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Sample records for viable first-line treatment

  1. Flecainide as first-line treatment for fetal supraventricular tachycardia.

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    Ekiz, Ali; Kaya, Basak; Bornaun, Helen; Acar, Deniz Kanber; Avci, Muhittin Eftal; Bestel, Aysegul; Yildirim, Gokhan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate utilization, efficacy, and side effects of flecainide treatment as first-line agent in patients with fetal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). This retrospective review was conducted on 23 consecutive fetal tachyarrhythmia cases that met inclusion criteria. If the treatment was necessary, then flecainide was used as first-line treatment in all cases. Among the study group, there were 21 (91.3%) cases of SVT and 2 (8.6%) cases of Atrial Flutter (AF). Sixteen fetuses had persistent SVT and five fetuses had intermittent SVT. We treated 17 fetuses with flecainide monotherapy and 15 of them converted to sinus rhythm and remaining two fetuses were refractory to monotherapy. The median time to conversion to sinus rhythm was 3.8 ± 1.6 days. Only one fetus (20%) among the intermittent SVT cases required anti-arrhythmic treatment. Our study has demonstrated that flecainide is an effective first-line treatment for fetal SVT with high success rate (88.2%), low side effect profile and relatively easy utilization. Based on the current study and recently published article results, flecainide can be recommended as the drug of first choice for treatment of fetal SVT cases.

  2. The incidence of first-line antiretroviral treatment changes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review included records of HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years, who received either stavudine or zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-based regimens. Using systematic random sampling, the study selected 1 500 records and censoring targeted the first incident of a drug change from the first-line cART.

  3. Obinutuzumab for the First-Line Treatment of Follicular Lymphoma.

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    Marcus, Robert; Davies, Andrew; Ando, Kiyoshi; Klapper, Wolfram; Opat, Stephen; Owen, Carolyn; Phillips, Elizabeth; Sangha, Randeep; Schlag, Rudolf; Seymour, John F; Townsend, William; Trněný, Marek; Wenger, Michael; Fingerle-Rowson, Günter; Rufibach, Kaspar; Moore, Tom; Herold, Michael; Hiddemann, Wolfgang

    2017-10-05

    Rituximab-based immunochemotherapy has improved outcomes in patients with follicular lymphoma. Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. We compared rituximab-based chemotherapy with obinutuzumab-based chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated advanced-stage follicular lymphoma. We randomly assigned patients to undergo induction treatment with obinutuzumab-based chemotherapy or rituximab-based chemotherapy. Patients with a response received maintenance treatment for up to 2 years with the same antibody that they had received in induction. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. A total of 1202 patients with follicular lymphoma underwent randomization (601 patients in each group). After a median follow-up of 34.5 months (range, 0 to 54.5), a planned interim analysis showed that obinutuzumab-based chemotherapy resulted in a significantly lower risk of progression, relapse, or death than rituximab-based chemotherapy (estimated 3-year rate of progression-free survival, 80.0% vs. 73.3%; hazard ratio for progression, relapse, or death, 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.85; P=0.001). Similar results were seen with regard to independently reviewed progression-free survival and other time-to-event end points. Response rates were similar in the two groups (88.5% in the obinutuzumab group and 86.9% in the rituximab group). Adverse events of grade 3 to 5 were more frequent in the obinutuzumab group than in the rituximab group (74.6% vs. 67.8%), as were serious adverse events (46.1% vs. 39.9%). The rates of adverse events resulting in death were similar in the two groups (4.0% in the obinutuzumab group and 3.4% in the rituximab group). The most common adverse events were infusion-related events that were considered by the investigators to be largely due to obinutuzumab in 353 of 595 patients (59.3%; 95% CI, 55.3 to 63.2) and to rituximab in 292 of 597 patients (48.9%; 95% CI, 44.9 to 52.9; P

  4. First-line treatment of metastatic melanoma: role of nivolumab

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    Force J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy Force,1 April KS Salama,1,2 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Division of Medical Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Historically, the median overall survival of metastatic melanoma patients was less than 1 year and long-term survivors were rare. Recent advances in therapies have dramatically shifted this landscape with increased survival rates and the real possibility that long-term disease control is achievable. Advances in immune modulators, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed death-1 based treatments, have been an integral part of this success. In this article, we review previous and recent therapeutic developments for metastatic melanoma patients. We discuss advances in immunotherapy while focusing on the use of nivolumab alone and in combination with other agents, including ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. One major goal in melanoma research is to optimize combination strategies allowing for more patients to experience benefit while minimizing toxicity. A better understanding of the optimal sequencing, combinations, and mechanisms underlying the development of resistance may provide evidence for rational clinical trial designs of novel immunotherapy strategies in melanoma and other cancer subtypes. Keywords: PD-1, immunotherapy, pembrolizumab, PD-L1, resistance, checkpoint, BRAF

  5. [Dimethyl fumarate (tecfidera) is the first line treatment choice in patients with remitting multiple sclerosis].

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    Shmidt, T E

    2017-01-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a new oral option for disease-modifying therapy (DMT) in patients with remitting multiple sclerosis as a first line treatment. The results of international randomized studies comparing DMF with placebo and other DMTs are presented. DMF is a DMT with promised efficacy and favorable safety profile that could be a treatment option for patients with suboptimal response for other first line DMTs and used as initial therapy for treatment-naive patients with unfavorable prognostic factors.

  6. Virological failure and drug resistance during first line anti-retroviral treatment in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fibriani, A.; Wisaksana, R.; Indrati, A.; Hartantri, Y.; Vijver, D. van de; Schutten, M.; Alisjahbana, B.; Sudjana, P.; Boucher, C.A.B.; Crevel, R. van; Ven, A. van der

    2013-01-01

    The virological response and development of drug resistance during first-line anti-retroviral treatment (ART) were studied in Indonesia where the majority of patients infected with HIV have a history of injecting drug use, which is often linked with lower treatment adherence and development of

  7. Should capecitabine replace 5-fluorouracil in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer?

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    Aguado, Carlos; García-Paredes, Beatriz; Sotelo, Miguel Jhonatan; Sastre, Javier; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Fluoropyrimidines play a central role in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Our aim was to review whether capecitabine was a safer, non-inferior, economically superior and more convenient alternative to 5-fluorouracil. Capecitabine has previously been compared to 5-fluorouracil-either as a monotherapy or in combination with oxaliplatin, irinotecan, or biological drugs-and has been found to have comparable efficacy and safety profiles. Furthermore, pharmacoeconomic data and patients’ preferences for oral chemotherapy further favor capecitabine. Therefore, capecitabine appears to be an effective and safe alternative to fluorouracil in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:24876731

  8. Retrospective analysis of first-line treatment for follicular lymphoma based on outcomes and medical economics.

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    Muneishi, Manaka; Nakamura, Ayaka; Tachibana, Katsumi; Suemitsu, Junko; Hasebe, Shinji; Takeuchi, Kazuto; Yakushijin, Yoshihiro

    2017-10-24

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with indolent progression. Several treatment options are selected, based not only on disease status, quality of life (QOL), and age of patient, but also on recent increasing medical costs. We retrospectively analysed the first-line treatment of FL with regard to treatment outcomes and medical economics, and discuss the appropriate strategies for FL. Data on a total of 69 newly-diagnosed patients with FL was retrospectively collected from 2001 to 2015. The median age of the patients was 60 years and the median follow-up was 58 months. A total of 25 cases with FL were treated with R monotherapy, and 28 cases were treated with R-CHOP as first-line treatment. The factors affecting the decision of physicians to use R or R-CHOP treatment were serum level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and disease stage. The first-line treatment-associated survival did not show any statistical differences between R and R-CHOP. The average hospitalization and average of all medical costs during the first-line treatment were 4.1 days (R) versus 55.7 days (R-CHOP), and JPY 1,707,693 (USD 15,324) (R) versus JPY 2,136,117 (USD 19,170) (R-CHOP), respectively. R monotherapy for patients whose diseases show low tumor burden and who are not candidates for local treatment has benefits as a first-line treatment compared to R-CHOP, based on the patients' QOL and medical economics.

  9. Benzodiazepines should still be first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Pottegård, Anton; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the evidence for benzodiazepines and barbiturates as alcohol withdrawal treatment and outline a treatment guideline. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that benzodiazepine treatment decreases alcohol withdrawal seizures and is safe....... For barbiturates, only a few RCTs have been undertaken, and barbiturates were not found to be superior to benzodiazepines. Consequently, we suggest that benzodiazepines should still be first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal....

  10. [Benzodiazepines should still be first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal].

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    Askgaard, Gro; Pottegård, Anton; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-16

    In this review, we summarize the evidence for benzodiazepines and barbiturates as alcohol withdrawal treatment and outline a treatment guideline. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that benzodiazepine treatment decreases alcohol withdrawal seizures and is safe. For barbiturates, only a few RCTs have been undertaken, and barbiturates were not found to be superior to benzodiazepines. Consequently, we suggest that benzodiazepines should still be first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal.

  11. Optimal First-Line Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Infection: Recent Strategies

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    Ju Yup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new treatment strategy is needed, as the efficacy of triple therapy containing clarithromycin—the current standard treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection—is declining. Increasing antibiotic resistance of H. pylori is the most significant factor contributing to eradication failure. Thus, selecting the most appropriate regimen depending on resistance is optimal, but identifying resistance to specific antibiotics is clinically challenging. In a region suspected to have high clarithromycin resistance, bismuth quadruple therapy and so-called nonbismuth quadruple therapies (sequential, concomitant, and sequential-concomitant hybrid are some first-line regimen options. However, more research is needed regarding appropriate second-line treatments after first-line treatment failure. Tailored therapy, which is based on antibiotic sensitivity testing, would be optimal but has several limitations for clinical use, and an alternative technique is required. A novel potassium-competitive acid blocker-based eradication regimen could be a valuable eradication option in the near future.

  12. Surgical decortication as the first-line treatment for pleural empyema.

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    Shin, Jung Ar; Chang, Yoon Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Haam, Seok Jin; Kim, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Chul Min; Byun, Min Kwang

    2013-04-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of surgical decortication as the first line of treatment for pleural empyema. We analyzed the medical records of 111 patients who presented with empyema and were treated with simple drainage or surgical decortication as the first line of treatment at Gangnam Severance Hospital, a tertiary referral medical center in Seoul, Korea. Of 111 patients with empyema, 27 underwent surgical decortication as the first intervention. Surgical decortication showed a better treatment success rate in all study subjects (96.3%, 26/27 patients) compared with simple drainage (58.3%, 49/84 patients; P decortication resulted in a better outcome (95.0%, 19/20 patients) versus drainage (56.7%, 17/30 patients; P = .003). Surgical decortication as the first line of treatment for empyema was the best predictor of treatment success after adjustment for compounding factors (odds ratio, 14.529; 95% confidence interval, 1.715-123.074; P = .014). The first treatment choice for pleural empyema is a critical determinant of ultimate therapeutic success. After adjusting for confounding variables, surgical decortication is the optimal first treatment choice for advanced empyema. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Indications for methotrexate in gynecology outside the first-line treatment of ectopic tubal pregnancies].

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    Misme, H; Agostini, A; Dubernard, G; Tourette, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work is to discuss the indications for methotrexate in gynecology outside the first-line treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy. In tubal ectopic pregnancy, the prophylactic use of systemic methotrexate can be discussed when performing laparoscopic salpingotomy. In case of failure of salpingotomy, administration seems justified especially if it avoids re-intervention. The combination of methotrexate with other therapies such as mifepristone, potassium chloride or gefitinib is not recommended in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. For non-tubal ectopic pregnancy, the intramuscular or local administration of methotrexate is an acceptable treatment for uncomplicated interstitial pregnancies. For uncomplicated cervical or cesarean scar pregnancies, the local administration of methotrexate should be considered as a first-line treatment. For ovarian pregnancies, methotrexate should not be a first-line treatment, surgical treatment remains the standard. Asymptomatic women presenting with a pregnancy of unknown location and plateauing serum hCG concentration<2000 UI/L can be managed expectantly: it is recommended to take an additional quantitative hCG serum level after 48 hours. Thus, methotrexate is not recommended in the first intention. Other gynecological indications were discussed: methotrexate is not recommended in the management of first-trimester miscarriages or in the management of placenta accreta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. First-line treatment of advanced ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer

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    Gandhi S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Shipra Gandhi,1 Hongbin Chen,2 Yujie Zhao,2 Grace K Dy2 1Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, 2Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA Abstract: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths, both within the US and worldwide. There have been major treatment advances in NSCLC over the past decade with the discovery of molecular drivers of NSCLC, which has ushered in an era of personalized medicine. There are several actionable genetic aberrations in NSCLC, such as epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK. In 3%–7% of NSCLC, a chromosomal inversion event in chromosome 2 leads to fusion of a portion of the ALK gene with the echinoderm microtubule–associated protein-like 4 (EML4 gene. The constitutive activation of the ALK fusion oncogene renders it vulnerable to therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the first-line treatment of advanced ALK-positive NSCLC using ALK inhibitors. Crizotinib was the first agent proven to be efficacious as first-line treatment for ALK-positive NSCLC. However, acquired resistance inevitably develops. The central nervous system is a sanctuary site that represents a common site for disease progression as well. Hence, more potent, selective next-generation ALK inhibitors that are able to cross the blood–brain barrier have been developed for treatment against crizotinib-resistant ALK-positive NSCLC and are also currently being evaluated for first-line therapy as well. In this review, we provide summary of the clinical experience with these drugs in the treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC. Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, ALK, first line, crizotinib, pemetrexed

  15. Can Propranolol be used as the first line treatment in infantile hemangioma?

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    Yasemin Altuner Torun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are the most common tumors of infancy. Most of them require no treatment, but treatment is needed if dramatic aesthetic, and/or functional impairment as visual or airway obstruction or ulceration arises. We reported a 6-month-old infant presented with a 6-week history of a rapidly growing cutaneus hemangioma on the right eyelid and caused visual impairment. The patient was successfully treated with the use of oral propranolol therapy. We suggest that propranolol can be considered as a first line treatment in a patient with infantil hemangioma.

  16. First-line treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia: dasatinib, nilotinib, or imatinib

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    Rafiyath Shamudheen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI of BCR-ABL, was the standard first-line therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML for almost 10 years. Dasatinib and nilotinib, two newer drugs with higher potency than imatinib against BCR-ABL and activity against most imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL mutations, have each shown superior efficacy compared with imatinib for first-line treatment of chronic-phase CML in randomized phase 3 trials. With 14 months follow-up time, available data suggest no obvious differences in efficacy between dasatinib and nilotinib. Compared with imatinib, dasatinib is associated with higher rates of pleural effusion and thrombocytopenia, but lower rates of edema, gastrointestinal AEs, musculoskeletal AEs, and rash. Nilotinib is associated with higher rates of dermatologic toxicity, headache, and biochemical abnormalities associated with hepatic and pancreatic toxicity compared with imatinib, but lower rates of edema, gastrointestinal AEs, muscle spasm, and neutropenia. Several studies have shown that poor adherence to imatinib detrimentally affects responses and should be considered in patients with a suboptimal response. The different dosing requirements of dasatinib (once daily with or without food and nilotinib (twice daily with fasting may be an additional factor in selecting frontline agents. This review compares and contrasts the three FDA approved first line TKI agents.

  17. Outcomes of first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with 17p deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Keating, Michael J; O'Brien, Susan M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan; Faderl, Stefan; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William G

    2014-08-01

    Although uncommon in treatment-naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, deletion 17p is a high-risk disease characteristic. We analyzed and reported outcomes for 63 patients with deletion 17p chronic lymphocytic leukemia who received first-line therapy at our institution; at time of first treatment, 81% had unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene and 58% had complex karyotype. Forty-nine patients (76%) received first-line fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based therapy, 6 (11%) received rituximab-based and 8 (13%) received lenalidomide-based treatment. Overall, the complete plus nodular partial remission rate was 33%; on multivariable model, higher complete plus nodular partial remission rate was observed in patients with less than 50% cells positive for deletion 17p, and a higher probability of achieving at least a partial remission was observed with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, rituximab-based treatment. After a median follow up of 33 months (range 1-89 months), the estimated median progression-free survival was 14 months (95% confidence interval 10-18) and estimated median overall survival was 63 months (95% confidence interval 43-83). In multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with longer progression-free survival were response to treatment and absence of complex karyotype. Achievement of complete plus nodular partial remission rate and mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene were independently associated with longer overall survival in multivariable model. Complex karyotype was associated with increased risk for Richter's transformation. New first-line strategies and agents must aim at both improving response and maintaining remission in patients with deletion 17p, particularly in the presence of complex karyotype. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. Trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization as first-line treatment for hepatic metastases from endocrine tumors

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    Roche, Alain; Girish, Baragur V.; de Baere, Thierry [Service de Radiologie Interventionnelle, Institut Gustave Roussy, rue Camille Desmoulins 39, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Baudin, Eric; Schlumberger, Martin [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Institut Gustave Roussy, rue Camille Desmoulins 39, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Boige, Valerie; Ducreux, Michel [Service d' Oncologie Digestive, Institut Gustave Roussy, rue Camille Desmoulins 39, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Elias, Dominique; Lasser, Philippe [Service de Chirurgie Digestive, Institut Gustave Roussy, rue Camille Desmoulins 39, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to report the outcome in patients with liver metastasis from endocrine tumors who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as first-line non-surgical treatment. From January 1990 to December 2000, 14 patients with progressive unresectable liver metastases from digestive neuroendocrine tumor were treated with TACE (mean of 3.6 sessions) before any non-surgical treatment (somatostatin analogue, chemotherapy or interferon). Liver involvement was less than 50% in 11 patients. Size of the largest lesion ranged from 1.5 to 10 cm. Ten patients presented with carcinoid symptoms. The TACE was performed with Doxorubicin emulsified in Lipiodol and gelatin sponge particles. Symptomatic response upon flushes and/or diarrhea was complete in 7 of 10 cases and partial in 2 of 10 cases. An objective morphologic response was noted in 12 of 14 cases. The 5- and 10-year survival rate from diagnosis was 83 and 56%, respectively. Six patients were alive at the end of the study after 27-100 months from first TACE and 38-142 months from diagnosis. Three of them were successfully palliated for 55, 69, and 100 months with only TACE as treatment. Long-term palliation is possible in unresectable liver metastases from digestive neuroendocrine tumors with a few sessions of TACE as first-line and eventually exclusive treatment. (orig.)

  19. Role of cetuximab in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

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    Sotelo, Miguel Jhonatan; García-Paredes, Beatriz; Aguado, Carlos; Sastre, Javier; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo

    2014-04-21

    The treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has evolved considerably in the last decade, currently allowing most mCRC patients to live more than two years. Monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor play an important role in the current treatment of these patients. However, only antibodies directed against EGFR have a predictive marker of response, which is the mutation status of v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS). Cetuximab has been shown to be effective in patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC. The CRYSTAL study showed that adding cetuximab to FOLFIRI (regimen of irinotecan, infusional fluorouracil and leucovorin) significantly improved results in the first-line treatment of KRAS wild-type mCRC. However, results that evaluate the efficacy of cetuximab in combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in this setting are contradictory. On the other hand, recent advances in the management of colorectal liver metastases have improved survival in these patients. Adding cetuximab to standard chemotherapy increases the response rate in patients with wild-type KRAS and can thus increase the resectability rate of liver metastases in this group of patients. In this paper we review the different studies assessing the efficacy of cetuximab in the first-line treatment of mCRC.

  20. First-line treatment with cephalosporins in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis provides poor antibiotic coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Semb, Synne; Olsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common infection in cirrhosis, associated with a high mortality. Third-generation cephalosporins are recommended as first-line treatment. The aim was to evaluate the epidemiology of microbiological ascitic fluid findings and antimicrobial...... resistance in Denmark. Material and Methods. All patients with cirrhosis and a positive ascitic fluid culture, at three university hospitals in the Copenhagen area during a 7-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with apparent secondary peritonitis were excluded from the study. Results. One...

  1. First-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: role of alemtuzumab

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    Carmen Diana Schweighofer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Diana Schweighofer1, Clemens-Martin Wendtner21Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: The CD52-targeting antibody alemtuzumab is established in clinical practice with convincing activity in relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, particularly in patients with high-risk features and adverse prognosis. In the CAM307 study alemtuzumab was tested and finally approved as a first-line single agent, even though the hurdle with chlorambucil as the contender was not set very high. Within clinical trials, the drug demonstrated an excellent ability to eliminate minimal residual disease in blood and bone marrow, which has been correlated with a corresponding survival advantage in patients. However, in the maintenance setting, infectious complications due to severe T cell suppression have been highlighted and do not allow clinicans to use alemtuzumab outside of clinical trials. This review discusses potential therapeutic niches and future applications of alemtuzumab with a focus on CLL front-line treatment.Keywords: CLL, alemtuzumab, Campath, front-line, first-line treatment

  2. Should radioiodine be the first-line treatment for paediatric Graves' disease?

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    West, James D; Cheetham, Timothy D; Dane, Carole; Natarajan, Anuja

    2015-07-01

    Debate exists regarding the optimal treatment strategy for paediatric Graves' disease with radioiodine (RAI), and surgery, usually reserved for failure of medical therapy. We present our own experience to introduce a review of the published literature focussing on the predictors of remission after antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy from diagnosis, and discuss whether RAI should be considered as a first-line therapy. A retrospective analysis of all diagnosed cases of paediatric Graves' disease presenting to a large District General Hospital. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with Graves' disease between February 2004 and May 2013. The median age at diagnosis was 13.7 years (range 7.2-17.1 years) with a female:male ratio of 11:2. Some nine patients completed a 2-year course of carbimazole out of which 8 relapsed after a mean duration of 0.82 years (range 0.08-1.42 years); the ninth currently remains in remission. Of the eight patients who relapsed, three have undergone RAI treatment. Two patients failed to tolerate carbimazole treatment, one of whom received RAI treatment because surgery was contraindicated and one patient with severe autism proceeded to RAI treatment due to poor compliance and persistent hyperthyroidism. Prognostic factors at presentation predicting a low likelihood of remission following ATD treatment include younger age, non-Caucasian ethnicity, and severe clinical and/or biochemical markers of hyperthyroidism. Psycho-social factors including compliance also influence management decisions. In specifically selected patients presenting with paediatric Graves' disease, the benefits and risks of radioactive iodine as a potential first-line therapy should be communicated allowing families to make informed decisions.

  3. The cost-effectiveness of radiofrequency catheter ablation as first-line treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

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    Aronsson, Mattias; Walfridsson, Håkan; Janzon, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this prospective substudy was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) compared with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) as first-line treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A decision-analytic Markov model......, based on MANTRA-PAF (Medical Antiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation) study data, was developed to study long-term effects and costs of RFA compared with AADs as first-line treatment. Positive clinical effects were found in the overall population, a gain......-effectiveness ratio of €3434/QALY in ≤50-year-old patients respectively €108 937/QALY in >50-year-old patients. CONCLUSION: Radiofrequency catheter ablation as first-line treatment is a cost-effective strategy for younger patients with paroxysmal AF. However, the cost-effectiveness of using RFA as first-line therapy...

  4. Electrochemotherapy as First Line Cancer Treatment: Experiences from Veterinary Medicine in Developing Novel Protocols.

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    Spugnini, E P; Azzarito, T; Fais, S; Fanciulli, M; Baldi, A

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is one of the major obstacles to the efficacy of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The abnormal blood flow within the tumor results in uneven drug distribution. Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a tumor treatment that adopts the systemic or local delivery of anticancer drugs with the application of permeabilizing electric pulses having appropriate amplitude and waveforms. This allows the use of lipophobic drugs that frequently have a narrow therapeutic index maintaining at the same time a reduced patient morbidity and preserving appropriate anticancer efficacy. Its use in humans is addressed to the treatment of cutaneous neoplasms or the palliation of skin tumor metastases, and a standard operating procedure has been devised. On the other hand, in veterinary oncology this approach is gaining popularity, thus becoming a first line treatment for different cancer histotypes, in a variety of clinical conditions due to its high efficacy and low toxicity. This review summarizes the state of the art in veterinary oncology as a preclinical model and reports the new protocols in terms of drugs and therapy combination that have been developed.

  5. Introduction of dermatome shaving as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions.

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    Sepehri, Mitra; Jørgensen, Bo; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-10-01

    Chronic tattoo reactions requiring treatment have increased. Laser removal is not ideal for removal of allergic reactions. Surgical removal of culprit pigment situated in the outer dermis by dermatome shaving is rational and need to be revisited. Fifty four tattoos with chronic reactions in 50 patients were treated with dermatome shaving. Tattoos with red/red nuances dominated the material. In total, 52 operations were performed in infiltration and 2 in general anaesthesia. Shaving was performed to the level in the dermis free of tattoo pigment as assessed visually by the surgeon. Operative complications were few. Healing occurred over weeks as normal for this procedure. On a rating scale from 0 to 4, 4 as most severe, the patient's severity rating of symptoms in their tattoo declined from 3.2 pre-operatively to 1.0, 0.8 and 0.7 after 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Burden of operation was rated low. Patient satisfaction was high. Dermatome shaving is efficient and with few complications, and is proposed as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions. Shaving of such reactions apparently has been neglected during enthusiastic introduction of laser approaches, which in the treatment of allergic tattoo reactions may be relatively contra indicated and of special risk.

  6. New developments in cognitive behavioral therapy as the first-line treatment of insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison T Siebern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Allison T Siebern, Rachel ManberSleep Medicine Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood City, California, USAAbstract: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. Psychological, behavioral, and biological factors are implicated in the development and maintenance of insomnia as a disorder, although the etiology of insomnia remains under investigation, as it is still not fully understood. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI is a treatment for insomnia that is grounded in the science of behavior change, psychological theories, and the science of sleep. There is strong empirical evidence that CBTI is effective. Recognition of CBTI as the first-line treatment for chronic insomnia (National Institutes of Health consensus, British Medical Association was based largely on evidence of its efficacy in primary insomnia. The aim of this article is to provide background information and review recent developments in CBTI, focusing on three domains: promising data on the use of CBTI when insomnia is experienced in the presence of comorbid conditions, new data on the use of CBTI as maintenance therapy, and emerging data on the delivery of CBTI through the use of technology and in primary care settings.Keywords: insomnia, CBTI, nonpharmacological treatment

  7. First-line HIV treatment: evaluation of backbone choice and its budget impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The gradual increase of persons living with HIV, mainly due to the reduced mortality achieved with effective antiretroviral therapies, calls for increased rationality and awareness in health resources consumption also during the early illness phases. Aim of this work is the estimation of the budget impact related to the variation in backbone prescribing trends in naïve patients.METHODS: Target population is the number of patients starting antiretroviral therapy each year, according to the Italian HIV surveillance registry, excluding patients receiving non-authorized or non-recommended regimens. We modeled 3-year mortality and durability rates on a dynamic cohort, basing on international literature. A prevalent patients analysis has also been conducted, for which the model is fed by a closed cohort consisting of all the patients without experience of virologic failure. The aim of this collateral analysis is to estimate the difference in current annual expenditures if the past prescription trends for patients starting therapy would have led to the evaluated hypothetical scenarios. Current Italian market shares of triple regimens containing first-choice or alternative backbones (tenofovir/emtricitabine, abacavir/lamivudine, tenofovir/lamivudine and zidovudine/lamivudine are compared to three hypothetical scenarios (base-case, minimum and maximum in which increasing shares of patients eligible to abacavir/lamivudine start first line treatment with this backbone. Annual cost for each regimen comprises drugs acquisition under hospital pricing rules, monitoring exams and preventive tests, valued basing on regional reimbursement tariffs.RESULTS: According to current prescribing trends, in the next three years about 13,000 patients starting HIV therapy will receive tenofovir/emtricitabine (83% of the target population, and minor portions other regimens (9% abacavir/lamivudine, 8% zidovudine/lamivudine. Patients that would be eligible to

  8. Ketamine as a first-line treatment for severely agitated emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Jeff; Tran, Alexander; Bengiamin, Rimon; Hendey, Gregory W; Armenian, Patil

    2017-07-01

    Emergency physicians often need to control agitated patients who present a danger to themselves and hospital personnel. Commonly used medications have limitations. Our primary objective was to compare the time to a defined reduction in agitation scores for ketamine versus benzodiazepines and haloperidol, alone or in combination. Our secondary objectives were to compare rates of medication redosing, vital sign changes, and adverse events in the different treatment groups. We conducted a single-center, prospective, observational study examining agitation levels in acutely agitated emergency department patients between the ages of 18 and 65 who required sedation medication for acute agitation. Providers measured agitation levels on a previously validated 6-point sedation scale at 0-, 5-, 10-, and 15-min after receiving sedation. We also assessed the incidence of adverse events, repeat or rescue medication dosing, and changes in vital signs. 106 patients were enrolled and 98 met eligibility criteria. There was no significant difference between groups in initial agitation scores. Based on agitation scores, more patients in the ketamine group were no longer agitated than the other medication groups at 5-, 10-, and 15-min after receiving medication. Patients receiving ketamine had similar rates of redosing, changes in vital signs, and adverse events to the other groups. In highly agitated and violent emergency department patients, significantly fewer patients receiving ketamine as a first line sedating agent were agitated at 5-, 10-, and 15-min. Ketamine appears to be faster at controlling agitation than standard emergency department medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Isavuconazole vs. Voriconazole as First-Line Treatment for Invasive Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rachel; Lee, Edward; Yang, Hongbo; Wei, Jin; Messali, Andrew; Azie, Nkechi; Wu, Eric Q; Spalding, James

    2017-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is associated with a significant clinical and economic burden. The phase III SECURE trial demonstrated non-inferiority in clinical efficacy between isavuconazole and voriconazole. No studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole compared to voriconazole. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole vs. voriconazole for the first-line treatment of IA from the US hospital perspective. An economic model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole vs. voriconazole in hospitalized patients with IA. The time horizon was the duration of hospitalization. Length of stay for the initial admission, incidence of readmission, clinical response, overall survival rates, and experience of adverse events (AEs) came from the SECURE trial. Unit costs were from the literature. Total costs per patient were estimated, composed of drug costs, costs of AEs, and costs of hospitalizations. Incremental costs per death avoided and per additional clinical responders were reported. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (DSA and PSA) were conducted. Base case analysis showed that isavuconazole was associated with a $7418 lower total cost per patient than voriconazole. In both incremental costs per death avoided and incremental costs per additional clinical responder, isavuconazole dominated voriconazole. Results were robust in sensitivity analysis. Isavuconazole was cost saving and dominant vs. voriconazole in most DSA. In PSA, isavuconazole was cost saving in 80.2% of the simulations and cost-effective in 82.0% of the simulations at the $50,000 willingness to pay threshold per additional outcome. Isavuconazole is a cost-effective option for the treatment of IA among hospitalized patients. Astellas Pharma Global Development, Inc.

  10. Carboplatin and paclitaxel as first-line treatment of unresectable or metastatic esophageal or gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prithviraj, G K; Baksh, K; Fulp, W; Meredith, K; Hoffe, S; Shridhar, R; Almhanna, K

    2015-01-01

    Survival in patients with metastatic esophageal and gastric cancer is dismal. No standard treatment has been established. Carboplatin/paclitaxel is active in both advanced gastric and esophageal cancer. Here we retrospectively present our single center experience. Between 1998 and 2013, a total of 134 patients with metastatic esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma treated with carboplatin/paclitaxel (carboplatin predominantly area under the curve 5 and paclitaxel predominantly 175 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks as first-line therapy were identified. Baseline characteristics, response to therapy, toxicities, and survival in this patient population were evaluated. Overall survival was defined as date from diagnosis to death or last follow up, and progression-free survival was defined at time from cycle 1 to, progression or last follow up. Kaplan-Meier curves were fit to estimate overall and progression-free survival. Of the 134 patients evaluated, the median age at diagnosis was 65 years. Disease control rate was 62.6% (complete response: 11%, partial response: 28%, stable disease: 33%). Median overall survival from date of initial diagnosis was 15.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.5). Median progression-free survival from date of initiation of carboplatin and paclitaxel was 5.3 months (95% CI 0.34-0.5). Grade III or greater toxicity occurred in 26.1% of patients. The most common grade III toxicities were neutropenia and neuropathy, present in 14.2% and 3.7% of the total study population, respectively. In patients with metastatic or unresectable esophageal or gastric cancer, the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel is well tolerated with comparable overall survival and progression-free survival to existing regimens in this population. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  11. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as first-line surgical treatment for morbid obesity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Aslam; Patel, Pankti; Gonzalez-Heredia, Raquel; Holterman, Mark; Elli, Enrique F; Kanard, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity has necessitated the increasing use of bariatric surgery in the adolescent population. Outcomes following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) among adolescents, however, have not been well-studied. We report outcomes following LSG as a first-line surgical therapy in patients under 21years of age. All patients who underwent LSG as a primary surgical option for morbid obesity were identified at the University of Illinois at Chicago between 2006 and 2014. Standard clinicopathologic and outcomes data were recorded. We identified 18 patients (13 females, 5 males) who underwent LSG. Mean patient age was 17.8±1.7years. Mean BMI among all patients was 48.6±7.2kg/m2 and did not differ by gender (P=0.68). One patient (5.6%) experienced a 30-day perioperative complication (pulmonary embolism). Median LOS following LSG was 3days (IQR: 2, 3). 2 patients (11.1%) were readmitted within 30-days because of feeding intolerance that resolved without invasive intervention. At a median follow-up of 10.6 (range: 0-38) months, percent excess weight loss (%EWL) among all patients was 35.6%. Among patients with at least 2years follow-up (n=3), %EWL was 50.2%. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in morbidly obese adolescents is a safe and feasible option. Short- and long-term weight loss appears to be successful following LSG. As such, LSG should be strongly considered as a primary surgical treatment option for all morbidly obese adolescents. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tratamento de primeira linha no Mieloma Múltiplo First line treatment in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele W. B. Colleoni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A presente revisão tem por objetivo avaliar o estado atual do tratamento de primeira linha dos pacientes com MM. O paciente com MM assintomático não deve receber tratamento ao diagnóstico, mas apenas quando surgirem indicações. Para o paciente sintomático (anemia, hipercalcemia, alteração da função renal, presença de lesões líticas ou plasmocitoma extramedular, aumento progressivo do componente-M no soro e/ou urina, o tratamento deverá ser rapidamente instituído. Aqueles pacientes com menos de 65-70 anos, com bom performance status, sem comorbidades e com função renal próxima do normal são potencialmente candidatos à consolidação com altas doses de quimioterapia seguidas de transplante autólogo de células-tronco hematopoéticas. Portanto, não devem utilizar drogas alquilantes para evitar prejuízos à mobilização das células-tronco. São opções: dexametasona, VAD e talidomida (com ou sem dexametasona. Os pacientes com mais de 65-70 anos, com performance status ruim, comorbidades e com função renal alterada podem receber tratamento com agentes alquilantes (por exemplo, melfalano e prednisona, com ou sem talidomida pois não serão submetidos a transplante. O principal objetivo nesses casos é atingir resposta com mínima toxicidade.The aim of this review is to evaluate the current status of first line treatment in multiple myeloma. Asymptomatic patients should not receive treatment at diagnosis. However, symptomatic patients (anemia, hypercalcemia, deterioration in renal function, lytic lesions or extramedullary plasmacytomas, increase of M-component in serum or urine should receive treatment as soon as possible. Patients younger than 65-70 years old with good performance status, no concurrent diseases and normal renal function are possible candidates for consolidation using high-dose chemotherapy followed by stem-cell transplantation. Therefore, they should not receive drugs that could potentially interfere with

  13. Rituximab as a first-line agent for the treatment of dermatomyositis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    B cells may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of DM, and reports have claimed that targeting B cells is a viable treatment option in patients with dermatomyositis. A 20-year-old girl presented in October 2007, with few weeks\\' history of proximal muscle weakness. Gottron\\'s papules were noted on her knuckles. She had normal inflammatory markers and negative autoantibody screen. Her CPK was 7,000 U\\/L (normal range 0-170) with an LDH of 1,300 U\\/L (normal range 266-500). EMG and muscle biopsy was consistent with active myositis. She had normal pulmonary function tests. HRCT showed no interstitial lung disease. She was started with 60 mg glucocorticoids (1 mg\\/kg), with a good clinical response. However, any attempt to taper down the steroid dose led to recurrence of her symptoms. The options of available immunosuppressive therapies, including the experimental usage of rituximab, were discussed with her; averse to long-term systemic treatments, she opted to try a course of rituximab. She had rituximab 1,000 mg on days 0 and 14, and her glucocorticoids were tapered in next few weeks. Now, 24 months since her rituximab infusions, she remains in complete clinical and biochemical remission and is naive to other immunosuppressive agents apart from glucocorticoids and rituximab. Depleting peripheral B cells with rituximab (one course) in our patient has led not only to complete resolution of muscle and skin disease (induction) but also remains off all immunosuppressives including glucocorticoids.

  14. Clinical outcome of patients who reduced sunitinib or pazopanib during first-line treatment for advanced kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Roberto; Cossu Rocca, Maria; Galli, Luca; De Giorgi, Ugo; Sabbatini, Roberto; Santoni, Matteo; Mosca, Alessandra; Fornarini, Giuseppe; Massari, Francesco; Masini, Cristina; Bersanelli, Melissa; Biasco, Elisa; Lolli, Cristian; Guida, Annalisa; Berardi, Rossana; Terrone, Carlo; Pastorino, Alessandro; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Pinto, Carmine; Buti, Sebastiano; Nolè, Franco; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the different outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who receive a reduced first-line dose of sunitinib or pazopanib compared to those who continue at the standard dose. All the patients treated in 11 oncological centers in Italy for mRCC who started first-line treatment with sunitinib or pazopanib at the standard dose. Descriptive statistical tests were used to highlight differences among groups. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared across the groups using log-rank tests, the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for statistically significant variables was also done. A total of 591 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45.7% received a reduced dose of sunitinib or pazopanib after a median treatment time of 3.6 months at the standard dose. The median overall survival in the patients who continued to receive the standard dose was 24.0 months compared to 49.4 months for those who received a reduced dose (hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.42-2.29; P<0.001). Only 45% of the patients received second-line therapy: 42.5% had an mTOR and 54.1% a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Second-line overall survival was 19.8 and 11.8 months, respectively, in the patients who received, or did not, a reduced dose during first-line therapy (P = 0.007). Toxicity-related dose reduction is a common event in mRCC patients who have started first-line therapy with either sunitinib or pazopanib. This is positively related to the outcomes of both first- and second-line therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for the development of non-response to first-line treatment for tuberculosis in southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, V P; de Klerk, N; Krieng, T; Hammond, G; Musk, A W

    1997-10-01

    Acquired resistance to standard chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB) is an increasing problem worldwide. Vietnam has one of the highest incidences of TB and also has a large population of potential migrants to other countries. Since 1979 the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) has been running a supervised programme of TB treatment for intending migrants from Vietnam where few facilities for bacteriological culture and sensitivity testing exist. This study aimed to assess the most important factors for predicting non-response to first-line treatment as treatment starts and whether any further indicators occur during the course of treatment which may enable more accurate prediction of non-response. In all, 130 subjects failing to respond to first-line therapy (cases) between 1990 and 1995 were compared with 673 subjects who responded to therapy (controls) on various demographic and clinical characteristics using logistic regression to create a prognostic index. Variables analysed included the patient history of past TB treatment, weight, age, sex and radiological and bacteriological findings. All subjects also tested negative for HIV status. The chief markers of successful response were x-ray signs and degree of sputum smear positivity. These markers provided a prognostic index with an optimal cutoff providing about 70% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Incorporating further measures obtained through the first 3 months of treatment improved the sensitivity to 80%. While this study enabled prediction of the majority of subjects failing to respond to first-line therapy, other factors need to be assessed before recommendations for altering treatment regimens can be made. The prognostic index could be useful in assessing subjects for closer supervision.

  16. First-line treatment: a critical appraisal of cognitive behavioral therapy developments and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Craske, Michelle G

    2009-09-01

    In this article, the authors assess the successes, remaining challenges, and new developments in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. They define CBT, examine treatment components, review treatment efficacy, and discuss the challenges of attrition, long-term follow-up, co-occurring/comorbid disorders, limited treatment comparisons, treatment mediators, and broader implementation. In addition, they present recent developments in cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders, including linking exposure therapy to basic science, mindfulness and acceptance-based treatments, and unified or transdiagnostic treatment protocols.

  17. Shortened first-line TB treatment in Brazil: potential cost savings for patients and health services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trajman, Anete; Bastos, Mayara Lisboa; Belo, Marcia; Calaça, Janaína; Gaspar, Júlia; Dos Santos, Alexandre Martins; Dos Santos, Camila Martins; Brito, Raquel Trindade; Wells, William A.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Vassall, Anna; Gomez, Gabriela B.

