concerning nuclear reactors mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, application for permission for alteration concerning construction of nuclear reactors, application for permission for alteration concerning nuclear reactors mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, nuclear reactor facilities to be subjected to regular inspection, nuclear reactor for which submission of operation plan is not required, and application for permission for transfer of nuclear reactor. Chapter 2 also specifies regulations concerning business management for reprocessing and waste disposal. Chapter 3 stipulates regulations concerning use of nuclear fuel substances, nuclear material substances and other substances covered by international regulations, which include rules for application for permission for use of nuclear fuel substances, etc. Supplementary provisions are provided in Chapter 4. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Alternative fuels: how real? how soon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertzakian, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) are looking for politically stable sources of oil in response to the ever growing demand for fuel. World oil consumption has reached 76.5 MMB/d and demand is expected to be 80 MMB/d by 2005. More restrictive environmental policies are resulting in improved conversion efficiency of oil dependent supply chains and the switching to alternative fuels. The adoption of new fuels however, depends on many factors such as the economic advantage, technological superiority, and convenience. The dominant electrical supply chains at the moment are nuclear, coal, hydropower, hydrocarbons, and renewable energy alternatives such as wind, solar and hydrogen fuels. The paper presented graphs illustrating adoption patterns for various fuels over the past century and presented a potential adoption pattern for fuel cell vehicles. Also included in this presentation were graphs depicting how price can drive supply chain demand and allow other fuels to gain market share. The impact of fuel substitution, efficiency and price effects was mentioned along with the impact of recent policy changes on vehicle fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions. The role of government incentives to promote alternative fuel sales was also discussed along with a broad assessment of renewable supply chains. It was noted that most new fuels are linked to hydrocarbons. For example, hydrogen generation through water electrolysis requires petroleum generated electricity or the steam reforming of natural gas. Ethanol processes also require hydrocarbon consumption indirectly. It was noted that the average efficiencies of coal and natural gas plants has increased in the past decade and the incumbent price trends in electricity in the United States have decreased for fuels such as oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. With ongoing innovation in the internal combustion engine in the past 30 years, the incumbents have also improved with

  6. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  7. Studies on biogas-fuelled compression ignition engine under dual fuel mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahla, Sunil Kumar; Singla, Varun; Sandhu, Sarbjot Singh; Dhir, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Experimental investigation has been carried out to utilize biogas as an alternative source of energy in compression ignition (CI) engine under dual fuel operational mode. Biogas was inducted into the inlet manifold at different flow rates along with fresh air through inlet manifold and diesel was injected as a pilot fuel to initiate combustion under dual fuel mode. The engine performance and emission characteristics of dual fuel operational mode were analyzed at different biogas flow rates and compared with baseline conventional diesel fuel. Based upon the improved performance and lower emission characteristics under the dual fuel operation, the optimum flow rate of biogas was observed to be 2.2 kg/h. The lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and higher brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC) were noticed with biogas-diesel fuel under dual fuel mode when compared with neat diesel operation. Test results showed reduced NO x emissions and smoke opacity level in the exhaust tailpipe emissions. However, higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were noticed under dual fuel mode at entire engine loads when compared with baseline fossil petro-diesel. Hence, the use of low-cost gaseous fuel such as biogas would be an economically viable proposition to address the current and future problems of energy scarcity and associated environmental concerns.

  8. Environmental aspects of battery and fuel cell technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The PA Consulting Group was commissioned by the Longer Term Studies Unit, Research and Technology Policy Division and Information and Manufacturing Technologies Division, Dept. of Trade and Industry to investigate possible environmental initiatives which might be driven by the European Commission and which could promote interest in alternative energy sources, particularly batteries and fuel cells. Findings confirmed that there is a role for fuel cells in power generation, the most commercially advanced technology being the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). Development of other systems such as Proton Exchange Membrane technology (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) should also continue. Emissions from fuel cells are lower than those of gas turbines, their main competitors for power generation applications below 100 MW. The study concluded that there is a role for both batteries or fuel cells in powering electric vehicles. Battery powered retrofitted vehicles have an environmental impact comparable to that of internal combustion engine powered vehicles and they could become commercially viable in the context of a carbon tax scenario. Purpose built electric vehicles would be even more attractive. From an environmental viewpoint, fuels cells based on proton membrane membrane technology seemed the best option for powering vehicles if the technical targets could be met.

  9. Materials for fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Sossina M

    2003-01-01

    Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cell...

  10. ORIGEN-S: scale system module to calculate fuel depletion, actinide transmutation, fission product buildup and decay, and associated radiation source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    ORIGEN-S computes time-dependent concentrations and source terms of a large number of isotopes, which are simultaneously generated or depleted through neutronic transmutation, fission, radioactive decay, input feet rates and physical or chemical removal rates. The calculations may pertain to fuel irradiation within nuclear reactors, or the storage, management, transportation or subsequent chemical processing of removed fuel elements. The matrix exponential expansion model of the ORIGIN code is unaltered in ORIGEN-S. Essentially all features of ORIGEN were retained, expanded or supplemented within new computations. The primary objective of ORIGEN-S, as requested by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is that the calculations may utilize the multi-energy group cross sections from any currently processed standardized ENDF/B data base. This purpose has been implemented through the prior execution of codes within either the SCALE System or the AMPX System, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These codes compute flux-weighted cross sections, simulating conditions within any given reactor fuel assembly, and convert the data into a library that can be input to ORIGEN-S. Time-dependent libraries may be produced, reflecting fuel composition variations during irradiation. Presented in the document are: detailed and condensed input instructions, model theory, features available, range of applicability, brief subroutine descriptions, sample input, and I/O requirements. Presently the code is operable on IBM 360/370 computers and may be converted for CDC computers. ORIGEN-S is a functional module in the SCALE System and will be one of the modules invoked in the SAS2 Control Module, presently being developed, or may be applied as a stand alone program. It can be used in nuclear reactor and processing plant design studies, radiation safety analyses, and environmental assessments

  11. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, R R

    1953-01-01

    Because of the importance of fuel properties in design of aircraft fuel systems the present report has been prepared to provide information on the characteristics of current jet fuels. In addition to information on fuel properties, discussions are presented on fuel specifications, the variations among fuels supplied under a given specification, fuel composition, and the pertinence of fuel composition and physical properties to fuel system design. In some instances the influence of variables such as pressure and temperature on physical properties is indicated. References are cited to provide fuel system designers with sources of information containing more detail than is practicable in the present report.

  12. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 2. enl. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Cornel [Berkeley Univ., CA (United States)]|[Paris Univ. (France)]|[Pisa Univ. (Italy)]|[Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[Westsaechsischen Hochschule Zwickau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The implementation possibilities of future drive concepts - from hybrid systems comprising an electric motor and an internal combustion engine to fuel cells to alternative fuels like hydrogen or alcohol - will depend largely on quality criteria, e.g. power density, rotary momentum, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption, emissions of chemical substances, and noise. The boundary criteria for the introduction of realizeable concepts of alternative drives for motor cars will be defined by the availability and storability of the envisaged fuels, technical complexity, cost, safety, infrastructure and service. The book presents and analyzes the processes, drives and energy sources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for motor cars in accordance with the aforementioned criteria. Knowledge about these facts is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The 2nd edition describes many new developments in car propulsion systems as well as their combinations, new energy sources, energy converters and energy stores. All contents and literature reflect the latest state of science and technology. (orig.) [German] Ueber die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von Hybridsystemen Elektro-/Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden fundierte Kriterien der Qualitaet eines Antriebs entscheiden. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind dafuer wichtige Merkmale zur Qualitaetsbeurteilung. Die Verfuegbarkeit und die Speicherfaehigkeit vorgesehener Energietraeger, die technische Komplexitaet, Kosten, Sicherheit, Infrastruktur und Service werden die Randbedingungen fuer die Einfuehrung realisierbarer Konzepte alternativer Antriebe fuer Automobile stellen. Die Uebersicht und die Analyse der Prozesse, Antriebsmaschinen und Energietraeger, die

  13. Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion of Carbon and Stainless Steel Alloys Immersed in Mixtures of Renewable Fuel Sources and Tested Under Co-processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely András

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with modern regulations and directives, the use of renewable biomass materials as precursors for the production of fuels for transportation purposes is to be strictly followed. Even though, there are problems related to processing, storage and handling in wide range of subsequent uses, since there must be a limit to the ratio of biofuels mixed with mineral raw materials. As a key factor with regards to these biomass sources pose a great risk of causing multiple forms of corrosion both to metallic and non-metallic structural materials. To assess the degree of corrosion risk to a variety of engineering alloys like low-carbon and stainless steels widely used as structural metals, this work is dedicated to investigating corrosion rates of economically reasonable engineering steel alloys in mixtures of raw gas oil and renewable biomass fuel sources under typical co-processing conditions. To model a desulphurising refining process, corrosion tests were carried out with raw mineral gasoline and its mixture with used cooking oil and animal waste lard in relative quantities of 10% (g/g. Co-processing was simulated by batch-reactor laboratory experiments. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 200 and 300ºC and a pressure in the gas phase of 90 bar containing 2% (m3/m3 hydrogen sulphide. The time span of individual tests were varied between 1 and 21 days so that we can conclude about changes in the reaction rates against time exposure of and extrapolate for longer periods of exposure. Initial and integral corrosion rates were defined by a weight loss method on standard size of coupons of all sorts of steel alloys. Corrosion rates of carbon steels indicated a linear increase with temperature and little variation with composition of the biomass fuel sources. Apparent activation energies over the first 24-hour period remained moderate, varying between 35.5 and 50.3 kJ mol−1. Scales developed on carbon steels at higher

  14. Use of nuclear fusion systems for spent nuclear fuel degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.; Ramos, G.; Herrera V, J. J. E.

    2009-10-01

    One of the severe problems of the nuclear industry that should be resolved to facilitate its acceptance like viable energy alternative is of the wastes. In spite of having alternative of fuel reprocessing, many of them have been abandoned by economic or security reasons. In the present work, the alternative is described for using reactors of nuclear fusion as sources of fast neutrons with two important applications in mind: the plutonium burning and the transmutation of the elements that contribute in way more important to their radioactivity, mainly the smaller actinides and the fission products of long half life. (Author)

  15. A decade of advances in metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahm, C.E.; Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Tsai, H.; Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Dodds, N.E.; Hofman, G.L.; Walters, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances in the understanding of behavior and performance of metallic fuels to high burnup have been achieved over the past four decades. Metallic fuels were the first fuels for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMR) but in the late 1960's worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved. Now metallic fuels are recognized as a preferred viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last decade and highlights the behavior and performance features which have demonstrated a much greater potential than previously expected

  16. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail.(Okada, K.)

  17. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail. (Kubozone, M.)

  18. Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter γ, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|≥2.3x10 4 . We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k→∞. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p 0 =0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p 1 =-(1/2)ε in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good

  19. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Imre; Németh, Zoltán; Weidinger, Tamás; Maenhaut, Willy; Claeys, Magda; Molnár, Mihály; Major, István; Ajtai, Tibor; Utry, Noémi; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m-3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6 × OC) accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF) combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC = EC + OC) in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB) was a major source (40 %) for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 %) for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon-levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF) to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB) were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO) made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as domestic and industrial heating or cooking using gas, oil or coal

  20. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  1. Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving smallholder and cooperative agribusiness management: A case study of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. ... South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Empirical evidence from this study shows that six months after attending the workshops, ...

  2. A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Two titles in one cover. On page 56-112 there's the English version of the book: 'A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain. Does real estate still have the value that it had, or is the valuation of real estate going to change due to surprising products and services, innovative

  3. Coupled production in biorefineries--combined use of biomass as a source of energy, fuels and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyko, Hildegard; Deerberg, Görge; Weidner, Eckhard

    2009-06-01

    In spite of high prices for fossil raw materials the production of biomass-based products is rarely economically successful today. Depending on the location feedstock prices are currently so high that products from renewable resources are not marketable when produced in existing process chains. Apart from the higher feedstock costs one reason is that at present no optimized production systems exist in contrast to the chemical and petrochemical industry where these systems have been established over the last decades. If we succeed in developing production systems modelled on those of petroleum refineries where we can provide a flexible coupled production of energy, fuels, materials and chemicals chances are good to enable a lastingly successful production on the basis of renewable resources. Based on examples of fat-based and sugar-based concepts ideas for platform oriented biorefineries are outlined.

  4. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Use of WIMS-E lattice code for prediction of the transuranic source term for spent fuel dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    A recent source term analysis has shown a discrepancy between ORIGEN2 transuranic isotopic production estimates and those produced with the WIMS-E lattice physics code. Excellent agreement between relevant experimental measurements and WIMS-E was shown, thus exposing an error in the cross section library used by ORIGEN2

  7. Hydrogen production by reforming of fossil and biomass fuels accompanied by carbon dioxide capture process is the energy source for the near future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudheir, Ahmed; Idem, Raphael; Tontiwachwuthikul, Paitoon; Wilson, Malcolm; Kambietz, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen has a significant future potential as an alternative energy source for the transportation sector as well as in residential homes and offices, H 2 in fuel cell power systems provides an alternative to direct fossil fuel and biomass combustion based technologies and offer the possibility for a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission based on improved H 2 yield per unit of fossil fuel and biomass, compatibility with renewable energies and motivation to convert to a H 2 -based energy economy. Several practical techniques for H 2 production to service H 2 refuelling stations as well as homes and offices, all of which need to be located at the end of the energy distribution network, include: (1) the carbon dioxide reforming of natural gas; (2) reforming of gasoline; (3) reforming of crude ethanol. Locating the H 2 production at the end of the energy distribution network solves the well-known problems of metal fatigue and high cost of H 2 compression for long distance transportation if H 2 is produced in a large centralized plant. In addition, the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the need to reduce emissions of CO 2 to the atmosphere has prompted the capture and utilization of the CO 2 produced from the reforming process. In this research: (1) new efficient catalysts for each reforming process was developed; (2) a new efficient catalyst for our version of the water gas shift reaction to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide was developed; (3) a new membrane separation process for production of high purity, fuel cell-grade H 2 was designed; (4) a numerical model for optimum process design and optimum utilization of resources both at the laboratory and industrial scales was developed; (5) various processes for CO 2 capture were investigated experimentally in order to achieve a net improvement in the absorption process; (6) the utilization of captured CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery and/or storage in an aging oil field were investigated; (7

  8. A shift in emission time profiles of fossil fuel combustion due to energy transitions impacts source receptor matrices for air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Scholz, Yvonne; Schaap, Martijn

    2015-03-01

    Effective air pollution and short-lived climate forcer mitigation strategies can only be designed when the effect of emission reductions on pollutant concentrations and health and ecosystem impacts are quantified. Within integrated assessment modeling source-receptor relationships (SRRs) based on chemistry transport modeling are used to this end. Currently, these SRRs are made using invariant emission time profiles. The LOTOS-EUROS model equipped with a source attribution module was used to test this assumption for renewable energy scenarios. Renewable energy availability and thereby fossil fuel back up are strongly dependent on meteorological conditions. We have used the spatially and temporally explicit energy model REMix to derive time profiles for backup power generation. These time profiles were used in LOTOS-EUROS to investigate the effect of emission timing on air pollutant concentrations and SRRs. It is found that the effectiveness of emission reduction in the power sector is significantly lower when accounting for the shift in the way emissions are divided over the year and the correlation of emissions with synoptic situations. The source receptor relationships also changed significantly. This effect was found for both primary and secondary pollutants. Our results indicate that emission timing deserves explicit attention when assessing the impacts of system changes on air quality and climate forcing from short lived substances.

  9. Investigation of chemical modifiers for sulfur determination in diesel fuel samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry using direct analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Charles S. [Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense, Câmpus Pelotas, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Química, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Química, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Química, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Andrade, Jailson B. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Dessuy, Morgana B., E-mail: mbdessuy@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Química, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry has been applied for sulfur determination in diesel fuel. The sharp rotational lines of the carbon monosulfide molecule (formed during the vaporization step) were used to measure the absorbance. The analytical line at 258.056 nm was monitored using the sum of three pixels. Different chemical modifiers were investigated and the mixture of palladium and magnesium was used as chemical modifier in combination with iridium as permanent modifier. L-Cysteine was chosen as sulfur standard and the calibration was done against aqueous standard solutions. The proposed method was applied for the analyses of four diesel samples: two S10 samples and two S500 samples. The trueness of the method was checked with a certified reference material (CRM) of sulfur in diesel fuel (NIST 2724b). Accurate results, for samples and CRM, were achieved after a dilution with propan-1-ol. The following figures of merit were obtained: characteristic mass of 17 ± 3 ng, limit of detection and limit of quantification of 1.4 mg kg{sup −1} and 4.7 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • Ir, Ru and Zr were investigated as permanent modifiers. • Ca, Mg, Pd and Pd/Mg were investigated as modifiers in solution. • Indirect determination of sulfur monitoring the molecular absorbance of the CS • Direct analysis of diesel samples using a dilution in propan-1-ol.

  10. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  11. Growth of filamentous blue-green algae at high temperatures: a source of biomass for renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timourian, H.; Ward, R.L.; Jeffries, T.W.

    1977-08-17

    The growth of filamentous blue-green algae (FBGA) at high temperatures in outdoor, shallow solar ponds is being investigated. The temperature of the 60-m/sup 2/ ponds can be controlled to an average temperature of 45/sup 0/C. The growth of FBGA at high temperatures offers an opportunity, not presently available from outdoor algal ponds or energy farms, to obtain large amounts of biomass. Growth of algae at high temperatures results in higher yields because of increased growth rate, the higher light intensity that can be used before saturating the photosynthetic process, easier maintenance of selected FBGA strains, and fewer predators to decimate culture. Additional advantages of growing FBGA as a source of biomass include: bypassing the limitations of nutrient sources, because FBGA fix their own nitrogen and require only CO/sub 2/ when inorganic nutrients are recycled; toleration of higher salinity and metal ion concentrations; and easier and less expensive harvesting procedures.

  12. Energy efficiency for the multiport power converters architectures of series and parallel hybrid power source type used in plug-in/V2G fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, Nicu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is analyzed the series and parallel Hybrid Power Source (HPS) topology for plug-in Fuel Cell Vehicle (PFCV). ► An energy efficiency analysis of the Multiport Power Converter (MPC) of both HPSs is performed. ► The MPC energy efficiency features were shown by analytical computing in all PFCV regimes. -- Abstract: In this paper it is presented a mathematical analysis of the energy efficiency for the Multiport Power Converter (MPC) used in series and parallel Hybrid Power Source (HPS) architectures type on the plug-in Fuel Cell Vehicles (PFCVs). The aim of the analysis is to provide general conclusions for a wide range of PFCV operating regimes that are chosen for efficient use of the MPC architecture on each particular drive cycle. In relation with FC system of PFCV, the Energy Storage System (ESS) can operate in following regimes: (1) Charge-Sustaining (CS), (2) Charge-Depleting (CD), and (3) Charge-Increasing (CI). Considering the imposed window for the ESS State-Of-Charge (SOC), the MPC can be connected to renewable plug-in Charging Stations (PCSs) to exchange power with Electric Power (EP) system, when it is necessary for both. The Energy Management Unit (EMU) that communicates with the EP system will establish the moments to match the PFCV power demand with supply availability of the EP grid, stabilizing it. The MPC energy efficiency of the PFCVs is studied when the ESS is charged (discharged) from (to) the home/PCS/EP system. The comparative results were shown for both PFCV architectures through the analytical calculation performed and the appropriate Matlab/Simulink® simulations presented.

  13. Order for execution of the law concerning regulation of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The designations according to Item 1, Article 3 and Item 1, Article 13 of the Law must be obtained for each factory or business place where refining and fabrication of nuclear material are to be performed. One who wants to obtain such designation should file an application attached with a business plan and other documents via the director of a regional bureau of international trade and industry having jurisdiction over such factory or business place. When nuclear material refiners and nuclear material fabricators wish to obtain the approval for change stipulated in Item 1, Article 6 and Item 1, Article 16 of the Law, they must file applications to the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry via said directors. Chief handlers of nuclear fuel materials shall be approved among those meeting the strict requirements. One who wishes to install reactors must obtain the approval for each factory or business place where the reactors are to be installed. The permission must be obtained for each nuclear ship entering Japanese waters. The reactors proper and several facilities are subject to periodic inspection. (Rikitake, Y.)