    2016-01-01

    Shortened treatment regimens for tuberculosis are under development to improve treatment outcomes and reduce costs. We estimated potential savings from a societal perspective in Brazil following the introduction of a hypothetical four-month regimen for tuberculosis treatment. Data were gathered in

  18. Algorithms in the First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma--Analysis Using Diagnostic Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermundt, Christian; Bailey, Alexandra; Cerbone, Linda; Eisen, Tim; Escudier, Bernard; Gillessen, Silke; Grünwald, Viktor; Larkin, James; McDermott, David; Oldenburg, Jan; Porta, Camillo; Rini, Brian; Schmidinger, Manuela; Sternberg, Cora; Putora, Paul M

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of targeted therapies, many treatment options in the first-line setting of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC) have emerged. Guidelines and randomized trial reports usually do not elucidate the decision criteria for the different treatment options. In order to extract the decision criteria for the optimal therapy for patients, we performed an analysis of treatment algorithms from experts in the field. Treatment algorithms for the treatment of mccRCC from experts of 11 institutions were obtained, and decision trees were deduced. Treatment options were identified and a list of unified decision criteria determined. The final decision trees were analyzed with a methodology based on diagnostic nodes, which allows for an automated cross-comparison of decision trees. The most common treatment recommendations were determined, and areas of discordance were identified. The analysis revealed heterogeneity in most clinical scenarios. The recommendations selected for first-line treatment of mccRCC included sunitinib, pazopanib, temsirolimus, interferon-α combined with bevacizumab, high-dose interleukin-2, sorafenib, axitinib, everolimus, and best supportive care. The criteria relevant for treatment decisions were performance status, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group, only or mainly lung metastases, cardiac insufficiency, hepatic insufficiency, age, and "zugzwang" (composite of multiple, related criteria). In the present study, we used diagnostic nodes to compare treatment algorithms in the first-line treatment of mccRCC. The results illustrate the heterogeneity of the decision criteria and treatment strategies for mccRCC and how available data are interpreted and implemented differently among experts. The data provided in the present report should not be considered to serve as treatment recommendations for the management of treatment-naïve patients with multiple metastases from metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma outside

  19. IVF or IUI as first-line treatment in unexplained subfertility: the conundrum of treatment selection markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Tajik, P; Zafarmand, M H; Bensdorp, A J; Bossuyt, P M M; Oosterhuis, G J E; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Lambers, M D A; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Maas, J W M; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W; van Wely, M

    2017-05-01

    Are there treatment selection markers that could aid in identifying couples, with unexplained or mild male subfertility, who would have better chances of a healthy child with IVF with single embryo transfer (IVF-SET) than with IUI with ovarian stimulation (IUI-OS)? We did not find any treatment selection markers that were associated with better chances of a healthy child with IVF-SET instead of IUI-OS in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility. A recent trial, comparing IVF-SET to IUI-OS, found no evidence of a difference between live birth rates and multiple pregnancy rates. It was suggested that IUI-OS should remain the first-line treatment instead of IVF-SET in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility and female age between 18 and 38 years. The question remains whether there are some couples that may have higher pregnancy chances if treated with IVF-SET instead of IUI. We performed our analyses on data from the INeS trial, where couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility and an unfavourable prognosis for natural conception were randomly allocated to IVF-SET, IVF in a modified natural cycle or IUI-OS. In view of the aim of this study, we only used data of the comparison between IVF-SET (201 couples) and IUI-OS (207 couples). We pre-defined the following baseline characteristics as potential treatment selection markers: female age, ethnicity, smoking status, type of subfertility (primary/secondary), duration of subfertility, BMI, pre-wash total motile count and Hunault prediction score. For each potential treatment selection marker, we explored the association with the chances of a healthy child after IVF-SET and IUI-OS and tested if there was an interaction with treatment. Given the exploratory nature of our analysis, we used a P-value of 0.1. None of the markers were associated with higher chances of a healthy child from IVF-SET compared to IUI-OS (P-value for interaction >0.10). Since this is the first large study that looked at

  20. Efficacy and safety of cabergoline as first line treatment for invasive giant prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang Ah; Chung, Ji Youn; Koh, Eun Hee; Cho, Young Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Chang Jin; Kim, Min-Seon

    2009-10-01

    Although cabergoline is effective in the treatment of micro- and macro-prolactinoma, little is known about its efficacy in the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. We investigated the efficacy and safety of cabergoline in 10 male patients with invasive giant prolactinoma. Before treatment, mean serum prolactin level was 11,426 ng/mL (range, 1,450-33,200 ng/mL) and mean maximum tumor diameter was 51 mm (range, 40-77 mm). Three months after initiation of cabergoline treatment, serum prolactin concentrations decreased more than 97% in 9 patients; at last follow-up (mean treatment duration, 19 months), the mean decrease in serum prolactin concentrations was 98%, with 5 patients having normal serum prolactin levels. At first MRI follow-up (3-12 months after initiation of cabergoline), the mean reduction in tumor size was 85+/-4% (range, 57-98%). Cabergoline treatment for more than 12 months caused a greater reduction in tumor size compared to the treatment for less than 12 months (97+/-1% vs. 78+/-7%, Pcabergoline treatment led to a significant and rapid reduction in serum prolactin concentrations and tumor size in patients with giant prolactinoma. Therefore, cabergoline represents an effective and well-tolerated treatment for invasive giant prolactinoma.

  1. Toxicities of different first-line chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Chang-Ping; Sun, Gui-Xia; Yang, Shao-Qin; Tian, Jun; Si, Jin-Ge; Wang, Yi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the 5th leading cause of cancer-related deaths around the world, and several chemotherapy regimens have been applied in the treatment of OC. We aim to compare toxicities of different chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) using network meta-analysis. Methods: Literature research in Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMBASE was performed up to November 2015. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of different chemoth...

  2. Optimal First-Line Treatment for Helicobacter pylori Infection: Recent Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Yup Lee; Kyung Sik Park

    2016-01-01

    A new treatment strategy is needed, as the efficacy of triple therapy containing clarithromycin—the current standard treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection—is declining. Increasing antibiotic resistance of H. pylori is the most significant factor contributing to eradication failure. Thus, selecting the most appropriate regimen depending on resistance is optimal, but identifying resistance to specific antibiotics is clinically challenging. In a region suspected to have high clarithromycin...

  3. Suction curettage as first line treatment in cases with cesarean scar pregnancy: feasibility and effectiveness in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ibrahim; Ekiz, Ali; Acar, Deniz Kanber; Kaya, Basak; Ozkose, Burak; Ozdemir, Cagdas; Talay, Hasan; Gedikbasi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is an extremely rare form of an ectopic pregnancy, which is defined as the localization of a fertilized ovum surrounded by uterine muscular fiber and scar tissue. The objective of this study was to discuss the management options for CSPs in a singleton center. In the current study, we discussed the current management options for CSPs based on our 6 years of experience. A retrospective evaluation of diagnosed and treated 26 patients with CSPs in Istanbul Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital during a 6-year period was discussed. Suction curettage was performed as first-line treatment in patients with a gestation 2 mm. Twenty-two (84.6%) patients with CSPs were initially treated surgically (curettage and hysterotomy) and four (15.4%) patients were treated medically with methotrexate injections. Vacuum aspiration was performed in 19 patients as a first-line treatment, six of them needed an additional Foley balloon catheter to be inserted for tamponade because of persistent vaginal bleeding. Suction curettage was successful in 12 patients. The treatment rate for suction curettage with or without Foley balloon catheter tamponade was 16 of 19 (84.2%). The early diagnosis of a CSP (7-8 weeks gestation) with a β-hCG level 2 mm can be treated with suction curettage with or without placement of a uterine Foley balloon as curative treatment.

  4. First-line capecitabine monotherapy for slowly progressing metastatic breast cancer: do we need aggressive treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debled, Marc; Madranges, Nicolas; Trainaud, Alexandra; Floquet, Anne; Donamaria, Catherine; Brouste, Véronique; Durand, Michel; Mauriac, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Primary treatment goals in less aggressive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are prolonged survival, good quality of life and control of the disease and its symptoms. High activity, oral administration and no alopecia make capecitabine monotherapy attractive in slowly evolving disease. We retrospectively analysed 226 patients who had received single-agent capecitabine as 1st-line chemotherapy at our institution. The median interval between breast cancer diagnosis and MBC was 52 months (range 0-479); 76% had received endocrine therapy for MBC, 58% had visceral involvement and 30% had 3 or more metastatic sites. The median starting dose was 1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily. Disease was improved in 56% of the patients (median duration: 13.2 months) and stabilised in 20%. Median time to treatment failure was 8.8 months (95% CI: 7.1-10.5); median overall survival from initiating capecitabine was 23.6 months (95% CI: 19.7-27.4). Prior adjuvant chemotherapy, endocrine therapy for MBC, visceral disease, hormone receptor status and initial capecitabine dose did not influence time to treatment failure. Among 161 patients <75 years, 90% received further chemotherapy. Based on these findings, 1st-line capecitabine should be considered in slowly progressing disease, offering an active, well-tolerated oral treatment with minimal toxicity and no alopecia. More toxic treatments may be reserved for more aggressive disease. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Treatment of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis with first-line drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegia, Medea; Winters, Nicholas; Benedetti, Andrea; van Soolingen, Dick; Menzies, Dick

    2017-02-01

    The results of some reports have suggested that treatment of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis with the recommended regimens of first-line drugs might be suboptimal. We updated a previous systematic review of treatment outcomes associated with use of first-line drugs in patients with tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid but not rifampicin. In this systematic review, we updated the results of a previous review to include randomised trials and cohort studies published in English, French, or Spanish to March 31, 2015, containing results of standardised treatment of patients with bacteriologically confirmed isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis (but not multidrug-resistant tuberculosis-ie, not resistant to rifampicin) in whom failure and relapse were bacteriologically confirmed. Results in patients with drug-sensitive tuberculosis included in the same studies were also analysed. We pooled treatment outcomes with random-effects meta-analysis. We identified 19 cohort studies and 33 trials with 3744 patients with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis and 19 012 patients with drug-sensitive disease. The pooled rates of failure or relapse, or both, and acquired drug resistance with all drug regimens were 15% (95% CI 12-18) and 3·6% (2-5), respectively, in patients with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis and 4% (3-5) and 0·6% (0·3-0·9) in those with drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Of patients with initial isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis with acquired drug resistance, 96% (93-99) had acquired multidrug-resistant disease. Treatment of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis with the WHO standard regimen for new patients resulted in treatment failure, relapse, and acquired multidrug resistance in 11% (6-17), 10% (5-15) and 8% (3-13), respectively; treatment with the standard WHO regimen for previously treated patients resulted in treatment failure in 6% (2-10), relapse in 5% (2-8), and acquisition of multidrug resistance in 3% (0-6). For patients with drug-sensitive disease treated with the

  6. Multiple needle-pass percutaneous testicular sperm aspiration as first-line treatment in azoospermic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C F S; Ohl, D A; Hiner, M R

    2016-01-01

    use mTESE as the first choice for retrieving spermatozoa in nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Objectives of this study were to evaluate the outcome and safety of TESA and mTESE in the treatment of azoospermia and to investigate the usefulness of a prognostic TESA to individualize protocols for couples...... in the management of azoospermia and limits the use of more invasive procedures....

  7. Virological efficacy with first-line antiretroviral treatment in India: predictors of viral failure and evidence of viral resuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Anita; Neogi, Ujjwal; Kumarasamy, N; DeCosta, Ayesha; Shastri, Suresh; Rewari, Bharat Bhushan

    2015-11-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved in efficacy, durability and tolerability. Virological efficacy studies in India are limited. We determined incidence and predictors of virological failure among patients initiating first-line ART and described virological resuppression after confirmed failure, with the goal of informing national policy. Therapy-naïve patients initiated on first-line ART as per national guidelines were monitored every 3 months for adherence and virological response over 2 years. Genotyping on baseline samples was performed to assess primary drug resistance. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess predictors of virological failure. Virological failure rate among 599 eligible patients was 10.7 failures per 100 person-years. Cumulative failure incidence was 13.2% in the first year and 16.5% over 2 years. Patients initiated on tenofovir had a significantly lower rate of virological failure than those on stavudine or zidovudine (6.7 vs. 11.9 failures per 100 person-years, P = 0.013). Virological failure was independently associated with age <40 years, mean adherence <95%, non-tenofovir-containing regimens and presence of primary drug resistance. In a subset of 311 patients who were reassessed after treatment failure, 19% (11/58) patients resuppressed their viral load to <400 copies/ml after confirmed virological failure. Our results support the inclusion of tenofovir as first-line ART in resource-limited settings and a role for regular adherence counselling and virological monitoring for enhanced treatment success. Detection of early virological failure should provide an opportunity to augment adherence counselling and repeat viral load testing before therapy switch is considered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Laser interstitial thermal therapy: A first line treatment for seizures due to hypothalamic hamartoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Victor X; Gandhi, Shashank V; Rekate, Harold L; Mehta, Ashesh D

    2017-06-01

    Successful treatment of hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) can result in the resolution of its sequelae including epilepsy and rage attacks. Risks and morbidity of open surgical management of this lesion have motivated the development of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) as a less invasive treatment approach to the disease. Although overall morbidity and risk would appear to be lower, complications related to LITT therapy have been reported, and the longer-term follow-up that is now possible after initial experience helps address the question of whether LITT provides equivalent efficacy compared to other treatment options. We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical outcomes in eight patients undergoing LITT for HH at our center using the Visualase/Medtronic device. Five patients had refractory epilepsy, one had rage attacks, and two had both. We also compared the published seizure-free outcomes over time and the complication rates for different interventional approaches to the treatment of epilepsy due to HH including open craniotomy, neuroendoscopic, radiosurgical, and radiofrequency approaches. With a mean follow-up of 19.1 months in our series of eight patients, six of seven epilepsy patients achieved seizure freedom, whereas the one patient with rage attacks only did not have improvement of his symptoms. A length of hospital stay of 2.6 days reflects low morbidity and rapid postoperative recuperation with LITT. Considering other reported series and case reports, the overall published seizure freedom rate of 21 of 25 patients is superior to published outcomes of HH cases treated by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), craniotomy, or neuroendoscopy, and comparable to radiofrequency ablation. The cumulative experience of our center with other published series supports relatively lower operative morbidity than more invasive approaches and efficacy that is as good or better than open craniotomy procedures and SRS. Although morbidity appears to be lower than

  9. New developments in cognitive behavioral therapy as the first-line treatment of insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Allison T Siebern; Rachel Manber

    2011-01-01

    Allison T Siebern, Rachel ManberSleep Medicine Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Redwood City, California, USAAbstract: Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. Psychological, behavioral, and biological factors are implicated in the development and maintenance of insomnia as a disorder, although the etiology of insomnia remains under investigation, as it is still not fully understood. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) is a treatment for insomnia that is grounde...

  10. Infrainguinal vein graft stenosis: cutting balloon angioplasty as the first-line treatment of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peter A; Caps, Michael T; Nelken, Nicolas

    2008-05-01

    The optimal treatment for hemodynamically significant infrainguinal vein bypass graft stenosis is not known. This study compares three options as first choice for the revision of failing infrainguinal vein grafts: cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA), standard percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA), and open surgical revision (OS). Infrainguinal vein bypass graft lesions treated in a single institution during a 12-year period were evaluated. Of these, 161 lesions in 124 infrainguinal bypasses (101 patients) were treated with OS (n = 42), PTA (n = 57), or CBA (n = 62). The initial indication for the bypass in these patients was limb salvage in 73% and claudication in 27%. The primary outcome of interest was the development of vein graft occlusion or significant stenosis (>or=70%) as detected by surveillance duplex ultrasound scanning or arteriography some time after repair. The stenosis-free patency rates at 48 months for OS, CBA, and PTA were 74%, 62%, and 34%, respectively. PTA was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure compared with both OS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.9; P difference between OS and CBA (HR, 1.3 for CBA vs OS, P = .6). Pseudoaneurysms developed in two CBA patients. One ruptured and required interposition graft, and one was monitored. Cutting balloon angioplasty is a reasonable, initial treatment for infrainguinal vein graft stenosis in most patients. It is a safe, minimally invasive, outpatient procedure with patency rates that are comparable to OS and superior to PTA.

  11. Systematic review: Coca-Cola can effectively dissolve gastric phytobezoars as a first-line treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, S D; Kamberoglou, D; Karamanolis, G; Vlachogiannakos, J; Zouboulis-Vafiadis, I

    2013-01-01

    Gastric phytobezoars represent the most common bezoars in patients with poor gastric motility. A variety of dissolution therapies and endoscopic fragmentation techniques have been evaluated as conservative treatment so as to avoid surgery. To investigate the effectiveness of Coca-Cola for gastric phytobezoars dissolution. We performed a systematic search to identify publications on gastric phytobezoars to assess the efficacy of Coca-Cola as a dissolution therapy. Diospyrobezoars, formed after persimmon ingestion, are a distinct type of phytobezoars characterized by their hard consistency. Thus, these two subgroups of bezoars were compared in terms of successful dissolution. Over a 10-year period (2002-2012), 24 papers including 46 patients have been published. In 91.3% of the cases, phytobezoar resolution with Coca-Cola administration was successful, either as a single treatment (50%) or combined with further endoscopic techniques, whereas only 4 patients underwent surgery. Phytobezoars were more likely to dissolve after initial attempt with Coca-Cola compared with diospyrobezoars (60.6% vs. 23%, P = 0.022). Coca-Cola alone is effective in gastric phytobezoar dissolution in half of the cases and, combined with additional endoscopic methods, is successful in more than 90% of them. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Effect of first-line treatment on second primary malignancies and Richter's transformation in patients with CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, C; Langerbeins, P; Bahlo, J; Cramer, P; Fink, A M; Pflug, N; Engelke, A; von Tresckow, J; Kovacs, G; Stilgenbauer, S; Wendtner, C-M; Müller, L; Ritgen, M; Seiler, T; Fischer, K; Hallek, M; Eichhorst, B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the frequency of and the contributing factors for second primary malignancies (SPMs) and Richter's transformations (RTs) following first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia within four phase II/III trials of the GCLLSG evaluating fludarabine (F) vs F+cyclophosphamide (FC), chlorambucil vs F, FC without or with rituximab, and bendamustine+R (BR). Among 1458 patients, 239 (16.4%) experienced either an SPM (N=191) or a RT (N=75). Solid tumors (N=115; 43.2% of all second neoplasias) appeared most frequently, followed by RTs (N=75; 28.2%). Patients showed a 1.23-fold increased risk of solid tumors in comparison to the age-matched general population from the German cancer registry. Age>65 (hazard ratio (HR) 2.1; PHR 1.7; P=0.01), co-morbidities (HR 1.6; P=0.01) and number of subsequent treatments⩾1 (HR 12.1; P10 U/l at trial enrollment (HR 3.9; P=0.02), non-response to first-line treatment (HR 3.6; PHR 30.2; P<0.001) were independently associated with increased risk for RT.

  13. Introduction of dermatome shaving as first line treatment of chronic tattoo reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Jørgensen, Bo; Serup, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic tattoo reactions requiring treatment have increased. Laser removal is not ideal for removal of allergic reactions. Surgical removal of culprit pigment situated in the outer dermis by dermatome shaving is rational and need to be revisited. MATERIALS/METHODS: Fifty four...... tattoos with chronic reactions in 50 patients were treated with dermatome shaving. Tattoos with red/red nuances dominated the material. In total, 52 operations were performed in infiltration and 2 in general anaesthesia. Shaving was performed to the level in the dermis free of tattoo pigment as assessed...... visually by the surgeon. RESULTS: Operative complications were few. Healing occurred over weeks as normal for this procedure. On a rating scale from 0 to 4, 4 as most severe, the patient's severity rating of symptoms in their tattoo declined from 3.2 pre-operatively to 1.0, 0.8 and 0.7 after 3, 6 and 12...

  14. Intermittent docetaxel chemotherapy as first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffo, Orazio; Lo Re, Giovanni; Sava, Teodoro; Buti, Sebastiano; Sacco, Cosimo; Basso, Umberto; Zustovich, Fable; Lodde, Michele; Perin, Alessandra; Facchini, Gaetano; Veccia, Antonello; Maines, Francesca; Barile, Carmen; Fratino, Lucia; Gernone, Angela; De Vivo, Rocco; Pappagallo, Giovanni L; Galligioni, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    The intermittent administration of chemotherapy is a means of preserving patients' quality of life (QL). The aim of this study was to verify whether the intermittent administration of docetaxel (DOC) improves the patients' QL. All patients received DOC 70 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for eight cycles. The patients were randomized to receive DOC continuously or with a fixed 3-month interval after the first four DOC courses. The study involved 148 patients. There was no difference in QL between the groups receiving intermittent or continuous treatment. Intermittence had no detrimental effects on disease control. Although feasible and not detrimental, our results showed that true intermittent chemotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients failed to improve the patients' QL.

  15. Treatment outcomes of recommended first-line antiretroviral regimens in resource-limited clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Anthony; Etienne-Mesubi, Martine; Edozien, Anthony; Ojoo, Sylvia; Sheneberger, Robert; Obiefune, Michael; Hossain, Mian Bazle; Stafford, Kristen; Redfield, Robert R

    2012-07-01

    Although used globally, little data exist on the efficacy of nevirapine (NVP) used in combination with tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine or lamivudine (XTC), and no large randomized prospective control trials exists comparing this combination with efavirenz (EFV)/TDF/(XTC). As part of the AIDSRelief program, a retrospective review of patient medical chart information along with a cross-sectional viral load, and adherence measurement was conducted between 2004 and 2009. An on-treatment analysis excluded patients who died, transferred out of care, or were lost to follow-up. A switch of antiretrovirals for any reason was considered a failure in the intent-to-treat analysis. Patients with only clinically relevant reasons for switching such as toxicity, adverse effects, viral failure or clinical/immunological failure, lost to follow-up, and death were considered failures as part of the modified-intent-to-treat analysis. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables that were associated with viral suppression. A random sample of 3862 patients met criteria and were included in this analysis. In the on-treatment analysis, older age (P XTC/EFV achieved higher rates of viral suppression compared with patients on TDF/XTC/NVP or azidothymidine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC)/NVP. Our data show that patients on TDF/XTC/EFV had better outcomes than patients on TDF/XTC/NVP, AZT/3TC/EFV, or AZT/3TC/NVP. High rates of virologic suppression seen in patients on this regimen are consistent with previous studies and indicate the need to increase use of this regimen in HIV programs to promote sustainable viral suppression over time.

  16. Onyx embolization as a first line treatment for intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas with cortical venous reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, V.; Forsting, M.; Wanke, I. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Moeller-Hartmann, W. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie; Asgari, S.; Sandalcioglu, I.E. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Neurochirurgie

    2009-02-15

    Our purpose was to present our experience regarding embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with cortical venous reflux using Onyx, a non-adhesive liquid embolic agent. From January 2006 to December 2007, 16 patients (12 men and 4 women) with a mean age of 61 years (range 42 - 78) with an intracranial DAVF with cortical venous reflux underwent at least one transarterial embolization using Onyx. According to the Cognard classification, 2 lesions were grade V, 5 were grade IV, 6 were grade III, 2 were grade IIa+b, and 1 was grade IIb. The clinical presentation included 5 hemorrhagic deficits, 10 non-hemorrhagic manifestations, and 1 patient was asymptomatic. Twenty-four embolization sessions were performed in 16 patients with an average of 3 arterial feeders (range 1 - 9) embolized per DAVF. Immediately after embolization, complete occlusion was achieved in 9 / 16 (56 %) patients after the first session. Further postembolization surgical treatment was performed in 3 patients. Partial reperfusion occurred in 1 patient at the time of mean follow-up of 3.7 months (range 0 - 12). Treatment has been completed for 11 / 16 patients with angiographic cure in 10 / 11 (91 %). An infratentorial bleeding complication related to embolization occurred in one patient with temporary worsening of the patient's gait disturbance. At the time of mean clinical follow-up of 4.5 months (range 0 - 12), no procedure-related permanent morbidity was added to our cohort. According to our experience, embolization of intracranial DAVFs with cortical venous drainage using Onyx is feasible with promising results, indicating stability at the time of mid-term follow-up. In very complex DAVFs additional embolization material might be necessary, and in some cases surgery is warranted. (orig.)

  17. Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection as First-Line Treatment of Node-Positive Seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Brian; Shah, Swar; Shojaei, Sepehr; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The long-term morbidity associated with treating advanced seminoma can be significant. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) has established oncologic efficacy in treating germ cell tumors with minimal long-term toxicity. We describe our experience with RPLND as a front-line treatment of lymph node-positive seminoma. We reviewed our institutional review board-approved testicular cancer database to find the patients with pure seminoma and isolated retroperitoneal lymph node disease who had undergone primary RPLND. The clinical and pathologic variables were obtained. The follow-up data were used to determine recurrence and death. Four patients with a mean age of 37 years were identified. All patients had normal tumor markers and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy measuring 1.1, 1.5, 1.8, and 5.5 cm before RPLND. Of the 4 patients, 3 had had seminoma diagnosed at orchiectomy and 1 (with a 5.5-cm retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and a burned out primary testicular mass) had had seminoma diagnosed at RPLND after 2 nondiagnostic retroperitoneal biopsies. All patients had undergone nerve-sparing, template, extraperitoneal RPLND and were discharged home after 3 days. An average of 3 positive lymph nodes were found. Of the 4 patients, 3 had pathologic stage IIA and 1 stage IIB disease, with no patient undergoing adjuvant therapy. At a mean follow-up period of 25 months, no patient had experienced disease recurrence, and none had died. All patients maintained antegrade ejaculation, and no long-term complications had developed. Our small series has demonstrated encouraging oncologic efficacy for RPLND as a primary treatment of retroperitoneal lymph node-positive seminoma. A multi-institutional phase II trial of RPLND for stage IIA seminoma is being developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Soy isoflavones as a first-line approach to the treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The link between higher uptake of isoflavones and a reduced frequency of menopause-related hot flushes were first described in 1992 based on a lower incidence of hot flushes in countries with high dietary soy intake1. Since then, a number of clinical trials with different sources of isoflavones, including soy and red clover, have been performed, and in almost all studies with an appropriate design the outcome was in favour of isoflavone supplementation2. A detailed risk assessment3 revealed that a number of data in humans do not confirm the alleged adverse effect resulting from possible interaction between isoflavones and the hormone-sensitive tissues of the mammary glands, uterus and thyroid. Safety was demonstrated by long-term intake of 150 mg of isoflavones per day, which lasted at least three years. It was also found that a high intake of isoflavones prevented the occurrence of breast cancer4-7. Clinical findings indicate potential benefits of exposure to isoflavones during breast cancer treatment with tamoxifen or anastrozole.

  19. Management of calculus anuria using ureteroscopic lithotripsy as a first line treatment: its efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Slaviša; Vukotić, Vinka; Lazić, Miodrag; Savić, Nataša

    2014-05-06

    To present our experience with emergency ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL) for ureteral calculi associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). We retrospectively evaluated the 61 patients consisted of 90 ureteral units (UU), who underwent URSL. The cause of anuria was bilateral calculus obstructions in 29 cases, and unilateral calculus obstruction with, absent, nephrectomized contralateral kidney in 32 cases. In the case of bilateral synchronous ureteric calculi same-session bilateral ureteroscopy (SBBU) was done. The duration of anuria varied between 12 to 72 hours. At the end of the procedure, ureteral stent was systematically left in place in all patients. Surgery was performed 6-12 hours after admission to hospital. Patients were followed at least 1 month postoperatively. The stone free rates (SFR) were determined as baseline, on the first post-operative day, and as overall on the 30 days after procedure. The greatest success was achieved in the distal localization of stones up to 10 mm (93%). Renal function returned in 51 (83.6%) patients within 7 days. In 18 (29.5%) patients [18 (20%) UU] we performed second procedure as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in 16.7% and open surgery in 2.2%. In 43 (70.5%) patients URSL was a successful therapeutic approach in dealing with pain, obstruction and calculus. Calculus anuria is a medical emergency that requires rapid diagnosis and prompt treatment for the purpose of decompression. URSL is the proper method of choice for selected patients and can be performed safely and has high success rates with minimal morbidity.

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin as first line treatment in patients with diabetes type 2 in an outpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavropoulou, M P; Pikilidou, M; Kotsa, K; Michopoulos, A; Papakonstantinou, E; Yovos, J G

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV are recommended as second-line therapy in type 2 diabetes (DT2), but data, as a first-line treatment in everyday clinical practice are scarce. To address this issue we conducted a 12-month, clinical study in an outpatient setting, using vildagliptin as the first-line treatment. Ninety-one drug naïve patients with DT2 started with vildagliptin monotherapy (100 mg daily) for 4 months and were scheduled to regular 4-monthly visits for 1 year. Patients received add-on treatment with metformin or metformin and glimepiride according to their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at each study-visit. HbA1c was significantly decreased with vildagliptin monotherapy from 8.16 % ± 1.60 to 7.52 % ± 1.60, p < 0.001. Only 39 % of the patients achieved the target of HbA1c ≤ 7.0 % at the end of the 4th month. Mean change in HbA1c was significantly correlated with baseline HbA1c values (r = -0.51, p < 0.001). At the end of the study only 35 % of the patients remained on vildagliptin monotherapy while the rest required add-on treatment with metformin or metformin and sulfonylurea. Vildagliptin is well tolerated either as monotherapy or in combination but the majority of patients require add-on therapy shortly after the beginning of treatment.

  1. Rituximab as first-line treatment for the management of adult patients with non-severe hemophilia A and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, M Y; Nielsen, B; Lee, K; Kasthuri, R S; Key, N S; Ma, A D

    2014-06-01

    The role of immunosuppression in the management of patients with congenital hemophilia and inhibitors is uncertain. The use of rituximab has been limited to case reports and case series. In most reports, rituximab was used as second-line or third-line treatment following failure of conventional immune tolerance induction therapy, and more commonly in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to describe our experience with rituximab for the eradication of factor VIII inhibitors in adult patients with non-severe hemophilia A. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of adult patients with non-severe hemophilia A and a diagnosis of FVIII inhibitor treated with rituximab (four weekly doses of 375 mg m(-2) ) as first-line treatment at our hemophilia center. We identified nine consecutive adult patients with hemophilia A (moderate, n = 5; mild, n = 4) at our institution between 2000 and 2013, with a median age of 54 years (range, 24-77 years) at the time of inhibitor diagnosis. No patient received concomitant immune tolerance induction therapy. All nine patients had successful eradication of FVIII inhibitors. The median time from the first dose of rituximab to a clinical response was 95 days (range, 12-278 days). The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 13-139 months). Following inhibitor eradication, eight patients were rechallenged with FVIII concentrates. Two patients developed inhibitor recurrence associated with surgery. This case series demonstrates that rituximab is a useful first-line treatment to achieve sustained inhibitor eradication in adult patients with non-severe hemophilia A. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Is open decortication superior to fibrinolytic therapy as a first line treatment in the management of pleural empyema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sultan; Azam, Hammad; Basheer, Imran

    2016-01-01

    To confirm that either Fibrinolytic therapy or open decortication which of the two is an effective First line treatment of pleural empyema. This prospective comparative study was conducted in the department of surgery Sheikh Zayed Medical College and Hospital, Rahim Yaar Khan. Seventy eight (78) patients were included in this study. There were two groups of patients; Group I (n=35) patients treated with fibrinolytic therapy, Group II (n=43) patients treated with open decortication. Data was entered and analyzed in SPSS v16. Student's t-test was used for comparison of quantitative variables. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact test were used for comparison of qualitative variables. P-value ≤ 0.05 was taken as significant difference. There was no significant difference in base baseline characteristics of patients of Group I and II. Incidence of comorbidities was also same between the groups. Most of the patients in Group I and II were in empyema stage III. Fluid cultures was positive in 33 (94.3%) patients in group I and 39 (90.7%) patients in group II. 30 (85.7%) was successfully treated using fibrinolytic therapy but this therapy failed in five (14.3%) patients, two of these patients expired within the hospital. There was only one (2.3%) treatment failure in open decortication Group that patient expired within the hospital (p-value 0.04). Overall duration of hospitalization was significantly high in fibrinolytic group, this was 17.6± 1.95 days versus 12.09± 2.18 days in open decortication group (p-value<0.0001). There was no significant difference regarding operative mortality within the two groups. Open Drainage is associated with better outcomes as compared to fibrinolytic therapy when used as a First line treatment of empyema.

  3. Immunotherapy “Shock” a case series of PD-L1 100% and pembrolizumab first-line treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Zarogoulidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this decade a “bloom” of novel therapies has been observed for non-small cell lung cancer. We have new tools for the diagnosis of lung cancer and also we can re-biospy easier than before in different lesions and obtain tissue samples in order to investigate whether a patient can receive new targeted therapies. Immunotherapy has been well established previously for other forms of cancer, and nowadays it is also available for lung cancer. There are two immunotherapies for now nivolumab and pembrolizumab which can be administered as second line treatment, the second can also be administered as first-line if there is a programmed death-ligand 1 ≥50% expression.

  4. Role of erlotinib in first-line and maintenance treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Reguart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Noemí Reguart1, Andrés Felipe Cardona2, Rafael Rosell31Medical Oncology Service, ICMHO, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Clinical and Translational Oncology Group, Institute of Oncology, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia; 3Medical Oncology Service, Catalan Institute of Oncology, ICO, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Erlotinib hydrochloride (Tarceva® is a member of a class of small molecule inhibitors that targets the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, with anti-tumor activity in preclinical models. Erlotinib represents a new-generation of agents known as “targeted therapies” designed to act upon cancer cells by interfering with aberrant specific activated pathways needed for tumor growth, angiogenesis and cell survival. Since its approval in November 2004 for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after the failure of at least one prior chemotherapy regimen and with a view to improving patients’ outcomes and prevent symptoms, the scientific community has evaluated the potential role of erlotinib in other scenarios such as in maintenance therapy and, in first-line setting for a selected population based on biological markers of response such as mutations of the EGFR. The convenient once-a-day pill administration and the good toxicity profile of erlotinib make it a reasonable candidate for testing in this context. This report provides a review of the role of erlotinib therapy in advanced NSCLC. It summarizes current data and perspectives of erlotinib in upfront treatment and maintenance for advanced NSCLC as well as looking at candidate biomarkers of response to these new targeted-agents.Keywords: erlotinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, first line, maintenance, non-small-cell lung cancer

  5. Uterine Artery Embolization for Retained Products of Conception with Marked Vascularity: A Safe and Efficient First-Line Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeries, Paul, E-mail: paul.bazeries@chu-angers.fr; Paisant-Thouveny, Francine; Yahya, Sultan; Bouvier, Antoine; Nedelcu, Cosmina [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département d’Imagerie Diagnostique et interventionnelle (France); Boussion, Francoise; Sentilhes, Loic [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département de Gynécologie et Obstétrique (France); Willoteaux, Serge; Aubé, Christophe [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d’Angers, Département d’Imagerie Diagnostique et interventionnelle (France)

    2017-04-15

    ObjectiveTo report our clinical practice regarding a case series of retained products of conception (RPOC) with marked vascularity (MV) managed with selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) as first-line treatment.MethodsThis was a monocentric, retrospective study of 31 consecutive cases of RPOC with MV diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound in the context of postpartum/postabortal bleeding. The primary outcome was the absence of rebleeding following embolization.ResultsRPOC with MV occurred after abortion in 27 out of 31 patients (87%). The time elapsed between delivery/abortion and UAE ranged from 1 to 210 days (mean 55.7 ± 45 days). Primary clinical success was achieved in 23 women (74.2%) following a single embolization. In total, 27 out of 31 women (87%) had been exclusively managed by UAE with conservative success. Although procedural success was achieved in this number, six women had a further procedure to evacuate RPOC despite procedural success. Large uterine arteriovenous (AV) shunts associated with RPOC were observed in five cases (16.1%), among which two were successfully treated after a single UAE and one after two UAEs, while hysterectomy was performed in the last two cases despite two and three UAE procedures respectively. RPOC was histologically proven in ten cases (32.2%) including four out of five cases of uterine AV shunt.ConclusionRPOC with MV can present with large uterine AV shunt, particularly in case of late management. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe first-line treatment, and should be evaluated for this indication in larger prospective trials.

  6. Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan and capecitabine in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal carcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungić Saša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The efficacy and safety of bevacizumab (BEV in combination with capecitabin and irinotecan in first-line therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC were studied. In order to improve safety and efficacy of chemotherapy, as well as to reduce adverse reactions to a minimum, doses of active agents applied were changed in relation to previously employed schedules. Methods. Patients with histologically documented mCRC with no previously received chemotherapy or with received adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which ended 6 months before capecitabin treatment (1000 mg/m2 per os from the 2nd to 8th day of each cycle, irinotecan (175 mg/m2 iv every 2 weeks, plus bevacizumab (5 mg/kg iv every 2 weeks were observed. Results. This prospective study included 35 patients of both sexes. The overall response rate (ORR of 28.6%, partial response (PR of 28.6%, progressive disease (PD of 28.6% and stable disease (SD of 42.8% were found. The progressionfree survival (PFS of the analyzed patients was 11.3 (95% CL: 9.1–12.9 months while overall survival (OS of the included patients was 25.2 (95% CL: 17.4–28.4 months and 117 adverse effects were recorded in 24 patients. Alopecia, nausea and vomiting, hemorrhage, hand-foot syndrome, diarrhea, abdominal pain, proteinuria, and hypertension (51.4%, 37.1%, 37.1%, 25.7%, 22.8%, 20.0%, 20.0% and 17.1%, respectively were most frequently observed adverse effects. Conclusion. The results of this clinical trial support and recommend the use of bevacizumab plus capecitabin and irinotecan in the doses and schedule applied throughout this study as the first-line treatment of mCRC patients.

  7. Uterine Artery Embolization for Retained Products of Conception with Marked Vascularity: A Safe and Efficient First-Line Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeries, Paul; Paisant-Thouveny, Francine; Yahya, Sultan; Bouvier, Antoine; Nedelcu, Cosmina; Boussion, Francoise; Sentilhes, Loic; Willoteaux, Serge; Aubé, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    To report our clinical practice regarding a case series of retained products of conception (RPOC) with marked vascularity (MV) managed with selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) as first-line treatment. This was a monocentric, retrospective study of 31 consecutive cases of RPOC with MV diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound in the context of postpartum/postabortal bleeding. The primary outcome was the absence of rebleeding following embolization. RPOC with MV occurred after abortion in 27 out of 31 patients (87%). The time elapsed between delivery/abortion and UAE ranged from 1 to 210 days (mean 55.7 ± 45 days). Primary clinical success was achieved in 23 women (74.2%) following a single embolization. In total, 27 out of 31 women (87%) had been exclusively managed by UAE with conservative success. Although procedural success was achieved in this number, six women had a further procedure to evacuate RPOC despite procedural success. Large uterine arteriovenous (AV) shunts associated with RPOC were observed in five cases (16.1%), among which two were successfully treated after a single UAE and one after two UAEs, while hysterectomy was performed in the last two cases despite two and three UAE procedures respectively. RPOC was histologically proven in ten cases (32.2%) including four out of five cases of uterine AV shunt. RPOC with MV can present with large uterine AV shunt, particularly in case of late management. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe first-line treatment, and should be evaluated for this indication in larger prospective trials.

  8. Modeling and simulation of maintenance treatment in first-line non-small cell lung cancer with external validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kelong; Claret, Laurent; Sandler, Alan; Das, Asha; Jin, Jin; Bruno, Rene

    2016-07-13

    Maintenance treatment (MTx) in responders following first-line treatment has been investigated and practiced for many cancers. Modeling and simulation may support interpretation of interim data and development decisions. We aimed to develop a modeling framework to simulate overall survival (OS) for MTx in NSCLC using tumor growth inhibition (TGI) data. TGI metrics were estimated using longitudinal tumor size data from two Phase III first-line NSCLC studies evaluating bevacizumab and erlotinib as MTx in 1632 patients. Baseline prognostic factors and TGI metric estimates were assessed in multivariate parametric models to predict OS. The OS model was externally validated by simulating a third independent NSCLC study (n = 253) based on interim TGI data (up to progression-free survival database lock). The third study evaluated pemetrexed + bevacizumab vs. bevacizumab alone as MTx. Time-to-tumor-growth (TTG) was the best TGI metric to predict OS. TTG, baseline tumor size, ECOG score, Asian ethnicity, age, and gender were significant covariates in the final OS model. The OS model was qualified by simulating OS distributions and hazard ratios (HR) in the two studies used for model-building. Simulations of the third independent study based on interim TGI data showed that pemetrexed + bevacizumab MTx was unlikely to significantly prolong OS vs. bevacizumab alone given the current sample size (predicted HR: 0.81; 95 % prediction interval: 0.59-1.09). Predicted median OS was 17.3 months and 14.7 months in both arms, respectively. These simulations are consistent with the results of the final OS analysis published 2 years later (observed HR: 0.87; 95 % confidence interval: 0.63-1.21). Final observed median OS was 17.1 months and 13.2 months in both arms, respectively, consistent with our predictions. A robust TGI-OS model was developed for MTx in NSCLC. TTG captures treatment effect. The model successfully predicted the OS outcomes of an independent study

  9. Bevacizumab Combined with Docetaxel or Paclitaxel as First-line Treatment of HER2-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Leena; Tanner, Minna; Lahdenperä, Outi; Vihinen, Pia; Jukkola, Arja; Karihtala, Peeter; Paunu, Niina; Huttunen, Teppo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2016-12-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of bevacizumab combined with a taxane-based treatment for advanced breast cancer. In this non-randomized phase II study 65 patients received 10 mg/kg bevacizumab i.v. (days 1 and 15, q4w) plus either 50 mg/m2 docetaxel (days 1 and 15, q4w) or 90 mg/m2 paclitaxel (days 1,8 and 15, q4w) i.v. until disease progression, maximal response, unacceptable toxicity or the withdrawal of consent. Patients without progression continued bevacizumab at 15 mg/kg i.v. (q3w) alone, or with endocrine therapy. (NCT00979641). Progression-free survival was 11.3 months (95% confidence interval=9.7-16.0 months) and overall survival was 35.1 months (95% confidence interval=22.2-50.3 months). More than half of the patients (62%) responded at least partially. Bevacizumab-related serious adverse events occurred in 10.8% patients and one patient died because of gastrointestinal perforation. Treating advanced breast cancer with a bevacizumab-containing regimen as the first-line cytotoxic treatment resulted in excellent response rates and long survival. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of patient beliefs and treatment satisfaction on the discontinuation of current first-line antiretroviral regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, J L; Marín, A; Romero, V; Bañón, S; Moreno, A; Perez-Elías, M J; Moreno, S; Rodriguez-Sagrado, M A

    2016-01-01

    Large cohort studies have shown a high rate of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen discontinuation in HIV-infected patients, attributed to characteristics of the cART regimen or toxicity. A cohort study of 274 patients receiving a first-line regimen was carried out. Patients' perceptions and beliefs prior to initiation were assessed using an attitude towards medication scale (0-15 points), and their satisfaction during therapy was assessed using an HIV treatment satisfaction questionnaire (HIVTSQ). Treatment discontinuation was defined as any switch in the cART regimen. During 474.8 person-years of follow-up, 63 (23%) patients changed their cART regimen, mainly because of toxicity/intolerance (42; 67%). The overall rate of change was 13.2 per 100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1-16.4 per 100 patient-years]. An efavirenz (EFV)-based single tablet regimen showed the highest rate of adverse events (27%), but the lowest rate of change (16%; 7.44 per 100 patient-years). Cox regression revealed a decreased hazard of first regimen termination with better initial attitude towards drugs [hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.93; P satisfaction (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.99; P = 0.01), and an increased hazard of termination with the presence of adverse events (HR 7.7; 95% CI 2.4-11.6; P patients (18 of 59; 31%) with mild/moderate adverse events (which were mainly central nervous system symptoms) continued the regimen; these patients, compared with those discontinuing therapy, showed better perception of therapy (mean score 14.4 versus 12.1, respectively; P = 0.05) and greater satisfaction during therapy (mean score 50.6 versus 44.6, respectively; P = 0.04). Patients' beliefs and satisfaction with therapy influence the durability of the first antiretroviral regimen. These patient-related factors modulate the impact of mild adverse events, and could explain differences in the rate of discontinuation. © 2015 British HIV

  11. Biologic Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug attributes in the first lines of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. 2015 ACORDAR project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fernández, Santiago; Bustabad Reyes, María Sagrario; Calvo Alén, Jaime; Castaño Sánchez, Manuel; Chamizo Carmona, Eugenio; Corominas, Héctor; Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Hidalgo Calleja, María Cristina; Pérez Venegas, José Javier; Rodríguez Heredia, José Manuel; Romero Yuste, Susana María; Ruiz-Esquide Torino, Virginia

    2017-01-03

    To date, between 17% and 35% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not respond as expected to the initial biological therapy. The objective of this project is to recognize and weigh the attributes of biologic DMARD (bDMARD) to identify the most appropriate for each case, in the first lines of treatment of RA (after inadequate response to at least one synthetic DMARD or previous bDMARD). To recognize the possible attributes that could define the bDMARD, we performed a systematic search of the literature that recognized the possible attributes involving general aspects, pharmacology, efficacy, safety, management, and cost. Then a Delphi process was conducted with two rounds among a group of selected expert rheumatologists in the management of RA indicating the degree of agreement with the attributes identified in the literature. The project was completed between February and September 2015, indicating the degree of importance that was ascribed to each attribute. Two criteria were applied to determine the consistency of results: 1) based on the median and interquartile range; and 2) on the simultaneous compliance with mean, median, standard deviation, interquartile range and coefficient of variation. The agreement and final ratification of the expert panel were also determined. Eighty-three Spanish rheumatologists participated and completed both rounds of the Delphi process. In no case was the importance of the 77 attributes identified considered to be low; 75 of 77 (97.4%) were considered highly important and 76 of 77 (98.7%) were ratified. Fifteen attributes had the support of 100% of the working group. There was a high degree of agreement concerning the selected attributes. Fifteen of them had the support of 100% of the working group and could be considered the definition of the ideal bDMARD in the first lines of RA treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights

  12. Updated European Association of Urology Guidelines Recommendations for the Treatment of First-line Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powles, Thomas; Albiges, Laurence; Staehler, Michael; Bensalah, Karim; Dabestani, Saeed; Giles, Rachel H; Hofmann, Fabian; Hora, Milan; Kuczyk, Markus A; Lam, Thomas B; Marconi, Lorenzo; Merseburger, Axel S; Fernández-Pello, Sergio; Tahbaz, Rana; Volpe, Alessandro; Ljungberg, Börje; Bex, Axel

    2017-12-06

    The randomised phase III clinical trial Checkmate-214 showed a survival superiority for the combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab when compared with the previous standard of care in first-line metastatic/advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (Escudier B, Tannir NM, McDermott DF, et al. CheckMate 214: efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus ipilimumab vs sunitinib for treatment-naïve advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including IMDC risk and PD-L1 expression subgroups. LBA5, ESMO 2017, 2017). These results change the frontline standard of care for this disease and have implications for the selection of subsequent therapies. For this reason the European Association of Urology RCC guidelines have been updated. The European Association of Urology guidelines will be updated based on the results of the phase III Checkmate-214 clinical trial. The trial showed superior survival for a combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab (IN), compared with the previous standard of care, in intermediate- and poor-risk patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. When IN is not safe or feasible, alternative agents such as sunitinib, pazopanib, and cabozantinib should be considered. Furthermore, at present, the data from the trial are immature in favourable-risk patients. Therefore, sunitinib or pazopanib remains the favoured agent for this subgroup of patients. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost analysis of biologic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis first line treatment after methotrexate failure according to patients' body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra, José; Monte-Boquet, Emilio; Canal, Cristina; Oyagüez, Itziar; Gómez-Barrera, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to assess the influence of patients' weight in the cost of rheumatoid arthritis treatment with biologic drugs used in first line after non-adequate response to methotrexate. Pharmaceutical and administration costs were calculated in two scenarios: non-optimization and optimization of intravenous (IV) vials. The retrospective analysis of 66 patients from a Spanish 1,000 beds-hospital Rheumatology Clinic Service was used to obtain posology and weight data. The study time horizon was two years. Costs were expressed in 2013 euros. For an average 69kg-weighted patient the lowest cost corresponded to abatacept subcutaneous (SC ABA) (€21,028.09) in the scenario without IV vials optimization and infliximab (IFX) (€20,779.29) with optimization. Considering patients' weight in the scenario without IV vials optimization infliximab (IFX) was the least expensive drug in patients ranged 45-49kg, IV ABA in 50-59kg and SC ABA in patients over 60kg. With IV vials optimization IFX was the least expensive drug in patients under 69kg and SC ABA over 70kg. Assuming comparable effectiveness of biological drugs, patient's weight is a variable to consider, potentials savings could reach €20,000 in two years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  14. Weekly docetaxel and vinorelbine (VIN-DOX) as first line treatment in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Pizza, Carmine; Autorino, Riccardo; De Laurentiis, Michele; Marano, Ombretta; D'Alessio, Adele; Cancello, Giuseppe; Altieri, Vincenzo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Perdonà, Sisto; Bianco, Angelo Raffaele; De Placido, Sabino

    2004-12-01

    The current study investigated the clinical benefit, the impact on biochemical and objective response and tolerability of weekly docetaxel with vinorelbine (VIN-DOX) in symptomatic patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Patients were treated with docetaxel 25 mg/m2 and vinorelbine 20 mg/m2, intravenously for 6 consecutive weeks followed by a 2 week rest repeatedly until disease progression. Clinical benefit evaluations, based on Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and pain measure, were assessed weekly during therapy. A clinical benefit response was defined as a sustained (> or =4 weeks) improvements in one of these parameters. Changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, tumoral response and toxicity also were evaluated. 19 men (median age 68 years), were treated. Overall, 42% of patients achieved a KPS significant change and positive pain response; 47% achieved a 50% or greater reduction in PSA. The objective response rate was observed in 2 of 9 patients with measurable disease (22%). The most important toxicity was neutropenia (Grade 3 = 32%). The combination of weekly VIN-DOX appears to be feasible. VIN-DOX was found to be associated with improvement in clinical benefit response and biochemical response and well tolerated as first line treatment in HRPC.

  15. First-line single agent treatment with gefitinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yong-Qian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a malignant carcinoma which has the highest morbidity and mortality in Chinese population. Gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase (TK inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, displays anti-tumor activity. The present data regarding first-line treatment with single agent gefitinib against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC in Chinese population are not sufficient. Purpose To assess the efficacy and toxicity of gefitinib in Chinese patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC, a study of single agent treatment with gefitinib in Chinese patients was conducted. Methods 45 patients with advanced NSCLC were treated with gefitinib (250 mg daily until the disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Results Among the 45 patients, 15 patients achieved partial response (PR, 17 patients experienced stable disease (SD, and 13 patients developed progression disease (PD. None of the patients achieved complete response (CR. The tumor response rate and disease control rate was 33% and 71.1%, respectively. Symptom remission rate was 72.5%, and median remission time was 8 days. Median overall survival and median progression-free survival was 15.3 months and 6.0 months, respectively. The main induced toxicities by gefitinib were skin rash and diarrhea (53.3% and 33.3%, respectively. The minor induced toxicities included dehydration and pruritus of skin (26.7% and 22.2%, respectively. In addition, hepatic toxicity and oral ulceration occurred in few patients (6.7% and 4.4%2, respectively. Conclusions Single agent treatment with gefitinib is effective and well tolerated in Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC.

  16. Predictors of early mortality after rabbit antithymocyte globulin as first-line treatment in severe aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Elias H; Lima, Carlos B L; Dias, Danielle S P; Clé, Diego V; Bonduel, Mariana M; Sciuccati, Gabriela B; Medeiros, Larissa A; Oliveira, Michel M; Salvino, Marco A; Garanito, Marlene P; Blum Fonseca, Patricia B; Saad, Sara Teresinha O; Calado, Rodrigo T; Scheinberg, Phillip

    2017-11-01

    Despite being recommended as first-line immunosuppressive therapy in severe aplastic anemia (SAA), horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is still unavailable in many countries outside the USA. Rabbit ATG is more lymphocytoxic than horse ATG, and this might result in a higher incidence of severe infections and early mortality. This study was designed to identify the risk factors for early mortality and overall survival (OS) after rabbit ATG in patients with SAA. We retrospectively reviewed 185 patients with SAA who underwent rabbit ATG and cyclosporine. The incidence of death in 3 months following rabbit ATG therapy was 15.1% (28/185). Early mortality was mainly related to infectious complications, despite adequate antibiotic and/or antifungal treatment. Age > 35 years (odds ratio [OR] 5.06, P = 0.001) and baseline absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≤ 0.1 × 109/L (OR 7.64, P mortality after immunosuppressive therapy with this agent. Hematological response at 6 months was observed in only 29.7% of all patients. OS at 1 year after rabbit ATG was 75.3%; and age > 35 years (OR 1.88, P = 0.03), baseline ANC ≤ 0.1 × 109/L (OR 2.65, P mortality. Alternative strategies are needed for the treatment of SAA patients in countries were horse ATG is unavailable, particularly for those at high risk for early mortality after rabbit ATG due to a higher age and very low pre-treatment neutrophil count.

  17. Current problems in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer: focus on the role of docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Montemurro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, both from a clinical and a biological point of view. Despite being still incurable, the expanding therapeutic repertoire has determined a progressive increase in median survival. We describe the clinical course of a 67-year-old woman with a locally advanced, hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with synchronous liver metastases. Single-agent docetaxel at the dose of 100 mg/m2 for 8 cycles determined a pathological complete remission in the breast and a near complete remission of liver metastases. After more than 4 years from diagnosis, the patient is alive and without signs of tumour progression. Based on this clinical case, we discuss management issues like the choice of the initial treatment, the use of monochemotherapy vs polychemotherapy, the worth of surgery of the primary tumour in patients with stage IV disease, and the issue of maintenance endocrine therapy. Furthermore, we reviewed the pivotal role of docetaxel in the management of advanced breast cancer. Whether monochemotherapy or polychemotherapy is felt to be an adequate choice in the clinical practice, docetaxel qualifies as one of the most active and manageable agents. Single agent activity ranging from 20-48% in terms of response rate has been reported in several clinical trials in patients treated in various clinical settings. Docetaxel-based combinations with other cytotoxic agents have become established in the first line treatment both in patients with anthracycline-resistant and anthracycline-sensitive metastatic breast cancer. Finally, docetaxel has been shown to be an optimal companion drug for biologically targeted agents like trastuzumab or bevacizumab, resulting in further treatment options.

  18. First-line treatment with FOLFOXIRI for advanced pancreatic cancer in clinical practice: Patients' outcome and analysis of prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivaldi, Caterina; Caparello, Chiara; Musettini, Gianna; Pasquini, Giulia; Catanese, Silvia; Fornaro, Lorenzo; Lencioni, Monica; Falcone, Alfredo; Vasile, Enrico

    2016-08-15

    FOLFIRINOX is a standard first-line treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer (aPC). The Gruppo Oncologico Nord Ovest (GONO) FOLFOXIRI regimen demonstrated efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer. We aimed to evaluate activity and tolerability of FOLFOXIRI regimen in patients with aPC and to explore putative prognostic factors. One hundred thirty-seven consecutive aPC patients were treated with FOLFOXIRI in our institution between 2008 and 2014. Clinical, laboratory and pathological data were collected and their association with activity, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was investigated. After a median follow up of 30 months, median PFS and OS were 8.0 months (95% CI 6.19-9.81) and 12 months (95% CI 9.75-14.25), respectively. Response rate was 38.6%, while disease-control rate 72.2%. At multivariate analysis liver metastases (p = 0.019; Hazard Ratio, HR, 0.59, 95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.380.96), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) 1 (p = 0.001; HR 2.26, 95%CI 1.42-3.59) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)> 4 (p= 0.002; HR: 2.42; 95% CI 1.38-4.25) were associated with poorer OS. We categorized 119 pts with complete available data as good-risk (0 factors, 38 pts), intermediate-risk (1 factor, 49 pts) and poor-risk (≥2 factors, 32 pts). Median OS for these three groups were 17.6, 11.1 and 7.4 months, respectively (p < 0.001). FOLFOXIRI is active and feasible in aPC. Prognosis of aPC pts treated with FOLFOXIRI is influenced by easily available factors: our analysis revealed ECOG PS, liver metastases and NLR as the most important predictors of survival. These factors could be helpful for treatment decision and clinical trial design. © 2016 UICC.

  19. [Epilepsy in Lao Popular Democratic Republic: difficult procurement of a first-line antiepileptic contributes to widening the treatment gap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivorakoun, P; Harimanana, A; Clavel, S; Jousseaume, S; Barennes, H

    2012-03-01

    In Laos, over 95% of people with epilepsy (PWE) do not receive a proper treatment. Traditional beliefs and practices have long explained this wide treatment gap. From 2008 to 2010 we evaluated the procurement process for phenobarbital, the leading first-line antiepileptic drug (AED) in Laos, and its availability at a national scale as a potential additional major cause of this treatment gap in Laos. Data were drawn from several surveys conducted from 2008 to 2010: (i) semi structured interviews of key persons from the Ministry of Health and from pharmaceutical factories, wholesalers, pharmacists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and non-governmental organisations; (ii) retrospective survey of AED prescriptions in three main hospitals of Vientiane the capital city during two randomised weeks from June to August 2009; (iii) self-administered questionnaires of pediatricians regarding their knowledge about phenobarbital; (iv) a national survey of the AED availability in pharmacies and drug shops in 16/17 provinces, 16 districts and 96 villages (multistage randomised survey) in 2010 and a survey among the population in 2009. Phenobarbital is imported in Laos via a carefully controlled importation process either as raw material to be processed by factory N(o) 2 or in the form of tablets. The International Narcotics Control Board (Vienne) delivers a yearly quota of 25kg of raw phenobarbital to the Food and Drug department (FDA). This allows the production of 245000 tablets per year (around 671 annual adult treatments). The overall importation process for phenobarbital lasts 6months. Grade 1 pharmacists (mostly located in urban areas) and regional and district hospitals are authorized to deliver phenobarbital. The cost of phenobarbital ranged from 0.11 to 0.2US dollars/tablet per day (39 to 67US dollars per year). High cost of transportation and increased cost of phenobarbital (5- to 10-fold greater than the international market) contribute to reduce access to treatment. Needs

  20. Recurrent glioblastomas in the elderly after maximal first-line treatment: does preserved overall condition warrant a maximal second-line treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Roux, Alexandre; Ursu, Renata; Peeters, Sophie; Bauchet, Luc; Noel, Georges; Guyotat, Jacques; Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Faillot, Thierry; Litre, Fabien; Desse, Nicolas; Emery, Evelyne; Petit, Antoine; Peltier, Johann; Voirin, Jimmy; Caire, François; Barat, Jean-Luc; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Menei, Philippe; Langlois, Olivier; Dezamis, Edouard; Carpentier, Antoine; Dam Hieu, Phong; Metellus, Philippe; Pallud, Johan

    2017-11-01

    A growing literature supports maximal safe resection followed by standard combined chemoradiotherapy (i.e. maximal first-line therapy) for selected elderly glioblastoma patients. To assess the prognostic factors from recurrence in elderly glioblastoma patients treated by maximal safe resection followed by standard combined chemoradiotherapy as first-line therapy. Multicentric retrospective analysis comparing the prognosis and optimal oncological management of recurrent glioblastomas between 660 adult patients aged of patients aged of ≥70 years (elderly group) harboring a supratentorial glioblastoma treated by maximal first-line therapy. From recurrence, both groups did not significantly differ regarding Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (p = 0.482). Oncological treatments from recurrence significantly differed: patients of the elderly group received less frequently oncological treatment from recurrence (p oncological treatment from recurrence (p patients had substandard care from recurrence whereas age did not impact overall survival from recurrence contrary to KPS at recurrence <70. Treatment options from recurrence should include repeat surgery, second line chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic agents.

  1. Ponatinib as first-line treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase: a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Preetesh; Kantarjian, Hagop; Jabbour, Elias; Gonzalez, Graciela Nogueras; Borthakur, Gautam; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Daver, Naval; Gachimova, Evguenia; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Kornblau, Steven; Ravandi, Farhad; O'Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Ponatinib has shown efficacy in patients with refractory chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and in those with CML with a Thr315Ile mutation. We aimed to investigate the activity and safety of ponatinib as first-line treatment for patients with chronic-phase CML. We did a single-arm, phase 2 trial at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX, USA. Between May 3, 2012, and Sept 24, 2013, we enrolled patients with early (<6 months) chronic-phase CML and treated them with oral ponatinib once a day. Patients enrolled before July 25, 2013, were given a starting dose of 45 mg per day; we lowered this due to tolerability issues and patients enrolled after this date were given a starting dose of 30 mg per day. After a warning by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in Oct 6, 2013, for vascular complications with ponatinib, we started all patients on aspirin 81 mg daily and reduced the dose of ponatinib to 30 mg or 15 mg per day for all patients. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved complete cytogenetic response by 6 months in the per-protocol population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01570868. We enrolled 51 patients. Median follow-up was 20·9 months (IQR 14·9–25·2). 43 patients were started on 45 mg ponatinib every day; eight patients were started on 30 mg per day. 43 (94%) of 46 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response at 6 months. Most frequent toxicities included skin-related effects (n=35; 69%) and elevated lipase (n=32; 63%). Cardiovascular events (mainly hypertension) occurred in 25 (49%) patients. Grade 3–4 myelosuppression occurred in 15 (29%) patients. Five (10%) patients developed cerebrovascular or vaso-occlusive disease. 43 (85%) patients needed treatment interruptions at some time and 45 (88%) needed dose reductions. The study was terminated June 18, 2014, at the recommendation of the FDA due to concern about the increased risk of thromboembolism with ponatinib. Patients with

  2. Cost-effectiveness of First-line Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatments When Full-dose Fludarabine Is Unsuitable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Erkki; Hautala, Anne; Poikonen, Eira; Becker, Ursula; Kyttälä, Mira; Martikainen, Janne

    2016-04-01

    The cost-effectiveness of first-line chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatments was assessed among patients unsuitable for full doses of fludarabine. The study's key outcome was the life-time incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) (euro/quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained) with an annual 3% discounting. A probabilistic Markov model with 3 health states (progression-free, progression, and death) was developed. Survival time was modeled based on age-matched clinical data by using appropriate survival distributions. Each health state was assigned an EuroQoL-5D-3L quality-of-life estimate and Finnish payer costs according to treatment received, and Binet stage of disease; severe adverse events and treatment inconvenience were also included. Six approaches considered the risk and value of key outcomes: cost-effectiveness efficiency frontiers; Bayesian treatment ranking (BTR) rated the lowest ICERs and best QALY gains; the cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier demonstrated optimal treatment; expected value of perfect information; and the cost-benefit assessment (CBA), a type of clinical value analysis, increased the clinical interpretation and appeal of modeled outcomes by including both relative and absolute (impact investment [benefit obtained with a fixed limited budget]) benefit assessments. The ICERs compared with chlorambucil varied from €29,334 with obinutuzumab + chlorambucil to €82,159 with ofatumumab + chlorambucil. Based on the BTR of ICERs versus chlorambucil, obinutuzumab + chlorambucil was the most cost-effective with 93% probability; rituximab + chlorambucil was the second most cost-effective (73%); and rituximab + bendamustine was the third most cost-effective (65%). The ICERs of obinutuzumab + chlorambucil were €20,038, €11,556, and €15,586 compared with rituximab + chlorambucil, rituximab + bendamustine, and ofatumumab + chlorambucil. Obinutuzumab + chlorambucil was the most cost-effective treatment, with 54% and 99% probability at

  3. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel combined with cisplatin as the first-line treatment for metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan Shi, Rui Qin, Zhi-Kuan Wang, Guang-Hai DaiDepartment of Multimodality Therapy of Oncology, General Hospital of CPLA, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Esophageal cancer is a major health hazard in many parts of the world and is often diagnosed late. The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (Nab-PTX combined with cisplatin (DDP in patients with metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Patients with histologically confirmed ESCC were treated with Nab-PTX 250 mg/m2 and DDP 75 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1, every 21 days. Evaluation was performed after every two cycles of therapy and the therapy was continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. From April 2010 to December 2012, 33 patients were enrolled. Ten patients had recurrent and metastatic tumors after surgery and 23 patients were diagnosed with unresectable metastatic disease. Patients received a median of four cycles of therapy (ranging from two to six cycles. Twenty patients achieved partial response and nine patients achieved stable disease; no complete response was observed. The objective response rate was 60.6% and the disease control rate was 87.9%. The median progression-free survival was 6.2 months (95% confidence interval: 4.0 to 8.4 months and the median overall survival was 15.5 months (95% CI: 7.6 to 23.4 months. Only four patients experienced grade 3 adverse events, including vomiting, neutropenia, and sensory neuropathy. The most common adverse events were nausea/vomiting (81.8%, neutropenia (63.6%, leucopenia (48.5%, anemia (24.2% and sensory neuropathy (24.2%. In conclusion, the combination of Nab-PTX and DDP is a highly effective and well-tolerated first-line treatment in metastatic ESCC.Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, chemotherapy, metastasis

  4. Cross-market cost-effectiveness analysis of erlotinib as first-line maintenance treatment for patients with stable non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnenègre A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alain Vergnenègre1, Joshua A Ray2, Christos Chouaid3, Francesco Grossi4, Helge G Bischoff5, David F Heigener6, Stefan Walzer21Department of Pneumology, Hôpital du Cluzeau, Limoges, France; 2Global Health Economics and Strategic Pricing, F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland; 3Respiratory Service, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; 4Lung Cancer Unit, National Institute for Cancer Research, Genoa, Italy; 5Thoracic Oncology, Onkologie Thoraxklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 6Department of Thoracic Oncology, Krankenhaus Großhansdorf, Großhansdorf, GermanyBackground: Platinum-doublet, first-line treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is limited to 4–6 cycles. An alternative strategy used to prolong the duration of first-line treatment and extend survival in metastatic NSCLC is first-line maintenance therapy. Erlotinib was approved for first-line maintenance in a stable disease population following results from a randomized, controlled Phase III trial comparing erlotinib with best supportive care. We aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of erlotinib 150 mg/day versus best supportive care when used as first-line maintenance therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC and stable disease.Methods: An economic decision model was developed using patient-level data for progression-free survival and overall survival from the SATURN (SequentiAl Tarceva in UnResectable NSCLC study. An area under the curve model was developed; all patients entered the model in the progression-free survival health state and, after each month, moved to progression or death. A time horizon of 5 years was used. The model was conducted from the perspective of national health care payers in France, Germany, and Italy. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.Results: Treatment with erlotinib in first-line maintenance resulted in a mean life expectancy of 1.39 years in all countries

  5. Safety and efficacy of vinorelbine in combination with pertuzumab and trastuzumab for first-line treatment of patients with HER2-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Edith A; López-Vega, José Manuel; Petit, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel is standard of care for first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, alternative chemotherapy partners are required to align with patient/physician preferences and to increase treatment flexibility. We report.......2% (95% CI 63.8-82.9) in intent-to-treat patients with measurable disease (89/106 [84.0%]). Median PFS was 14.3 months (95% CI 11.2-17.5) in the intent-to-treat population. Treatment was reasonably well tolerated, with no unexpected toxicities. Diarrhea (61/106 patients [57.5%]) and neutropenia (54.......0%) had AEs suggestive of congestive heart failure; however, there were no confirmed cases. CONCLUSIONS: The vinorelbine, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab combination is active and reasonably well tolerated. This regimen offers an alternative for patients who cannot receive docetaxel for first-line treatment...

  6. Clinical Impact of the Number of Treatment Cycles in First-Line Docetaxel for Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Per; Svane, Inge Marie; Lindberg, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of the number of docetaxel cycles administered in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with first-line chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Charts from 421 consecutive patients who initiated standard treatment with doc......BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of the number of docetaxel cycles administered in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with first-line chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Charts from 421 consecutive patients who initiated standard treatment......, respectively). Reasons for treatment discontinuation and postdocetaxel treatments were registered. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses were defined as a confirmed ≥ 50% decrease in baseline PSA levels. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from start of therapy using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox...

  7. Determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in patients who underwent first-line treatment in Addis Ababa: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpa, Selamawit; Medhin, Girmay; Girma, Belaineh; Melese, Muluken; Mekonen, Alemayehu; Suarez, Pedro; Ameni, Gobena

    2013-08-28

    Worldwide, there were 650,000 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases in 2010, and in 2008 the World Health Organization estimated that 150,000 deaths occurred annually due to MDR-TB. Ethiopia is 15th among the 27 MDR-TB high-burden countries. This study identifies factors associated with the occurrence of MDR-TB in patients who underwent first-line TB treatment in Addis Ababa City. A case control study was conducted at St. Peter Hospital and five health centers in Addis Ababa from 1 November 2011 to February 30, 2012. Cases were MDR-TB patients who were confirmed with culture and drug-susceptibility testing and were in treatment at St. Peter Hospital during the study period. Controls were patients who were on first-line anti-TB treatment and were registered as cured or having completed treatment in the period 9 April 2009- 28 February 2010, in five health centers of Addis Ababa City. Accordingly, 134 cases and an equal number of controls were included in this study. A structured interview questionnaire was used to assess factors that could potentially be associated with the occurrence of MDR-TB. Factors that were significantly associated with MDR-TB: drug side effects during first-line treatment (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.5, 95% CI; 1.9 - 10.5); treatment not directly observed by a health worker (AOR = 11.7, 95% CI; 4-34.3); interruption of treatment of at least a day (AOR = 13.1, 95% CI 3.0-56.6); duration of treatment between 2 and 7 months (AOR = 14.8, 95% CI 2.3-96.4); and retreatment with the Category II regimen (P = 0.000). In the current study, HIV infection was not significantly associated with the occurrence of MDR-TB. Patients who were not in strict DOTS programs and did not adhere to first-line TB treatment and patients who experienced side effects during first-line treatment and Category II retreatment were at significantly increased risk of developing MDR-TB. The DOTS program should, therefore, be strengthened to increase

  8. Predictors of treatment failure and time to detection and switching in HIV-infected Ethiopian children receiving first line anti-retroviral therapy

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    Bacha Tigist

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of resistance to first line antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen leads to the need for more expensive and less tolerable second line drugs. Hence, it is essential to identify and address factors associated with an increased probability of first line ART regimen failure. The objective of this article is to report on the predictors of first line ART regimen failure, the detection rate of ART regime failure, and the delay in switching to second line ART drugs. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2005 to 2011. All HIV infected children under the age of 15 who took first line ART for at least six months at the four major hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were included. Data were collected, entered and analyzed using Epi info/ENA version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16. The Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the predictors of first line ART failure. Results Data of 1186 children were analyzed. Five hundred seventy seven (48.8% were males with a mean age of 6.22 (SD = 3.10 years. Of the 167(14.1% children who had treatment failure, 70 (5.9% had only clinical failure, 79 (6.7% had only immunologic failure, and 18 (1.5% had both clinical and immunologic failure. Patients who had height for age in the third percentile or less at initiation of ART were found to have higher probability of ART treatment failure [Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR, 3.25 95% CI, 1.00-10.58]. Patients who were less than three years old [AHR, 1.85 95% CI, 1.24-2.76], chronic diarrhea after initiation of antiretroviral treatment [AHR, 3.44 95% CI, 1.37-8.62], ART drug substitution [AHR, 1.70 95% CI, 1.05-2.73] and base line CD4 count below 50 cells/mm3 [AHR, 2.30 95% CI, 1.28-4.14] were also found to be at higher risk of treatment failure. Of all the 167 first line ART failure cases, only 24 (14.4% were switched to second line ART with a mean delay of 24 (SD = 11.67 months. The remaining 143 (85.6% cases were diagnosed

  9. Budget impact analysis of first-line treatment with pazopanib for advanced renal cell carcinoma in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to economic constraints, cancer therapies are under close scrutiny by clinicians, pharmacists and payers alike. There is no published pharmacoeconomic evidence guiding the choice of first-line therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the Spanish setting. We aimed to develop a model describing the natural history of RCC that can be used in healthcare decision-making. We particularly analyzed the budget impact associated with the introduction of pazopanib compared to sunitinib under the Spanish National Healthcare System (NHS) perspective. Methods We developed a Markov model to estimate the future number of cases of advanced RCC (patients with favorable or intermediate risk) resulting either from initial diagnosis or disease progression after surgery. The model parameters were obtained from the literature. We assumed that patients would receive either pazopanib or sunitinib as first-line therapy until disease progression. Pharmacological costs and costs associated with the management of adverse events (AE) were considered. A univariate sensitivity analysis was undertaken in order to test the robustness of the results. Results The model predicted an adult RCC prevalence of 7.5/100,000 (1-year), 20.7/100,000 (3-year) and 32.5/100,000 (5-year). These figures are very close to GLOBOCAN reported RCC prevalence estimates of 7.6/100,000, 20.2/100,000 and 31.1/100,000, respectively. The model predicts 1,591 advanced RCC patients with favorable or intermediate risk in Spain in 2013. Annual per patient pharmacological costs were €32,365 and €39,232 with pazopanib and sunitinib, respectively. Annual costs associated with the management of AE were €662 and €974, respectively. Overall annual per patient costs were €7,179 (18%) lower with pazopanib compared to sunitinib. For every point increase in the percentage of patients treated with pazopanib, the NHS would save €67,236. If all the 1,591 patients predicted were treated with pazopanib, the

  10. Efficacy and safety of a combination of HER2-targeted agents as first-line treatment for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Henry W C; Leung, John-Hang; Chan, Agnes L F

    2018-01-01

    Using network meta-analysis, we assessed the efficacy and safety of a combination regimen of HER2-targeted agents as first-line treatment for metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer. We searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases (through December 2016) for phase II/III randomized controlled trials that compared regimens of one or two HER2-targeted agents combined with trastuzumab or chemotherapy. A network meta-analysis including direct and indirect analyses was conducted in WinBUGS using fixed and random effects. Study quality was assessed following the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations method. The primary outcome was overall survival. The network meta-analysis incorporated nine HER2-targeted regimens with 9 direct comparisons and 28 indirect comparisons for the main outcomes (8 studies; n = 3976). Combining direct and indirect effects showed significant increased efficacy of trastuzumab and docetaxel plus pertuzumab (TDP) over other regimens as first-line treatment. With indirect comparison of overall safety, TDP, TDM-1, and TDM-1 plus pertuzumab demonstrated a lower risk of grade 3-4 adverse events compared to other regimens. TDPs are a preferred first-line treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer compared with other target agent regimens.

  11. Efficacy and safety of endocrine monotherapy as first-line treatment for hormone-sensitive advanced breast cancer: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Yanhong; Wang, Changyi; He, Yuanfang; Zheng, Shukai; Wu, Kusheng

    2017-08-01

    Endocrine therapy was recommended as the preferred first-line treatment for hormone receptor-positive (HR+, i.e., ER+ and/or PgR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2-) postmenopausal advanced breast cancer (ABC), but which endocrine monotherapy is optimal lacks consensus. We aimed to identify the optimal endocrine monotherapy with a network meta-analysis. We performed a network meta-analysis for a comprehensive analysis of 6 first-line endocrine monotherapies (letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane, tamoxifen, fulvestrant 250 mg and 500 mg) for HR+ HER2- metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. The main outcomes were objective response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP), and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary outcomes were adverse events. We identified 27 articles of 8 randomized controlled trials including 3492 patients in the network meta-analysis. For ORR, the treatments ranked in descending order of effectiveness were letrozole > exemestane > anastrozole > fulvestrant 500 mg > tamoxifen > fulvestrant 250 mg. For TTP/PFS, the order was fulvestrant 500 mg > letrozole > anastrozole > exemestane > tamoxifen > fulvestrant 250 mg. We directly compared adverse events and found that tamoxifen produced more hot flash events than fulvestrant 250 mg. Fulvestrant 500 mg and letrozole might be optimal first-line endocrine monotherapy choices for HR+ HER2- ABC because of efficacious ORR and TTP/PFS, with a favorable tolerability profile. However, direct comparisons among endocrine monotherapies in the first-line therapy setting are still required to robustly demonstrate any differences among these endocrine agents. Clinical choices should also depend on the specific disease situation and duration of endocrine therapy.

  12. Design of a randomized trial to evaluate the influence of mobile phone reminders on adherence to first line antiretroviral treatment in South India - the HIVIND study protocol

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    Kumarasamy Nagalingeswaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment has been a public health challenge associated with the treatment of HIV. Although different adherence-supporting interventions have been reported, their long term feasibility in low income settings remains uncertain. Thus, there is a need to explore sustainable contextual adherence aids in such settings, and to test these using rigorous scientific designs. The current ubiquity of mobile phones in many resource-constrained settings, make it a contextually appropriate and relatively low cost means of supporting adherence. In India, mobile phones have wide usage and acceptability and are potentially feasible tools for enhancing adherence to medications. This paper presents the study protocol for a trial, to evaluate the influence of mobile phone reminders on adherence to first-line antiretroviral treatment in South India. Methods/Design 600 treatment naïve patients eligible for first-line treatment as per the national antiretroviral treatment guidelines will be recruited into the trial at two clinics in South India. Patients will be randomized into control and intervention arms. The control arm will receive the standard of care; the intervention arm will receive the standard of care plus mobile phone reminders. Each reminder will take the form of an automated call and a picture message. Reminders will be delivered once a week, at a time chosen by the patient. Patients will be followed up for 24 months or till the primary outcome i.e. virological failure, is reached, whichever is earlier. Self-reported adherence is a secondary outcome. Analysis is by intention-to-treat. A cost-effectiveness study of the intervention will also be carried out. Discussion Stepping up telecommunications technology in resource-limited healthcare settings is a priority of the World Health Organization. The trial will evaluate if the use of mobile phone reminders can influence adherence to first-line

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Bendamustine Plus Rituximab as a First-Line Treatment for Patients with Follicular Lymphoma in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Eliazar; López-Guillermo, Armando; Rueda, Antonio; Salar, Antonio; Oyagüez, Itziar; Collar, Juan Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common type of lymphoid cancer in Western Europe. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost utility of rituximab-bendamustine treatment compared with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) treatment as a first-line therapy for patients with advanced FL in Spain. A Markov model was developed to estimate the cost effectiveness of rituximab-bendamustine compared with R-CHOP as first-line treatment for patients with advanced FL in the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Transitions between health states (progression-free, including induction and maintenance; first relapse; second relapse; and death) were allowed for the patient cohort in 4-week-long cycles. Clinical data for the extrapolation of progression-free survival curves were obtained from randomized trials. Mortality rates and utilities were obtained from the literature. Outcomes were measured as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The total costs (€, 2013) included drug costs (ex-factory prices with mandatory deductions), disease management costs and adverse event-associated costs. Costs and outcomes were discounted at a 3 % annual rate. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed using 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations to assess the model robustness. Treatment and administration costs during the induction phase were higher for rituximab-bendamustine (€17,671) than for R-CHOP (€11,850). At the end of the 25-year period, the rituximab-bendamustine first-line strategy had a total cost of €68,357 compared with €69,528 for R-CHOP. Health benefits were higher for rituximab-bendamustine treatment (10.31 QALYs) than for R-CHOP treatment (9.82 QALYs). In the probabilistic analysis, rituximab-bendamustine was the dominant strategy over treatment with R-CHOP in 53.4 % of the simulations. First-line therapy with rituximab-bendamustine in FL patients was the dominant strategy over treatment with R-CHOP; it showed cost

  14. Bevacizumab based chemotherapy in first line treatment of HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer: results of a Moroccan observational institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaamane Lamiaa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In metastatic breast cancer (MBC patients, randomised controlled trials evaluated Bevacizumab as first-line treatment showed improvements in tumour response rate and progression-free survival (PFS when added to chemotherapy. In Morocco, we conducted an observational study to investigate clinical features, treatment and prognosis associated with Bevacizumab based chemotherapy in first line treatment of HER2 negative MBC. Findings Nineteen women were included in this study. All these women were diagnosed as having HER2 negative MBC at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat, Morocco, between January 2009 and December 2010. The median age of patients was 48.1 years. Four patients (21% had metastatic disease at diagnosis and 15 patients (79% had received treatment for first metastatic relapse. Bone, liver and lung were the most frequent metastasis sites. Patients were followed up until April 2011. Most patients had objective response; 15.8% of complete response, 47.3% of partial response and 21.1% of stabilisation. Median PFS was estimated at 11.5 months. Sub-groups analysis showed a statistically significant difference (Log-rank test: p = 0.01; PFS for patients receiving Bevacizumab - weekly Paclitaxel was estimated at 18.1 months, and at 9.1 months for patients receiving the combination Bevacizumab - Docetaxel. This benefit in PFS was associated with an acceptable safety profile. Conclusion As demonstrated in this study, Bevacizumab based chemotherapy in first line treatment of HER2 negative MBC in Morocco and particularly in combination with Taxanes extends PFS, as confirmed in a recent meta-analysis of 3 randomised controlled phase III studies.

  15. Desmopressin alone versus desmopressin and an anticholinergic in the first-line treatment of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Jin; Park, Ji Min; Pai, Ki Soo; Ha, Tae Sun; Lee, Sang Don; Baek, Minki

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of combination therapy with desmopressin and an anticholinergic to desmopressin monotherapy for the first-line treatment of children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE). A total of 98 children with PMNE (male:female 71:27) aged 5-16 (mean age 7.18 ± 1.8) years were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: the monotherapy group (n = 49) was given oral desmopressin alone, and the combination therapy group (n = 49) was given desmopressin plus an anticholinergic (propiverine 10 mg) as a first-line treatment. The two groups were matched according to the following criteria: age, gender, and baseline frequency of nocturnal enuresis. The efficacy was evaluated by International Children's Continence Society criteria at 1 and 3 months after treatment initiation. The combination therapy group showed a higher rate of complete response than the monotherapy group (20.4 vs. 6.1% at 1 month of treatment; 46.9 vs. 22.4% at 3 months of treatment). In terms of success (response and complete response), there was a significant difference between the two groups after 3 months of treatment (P = 0.002). Our results indicate that combination therapy with desmopressin plus an anticholinergic is quicker and more effective than desmopressin monotherapy in reducing PMNE.

  16. [Criteria of ineffectiveness of treatment with first-line therapy: how to use MRI results in decision making?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachanova, N V; Davydovskaya, M V

    2015-01-01

    The importance of MRI stuides in the control over treatment efficacy in multiple sclerosis and appropriate recommendations on drug substitution during treatment are discussed. We suggest low, middle or high risk in respect to the efficacy of current treatment. Accordingly, drug substitution can be related with the low level of fears for all three criteria or the moderate level for any two criteria or the high level for any one criterion. Since MRI criteria are important, this model appears to be the most rational because the physician can make a decision about treatment escalation if the patient has ≥3 new T2-lesions or ≥3 contrast-enhanced T1-lesions.