  14. Which energy source for road transport in the future? A comparison of battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierlo, J. van; Maggetto, G.; Lataire, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen era is foreseen following the European research programme in a time horizon of 2020-2040. But there will be clearly a choice to be made between an electron economy (direct use of the produced electricity) and the so called 'hydrogen economy' which leads to the introduction of an intermediate hydrogen production, transport and distribution process before the final use in an electrical process. This paper considers only passenger car and delivery vans applications. In this field a big time gap is to be filled between the situation today, the occurrence of oil shortage in a quite short future and this time horizon 2020-2040. Today's intermediate solutions are clearly based on hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The performances of these solutions are putting a lot of questions on the necessity of a hydrogen economy for future transportation. The paper discusses performances of hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles in comparison of the future hydrogen fuel cell based systems which are now in R and D phase and a very beginning of field demonstration

  15. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  16. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  17. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA; Basel, Richard A [Pittsburgh, PA; Zhang, Gong [Murrysville, PA

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  18. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  19. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  1. Microalgae as a Renewable Source of Energy: A Niche Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jegan Porphy Jegathese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algae are believed to be a good source of renewable energy because of its rapid growth rate and its ability to be cultivated in waste water or waste land. Several companies and government agencies are making efforts to reduce capital cost and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Algae are the fastest growing plant and theoretically have the potential to produce more oil or biomass per acre when compared to other crops and plants. However, the energy efficiency ratio and carbon and water footprint for algal based biofuels still need to be evaluated in order to fully understand the environmental impact of algal derived biofuels.

  2. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  3. Solar-fuel generation: Towards practical implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    Limiting reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels inevitably depends on a more efficient utilization of solar energy. Materials scientists discuss the most viable approaches to produce high-energy-density fuels from sunlight that can be implemented in existing infrastructures....

  4. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  5. Source apportionment of carbonaceous chemical species to fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic emissions by a coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An intensive aerosol measurement and sample collection campaign was conducted in central Budapest in a mild winter for 2 weeks. The online instruments included an FDMS-TEOM, RT-OC/EC analyser, DMPS, gas pollutant analysers and meteorological sensors. The aerosol samples were collected on quartz fibre filters by a low-volume sampler using the tandem filter method. Elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol and mannitol were determined, and radiocarbon analysis was performed on the aerosol samples. Median atmospheric concentrations of EC, OC and PM2.5 mass were 0.97, 4.9 and 25 µg m−3, respectively. The EC and organic matter (1.6  ×  OC accounted for 4.8 and 37 %, respectively, of the PM2.5 mass. Fossil fuel (FF combustion represented 36 % of the total carbon (TC  =  EC + OC in the PM2.5 size fraction. Biomass burning (BB was a major source (40 % for the OC in the PM2.5 size fraction, and a substantial source (11 % for the PM10 mass. We propose and apply here a novel, straightforward, coupled radiocarbon–levoglucosan marker method for source apportionment of the major carbonaceous chemical species. The contributions of EC and OC from FF combustion (ECFF and OCFF to the TC were 11.0 and 25 %, respectively, EC and OC from BB (ECBB and OCBB were responsible for 5.8 and 34 %, respectively, of the TC, while the OC from biogenic sources (OCBIO made up 24 % of the TC. The overall relative uncertainty of the OCBIO and OCBB contributions was assessed to be up to 30 %, while the relative uncertainty for the other apportioned species is expected to be below 20 %. Evaluation of the apportioned atmospheric concentrations revealed some of their important properties and relationships among them. ECFF and OCFF were associated with different FF combustion sources. Most ECFF was emitted by vehicular road traffic, while the contribution of non-vehicular sources such as

  6. Viable Legionella pneumophila bacteria in natural soil and rainwater puddles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, E.; de Roda Husman, A. M.; Lodder, W. J.; Bouwknegt, M.; Docters van Leeuwen, A. E.; Bruin, J. P.; Euser, S. M.; den Boer, J. W.; Schalk, J. A C

    Aims: For the majority of sporadic Legionnaires' disease cases the source of infection remains unknown. Infection may possible result from exposure to Legionella bacteria in sources that are not yet considered in outbreak investigations. Therefore, potential sources of pathogenic Legionella

  7. A viable electrode material for use in microbial fuel cells for tropical regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offei, Felix; Thygesen, Anders; Mensah, Moses

    2016-01-01

    of this material is also targeted at introducing an inexpensive and durable electrode material, which can be produced in rural communities to improve the viability of MFCs. The maximum voltage and power density obtained (under 1000 Ω load) using an H-shaped MFC with AC as both anode and cathode electrode material...... was 0.66 V and 1.74 W/m3, respectively. The power generated by AC was as high as 86% of the value obtained with the extensively used carbon paper. Scanning electron microscopy and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of AC anode biofilms confirmed that electrogenic bacteria were...

  8. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  9. Contracting of energy services: often a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, M.; Bruendler, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the outsourcing of energy services as a viable alternative to the operation of own energy facilities. The advantages of contracting for enterprises wanting to focus on their core competencies and have their energy infrastructure financed, built, maintained and operated by a third party are discussed. Financial aspects are looked at and examples in connection with the calculation of actual energy costs are given. The article is concluded with tips on the evaluation of offers for contracting services and on the definition of ownership aspects and property boundaries

  10. Release of fission products from irradiated SRP fuels at elevated temperature. Data report on the first stage of the SRP source term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, R.E.

    1986-06-01

    For a sound evaluation of the consequences of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident, a knowledge of the extent of fission product release from the fuel at anticipated temperatures and atmosphere conditions is required. Measurements of fission product release have been performed with a variety of nuclear fuels under various conditions of temperature and atmosphere. While the use of data obtained on fuels similar to the fuel of interest may provide a reasonable estimate of release fractions, precise information of this nature can only be obtained from measurements employing specimens of the actual fuels used in the nuclear reactor under consideration. The two fuels of interest in the present study are an alloy, a dispersion of UAl 4 in an aluminum matrix, and a cermet, a dispersion of U 3 O 8 in an aluminum matrix. Both fuels are clad in aluminum

  11. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  12. Irradiation performance of metallic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Porter, D.L.; Batte, G.L.; Hofman, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has been working for the past five years to develop and demonstrate the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. The concept involves a closed system for fast-reactor power generation and on-site fuel reprocessing, both designed specifically around the use of metallic fuel. The Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) has used metallic fuel for all of its 25-year life. In 1985, tests were begun to examine the irradiation performance of advanced-design metallic fuel systems based on U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr fuels. These tests have demonstrated the viable performance of these fuel systems to high burnup. The initial testing program will be described in this paper. 2 figs

  13. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  14. Formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori: viables o degenerativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cava

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available De los trabajos presentados acerca de las formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori se deduce una controversia mucho mayor que la resultante del mero estudio clínico de este microorganismo. Parece claro que existe una conversión tanto in vivo como in vitro de las formas espirales a las formas cocoides inducida por varios motivos, como cultivos prolongados, estrés físico y químico, y agentes antimicrobianos. En esta revisión repasamos los puntos de vista que han dividido a investigadores de esta área en dos grupos bien definidos: Los que consideran a estas formas cocoides como un producto no viable de degeneración celular y los que piensan que estas formas son estructuras viables,durmientes o de resistencia frente a condiciones ambientales adversas. Esta discrepancia conlleva a que interrogantes sobre la relación entre la transmisión de la enfermedad y estas formas cocoides permanezcan sin respuesta todavía.

  15. Separation of viable lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Nishino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits to humans. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB are probiotic organisms used in the production of fermented foods, such as yogurt, cheese, and pickles. Given their widespread consumption, it is important to understand the physiological state of LAB in foods such as yogurt. However, this analysis is complicated, as it is difficult to separate the LAB from milk components such as solid curds, which prevent cell separation by dilution or centrifugation. In this study, we successfully separated viable LAB from yogurt by density gradient centrifugation. The recovery rate was >90 %, and separation was performed until the stationary phase. Recovered cells were observable by microscopy, meaning that morphological changes and cell viability could be directly detected at the single-cell level. The results indicate that viable LAB can be easily purified from fermented milk. We expect that this method will be a useful tool for the analysis of various aspects of probiotic cells, including their enzyme activity and protein expression. Keywords: Food analysis, Microbiology

  16. Future automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepik, M.

    1993-01-01

    There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au)

  17. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  18. Pilot Study on the Impact of Biogas as a Fuel Source on Respiratory Health of Women on Rural Kenyan Smallholder Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, Carolyn; Guernsey, Judith Read; Critchley, Kimberley; VanLeeuwen, John

    2012-01-01

    Biomass burning in indoor environments has been highlighted as a major cause of respiratory morbidity for women and children in low-income countries. Inexpensive technological innovations which reduce such exposures are needed. This study evaluated the impact of low tech compost digesters, which generate biogas for cooking, versus traditional fuel sources on the respiratory health of nonsmoking Kenyan farmwomen. Women from 31 farms with biogas digesters were compared to age-matched women from 31 biomass-reliant farms, in June 2010. Only 43% of the biogas group reported any breathing problems, compared to 71% in the referent group (P = 0.03). Referent women self-reported higher rates of shortness of breath (52% versus 30%), difficulty breathing (42% versus 23%), and chest pain while breathing (35% versus 17%) during the last 6 months (P = 0.09 to 0.12) compared to biogas women. Biogas women demonstrated slightly better spirometry results but differences were not statistically significant, likely due to limited latency between biogas digester installation and spirometry testing. Most biogas women reported improved personal respiratory health (87%) and improved children's health (72%) since biogas digester installation. These findings suggest that using biogas in cookhouses improves respiratory symptoms but long-term impacts on lung function are unclear. PMID:22969815

  19. Cooperation of the member states of the SEV in the field of energy, fuel and raw material resources, and the problems of developing of new sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapol' i, L

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of the agreement concerning the creation of a combined organization for conducting geological prospecting operations for petroleum and gas in the Baltic Sea in the area of the continental shelf and the floor of the territorial waters of the signatory states of East Germany, Poland, and the USSR, which was signed in 1975, the Petrolbaltik organization ws created. A long time program of cooperation in the areas of energy, fuel, and raw materials foresees that the SEV member states will carry out prospective scientific developments on the use of new sources of energy, including solar, wind, chemical and geothermal forms of energy. Forty-seven scientific and technical organization of the SEV member states are working under the leadership of the Coordination center concerning the problem, ''New methods on the use of coal,'' on the industrial use of the by-products of hte extraction and enrichment of coal, the methods of their coking, and their liquefaction and gasification. The technique of producing alumina and cement from the ash of energy systems, working on coal, as well as from coal heaps is being successfully applied in Hungary.

  20. Effects of various organic carbon sources on simultaneous V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in single chamber microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liting; Zhang, Baogang; Cheng, Ming; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-02-01

    Four ordinary carbon sources affecting V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were investigated. Acetate supported highest maximum power density of 589.1mW/m(2), with highest V(V) removal efficiency of 77.6% during 12h operation, compared with glucose, citrate and soluble starch. Exorbitant initial V(V) concentration led to lower V(V) removal efficiencies and power outputs. Extra addition of organics had little effect on the improvement of MFCs performance. V(V) reduction and bioelectricity generation were enhanced and then suppressed by the increase of conductivity. The larger the external resistance, the higher the V(V) removal efficiencies and voltage outputs. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis implied the accumulation of Enterobacter which had the capabilities of V(V) reduction, electrochemical activity and fermentation, accompanied with other functional species as Pseudomonas, Spirochaeta, Sedimentibacter and Dysgonomonas. This study steps forward to remediate V(V) contaminated environment based on MFC technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thorium-based fuel cycles: Reassessment of fuel economics and proliferation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [Senior Lecturer at the School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (PUK-Campus), PRIVATE BAG X6001, Internal Post Box 360, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [Professor at the School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    At current consumption and current prices, the proven reserves for natural uranium will last only about 100 years. However, the more abundant thorium, burned in breeder reactors, such as large High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors, and followed by chemical reprocessing of the spent fuel, could stretch the 100 years for uranium supply to 15,000 years. Thorium-based fuel cycles are also viewed as more proliferation resistant compared to uranium. However, several barriers to entry caused all countries, except India and Russia, to abandon their short term plans for thorium reactor projects, in favour of uranium/plutonium fuel cycles. In this article, based on the theory of resonance integrals and original analysis of fast fission cross sections, the breeding potential of {sup 232}Th is compared to that of {sup 238}U. From a review of the literature, the fuel economy of thorium-based fuel cycles is compared to that of natural uranium-based cycles. This is combined with a technical assessment of the proliferation resistance of thorium-based fuel cycles, based on a review of the literature. Natural uranium is currently so cheap that it contributes only about 10% of the cost of nuclear electricity. Chemical reprocessing is also very expensive. Therefore conservation of natural uranium by means of the introduction of thorium into the fuel is not yet cost effective and will only break even once the price of natural uranium were to increase from the current level of about $70/pound yellow cake to above about $200/pound. However, since fuel costs constitutes only a small fraction of the total cost of nuclear electricity, employing reprocessing in a thorium cycle, for the sake of its strategic benefits, may still be a financially viable option. The most important source of the proliferation resistance of {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycles is denaturisation of the {sup 233}U in the spent fuel by {sup 232}U, for which the highly radioactive decay chain potentially poses a large

  2. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  3. A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B; Lankey, Rebecca; Joshi, Satish

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C 2 H 5 OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable

  4. Presence and Persistence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Legionella pneumophila Bacteria in Garden Soil in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijnsbergen, E; van Deursen, A; Bouwknegt, M; Bruin, J P; de Roda Husman, A M; Schalk, J A C

    2016-09-01

    Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. Copyright © 2016 van Heijnsbergen et al.

  5. Presence and Persistence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Legionella pneumophila Bacteria in Garden Soil in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijnsbergen, E.; van Deursen, A.; Bouwknegt, M.; Bruin, J. P.; Schalk, J. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila. Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. IMPORTANCE Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. PMID:27316958

  6. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  7. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  8. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  9. Selection of viable cell subpopulations from murine tumours using FACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.; Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors developed a technique which enables isolation of viable tumour cells subpopulation as a function of their distance from the blood supply. The basis for this separation procedure is that the fluorochrome, Hoechst 33342, as a result of its high avidity for cellular DNA, exhibits a marked diffusion/consumption gradient when it has to pass through several cell layers. As a result intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 into tumour bearing animals, results in a heterogeneous straining pattern within the tumour with cells close to blood vessels being brightly fluorescent while those more distant are less intensely stained. Since these differences in staining intensity persist after tumour disaggregation, cells can be sorted into subpopulations on the basis of their fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. This technique offers the unique possibility of identifying the location of those cell subpopulations resistant to treatment with either radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs

  10. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  11. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  12. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond. (invited comment)

  13. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  14. Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

    2014-02-01

    Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli) · g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity.

  15. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) - an economically viable source for antihypercholesterolemic metabolites production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, V; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2010-08-01

    Rice, parboiled rice, finger millet, germinated finger millet, broken wheat, njavara (medicinal rice), sorghum and maize were used as substrates for solid state fermentation of Monascus purpureus at 28°C for 7 days using 2% seed medium as inoculum for the production of its metabolites. The fungus exhibited good growth in all the substrates. The fermented substrates were dried at 45°C and analysed for antihypercholesterolemic metabolite statins by standardized HPLC method and dietary sterol contents by spectrophotometric method using reference standards of statin (pravastatin and lovastatin) and cholesterol, respectively. Germinated finger millet yielded higher total statin production of 5.2 g/kg dry wt with pravastatin and lovastatin content of 4.9 and 0.37 g/kg dry wt respectively than other substrates which range from 1.04-4.41 g/kg. In addition to statin, monascus fermented germinated finger millet yielded dietary sterol of 0.053 g/kg dry wt which is 7.6 folds higher than the control. The value addition of finger millet by germination and fermentation with Monascus purpureus provides scope for development of functional food.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES/CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL BORNE CATALYST WITH CLEANAIR SYSTEM'S DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with CleanAir System's Diesel Oxidation Catalyst manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a fuel-borne catalyst used in ultra low sulfur d...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION, TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES: CLEAN DIESEL TECHNOLOGIES FUEL-BORNE CATALYST WITH MITSUI/PUREARTH CATALYZED WIRE MESH FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Fuel-Borne Catalyst with Mitsui/PUREarth Catalyzed Wire Mesh Filter manufactured by Clean Diesel Technologies, Inc. The technology is a platinum/cerium fuel-borne catalyst in commerci...

  18. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except... required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as prescribed in this section...

  19. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    feedstock for HRJ, plant cost for F-T) Courtesy AFRL, Dr. Tim Edwards Unclassified • Agricultural crop oils (canola, jatropha, soy, palm , etc...Fuels Focus  Various conversion processes  Upgraded to meet fuel specs Diverse energy sources Petroleum Crude Oil Petroleum based Single Fuel in the...data and resources – Conduct gap analysis – synfuel efforts, expand to biofuels, ID potential joint efforts – Increase visibility outside SCP world

  20. Release of fission products from irradiated SRP fuels at elevated temperatures: Data report on the second stage of the SRP source term study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, R.E.

    1987-03-01

    The measurements of the release of fission products from irradiated Savannah River Plant (SRP) fuels at elevated temperatures reported herein extend the results of the first stage of the investigation to two additional fuel temperatures. In the first stage, two types of SRP fuels, a uranium-aluminum alloy designated MK-16 and a U 3 O 8 -aluminum cermet designated OX-2, were exposed to one of three different atmospheres, argon, air, or 80% steam-20% argon, at either of two different temperatures, 700 or 1100 0 C. In the second stage, the two fuels and three atmospheres remained the same, but the fuel temperatures, 850 and 1000 0 C, were intermediate to those previously employed. For each set of conditions, the measurements were repeated and, thus, the second stage of the study, like the first, consisted of 24 separate runs. This report presents the results of the 24 second-stage measurements

  1. Fuel Assembly Damping Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kanghee; Kang, Heungseok; Oh, Dongseok; Yoon, Kyungho; Kim, Hyungkyu; Kim, Jaeyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper summary the fuel assembly damping data in air/in still water/under flow, released from foreign fuel vendors, compared our data with the published data. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping measurement testing are also briefly discussed. Understanding of each fuel assembly damping mechanisms according to the surrounding medium and flow velocity can support the fuel design improvement in fuel assembly dynamics and structural integrity aspect. Because the upgraded requirements of the newly-developed advanced reactor system will demands to minimize fuel design margin in integrity evaluation, reduction in conservatism of fuel assembly damping can contribute to alleviate the fuel design margin for sure. Damping is an energy dissipation mechanism in a vibrating mechanical structure and prevents a resonant structure from having infinite vibration amplitudes. The sources of fuel assembly damping are various from support friction to flow contribution, and it can be increased by the viscosity or drag of surrounding fluid medium or the average velocity of water flowing. Fuel licensing requires fuel design evaluation in transient or accidental condition. Dynamic response analysis of fuel assembly is to show fuel integrity and requires information on assembly-wise damping in dry condition and under wet or water flowing condition. However, damping measurement test for the full-scale fuel assembly prototype is not easy to carry out because of the scale (fuel prototype, test facility), unsteadiness of test data (scattering, random sampling and processing), instrumentation under water flowing (water-proof response measurement), and noise. LWR fuel technology division in KAERI is preparing the infra structure for damping measurement test of full-scale fuel assembly, to support fuel industries and related research activities. Here is a preliminary summary of fuel assembly damping, published in the literature. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping

  2. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  3. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2010-02-26

    sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  4. Calculation of source term in spent PWR fuel assemblies for dry storage and shipping cask design; Calculo de los terminos fuente de combustibles irradiados PWR para el diseno de contenedores de almacenamiento y transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J L; Lopez, J

    1986-07-01

    Using the ORIGEN-2 Coda, the decay heat and neutron and photon sources for an irradiated PWR fuel element have been calculated. Also, parametric studies on the behaviour of the magnitudes with the burn-up, linear heat power and irradiation and cooling times were performed. Finally, a comparison between our results and other design calculations shows a good agreement and confirms the validity of the used method. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. An economically viable alternative to coastal discharge of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Unger, C.V.; Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The discharge of produced waters to coastal estuaries has been common practice on the Texas coast for many years as these discharges are currently exempt from NPDES permitting. A study of the active produced water discharges in Nueces Bay, Texas revealed that all eight effluents were highly toxic as determined by the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development assays. An alternative to discharging produced water into coastal estuaries is the use of disposal wells. Inactive wells can be converted to produced water disposal wells. Production records for the Nueces Bay, Texas area reveal that 52% of the gas wells produce less than 100 mcf/d and 50% of the oil wells produce less than 10 b/d. Using conservative estimates, the cost of converting an inactive well to a disposal well was calculated to be $31,500 which could be paid out by a gas well producing as little as 100 mcf/d in 26 months using only 50% of the well's profit. Combining multiple leases to a single disposal well would reduce proportionately the cost to each operation. This study has demonstrated that economically viable disposal options could be achieved in the Nueces Bay area through the imaginative and cooperative formation of produced water disposal ventures. This same model could be applied to produced water discharges in other coastal areas