  17. Prognostic factors in patients with metastatic germ cell tumors who experienced treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Anja; Beyer, Jörg; Bascoul-Mollevi, Caroline; Kramar, Andrew; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Necchi, Andrea; Massard, Christophe; De Giorgi, Ugo; Fléchon, Aude; Margolin, Kim A; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Germa Lluch, Jose Ramon; Powles, Thomas; Kollmannsberger, Christian K

    2010-11-20

    To develop a prognostic model in patients with germ cell tumors (GCT) who experience treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy. Data from 1,984 patients with GCT who progressed after at least three cisplatin-based cycles and were treated with cisplatin-based conventional-dose or carboplatin-based high-dose salvage chemotherapy was retrospectively collected from 38 centers/groups worldwide. One thousand five hundred ninety-four (80%) of 1,984 eligible patients were randomly divided into a training set of 1,067 patients (67%) and a validation set of 527 patients (33%). Seminomas were set aside for posthoc analyses. Primary end point was the 2-year progression-free survival after salvage treatment. Overall, 990 patients (62%) relapsed and 604 patients (38%) remained relapse free. Histology, primary tumor location, response, and progression-free interval after first-line treatment, as well as levels of alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and the presence of liver, bone, or brain metastases at salvage were identified as independent prognostic variables and used to build a prognostic model in the training set. Survival rates in the training and validation set were very similar. The estimated 2-year progression-free survival rates in patients not included in the training set was 75% in very low risk, 51% in low risk, 40% in intermediate risk, 26% in high risk, and only 6% in very high-risk patients. Due to missing values in individual variables, 69 patients could not reliably be classified into one of these categories. Prognostic variables are important in patients with GCT who experienced treatment failure with cisplatin-based first-line chemotherapy and can be used to construct a prognostic model to guide salvage strategies.

  18. More than 5000 patients with metastatic melanoma in Europe per year do not have access to recommended first-line innovative treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandolf Sekulovic, L; Peris, K; Hauschild, A; Stratigos, A; Grob, J-J; Nathan, P; Dummer, R; Forsea, A-M; Hoeller, C; Gogas, H; Demidov, L; Lebbe, C; Blank, C; Olah, J; Bastholt, L; Herceg, D; Neyns, B; Vieira, R; Hansson, J; Rutkowski, P; Krajsova, I; Bylaite-Bucinskiene, M; Zalaudek, I; Maric-Brozic, J; Babovic, N; Banjin, M; Putnik, K; Weinlich, G; Todorovic, V; Kirov, K; Ocvirk, J; Zhukavets, A; Kukushkina, M; De La Cruz Merino, L; Ymeri, A; Risteski, M; Garbe, C

    2017-04-01

    Despite the efficacy of innovative treatments for metastatic melanoma, their high costs has led to disparities in cancer care among different European countries. We analysed the availability of these innovative therapies in Europe and estimated the number of patients without access to first-line recommended treatment per current guidelines of professional entities such as the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the European Association of Dermato-Oncology (EADO), and European Dermatology Forum (EDF). Web-based online survey was conducted in 30 European countries with questions about the treatment schedules from 1st May 2015 to 1st May 2016: number of metastatic melanoma patients, registration and reimbursement of innovative medicines (updated data, as of 1st October 2016), percentage of patients treated and availability of clinical studies and compassionate-use programmes. The recommended BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) + MEK inhibitor (MEKi) combination was both registered and fully reimbursed in 9/30 (30%) countries, and in 13/30 (43%) (all from Eastern Europe) not reimbursed. First-line immunotherapy with anti-PD1 antibodies was registered and fully reimbursed in 14/30 (47%) countries, while in 13/30 (43%) (all from Eastern Europe) not reimbursed. It was estimated that in Europe 19,600 patients with metastatic melanoma are treated, and 5238 (27%) do not have access to recommended first-line therapy. Significant correlation was found between human development index (HDI, UNDP report 2015), (r = 0.662; p Europe. It is crucial to increase the awareness of national and European policymakers, oncological societies, melanoma patients' associations and pharma industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns of resistance and DHFR/DHPS genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum in rural Tanzania prior to the adoption of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first-line treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, J; Mwankusye, S; Mduma, S; Kitua, A; Swedberg, G; Tomson, G; Gustafsson, L L; Warsame, M

    2004-06-01

    A study was carried out to assess the patterns of resistance and occurrence of DHFR/DHPS genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum prior to the adoption of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Tanzania. Children under five years (n = 117) with clinical, uncomplicated malaria were randomly allocated to standard treatments of either chloroquine (CQ) (25 mg/kg) or SP (25 mg sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg pyrimethamine/kg). Patients were monitored for 28 days. Clinical recovery was achieved in 98% (n = 58) and 90% (n = 59) of the patients in the SP and CQ groups, respectively. Parasitologically, 14% of the patients in the SP group and 51% in the CQ group exhibited RII/RIII resistance. When relating pre-treatment blood drug levels to treatment outcome and the degree of parasite resistance to the number of mutations, no relationships could be detected. There was an overall significant increase in haemoglobin levels from day 0 to day 28 in both patient groups. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine produced an acceptable clinical response but the high degree of parasitological resistance (RII/RIII) observed two years prior to the introduction of the drug as first-line treatment is of concern, especially considering the long half-lives of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine.

  20. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  1. Long-term outcome of a phase 2 trial with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily in first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugliotta, Gabriele; Castagnetti, Fausto; Breccia, Massimo; Levato, Luciano; D'Adda, Mariella; Stagno, Fabio; Tiribelli, Mario; Salvucci, Marzia; Fava, Carmen; Martino, Bruno; Cedrone, Michele; Bocchia, Monica; Trabacchi, Elena; Cavazzini, Francesco; Usala, Emilio; Russo Rossi, Antonella; Bochicchio, Maria Teresa; Soverini, Simona; Alimena, Giuliana; Cavo, Michele; Pane, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Giovanni; Saglio, Giuseppe; Baccarani, Michele; Rosti, Gianantonio

    2015-09-01

    Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been approved for the first-line treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia, based on the results of a prospective randomized study of nilotinib versus imatinib (ENESTnd). Apart from this registration study, very few data are currently available on first-line nilotinib treatment. We report here the long-term, 6-year results of the first investigator-sponsored, GIMEMA multicenter phase 2, single-arm trial with nilotinib 400 mg twice daily as first-line treatment in 73 patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. Six-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 96%, with one death after progression to blast phase. At 6 years, 75% of the patients were still on nilotinib. The cumulative incidence of major molecular response was 98%; only one patient had a confirmed loss of major molecular response. The cumulative incidence of deep molecular response (MR 4.0) was 76%. Deep molecular response was stable (≥ 2 years) in 34% of these patients. Cardiovascular adverse events, mainly due to arterial thrombosis, occurred in 11/73 patients (15%), after 24 to 76 months of therapy. They were more frequent in elderly patients, and in those with baseline cardiovascular risk factors. None was fatal, although there was a relevant morbidity. This is the study with the longest follow-up of a high dose of nilotinib (400 mg twice daily): it highlights the high efficacy and the cardiovascular toxicity of the drug (CTG.NCT.00481052). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of the Triple Therapy Containing Ilaprazole, Levofloxacin, and Amoxicillin as First-Line Treatment in Helicobacter pylori Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jun Ahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. To establish the efficacy and safety of ilaprazole, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin as a first-line eradication treatment for Helicobacter pylori. Methods. Patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, or gastritis, as detected by esophagogastroduodenoscopy with confirmed H. pylori infection between September 2014 and November 2015, were enrolled in the study. All participants received ilaprazole (10 mg bid, levofloxacin (500 mg bid, and amoxicillin (1000 mg bid for 10 days. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by a 13C-urea breath test at 6–8 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. Of 84 patients included in the analysis, the eradication rate was 88.8% in the per protocol group (n=80. Demographic factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI, alcohol, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and peptic ulcer did not affect the eradication rate. However, multivariate analysis showed that overweight patients and patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA had a significantly lower eradication rate than patients with normal BMI and without CVA. Laboratory test results did not change significantly after treatment. A total of six (7.5% patients developed eight adverse reactions. Conclusions. A 10-day triple therapy containing ilaprazole, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin is a safe alternative first-line eradication treatment for H. pylori.

  3. Cumulative clinical experience from a decade of use: imatinib as first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran Y

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Yusuf Baran,1 Guray Saydam21Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey; 2Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, TurkeyAbstract: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML is a malignant disease that originates in the bone marrow and is designated by the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph+ chromosome, a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22. Targeted therapy against CML commenced with the development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs exerting their effect against the oncogenic breakpoint cluster region (BCR-ABL fusion protein. Imatinib emerged as the first successful example of a TKI used for the treatment of chronic-phase CML patients and resulted in significant improvements in response rate and overall survival compared with previous treatments. However, a significant portion of patients failed to respond to the therapy and developed resistance against imatinib. Second-generation TKIs nilotinib and dasatinib were to have higher efficiency in clinical trials in imatinib- resistant or intolerant CML patients compared with imatinib. Identification of novel strategies such as dose escalation, drug combination therapy, and use of novel BCR-ABL inhibitors may eventually overcome resistance against BCR-ABL TKIs. This article reviews the history of CML, including the treatment strategies used prediscovery of TKIs and the preclinical and clinical data obtained after the use of imatinib, and the second-generation TKIs developed for the treatment of CML.Keywords: drug resistance, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, chronic myeloid leukemia, imatinib, BCR/ABL

  4. Adoption of new HIV treatment guidelines and drug substitutions within first-line as a measure of quality of care in rural Lesotho: health centers and hospitals compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus D; Sello, Motlalepula; Lejone, Thabo; Ehmer, Jochen; Mokhantso, Mohlaba; Lynen, Lutgarde; Pfeiffer, Karolin

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, Lesotho launched new national antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines, prioritising tenofovir and zidovudine over stavudine as a backbone together with lamivudine. We compared the rate of adoption of these new guidelines and substitution of first-line drugs by health centers (HC) and hospitals in two catchment areas in rural Lesotho. Retrospective cohort analysis. Patients aged ≥16 years were stratified into a HC- and a hospital-group. Type of backbone at ART-initiation (i), substitutions within first line (ii) and type of backbone among patients retained by December 2010 (iii). A multiple logistic regression model including HC vs. hospital, patient characteristics (sex, age, WHO-stage, baseline CD4-count, concurrent pregnancy, concurrent tuberculosis treatment) and year of ART-start, was used. Of 3936 adult patients initiated on ART between 2007 and 2010, 1971 started at hospitals and 1965 at HCs. Hospitals were more likely to follow the new guidelines as measured by prescription of backbones without stavudine (Odds-ratio 1.55; 95%CI: 1.32-1.81) and had a higher rate of drug substitutions while on first-line ART (2.39; 1.83-3.13). By December 2010, patients followed at health centres were more likely to still receive stavudine (2.28; 1.83-2.84). Health centers took longer to adopt the new guidelines and substituted drugs less frequently. Decentralised ART-programmes need close support, supervision and mentoring to absorb new guidelines and to adhere to them. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Maintenance treatment of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) in responders following first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer: a randomized phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhua; Zhao, Xiaoying; Wang, Huijie; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xinmin; Huang, Mingzhu; Qiu, Lixin; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhiyu; Guo, Weijian; Li, Jin; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-06

    Maintenance therapy proves to be effective in advanced lung and breast cancer after initial chemotherapy. The purpose of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) maintenance in metastatic gastric cancer patients following the first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Metastatic gastric cancer patients with stable disease or a better response after the completion of first-line chemotherapy were randomized to oral UFT (360mg/m2 × 2 weeks) every 3 weeks until disease progression/intolerable toxicity or to observation (OBS). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. The trial was closed after the interim analysis of the 58 enrolled (120 planned) patients. Median PFS was not improved in the UFT group compared with the OBS group (3.2 months versus 3.6 months, P = 0.752), as well as the median OS (14.2 months for both, P = 0.983). However, subgroup analysis showed that low baseline hemoglobin (maintenance therapy (P = 0.032), while the normal hemoglobin patients benefit from the UFT treatment (P = 0.008). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities in the UFT group were anemia (3.4%), thrombocytopenia (3.4%) and diarrhea (6.9%). This trial did not show superiority of UFT maintenance in non-selected patients responding to fluorouracil-based first-line chemotherapy. The normal hemoglobin level at baseline is a predictive biomarker for favorable patient subsets from the maintenance treatment.

  6. A pilot study of gestational diabetes mellitus not controlled by diet alone: First-line medical treatment with myoinositol may limit the need for insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, V; Shojai, R; Darmon, P; Cosson, E

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed whether myoinositol might be a first-line medical treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). For 12 months, women with GDM not controlled by diet (n=32) were prospectively treated with myoinositol 1200mg and folic acid 400μg/day, while consecutive women (n=28) with insulin-requiring GDM treated during the previous year at our centre constituted the control group. Baseline characteristics and care were similar in both groups. Insulin was required in eight women (25%) in the myoinositol group who, compared with the 24 who did not need insulin, were older (37±5 vs. 32±5 years, respectively; P=0.018) and had a larger percentage of high self-monitored glucose values (45±8% vs. 32±14%; Pmyoinositol treatment. All of the women had similar pregnancy outcomes regardless of their GDM management, although less labour induction was required in the myoinositol group (OR: 0.22 [0.07-0.65]), which had no side effects. This pilot study suggests that myoinositol may be a safe first-line medical treatment for uncontrolled GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation as first-line treatment in myeloma: a global perspective of current concepts and future possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Elizabeth Mactier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplantation forms an integral part of the treatment for multiple myeloma. This paper reviews the current role of transplantation and the progress that has been made in order to optimize the success of this therapy. Effective induction chemotherapy is important and a combination regimen incorporating the novel agent bortezomib is now favorable. Adequate induction is a crucial adjunct to stem cell transplantation and in some cases may potentially postpone the need for transplant. Different conditioning agents prior to transplantation have been explored: high-dose melphalan is most commonly used and bortezomib is a promising additional agent. There is no well-defined superior transplantation protocol but single or tandem autologous stem cell transplantations are those most commonly used, with allogeneic transplantation only used in clinical trials. The appropriate timing of transplantation in the treatment plan is a matter of debate. Consolidation and maintenance chemotherapies, particularly thalidomide and bortezomib, aim to improve and prolong disease response to transplantation and delay recurrence. Prognostic factors for the outcome of stem cell transplant in myeloma have been highlighted. Despite good responses to chemotherapy and transplantation, the problem of disease recurrence persists. Thus, there is still much room for improvement. Treatments which harness the graft-versus-myeloma effect may offer a potential cure for this disease. Trials of novel agents are underway, including targeted therapies for specific antigens such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies.

  8. Bevacizumab plus interferon-α versus sunitinib for first-line treatment of renal cell carcinoma in Italy: a cost-minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasio, Roberto; Ortega, Cinzia; Sabbatini, Roberto; Porta, Camillo

    2011-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common form of kidney cancer. Immunotherapy with interferon-α (IFNα) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been the historical therapy of choice for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic RCC prior to the more recent development of targeted therapies, including sunitinib and bevacizumab (combined with IFNα). Clinically and statistically significant advantages have been shown with both sunitinib and the combination of bevacizumab + IFNα versus IFNα alone in the treatment of advanced or metastatic RCC. The present study evaluated the incremental costs of bevacizumab + IFNα versus sunitinib for the first-line treatment of advanced or metastatic RCC assuming similar efficacy for these treatments. The efficacy profiles of bevacizumab + IFNα or sunitinib alone have been shown (indirectly) to be similar in patients with RCC; indeed, median progression-free survival (PFS) with either treatment is in the 10- to 11-month range. Therefore, a cost-minimization analysis was performed, focusing on direct medical costs only (drugs, administration and management of adverse events). The analysis considered the perspective of the Italian National Health Service (NHS), comparing the cost of bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) plus IFNα (9, 6 or 3 million IU [MIU]) versus sunitinib (50 mg) as first-line therapies for advanced or metastatic clear-cell RCC. The average cost per treated patient (year 2010 values) was assessed for the two treatment options at 11 months (median PFS). Assuming a PFS of 11 months for both treatment options, bevacizumab + IFNα (9 MIU) would be a lower cost strategy (cost savings of €2052 per patient) than sunitinib. This difference arises mainly from the reduction in the acquisition cost of bevacizumab to the NHS (risk-sharing agreement). The cost advantages for bevacizumab would increase in parallel with a reduction in IFNα dosing; for example, with IFNα 6 MIU the corresponding cost savings would be

  9. GLATIRAMER ACETATE IS A FIRST-LINE DUAL-ACTION DRUG FOR THE TREATMENT OF RELAPSING-REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Shmidt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common and potentially disabling disease of the central nervous system in young people. Not only inflammatory, but also neurodegenerative processes are involved in the pathogenesis of MS. The use of MS-modifying drugs (MSMDs  has led to a substantial reduction in the frequency of MS exacerbations and to the slower development of irreversible neurological deficit. Glatiramer acetate is one of the MSMDs of first choice and has a dual (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective action. The drug has proven to be effective and safe if administered long-term. Therapy with glatiramer acetate has been established to promote the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which prevent the development of a degenerative process and stimulate remyelination, and to slow the progression of cerebral atrophy. Experimental findings suggest that the drug improves the processes of neurogenesis.The efficiency of treatment is known to be associated with patient medication adherence. This largely depends on the frequency and route of drug administration and on the development of adverse events (AEs. To improve treatment adherence to glatiramer acetate, its new 40-mg formulation has been designed, which allows it to be administered only thrice weekly. The use of the formulation has demonstrated its efficacy and safety and resulted in a considerable reduction in the incidence rate of AEs.

  10. [Bevacizumab and taxanes in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer : overall survival and subgroup analyses of the ATHENA study in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierga, Jean-Yves; Delva, Rémy; Pivot, Xavier; Espié, Marc; Dalenc, Florence; Serin, Daniel; Veyret, Corinne; Lortholary, Alain; Gligorov, Joseph; Joly, Katelle; Hernandez, Juana; Hardy-Bessard, Anne-Claire

    2014-09-01

    The international phase IIIb study, ATHENA assessed the combination of bevacizumab/taxane-based chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in real-life setting. Among the 365 patients included in France, median overall survival (OS) is 28.4 months (CI95% 24.8-33.0), with a median time from treatment start to end of study of 36,5 months (25,1-45,4). Exploratory analyses in three sub-groups show that the median OS in long responder patients (not progressing for at least one year; n = 116) is not reached. In responder patients (n = 308), median OS is 33.0 months (CI95% 28.6-37.4) and 12.4 months (CI95% 11.2-17.4) in non-responders (n = 41). In patients with mBC expressing hormone receptors (HR+), treated with first-line hormone therapy before inclusion (n = 87) median OS in is 23.2 months (CI95% 19.6-28.6), and 35.3 months (CI95% 32.2-not reached); P = 0.004 in patients treated first with chemotherapy + bevacizumab (n = 179). The safety analysis in the various sub-groups of grade 3-5 adverse events of particular interest to bevacizumab of this study was comparable to the safety data of randomized phase III studies.

  11. High expression of microRNA-625-3p is associated with poor response to first-line oxaliplatin based treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Heilskov; Jensen, Niels; Tarpgaard, Line Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    unsolved problem is that no predictors of response to these treatments are available. To address this issue, we profiled 742 microRNAs in laser-capture microdissected cancer cells from responding and non-responding patients receiving XELOX/FOLFOX as first-line treatment for mCRC, and identified, among...... others, high expression of miR-625-3p, miR-181b and miR-27b to be associated with poor clinical response. In a validation cohort of 94 mCRC patients treated first-line with XELOX, high expression of miR-625-3p was confirmed to be associated with poor response (OR = 6.25, 95%CI [1.8; 21.0]). Independent...... analyses showed that miR-625-3p was not dysregulated between normal and cancer samples, nor was its expression associated with recurrence of stage II or III disease, indicating that miR-625-3p solely is a response marker. Finally, we also found that these miRNAs were up-regulated in oxaliplatin resistant...

  12. Multicenter pilot study of radio-chemotherapy as first-line treatment for adults with medulloblastoma (NOA-07)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagmar, Dagmar; Proescholdt, Martin; Reinert, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: Medulloblastoma in adult patients is rare, with 0.6 cases per million. Prognosis depends on clinical factors and medulloblastoma entity. No prospective data on the feasibility of radio-chemotherapy exist. The German Neuro-Oncology Working Group (NOA) performed a prospective descriptive...... and genetic markers, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cognition were evaluated. Primary endpoint was the rate of toxicity-related treatment terminations after four chemotherapy cycles, and the toxicity profile. The feasibility goal was reached if at least 45% of patients received at least 4 cycles...... of maintenance chemotherapy. Results: Thirty patients were evaluable. Each 50% percent showed classic and desmoplastic-nodular histology. Sixty-seven percent were classified into the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup without TP53 alterations, 13% in wingless (WNT), and 17% in Non-WNT/Non-SHH. Four cycles...

  13. Differences in Regional Diagnostic Strategies and in Intended Versus Actual First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    between intended and actual first-line treatments in addition to the differences in the triage process among the centers and to evaluate the different diagnostic modalities and the clinical aspects' influence in the triage process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 4 centers, forms containing data about...... the diagnostic process and intended treatment were prospectively collected and merged with data from the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database and medical records. RESULTS: Of the 671 completed forms, 540 patients had stage IIIC or IV epithelial ovarian cancer. Of the 238 (44%) referred to PDS, 91% received PDS...... and 4% never had debulking surgery. Of the 288 patients (53%) referred to NACT, 44% were never debulked. Fourteen patients (3%) were referred to palliative treatment. The use of different imaging modalities, diagnostic laparoscopy, and laparotomy varied significantly among the centers. Diagnostic...

  14. Paclitaxel/carboplatin with or without belinostat as empiric first-line treatment for patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hainsworth, John D; Daugaard, Gedske; Lesimple, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of belinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, when added to paclitaxel/carboplatin in the empiric first-line treatment of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP). METHODS: In this randomized phase 2 trial......, previously untreated patients with CUP were randomized to receive belinostat plus paclitaxel/carboplatin (group A) or paclitaxel/carboplatin alone (group B) repeated every 21 days. Patients were re-evaluated every 2 cycles, and those without disease progression continued treatment for 6 cycles. Patients...... in group A then continued receiving single-agent belinostat, whereas patients in group B stopped treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS): The authors postulated that the addition of belinostat would improve PFS from 5 months (expected with paclitaxel/carboplatin) to 8 months...

  15. Effect of first line cancer treatment on the ovarian reserve and follicular density in girls under the age of 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Issaoui, Meryam; Giorgione, Veronica; Mamsen, Linn Salto

    2016-01-01

    the age of 18 years who underwent OTC before (group 1: 31 patients) and after (group 2: 32 patients) their initial cancer treatment. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Follicular densities (follicles/mm(3)) measured from an ovarian cortical biopsy before OTC. The ovarian volume (mL) of entire...... to have little effect on the follicle pool. This information will improve counseling of young female cancer patients in deciding whether to undergo fertility preservation treatment.......OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of first-line antineoplastic treatment on ovarian reserve in young girls returning for ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) in connection with a relapse. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: University hospitals. PATIENT(S): Sixty-three girls under...

  16. Sequential Therapy with Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Followed by Paclitaxel as First Line Treatment for Advanced Urothelial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G Kattan, Celine Y Boutros, Fadi S Farhat, Georges Y Chahine, Khaled M Musallam, Marwan G Ghosn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gemcitabine and platinum-based compounds represent the new standard combination therapy for bladder cancer. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine and carboplatin followed sequentially by paclitaxel in 27 patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma.Methods: This phase II multicentre study was based on the doublet gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 and carboplatin area under the concentration-time curve 2 on days 1 and 8 every 21 days for 4 cycles, followed sequentially by paclitaxel 60 mg/m2/w for 12 consecutive weeks. The disease was assessed after each sequence.Results: Primary tumor was localized in the bladder and renal pelvis in 25 and 2 patients, respectively. Twenty patients completed all 4 cycles of the gemcitabine and carboplatin sequence. Mean number of cycles was 3.5 (range 1 to 4. Toxicities were mainly hematologic, including Grade 3 neutropenia and anemia in 3 patients. Objective response was noted in 11 pts (40.7%, including 1 complete response (CR and 10 partial responses (PR. Three patients had stable disease and 11 progressed. Among the 20 patients, 14 received the second sequence. Mean number of paclitaxel injections was 7 (range 2 to 12. Toxicities were limited to diarrhea and neurotoxicity in 1 patient each. Objective response was documented in 6 patients (30% (3 CR and 3 PR, including the improvement of PR into CR in 2 patients. Median duration of response was 6 months. After a median follow-up of 7 months, 21 patients died and 6 remained alive, including 2 who maintained CR and 1 PR.Sixteen patients had locally advanced disease and 11 had metastatic disease, better prognostic was noticed with patients with locally advanced disease.Conclusion: the sequential approach of treatment for advanced urothelial cancer using gemcitabine and carboplatine followed by paclitaxel seems to be a safer alternative to the combined triplet, but due to the limited number of patients this study failed to improve

  17. Managing first-line failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Cooper

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available WHO standard of care for failure of a first regimen, usually 2N(tRTI's and an NNRTI, consists of a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor with a change in N(tRTI's. Until recently, there was no evidence to support these recommendations which were based on expert opinion. Two large randomized clinical trials, SECOND LINE and EARNEST both showed excellent response rates (>80% for the WHO standard of care and indicated that a novel regimen of a boosted protease inhibitor with an integrase inhibitor had equal efficacy with no difference in toxicity. In EARNEST, a third arm consisting of induction with the combined protease and integrase inhibitor followed by protease inhibitor monotherapy maintenance was inferior and led to substantial (20% protease inhibitor resistance. These studies confirm the validity of the current recommendations of WHO and point to a novel public health approach of using two new classes for second line when standard first-line therapy has failed, which avoids resistance genotyping. Notwithstanding, adherence must be stressed in those failing first-line treatments. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is not suitable for a public health approach in low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Managing first-line failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David A

    2014-01-01

    WHO standard of care for failure of a first regimen, usually 2N(t)RTI's and an NNRTI, consists of a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor with a change in N(t)RTI's. Until recently, there was no evidence to support these recommendations which were based on expert opinion. Two large randomized clinical trials, SECOND LINE and EARNEST both showed excellent response rates (>80%) for the WHO standard of care and indicated that a novel regimen of a boosted protease inhibitor with an integrase inhibitor had equal efficacy with no difference in toxicity. In EARNEST, a third arm consisting of induction with the combined protease and integrase inhibitor followed by protease inhibitor monotherapy maintenance was inferior and led to substantial (20%) protease inhibitor resistance. These studies confirm the validity of the current recommendations of WHO and point to a novel public health approach of using two new classes for second line when standard first-line therapy has failed, which avoids resistance genotyping. Notwithstanding, adherence must be stressed in those failing first-line treatments. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is not suitable for a public health approach in low- and middle-income countries.

  19. The cost effectiveness of teriparatide as a first-line treatment for glucocorticoid-induced and postmenopausal osteoporosis patients in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Daniel R; Smolen, Lee J; Klein, Timothy M; Klein, Robert W

    2012-10-30

    This paper presents the model and results to evaluate the use of teriparatide as a first-line treatment of severe postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). The study's objective was to determine if teriparatide is cost effective against oral bisphosphonates for two large and high risk cohorts. A computer simulation model was created to model treatment, osteoporosis related fractures, and the remaining life of PMO and GIOP patients. Natural mortality and additional mortality from osteoporosis related fractures were included in the model. Costs for treatment with both teriparatide and oral bisphosphonates were included. Drug efficacy was modeled as a reduction to the relative fracture risk for subsequent osteoporosis related fractures. Patient health utilities associated with age, gender, and osteoporosis related fractures were included in the model. Patient costs and utilities were summarized and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for teriparatide versus oral bisphosphonates and teriparatide versus no treatment were estimated.For each of the PMO and GIOP populations, two cohorts differentiated by fracture history were simulated. The first contained patients with both a historical vertebral fracture and an incident vertebral fracture. The second contained patients with only an incident vertebral fracture. The PMO cohorts simulated had an initial Bone Mineral Density (BMD) T-Score of -3.0. The GIOP cohorts simulated had an initial BMD T-Score of -2.5. The ICERs for teriparatide versus bisphosphonate use for the one and two fracture PMO cohorts were €36,995 per QALY and €19,371 per QALY. The ICERs for teriparatide versus bisphosphonate use for the one and two fracture GIOP cohorts were €20,826 per QALY and €15,155 per QALY, respectively. The selection of teriparatide versus oral bisphosphonates as a first-line treatment for the high risk PMO and GIOP cohorts evaluated is justified at a cost per QALY threshold

  20. [10-day triple therapy with esomeprazole 40 mg/12 h vs. quadruple concomitant non-bismuth therapy as first line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Ana; Amorena, Edurne; Ostiz, Miriam; Kutz, Marcos; LaIglesia, Matilde

    2016-11-01

    Quadruple concomitant non-bismuth therapy has recently become the most widely prescribed first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in Spain. Whether optimized conventional triple therapy can achieve comparable efficacy rates remains to be seen. Retrospective study comparing the efficacy of triple and quadruple concomitant therapy, and sub-analysis following administration of both for 10 days with esomeprazole 40mg/12h. A first-line therapy was administered to 657 patients from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2014. Quadruple therapy (n=371) showed higher efficacy than triple therapy (n=248) for both intention-to-treat (85.9% vs. 65.7%; P<.001) and per protocol analysis (92.5% vs. 68.4%; P<.001). When both therapies included esomeprazole 40mg/12h administered for 10 days, quadruple concomitant therapy (n=108) also had higher efficacy than triple therapy (n=76) for intention-to-treat (90.7% vs. 73.6%; P=.003) and per protocol analysis (92.5% vs.74.6%; P=.002). Quadruple concomitant therapy with high dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 10 days achieves a significantly higher eradication outcome than optimized triple therapy, with rates of over 90% when the PPI prescribed is esomeprazole 40mg/12h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  1. [Safety and efficacy of bevacizumab combined with taxanes in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer: ATHENA study-France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy-Bessard, Anne-Claire; Delva, Rémy; Pivot, Xavier; Espié, Marc; Dalenc, Florence; Coulon Sfairi, Marie-Aude; Monnier, Alain; Serin, Daniel; Veyret, Corinne; Lortholary, Alain; Pavlyuk, Maria; Kockler, Leila; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2012-06-01

    The efficacy of the combination bevacizumab-chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer (mBC) was demonstrated in several randomized clinical trials. However, limited safety data is available in daily medical practice. ATHENA is an international phase-IIIb study conducted in 2,251 patients with locally advanced or mBC, treated in first-line with bevacizumab combined with taxanes-based chemotherapy. The primary objective is safety assessment. In France, 365 patients were included. Their median age was 56 years (24-93 years) and ECOG performance status was 0 or 1 in 93.9% of patients. Bevacizumab was essentially combined with a taxanes monotherapy: docetaxel (37.3%) or paclitaxel (28.8%) or taxanes-based combination therapy (9.4%). The most frequent grade superior or equal to 3 adverse event (AE) was neutropenia (34.5%). Grade superior or equal to 3 AEs of special interest related to bevacizumab were arterial and venous thromboembolism (5.1%), high blood pressure (4.2%), proteinuria (2.3%) and hemorrhage (2%). Median time to progression was 9.5 months (95% CI: 8.8-10.4). The safety profile and the efficacy of the combination bevacizumab-taxanes in a population more representative of daily oncology practice in France are comparable to those reported in clinical trials in mBC.

  2. Spotlight on crizotinib in the first-line treatment of ALK-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: patients selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giroux Leprieur E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Etienne Giroux Leprieur,1,2 Vincent Fallet,3,4 Jacques Cadranel,3,4 Marie Wislez3,4 1Respiratory Diseases and Thoracic Oncology Department, APHP-Ambroise Paré Hospital, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; 2EA4340 Laboratory, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, France; 3Respiratory Diseases Department, APHP – Tenon Hospital, Paris, France; 4Sorbonne University, GRC 04, UPMC Univ Paris 06, France Abstract: Around 4% of advanced non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs have an ALK rearrangement at the time of diagnosis. This molecular feature is more frequent in young patients, with no/light smoking habit and with adenocarcinoma pathological subtype. Crizotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, targeting ALK, ROS1, RON, and MET. The preclinical efficacy results led to a fast-track clinical development. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval was achieved after the Phase I clinical trial in 2011 in ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC progressing after a first-line treatment. In 2013, the randomized Phase III trial PROFILE-1007 confirmed the efficacy of crizotinib in ALK-rearranged NSCLC, compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy, in second-line setting or more. In 2014, the PROFILE-1014 trial showed the superiority of crizotinib in the first-line setting compared to the pemetrexed platinum doublet chemotherapy. The response rate was 74%, and the progression-free survival was 10.9 months with crizotinib. Based on these results, crizotinib received approval from the FDA and European Medicines Agency for first-line treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC. The various molecular mechanisms at the time of the progression (ALK mutations or amplification, ALK-independent mechanisms encourage performing re-biopsy at the time of progression under crizotinib. The best treatment strategy at the progression (crizotinib continuation beyond progression, switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or cytotoxic chemotherapy depends on the phenotype of the progression, the

  3. First line treatment response in patients with transmitted HIV drug resistance and well defined time point of HIV infection: updated results from the German HIV-1 seroconverter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu Knyphausen, Fabia; Scheufele, Ramona; Kücherer, Claudia; Jansen, Klaus; Somogyi, Sybille; Dupke, Stephan; Jessen, Heiko; Schürmann, Dirk; Hamouda, Osamah; Meixenberger, Karolin; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 (TDR) can impair the virologic response to antiretroviral combination therapy. Aim of the study was to assess the impact of TDR on treatment success of resistance test-guided first-line therapy in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort for patients infected with HIV between 1996 and 2010. An update of the prevalence of TDR and trend over time was performed. Data of 1,667 HIV-infected individuals who seroconverted between 1996 and 2010 were analysed. The WHO drug resistance mutations list was used to identify resistance-associated HIV mutations in drug-naïve patients for epidemiological analysis. For treatment success analysis the Stanford algorithm was used to classify a subset of 323 drug-naïve genotyped patients who received a first-line cART into three resistance groups: patients without TDR, patients with TDR and fully active cART and patients with TDR and non-fully active cART. The frequency of virologic failure 5 to 12 months after treatment initiation was determined. Prevalence of TDR was stable at a high mean level of 11.9% (198/1,667) in the HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort without significant trend over time. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance was predominant (6.0%) and decreased significantly over time (OR = 0.92, CI = 0.87-0.98, p = 0.01). Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (2.4%; OR = 1.00, CI = 0.92-1.09, p = 0.96) and protease inhibitor resistance (2.0%; OR = 0.94, CI = 0.861.03, p = 0.17) remained stable. Virologic failure was observed in 6.5% of patients with TDR receiving fully active cART, 5,6% of patients with TDR receiving non-fully active cART and 3.2% of patients without TDR. The difference between the three groups was not significant (p = 0.41). Overall prevalence of TDR remained stable at a rather high level. No significant differences in the frequency of virologic failure were identified during first-line cART between patients with TDR

  4. First line treatment response in patients with transmitted HIV drug resistance and well defined time point of HIV infection: updated results from the German HIV-1 seroconverter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Zu Knyphausen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 (TDR can impair the virologic response to antiretroviral combination therapy. Aim of the study was to assess the impact of TDR on treatment success of resistance test-guided first-line therapy in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort for patients infected with HIV between 1996 and 2010. An update of the prevalence of TDR and trend over time was performed. METHODS: Data of 1,667 HIV-infected individuals who seroconverted between 1996 and 2010 were analysed. The WHO drug resistance mutations list was used to identify resistance-associated HIV mutations in drug-naïve patients for epidemiological analysis. For treatment success analysis the Stanford algorithm was used to classify a subset of 323 drug-naïve genotyped patients who received a first-line cART into three resistance groups: patients without TDR, patients with TDR and fully active cART and patients with TDR and non-fully active cART. The frequency of virologic failure 5 to 12 months after treatment initiation was determined. RESULTS: Prevalence of TDR was stable at a high mean level of 11.9% (198/1,667 in the HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort without significant trend over time. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance was predominant (6.0% and decreased significantly over time (OR = 0.92, CI = 0.87-0.98, p = 0.01. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (2.4%; OR = 1.00, CI = 0.92-1.09, p = 0.96 and protease inhibitor resistance (2.0%; OR = 0.94, CI = 0.861.03, p = 0.17 remained stable. Virologic failure was observed in 6.5% of patients with TDR receiving fully active cART, 5,6% of patients with TDR receiving non-fully active cART and 3.2% of patients without TDR. The difference between the three groups was not significant (p = 0.41. CONCLUSION: Overall prevalence of TDR remained stable at a rather high level. No significant differences in the frequency of virologic failure were

  5. An economic comparison of chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first-line treatment for malaria in South Africa: development of a model for estimating recurrent direct costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J J; Folb, P I; Valentine, N; Barnes, K I

    2002-01-01

    The relative cost-effectiveness of chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as first-line antimalarial therapy in southern Africa is of great interest to policymakers, clinicians and researchers in the subregion. A model was developed to access the cost-effectiveness of replacing CQ with SP as first-line treatment in Mpumalanga, South Africa, where malaria is seasonal and the population is non-immune. In-vivo drug resistance levels were used to derive a 'resistance variable' for each drug, which was used to compare the costs to the public healthcare provider associated with either therapeutic option. Costs including drugs, staff time, transport, maintenance, utilities, training and consumables were determined and subjected to Monte Carlo simulation and subsequent analysis to generate an average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) with confidence intervals for each drug. SP was found to be 4.8 (95% CI 3.3-6.7) times more cost-effective than CQ in Mpumalanga at 1997 resistance levels and costs, despite the far greater cost per treatment course of SP (US$ 4.02 as opposed to US$ 0.22 for CQ) in South Africa. At the price of SP in Kenya and Uganda (US$ 0.47-4.80 per treatment course), the ACER for SP does not change materially, increasing to between 5.1 and 5.6. Resistance emerged as the factor that most influenced the ACER of a specific drug. Indirect costs, compliance, changes in effectiveness and costs over time and costs of adverse events were not included in the model owing to paucity of data and logistical difficulties. Since most of these are likely to be similar in both drug models, the relative ACER is unlikely to be significantly altered by their inclusion.

  6. First-Line Treatment with Carboplatin plus nab-Paclitaxel and Maintenance Monotherapy with nab-Paclitaxel for a Thymic Carcinoma: A Case Report

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    Kunihiko Funaishi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymic carcinomas are rare malignant tumors, located in the anterior mediastinum. For the treatment of these carcinomas, several chemotherapy regimens have been suggested, including carboplatin plus paclitaxel. However, because of the rarity of these tumors, the standard chemotherapy regimen has not yet been established. Here, we report a case of thymic carcinoma that responded to first-line carboplatin plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel therapy with continuation maintenance nab-paclitaxel monotherapy. A 78-year-old male presented to a hospital with the chief complaint of dyspnea. Cardiomegaly was detected on chest X-ray scans, and marked pericardial effusion was observed by echocardiography. Chest computed tomography scans revealed the presence of a mediastinal mass, pericardial thickening, and pericardial effusion. The serum levels of the tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 (cytokeratin-19 fragment were elevated. Eventually, he was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus, which was staged as cT4N3M0 or stage IV (according to the tumor-node-metastasis classification. Chemotherapy with carboplatin on day 1 and nab-paclitaxel on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks was initiated. After the administration of 4 cycles of this regimen, the tumor diameter appeared reduced, and the serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were normalized. After a 1-month interval, the serum CYFRA 21-1 levels increased again; therefore, maintenance nab-paclitaxel monotherapy was initiated. At the end of the treatment, the patient experienced a progression-free survival of 10.3 months. Carboplatin plus nab-paclitaxel may be an appropriate alternative first-line treatment for thymic carcinomas. Additionally, maintenance nab-paclitaxel monotherapy may prolong the progression-free survivals of patients with thymic carcinomas.

  7. A Triple and Quadruple Therapy with Doxycycline and Bismuth for First-Line Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Pilot Study.

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    Ciccaglione, Antonio Francesco; Cellini, Luigina; Grossi, Laurino; Manzoli, Lamberto; Marzio, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Tetracycline-containing triple therapy has been suggested as an alternative first-line therapy for H. pylori infection. To evaluate the effect of two dosages of doxycycline (DOX) associated with amoxicillin and esomeprazole with and without bismuth subcitrate as first-line treatment of H. pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori-positive patients underwent a 10-day therapy randomized into four groups: Group A received esomeprazole, amoxicillin, and DOX-100 mg b.i.d. (EAD-100), Group B a quadruple therapy with esomeprazole, amoxicillin, DOX-100 mg b.i.d. and bismuth subcitrate (EADB-100), Group C a triple therapy with esomeprazole, amoxicillin, and DOX-200 mg b.i.d. (EAD-200) and Group D a quadruple therapy with esomeprazole, amoxicillin, DOX-200 mg b.i.d., and bismuth subcitrate (EADB-200). Success was accessed by (13)C urea breath test 2 months after the end of treatment. The number of patients to be recruited for each group had to be at least 50 subjects. Treatment success of 80% or less was considered unacceptable. Stopping rules therefore were anytime six failures had occurred. In the EAD-100 group and in EAD-200 group, the recruitment was stopped at the 14th and 15th patient, respectively. Fifty-two patients entered in the EADB-100 group and 51 in the EADB-200 group. Intention to treat eradication was in EADB-100 group 46/52 (88.5%, 95% CI 76.6-95.6); in the EADB-200 group 47/51 (92.1%, 95% CI: 81.1-97.8) (n.s.). Side effects were absent. The adjunction of bismuth subcitrate to a triple therapy that includes esomeprazole, amoxicillin, and DOX in patients who are treated for the first time for the H. pylori infection potentiates the therapeutic effect. This regimen, however, deserves to be optimized in terms of duration and dose of DOX. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Pefloxacin as a first-line treatment for nephrotic syndrome in minimal glomerular lesions in the adult. Multicenter study of 32 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, A; Barka, A; Nochy, D; Hauet, T; Boulanger, H; Landais, P

    1997-01-01

    Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most frequent single cause of nephrotic syndrome occurring both in adults and children. Although it appears to be a self-limiting disorder (10% spontaneous remissions within the fortnight following the initial flare), MCNS displays a high rate of complications during the nephrotic period (10 to 15% cases) and prompts one to treat patients as early as possible. Corticosteroids are currently used as first-line treatment. A 16 weeks full-dose steroid course (1 mg/kg/day) usually induces remission in 75% MCNS in adults. Nevertheless, duration of treatment (9 months) and occurrence of relapses despite a slowly tapering dosage schedule, expose patients to steroids side-effects. Immunosuppressive drugs are recommended in case of steroid resistance and their side-effects are not harmless. Therefore, an alternative to steroids or immunosuppressives would lend a serious helping hand in MCNS management. The present work is dealing with pefloxacin efficacy in 40% MCNS in adults. Thirty-two MCNS adult patients were treated in a national multicenter study. A short-duration pefloxacin course (4 to 6 weeks) allowed partial or complete remission in 13 out of 32 cases. Thus far, this effect was undescribed for this class of drugs. Pefloxacin belongs to antibacterial agents of the fluoroquinolone family and is active against Gram negative Enterobacteria species. Fluoroquinolones also act on eukaryotic cells as lymphocytes and chondrocytes and alter IL2, gamma IFN and integrin expression. Although their precise mode of action is unknown in this kind of immunological disorder, fluoroquinolones might represent an alternative to steroids in some adult form of MCNS. However, predictive criteria for sensitivity to fluoroquinolones are currently not available and further controlled studies would be helpful using fluoroquinolones as first-line treatment in all the MCNS.