  6. Radiation disinfestation: A viable technology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing food production in many countries is often offset by spoilage losses that occur at different stages after harvesting, slaughtering, or catching. The situation becomes critical in developing countries as more food is needed to feed the ever-increasing population. One of the major problems of losses of food and agricultural products during storage is insect infestation. This paper reviews some insect infestation problems of valuable crops in developing countries such as cereals, pulses, dried fish and meat, fresh and dried fruits, coffee and cocoa beans, spices, and cured tobacco leaves. Present practices of chemical fumigation to eliminate insect problems in these crops give rise to concern from the points of view of both public health and occupational safety. Irradiation technology has been shown to be as effective as other insect disinfestation methods and could provide a viable alternative for this purpose. Insects do not develop resistance to physical techniques such as heat or irradiation as they do to chemical treatments. Applications of radiation for disinfestation of food and agricultural products of importance to developing countries are discussed. The economics of radiation disinfestation of cereals and pulses, dried fish, and fresh fruits are also discussed

  7. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  8. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  9. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  10. Fuel consumption from vehicles of China until 2030 in energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingyu; Tian Weili; Zheng Yingyue; Zhang Lili

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of fuel (gasoline and diesel) consumption for vehicles in China under different long-term energy policy scenarios is presented here. The fuel economy of different vehicle types is subject to variation of government regulations; hence the fuel consumption of passenger cars (PCs), light trucks (Lts), heavy trucks (Hts), buses and motor cycles (MCs) are calculated with respect to (i) the number of vehicles, (ii) distance traveled, and (iii) fuel economy. On the other hand, the consumption rate of alternative energy sources (i.e. ethanol, methanol, biomass-diesel and CNG) is not evaluated here. The number of vehicles is evaluated using the economic elastic coefficient method, relating to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) from 1997 to 2007. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system software is employed to develop a simple model to project fuel consumption in China until 2030 under these scenarios. Three energy consumption decrease scenarios are designed to estimate the reduction of fuel consumption: (i) 'business as usual' (BAU); (ii) 'advanced fuel economy' (AFE); and (iii) 'alternative energy replacement' (AER). It is shown that fuel consumption is predicted to reach 992.28 Mtoe (million tons oil equivalent) with the BAU scenario by 2030. In the AFE and AER scenarios, fuel consumption is predicted to be 734.68 and 600.36 Mtoe, respectively, by 2030. In the AER scenario, fuel consumption in 2030 will be reduced by 391.92 (39.50%) and 134.29 (18.28%) Mtoe in comparison to the BAU and AFE scenarios, respectively. In conclusion, our models indicate that the energy conservation policies introduced by governmental institutions are potentially viable, as long as they are effectively implemented.

  11. Status and promise of fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy

    2001-09-01

    The niche or early entry market penetration by ONSI and its phosphoric acid fuel cell technology has proven that fuel cells are reliable and suitable for premium power and other opportunity fuel niche market applications. Now, new fuel cell technologies - solid oxide fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and polymer electrolyte fuel cells - are being developed for near-term distributed generation shortly after 2003. Some of the evolving fuel cell systems are incorporating gas turbines in hybrid configurations. The combination of the gas turbine with the fuel cell promises to lower system costs and increase efficiency to enhance market penetration. Market estimates indicate that significant early entry markets exist to sustain the initially high cost of some distributed generation technologies. However, distributed generation technologies must have low introductory first cost, low installation cost, and high system reliability to be viable options in competitive commercial and industrial markets. In the long-term, solid state fuel cell technology with stack costs under $100/kilowatt (kW) promises deeper and wider market penetration in a range of applications including a residential, auxillary power, and the mature distributed generation markets. The solid state energy conversion alliance (SECA) with its vision for fuel cells in 2010 was recently formed to commercialize solid state fuel cells and realize the full potential of the fuel cell technology. Ultimately, the SECA concept could lead to megawatt-size fuel-cell systems for commercial and industrial applications and Vision 21 fuel cell turbine hybrid energy plants in 2015. (orig.)

  12. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  13. Chemical Processing of Non-Crop Plants for Jet Fuel Blends Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, M. J.; Hepp, A. F.; McDowell, M.; Ribita, D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years due to their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Biofuels as a renewable energy source can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We describe our initial efforts to exploit algae, halophytes and other non-crop plants to produce synthetics for fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and non-aerospace applications. Our efforts have been dedicated to crafting efficient extraction and refining processes in order to extract constituents from the plant materials with the ultimate goal of determining the feasibility of producing biomass-based jet fuel from the refined extract. Two extraction methods have been developed based on communition processes, and liquid-solid extraction techniques. Refining procedures such as chlorophyll removal and transesterification of triglycerides have been performed. Gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to qualitatively determine the individual components of the refined extract. We also briefly discuss and compare alternative methods to extract fuel-blending agents from alternative biofuels sources.

  14. Oxygenic photosynthesis: translation to solar fuel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian David Janna Olmos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of man-made climate change, rapid depletion of readily available fossil fuel reserves and facing the growing energy demand that faces mankind in the near future drive the rapid development of economically viable, renewable energy production technologies. It is very likely that greenhouse gas emissions will lead to the significant climate change over the next fifty years. World energy consumption has doubled over the last twenty-five years, and is expected to double again in the next quarter of the 21st century. Our biosphere is at the verge of a severe energy crisis that can no longer be overlooked. Solar radiation represents the most abundant source of clean, renewable energy that is readily available for conversion to solar fuels. Developing clean technologies that utilize practically inexhaustible solar energy that reaches our planet and convert it into the high energy density solar fuels provides an attractive solution to resolving the global energy crisis that mankind faces in the not too distant future. Nature’s oxygenic photosynthesis is the most fundamental process that has sustained life on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years through conversion of solar energy into energy of chemical bonds captured in biomass, food and fossil fuels. It is this process that has led to evolution of various forms of life as we know them today. Recent advances in imitating the natural process of photosynthesis by developing biohybrid and synthetic “artificial leaves” capable of solar energy conversion into clean fuels and other high value products, as well as advances in the mechanistic and structural aspects of the natural solar energy converters, photosystem I and photosystem II, allow to address the main challenges: how to maximize solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency, and most importantly: how to store the energy efficiently and use it without significant losses. Last but not least, the question of how to make the process of solar

  15. National inquiry system of radiological events: a viable proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Ana Maria; Cavalcante, Vera Lucia.

    1996-01-01

    The SINAER- National Inquiry System of Radiological Events is a supportive structure devised to deal with the request of help or complaints that involve sources of ionizing radiations in the national territory

  16. Integrated firewood production, ensures fuel security for self sustaining Biomass Power Plants reduces agricultural cost and provides livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Growing concerns on the impact of climate change, constraints on fossil fuel electricity generation and the likelihood of oil depletion is driving unprecedented growth and investment in renewable energy across the world. The consistency of biomass power plants makes them capable of replacing coal and nuclear for base-load. However experience had shown otherwise, climate change reduces yields, uncontrolled approvals for biomass boilers increased demands and at times motivated by greedy farmers have raised price of otherwise a problematic agricultural waste to high secondary income stream forcing disruption to fuel supply to power plants and even their shutting down. The solution is to established secured fuel sources, fortunately in Asia there are several species of trees that are fast growing and have sufficient yields to make their harvesting economically viable for power production. (author)

  17. Calculation of Water Levels in Spent Fuel Pool and Effective Dose Followed by the Worker Geometrically Exposed to Radiation using Gamma-ray Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Donghee; Park, Kwangheon; Yoon, Hyoungju

    2013-01-01

    If the total effective dose value is lower than the surface dose rate of the water, the worker is able to work in a safe environment. In the case that the level of spent fuel pool is up to 550cm, there exists the limitation for workers to access to the storage pool because the result value is about 8 times higher than surface dose rate. In the case that the level of spent fuel pool is higher than 600cm, however, it can be safe work environment because the result value is lower than surface dose rate. Therefore, in the case of ISO geometry which is the same with practical situation, when considering Gamma-ray emission from spent fuel, effective dose is much higher than surface dose rate when the level of storage pool is lower than the height of fuel, 452.8cm. On the other hand, the level of effective dose decreases rapidly when the level of storage pool is higher than the level of the fuel. This means that it is not the safe environment when the level of fuel below 140cm is lower than surface dose rate. That is why the access of workers should be limited. Whereas, in the case of the level of storage pool above 600cm which is about 140cm higher than the level of the fuel, it is the safe environment for workers because the result value becomes lower than surface dose rate As a result, the level of wet storage of spent fuel should be at least 600cm for workers to work in safe environment because lower dose than surface dose rate makes less radiation exposure

  18. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  19. Measurements of instant-release source terms for 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and 14C in used CANDU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1996-01-01

    Combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs, 129 I, 90 Sr, 99 Tc and 14 C were measured in 15 used CANDU fuel elements by leaching crushed fuel samples. A good correlation between the combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs and 129 I was found, suggesting that these fission products exhibit similar behavior in CANDU fuel. The expected correlation between combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 137 Cs and 129 I with calculated fission-gas release to the gap and grain boundaries could only be confirmed for lower power fuels ( 90 Sr were higher than expected and showed no correlation with calculated fission-gas release. No values for the combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 99 Tc were obtained because 99 Tc in used fuel samples is very insoluble and appears to require oxidation prior to dissolution. Combined gap and grain-boundary inventories of 14 C appeared to be independent of fuel power or burnup. (orig.)

  20. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, and the former notification No. 26, 1961, is hereby abolished. Internationally regulated goods under the law are as follows: nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and moderator materials transferred by sale or other means from the governments of the U.S., U.K., Canada, Australia and France or the persons under their jurisdictions according to the agreements concluded between the governments of Japan and these countries, respectively, the nuclear fuel materials recovered from these materials or produced by their usage, nuclear reactors, the facilities and heavy water transferred by sale or other means from these governments or the persons under their jurisdictions, the nuclear fuel materials produced by the usage of such reactors, facilities and heavy water, the nuclear fuel materials sold by the International Atomic Energy Agency under the contract between the Japanese government and the IAEA, the nuclear fuel materials recovered from these materials or produced by their usage, the heavy water produced by the facilities themselves transferred from the Canadian government, Canadian governmental enterprises or the persons under the jurisdiction of the Canadian government or produced by the usage of these facilities, etc. (Okada, K.)

  1. Nuclear power a viable energy choice for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Global energy use will most likely increase to more than double by 2050, which is e.g. the medium value of the projection in the Intergovernmentals Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). How to reconcile the projections with the current nuclear status? In its first fifty years, nuclear power has grown from 5 MWe of power production to an installed worldwide capacity of 360 GWe in 30 countries. Nuclear power provides about 16% of the total electricity in the world and is contributing to the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases from the power sector. The SRES scenarios identify a gap between the current electricity generation capacity and the capacity requirements in 2050 of 360 GWe and 1 500 GWe. Three key factors will determine the future contribution of nuclear power: - improved economics, - national energy choice and supporting infrastructure as well as institutional arrangement, and - the degree to which advances are implemented in evolutionary and innovative reactor and fuel cycle technologies, to address safety, waste and proliferation concerns, as well as economic competitiveness. The economics of nuclear power are one main topic in industrial countries. A Japanese case study on energy security credit shows that nuclear power will eventually be a winner in the long term perspective due to amortisation and stable fuel prices. Nuclear power is also a part of nuclear technologies to address daunting challenges in the developing countries - hunger, disease, poverty, and shortage of drinking water and electricity. (orig.)

  2. A combination of direct viable count and fluorescence in situ hybridization for specific enumeration of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J; Moreno, Y; Amorocho, C M; Hernández, M

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a direct viable count (DVC)-FISH procedure for quickly and easily discriminating between viable and nonviable cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains, the traditional yogurt bacteria. direct viable count method has been modified and adapted for Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus analysis by testing different times of incubation and concentrations of DNA-gyrase inhibitors. DVC procedure has been combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the specific detection of viable cells of both bacteria with specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes (DVC-FISH). Of the four antibiotics tested (novobiocin, nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid and ciprofloxacin), novobiocin was the most effective for DVC method and the optimum incubation time was 7 h for both bacteria. The number of viable cells was obtained by the enumeration of specific hybridized cells that were elongated at least twice their original length for Lactobacillus and twice their original size for Streptococcus. This technique was successfully applied to detect viable cells in inoculated faeces. Results showed that this DVC-FISH procedure is a quick and culture-independent useful method to specifically detect viable Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus in different samples, being applied for the first time to lactic acid bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Vaccines against drugs of abuse: a viable treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Kathleen M

    2003-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for this disease because the relapse rate among drug abusers seeking treatment is quite high. During the past decade, many groups have explored the feasibility of using vaccines directed against drugs of abuse as a means of eliminating illicit drug use as well as drug overdose and neurotoxicity. Vaccines work by inducing drug-specific antibodies in the bloodstream that bind to the drug of abuse and prevent its entry into the brain. The majority of work in this area has been conducted with vaccines and antibodies directed against cocaine and nicotine. On the basis of preclinical work, vaccines for cocaine and nicotine are now in clinical trials because they can offer long-term protection with minimal treatment compliance. In addition, vaccines and antibodies for phencyclidine, methamphetamine and heroin abuse are currently under development. An underlying theme in this research is the need for high concentrations of circulating drug-specific antibodies to reduce drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour when the drug is repeatedly available, especially in high doses. Although vaccines against drugs of abuse may become a viable treatment option, there are several drawbacks that need to be considered. These include: a lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice;a lack of an effect on drug craving that predisposes an addict to relapse; and tremendous individual variability in antibody formation. Forced or coerced vaccination is not likely to work from a scientific perspective, and also carries serious legal and ethical concerns. All things considered, vaccination against a drug of abuse is likely to work best with individuals who are highly motivated to quit using drugs altogether and as part of a comprehensive treatment programme. As such, the medical treatment of drug abuse will not be radically

  4. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  5. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  6. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  7. Towards space based verification of CO2 emissions from strong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions as seen by a CarbonSat constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krings

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 is the most important man-made greenhouse gas (GHG that cause global warming. With electricity generation through fossil-fuel power plants now being the economic sector with the largest source of CO2, power plant emissions monitoring has become more important than ever in the fight against global warming. In a previous study done by Bovensmann et al. (2010, random and systematic errors of power plant CO2 emissions have been quantified using a single overpass from a proposed CarbonSat instrument. In this study, we quantify errors of power plant annual emission estimates from a hypothetical CarbonSat and constellations of several CarbonSats while taking into account that power plant CO2 emissions are time-dependent. Our focus is on estimating systematic errors arising from the sparse temporal sampling as well as random errors that are primarily dependent on wind speeds. We used hourly emissions data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA combined with assimilated and re-analyzed meteorological fields from the National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP. CarbonSat orbits were simulated as a sun-synchronous low-earth orbiting satellite (LEO with an 828-km orbit height, local time ascending node (LTAN of 13:30 (01:30 p.m. LT and achieves global coverage after 5 days. We show, that despite the variability of the power plant emissions and the limited satellite overpasses, one CarbonSat has the potential to verify reported US annual CO2 emissions from large power plants (≥5 Mt CO2 yr−1 with a systematic error of less than ~4.9% and a random error of less than ~6.7% for 50% of all the power plants. For 90% of all the power plants, the systematic error was less than ~12.4% and the random error was less than ~13%. We additionally investigated two different satellite configurations using a combination of 5 CarbonSats. One achieves global coverage everyday but only samples the targets at fixed local times. The other

  8. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2011-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental, and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels—sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water, and seawater—have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solve the avi...

  9. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  10. Re-thinking china's densified biomass fuel policies: Large or small scale?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Ming; Li, Dingkai; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Current policies and strategies related to the utilization of densified biomass fuel (DBF) in China are mainly focused on medium- or large-scale manufacturing modes, which cannot provide feasible solutions to solve the household energy problems in China's rural areas. To simplify commercial processes related to the collection of DBF feedstock and the production and utilization of fuel, a novel village-scale DBF approach is proposed. Pilot demonstration projects have shown the feasibility and flexibility of this new approach in realizing sustainable development in rural China. Effective utilization of DBF in rural China will lead to gains for global, regional, and local energy savings, environmental protection, sustainable development, and related social benefits. It could also benefit other developing countries for better utilization of biomass as a viable household energy source. This proposal therefore delivers the possibility of reciprocal gains, and as such deserves the attention of policy makers and various stakeholders. - Highlights: •A field survey of Chinese densified biomass fuel (DBF) development is conducted. •The current situation and problems related to China's DBF industry are analyzed. •A novel and viable village-scale DBF utilization mode is proposed. •Further actions are suggested to boost the utilization of DBF in rural China.

  11. Allogeneic human dermal fibroblasts are viable in peripheral blood mononuclear co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Syamsul Hadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Transplanted allogeneic dermal fibroblasts retain stem cell subpopulations, and are easily isolated, expanded and stored using standard techniques. Their potential for regenerative therapy of chronic wounds should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine allogeneic fibroblast viability in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods In this experimental study, fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin explants, expanded in the presence of serum, and stored using slow-freezing. We used one intervention group of allogeneic fibroblasts co-cultured with PBMC and 2 control groups of separate fibroblast and PBMC cultures.Fibroblasts were characterized by their collagen secretion and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4 expression. Viability was evaluated using water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1 proliferation assay. Absorbances were measured at 450 nm. Data analysis was performed by student’s paired t-test. Results Dermal fibroblasts were shown to secrete collagen, express OCT4, be recoverable after cryopreservation, and become attached to the culture dish in a co-culture with PBMC. Co-cultured and control fibroblasts had no significantly different cell viabilities (p>0.05. Calculated viable cell numbers increased 1.8 and 5.1-fold, respectively, at days 2 and 4 in vitro. Both groups showed comparable doubling times at days 2 and 4 in vitro. PBMC did not interfere with allogeneic fibroblast viability and proliferative capacity Conclusions Allogeneic fibroblasts remain viable and proliferate in the presence of host PBMC. Future research should evaluate allogeneic human dermal fibroblast competency in clinical settings. Dermal fibroblasts are a potential source for cell therapy in chronic wound management.

  12. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit

    2017-06-07

    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  13. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  14. Scrutinizing the combustion, performance and emissions of safflower biodiesel–kerosene fueled diesel engine used as power source for a generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydın, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of kerosene addition to biodiesel in a diesel engine were investigated. • S90&K10, S75&K25 and S50&K50 were tested and comparisons have been made with D2. • Patterns of combustion parameters have found be quite similar for blend fuels and D2. • The highest efficiency value is obtained for S50&K50 blend. • HC emissions a bit increased and NOx emissions were decreased. - Abstract: When neat biodiesel or its blends with diesel fuel that contain high amounts of biodiesel are used in diesel engines some operational problems such as poor injection, bad atomization and incomplete combustion occur mainly due to higher viscosity and surface tension. Engine problems with the use of biodiesel–fuel blends that contain higher percentages of biodiesel need to be solved in order to utilize the advantages of biodiesel in environmental and economical ways. The mentioned problems can also be solved by blending biodiesel with another low density or viscosity fuel such as kerosene. In present study biodiesel was produced from safflower oil. S90&K10, S75&K25 and S50&K50 were prepared by blending biodiesel with kerosene. A 4 cylinder diesel engine that was used to drive an electric generator was used to deeply investigate the similarity of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the blend fuels to D2. All experiments were carried out at constant loads of 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 kW generated powers. Patterns of combustion parameters found to be quite similar for blends and D2 fuel. NO_x emissions were considerably decreased with percentages of 68.2%, 56.9% and 55.1% for S50&K50, S75&K25 and S90&K10, respectively while unburned HC emissions were a bit increased. Mass fuel consumption and BSFC were slightly increased for S75&K25 and S90&K10, but they were decreased with an average increase in BTE by 3.84% for S50&K50 fuel when compared to D2. Eventually, it was concluded that high percentages of safflower oil biodiesel can be a potential

  15. Chemical composition and source of fine and nanoparticles from recent direct injection gasoline passenger cars: Effects of fuel and ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Kondo, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Particle number, mass, and chemical compositions (i.e., elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elements, ions, and organic species) of fine particles emitted from four of the recent direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline passenger cars and a port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline passenger car were measured under Japanese official transient mode (JC08 mode). Total carbon (TC = EC + OC) dominated the particulate mass (90% on average). EC dominated the TC for both hot and cold start conditions. The EC/TC ratios were 0.72 for PFI and 0.88-1.0 (average = 0.92) for DISI vehicles. A size-resolved chemical analysis of a DISI car revealed that the major organic components were the C20-C28 hydrocarbons for both the accumulation-mode particles and nanoparticles. Contribution of engine oil was estimated to be 10-30% for organics and the sum of the measured elements. The remaining major fraction likely originated from gasoline fuel. Therefore, it is suggested that soot (EC) also mainly originated from the gasoline. In experiments using four fuels at three ambient temperatures, the emission factors of particulate mass were consistently higher with regular gasoline than with premium gasoline. This result suggest that the high content of less-volatile compounds in fuel increase particulate emissions. These results suggest that focusing on reducing fuel-derived EC in the production process of new cars would effectively reduce particulate emission from DISI cars.