  9. Reduced medical costs and hospital days when using oral arsenic plus ATRA as the first-line treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Liang, Gong-Wen; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Qian; Han, Sheng; Shi, Lu-Wen; Zhu, Hong-Hu

    2015-12-01

    We have demonstrated that oral arsenic (Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula, RIF) plus all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is not inferior to intravenous arsenic trioxide (ATO) plus ATRA as the first-line treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To compare the cost-effectiveness of oral and intravenous arsenic, we analyzed the results of 30 patients in each group involved in a randomized controlled trial at our center. The median total medical costs were $13,183.49 in the RIF group compared with $24136.98 in the ATO group (pATRA significantly reduced the medical costs and length of hospital stay during induction and remission therapy compared with ATO plus ATRA in APL patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of adding cetuximab to platinum-based chemotherapy for first-line treatment of recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek B Hannouf

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the cost effectiveness of adding cetuximab to platinum-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare system. METHODS: We developed a Markov state transition model to project the lifetime clinical and economic consequences of recurrent or metastatic HNSCC. Transition probabilities were derived from a phase III trial of cetuximab in patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC. Cost estimates were obtained from London Health Sciences Centre and the Ontario Case Costing Initiative, and expressed in 2011 CAD. A three year time horizon was used. Future costs and health benefits were discounted at 5%. RESULTS: In the base case, cetuximab plus platinum-based chemotherapy compared to platinum-based chemotherapy alone led to an increase of 0.093 QALY and an increase in cost of $36,000 per person, resulting in an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of $386,000 per QALY gained. The cost effectiveness ratio was most sensitive to the cost per mg of cetuximab and the absolute risk of progression among patients receiving cetuximab. CONCLUSION: The addition of cetuximab to standard platinum-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC has an ICER that exceeds $100,000 per QALY gained. Cetuximab can only be economically attractive in this patient population if the cost of cetuximab is substantially reduced or if future research can identify predictive markers to select patients most likely to benefit from the addition of cetuximab to chemotherapy.

  11. [A real-world study focused on the effectiveness and safety of adalimumab as first-line anti-TNF treatment for pediatric Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-López, Víctor Manuel; Pujol Muncunill, Gemma; Llerena, Enrique; Navalón Rubio, María; Gil-Ortega, David; Varea-Calderón, Vicente; Sierra Salinas, Carlos; Martin-de-Carpi, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Adalimumab (ADA), a monoclonal humanised anti-TNF antibody, is usually prescribed as a second-line treatment in paediatric Crohn's disease (CD) patients who have become unresponsive or developed intolerance to infliximab (IFX). In the case series reported, more than 70% of patients had initially been treated with IFX. Data on short- and long-term effectiveness of ADA in anti-TNF naïve patients is limited. The aim of this study is to describe our experience with ADA as a first-line anti-TNF in paediatric CD patients. This is a multicentre retrospective study including anti-TNF naïve paediatric CD patients treated with ADA as first-line anti-TNF. Sixty-two patients (34males), with a mean age of 13.0±2.4years and a disease duration of 7.3 (IQR 2.7-21) months were included. Median wPCDAI was 35 (IQR 24.3-47.5). Fifty-eight out of 62 (93.5%) were on combo therapy at baseline. Clinical remission at week12 was achieved in 50 out of 62 (80.6%) and in 57 out of 60 (95.0%) at week52. Eight patients (13%) reported adverse events. Mean height, growth rate and BMI z-scores improved significantly between baseline and week 52, especially in patients with growth failure. ADA treatment leads to lasting clinical remission in anti-TNF naïve paediatric patients with CD. ADA significantly improved growth rate in children with CD who had growth delay at baseline. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. First-line treatment with bortezomib rapidly stimulates both osteoblast activity and bone matrix deposition in patients with multiple myeloma, and stimulates osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Thomas; Søe, Kent; Abildgaard, Niels; Garnero, Patrick; Pedersen, Per T; Ormstrup, Tina; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Plesner, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of bortezomib on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, as well as on bone matrix deposition for the first time in bisphosphonate-naïve, previously untreated patients with myeloma. Methods: Twenty newly diagnosed patients received four cycles of bortezomib treatment, initially as monotherapy and then combined with a glucocorticoid from cycle two to four. Bone remodeling markers were monitored closely during treatment. Furthermore, the effects of bortezomib and a glucocorticoid on immature and mature osteoblasts were also studied in vitro. Results: Treatment with bortezomib caused a significant increase in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and pro-collagen type I N-terminal propeptide, a novel bone formation marker. The addition of a glucocorticoid resulted in a transient decrease in collagen deposition. In vitro bortezomib induced osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Differentiation but not proliferation was inhibited by glucocorticoid treatment. Conclusions: Bortezomib used as first-line treatment significantly increased collagen deposition in patients with multiple myeloma and osteolytic lesions, but the addition of a glucocorticoid to the treatment transiently inhibited the positive effect of bortezomib, suggesting that bortezomib may result in better healing of osteolytic lesions when used without glucocorticoids in patients that have obtained remission with a previous therapy. The potential bone-healing properties of single-agent bortezomib are currently being explored in a clinical study in patients who have undergone high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. PMID:20528908

  13. Outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with first-line idelalisib plus rituximab after cessation of treatment for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Philip A; Stingo, Francesco; Keating, Michael J; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Burger, Jan A; Wierda, William G; Kadia, Tapan M; O'Brien, Susan M

    2016-08-15

    More active therapies are needed for older and unfit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who are not eligible for chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab. The phosphyotidylinositol-3-kinase δ inhibitor idelalisib is effective in patients with treatment-naive and relapsed/refractory CLL as monotherapy and in combination with rituximab, but it can be associated with treatment-limiting adverse events, particularly diarrhea/colitis. The outcomes for patients who cease treatment for adverse events have not been previously described. The authors analyzed long-term follow-up data from 40 treatment-naïve patients aged ≥65 years who received treatment at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center on a phase 2 study of idelalisib plus rituximab for CLL. In patients who permanently ceased treatment because of toxicity, the time to subsequent disease progression was analyzed according to baseline characteristics. Fifteen patients permanently ceased therapy (PCT) because of toxicity (PCTTOX ), most commonly diarrhea/colitis (n = 7), at a median of 11 months after commencing treatment. PCTTOX was associated with a higher risk of subsequent disease progression (hazard ratio, 6.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-16.15) relative to that observed in patients who remained on therapy. Ten patients subsequently progressed, and 7 required salvage therapy; 5 patients remained progression-free at a median of 23.3 months (range, 8.5-28.6 months). Patients who were positive for ζ-associated protein-70 had more rapid disease progression after treatment cessation (P = .048). There were no CLL-related deaths. PCTTOX is the major determinant of PFS in patients who receive first-line idelalisib-based treatment. However, a subgroup of patients with favorable biologic characteristics has prolonged PFS, even after PCTTOX . The absence of CLL-related deaths indicates that salvage treatment is generally successful after PCTTOX . Cancer 2016

  14. Failure of treatment with first-line lopinavir boosted with ritonavir can be explained by novel resistance pathways with protease mutation 76V

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Monique; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Bierman, Wouter F W; de Jong, Dorien; Kagan, Ron; Fun, Axel; Jaspers, Christian A J J; Schurink, Karin A M; van Agtmael, Michael A; Boucher, Charles A B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virological failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy based on lopinavir boosted with ritonavir (lopinavir/r) has rarely been associated with resistance in protease. We identified a new genotypic resistance pathway in 3 patients who experienced failure of first-line lopinavir/r

  15. A clinical phase II study of a non-anthracycline sequential combination of cisplatin-vinorelbine followed by docetaxel as first-line treatment in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddine, Ali I; Otrock, Zaher K; Khalifeh, Mohamad J; Yassine, Hanan R; Charafeddine, Maya; Abdel-Khalek, Zeina; Chehal, Aref; Bitar, Nizar; Jalloul, Rahif; Dheiny, Moussa; Dandashi, Azzam; Wehbeh, Mahmoud; El-Saghir, Nagi S

    2006-01-01

    We tested a sequential combination regimen using cisplatin and vinorelbine (PVn) followed by docetaxel as first-line chemotherapy in a phase II clinical trial in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Thirty-five patients were enrolled. Cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) was given on day 1 and vinorelbine 30 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. Responding patients received docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) every 21 days for a maximum of 4 cycles. Three patients were excluded from analysis because of death unrelated to treatment. After a median follow-up of 14 months, 32 patients completed the study. The overall response rate was 53.1%. Complete remission was seen in 5 patients (15.6%), partial response in 12 (37.5%), stable disease in 6 (18.75%), and progressive disease in 9 patients (28.1%). Median time to disease progression was 8 months (range 1-24). At 24 months, 12 (37.5%) patients were alive. A total of 183 cycles were administered. Febrile neutropenia was observed in 4 patients (2.2%). Grade II nephrotoxicity occurred in 12 cycles (6.5%) and grade III vomiting in 31/183 cycles (16.9%). PVn is a feasible non-anthracycline option as first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer and has acceptable toxicity. The sequential addition of 4 cycles of docetaxel following 4 cycles of PVn did not improve the overall response rate and results. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Pemetrexed plus platinum as the first-line treatment option for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available To compare the efficacy and toxicities of pemetrexed plus platinum with other platinum regimens in patients with previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.A meta-analysis was performed using trials identified through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. The outcomes included overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS, response rate (RR, and different types of toxicity. Hazard ratios (HRs, odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were pooled using RevMan software.Four trials involving 2,518 patients with previously untreated advanced NSCLC met the inclusion criteria. Pemetrexed plus platinum chemotherapy (PPC improved survival compared with other platinum-based regimens (PBR in patients with advanced NSCLC (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-1.00, p = 0.04, especially in those with non-squamous histology (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77-0.98, p = 0.02. No statistically significant improvement in either PFS or RR was found in PPC group as compared with PBR group (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94-1.13, p = 0.57; OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.95-1.39, p = 0.15, respectively. Compared with PBR, PPC led to less grade 3-4 neutropenia and leukopenia but more grade 3-4 nausea. However, hematological toxicity analysis revealed significant heterogeneities.Our results suggest that PPC in the first-line setting leads to a significant survival advantage with acceptable toxicities for advanced NSCLC patients, especially those with non-squamous histology, as compared with other PRB. PPC could be considered as the first-line treatment option for advanced NSCLC patients, especially those with non-squamous histology.

  17. Assessment of diclofenac or spinal manipulative therapy, or both, in addition to recommended first-line treatment for acute low back pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Mark J; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; McLachlan, Andrew J; Cooper, Chris W; Day, Richard O; Spindler, Megan F; McAuley, James H

    2007-11-10

    We aimed to investigate whether the addition of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or spinal manipulative therapy, or both, would result in faster recovery for patients with acute low back pain receiving recommended first-line care. 240 patients with acute low back pain who had seen their general practitioner and had been given advice and paracetamol were randomly allocated to one of four groups in our community-based study: diclofenac 50 mg twice daily and placebo manipulative therapy (n=60); spinal manipulative therapy and placebo drug (n=60); diclofenac 50 mg twice daily and spinal manipulative therapy (n=60); or double placebo (n=60). The primary outcome was days to recovery from pain assessed by survival curves (log-rank test) in an intention-to-treat analysis. This trial was registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN012605000036617. Neither diclofenac nor spinal manipulative therapy appreciably reduced the number of days until recovery compared with placebo drug or placebo manipulative therapy (diclofenac hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 0.84-1.42, p=0.516; spinal manipulative therapy hazard ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.77-1.31, p=0.955). 237 patients (99%) either recovered or were censored 12 weeks after randomisation. 22 patients had possible adverse reactions including gastrointestinal disturbances, dizziness, and heart palpitations. Half of these patients were in the active diclofenac group, the other half were taking placebo. One patient taking active diclofenac had a suspected hypersensitivity reaction and ceased treatment. Patients with acute low back pain receiving recommended first-line care do not recover more quickly with the addition of diclofenac or spinal manipulative therapy.

  18. First-line treatment and outcome of elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL)—a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenda, B.; Ferreri, A. J. M.; Marturano, E.; Forst, D.; Bromberg, J.; Ghesquieres, H.; Ferlay, C.; Blay, J. Y.; Hoang-Xuan, K.; Pulczynski, E. J.; Fosså, A.; Okoshi, Y.; Chiba, S.; Fritsch, K.; Omuro, A.; O'Neill, B. P.; Bairey, O.; Schandelmaier, S.; Gloy, V.; Bhatnagar, N.; Haug, S.; Rahner, S.; Batchelor, T. T.; Illerhaus, G.; Briel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate prognosis and effects of first-line therapy in elderly primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) patients. Patients and methods A systematic review of studies about first-line therapy in immunocompetent patients ≥60 years with PCNSL until 2014 and a meta-analysis of individual patient data from eligible studies and international collaborators were carried out. Results We identified 20 eligible studies; from 13 studies, we obtained individual data of 405 patients, which were pooled with data of 378 additional patients (N = 783). Median age and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) was 68 years (range: 60–90 years) and 60% (range: 10%–100%), respectively. Treatments varied greatly, 573 (73%) patients received high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based therapy. A total of 276 patients received whole-brain radiotherapy (median 36 Gy, range 28.5–70 Gy). KPS ≥ 70% was the strongest prognostic factor for mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41–0.62]. After a median follow-up of 40 months, HD-MTX-based therapy was associated with improved survival (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.93). There was no difference between HD-MTX plus oral chemotherapy and more aggressive HD-MTX-based therapies (HR 1.39, 95% CI 0.90–2.15). Radiotherapy was associated with an improved survival, but correlated with an increased risk for neurological side-effects (odds ratio 5.23, 95% CI 2.33–11.74). Conclusions Elderly PCNSL patients benefit from HD-MTX-based therapy, especially if combined with oral alkylating agents. More aggressive HD-MTX protocols do not seem to improve outcome. WBRT may improve outcome, but is associated with increased risk for neurological side-effects. Prospective trials for elderly PCNSL patients are warranted. PMID:25701456

  19. The cost effectiveness of teriparatide as a first-line treatment for glucocorticoid-induced and postmenopausal osteoporosis patients in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Daniel R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the model and results to evaluate the use of teriparatide as a first-line treatment of severe postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO and Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP. The study’s objective was to determine if teriparatide is cost effective against oral bisphosphonates for two large and high risk cohorts. Methods A computer simulation model was created to model treatment, osteoporosis related fractures, and the remaining life of PMO and GIOP patients. Natural mortality and additional mortality from osteoporosis related fractures were included in the model. Costs for treatment with both teriparatide and oral bisphosphonates were included. Drug efficacy was modeled as a reduction to the relative fracture risk for subsequent osteoporosis related fractures. Patient health utilities associated with age, gender, and osteoporosis related fractures were included in the model. Patient costs and utilities were summarized and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for teriparatide versus oral bisphosphonates and teriparatide versus no treatment were estimated. For each of the PMO and GIOP populations, two cohorts differentiated by fracture history were simulated. The first contained patients with both a historical vertebral fracture and an incident vertebral fracture. The second contained patients with only an incident vertebral fracture. The PMO cohorts simulated had an initial Bone Mineral Density (BMD T-Score of −3.0. The GIOP cohorts simulated had an initial BMD T-Score of −2.5. Results The ICERs for teriparatide versus bisphosphonate use for the one and two fracture PMO cohorts were €36,995 per QALY and €19,371 per QALY. The ICERs for teriparatide versus bisphosphonate use for the one and two fracture GIOP cohorts were €20,826 per QALY and €15,155 per QALY, respectively. Conclusions The selection of teriparatide versus oral bisphosphonates as a first-line treatment for the high risk PMO

  20. PSA time to nadir as a prognostic factor of first-line docetaxel treatment in castration-resistant prostate cancer: evidence from patients in Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai-Jie; Pei, Xin-Qi; Tian, Ge; Wu, Da-Peng; Fan, Jin-Hai; Jiang, Yu-Mei; He, Da-Lin

    2017-09-12

    Docetaxel-based chemotherapy remains the first-line treatment for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in China; however, the prognostic factors associated with effects in these patients are still controversial. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the data from 71 eligible Chinese patients who received docetaxel chemotherapy from 2009 to 2016 in our hospital and experienced a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥50% during the treatment and investigated the potential role of time to nadir (TTN) of PSA. TTN was defined as the time from start of chemotherapy to the nadir of PSA level during the treatment. Multivariable Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to predict overall survival (OS). In these patients, the median of TTN was 17 weeks. Patients with TTN ≥17 weeks had a longer response time to chemotherapy compared to TTN time to PSA progression in patients with TTN ≥17 weeks was 11.44 weeks compared to 5.63 weeks when TTN was Class 1 [Class 2 [0-50% response], HR: 3.978, 95% CI: 1.278-12.387, P = 0.017). In conclusion, TTN of PSA remains an important prognostic marker in predicting therapeutic outcome in Chinese population who receive chemotherapy for mCRPC and have >50% PSA remission.

  1. Fulvestrant 500 mg Versus Anastrozole 1 mg for the First-Line Treatment of Advanced Breast Cancer: Overall Survival Analysis From the Phase II FIRST Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Matthew J; Llombart-Cussac, Antonio; Feltl, David; Dewar, John A; Jasiówka, Marek; Hewson, Nicola; Rukazenkov, Yuri; Robertson, John F R

    2015-11-10

    To compare overall survival (OS) for fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole as first-line endocrine therapy for advanced breast cancer. The Fulvestrant First-Line Study Comparing Endocrine Treatments (FIRST) was a phase II, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial. Postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive, locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer who had no previous therapy for advanced disease received either fulvestrant 500 mg (days 0, 14, 28, and every 28 days thereafter) or anastrozole 1 mg (daily). The primary end point (clinical benefit rate [72.5% and 67.0%]) and a follow-up analysis (median time to progression [23.4 months and 13.1 months]) have been reported previously for fulvestrant 500 mg and anastrozole, respectively. Subsequently, the protocol was amended to assess OS by unadjusted log-rank test after approximately 65% of patients had died. Treatment effect on OS across several subgroups was examined. Tolerability was evaluated by adverse event monitoring. In total, 205 patients were randomly assigned (fulvestrant 500 mg, n = 102; anastrozole, n = 103). At data cutoff, 61.8% (fulvestrant 500 mg, n = 63) and 71.8% (anastrozole, n = 74) had died. The hazard ratio (95% CI) for OS with fulvestrant 500 mg versus anastrozole was 0.70 (0.50 to 0.98; P = .04; median OS, 54.1 months v 48.4 months). Treatment effects seemed generally consistent across the subgroups analyzed. No new safety issues were observed. There are several limitations of this OS analysis, including that it was not planned in the original protocol but instead was added after time-to-progression results were analyzed, and that not all patients participated in additional OS follow-up. However, the present results suggest fulvestrant 500 mg extends OS versus anastrozole. This finding now awaits prospective confirmation in the larger phase III FALCON (Fulvestrant and Anastrozole Compared in Hormonal Therapy Naïve Advanced Breast Cancer) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT

  2. First-line treatment for severe aplastic anemia in children: bone marrow transplantation from a matched family donor versus immunosuppressive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Nao; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Kudo, Kazuko; Morimoto, Akira; Ohga, Shouichi; Muramatsu, Hideki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Koji; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji

    2014-12-01

    The current treatment approach for severe aplastic anemia in children is based on studies performed in the 1980s, and updated evidence is required. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of children with acquired severe aplastic anemia who received immunosuppressive therapy within prospective trials conducted by the Japanese Childhood Aplastic Anemia Study Group or who underwent bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-matched family donor registered in the Japanese Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Registry. Between 1992 and 2009, 599 children (younger than 17 years) with severe aplastic anemia received a bone marrow transplant from an HLA-matched family donor (n=213) or immunosuppressive therapy (n=386) as first-line treatment. While the overall survival did not differ between patients treated with immunosuppressive therapy or bone marrow transplantation [88% (95% confidence interval: 86-90) versus 92% (90-94)], failure-free survival was significantly inferior in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy than in those undergoing bone marrow transplantation [56% (54-59) versus 87% (85-90); Ptherapy was the only unfavorable factor for failure-free survival (Pfamily donor is available in pediatric severe aplastic anemia. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Clinical Impact of the Number of Treatment Cycles in First-Line Docetaxel for Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsted, Per; Svane, Inge Marie; Lindberg, Henriette; Sengeløv, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the impact of the number of docetaxel cycles administered in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with first-line chemotherapy. Charts from 421 consecutive patients who initiated standard treatment with docetaxel-based chemotherapy (75 mg/m 2 every 3 weeks) between 2007 and 2013 were reviewed. Patients who received patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of whether or not ≥ 9 cycles of docetaxel were administered (n = 108 and 184, respectively). Reasons for treatment discontinuation and postdocetaxel treatments were registered. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses were defined as a confirmed ≥ 50% decrease in baseline PSA levels. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from start of therapy using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards were calculated to estimate the effect of clinical variables on OS. OS was longer in patients treated with ≥ 9 cycles of docetaxel (21.9 months vs. 17.2 months; P patients treated with ≥ 9 cycles of docetaxel when only patients ending docetaxel because of toxicity or treatment conclusion (22.3 vs. 19.4 months; P = .048, log rank) or patients who achieved a PSA response (22.3 vs. 18.7 months; P = .012, log rank) were evaluated. mCRPC-related prognostic factors and patients who received ≥ 1 subsequent line of therapy post-docetaxel were well balanced. On the basis of our retrospective findings, a superior OS was found in patients treated with ≥ 9 cycles of docetaxel when adjusting for known prognostic factors. Dose reductions might increase the number of docetaxel cycles administered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. First-line treatment and outcome of elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL)--a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenda, B; Ferreri, A J M; Marturano, E; Forst, D; Bromberg, J; Ghesquieres, H; Ferlay, C; Blay, J Y; Hoang-Xuan, K; Pulczynski, E J; Fosså, A; Okoshi, Y; Chiba, S; Fritsch, K; Omuro, A; O'Neill, B P; Bairey, O; Schandelmaier, S; Gloy, V; Bhatnagar, N; Haug, S; Rahner, S; Batchelor, T T; Illerhaus, G; Briel, M

    2015-07-01

    To investigate prognosis and effects of first-line therapy in elderly primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) patients. A systematic review of studies about first-line therapy in immunocompetent patients ≥60 years with PCNSL until 2014 and a meta-analysis of individual patient data from eligible studies and international collaborators were carried out. We identified 20 eligible studies; from 13 studies, we obtained individual data of 405 patients, which were pooled with data of 378 additional patients (N = 783). Median age and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) was 68 years (range: 60-90 years) and 60% (range: 10%-100%), respectively. Treatments varied greatly, 573 (73%) patients received high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based therapy. A total of 276 patients received whole-brain radiotherapy (median 36 Gy, range 28.5-70 Gy). KPS ≥ 70% was the strongest prognostic factor for mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.62]. After a median follow-up of 40 months, HD-MTX-based therapy was associated with improved survival (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.93). There was no difference between HD-MTX plus oral chemotherapy and more aggressive HD-MTX-based therapies (HR 1.39, 95% CI 0.90-2.15). Radiotherapy was associated with an improved survival, but correlated with an increased risk for neurological side-effects (odds ratio 5.23, 95% CI 2.33-11.74). Elderly PCNSL patients benefit from HD-MTX-based therapy, especially if combined with oral alkylating agents. More aggressive HD-MTX protocols do not seem to improve outcome. WBRT may improve outcome, but is associated with increased risk for neurological side-effects. Prospective trials for elderly PCNSL patients are warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Rapid increase of Plasmodium falciparum dhfr/dhps resistant haplotypes, after the adoption of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment in 2002, in southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enosse, Sonia; Magnussen, Pascal; Abacassamo, Fatima; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier; Rønn, Anita M; Thompson, Ricardo; Alifrangis, Michael

    2008-07-01

    In late 2002, the health authorities of Mozambique implemented sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)/amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In 2004, this has been altered to SP/artesunate in line with WHO recommendations of using Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), despite the fact that all the neighbouring countries have abandoned SP-drug combinations due to high levels of SP drug resistance. In the study area, one year prior to the change to SP/AQ, SP alone was used to treat uncomplicated malaria cases. The study described here investigated the immediate impact of the change to SP on the frequency of SP and CQ resistance-related haplotypes in the Plasmodium falciparum genes Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt before and a year after the introduction of SP. Samples were collected during two cross sectional surveys in early 2002 and 2003 involving 796 and 692 children one year or older and adults randomly selected living in Maciana, an area located in Manhiça district, Southern Mozambique. Out of these, 171 and 173 P. falciparum positive samples were randomly selected to measure the frequency of resistance- related haplotypes in Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt based on results obtained by nested PCR followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP)-ELISA. The frequency of the SP-resistance associated Pfdhps double mutant (SGEAA) haplotype increased significantly from 14% to 35% (P drug, Coartem.

  6. Letrozole as the first-line treatment of infertile women with poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) compared with clomiphene citrate: A clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahiri, Ataollah; Mogharehabed, Neda; Mamourian, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of letrozole on ovulation induction and pregnancy in comparison with clomiphene citrate in PCOS patients. The study was based on prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of letrozole as the first-line management of the PCOS patients in comparison to clomiphene citrate during 2009 to 2011 and was performed in one private infertility clinic. The study included 100 patients divided into 2 equal groups. Pregnancy occurred in 29 of 50 patients in letrozole group (58%) and 24 of 51 patients in clomiphene group (47%). The difference was not statistically significant (P value = 0.23). Thirty patients in clomiphene group and 36 patients in letrozole group showed regular menses after or during the treatment course. No significant difference between the 2 groups was observed (P value = 0.21). Our findings suggest letrozole and clomiphene citrate are equally effective for induction of ovulation and achieving pregnancy in patients with PCOS.

  7. Net Budgetary Impact of Ferric Citrate as a First-Line Phosphate Binder for the Treatment of Hyperphosphatemia: A Markov Microsimulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Steven M; Sibbel, Scott P; Van Wyck, David; Sharma, Amit; Hsieh, Andrew; Chertow, Glenn M

    2017-03-01

    Ferric citrate (FC) has demonstrated efficacy as a phosphate binder and reduces the requirements for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and intravenous (IV) iron in dialysis patients. We developed a net budgetary impact model to evaluate FC vs. other phosphate binders from the vantage of a large dialysis provider. We used a Markov microsimulation model to simulate mutually referential longitudinal effects between serum phosphate and phosphate binder dose; categories of these defined health states. Health states probabilistically determined treatment attendance and utilization of ESA and IV iron. We derived model inputs from a retrospective analysis of incident phosphate binder users from a large dialysis organization (January 2011-June 2013) and incorporated treatment effects of FC from a phase III trial. The model was run over a 1-year time horizon. We considered fixed costs of providing dialysis; costs of administering ESA and IV iron; and payment rates for dialysis, ESAs, and IV iron. In the base-case model, FC had a net budgetary impact (savings) of +US$213,223/year per 100 patients treated vs. standard of care. One-way sensitivity analyses showed a net budgetary impact of up to +US$316,296/year per 100 patients treated when higher hemoglobin levels observed with FC translated into a 30% additional ESA dose reduction, and up to +US$223,281/year per 100 patients treated when effects on missed treatment rates were varied. Two-way sensitivity analyses in which acquisition costs for ESA and IV iron were varied showed a net budgetary impact of +US$104,840 to +US$213,223/year per 100 patients treated. FC as a first-line phosphate binder would likely yield substantive savings vs. standard of care under current reimbursement.

  8. Societal implications of medical insurance coverage for imatinib as first-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in China: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guangying; Chen, Suning; Dong, Chaohui; Zhang, Ri; Miao, Miao; Wu, Depei; Tan, Seng Chuen; Liu, Chao; Xiong, Tengbin

    2017-04-01

    Imatinib (Glivec) and nilotinib (Tasigna) have been covered by critical disease insurance in Jiangsu province of China since 2013, which changed local treatment patterns and outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This study evaluated the long-term cost-effectiveness of insurance coverage with imatinib as the first-line treatment for patients with CML in China from a societal perspective. A decision-analytic model based on previously published and real-world evidence was applied to simulate and evaluate the lifetime clinical and economic outcomes associated with CML treatments before and after imatinib was covered by medical insurance. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated with both costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) discounted at 3% annually. Different assumptions of treatment benefits and costs were taken to address uncertainties and were tested with sensitivity analyses. In base case analysis, both cost and effectiveness of CML treatments increased after imatinib was covered by the medical insurance; on average, the incremental QALY and cost were 5.5 and ¥277,030 per patient in lifetime, respectively. The ICER of insurance coverage with imatinib was ¥50,641, which is less than the GDP per capita of China. Monte Carlo simulation resulted in the estimate of 100% probability that the insurance coverage of imatinib is cost-effective. Total cost was substantially saved at 5 years after patients initiated imatinib treatment with insurance coverage compared to no insurance coverage, the saved cost at 5 years was ¥99,565, which included the cost savings from both direct (e.g. cost of bone marrow or stem cell transplant) and indirect costs (e.g. productivity loss of patients and care-givers). The insurance coverage of imatinib is very cost-effective in China, according to the local cost and clinical data in Jiangsu province. More importantly, the insurance coverage of imatinib and nilotinib have changed the treatment

  9. All-oral combination of vinorelbine and capecitabine as first-line treatment in HER2/Neu-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Hesham; Rostom, Yousri; Elghazaly, Hesham

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an all-oral vinorelbine and capecitabine combination therapy in anthracycline- ± taxane-pretreated HER2/Neu-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A phase 2 trial including women >18 years with HER2/Neu-negative MBC previously exposed to anthracycline- ± taxane-based chemotherapy in the adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting. Enrolled patients received oral vinorelbine 60 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 and oral capecitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1-14 on a 3 weekly schedule. Patients with progressive disease after 3 cycles discontinued the study, while the remaining patients continued treatment for a maximum of 6 cycles. From January 2007 to March 2011, 30 patients were enrolled in this study (median age 47 years). In the 28 evaluable patients, the overall response rate was 57.1 % (95 % CI 30-67 %), including 3 complete (10.7 %) and 13 partial (46.4 %) responses. Six (21.4 %) patients suffered from disease progression. With a median follow-up time of 13 months, the median time to disease progression was 8.6 months (95 % CI 6.2-10.6 months) and the median survival time was 27.2 months. Treatment-related adverse events were manageable, and no World Health Organization grade 4 toxicities were noted. Neutropenia observed in 6 (21.4 %) patients was the main grade 3 toxicity. Grade 3 nausea and vomiting were reported in 2 (7.1 %) and 3 (10.7 %) patients, respectively. Two (7.1 %) patients developed grade 3 hand and foot syndrome. These results show that the combination of oral vinorelbine and capecitabine is an effective and well-tolerated first-line regimen for HER2/Neu-negative MBC patients pretreated with anthracyclines ± taxanes.

  10. High prevalence of quintuple mutant dhps/dhfr genes in Plasmodium falciparum infections seven years after introduction of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine as first line treatment in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwijo, B; Kaneko, A; Takechi, M; Zungu, I L; Moriyama, Y; Lum, J K; Tsukahara, T; Mita, T; Takahashi, N; Bergqvist, Y; Björkman, A; Kobayakawa, T

    2003-03-01

    Malawi changed its national policy for malaria treatment in 1993, becoming the first country in Africa to replace chloroquine by sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine combination (SP) as the first-line drug for uncomplicated malaria. Seven years after this change, we investigated the prevalence of dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) mutations, known to be associated with decreased sensitivity to SP, in 173 asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections from Salima, Malawi. A high prevalence rate (78%) of parasites with triple Asn-108/Ile-51/Arg-59 dhfr and double Gly-437/Glu-540 dhps mutations was found. This 'quintuple mutant' is considered as a molecular marker for clinical failure of SP treatment of P. falciparum malaria. A total of 11 different dhfr and dhps combinations were detected, 3 of which were not previously reported. Nineteen isolates contained the single Glu-540 mutant dhps, while no isolate contained the single Gly-437 mutant dhps, an unexpected finding since Gly-437 are mostly assumed to be one of the first mutations commonly selected under sulfadoxine pressure. Two isolates contained the dhps single or double mutant coupled with dhfr wild-type. The high prevalence rates of the three dhfr mutations in our study were consistent with a previous survey in 1995 in Karonga, Malawi, whereas the prevalences of dhps mutations had increased, most probably as a result of the wide use of SP. A total of 52 P. falciparum isolates were also investigated for pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine activity against parasite growth according to WHO in vitro standard protocol. A pyrimethamine resistant profile was found. When pyrimethamine was combined with sulfadoxine, the mean EC(50) value decreased to less than one tenth of the pyrimethamine alone level. This synergistic activity may be explained by sulfadoxine inhibition of dhps despite the double mutations in the dhps genes, which would interact with pyrimethamine acting to block the

  11. First-line treatment of seasonal (ragweed) rhinoconjunctivitis: a randomized management trial comparing a nasal steroid spray and a nonsedating antihistamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, E F; Guyatt, G H; Ferrie, P J; Griffith, L E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether better health-related quality of life (HRQL) is achieved by initiating treatment of seasonal (ragweed) rhinoconjunctivitis (hay fever) with a nasal steroid (fluticasone) backed up by a nonsedating antihistamine (terfenadine) or whether it is better to start with the antihistamine and add the nasal steroid when necessary. DESIGN: Randomized, nonblind, parallel-group management study during the 6 weeks of the ragweed pollen season in 1995. PATIENTS: Sixty-one adults with ragweed pollen hay fever recruited from patients who had participated in previous clinical studies and from those who responded to notices in the local media. SETTING: Southern Ontario. INTERVENTIONS: Nasal steroid group: 200 micrograms of fluticasone nasal spray when needed (up to 400 micrograms/d) starting about 1 week before the ragweed pollen season and continued throughout, with 1 to 2 tablets of terfenadine daily (maximum 120 mg/d) if needed. Antihistamine group: 1 60-mg tablet of terfenadine when needed (maximum 120 mg/d) starting about 1 week before the ragweed pollen season and continued throughout, with 200-400 micrograms/d of fluticasone nasal spray (maximum 400 micrograms/d) if needed. OUTCOME MEASURES: HRQL before, at the height of and toward the end of the ragweed pollen season; HRQL was measured using the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnáire. RESULTS: Overall, HRQL tended to be better in the group of patients whose first-line treatment was with fluticasone (p = 0.052), but the difference between the 2 groups was small and not clinically important. Just over half (52% [16/31]) of the patients in the fluticasone group did not need additional help with terfenadine, whereas only 13% (4/30) of those in the terfenadine group did not need additional help with fluticasone (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: There is little difference in the therapeutic benefit between the 2 approaches for the treatment of ragweed pollen hay fever. Therefore, the approach to

  12. The combination of DPP-4 inhibitors versus sulfonylureas with metformin after failure of first-line treatment in the risk for major cardiovascular events and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Oriana Hoi Yun; Yin, Hui; Azoulay, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether the combination of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors vs. sulfonylureas with metformin after failure of first-line treatment is associated with a decreased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and for all-cause mortality. Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a cohort of patients newly treated with metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 2011, was identified and was followed until December 31, 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to compare the DPP-4 inhibitor-metformin combination to the sulfonylurea-metformin combination so as to study the risk for a composite endpoint consisting of myocardial infarction, stroke and all-cause mortality. The models were adjusted for high-dimensional propensity score deciles. The cohort consisted of 11,807 patients that included 2286 on a DPP-4 inhibitor-metformin combination and 9521 on a sulfonylurea-metformin combination. The crude incidence rates (95% CIs) of the composite endpoint were 1.2% (0.8% to 1.7%) and 2.2% (1.9% to 2.5%) per year for the DPP-4 inhibitor-metformin and sulfonylurea-metformin combinations, respectively. In the high-dimensional propensity score-adjusted model, the use of the DPP-4 inhibitor-metformin combination was associated with a 38% decreased risk for the composite endpoint (adjusted HR: 0.62; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.98), compared with the sulfonylurea-metformin combination. The use of a DPP-4 inhibitor combination with metformin, compared with a sulfonylurea-metformin combination, was associated with decreased risks for major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. IL-8 and eNOS polymorphisms predict bevacizumab-based first line treatment outcomes in RAS mutant metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvatore, Mariantonietta; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Orlandi, Armando; Del Re, Marzia; Berenato, Rosa; Rossi, Ernesto; Caporale, Marta; Guarino, Donatella; Martinetti, Antonia; Basso, Michele; Mennitto, Roberta; Santonocito, Concetta; Mennitto, Alessia; Schinzari, Giovanni; Bossi, Ilaria; Capoluongo, Ettore; Danesi, Romano; de Braud, Filippo; Barone, Carlo

    2017-03-07

    Predictive biomarkers of efficacy and toxicity of bevacizumab have not yet been validated. This study assessed the influence of IL-8, eNOS and VEGF-A polymorphisms in RAS mutated metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving bevacizumab-based chemotherapy. 120 patients treated with first-line combination FOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab were included. A historical cohort of 112 RAS mutated colorectal cancer patients treated with FOLFOX6 alone served as control group. The following SNPs were analyzed: IL-8 c.-251T>A; eNOS c.-786T>C and c.-894G>T; VEGF-A c.936C>T, c.958T>C, c.1154A>G and c.2578C>A. Correlation of SNPs, baseline IL-8 serum levels and bevacizumab-efficacy was done. In the bevacizumab group, carriers of the IL-8 alleles c.-251TA+AA showed a shorter PFS (P=0.002) and OS (P=0.03) compared to TT alleles. Patients with pre-treatment IL-8 8.25 pg/ml showed significantly longer median PFS and OS (PFS: 10.9 vs 7.6 months, P=0.005; OS: 30.7 vs 18.2 months, P18,25 pg/ml). IL-8 c.-251TA+AA carriers had significantly higher IL-8 levels (PT was found associated with higher severe toxicity (P=0.0002) in patients carrying the c.-894TT genotype. Although our data need prospective validation, IL-8 and eNOS SNPs may be have a role as predictive biomarkers for bevacizumab efficacy and toxicity.