  16. A decade of advances in metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Batte, G.L.; Dodds, N.E.; Hofman, G.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Tsai, H.; Walters, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Significant advances in the understanding of behavior and performance of metallic fuels to high burnup have been achieved over the past four decades. Metallic fuels were the first fuels for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors (LMR) but in the late 1960s worldwide interest turned toward ceramic fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel could be achieved. Now metallic fuels are recognized as a preferred viable option with regard to safety, integral fuel cycle, waste minimization and deployment economics. This paper reviews the key advances in the last decade and highlights the behavior and performance features which have demonstrated a much greater potential than previously expected. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Enhancing the properties of Fischer-Tropsch fuel produced from syngas over Co/SiO2 catalyst: Lubricity and Calorific Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doustdar, O.; Wyszynski, M. L.; Mahmoudi, H.; Tsolakis, A.

    2016-09-01

    Bio-fuel produced from renewable sources is considered the most viable alternatives for the replacement of mineral diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. There are several options for biomass derived fuels production involving chemical, biological and thermochemical processes. One of the best options is Fischer Tropsch Synthesis, which has an extensive history of gasoline and diesel production from coal and natural gas. FTS fuel could be one of the best solutions to the fuel emission due to its high quality. FTS experiments were carried out in 16 different operation conditions. Mini structured vertical downdraft fixed bed reactor was used for the FTS. Instead of Biomass gasification, a simulated N2 -rich syngas cylinder of, 33% H2 and 50% N2 was used. FT fuels products were analyzed in GCMS to find the hydrocarbon distributions of FT fuel. Calorific value and lubricity of liquid FT product were measured and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Lubricity has become an important quality, particularly for biodiesel, due to higher pressures in new diesel fuel injection (DFI) technology which demands better lubrication from the fuel and calorific value which is amount of energy released in combustion paly very important role in CI engines. Results show that prepared FT fuel has desirable properties and it complies with standard values. FT samples lubricities as measured by ASTM D6079 standard vary from 286μm (HFRR scar diameter) to 417μm which are less than limit of 520μm. Net Calorific value for FT fuels vary from 9.89 MJ/kg to 43.29 MJ/kg, with six of the samples less than EN 14213 limit of 35MJ/kg. Effect of reaction condition on FT fuel properties was investigated which illustrates that in higher pressure Fischer-Tropsch reaction condition liquid product has better properties.

  18. Entrepreneurship: A Viable Addition to Home Economics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Sally L.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that information relating to entrepreneurship should be part of every curriculum within the field of home economics. Discusses characteristics of successful entrepreneurs and discusses how the curriculum can be modified to develop these characteristics. Reviews sources of entrepreneurship materials. (CH)

  19. Development of a low-cost oxy-hydrogen bio-fuel cell for generation of electricity using Nostoc as a source of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeeta Dawar; Behera, B.K. [Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (India). Dept. of Biosciences; Prasanna Mohanty [Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences

    1998-10-10

    An oxy-hydrogen bio-fuel cell, based on a carbon-carbon electrode has been fabricated. The electrode pellets were prepared by taking carbon powder mixed with polyvinylalcohol as a binder. The anode was charged with Co-Al spinel mixed oxide at 700{sup o}C, 30% KOH acted as an electrolyte. For the cyanobacterial bioreactor, a potential heterocystous blue green alga of Nostoc spp. has been used for hydrogen production and electrical energy generation. Various nutrient enrichment techniques are employed to increase the hydrogen generation efficiency of the algae. One litre free cell algal reactor attached to the fuel cell, at the anode end for hydrogen gas input, generated about 300 mV of voltage and 100 mA of current. Our present findings on the development of a low cost fuel cell with high efficiency of current output may be helpful in commercializing this technology. (author)

  20. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  1. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  2. R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS ARE VIABLE FACTORIES OF PRE-SOLAR GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Hampel, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    We present a new theoretical estimate for the birthrate of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars that is in agreement with recent observational data. We find the current Galactic birthrate of RCB stars to be ≈25% of the Galactic rate of Type Ia supernovae, assuming that RCB stars are formed through the merger of carbon–oxygen and helium-rich white dwarfs. Our new RCB birthrate (1.8 × 10 −3 yr −1 ) is a factor of 10 lower than previous theoretical estimates. This results in roughly 180–540 RCB stars in the Galaxy, depending on the RCB lifetime. From the theoretical and observational estimates, we calculate the total dust production from RCB stars and compare this rate to dust production from novae and born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the amount of dust produced by RCB stars is comparable to the amounts produced by novae or born-again post-AGB stars, indicating that these merger objects are a viable source of carbonaceous pre-solar grains in the Galaxy. There are graphite grains with carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios consistent with the observed composition of RCB stars, adding weight to the suggestion that these rare objects are a source of stardust grains

  3. Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%, 8 (50%, and 6 (37% had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10 of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ≥S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this.

  4. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  5. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  6. UK MOD research on H{sub 2} storage and generation methods for soldier-portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, D.J. [Defence Evaluation Research Agency, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    The research which the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA) has conducted on hydrogen storage and production methods was presented and their applicability to soldier portable applications was discussed. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the future power source for solider-portable equipment such as army radios. Advances in fuel cell technology has resulted in improvements in specific power and power density as well as reductions in Pt loading and cost. However, a viable in-service power source is still required. This fuel source is likely to be hydrogen because it has a high energy per unit weight and has a simple reaction with oxygen to produce water as the only by-product. In the future, methanol may be used as the fuel source but currently methanol fuel cells demonstrate poorer performance than those running on hydrogen. A vital part of a fuel cell system, therefore, is hydrogen storage, of which there are two basic types; physical and chemical storage. In addition to weight, other important factors to be considered in a storage system are cost, reliability and safety. This paper described each physical storage method including hydrogen stored as a compressed gas, as a cryogenic liquid, reversibly absorbed in intermetallic alloys and reversibly adsorbed onto carbon materials such as nonofibres. Liquid hydrogen storage is only feasible for larger scale applications such as electric vehicles and is not practical for portable applications. A man-portable fuel cell is likely to be either pressure cylinders or reversible metal hydrides. 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  7. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  8. An Opportunity for Hydrogen Fueled Supersonic Airliners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Forbes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a new look at the prospects for developing supersonic civil airliners, considering global demographics, climate change issues, fuel prices and technological advances. Dramatic changes have occurred in the demographics, economics, and market intensity of the Eastern Hemisphere since the 1990s. Carbon reduction imperatives provide a major incentive to invest in developing hydrogen-fueled airliners. The “point-to-point” air route architecture has proved viable with long range mid-size airliners. With a cruise Mach number of 1.4, a large number of destinations become viable for overland supersonic flight. A conceptual design process is used to estimate cost per seat mile for a range of hydrocarbon and hydrogen fuel costs. An argument based on the ideal shape for minimal wave drag, estimates the drag penalty from using hydrogen. Viable aircraft geometries are shown to exist, that match the theoretical ideal shape, showing that the drag estimate is achievable. Conservative design arguments and market estimates suggest that hydrogen-fueled airliners can achieve seat-mile costs low enough to open a large worldwide market and justify a viable fleet size.

  9. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  10. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  11. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judith Gonsalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42 h showed that at the end of 24 h, growth coefficient (k of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, ‘k’ value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g = 0.564, the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, ‘g’ of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.615, Free = 0.0086 was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.056, Free = 0.068. Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the “persistent variants” where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny.

  13. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    when it is finally ready for testing. Another of my goals is to test new membranes for use in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, in the hope that these membranes can increase the electricity that is produced by he1 cells. Producing more electricity means that fewer fuel cells are needed, thus reducing the weight and volume of an APU based on fuel cells, making such an APU much more viable.

  14. Breaking down the barriers to commercialization of fuel cells in transportation through Government - industry R&D programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S.G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Venkateswaran, S.R. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    PEM fuel cell technology is rapidly emerging as a viable propulsion alternative to the internal combustion engine. Fuel cells offer the advantages of low emissions, high efficiency, fuel flexibility, quiet and continuous operation, and modularity. Over the last decade, dramatic advances have been achieved in the performance and cost of PEM fuel cell technologies for automotive applications. However, significant technical barriers remain to making fuel cell propulsion systems viable alternatives to the internal combustion engine. This paper focuses on the progress achieved and remaining technical barriers while highlighting Government-industry R&D efforts that are accelerating fuel cell technology toward commercialization.

  15. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study -- Volume 1: Main report. Final report, Revision 12/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low enriched uranium (20% 235 U) or medium enriched uranium (35% 235 U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which is currently designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235 U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology. Volume 2 of this report contains 26 appendices containing results, meeting minutes, and fuel panel presentations

  16. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study. Volume 2: Appendices -- Final report, Revision 12/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Ludewig, H.; Weeks, J.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low enriched uranium (20% 235 U) or medium enriched uranium (35% 235 U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which is currently designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235 U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology. Volume 2 of this report contains 26 appendices containing results, meeting minutes, and fuel panel presentations. There are 26 appendices in this volume

  17. Keeping the medical practice financially viable: a marketer's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michelle L; Capraro, Anthony J; Credito, Candace M

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores a way that medical practices might develop a higher margin revenue source by offering a differentiated service that caters to patients who value more personalized service. Using SERVQUAL, German patients were surveyed to determine if there is a relationship between a desire for personalized service and a willingness to pay a premium for medical care. The results indicate that a greater desire for personalized care distinguishes those who pay a premium for medical care from those who do not. This suggests that medical practices can differentiate their service based on more personalized care and charge a higher fee for this service.

  18. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  19. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the available sources of energy in the world is presented. About 80 percent of primary energy utilization is based on fossile fuels, and their dominant role is not expected to change in the foreseeable future. Data are given on petroleum, natural gas and coal based power production. The role and economic aspects of nuclear power are analyzed. A brief summary of renewable energy sources is presented. The future prospects of the world's energy resources are discussed, and the special position of Hungary regarding fossil, nuclear and renewable energy and the country's energy potential is evaluated. (R.P.)