  14. Outcome Analysis of First-line Somatostatin Analog Treatment in Metastatic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors and Prognostic Significance of (18)FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Alberto; Recine, Federica; Riva, Nada; Foca, Flavia; Liverani, Chiara; Mercatali, Laura; Nicolini, Silvia; Pieri, Federica; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary carcinoids (PCs) are classed according to the World Health Organization 2004 classification as typical or atypical carcinoids. Owing to their rarity, no dedicated clinical trials with somatostatin analogs (SSAs) have been carried out on primary PCs. From January 2007 to December 2015, 30 patients with metastatic PCs underwent first-line SSA treatment (20 with octreotide long-acting repeatable 30 mg and 10 with lanreotide 120 mg every 28 days). Eight (23.3%) patients had typical carcinoids and 23 (76.7%) had atypical carcinoids. The median age was 65.5 years (range, 47-82 years). All patients (23 males and 7 females) were Gallium-68-DOTA-TOC-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-positive (29 patients) or octreoscan-positive (1 patient). Of the 20 patients who performed fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)FDG-PET/CT), 14 (70.0%) were positive and 6 negative (30.0%). The median treatment duration was 10 months (range, 2-59 months). One patient achieved a partial response (3.3%), and 26 (86.6%) showed stable disease. One patient interrupted SSA treatment owing to symptomatic cholelithiasis. Five-year survival was 53.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.0%-80.0%). The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 11.1 months (95% CI, 7.0-15.0 months). Negative (18)FDG-PET/CT patients had an mPFS of 15.2 months (95% CI, 7.6 months to not reached) compared with 7.0 months (95% CI, 4.0-10.1 months) for (18)FDG-PET/CT-positive patients. No differences in mPFS were found in relation to TTF1-value, histologic subtype, and presence of extrahepatic metastases. SSAs showed antitumor activity in terms of disease control rate and PFS and proved safe, even in patients with poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status. (18)FDG-PET/CT would appear to be a prognostic factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. USE OF A COMBINATION OF АVASTIN AND LOW-DOSE INTERFERON- α IN THE FIRST-LINE TREATMENT OF METASTATIC RENAL-CELL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalpinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The registered AVOREN Phase III trial demonstrated the efficacy of a combination of bevacizumab and interferon-α (IFN-α as first-line targeted therapy in patients with metastatic renal-cell cancer (mRCC. The median progression-free survival (PFS was significantly higher in the bevacizumab + IFN-α group, amounting to 10.2 months versus 5.4 months in the IFN-α group (p < 0.0001. The most common grade 3 and 4 side effects in the AVOREN study included the adverse events due to IFN-α use; this initiated a prospective multicenter BEVLiN (Bevacizumab and Low-Dose Interferon Phase II trial in 2008 to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a combination of bevacizumab and low-dose IFN-α in patients with mRCC to diminish the toxicity of treatment.Subjects and methods. The trial enrolled 146 patients having good and moderate prognosis according to the MSKCC scale. The patients received Avastin 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks and IFN-α 3,000,000 IU thrice weekly. The historical control group was taken from the AVOREN trial as a control group. The main purposes of the trial were to evaluate the tolerability of treatment (the frequency of adverse events due to IFN-α use, grade 3 or more toxicity and PFS. The additional goals were to estimate overall survival (OS, objective response rates, and the incidence of any adverse events of grade 3–4 toxicity.Results. The median follow-up was 29.4 months (range 1.5–35.4 months. The rate of objective responses was 28.8 % (95 % confidence interval (CI 21.4–37.1. The median PFS was 15.3 months (95 % CI 11.7–18.0 and PFS was 58.2 and 28.9 % at 12 and 24 months of treatment, respectively. The median OS was 30.7 months (95 % CI 25.7 was unachieved. In the IFN-α group, all grades of adverse reactions and their grade 3 or more were recorded in 53.4 and 10.3 % of the patients, respectively. The adverse events that were a reason for IFN-α discontinuation were recorded in 24.0 % of the patients

  16. Clomifene citrate or low-dose FSH for the first-line treatment of infertile women with anovulation associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized multinational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, R.R.; Hendriks, M.L.; König, T.E.; Anderson, R.A.; Balen, A.H.; Brincat, M.; Child, T.; Davies, M.; D'Hooghe, T.; Martinez, A; Rajkhowa, M.; Rueda-Saenz, R.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clomifene citrate (CC) is accepted as the first-line method for ovulation induction (OI) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated with infertility owing to anovulation. Low-dose FSH has been reserved for women failing to conceive with CC. In this RCT, we tested the

  17. Value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for therapeutic assessment of patients with polymyalgia rheumatica receiving tocilizumab as first-line treatment

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    Palard-Novello, X. [Brest University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brest Cedex (France); Querellou, S.; Abgral, R.; Salauen, P.Y. [Brest University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brest Cedex (France); Brest University, EA3878, GETBO, IFR148, Brest (France); Gouillou, M. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Clinical Investigation Centre (CIC) 1412, Brest (France); Saraux, A.; Devauchelle-Pensec, V. [Brest University Hospital, Department of Rheumatology, Brest (France); Brest University, EA 2216, ESPRI 29, Brest (France); Marhadour, T. [Brest University Hospital, Department of Rheumatology, Brest (France); Garrigues, F. [Brest University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Brest (France)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for the assessment of tocilizumab (TCZ) as first-line treatment in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Patients with PMR were prospectively enrolled in a multicentre clinical trial assessing TCZ therapy (the TENOR trial). The patients underwent FDG PET/CT at baseline, after the first infusion of TCZ (TCZ 1) and after the last infusion of TCZ (TCZ 3). Responses to treatment were evaluated in terms of the PMR activity score (PMR-AS), and the C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) laboratory tests. Maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was used for assessment of FDG uptake in regions usually affected in PMR (spinous processes, hips, shoulders, sternoclavicular region and ischial tuberosities). The Wilcoxon test was applied to evaluate the changes in parameters after the infusions and Spearman's rank correlation test was applied to assess the correlations between SUVmax and PMR-AS, CRP and ESR. Of 21 patients included in the trial, 18 were evaluated. The median bioclinical parameter values decreased after TCZ 1 (PMR-AS from 38.2 to 15.7, CRP from 65.2 to 0.4 mg/l and ESR from 49 to 6.5 mm; all p < 0.05) as did the median SUVmax (from 5.8 to 5.2; p < 0.05). All values also decreased after TCZ 3 (PMR-AS from 38.2 to 3.9, CRP from 65.2 to 0.2, ESR from 49 to 2, and SUVmax from 5.8 to 4.7; p < 0.05). In a region-based analysis, all SUVmax were significantly reduced after TCZ 3, except the values for the cervical spinous processes and shoulder regions. With regard to correlations, few significant differences were found between ∇SUVmax and the other parameters including ∇PMR-AS, ∇CRP and ∇ESR in the patient-based and region-based analysis. FDG uptake decreased significantly but moderately after TCZ therapy in PMR patients, and might reflect disease activity. (orig.)

  18. Low Incidence of Renal Dysfunction among HIV-Infected Patients on a Tenofovir-Based First Line Antiretroviral Treatment Regimen in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Antierens, Annick; Soe, Kyi Pyar; Woodman, Mike; Das, Mrinalini; Zuu, Moe Khine Lwin; Htwe, Pyae Sone

    2015-01-01

    Background Since 2004, Médecins Sans Frontières-Switzerland has provided treatment and care for people living with HIV in Dawei, Myanmar. Renal function is routinely monitored in patients on tenofovir (TDF)-based antiretroviral treatment (ART), and this provides an opportunity to measure incidence and risk factors for renal dysfunction. Methods We used routinely collected program data on all patients aged ≥15 years starting first-line TDF-based ART between January 2012 and December 2013. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was assessed at base line and six-monthly, with renal dysfunction defined as CrCl 50ml/min/1.73m2. We calculated incidence of renal dysfunction and used Cox regression analysis to identify associated risk factors. Results There were 1391 patients, of whom 1372 had normal renal function at baseline. Of these, 86 (6.3%) developed renal dysfunction during a median time of follow-up 1.14 years with an incidence rate of 5.4 per 100 person-years: 78 had CrCl between 30–50ml/min/1.73m2 and were maintained on TDF–based ART, but 5 were changed to another regimen: 4 because of CrCl <30ml/min/1.73m2. Risk factors for renal dysfunction included age ≥45 years, diagnosed diabetes, underlying renal disease, underweight and CD4 count <200cells/mm3. There were 19 patients with baseline renal dysfunction and all continued on TDF-based ART: CrCl stayed between 30–49 ml/min/1.73m2 in five patients while the remainder regained normal renal function. Conclusions In a resource-poor country like Myanmar, the low incidence of renal toxicity in our patient cohort suggests that routine assessment of CrCl may not be needed and could be targeted to high risk groups if resources permit. PMID:26301416

  19. Clinical Study of S-1 Plus Oxaliplatin Versus S-1 Plus Cisplatin as First-Line Treatment for Elderly Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer

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    Deng-feng BO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of S-1 plus oxaliplatin versus S-1 plus cisplatin as the first-line treatment for elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 60 patients with advanced gastric cancer admitted in Xi’an Yanliang Railway Hospital from Jan., 2011 to Oct., 2013 were selected as study objects and randomly divided into 2 groups: S1 plus oxaliplatin group (SOX group, 30 cases and S1 plus cisplatin group (SP group, 30 cases. SOX group were given intravenous drip of 130 mg/m2 oxaliplatin for 2 h on d1. And S-1 was also given according to body surface area: body surface area <1.25 m2, 40 mg once; 1.25-1.5 m2, 60 mg once; >1.5, 28 d as 1 cycle. SP group was administered with intravenous drip of 25 mg/m2 cisplatin during d1-d3. Treatment was discontinued until the occurrence of disease progression or patients’ intolerance to chemotherapy. Results: SOX group was non-inferior to SP group in overall response rate (ORR (53.3% vs. 43.3%, disease control rate (DCR (83.3% vs. 80.0%, median progression-free survival (PFS (7.0 vs. 6.0 months and median overall survival (OS (11.0 vs. 10.5 months. However, the difference was statistical significant in the rate of increased KPS score (86.7% vs. 46.7%, χ2=10.800, P=0.001 and the rate of increased FACT-G score (73.3% vs. 36.7%, χ2=8.148, P=0.004. The main toxic and side effects of two groups was hematological toxicity. There was no degree III-IV toxic and side effects occurring in non hematological toxicity in two groups. The main toxic effect was peripheral neuritis in SOX group, and nausea and vomiting and renal dysfunction in SP group, and there were statistical differences in the above toxic and side effects between two groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: SOX regimen is as safe and effective as SP regimen for elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer, with better quality of life and less toxic and side effects.

  20. Simplified clinical prediction scores to target viral load testing in adults with suspected first line treatment failure in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

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    Johan van Griensven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For settings with limited laboratory capacity, 2013 World Health Organization (WHO guidelines recommend targeted HIV-1 viral load (VL testing to identify virological failure. We previously developed and validated a clinical prediction score (CPS for targeted VL testing, relying on clinical, adherence and laboratory data. While outperforming the WHO failure criteria, it required substantial calculation and review of all previous laboratory tests. In response, we developed four simplified, less error-prone and broadly applicable CPS versions that can be done 'on the spot'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Findings From May 2010 to June 2011, we validated the original CPS in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia applying the CPS to adults on first-line treatment >1 year. Virological failure was defined as a single VL >1000 copies/ml. The four CPSs included CPS1 with 'current CD4 count' instead of %-decline-from-peak CD4; CPS2 with hemoglobin measurements removed; CPS3 having 'decrease in CD4 count below baseline value' removed; CPS4 was purely clinical. Score development relied on the Spiegelhalter/Knill-Jones method. Variables independently associated with virological failure with a likelihood ratio ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.67 were retained. CPS performance was evaluated based on the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUROC and 95% confidence intervals (CI. The CPSs were validated in an independent dataset. A total of 1490 individuals (56.6% female, median age: 38 years (interquartile range (IQR 33-44; median baseline CD4 count: 94 cells/µL (IQR 28-205, median time on antiretroviral therapy 3.6 years (IQR 2.1-5.1, were included. Forty-five 45 (3.0% individuals had virological failure. CPS1 yielded an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62-0.75 in validation, CPS2 an AUROC of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62-0.74, and CPS3, an AUROC of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61-0.73. The purely clinical CPS4 performed poorly (AUROC-0.59; 95% CI: 0.53-0.65. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified CPSs retained

  1. S-1-based chemotherapy versus capecitabine-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced gastric carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

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    Ming-ming He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although both oral fluoropyrimidines were reported effective and safe, doubts exist about whether S-1 or capecitabine is more advantageous in advanced gastric carcinoma (AGC. Herein, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively compare the efficacy and safety of S-1-based chemotherapy versus capecitabine-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment for AGC. METHODS: PubMed/Medline, EmBase, Cochrane library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for articles comparing S-1-based chemotherapy to capecitabine-based chemotherapy for AGC. Primary outcomes were overall response rate (ORR, time to progression (TTP, overall survival (OS, progression-free probability, and survival probability. Secondary outcomes were toxicities. Fixed-effects model were used and all the results were confirmed by random-effects model. RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials and five cohort studies with 821 patients were included. We found equivalent ORR (38.3% vs. 39.1%, odds ratio [OR] 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-1.24, P = 0.59, TTP (harzad ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.82-1.16, P = 0.79, OS (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.87-1.13, P = 0.91, progression-free probability (3-month OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.62-1.68, P = 0.94; 6-month OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.88-2.04, P = 0.18 and survival probability (0.5-year OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.61-1.31, P =0.57; 1-year OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.70- 1.33, P = 0.84; 2-year OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.61-2.17, P = 0.66. Equivalent grade 3 to 4 hematological and non-hematological toxicities were found except hand-foot syndrome was less prominent in S-1-based chemotherapy (0.3% vs. 5.9%, OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.56, P = 0.003. There're no significant heterogeneity and publication bias. Cumulative analysis found stable time-dependent trend. Consistent results stratified by study design, age, regimen, cycle, country were observed. CONCLUSION: S-1-based chemotherapy was associated with non-inferior antitumor efficacy and better safety profile

  2. S-1-based chemotherapy versus capecitabine-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced gastric carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming-ming; Wu, Wen-jing; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Luo, Hui-yan; Qiu, Miao-zhen; Wang, Feng-Hua; Ren, Chao; Zeng, Zhao-Lei; Xu, Rui-hua

    2013-01-01

    Although both oral fluoropyrimidines were reported effective and safe, doubts exist about whether S-1 or capecitabine is more advantageous in advanced gastric carcinoma (AGC). Herein, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively compare the efficacy and safety of S-1-based chemotherapy versus capecitabine-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment for AGC. PubMed/Medline, EmBase, Cochrane library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for articles comparing S-1-based chemotherapy to capecitabine-based chemotherapy for AGC. Primary outcomes were overall response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), progression-free probability, and survival probability. Secondary outcomes were toxicities. Fixed-effects model were used and all the results were confirmed by random-effects model. Five randomized controlled trials and five cohort studies with 821 patients were included. We found equivalent ORR (38.3% vs. 39.1%, odds ratio [OR] 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-1.24, P = 0.59), TTP (harzad ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% CI 0.82-1.16, P = 0.79), OS (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.87-1.13, P = 0.91), progression-free probability (3-month OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.62-1.68, P = 0.94; 6-month OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.88-2.04, P = 0.18) and survival probability (0.5-year OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.61-1.31, P =0.57; 1-year OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.70- 1.33, P = 0.84; 2-year OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.61-2.17, P = 0.66). Equivalent grade 3 to 4 hematological and non-hematological toxicities were found except hand-foot syndrome was less prominent in S-1-based chemotherapy (0.3% vs. 5.9%, OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06-0.56, P = 0.003). There're no significant heterogeneity and publication bias. Cumulative analysis found stable time-dependent trend. Consistent results stratified by study design, age, regimen, cycle, country were observed. S-1-based chemotherapy was associated with non-inferior antitumor efficacy and better safety profile, compared with capecitabine-based therapy. We

  3. Effect of pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance on immunological, virological, and drug-resistance outcomes of first-line antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, Raph L.; Schuurman, Rob; Sigaloff, Kim C. E.; Wallis, Carole L.; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E.; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Wit, Ferdinand W.; van Vugt, Michèle; Stevens, Wendy S.; de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance on the response to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has not been assessed. We studied pretreatment drug resistance and virological, immunological, and drug-resistance treatment outcomes in a large

  4. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of disease-modifying drugs for the first-line treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lawrence D D; Edwards, Natalie C; Fincher, Contessa; Doan, Quan V; Al-Sabbagh, Ahmad; Meletiche, Dennis M

    2009-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system that primarily afflicts young adults. Approximately 400,000 people in the United States are affected by MS. Although several forms of MS exist, the most common course is known as relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), which affects about 85% of MS patients. This form of MS is characterized by relapses of neurologic symptoms followed by periods of recovery. Progression of disease can lead to increasingly severe disability. Since the introduction of immunomodulatory biologic agents, such as interferon betas and glatiramer acetate, treatment has helped to change the course of the disease. Under budgetary constraints, health services payers are challenged to differentiate the economic value of these agents for formulary selection and/or placement. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate the 2-year cost-effectiveness of 4 disease modifying drugs (DMDs) used as first-line treatment of RRMS: glatiramer acetate, interferon (IFN) Beta-1a IM injection, IFN Beta-1a SC injection, and IFN Beta-1b SC injection. An Excel-based model was developed to compare the relative effectiveness and cost components of relapses, disability progression, and DMDs in the treatment of RRMS over a 2-year time horizon. The relative risk reduction (RRR) method was used to compare reduction in relapse rates and disease progression data from pivotal randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials of the DMDs. RRRs for relapses and disability progression, respectively, were calculated as the relative difference (treatment vs. placebo) in relapse rates and disease progression rates from placebo-controlled clinical trials. These RRRs were applied to the weighted average rates of relapse and number of disability progression steps seen in the placebo arms of the pivotal studies. The evaluation was conducted from the perspective of a U.S. health care payer (only direct medical costs considered

  5. Gefitinib as first-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with activating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor mutation: implications for clinical practice and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridelli, C; De Marinis, F; Di Maio, M; Cortinovis, D; Cappuzzo, F; Mok, T

    2011-04-01

    Randomized trials comparing gefitinib with chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with EGFR mutated advanced NSCLC support gefitinib as a new, highly effective treatment option in this setting. However, its use in clinical practice has several relevant implications and open issues. In order to choose the best treatment, a molecular characterization is now mandatory, as part of baseline diagnostic procedures. Every effort should be made in order to obtain sufficient tissue. If a clinical enrichment has to be performed for selecting patients to test for EGFR mutation, a reasonable proposal is to test all non-squamous tumors, and patients with squamous tumors only if never smokers. In patients with EGFR mutated tumor, one major issue is the decision about immediate use of gefitinib as first-line, or after failure of standard chemotherapy. First-line gefitinib, compared to chemotherapy, is associated with longer progression-free survival, higher response rate, better toxicity profile and quality of life, and its administration as first-line warrants that all patients have the chance of receiving an EGFR inhibitor. Evidence about the efficacy of erlotinib in the same setting will be soon available, however, at the moment, there are no direct comparisons between gefitinib and erlotinib in EGFR mutated patients. Treatment with gefitinib is usually well tolerated. Typical side effects in most cases are of mild to moderate intensity, and usually manageable with temporary interruption of treatment. When indicated gefitinib appears feasible also in special populations, like elderly or unfit patients, characterized by a significantly poorer risk/benefit ratio with standard chemotherapy. Personalized medicine for patients with lung cancer is now a reality, and patients with EGFR mutation should be treated with first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment discontinuation in HIV-1-infected individuals starting their first-line HAART after 2008: data from the ICONA Foundation Study Cohort

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    Antonio Di Biagio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyze the likelihood and the predictors of discontinuation of first-line regimen in the late HAART era. Methodology: An observational multi-center analysis of HIV-positive patients enrolled in ICONA. Patients eligible were those starting a first-line HAART after 1 January 2008. Discontinuation was defined as stop and/or switch of at least one drug of the regimen. All causes of discontinuation, as reported by the treating physician, were evaluated and cumulative risk of stopping was investigated according to age, gender, co-morbidity, years since starting HAART, immuno-virological status, third drug and backbone of the first regimen. Kaplan Meier (KM analysis and Cox proportional hazards model were used for the outcome discontinuation of ≥1 drug regardless of the reason. For the KM estimates a competing risk approach was used to estimate the contribution of each of the reasons over time to the cumulative risk of stopping over time. Results: Data of 1759 patients who started first HAART and had at least one month of clinical follow-up were analyzed. The overall discontinuation risk was 33% over a median follow-up of 12 months. The likelihood of discontinuation by KM was 27% by one year (95% CI 25–29 and 41% by two years (95% CI 38–44. Main reason for stopping at least one drug in regimen was simplification (10%, followed by intolerance (7%, toxicity (5%, failure (2% and other causes (8%. Estimates of the cumulative risk of discontinuation of ≥1 drug over time and according to reason are shown in Figure 1. In a multivariable Cox model independent predictors of discontinuation regardless of the reason were: longer time from HIV diagnosis to date of starting HAART (hazard ratio [HR] 0.96; 95% CI 0.93–1.00; p=0.039, regimens containing ZDV/3TC (HR 2.86; 95% CI 1.42–5.76; p=0.003 vs TDF/FTC and an NNRTI-based regimen (HR 2.47; 95% CI 0.91–6.72; p=0.07 vs regimens not NNRTI-based. Conclusions

  7. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-16

    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS g.kg(-1), respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  8. Therapeutic efficacy and effects of artemisinin-based combination treatments on uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria -associated anaemia in Nigerian children during seven years of adoption as first-line treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowunmi, Akintunde; Akano, Kazeem; Ntadom, Godwin; Ayede, Adejumoke I; Ibironke, Folasade O; Aderoyeje, Temitope; Adewoye, Elsie O; Fatunmbi, Bayo; Oguche, Stephen; Okafor, Henrietta U; Watila, Ismaila; Meremikwu, Martin; Agomo, Philip; Ogala, William; Agomo, Chimere; Folarin, Onikepe A; Gbotosho, Grace O; Happi, Christian T

    2017-02-07

    Artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) are the first-line treatments of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in many endemic areas but there are few evaluation of their efficacy in anaemic malarious children. Therapeutic efficacy of 3-day regimens of artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine was evaluated in 437 anaemic and 909 non-anaemic malarious children following treatment during a seven-year period (2008-2014). Patterns of temporal changes in haematocrit were classified based on haematocrit values Fall in haematocrit/1 000 asexual parasites cleared from peripheral blood was significantly greater at lower compared to higher parasitaemias (P line treatments. These ACTs may also conserve haematocrit at high parasitaemias and in anaemic children. Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201508001188143 , 3 July 2015; PACTR201510001189370 , 3 July 2015; PACTR201508001191898 , 7 July 2015 and PACTR201508001193368 , 8 July 2015.

  9. The predictive value of microRNA-126 in relation to first line treatment with capecitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

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    Hansen Torben

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-126 is the only microRNA (miRNA known to be endothelial cell-specific influencing angiogenesis in several ways. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible predictive value of miRNA-126 in relation to first line capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. Methods The study included 89 patients with mCRC. In situ hybridization (ISH was performed to detect miRNA-126 in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from primary tumours. The expression of miRNA-126, area per image (μm2, was measured using image analysis. Clinical response was evaluated according to RECIST. Progression free survival (PFS was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test. Tumours were classified as low or high miRNA-126 expressing tumours using the median value from the patients with response as cut-off. Results The median miRNA-126 expression level was significantly higher in patients responding to XELOX, 3629 μm2 (95% CI, 2566-4846, compared to the patients not responding, 1670 μm2 (95% CI, 1436-2041, p p Conclusions Angiogenesis quantified by ISH of miRNA-126 was related to response to first line XELOX in patients with mCRC, translating to a significant difference in PFS. The predictive value of miRNA-126 remains to be further elucidated in prospective studies.

  10. Economic evaluation of first-line treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis in a health resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Dong, Baijun; Xu, Yuejuan; Zhang, Qiang; Shen, Jinfang; Chen, Huafeng; Xue, Wei

    2012-01-01

    To estimate, from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system, the economic outcomes of five different first-line strategies among patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate the lifetime disease course associated with renal cell carcinoma. The health and economic outcomes of five first-line strategies (interferon-alfa, interleukin-2, interleukin-2 plus interferon-alfa, sunitinib and bevacizumab plus interferon-alfa) were estimated and assessed by indirect comparison. The clinical and utility data were taken from published studies. The cost data were estimated from local charge data and current Chinese practices. Sensitivity analyses were used to explore the impact of uncertainty regarding the results. The impact of the sunitinib patient assistant program (SPAP) was evaluated via scenario analysis. The base-case analysis showed that the sunitinib strategy yielded the maximum health benefits: 2.71 life years and 1.40 quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). The marginal cost-effectiveness (cost per additional QALY) gained via the sunitinib strategy compared with the conventional strategy was $220,384 (without SPAP, interleukin-2 plus interferon-alfa and bevacizumab plus interferon-alfa were dominated) and $16,993 (with SPAP, interferon-alfa, interleukin-2 plus interferon-alfa and bevacizumab plus interferon-alfa were dominated). In general, the results were sensitive to the hazard ratio of progression-free survival. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the sunitinib strategy with SPAP was the most cost-effective approach when the willingness-to-pay threshold was over $16,000. Our analysis suggests that traditional cytokine therapy is the cost-effective option in the Chinese healthcare setting. In some relatively developed regions, sunitinib with SPAP may be a favorable cost-effective alternative for mRCC.

  11. Economic evaluation of first-line treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis in a health resource-limited setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate, from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system, the economic outcomes of five different first-line strategies among patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate the lifetime disease course associated with renal cell carcinoma. The health and economic outcomes of five first-line strategies (interferon-alfa, interleukin-2, interleukin-2 plus interferon-alfa, sunitinib and bevacizumab plus interferon-alfa were estimated and assessed by indirect comparison. The clinical and utility data were taken from published studies. The cost data were estimated from local charge data and current Chinese practices. Sensitivity analyses were used to explore the impact of uncertainty regarding the results. The impact of the sunitinib patient assistant program (SPAP was evaluated via scenario analysis. The base-case analysis showed that the sunitinib strategy yielded the maximum health benefits: 2.71 life years and 1.40 quality-adjusted life-years (QALY. The marginal cost-effectiveness (cost per additional QALY gained via the sunitinib strategy compared with the conventional strategy was $220,384 (without SPAP, interleukin-2 plus interferon-alfa and bevacizumab plus interferon-alfa were dominated and $16,993 (with SPAP, interferon-alfa, interleukin-2 plus interferon-alfa and bevacizumab plus interferon-alfa were dominated. In general, the results were sensitive to the hazard ratio of progression-free survival. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the sunitinib strategy with SPAP was the most cost-effective approach when the willingness-to-pay threshold was over $16,000. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that traditional cytokine therapy is the cost-effective option in the Chinese healthcare setting. In some relatively developed regions, sunitinib with SPAP may be a favorable cost-effective alternative for mRCC.

  12. Metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma: trends in first-line treatment and predictive factors for the implementation of HER2 testing in clinical practice during the first year after trastuzumab market approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, Deniz; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Dada, Reyad; Hünerlitürkoglu, Ali-Nuri; Gonnermann, Michael; Kegel, Thomas; Scheiber, Harald; Jordan, Wolf-Oliver; Burkholder, Iris; Kellermann, Lenka; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the use of first-line chemotherapy in clinical practice in patients with advanced esophagogastric adenocarcinoma, and no data have been published regarding potential obstacles for the implementation of molecular testing for targeted agents in this patient group. Here, we sought to evaluate factors influencing treatment decisions with special focus on the implementation of HER2 testing during the first year after trastuzumab market approval in Germany. A total of 754 patients undergoing treatment decisions for palliative first-line therapy in 2010 were documented using Therapiemonitor(®). Drug use and intensity of first-line treatment were analyzed. Data on HER2 testing and test algorithm are described, and variables influencing HER2 testing were selected using bivariate analysis. Significant factors were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Compared with previous years, treatment intensity has further increased. The use of chemotherapy triplets rose from 10.1 % in 2006 to 60.3 % in 2010. In 2010, 49.1 % of patients were tested for HER2 and in 52.2 % of these patients the currently proposed test algorithm was used. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis age ≥67 years and "initiating institution: practice" were found to negatively impact the likelihood of HER2 testing, while treatment goal "prevention of progression", multiple metastases and a Karnofsky status >80 % showed positive correlation with HER2 testing. The tendency to use more intensive first-line chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced esophagogastric adenocarcinoma continued in 2010. Only a minority of patients had an access to the appropriate molecular diagnostics and therefore to treatment with trastuzumab. The access was limited due to the preselection following individual, clinical and institutional factors.

  13. High rate of virological failure and low rate of switching to second-line treatment among adolescents and adults living with HIV on first-line ART in Myanmar, 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Oo, Myo Minn; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Win, Than; Aung, Thet Ko; Min, Aung Chan; Oo, Htun Nyunt

    2017-01-01

    Background The number of people living with HIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Myanmar has been increasing rapidly in recent years. This study aimed to estimate rates of virological failure on first-line ART and switching to second-line ART due to treatment failure at the Integrated HIV Care program (IHC). Methods Routinely collected data of all adolescent and adult patients living with HIV who were initiated on first-line ART at IHC between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The cumulative hazard of virological failure on first-line ART and switching to second-line ART were estimated. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox regression model to identify risk factors associated with the two outcomes. Results Of 23,248 adults and adolescents, 7,888 (34%) were tested for HIV viral load. The incidence rate of virological failure among those tested was 3.2 per 100 person-years follow-up and the rate of switching to second-line ART among all patients was 1.4 per 100 person-years follow-up. Factors associated with virological failure included: being adolescent; being lost to follow-up at least once; having WHO stage 3 and 4 at ART initiation; and having taken first-line ART elsewhere before coming to IHC. Of the 1032 patients who met virological failure criteria, 762 (74%) switched to second-line ART. Conclusions We found high rates of virological failure among one third of patients in the cohort who were tested for viral load. Of those failing virologically on first-line ART, about one quarter were not switched to second-line ART. Routine viral load monitoring, especially for those identified as having a higher risk of treatment failure, should be considered in this setting to detect all patients failing on first-line ART. Strategies also need to be put in place to prevent treatment failure and to treat more of those patients who are actually failing. PMID:28182786

  14. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Josef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Methods Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. Results 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59; most (98% experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]. Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56% compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%. Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78, health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0 and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7 were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion, respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. Conclusions First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument

  15. Carboplatin plus paclitaxel versus carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as first-line treatment for patients with ovarian cancer: the MITO-2 randomized phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Sandro; Scambia, Giovanni; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Savarese, Antonella; Sorio, Roberto; Breda, Enrico; Gebbia, Vittorio; Musso, Pietro; Frigerio, Luigi; Del Medico, Pietro; Lombardi, Alessandra Vernaglia; Febbraro, Antonio; Scollo, Paolo; Ferro, Antonella; Tamberi, Stefano; Brandes, Alba; Ravaioli, Alberto; Valerio, Maria Rosaria; Aitini, Enrico; Natale, Donato; Scaltriti, Laura; Greggi, Stefano; Pisano, Carmela; Lorusso, Domenica; Salutari, Vanda; Legge, Francesco; Di Maio, Massimo; Morabito, Alessandro; Gallo, Ciro; Perrone, Francesco

    2011-09-20

    Carboplatin/paclitaxel is the standard first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Multicentre Italian Trials in Ovarian Cancer-2 (MITO-2), an academic multicenter phase III trial, tested whether carboplatin/pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) was more effective than standard chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-naive patients with stage IC to IV ovarian cancer (age ≤ 75 years; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤ 2) were randomly assigned to carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) 5 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) or to carboplatin AUC 5 plus PLD 30 mg/m(2), every 3 weeks for six cycles. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). With 632 events in 820 enrolled patients, the study would have 80% power to detect a 0.80 hazard ratio (HR) of PFS. Eight hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned. Disease stages III and IV were prevalent. Occurrence of PFS events substantially slowed before obtaining the planned number. Therefore, in concert with the Independent Data Monitoring Committee, final analysis was performed with 556 events, after a median follow-up of 40 months. Median PFS times were 19.0 and 16.8 months with carboplatin/PLD and carboplatin/paclitaxel, respectively (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.13; P = .58). Median overall survival times were 61.6 and 53.2 months with carboplatin/PLD and carboplatin/paclitaxel, respectively (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.12; P = .32). Carboplatin/PLD produced a similar response rate but different toxicity (less neurotoxicity and alopecia but more hematologic adverse effects). There was no relevant difference in global quality of life after three and six cycles. Carboplatin/PLD was not superior to carboplatin/paclitaxel, which remains the standard first-line chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer. However, given the observed CIs and the different toxicity, carboplatin/PLD could be considered an alternative to standard therapy.

  16. An Economic Evaluation of the Posttreatment Prophylactic Effect of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Versus Artemether-Lumefantrine for First-Line Treatment of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Across Different Transmission Settings in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil, Johannes; Borrmann, Steffen; Bassat, Quique; Mulenga, Modest; Talisuna, Ambrose; Tozan, Yesim

    2015-11-01

    Malaria disproportionately affects young children. Clinical trials in African children showed that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is an effective antimalarial and has a longer posttreatment prophylactic (PTP) effect against reinfections than other artemisinin-based combination therapies, including artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Using a previously developed Markov model and individual patient data from a multicenter African drug efficacy trial, we assessed the economic value of the PTP effect of DP versus AL in pediatric malaria patients from health-care provider's perspective in low-to-moderate and moderate-to-high transmission settings under different drug co-payment scenarios. In low-to-moderate transmission settings, first-line treatment with DP was highly cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -76 to 196) per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. In moderate-to-high transmission settings, DP first-line treatment led to a mean cost saving of US$1.09 (95% CI = -0.88 to 3.85) and averted 0.05 (95% CI = -0.08 to 0.22) DALYs per child per year. Our results suggested that DP might be superior to AL for first-line treatment of uncomplicated childhood malaria across a range of transmission settings in Africa. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of an Individualized First-Line Treatment Strategy Offering Erlotinib Based on EGFR Mutation Testing in Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schremser, Katharina; Rogowski, Wolf H; Adler-Reichel, Sigrid; Tufman, Amanda L H; Huber, Rudolf M; Stollenwerk, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Lung cancer is among the top causes of cancer-related deaths. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors can increase progression-free survival compared with standard chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of the study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of EGFR mutation analysis and first-line therapy with erlotinib for mutation-positive patients compared with non-individualized standard chemotherapy from the perspective of German statutory health insurance. A state transition model was developed for a time horizon of 10 years (reference year 2014). Data sources were published data from the European Tarceva versus Chemotherapy (EURTAC) randomized trial for drug efficacy and safety and German cost data. We additionally performed deterministic, probabilistic and structural sensitivity analyses. The individualized strategy incurred 0.013 additional quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and additional costs of € 200, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of € 15,577/QALY. Results were most sensitive to uncertainty in survival curves and changes in utility values. Cross-validating health utility estimates with recent German data increased the ICER to about € 58,000/QALY. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that the individualized strategy is cost-effective, with a probability exceeding 50 % for a range of possible willingness-to-pay thresholds. The uncertainty of the predicted survival curves is substantial, particularly for overall survival, which was not a primary endpoint in the EURTAC study. Also, there is limited data on quality of life in metastatic lung cancer patients. Individualized therapy based on EGFR mutation status has the potential to provide a cost-effective alternative to non-individualized care for patients with advanced adenocarcinoma. Further clinical research is needed to confirm these results.

  18. A phase II study of weekly docetaxel-cisplatin as first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Daniel; Hackenthal, Matthias; Graseck, Lutz; Schweisfurth, Hans; Schäper, Christoph; Krüll, Matthias; Temmesfeld-Wollbrück, Bettina; Suttorp, Norbert; Beinert, Thomas; Hellriegel, Klaus-Peter

    2009-09-01

    The combination of docetaxel and cisplatin is an effective first-line regimen in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, the recommended three-weekly schedule is associated with frequent neutropenia and infections. Because of the toxicity of cisplatin, patients may need to be hospitalized to ensure adequate hydration. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a weekly schedule of docetaxel and cisplatin. Patients with inoperable stage International Union Against Cancer IIIB (malignant effusion) or IV non-small cell lung cancer received docetaxel (35 mg/m(2), 30 minutes infusion) and cisplatin (25 mg/m(2), 30 minutes infusion) on days 1, 8, and 15, every 4 weeks for 4 to 6 cycles. Ondansetron (8 mg) and dexamethasone (8 mg) were given intravenously before chemotherapy. The patients received oral dexamethasone 2 x 4 mg daily from the day before until the day after chemotherapy. NK1-antagonists were given at the investigator's discretion. The majority of patients was treated in outpatient departments. Safety was assessed using CTCAE v3.0. The primary end point was response rate (RECIST). Forty-four patients were included. Twelve of 44 patients achieved an objective response (11 partial, 1 complete, intent-to-treat response rate 27%). Median time to progression was 4.4 months (95% confidence interval: 4.0-4.7) and median survival 9.6 months (95% confidence interval: 2.9-16.2). Patients received a median of three full cycles. Four patients (9%) required dose reductions. No cases of febrile neutropenia or grade 2 to 4 thrombocytopenia were observed. One patient (2%) experienced grade 3/4 nausea and vomiting. Weekly docetaxel-cisplatin demonstrated comparable efficacy with three-weekly schedules. Although the frequencies of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were low, non-neutropenic infections remained a problem. Because of relatively short hydration, the schedule can be safely administered in an outpatient setting.

  19. Radioimmunotherapy for first-line and relapse treatment of aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: an analysis of 215 patients registered in the international RIT-Network

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    Hohloch, Karin; Lankeit, H.K.; Truemper, L. [Georg August University, Hematology and Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Zinzani, P.L. [University of Bologna, Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology ' ' L. e A. Seragnoli' ' , Bologna (Italy); Scholz, C.W. [Charite, University Berlin, Hematology, Oncology and Tumor Immunology, Berlin (Germany); Lorsbach, M.; Windemuth-Kieselbach, C. [Alcedis GmbH, Giessen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Very few reliable clinical data about the use of radioimmunotherapy in aggressive B-cell lymphoma exist. Patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma registered in the international RIT-Network were analysed with regard to prior treatment, response and side effects. The RIT-Network is a web-based registry that collects observational data from radioimmunotherapy-treated patients with malignant lymphoma across 13 countries. This analysis included 215 with aggressive B-cell lymphoma out of 232 patients registered in the RIT-Network. Histological subtypes were as follows: 190 diffuse large B-cell, 15 primary mediastinal, 9 anaplastic large cell, and 1 intravascular lymphoma. The median age of the patients was 62 years (range 17 - 88), with 27 % above the age of 70 years. Radioimmunotherapy was mainly used as consolidation after first-line or second-line chemotherapy (56.1 %), as part of third-line to eighth-line therapy for relapse (16.4 %), and in refractory disease (12.2 %). Grade IV neutropenia and thrombopenia and grade III anaemia were observed. The median time to recovery of blood count was 81 days (range 0 - 600 days). The overall response rate was 63.3 %. The complete response rate was 76.4 % in patients treated as part of first-line therapy, and 44.3 % in patients with relapse. Mean overall survival in first-line therapy patients was 32.7 months and 14.0 months in patients with relapse or refractory disease, respectively. Most patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma in the RIT-Network received radioimmunotherapy as consolidation after first-line therapy with excellent complete remission and overall survival rates compared to published data. In relapsed aggressive B-cell lymphoma, radioimmunotherapy is a safe and feasible treatment leading to satisfactory response rates with acceptable toxicity. (orig.)

  20. First-line treatment of patients with disseminated poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas with carboplatin, etoposide, and vincristine: a single institution experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ingrid Holst; Langer, Seppo W; Jepsen, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDECs) represent highly malignant tumors with an immense tendency to metastasize and with a poor prognosis. The treatment consists of palliative chemotherapy and corresponds to the treatment of extensive stage small cell lung cancer....

  1. Is intravenous lorazepam really more effective and safe than intravenous diazepam as first-line treatment for convulsive status epilepticus? A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Bacigaluppi, Susanna; Nardone, Raffaele; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-11-01

    Some guidelines or expert consensus indicate that intravenous (IV) lorazepam (LZP) is preferable to IV diazepam (DZP) for initial treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (SE). We aimed to critically assess all the available data on efficacy and tolerability of IV LZP compared with IV DZP as first-line treatment of convulsive SE. Systematic search of the literature (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV LZP versus IV DZP used as first-line treatment for convulsive SE (generalized or focal). Inverse variance, Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis to obtain risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of following outcomes: seizure cessation after drug administration; continuation of SE requiring a different drug; seizure cessation after a single dose of medication; need for ventilator support; clinically relevant hypotension. Five RCTs were included, with a total of 656 patients, 320 randomly allocated to IV LZP and 336 to IV DZP. No statistically significant differences were found between IV LZP and IV DZP for clinical seizure cessation (RR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.20), continuation of SE requiring a different drug (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.02), seizure cessation after a single dose of medication (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.08), need for ventilator support RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.43, and clinically relevant hypotension. Despite its favorable pharmacokinetic profile, a systematic appraisal of the literature does not provide evidence to strongly support the preferential use of IV LZP as first-line treatment of convulsive SE over IV DZP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High prevalence of pfdhfr-pfdhps triple mutations associated with anti-malarial drugs resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates seven years after the adoption of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in combination with artesunate as first-line treatment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Maryam; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Pirahmadi, Sakineh; Raeisi, Ahmad; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2015-04-01

    The spread of anti-malarial drug resistance will challenge any malaria control and elimination strategies, and routine monitoring of resistance-associated molecular markers of commonly used anti-malarial drugs is very important. Therefore, in the present investigation, the extent of mutations/haplotypes in dhfr and dhps genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates (n=72) was analyzed seven years after the introduction of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus artesunate (AS) as first-line anti-malarial treatment in Iran using PCR-RFLP methods. The results showed that the majority of the patients (97.2%) carried both 59R and 108N mutations in pure form with wild-type genotype at positions N51 and I164. Additionally, a significant increase (Pdrug for treatment of falciparum patients in these malaria-endemic areas of Iran. However, no quintuple mutations associated with treatment failure were detected. In conclusion, the present results along with in vivo assays suggest that seven years after the adoption of SP-AS as the first-line treatment in Iran, this drug remains efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, as a partner drug with AS in these malaria-endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing the treatment of bevacizumab as first-line therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-negative advanced breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis of published randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2017-06-01

    in OS (P=0.783 when compared with chemotherapy alone. The greater benefits in PFS and ORR were achieved from bevacizumab plus taxane-based regimens compared with bevacizumab plus capecitabine-based regimens, while bevacizumab plus capecitabine had comparable OS with bevacizumab plus paclitaxel. Additionally, bevacizumab-based triplet therapy failed to improve the clinical outcomes when compared with doublet therapy.Conclusion: This meta-analysis reveals that the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy yielded PFS and ORR benefits in HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. Additional studies are still prompted to further optimize the first-line treatment of bevacizumab. Keywords: breast cancer, bevacizumab, first-line, HER2-negative, meta-analysis

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Newer Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Versus Imatinib in the First-Line Treatment of Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Across Risk Groups: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Eight Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seongseok; Vincelette, Nicole D; Segar, Jennifer M; Dong, Yimin; Shen, Yang; Kim, Dong-Wook; Abraham, Ivo

    2016-06-01

    BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have significantly improved the survival outcomes for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In addition to imatinib, 3 newer generation TKIs (NG-TKIs) have been approved as first-line treatment of chronic phase (CP)-CML. These have been preferably used in patients with CP-CML with a high Sokal or Hasford risk score. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the outcomes with NG-TKIs as a category versus imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed CP-CML and to indirectly compare the efficacy of NG-TKIs among each other. Furthermore, we assessed the effect of the risk scores on the complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and major molecular response (MMR). The eligible studies were limited to randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of first-line treatment using NG-TKIs versus imatinib in adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) with CP-CML. The differences in the CCyR, progression-free survival, and overall survival between the NG-TKIs and imatinib were not statistically significant. NG-TKI-treated patients showed a significantly greater likelihood of MMR (relative risk [RR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.91; P = .003) and lower likelihood of progression to an accelerated phase/blast crisis (RR, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.67; P = .001) than did imatinib-treated patients. Nilotinib, dasatinib, and radotinib showed significantly greater CCyR rates compared with bosutinib and ponatinib. All risk groups showed statistically equivalent benefits from NG-TKIs for the CCyR and MMR. In first-line treatment, the NG-TKIs as a category showed greater effectiveness in MMR and prevention of accelerated phase/blast crisis progression. Risk stratification was not found to affect the RR of CCyR and MMR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous versus intermittent tamoxifen versus intermittent/alternated tamoxifen and medroxyprogesterone acetate as first line endocrine treatment in advanced breast cancer: an EORTC phase III study (10863).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beex, L.V.A.M.; Rose, C.; Mouridsen, H.; Jassem, J.; Nooij, M.; Estape, J.; Paridaens, R.; Piccart, M.; Gorlia, T.; Lardenoije, S.; Baila, L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous ligand depletion of endocrine responsive tumours may enhance resistance to therapy. Intermittent treatment with tamoxifen (T) was considered to mimic (incomplete) ligand depletion and reintroduction. Furthermore it was postulated that alternating tamoxifen with a non-cross

  6. Cost-effectiveness of DTG + ABC/3TC versus EFV/TDF/FTC for first-line treatment of HIV-1 in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Siyang; Tafazzoli, Ali; Dorman, Emily; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Villasis-Keever, Angelina; Sorensen, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Data from the SINGLE trial demonstrated that 88% of treatment-naïve HIV-1 patients treated with dolutegravir and abacavir/lamivudine (DTG + ABC/3TC) achieved viral suppression at 48 weeks compared with 81% of patients treated with efavirenz/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (EFV/TDF/FTC). It is unclear how this difference in short-term efficacy impacts long-term cost-effectiveness of these regimens. This study sought to evaluate long-term cost-effectiveness of DTG + ABC/3TC vs EFV/TDF/FTC from a US payer perspective. This study is an individual discrete-event simulation which tracked the disease status and treatment pathway of HIV-1 patients. The model simulated treatment over a lifetime horizon by tracking change in patients' CD4 count, clinical events occurrence (opportunistic infections, cancer, and cardiovascular events), treatment switch, and death. The model included up to four lines of treatment. Baseline patient characteristics, efficacy, and safety of DTG + ABC/3TC and EFV/TDF/FTC were informed by data from the SINGLE trial. The efficacy of subsequent treatment lines, clinical event risks, mortality, cost, and utility inputs were based on literature and expert opinion. Outcomes were lifetime discounted medical costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Compared with EFV/TDF/FTC, DTG + ABC/3TC increased lifetime costs by $19,153 and per person survival by 0.12 QALYs, resulting in an ICER of $158,890/QALY. ICERs comparing DTG + ABC/3TC to EFV/TDF/FTC remained above the traditional, US willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY gained in all scenarios, and above $100,000 or $150,000/QALY gained in most scenarios. Due to data limitations, the treatment patterns, CD4 count during viral rebound and treatment switch, viral rebound after trial end, and long-term adverse event-related treatment discontinuation were based on assumptions, presented to and approved by clinical experts

  7. More than 5000 patients with metastatic melanoma in Europe per year do not have access to recommended first-line innovative treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandolf Sekulovic, L.; Peris, Ketty; Hauschild, A.

    2017-01-01

    ). Materials and methods Web-based online survey was conducted in 30 European countries with questions about the treatment schedules from 1st May 2015 to 1st May 2016: number of metastatic melanoma patients, registration and reimbursement of innovative medicines (updated data, as of 1st October 2016...... treated with innovative medicines and a number of reimbursed medicines. Conclusions Great discrepancy exists in metastatic melanoma treatment across Europe. It is crucial to increase the awareness of national and European policymakers, oncological societies, melanoma patients' associations and pharma......Background Despite the efficacy of innovative treatments for metastatic melanoma, their high costs has led to disparities in cancer care among different European countries. We analysed the availability of these innovative therapies in Europe and estimated the number of patients without access...

  8. First-line treatment with bortezomib rapidly stimulates both osteoblast activity and bone matrix deposition in patients with multiple myeloma, and stimulates osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Søe, Kent; Abildgaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of bortezomib on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, as well as on bone matrix deposition for the first time in bisphosphonate-naïve, previously untreated patients with myeloma. METHODS: Twenty newly diagnosed patients...... received four cycles of bortezomib treatment, initially as monotherapy and then combined with a glucocorticoid from cycle two to four. Bone remodeling markers were monitored closely during treatment. Furthermore, the effects of bortezomib and a glucocorticoid on immature and mature osteoblasts were also...... studied in vitro. RESULTS: Treatment with bortezomib caused a significant increase in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and pro-collagen type I N-terminal propeptide, a novel bone formation marker. The addition of a glucocorticoid resulted in a transient decrease in collagen deposition. In vitro...

  9. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin as first-line therapy in treatment-naive patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: randomized controlled trial study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is effective as maintenance treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We investigated whether multiple subcutaneous infusions are as effective as conventional therapy with intravenous loading doses in treatment...... treatment arm and followed for a further 10 weeks. All participants were evaluated at weeks 0, 2, 5 and 10 during both therapies. Primary outcome was combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS). Secondary outcomes were disability, clinical evaluation of muscle strength and the performance of various function...... tests. RESULTS: All participants received both therapies, 14 completing the protocol. Overall, cIKS increased by 7.4 ± 14.5% (P = 0.0003) during SCIG and by 6.9 ± 16.8% (P = 0.002) during IVIG, the effect being similar (P = 0.80). Improvement of cIKS peaked 2 weeks after IVIG and 5 weeks after SCIG...

  10. Promoting wellness for patients on androgen deprivation therapy: why using numerous drugs for drug side effects should not be first-line treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Mark A; Roach, Mack

    2011-08-01

    The controversy over androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer seems to have shifted over the past decade. The issue of adverse events or side effects now seems to dominate over that of clinical efficacy. However, this article provides evidence that questions the treatment of these side effects with numerous prescription medications that have their own unique toxicity profile in patients with nonmetastatic disease. The hope is that patients will no longer be considered passive participants in the prevention and treatment of ADT side effects, now that information is available to help mitigate many of these effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support in first-line treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma - Results of a comprehensive meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greb, Alexander; Bohlius, Julia; Trelle, Sven; Schiefer, Daniel; De Souza, Carmino A.; Gisselbrecht, Christian; Lntragumtornchai, Tanin; Kaiser, Ulrich; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Martelli, Maurizio; Milpied, Noel Jean; Santini, Gino; Verdonck, Leo F.; Vitolo, Umberto; Schwarzer, Guido; Engert, Andreas

    Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported conflicting results on the impact of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation in the first-tine treatment of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Methods: We performed a systematic meta-analysis to

  12. Cost-utility analysis of dasatinib and nilotinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia refractory to first-line treatment with imatinib in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulpeng, Wantanee; Sompitak, Sumalai; Jootar, Saengsuree; Chansung, Kanchana; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors dasatinib and nilotinib have emerged as alternative treatments in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who are resistant to or intolerant of imatinib. This article aimed to assess the cost utility and budget impact of using dasatinib or nilotinib, rather than high-dose (800-mg/d) imatinib, in patients with chronic phase (CP) CML who are resistant to standard-dose (400-mg/d) imatinib in Thailand. A Markov simulation model was developed and used to estimate the lifetime costs and outcomes of treating patients aged ≥38 years with CP-CML. The efficacy parameters were synthesized from a systematic review. Utilities using the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions tool and costs were obtained from the Thai CML population. Costs and outcomes were compared and presented as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in 2011 Thai baht (THB) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to estimate parameter uncertainty. From a societal perspective, treatment with dasatinib was found to yield more QALYs (2.13) at a lower cost (THB 1,631,331) per person than high-dose imatinib. Nilotinib treatment was also found to be more cost-effective than high-dose imatinib, producing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of THB 83,328 per QALY gained. This treatment option also resulted in the highest number of QALYs gained of all of the treatment options. The costs of providing dasatinib, nilotinib, and high-dose imatinib were estimated at THB 5 billion, THB 6 billion, and THB 7 billion, respectively. Treatment with dasatinib or nilotinib is likely to be more cost-effective than treatment with high-dose imatinib in CP-CML patients who do not respond positively to standard-dose imatinib in the Thai context. Dasatinib was found to be more cost-effective than nilotinib. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Economic evaluation of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil in first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Luis Felipe; Burgos, Amparo; González-Haba, Eva; Loscertales, Javier; Krivasi, Tania; Orofino, Javier; Rubio-Terres, Carlos; Rubio-Rodríguez, Darío

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil (GClb) versus rituximab plus chlorambucil (RClb) in the treatment of adults with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and with comorbidities that make them unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. A Markov model was developed with three mutually exclusive health states: progression-free survival (with or without treatment), progression, and death. Survival time for the two treatments was modeled based on the results of CLL11 clinical trial and external sources. Each health state was associated with a utility value and direct medical costs. The utilities were obtained from a utility elicitation study conducted in the UK. Costs and general background mortality data were obtained from published Spanish sources. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were conducted, with a time frame of 20 years. The health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs) gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Efficiency was measured as the cost per LY or per QALY gained of the most effective regimen. In the deterministic base case analysis, each patient treated with GClb resulted in 0.717 LYs gained and 0.673 QALYs gained versus RClb. The cost per LY and per QALY gained with GClb versus RClb was €23,314 and €24,838, respectively. The results proved stable in most of the univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, with a probabilistic cost per QALY gained of €24,734 (95% confidence interval: €21,860-28,367). Using GClb to treat patients with previously untreated CLL for whom full-dose fludarabine-based therapy is unsuitable allows significant gains in terms of LYs and QALYs versus treatment with RClb. Treatment with GClb versus RClb can be regarded as efficient when considered the willingness to pay thresholds commonly used in Spain.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of DTG+ABC/3TC versus EFV/TDF/FTC for first-line treatment of HIV-1 in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Siyang; Tafazzoli, Ali; Dorman, Emily; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Villasis-Keever, Angelina; Sorensen, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Data from the SINGLE trial demonstrated that 88% of treatment-naive HIV-1 patients treated with dolutegravir and abacavir/lamivudine (DTG+ABC/3TC) achieved viral suppression at 48 weeks compared with 81% of patients treated with efavirenz/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (EFV/TDF/FTC). It is unclear how this difference in short-term efficacy impacts long-term cost-effectiveness of these regimens. This study sought to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of DTG+ABC/3TC versus EFV/TDF/FTC from a US payer perspective. An individual discrete-event simulation model tracked the disease status and treatment pathway of HIV-1 patients. The model simulated treatment over a lifetime horizon by tracking change in patients' CD4 count, occurrence of clinical events (opportunistic infections, cancer and cardiovascular events), treatment switch and death. The model included up to four lines of treatment. Baseline patient characteristics, efficacy and safety of DTG+ABC/3TC and EFV/TDF/FTC were informed by data from the SINGLE trial. The efficacy of subsequent lines of treatment, clinical event risks, mortality, cost and utility inputs were based on literature and expert opinion. Outcomes were lifetime medical costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (both discounted at 3% per annum) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Compared with EFV/TDF/FTC, DTG+ABC/3TC increased lifetime costs by $58,188 and per-person survival by 0.12 QALYs, resulting in an ICER of $482,717/QALY. In sensitivity analyses testing conservative assumptions about EFV/TDF/FTC's efficacy beyond the trial period, ICERs comparing DTG+ABC/3TC to EFV/TDF/FTC remained high (lowest reported ICER of $365,662/QALY). In a scenario in which the price of EFV/TDF/FTC was reduced by 10% to reflect the potential for price reduction as EFV goes off patent, DTG+ABC/3TC's ICER compared to EFV/TDF/FTC was $600,916/QALY. When DTG+ABC/3TC's price was reduced by 10%, the resulting ICER comparing DTG

  15. A randomized study of KRAS-guided maintenance therapy with bevacizumab, erlotinib or metronomic capecitabine after first-line induction treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, H; Frödin, J-E; Berglund, Å

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maintenance treatment (mt) with bevacizumab (bev) ± erlotinib (erlo) has modest effect after induction chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We hypothesized the efficacy of erlo to be dependent on KRAS mutational status and investigated this by exploring mt strategies......-free survival (PFS) rate (PFSr) at 3 months after start of mt. A pooled analysis of KRAS wt patients from the previous ACT study was performed. RESULTS: We included 233 patients. Median age was 64 years, 62% male, 68% ECOG 0, 52% with primary tumor in situ. A total of 138 patients started mt after randomization...... to influence the outcome of treatment with erlotinib. Metronomic cap warrants further investigation in mt strategies, given our explorative results. CLINICALTRIALSGOV: NCT01229813....

  16. Safety and treatment outcomes of first-line pazopanib in renal cell carcinoma: A prospective observational study in a single Malaysia tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Nor Mohd Farez Ahmat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pazopanib is the standard of care for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC. Previous studies on this indication were limited to patients who were selected on the basis of a fairly preserved performance status and normal organ function. Thus, the clinical trial population may not be representative of all patients seen in real-world practice. Based on these considerations, this prospective single-centre observational study was designed to evaluate the treatment outcomes and safety profile of pazopanib in Malaysian population. Patients and methods: Patients prescribed with pazopanib between June 2015 and June 2017 were recruited and followed up for 2-years or till death whichever comes first. Progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were evaluated. Multivariate and survival analysis were performed. Results: Twenty-seven patients were treated with pazopanib where 89% had clear cell histology.  Sixteen patients (59% were intermediate risk and 41% were poor risk based on Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC criteria. All patients experienced at least one adverse event. The most common were cutaneous toxicity (92% followed by proteinuria, hypertension, diarrhoea and mucositis. Treatment interruption was needed in 15 patients. The median PFS and OS were 9.57 months and 15.5 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, MSKCC risk score demonstrates strong predictive treatment outcome. The median PFS was 14.5 months in intermediate risk and 3.96 months in poor risk (OR: 0.2, p<0.001. However, the median OS is still immature to be reported since 63% of intermediate risk group is still alive at 2-years follow-up. Conclusion: In mRCC patients, treatment with pazopanib was effective in patients with intermediate risk group. In terms of safety, patient tolerated pazopanib quite well with mostly experienced grade 1 to 2 adverse events.

  17. Prolonged first-line PEG-asparaginase treatment in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol-Pharmacokinetics and antibody formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tram Henriksen, Louise; Gottschalk Højfeldt, Sofie; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    NOPHO is Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology) were included. In the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol, patients are randomized to 8 or 15 doses of intramuscular PEG-asparaginase (Oncaspar(®) ) 1,000 IU/m²/dose, at 2-week or 6-week intervals with a total of 30-week treatment (Clinical trials...... of prolonged upfront biweekly PEG-asparaginase (where PEG is polyethylene glycol) treatment by measuring serum l-asparaginase activity and formation of anti-PEG-asparaginase antibodies. A total of 97 evaluable patients (1-17 years), diagnosed with ALL, and treated according to the NOPHO ALL2008 protocol (where.......gov. no.: NCT00819351). RESULTS: The pharmacological target of treatment (l-asparaginase activity above 100 IU/l) was reached in 612 of 652 (94%) samples obtained 14 ± 2 days after PEG-asparaginase administration. Mean l-asparaginase activity was 338 IU/l. Six patients had l-asparaginase activity below 50...

  18. Economic evaluation of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil in first-line treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado LF

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Luis Felipe Casado,1 Amparo Burgos,2 Eva González-Haba,3 Javier Loscertales,4 Tania Krivasi,5 Javier Orofino,6 Carlos Rubio-Terres,7 Darío Rubio-Rodríguez7 1Hematology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Salud, Toledo, Spain; 2Pharmacy Department, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain; 3Pharmacy Department, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 4Hematology Deparment, Hospital Universitario De La Princesa, Madrid, Spain; 5Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland; 6Roche Farma SA, Madrid, Spain; 7Health Value, Madrid, Spain Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil (GClb versus rituximab plus chlorambucil (RClb in the treatment of adults with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and with comorbidities that make them unsuitable for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System.Methods: A Markov model was developed with three mutually exclusive health states: progression-free survival (with or without treatment, progression, and death. Survival time for the two treatments was modeled based on the results of CLL11 clinical trial and external sources. Each health state was associated with a utility value and direct medical costs. The utilities were obtained from a utility elicitation study conducted in the UK. Costs and general background mortality data were obtained from published Spanish sources. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses were conducted, with a time frame of 20 years. The health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs gained and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained. Efficiency was measured as the cost per LY or per QALY gained of the most effective regimen.Results: In the deterministic base case analysis, each patient treated with GClb resulted in 0.717 LYs gained and 0.673 QALYs gained versus RClb. The cost per LY and per QALY gained with GClb versus RClb was

  19. Effectiveness and Safety of Short Course Liposomal Amphotericin B (AmBisome) as First Line Treatment for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Emiliano; Collin, Simon M.; Gomes, Sujit; Akter, Fatima; Asad, Asaduzzam; Kumar Das, Asish; Ritmeijer, Koert

    2015-01-01

    Background Bangladesh is one of the endemic countries for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) ran a VL treatment clinic in the most endemic district (Fulbaria) between 2010 and 2013 using a semi-ambulatory regimen for primary VL of 15mg/kg Liposomal Amphotericin-B (AmBisome) in three equal doses of 5mg/kg. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of this regimen after a 12 month follow-up period by retrospective analysis of routinely collected program data. A secondary objective was to explore risk factors for relapse. Methods and Principal Findings Our analysis included 1521 patients who were initially cured, of whom 1278 (84%) and 1179 (77.5%) were followed-up at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Cure rates at 6 and 12 months were 98.7% (1262/1278) and 96.4% (1137/1179), respectively. Most relapses (26/39) occurred between 6 and 12 months after treatment. Serious adverse events (SAE) were recorded for 7 patients (0.5%). Odds of relapse at 12 months were highest in the youngest and oldest age groups. There was some evidence that spleen size measured on discharge (one month after initiation of treatment) was associated with risk of relapse: OR=1.25 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.55) per cm below lower costal margin (P=0.04). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that 15mg/kg AmBisome in three doses of 5mg/kg is an effective (>95% cure rate) and safe (<1% SAE) treatment for primary VL in Bangladesh. The majority of relapses occurred between 6 and 12 months, justifying the use of a longer follow-up period when feasible. Assessment of risk of relapse based on easily measured clinical parameters such as spleen size could be incorporated in VL treatment protocols in resource-poor settings where test-of-cure is not always feasible. PMID:25837313

  20. Treatment outcomes of HIV-positive patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy in private versus public HIV clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyo F

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faith Moyo,1 Charles Chasela,2,3 Alana T Brennan,1,4 Osman Ebrahim,5 Ian M Sanne,1,6 Lawrence Long,1 Denise Evans1 1Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 3Epidemiology and Strategic Information (ESI, HIV/AIDS/STIs and TB, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; 5Brenthurst Clinic, Parktown, South Africa; 6Right to Care, Helen Joseph Hospital, Westdene, Johannesburg, South Africa Background: Despite the widely documented success of antiretroviral therapy (ART, stakeholders continue to face the challenges of poor HIV treatment outcomes. While many studies have investigated patient-level causes of poor treatment outcomes, data on the effect of health systems on ART outcomes are scarce.Objective: We compare treatment outcomes among patients receiving HIV care and treatment at a public and private HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of ART naïve adults (≥18.0 years, initiating ART at a public or private clinic in Johannesburg between July 01, 2007 and December 31, 2012. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to identify baseline predictors of mortality and loss to follow-up (>3 months late for the last scheduled visit. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine predictors of failure to suppress viral load (≥400 copies/mL while the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the median absolute change in CD4 count from baseline to 12 months post-ART initiation.Results: 12,865 patients initiated ART at the public clinic compared to 610 at the private

  1. Incorporation of brentuximab vedotin into first-line treatment of advanced classical Hodgkin's lymphoma: final analysis of a phase 2 randomised trial by the German Hodgkin Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Plütschow, Annette; Kreissl, Stefanie; Sökler, Martin; Hellmuth, Johannes C; Meissner, Julia; Mathas, Stephan; Topp, Max S; Behringer, Karolin; Klapper, Wolfram; Kuhnert, Georg; Dietlein, Markus; Kobe, Carsten; Fuchs, Michael; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas; Borchmann, Peter

    2017-12-01

    A high proportion of patients with relapsed classical Hodgkin's lymphoma achieve a response with the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin, and the drug is well tolerated. We modified the escalated BEACOPP regimen (eBEACOPP; bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) and implemented brentuximab vedotin with the aim to reduce toxic effects while maintaining the protocol's efficacy. We did an open-label, multicentre, randomised phase 2 study at 20 study sites in Germany. Adult patients (aged 18-60 years) with newly diagnosed, advanced, classical Hodgkin's lymphoma were randomly assigned (1:1) to treatment with six cycles of either BrECAPP (brentuximab vedotin 1·8 mg/kg on day 1, etoposide 200 mg/m2 on days 2-4, doxorubicin 35 mg/m2 on day 2, cyclophosphamide 1250 mg/m2 on day 2, procarbazine 100 mg/m2 on days 2-8, and prednisone 40 mg/m2 on days 2-15) or BrECADD (brentuximab vedotin 1·8 mg/kg on day 1, etoposide 150 mg/m2 on days 2-4, doxorubicin 40 mg/m2 on day 2, cyclophosphamide 1250 mg/m2 on day 2, dacarbazine 250 mg/m2 on days 3-4, and dexamethasone 40 mg on days 2-5). Randomisation was done centrally by stratified minimisation, with study site and sex as stratification factors. The co-primary endpoints were complete response to chemotherapy and complete remission at the end of treatment, which were assessed by intention to treat. Patients who were found not to meet inclusion criteria after randomisation or without restaging data after two cycles of study treatment were excluded from the primary endpoint analysis. All patients who started study treatment were assessable for safety. This report presents the final analysis at a median follow-up of 17 months (IQR 13·2-21·5). The preplanned 2-year follow-up analysis is yet to be reported. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01569204. Between Oct 26, 2012, and May 15, 2014, 104 patients were enrolled to the study (52 were assigned

  2. Palliative arterial switch as first-line treatment before the fontan procedure in patients with single-ventricle physiology and subaortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Jaurena, Juan Miguel; Zabala, Juan-Ignacio; Albert, Dimpna C; Castillo, Rafael; González, Mayte; Miró, Luis

    2013-07-01

    There are several techniques for the palliative treatment of patients with single-ventricle physiology, ventriculoarterial discordance and subaortic stenosis. The Fontan procedure relies on optimal initial palliation to avoid the development of subaortic stenosis (as well as ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction). We present seven patients with single-ventricle physiology, transposition of the great arteries and subaortic stenosis, with low systemic output and high pulmonary flow, aged 21 to 383 days (median, 75) and weighing between 3.4 and 9.6kg (median, 4.2). All were treated with a palliative arterial switch, thus "switching" their subaortic stenosis to subpulmonary stenosis. Six patients also underwent aortic arch surgery, 4 an atrial septectomy, and 1 a subaortic membrane resection. One patient died after surgery, another developed recoarctation, which was treated with an angioplasty, 3 patients reached the Glenn stage and 2 the Fontan stage. All had good ventricular function. A palliative switch is an effective initial treatment for single-ventricle physiology with transposition of the great arteries and subaortic stenosis. This complex initial technique produces good results and allows the patient to progress to the Glenn or Fontan stage. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. A Danish cost-effectiveness model of escitalopram in comparison with citalopram and venlafaxine as first-line treatments for major depressive disorder in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan; Stage, Kurt B; Damsbo, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three-path dec......The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of escitalopram in comparison with generic citalopram and venlafaxine in primary care treatment of major depressive disorder (baseline scores 22-40 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) in Denmark. A three...... in 2004 DDK. The expected overall 6-month remission rate was higher for escitalopram (64.1%) than citalopram (58.9%). From both perspectives, the total expected cost per successfully treated patient was lower for escitalopram (DKK 22,323 healthcare, DKK 72,399 societal) than for citalopram (DKK 25......,778 healthcare, DKK 87,786 societal). Remission rates and costs were similar for escitalopram and venlafaxine. Robustness of the findings was verified in multivariate sensitivity analyses. For patients in primary care, escitalopram appears to be a cost-effective alternative to (generic) citalopram, with greater...

  4. A cost-effectiveness analysis of first-line induction and maintenance treatment sequences in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taipale K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kaisa Taipale,1 Katherine B Winfree,2 Mark Boye,2 Mickael Basson,3 Ghassan Sleilaty,4 James Eaton,5 Rachel Evans,5 Christos Chouaid6 1Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence International, Oy Eli Lilly Finland AB, Helsinki, Finland; 2Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Corporate Affairs, Lilly France, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 4Bio-Medicines Medical Affairs, Lilly France, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France; 5ICON Health Economics and Epidemiology, ICON Plc, Milton Park, UK; 6Thoracic Oncology, Service de Pneumologie, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Créteil, Créteil, France Background: Comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness data for induction–maintenance (I–M sequences for the treatment of patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (nsqNSCLC are limited because of a lack of direct evidence. This analysis aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of I–M pemetrexed with those of other I–M regimens used for the treatment of patients with advanced nsqNSCLC in the French health-care setting. Materials and methods: A previously developed global partitioned survival model was adapted to the France-only setting by restricting treatment sequences to include 12 I–M regimens most relevant to France, and incorporating French costs and resource-use data. Following a systematic literature review, network meta-analyses were performed to obtain hazard ratios for progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS relative to gemcitabine + cisplatin (induction sequences or best supportive care (BSC (maintenance sequences. Modeled health-care benefits were expressed as life-years (LYs and quality-adjusted LYs (QALYs (estimated using French EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire tariffs. The study was conducted from the payer perspective (National Health Insurance. Cost- and benefit-model inputs were discounted at an annual rate of 4%. Results: Base-case results showed pemetrexed

  5. A phase II study of topotecan plus gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with relapsed ovarian cancer after failure of first-line chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehouli, J; Stengel, D; Oskay, G; Camara, O; Hindenburg, H-J; Klare, P; Blohmer, J; Heinrich, G; Elling, D; Ledwon, P; Lichtenegger, W

    2002-11-01

    Second-line chemotherapy for patients with ovarian cancer who failed platinum and paclitaxel treatment remains a therapeutic challenge. We investigated the toxicity profile and therapeutic efficacy of a novel combination regimen, topotecan plus gemcitabine, in a clinical phase II study. Women with relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer after platinum and paclitaxel treatment were eligible to participate in this trial. Topotecan was given at an initial dose of 0.5 mg/m(2) daily (days 1-5), combined with gemcitabine 800 mg/m(2) and 600 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8, respectively. Precluding good tolerability, this protocol facilitated subsequent dose increases of topotecan up to 1.0 mg/m(2). The primary objective was to determine the dose-limiting toxicity, whereas secondary objectives comprised measurable and CA-125 response rates, disease-free and overall survival. The twenty-one patients (median age 57 years, range 37-70 years) who were allocated to this trial received a total of 94 courses of chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 20.5 months. Topotecan dosage could be escalated to 0.75 mg/m(2) in nine patients and 1 mg/m(2) in another two patients. Dose reduction was not necessary in any case. There were no episodes of neutropenic fever, sepsis or chemotherapy-related fatalities. Only one patient developed CTC grade 4 leukopenia after the first treatment cycle, whereas three patients showed grade 3/4 anaemia. Five patients experienced thrombocytopenia grade 4 without clinical sequelae. Non-hematological toxicities were mild and rare. Eleven patients could be evaluated for clinical tumour response, with three complete, and four partial remissions. Two patients each had stable and progressive diseases. The median progression-free survival rate was 8.8 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.3-13.4 months]. The median overall survival rate was 21.1 months (95% CI 14.8-22.1 months). Topotecan combined with gemcitabine has a favourable toxicity profile and encouraging efficacy in

  6. First-line antihypertensive treatment in patients with pre-diabetes: Rationale, design and baseline results of the ADaPT investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage Peter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent clinical trials reported conflicting results on the reduction of new-onset diabetes using RAS blocking agents. Therefore the role of these agents in preventing diabetes is still not well defined. Ramipril is an ACE inhibitor (ACEi, that has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in high risk patients and post-hoc analyses of the HOPE trial have provided evidence for its beneficial action in the prevention of diabetes. Methods The ADaPT investigation ("ACE inhibitor-based versus diuretic-based antihypertensive primary treatment in patients with pre-diabetes" is a 4-year open, prospective, parallel group phase IV study. It compares an antihypertensive treatment regimen based on ramipril versus a treatment based on diuretics or betablockers. The primary evaluation criterion is the first manifestation of type 2 diabetes. The study is conducted in primary care to allow the broadest possible application of its results. The present article provides an outline of the rationale, the design and baseline characteristics of AdaPT and compares these to previous studies including ASCOT-BLPA, VALUE and DREAM. Results Until March 2006 a total of 2,015 patients in 150 general practices (general physicians and internists throughout Germany were enrolled. The average age of patients enrolled was 67.1 ± 10.3 years, with 47% being male and a BMI of 29.9 ± 5.0 kg/m2. Dyslipidemia was present in 56.5%. 37.8% reported a family history of diabetes, 57.8% were previously diagnosed with hypertension (usually long standing. The HbA1c value at baseline was 5.6 %. Compared to the DREAM study patients were older, had more frequently hypertension and patients with cardiovascular disease were not excluded. Conclusion Comparing the ADaPT design and baseline data to previous randomized controlled trial it can be acknowledged that AdaPT included patients with a high risk for diabetes development. Results are expected to be available in 2010. Data

  7. First-line antihypertensive treatment in patients with pre-diabetes: rationale, design and baseline results of the ADaPT investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidek, Walter; Schrader, Joachim; Lüders, Stephan; Matthaei, Stephan; Hasslacher, Christoph; Hoyer, Joachim; Bramlage, Peter; Sturm, Claus-Dieter; Paar, W Dieter

    2008-07-24

    Recent clinical trials reported conflicting results on the reduction of new-onset diabetes using RAS blocking agents. Therefore the role of these agents in preventing diabetes is still not well defined. Ramipril is an ACE inhibitor (ACEi), that has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in high risk patients and post-hoc analyses of the HOPE trial have provided evidence for its beneficial action in the prevention of diabetes. The ADaPT investigation ("ACE inhibitor-based versus diuretic-based antihypertensive primary treatment in patients with pre-diabetes") is a 4-year open, prospective, parallel group phase IV study. It compares an antihypertensive treatment regimen based on ramipril versus a treatment based on diuretics or betablockers. The primary evaluation criterion is the first manifestation of type 2 diabetes. The study is conducted in primary care to allow the broadest possible application of its results. The present article provides an outline of the rationale, the design and baseline characteristics of AdaPT and compares these to previous studies including ASCOT-BLPA, VALUE and DREAM. Until March 2006 a total of 2,015 patients in 150 general practices (general physicians and internists) throughout Germany were enrolled. The average age of patients enrolled was 67.1 +/- 10.3 years, with 47% being male and a BMI of 29.9 +/- 5.0 kg/m2. Dyslipidemia was present in 56.5%. 37.8% reported a family history of diabetes, 57.8% were previously diagnosed with hypertension (usually long standing). The HbA1c value at baseline was 5.6 %. Compared to the DREAM study patients were older, had more frequently hypertension and patients with cardiovascular disease were not excluded. Comparing the ADaPT design and baseline data to previous randomized controlled trial it can be acknowledged that AdaPT included patients with a high risk for diabetes development. Results are expected to be available in 2010. Data will be highly valuable for clinical practice due to the

  8. Phase II study of panitumumab and paclitaxel as first-line treatment in recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer. TTCC-2009-03/VECTITAX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Barco Morillo, Elvira; Mesía, Ricard; Adansa Klain, Juan Carlos; Vázquez Fernández, Silvia; Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Pastor Borgoñon, Miguel; González-Rivas, Cyntia; Caballero Daroqui, Javier; Berrocal, Alfonso; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Vera, Ruth; Cruz-Hernández, Juan Jesús

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the activity and safety profile of panitumumab in combination with paclitaxel in patients with recurrent or metastatic SCCHN. The VECTITAX phase II, open-label, multicenter study included patients with confirmed metastatic and/or recurrent SCCHN deemed to be untreatable by surgery or radiotherapy and ECOG PS=0-1. All patients received paclitaxel (80mg/m2/week) and panitumumab (6mg/kg/2weeks) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. EQ-5D-3L andvisual analogic scale (VAS) were used to evaluate impact on quality of life (QoL). The study included 40 patients (ITT population): (median age: 61 years; 87% male). Previous treatment: 29 patients (73%) had undergone surgery, 34 (85%) had received prior radiotherapy and 23 (58%) prior systemic treatment for locally advanced disease. Confirmed response was observed in 19 patients (48%) which was a complete response in 15% of patients. Stable disease was observed in 11 patients (28%). Disease control rate was 75%. Median progression-free survival was 7.5 months (95%CI: 4.9-8.3) and median overall survival 9.9 months (95%CI: 7.9-16.3). Most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were skin rash (25%); asthenia (17%); neurotoxicity (15%); hypomagnesemia (10%); neutropenia (10%). Permanent discontinuation of panitumumab or paclitaxel due to adverse events was required in 10 (25%) and 13 patients (33%), respectively. There was one toxic death due to febrile neutropenia. Patient-reported QoL was preserved with no decline of median VAS scores. Panitumumab and paclitaxel is an active combination, providing promising outcomes with preservation of the QoL and a favorable safety profile. (EudraCT: 2010-018898-37; NCT01264328). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Prevalence of mutations associated with antimalarial drugs in Plasmodium falciparum isolates prior to the introduction of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first-line treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djadid Navid

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work was carried out to assess the patterns and prevalence of resistance to chloroquine (CQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP in Iran. Methods The prevalence of pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, pfdhfr N51I, C59R, S108N/T and I164L and codons S436F/A, A437G, K540E, A581E, and A613S/T in pfdhps genes were genotyped by PCR/RFLP methods in 206 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Chabahar and Sarbaz districts in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran, during 2003–2005. Results All P. falciparum isolates carried the 108N, while 98.5% parasite isolates carried the 59R mutation. 98.5% of patients carried both 108N and 59R. The prevalence of pfdhps 437G mutation was 17% (Chabahar and 33% (Sarbaz isolates. 20.4% of samples presented the pfdhfr 108N, 59R with pfdhps 437G mutations. The frequency of allele pfcrt 76T was 98%, while 41.4% (Chabahar and 27.7% (Sarbaz isolates carried pfmdr1 86Y allele. Eight distinct haplotypes were identified in all 206 samples, while the most prevalent haplotype was T76/N86/N51R59N108/A437 among both study areas. Conclusion Finding the fixed level of CQ resistance polymorphisms (pfcrt 76T suggests that CQ must be withdrawn from the current treatment strategy in Iran, while SP may remain the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria.

  10. Protocol for Combined Analysis of FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global Randomized Phase III Trials of Chemotherapy +/- Selective Internal Radiation Therapy as First-Line Treatment for Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdee, Pradeep S; Moschandreas, Joanna; Gebski, Val; Love, Sharon B; Francis, E Anne; Wasan, Harpreet S; van Hazel, Guy; Gibbs, Peter; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-03-28

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are associated with a poor prognosis. The FOXFIRE (an open-label randomized phase III trial of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and folinic acid +/- interventional radioembolization as first-line treatment for patients with unresectable liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic colorectal cancer), SIRFLOX (randomized comparative study of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma), and FOXFIRE-Global (assessment of overall survival of FOLFOX6m plus SIR-Spheres microspheres versus FOLFOX6m alone as first-line treatment in patients with nonresectable liver metastases from primary colorectal carcinoma in a randomized clinical study) clinical trials were designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combining first-line chemotherapy with selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres, also called transarterial radioembolization. The aim of this analysis is to prospectively combine clinical data from 3 trials to allow adequate power to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy with SIRT on overall survival. Eligible patients are adults with histologically confirmed CRC and unequivocal evidence of liver metastases which are not treatable by surgical resection or local ablation with curative intent at the time of study entry. Patients may also have limited extrahepatic metastases. Final analysis will take place when all participants have been followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Efficacy and safety estimates derived using individual participant data (IPD) from SIRFLOX, FOXFIRE, and FOXFIRE-Global will be pooled using 2-stage prospective meta-analysis. Secondary outcome measures include progression-free survival (PFS), liver-specific PFS, health-related quality of life, response rate, resection rate, and adverse event profile. The large study population will

  11. Comparative Efficacy of Ibrutinib Versus Obinutuzumab + Chlorambucil in First-Line Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sanden, Suzy; Baculea, Simona; Diels, Joris; Cote, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Ibrutinib (ibr) monotherapy and the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (obi) are approved for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). No trials directly comparing their efficacy are available. Therefore a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) was performed to provide insight into their relative efficacy in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). MAIC attempts to adjust for between-trial differences in factors known or suspected to influence treatment effects, to minimize bias. A MAIC within a Bayesian framework was conducted using individual patient data from the RESONATE-2 study of ibr versus chlorambucil and published data from the CLL11 study of obi versus chlorambucil. Both studies were conducted in patients ineligible for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy. After matching, the reweighted adjusted relative efficacy measure of ibr versus chlorambucil from RESONATE-2 [hazard ratio (HR), 95% credible interval (CrI)] was compared with that of obi versus chlorambucil from CLL11 for each endpoint, using a Bayesian indirect comparison. Our results suggest that in a population with similar average baseline characteristics to CLL11, ibr would improve PFS and OS outcomes compared to obi. Before matching, the HRs for ibr versus obi were 0.48 [CrI = 0.22-1.02, p(HR <1) = 97%], 0.85 [CrI = 0.44-1.63, p(HR <1) = 69%], and 0.40 [CrI = 0.10-1.54, p(HR <1) = 91%] for PFS by investigator assessment, PFS by independent review committee, and OS, respectively. After matching on all available characteristics the HRs decreased to 0.12 [CrI = 0.02-0.97, p(HR <1) = 98%], 0.24 [CrI = 0.04-1.35, p(HR <1) = 95%], and 0.21 [CrI = <0.01-8.89, p(HR <1) = 79%], respectively. There was a large variance around the treatment effect for OS due to the low number of deaths. Our analysis suggests that ibrutinib is highly likely to provide greater PFS benefit than obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil in older or less

  12. Evaluation of Circulating Tumor Cells and Related Events as Prognostic Factors and Surrogate Biomarkers in Advanced NSCLC Patients Receiving First-Line Systemic Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Vieito, Maria; Abalo, Alicia; Alonso Nocelo, Marta; Barón, Francisco; Anido, Urbano; Brozos, Elena; Vázquez, Francisca; Aguín, Santiago; Abal, Miguel; López López, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.lopez.lopez@sergas.es [Translational Medical Oncology, Health Research Institute of Santiago (IDIS), Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), Trav. Choupana s/n 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    In the present study we investigated the prognostic value of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTC) and their utility for therapy monitoring in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 43 patients newly diagnosed with NSCLC were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples were obtained before the 1st, 2nd and 5th cycles of chemotherapy and analyzed using CellSearch technology. Both CTC and CTC-related objects (not morphological standard or broken epithelial cells) were counted. At baseline 18 (41.9%) patients were positive for intact CTC count and 10 (23.2%) of them had ≥5 CTC, while CK positive events were found in 79.1% of patients. The group of patients with CTC ≥5 at baseline presented worse PFS and OS than those with <5 CTC (p = 0.034 and p = 0.008, respectively). Additionally, high levels of total CK positive events were associated with poor prognosis in the group of patients with <5 CTC. Regarding therapy monitoring, patients presenting increased levels of CTC during the treatment demonstrated lower OS and PFS rates. All these data supported the value of CTC as a prognostic biomarker and as a surrogate indicator of chemotherapy effectiveness in advanced NSCLC patients, with the additional value of analyzing other “objects” such as apoptotic CTC or CK fragments to guide the clinical management of these patients.

  13. Evaluation of Circulating Tumor Cells and Related Events as Prognostic Factors and Surrogate Biomarkers in Advanced NSCLC Patients Receiving First-Line Systemic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Muinelo-Romay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the prognostic value of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTC and their utility for therapy monitoring in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. A total of 43 patients newly diagnosed with NSCLC were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples were obtained before the 1st, 2nd and 5th cycles of chemotherapy and analyzed using CellSearch technology. Both CTC and CTC-related objects (not morphological standard or broken epithelial cells were counted. At baseline 18 (41.9% patients were positive for intact CTC count and 10 (23.2% of them had ≥5 CTC, while CK positive events were found in 79.1% of patients. The group of patients with CTC ³5 at baseline presented worse PFS and OS than those with <5 CTC (p = 0.034 and p = 0.008, respectively. Additionally, high levels of total CK positive events were associated with poor prognosis in the group of patients with <5 CTC. Regarding therapy monitoring, patients presenting increased levels of CTC during the treatment demonstrated lower OS and PFS rates. All these data supported the value of CTC as a prognostic biomarker and as a surrogate indicator of chemotherapy effectiveness in advanced NSCLC patients, with the additional value of analyzing other “objects” such as apoptotic CTC or CK fragments to guide the clinical management of these patients.