  20. Bio energy: Bio fuel - Properties and Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Martinsen, Arnold Kyrre; Sandberg, Eiliv; Fladset, Per Olav; Kjerschow, Einar; Teslo, Einar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 3 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Definitions and properties, (2) Bio fuel from the forest, (3) Processed bio fuel - briquettes, pellets and powder, (4) Bio fuel from agriculture, (5) Bio fuel from agro industry, (6) Bio fuel from lakes and sea, (7) Bio fuel from aquaculture, (8) Bio fuel from wastes and (9) Hydrogen as a fuel. The exposition largely describes the conditions in Norway. The chapter on energy from the forest includes products from the timber and sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry, furniture factories etc. Among agricultural sources are straw, energy forests, vegetable oil, bio ethanol, manure

  1. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  2. Back to the green jewel. After a period of using fossil fuels, Costa Rica is returning to renewable energy sources; Zurueck zum gruenen Juwel. Nach einem Ausflug zu den fossilen Brennstoffen kehrt Costa Rica zurueck zu den erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosworth, Melissa

    2010-07-15

    For more than two decades now, Costa Rica has been a Mecca for eco-tourists. Deep rainforests, empty beeches and an incredible variety of species have made the country into one of the forerunners of sustainability. This picture was marred by the fact that fossil fuels were getting more attention by the government recently. Now, however, Costa Rica is returning to renewable energy sources which had already supplied 100 percent of the country's total power. The government is even considering reimbursement tariffs for solar power. (orig.)

  3. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory

  4. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkesson, Anders

    2008-05-01

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  5. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  6. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuyama, Tadashi; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the bending of a fuel rod caused by the difference in the elongation between a joined fuel rod and a standard fuel rod thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: A joined fuel rod is in a thread engagement at its lower end plug thereof with a lower plate, while passed through at its upper end plug into an upper tie plate and secured with a nut. Further, a standard fuel rod is engaged at its upper end plug and lower end plug with the upper tie plate and the lower tie plate respectively. Expansion springs are mounted to the upper end plugs of these bonded fuel rods and the standard fuel rods for preventing this lifting. Each of the fuel rods comprises a plurality of sintered pellets of nuclear fuel materials laminated in a zircaloy fuel can. The content of the alloy ingredient in the fuel can of the bonded fuel rod is made greater than that of the alloy ingredient of the standard fuel rod. this can increase the elongation for the bonded fuel rod, and the spring of the standard fuel rod is tightly bonded to prevent the bending. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Why fuel prices differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietveld, P.; Woudenberg, S. van

    2005-01-01

    Fuel taxes differ largely between countries. This paper reviews a number of considerations from the theory of public finance that may explain these differences. Based on a multiple regression model, we find for tax competition in Europe that small countries tend to be more aggressive than large countries by charging lower fuel taxes to attract customers from neighbouring countries. There is strong evidence that fuel is just considered as one of the many sources for government expenditure: as the share of government expenditure in GDP is higher, the fuel tax tends to be higher. No support is found for the hypothesis that fuel taxes are higher in countries where externality problems are more severe (proxied by car density of the country). In this respect, the normative literature on pricing externalities has found little support in the realities of transport policy. (author)

  9. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  10. Economics of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryle, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that an important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a programme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy should become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance. (author)

  11. Economics of alternative energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, M

    1977-05-12

    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  12. Photocatalysis: A viable alternative for the elimination of organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Pavas, Edison

    2002-01-01

    The basic idea of this project is to present photo catalysis as a simple, economic, effective and innovative technology, for the treatment of phenolic waters found in the effluents from several industrial processes, by determining the optimum conditions of operation and by identifying the parameters that govern the process. The attractiveness of this technology is based on its profitability, easy of implementation and use. The required capital investment is minimal in comparison with other technologies. The UV radiation from the sun or artificial sources (lamps) is used to activate the catalyst (TiO) to destroy the organic pollutants present in liquids effluent. The process was carried out continuously with using ph, catalyst (TiO 2 ) concentration and recirculation time as variables

  13. Non-attainment policy: A viable approach for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javandel, I.

    1995-01-01

    The National Research Council recently completed a three-year study entitled open-quotes Alternatives for Groundwater Cleanupclose quotes. One of the conclusions of this study indicated that for sites with a complex geologic and hydrologic set up, existing technologies may not be able to restore contaminated aquifers to health-based standards. Therefore, the most logical approach in these cases, perhaps, could be to adopt the open-quotes non-attainment zoneclose quotes policy. The essence of this policy is to first contain the plume and stop any further migration of contaminated groundwater, and then to remove the source of contamination. This paper briefly discusses some of the problems encountered with this approach for a contaminated area at the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory

  14. A guidance manual for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from fuel combustion and process-related sources for primary base metals smelting and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This technical guidance manual is a useful resource for helping the metals industry compile inventories of its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The guidance is consistent with Canada's national GHG accounting methodologies. It provides information to smelters and refiners of base metals on how to estimate their GHG emissions from fuel combustion and specific process-related activities. The base metals group in this manual included copper, nickel, lead, zinc, and cobalt. Fuel combustion includes all stationary combustion activities for generating heat or work, and includes waste incineration if the waste heat is used for energy. It also includes mobile fuel combustion activities such as on-site transportation of raw materials from one process to another. Guidance is provided for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Process-related activities include specific industrial processes that contribute to GHG emissions. For base metal smelting, this includes CO{sub 2} emissions from use of carbonate reagents, use of reducing agents, electrode consumption, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) emissions from use in refrigeration systems. This document also included sections on quality assurance; aspects of uncertainty assessment; verification; and, reporting of emissions information. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Can Malin's gravitational-field equations be modified to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, L.L.; Prestage, J.

    1976-01-01

    Malin's gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the PPN framework

  16. Fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The technical and economic viability of the fast breeder reactor as an electricity generating system depends not only upon the reactor performance but also on a capability to recycle plutonium efficiently, reliably and economically through the reactor and fuel cycle facilities. Thus the fuel cycle is an integral and essential part of the system. Fuel cycle research and development has focused on demonstrating that the challenging technical requirements of processing plutonium fuel could be met and that the sometimes conflicting requirements of the fuel developer, fuel fabricator and fuel reprocessor could be reconciled. Pilot plant operation and development and design studies have established both the technical and economic feasibility of the fuel cycle but scope for further improvement exists through process intensification and flowsheet optimization. These objectives and the increasing processing demands made by the continuing improvement to fuel design and irradiation performance provide an incentive for continuing fuel cycle development work. (author)

  17. Properties and use of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and diesel fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Atabani, A.E.; Arbab, M.I.; Cheng, S.F.; Gouk, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of biodiesel production from crude Moringa oleifera oil. • Characterization of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blend with diesel fuel. • Evaluation of M. oleifera biodiesel blend in a diesel engine. - Abstract: Researchers have recently attempted to discover alternative energy sources that are accessible, technically viable, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and its 10% and 20% by-volume blends (B10 and B20) in comparison with diesel fuel (B0). The performance and emission of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine were determined at various speeds and full load conditions. The properties of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends complied with ASTM D6751 standards. Over the entire range of speeds, B10 and B20 fuels reduced brake power and increased brake specific fuel consumption compared with B0. In engine emissions, B10 and B20 fuels reduced carbon monoxide emission by 10.60% and 22.93% as well as hydrocarbon emission by 9.21% and 23.68%, but slightly increased nitric oxide emission by 8.46% and 18.56%, respectively, compared with B0. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and its blends B10 and B20 can be used as diesel fuel substitutes

  18. Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowling Wallace A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C, warm (25°C/15°C, cool (18°C/13°C and cold (10°C/5°C treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29% at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%. In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5% was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%. Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid

  19. Effects of γ irradiation of hydra: elimination of interstitial cells from viable hydra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, M.; Kakis, H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Hydra attenuata and H. magnipapillata were γ-irradiated from a cesium source. All doses which had any observable effect (3000 rad and above) resulted in a reduction in the number of interstitial cells and of their differentiated product cells, or in the complete elimination of these cells. Interstitial cells were essentially completely eliminated within 5 days after irradiation doses above 5500 rad, and these hydra died. Irradiation doses of 4200 to 5500 rad resulted in a mixture of effects: some hydra recovered completely, some lost all interstitial cells and died, and some lost interstitial cells but could be propagated, as asexually reproducing clones, by hand feeding them. Hydra of some of these hand-fed clones entirely lacked interstitial cells and did not recover interstitial cells during subsequent culturing. Yet when these hydra were repopulated by interstitial cells from a normal hydra, they were restored to normal. Nerve cells became depleted more slowly than interstitial cells following irradiation, so animals can be obtained which possess nerve but no stem (interstitial) cells. The nerve cells and other derivatives of interstitial cells eventually disappear upon prolonged culture of the hydra. Thus γ irradiation can be used to eliminate interstitial cells from hydra, leaving viable polyps composed only of epithelial cells

  20. Exhaust emissions of low level blend alcohol fuels from two-stroke and four-stroke marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevik, James M., Jr.

    The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard mandates that by 2022, 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels must be produced on a yearly basis. Ethanol production is capped at 15 billion gallons, meaning 21 billion gallons must come from different alternative fuel sources. A viable alternative to reach the remainder of this mandate is iso-butanol. Unlike ethanol, iso-butanol does not phase separate when mixed with water, meaning it can be transported using traditional pipeline methods. Iso-butanol also has a lower oxygen content by mass, meaning it can displace more petroleum while maintaining the same oxygen concentration in the fuel blend. This research focused on studying the effects of low level alcohol fuels on marine engine emissions to assess the possibility of using iso-butanol as a replacement for ethanol. Three marine engines were used in this study, representing a wide range of what is currently in service in the United States. Two four-stroke engine and one two-stroke engine powered boats were tested in the tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay, near Annapolis, Maryland over the course of two rounds of weeklong testing in May and September. The engines were tested using a standard test cycle and emissions were sampled using constant volume sampling techniques. Specific emissions for two-stroke and four-stroke engines were compared to the baseline indolene tests. Because of the nature of the field testing, limited engine parameters were recorded. Therefore, the engine parameters analyzed aside from emissions were the operating relative air-to-fuel ratio and engine speed. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each alcohol fuel for the four-stroke engines were consistent, when analyzing a single round of testing. The same trends were not consistent when comparing separate rounds because of uncontrolled weather conditions and because the four-stroke engines operate without fuel control feedback during full load conditions. Emissions trends from the baseline test to each