  14. Levofloxacin or Clarithromycin-based quadruple regimens: what is the best alternative as first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori eradication in a country with high resistance rates for both antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branquinho, Diogo; Almeida, Nuno; Gregório, Carlos; Cabral, José Eduardo Pina; Casela, Adriano; Donato, Maria Manuel; Tomé, Luís

    2017-02-15

    Helicobacter pylori eradication rates in Portugal are declining, due to increased resistance of this bacterium to antimicrobial agents, especially Clarithromycin. Quadruple Levofloxacin-containing regimens could be an option for first-line treatment, but its efficacy should be evaluated as fluoroquinolone resistance is rapidly increasing. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of Clarithromycin and Levofloxacin-based sequential quadruple therapies as first-line treatment options and determine factors associated with treatment failure. A total of 200 Helicobacter pylori infected patients were retrospectively included (female 57.5%; average age: 53.2 ± 15.7) and received either 10-day sequential therapy (Proton-Pump Inhibitor + Amoxicillin 1 g bid for 5 days and Proton-Pump Inhibitor + Clarithromycin 500 mg + Metronidazole/Tinidazole 500 mg bid/tid in the following 5 days; group A) or a 10-day modified sequential therapy with Levofloxacin 500 mg id instead of Clarithromycin (group B). Eradication was confirmed with urea breath test. Variables that could influence success rate were analyzed. There were no differences between groups in terms of gender, age, smoking habits and indications for treatment. The eradication rate obtained with Clarithromycin-based sequential treatment was significantly higher than with Levofloxacin-based therapy (90%, CI95%: 84-96% vs. 79%, CI95%: 71-87%, p = 0.001). Using full-dose proton-pump inhibitor and high-dose Metronidazole in group A, and full-dose proton-pump inhibitor and prescription from a Gastroenterologist in group B were associated with eradication success. Ten-day Levofloxacin-based sequential treatment achieved inadequate efficacy rate (<80%) and should not be adopted as first-line therapy. Standard sequential therapy showed significantly better results in this naïve population. Using full-dose proton-pump inhibitor and higher doses of Metronidazole is essential to achieve such results.

  15. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous rituximab versus intravenous rituximab for first-line treatment of follicular lymphoma (SABRINA): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew; Merli, Francesco; Mihaljević, Biljana; Mercadal, Santiago; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Boehnke, Axel; Berge, Claude; Genevray, Magali; Zharkov, Artem; Dixon, Mark; Brewster, Michael; Barrett, Martin; MacDonald, David

    2017-06-01

    Intravenous rituximab is the standard of care in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and is administered over 1·5-6 h. A subcutaneous formulation could reduce patients' treatment burden and improve resource utilisation in health care. We aimed to show the pharmacokinetic non-inferiority of subcutaneous rituximab to intravenous rituximab in follicular lymphoma and to provide efficacy and safety data. SABRINA is a two-stage, randomised, open-label phase 3 study at 113 centres in 30 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had histologically confirmed, previously untreated, CD20-positive grade 1, 2, or 3a follicular lymphoma; Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group performance statuses of 0-2; bidimensionally measurable disease (by CT or MRI); life expectancy of 6 months or more; adequate haematological function for 28 days or more; and one or more symptoms requiring treatment according to the Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes Folliculaires criteria. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by investigators or members of the research team via a dynamic randomisation algorithm to 375 mg/m 2 intravenous rituximab or 1400 mg subcutaneous rituximab, plus chemotherapy (six-to-eight cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone [CHOP] or eight cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone [CVP]), every 3 weeks during induction, then rituximab maintenance every 8 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by selected chemotherapy, Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index, and region. The primary endpoint for stage 2 was overall response (ie, confirmed complete response, unconfirmed complete response, and partial response) at the end of induction. Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. Pooled data from stages 1 and 2 are reported on the basis of the clinical cutoff date of the last patient completing the maintenance phase of the study. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01200758; new

  16. Impact of young age on treatment efficacy and safety in advanced colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of patients from nine first-line phase III chemotherapy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Charles D; Bot, Brian M; Thomas, David M; Bleyer, Archie; Kohne, Claus-Henning; Seymour, Matthew T; de Gramont, Aimery; Goldberg, Richard M; Sargent, Daniel J

    2011-07-10

    Colorectal cancer predominantly occurs in the elderly, but approximately 5% of patients are 50 years old or younger. We sought to determine whether young age is prognostic, or whether it influences efficacy/toxicity of chemotherapy, in patients with advanced disease. We analyzed individual data on 6,284 patients from nine phase III trials of advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC) that used fluorouracil-based single-agent and combination chemotherapy. End points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), response rate (RR), and grade 3 or worse adverse events. Stratified Cox and adjusted logistic-regression models were used to test for age effects and age-treatment interactions. A total of 793 patients (13%) were younger than 50 years old; 188 of these patients (3% of total patients) were younger than 40 years old. Grade 3 or worse nausea (10% v 7%; P = .01) was more common, and severe diarrhea (11% v 14%; P = .001) and neutropenia (23% v 26%; P young (younger than 50 years) than in older (older than 50 years) patients. Age was prognostic for PFS, with poorer outcomes occurring in those younger than 50 years (median, 6.0 v 7.5 months; hazard ratio, 1.10; P = .02), but it did not affect RR or OS. In the subset of monotherapy versus combination chemotherapy trials, the relative benefits of multiagent chemotherapy were similar for young and older patients. Results were comparable when utilizing an age cut point of 40 years. Young age is modestly associated with poorer PFS but not OS or RR in treated patients with aCRC, and young patients have more nausea but less diarrhea and neutropenia with chemotherapy in general. Young versus older patients derive the same benefits from combination chemotherapy. Absent results of a clinical trial, standard combination chemotherapy approaches are appropriate for young patients with aCRC.

  17. Response to first-line antiretroviral treatment among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with and without a history of injecting drug use in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaksana, Rudi; Indrati, Agnes K; Fibriani, Azzania; Rogayah, Ega; Sudjana, Primal; Djajakusumah, Tony S; Sumantri, Rachmat; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van der Ven, Andre; van Crevel, Reinout

    2010-06-01

    There is a common belief that injecting drug use (IDU) is associated with lower uptake, retention and success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We examined this in an Indonesian setting, where IDU is the main risk factor for HIV infection. Patient characteristics and response to ART were recorded for all patients diagnosed with HIV infection in the referral hospital for West Java (40 million people). Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox's regression were used to compare mortality, loss to follow-up and virological failure between patients with and without a history of IDU. A total of 773 adult HIV patients (81.9% IDUs) presented between January 1996 and April 2008. IDUs had a median CD4 cell count of 33 [interquartile ratio (IQR), 12-111] cells/mm(3) compared to 84 (IQR, 28-224) cells/mm(3) in non-IDUs. Among patients with a history of IDU, 87.7% were coinfected with hepatitis C (HCV). Mortality was associated strongly with CD4 count; after 6 months of ART, 18.3, 20.3, 7.1 and 0.7% of patients with CD4 cell counts or =200/mm(3) had died (P < 0.0001). Mortality [adjusted for CD4; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-1.23], loss to follow-up (HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.51-1.41) and virological failure (HR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.19-1.13) were not significantly different in IDUs and non-IDUs. Intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Indonesia with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome tend to have more advanced disease but respond similarly to non-IDUs to antiretroviral therapy.

  18. Analysis of Clinical End Points of Randomised Trials Including Bevacizumab and Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy as First-line Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloca, G; Venturino, A; Guarneri, D

    2016-10-01

    Progression-free survival is recognised as an appropriate end point for randomised clinical trials of chemotherapy of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, although it is not clear if it is reliable after chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. A literature search of randomised trials of systemic treatment including chemotherapy plus bevacizumab versus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer was undertaken. For each trial the differences in overall survival and in either time-to-event or response-related end points were calculated. A Spearman test was carried out between the difference in each end point and the difference in survival. For the end points with the higher relationships with overall survival a regression analysis was carried out and R(2) (proportion of variability explained) was reported. Progression-free survival is closely related to overall survival (r=0.817; R(2)=0.706) and this relationship does not seem to be changed by the discontinuation of bevacizumab. The response-related end points have a better overall performance than the other time-to-event end points, even when only phase III trials are considered. In phase III trials, the disease control rate seems to be strongly related to overall survival (r=0.975; R(2)=0.889) and the overall response rate reports a good performance (r=0.866; R(2)=0.484). An open-label design and the timing of disease radiological evaluation do not seem to interfere with the correlation of differences of progression-free survival and overall survival. A validation of the disease control rate and the overall response rate as a surrogate end point of survival at a patient level and a standardised definition of the timing for their measurement are strongly recommended in trials of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A randomized phase II study of paclitaxel and bevacizumab with and without gemcitabine as first-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brufsky, Adam; Hoelzer, Karen; Beck, Thaddeus; Whorf, Robert; Keaton, Mark; Nadella, Padma; Krill-Jackson, Elisa; Kroener, Joan; Middleman, Edward; Frontiera, Michael; Paul, Devchand; Panella, Timothy; Bromund, Jane; Zhao, Luping; Orlando, Mauro; Tai, Fritz; Marciniak, Martin D; Obasaju, Coleman; Hainsworth, John

    2011-08-01

    The addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel improved progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We examined the efficacy and safety of adding gemcitabine to paclitaxel/bevacizumab (PB). In this multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II trial, women with locally advanced or MBC were randomly assigned to receive paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2) (days 1, 8, 15) and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg (days 1, 15) with or without gemcitabine 1500 mg/m(2) (days 1, 15) in 28-day cycles. Patients with prior cytotoxic therapy for MBC were ineligible. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR); secondary endpoints were PFS, overall survival (OS), safety, and quality of life. Ninety-four patients received PB, and 93 received paclitaxel/bevacizumab/gemcitabine (PB+G). The ORRs were 48.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.5%-59.5%) and 58.7% (95% CI, 47.9%-68.9%; P = .117) with PB and PB+G, respectively. The median PFS was 8.8 months (95% CI, 8.1-10.4 months) and 11.3 months (95% CI, 9.7-12.7 months; P = .247; hazard ratio, 0.82); the median OS was 25.0 months (95% CI, 18.8-not assessable [N/A] months) and 24.3 months (95% CI, 20.3-N/A months; P = .475; hazard ratio, 0.84), with PB and PB+G, respectively. There was significantly more grade 3-4 neutropenia (P = .001) and dyspnea (P = .014) with PB+G. Patients treated with PB experienced more improvement in total FACT-B (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast) (P = .021), FACT-B Social/Family Well-being (P = .041), and Breast Cancer-Additional Concerns (P = .008) scores than patients treated with PB+G. The addition of gemcitabine to PB was not associated with a statistically significant improvement in ORR. Treatment with PB+G increased the incidence of severe neutropenia and dyspnea, although the regimen generally was well tolerated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of erlotinib versus gefitinib in first-line treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor-activating mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vivian W Y; Schwander, Bjoern; Lee, Victor H F

    2014-06-01

    To compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of erlotinib versus gefitinib as first-line treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor-activating mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer patients. DESIGN. Indirect treatment comparison and a cost-effectiveness assessment. Hong Kong. Those having epidermal growth factor receptor-activating mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Erlotinib versus gefitinib use was compared on the basis of four relevant Asian phase-III randomised controlled trials: one for erlotinib (OPTIMAL) and three for gefitinib (IPASS; NEJGSG; WJTOG). The cost-effectiveness assessment model simulates the transition between the health states: progression-free survival, progression, and death over a lifetime horizon. The World Health Organization criterion (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio product/capita: cost-effectiveness. The best fit of study characteristics and prognostic patient characteristics were found between the OPTIMAL and IPASS trials. Comparing progression-free survival hazard ratios of erlotinib versus gefitinib using only these randomised controlled trials in an indirect treatment comparison resulted in a statistically significant progression-free survival difference in favour of erlotinib (indirect treatment comparison hazard ratio=0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.58; P=0.0001). The cost-effectiveness assessment model showed that the cost per progression-free life year gained and per quality-adjusted life year gained was at acceptable values of US$39 431 (approximately HK$306 773) and US$62 419 (approximately HK$485 619) for erlotinib versus gefitinib, respectively. The indirect treatment comparison of OPTIMAL versus IPASS shows that erlotinib is significantly more efficacious than gefitinib. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness assessment indicates that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are well within an acceptable range in relation to the survival benefits obtained. In conclusion, erlotinib is

  1. Advanced non-small cell lung cancer management in patients progressing after first-line treatment: results of the cross-sectional phase of the Italian LIFE observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridelli, Cesare; de Marinis, Filippo; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Novello, Silvia; Fontanini, Gabriella; Cappuzzo, Federico; Grossi, Francesco; Santo, Antonio; Cortinovis, Diego; Favaretto, Adolfo; Lorusso, Vito; Galetta, Domenico; Siena, Salvatore; Bettini, Anna; Iurlaro, Monica; Caprioli, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    LIFE (non-small cell Lung cancer management In patients progressing after First-linE of treatment in the metastatic setting) is a multicentre Italian observational study, including a cross-sectional and a longitudinal phase, with the aim of describing the therapeutic approach in clinical practice for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, progressing after first-line treatment. In this paper, the cross-sectional phase is outlined, with the primary endpoint of describing the proportion of patients receiving second-line treatment among those progressed during or after first-line treatment according to clinical practice. From July 2011 to January 2012, 603 patients were enrolled and 541 (90 %) were evaluable. A total of 464 (86 %) patients received a second-line therapy outside clinical trials. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies were administered to 65 and 34 % of patients, respectively (1 % both). No tissue collection was required within the observational trial, and biomarkers analysis was performed at diagnosis or later in 314 patients (58 %). In details, activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were detected in 21 % of 311 evaluable patients, Kirsten rat sarcoma 2 viral oncogene homolog mutation in 22 % of the 77 evaluable patients and anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocations analysis was performed in 74 patients and resulted positive in 23 % of cases. These high proportions were probably due to enriched patient population tested. These results showed a pattern of care for NSCLC second-line therapy which reflects international guidelines recommendations and current expected clinical practice. Interestingly, biomarkers analyses were performed in a higher percentage than expected.

  2. Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 resin microspheres plus standard systemic chemotherapy regimen of FOLFOX versus FOLFOX alone as first-line treatment of non-resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer: the SIRFLOX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Peter; Gebski, Val; Van Buskirk, Mark; Thurston, Kenneth; Cade, David N; Van Hazel, Guy A

    2014-12-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are linked to poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy with regimens such as FOLFOX (combination of infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) is the standard first-line treatment. The SIRFLOX trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of combining FOLFOX-based chemotherapy with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT or radioembolisation) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-SpheresR; Sirtex Medical Limited, North Sydney, Australia). SIRFLOX is a randomised, multicentre trial of mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy+/-SIRT as first-line treatment of patients with liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic CRC (mCRC). The trial aims to recruit adult chemotherapy-naive patients with proven liver metastases with or without limited extra-hepatic disease, a life expectancy of >=3 months and a WHO performance status of 0-1. Patients will be randomised to receive either mFOLFOX6 or SIRT+mFOLFOX6 (with a reduced dose of oxaliplatin in cycles 1-3 following SIRT). Patients in both arms can receive bevacizumab at investigator discretion. Protocol chemotherapy will continue until there is unacceptable toxicity, evidence of tumour progression, complete surgical resection or ablation of cancerous lesions, or the patient requests an end to treatment. The primary endpoint of the SIRFLOX trial is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include: PFS in the liver; tumour response rate (liver and any site); site of tumour progression; health-related quality of life; toxicity and safety; liver resection rate; and overall survival. Assuming an increase in the median PFS from 9.4 months to 12.5 months with the addition of SIRT to mFOLFOX6, recruiting >=450 patients will be sufficient for 80% power and 95% confidence. The SIRFLOX trial will establish the potential role of SIRT+standard systemic chemotherapy in the first-line management of mCRC with non-resectable liver metastases. SIRFLOX Clinical

  3. Randomized phase II trial of the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab combined with docetaxel in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer administered as first-line treatment: the M77001 study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Michel; Cognetti, Francesco; Maraninchi, Dominique; Snyder, Ray; Mauriac, Louis; Tubiana-Hulin, Michèle; Chan, Stephen; Grimes, David; Antón, Antonio; Lluch, Ana; Kennedy, John; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Conte, PierFranco; Green, Michael; Ward, Carol; Mayne, Karen; Extra, Jean-Marc

    2005-07-01

    This randomized, multicenter trial compared first-line trastuzumab plus docetaxel versus docetaxel alone in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Patients were randomly assigned to six cycles of docetaxel 100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks, with or without trastuzumab 4 mg/kg loading dose followed by 2 mg/kg weekly until disease progression. A total of 186 patients received at least one dose of the study drug. Trastuzumab plus docetaxel was significantly superior to docetaxel alone in terms of overall response rate (61% v 34%; P = .0002), overall survival (median, 31.2 v 22.7 months; P = .0325), time to disease progression (median, 11.7 v 6.1 months; P = .0001), time to treatment failure (median, 9.8 v 5.3 months; P = .0001), and duration of response (median, 11.7 v 5.7 months; P = .009). There was little difference in the number and severity of adverse events between the arms. Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia was seen more commonly with the combination (32%) than with docetaxel alone (22%), and there was a slightly higher incidence of febrile neutropenia in the combination arm (23% v 17%). One patient in the combination arm experienced symptomatic heart failure (1%). Another patient experienced symptomatic heart failure 5 months after discontinuation of trastuzumab because of disease progression, while being treated with an investigational anthracycline for 4 months. Trastuzumab combined with docetaxel is superior to docetaxel alone as first-line treatment of patients with HER2-positive MBC in terms of overall survival, response rate, response duration, time to progression, and time to treatment failure, with little additional toxicity.

  4. An open-label, multicenter, phase I trial of a cremophor-free, polymeric micelle formulation of paclitaxel combined with carboplatin as a first-line treatment for advanced ovarian cancer: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group study (KGOG-3016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin Wha; Kim, Yong Man; Kim, Young Tae; Kang, Soon Beom

    2017-05-01

    This phase I study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Genexol-PM, when combined with carboplatin, as a first-line treatment in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. This open-label, multicenter, phase I, dose-escalation study included 18 patients (median age: 59.0 years, range: 40-75 years) diagnosed with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. All patients had measurable residual disease after debulking surgery. Patients were assigned to groups (n=6 each group) that received different doses of Genexol-PM (220, 260, and 300 mg/m², once every 3 weeks) and 5 area under the curve (AUC) carboplatin. Safety and efficacy were analyzed for each dose group. In this intention-to-treat population, 3 out of 18 patients dropped out of the study: 1 due to dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), 1 due to hypersensitivity, and 1 was lost during follow-up. DLTs were not reported at 220 mg/m² or 260 mg/m², but at 300 mg/m², 1 patient experienced DLT (grade 3 general pain). The MTD of Genexol-PM was not determined, but a dose of 300 mg/m² or less could be recommended for the phase II study. Most patients (73.9%) with adverse events recovered without sequelae, and no death occurred that was related to the disease or treatment. The best overall response rate was 94.1%. Genexol-PM combined with carboplatin was well tolerated as a first-line treatment, and good responses were observed in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Based on these results, we recommended a dose of 300 mg/m² or less for a phase II study.

  5. First line management in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voxted, Søren

    first-line managers’ work and to illuminate differences between first-line managers from different occupational groups. The second question relates to current debate about the degree of professionalized management among the municipal first-line managers. In both the international and Danish management......, in some examples, explicit standards are set for what share of the manager’s working time should be used on management and what share should be used on participation in operational tasks. The main question is how the division between exercising leadership and participating in operational task is evident......The paper will examines and discusses the results from a structured observational study, wherein 50 first-line managers from the public sector in Denmark in five areas of employment where observed. These observational studies are a key contribution in the ‘greenhouse for management’ project...

  6. Rapid increase of Plasmodium falciparum dhfr/dhps resistant haplotypes, after the adoption of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment in 2002, in southern Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enosse, Sonia; Magnussen, Pascal; Abacassamo, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In late 2002, the health authorities of Mozambique implemented sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)/amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In 2004, this has been altered to SP/artesunate in line with WHO recommendations of using Artemisinin...... Combination Therapies (ACTs), despite the fact that all the neighbouring countries have abandoned SP-drug combinations due to high levels of SP drug resistance. In the study area, one year prior to the change to SP/AQ, SP alone was used to treat uncomplicated malaria cases. The study described here...... investigated the immediate impact of the change to SP on the frequency of SP and CQ resistance-related haplotypes in the Plasmodium falciparum genes Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt before and a year after the introduction of SP. METHODS: Samples were collected during two cross sectional surveys in early 2002 and 2003...

  7. High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen Manasa

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa.Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme.Adult (≥ 18 years HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen and with evidence of virological failure (one viral load >1000 copies/ml were enrolled from 17 rural primary health care clinics. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using the in-house SATuRN/Life Technologies system. Sequences were analysed and genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS for standard second-line regimens were calculated using the Stanford HIVDB 6.0.5 algorithms.A total of 222 adults were successfully genotyped for HIV drug resistance between December 2010 and March 2012. The most common regimens at time of genotype were stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz (51%; and stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (24%. Median duration of ART was 42 months (interquartile range (IQR 32-53 and median duration of antiretroviral failure was 27 months (IQR 17-40. One hundred and ninety one (86% had at least one drug resistance mutation. For 34 individuals (15%, the GSS for the standard second-line regimen was <2, suggesting a significantly compromised regimen. In univariate analysis, individuals with a prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI substitution were more likely to have a GSS <2 than those on the same NRTIs throughout (odds ratio (OR 5.70, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-12.49.There are high levels of drug resistance in adults with failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in this rural primary health care programme. Standard second-line regimens could potentially have had reduced efficacy in about one in seven adults involved.

  8. First-line response-adapted treatment with the combination of bendamustine and rituximab in patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT2008-01): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar, Antonio; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Panizo, Carlos; Nicolás, Concepción; Bargay, Joan; Muntañola, Ana; Canales, Miguel; Bello, José Luis; Sancho, Juan Manuel; Tomás, José Francisco; Rodríguez, María José; Peñalver, Francisco Javier; Grande, Carlos; Sánchez-Blanco, José Javier; Palomera, Luis; Arranz, Reyes; Conde, Eulogio; García, Mar; García, Juan Fernando; Caballero, Dolores; Montalbán, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    No standard first-line systemic treatment for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is available. In a phase 2 study we aimed to assess the safety and activity of a response-adapted combination of bendamustine plus rituximab as upfront treatment for this type of lymphoma. In a multicentre, single-arm, non-randomised, phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients with MALT lymphoma at any site and stage and treated them with bendamustine (90 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2) plus rituximab (375 mg/m(2) on day 1), every 4 weeks. Inclusion criteria were measurable or evaluable disease, age 18-85 years, and unequivocal active lymphoma; we also enrolled patients with MALT lymphoma arising in the stomach after failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication and primary cutaneous cases after failure of local therapies. Exclusion criteria included evidence of histological transformation, CNS involvement, and active hepatitis B or C virus or HIV infection. After three cycles, patients achieving complete response received one additional cycle (total four cycles) and those achieving partial response received three additional cycles (total six cycles). The primary endpoint was 2-year event-free survival. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01015248. 60 patients from 19 centres in Spain were enrolled between May 27, 2009, and May 23, 2011, and received treatment; 57 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint. Only 14 (25%) patients needed more than four cycles of treatment. After a median follow-up of 43 months (IQR 37-51), median event-free survival was not reached. Event-free survival at 2 years was 93% (95% CI 84-97) and at 4 years was 88% (95% CI 74-95). The most frequently observed grade 3-4 adverse events were haematological: lymphopenia in 20 (33%) patients, neutropenia in 12 (20%) patients, and leucopenia in three (5%) patients. Grade 3-4 febrile neutropenia or infections were reported in three (5%) and four

  9. Palbociclib as a first-line treatment in oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer not cost-effective with current pricing: a health economic analysis of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, K; Ruhstaller, T; Klingbiel, D; Schwenkglenks, M; Dedes, K J

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine therapy continues to be the optimal systemic treatment for metastatic ER(+)HER2(-) breast cancer. The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with letrozole has recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival. Here we examined the cost-effectiveness of this regimen for the Swiss healthcare system. A Markov cohort simulation based on the PALOMA-1 trial (Finn et al. in Lancet Oncol 16:25-35, 2015) was used as the clinical course. Input parameters were based on summary trial data. Costs were assessed from the Swiss healthcare system perspective. Adding palbociclib to letrozole (PALLET) compared to letrozole monotherapy was estimated to cost an additional CHF342,440 and gain 1.14 quality-adjusted life years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CHF301,227/QALY gained. In univariate sensitivity analyses, no tested variation in key parameters resulted in an ICER below a willingness-to-pay threshold of CHF100,000/QALY. PALLET had a 0 % probability of being cost-effective in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Lowering PALLET's price by 75 % resulted in an ICER of CHF73,995/QALY and a 73 % probability of being cost-effective. At current prices, PALLET would cost the Swiss healthcare system an additional CHF155 million/year. Palbociclib plus letrozole cannot be considered cost-effective for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the Swiss healthcare system.

  10. Pemetrexed had significantly better clinical efficacy in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with susceptible EGFR mutations receiving platinum-based chemotherapy after developing resistance to the first-line gefitinib treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang CJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Jen Yang,1–4 Ming-Ju Tsai,2,4 Jen-Yu Hung,2,3 Ta-Chih Liu,3,5 Shah-Hwa Chou,3,6 Jui-Ying Lee,6 Jui-Sheng Hsu,3,7 Ying-Ming Tsai,1,2,4 Ming-Shyan Huang,2–4 Inn-Wen Chong2,3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 3Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, 4Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, 5Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 6Division of Chest Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 7Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Background: Increased evidences show that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib could prolong progression-free survival (PFS compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy for metastatic lung nonsquamous cell carcinoma harboring susceptible EGFR mutation, and gefitinib was served as the first-line therapy. However, acquired resistance is inevitable, but the salvage therapies are still unclear.Patients and methods: We designed a retrospective study of the salvage therapy and enrolled patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who had mutated EGFR and developed an acquired resistance to the first-line gefitinib in two university-affiliated hospitals in Taiwan during June 2011 to December 2014. Age, sex, smoking history, EGFR gene mutation, performance statuses, response rate, PFS2 (the PFS in salvage therapy, and overall survival (OS2, the OS in salvage therapy were recorded.Results: Two hundred and nine patients with mutated EGFR and who took gefitinib as first-line therapy were identified in the period, and a total of 98 patients who had been treated with salvage therapy with cytotoxic chemotherapy or erlotinib were eligible for this

  11. A combination of gefitinib and FOLFOX-4 as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer patients. A GISCAD multicentre phase II study including a biological analysis of EGFR overexpression, amplification and NF-kB activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascinu, S; Berardi, R; Salvagni, S; Beretta, G D; Catalano, V; Pucci, F; Sobrero, A; Tagliaferri, P; Labianca, R; Scartozzi, M; Crocicchio, F; Mari, E; Ardizzoni, A

    2007-01-01

    Interesting activity has been reported by combining chemotherapy with cetuximab. An alternative approach for blocking EGFR function has been the development of small-molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinase domain such as gefitinib. We designed a multicentre phase II study in advanced colorectal cancer combining gefitinib+FOLFOX in order to determine the activity and to relate EGFR expression and gene amplification and NF-kB activation to therapeutic results. Patients received FOLFOX-4 regimen plus gefitinib as first-line treatment. Tumour samples were analysed for EGFR protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis and for EGFR gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) and NF-kB activation. Forty-three patients were enrolled into this study; 15 patients experienced a partial response (response rate=34.9%), whereas other 12 (27.9%) had a stable disease. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.8 months and median overall survival (OS) was 13.9 months. We did not find any relationship with EGFR overexpression, gene amplification, while NF-kB activation was associated with a resistance to therapy. Gefitinib does not seem to increase the activity of FOLFOX in advanced colorectal cancer even in patients overexpressing EGFR or with EGFR amplification. Furthermore, while NF-kB activation seems to predict resistance to chemotherapy as demonstrated ‘in vitro' models, gefitinib does not overcome this mechanism of resistance, as reported for cetuximab. PMID:18059397

  12. Intensified dose of cyclophosphamide with G-CSF support versus standard dose combined with platinum in first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer a randomised study from the GINECO group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Coquard, I; Paraiso, D; Guastalla, J-P; Leduc, B; Guichard, F; Martin, C; Chauvenet, L; Haddad-Guichard, Z; Lepillé, D; Orfeuvre, H; Gautier, H; Castera, D; Pujade-Lauraine, É

    2007-01-01

    ICON3 trial results have suggested that CAP and carboplatin–taxol regimens as first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) yield similar survival. We explored the impact of increased dose of cyclophosphamide in a modified CAP regimen on the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of AOC patients. From February 1994 to June 1997, 164 patients were randomised to receive six cycles every 3 weeks of either standard CEP (S) combining cyclophosphamide (C), 500 mg m−2, epirubicin (E) 50 mg m−2, and cisplatin (P) 75 mg m−2 or intensive CEP (I) with E and P at the same doses, but with (C) 1800 mg m−2 and filgrastim 5 μg kg−1 per day × 10 days. Response was evaluated at second-look surgery. Patient characteristics were well balanced. Except for grade 3–4 neutropaenia (S: 54%, I: 38% of cycles), Arm1 presented a significantly more important toxicity: infection requiring antibiotics, grade 3–4 thrombocytopaenia, anaemia, nausea-vomiting, diarrhoea, mucositis. Median follow-up was 84 months. DFS (15.9 vs 14.8 months) and OS (33 vs 30 months) were not significantly different between S and I (P>0.05). Increasing cyclophosphamide dose by more than 3 times with filgrastim support in the modified CAP regimen CEP induces more toxicity but not better efficacy in AOC. PMID:17923867

  13. Efficacy and safety of sequential use of everolimus in Japanese patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma after failure of first-line treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: a multicenter phase II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Masafumi; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Nozawa, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Kishida, Takeshi; Kimura, Go; Tokuda, Noriaki; Hinotsu, Shiro; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Akaza, Hideyuki; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2017-06-01

    Many studies have shown the efficacy of everolimus after pretreatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We investigated the efficacy and safety of everolimus as a second-line treatment after the failure of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in Japanese patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. This was an open-label, multicenter, phase II trial conducted in Japan through the central registration system. A total of 57  patients were enrolled. Patients were administered 10 mg of everolimus q.d. orally. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival achieved by administration of everolimus. The median progression-free survival of patients administered everolimus was 5.03 months (95% confidence interval: 3.70-6.20). The median overall survival was not reached. The objective response rate was 9.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.1-20.7). The progression-free survival in the group of <100% relative dose intensity was 6.70 months (95% confidence interval: 4.13-11.60), and that in the group of 100% relative dose intensity was 3.77 months (hazard ratio: 2.79, 95% confidence interval: 2.77-5.63). The commonly observed adverse events and laboratory abnormalities were stomatitis (49.1%), hypertriglyceridemia (26.4%), interstitial lung disease (26.4%), anemia (22.6%) and hypercholesterolemia (22.6%). The median progression-free survival was almost similar to that recorded in the RECORD-1 study, whereas prolongation of overall survival was observed in the present study compared with the RECORD-1 study. The treatment outcomes of first-line vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and second-line everolimus treatment in Japanese patients were successfully established in the present study.

  14. Capecitabine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan in combination, with bevacizumab (COI-B regimen) as first-line treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer. An Italian Trials of Medical Oncology phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Ciarlo, Andrea; Bertolini, Alessandro; Barni, Sandro; Verusio, Claudio; Aitini, Enrico; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Iacovelli, Roberto; Dotti, Katia Fiorella; Maggi, Claudia; Perrone, Federica; Bajetta, Emilio

    2015-03-01

    A dose-finding phase I/II trial that evaluated the maximum tolerated doses of a combination of three drugs with irinotecan, oxaliplatin and capecitabine (COI regimen) has been conducted in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In this study the safety and activity of the combination of COI regimen plus bevacizumab (COI-B) were assessed. Patients judged to be unresectable for metastatic disease, were enrolled in a phase II, open-label study and treated with the combination of bevacizumab (5mg/kg on day 1) and COI regimen (irinotecan 180mg/mq on day 1, oxaliplatin 85mg/mq on day 2, capecitabine 2000mg d2-6; q14) as first-line treatment. Induction treatment was administered for a maximum of 8 cycles, followed by maintenance treatment with bevacizumab (7.5mg/kg on d1, q21) until progression. Fifty-one patients were enrolled in six Italian centres. The primary end-point of overall response rate was met, reaching the value of 62% in the per-protocol population and 57% in the intent-to-treat population, patients with stable disease were also taken into account, the clinical benefit rate was 94%. In the intention-to-treat population, median progression-free and overall survivals were 10.3 and 22 months, respectively. Toxicity was different from 5-fluorouracil-based triplet regimens, with 31% of severe diarrhoea, but a low incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia (6%) and mucositis (4%). Our results show the feasibility and promising activity of the combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan and bevacizumab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy and safety of palbociclib in combination with letrozole as first-line treatment of ER-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer: expanded analyses of subgroups from the randomized pivotal trial PALOMA-1/TRIO-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Richard S; Crown, John P; Ettl, Johannes; Schmidt, Marcus; Bondarenko, Igor M; Lang, Istvan; Pinter, Tamas; Boer, Katalin; Patel, Ravindranath; Randolph, Sophia; Kim, Sindy T; Huang, Xin; Schnell, Patrick; Nadanaciva, Sashi; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Slamon, Dennis J

    2016-06-28

    Palbociclib is an oral small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6. In the randomized, open-label, phase II PALOMA-1/TRIO-18 trial, palbociclib in combination with letrozole improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with letrozole alone as first-line treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, advanced breast cancer (20.2 months versus 10.2 months; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.488, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.319-0.748; one-sided p = 0.0004). Grade 3-4 neutropenia was the most common adverse event (AE) in the palbociclib + letrozole arm. We now present efficacy and safety analyses based on several specific patient and tumor characteristics, and present in detail the clinical patterns of neutropenia observed in the palbociclib + letrozole arm of the overall safety population. Postmenopausal women (n = 165) with ER+, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer who had not received any systemic treatment for their advanced disease were randomized 1:1 to receive either palbociclib in combination with letrozole or letrozole alone. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, consent withdrawal, or death. The primary endpoint was PFS. We now analyze the difference in PFS for the treatment populations by subgroups, including age, histological type, history of prior neoadjuvant/adjuvant systemic treatment, and sites of distant metastasis, using the Kaplan-Meier method. HR and 95 % CI are derived from a Cox proportional hazards regression model. A clinically meaningful improvement in median PFS and clinical benefit response (CBR) rate was seen with palbociclib + letrozole in every subgroup evaluated. Grade 3-4 neutropenia was the most common AE with palbociclib + letrozole in all subgroups. Analysis of the frequency of neutropenia by grade during the first six cycles of treatment showed that there was a downward trend in Grade 3-4 neutropenia

  16. Novel Approach for Enterocutaneous Fistula Treatment with the Use of Viable Cryopreserved Placental Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Nichols

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF are a difficult and costly surgical complication to manage. The standard treatment of nil per os (NPO and total paraenteral nutrition (TPN is not well tolerated by patients. TPN is also known for complications associated with long term central venous catheterization and for high cost of prolonged hospital stay. We present two low output ECF cases successfully treated with viable cryopreserved placental membrane (vCPM placed into the fistula tracts. One patient is a 59-year-old male with a low output ECF from a jejunostomy tube site four weeks after the surgery. The second patient is an 87-year-old male with a low output ECF following a small bowel resection secondary to a strangulated inguinal hernia. He was evaluated on day 41 after surgery. NPO and TPN for several weeks did not resolute the ECF. The fistulae were closed postoperatively in both patients with zero output on the same day after one vCPM application. On day 3 postoperatively both patients were started on clear liquid diets and subsequently advanced to regular diets. The ECF have remained resolved for over 2 months. The use of vCPM is a novel promising approach for treatment of ECF.

  17. Evaluation of treatment outcomes for patients on first-line regimens in US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) clinics in Uganda: predictors of virological and immunological response from RV288 analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, K W; Wakabi, S; Magala, F; Kibuuka, H; Liu, M; Hamm, T E

    2015-02-01

    Viral load (VL) monitoring is recommended, but seldom performed, in resource-constrained countries. RV288 is a US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) basic programme evaluation to determine the proportion of patients on treatment who are virologically suppressed and to identify predictors of virological suppression and recovery of CD4 cell count. Analyses from Uganda are presented here. In this cross-sectional, observational study, patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (efavirenz or nevirapine+zidovudine/lamivudine) from Kayunga District Hospital and Kagulamira Health Center were randomly selected for a study visit that included determination of viral load (HIV-1 RNA), CD4 cell count and clinical chemistry tests. Subjects were recruited by time on treatment: 6-12, 13-24 or >24 months. Logistic regression modelling identified predictors of virological suppression. Linear regression modelling identified predictors of CD4 cell count recovery on ART. We found that 85.2% of 325 subjects were virologically suppressed (viral loadclinic visits (OR 0.815; 95% CI 0.66-1.00; P=0.05), improvement in CD4 percentage (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.014-1.107; P=0.009), and care at Kayunga vs. Kangulamira (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.23-0.92; P=0.035). In a multivariate linear regression model of covariates associated with CD4 count recovery, time on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) (Pclinic. CD4 cell reconstitution was positively associated with CD4 count at study visit, time on ART, satisfaction with care at clinic, haemoglobin concentration and total lymphocyte count and negatively associated with age. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  18. The use of super-selective mesenteric embolisation as a first-line management of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Soh, MBBS, BBiomedSci, PGDipSurgAnat

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Super-selective mesenteric embolisation is a viable, safe and effective first line management for localised LGIB. Our results overall compare favourably with the published experiences of other institutions. It is now accepted first-line practice at our institution to manage localised LGIB with embolisation.

  19. Sevelamer is cost effective versus calcium carbonate for the first-line treatment of hyperphosphatemia in new patients to hemodialysis: a patient-level economic evaluation of the INDEPENDENT-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Matteo; Bellasi, Antonio; Cipriani, Filippo; Molony, Donald; Bell, Cynthia; Russo, Domenico; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2015-10-01

    The recent multicenter, randomized, open-label INDEPENDENT study demonstrated that sevelamer improves survival in new to hemodialysis (HD) patients compared with calcium carbonate. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of sevelamer versus calcium carbonate for patients new to HD, using patient-level data from the INDEPENDENT study. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Adult patients new to HD in Italy. A patient-level cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, Italy's national health service. The analysis was conducted for a 3-year time horizon. The cost of dialysis was excluded from the base case analysis. Sevelamer was compared to calcium carbonate. Total life years (LYs), total costs, and the incremental cost per LY gained were calculated. Bootstrapping was used to estimate confidence intervals around LYs, costs, and cost-effectiveness and to calculate the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sevelamer was associated with a gain of 0.26 in LYs compared to calcium carbonate, over the 3-year time horizon. Total drug costs were €3,282 higher for sevelamer versus calcium carbonate, while total hospitalization costs were €2,020 lower for sevelamer versus calcium carbonate. The total incremental cost of sevelamer versus calcium carbonate was €1,262, resulting in a cost per LY gained of €4,897. The bootstrap analysis demonstrated that sevelamer was cost effective compared with calcium carbonate in 99.4 % of 10,000 bootstrap replicates, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000 per LY gained. Data on hospitalizations was taken from a post hoc retrospective chart review of the patients included in the INDEPENDENT study. Patient quality of life or health utility was not included in the analysis. Sevelamer is a cost-effective alternative to calcium carbonate for the first-line treatment of hyperphosphatemia in new to HD patients in Italy.

  20. Meta-analysis supporting noninferiority of oxaliplatin plus S-1 to cisplatin plus S-1 in first-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer (G-SOX study): indirect comparison with S-1 alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Chikuma; Yamada, Yasuhide; Azuma, Mizutomo; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Gotoh, Masahiro; Bando, Hideaki; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Nishina, Tomohiro; Amagai, Kenji; Chin, Keisho; Niwa, Yasumasa; Tsuji, Akihito; Imamura, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Masahiro; Yasui, Hirofumi; Fujii, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Yasui, Hisateru; Hironaka, Shuichi; Shimada, Ken; Miwa, Hiroto; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2016-08-01

    The Randomized Phase III Study Comparing Oxaliplatin plus S-1 with Cisplatin plus S-1 in Chemotherapy-naïve Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer (G-SOX) showed the noninferiority of S-1 (an oral fluoropyrimidine-derivative dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibitor) plus oxaliplatin combination therapy (SOX) to S-1 plus cisplatin therapy (CS) in overall survival [hazard ratio (HR) from proportional hazard model 0.958, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.803-1.142; noninferiority margin 1.15]. To further clarify the clinical position of SOX in advanced gastric cancer (AGC), a meta-analysis including information from other reported studies was conducted. In addition to G-SOX, Japanese phase III clinical trials including S-1 monotherapy were included in the analyses. Individual patient data for SOX (318 patients) and CS (324 patients) from G-SOX, as well as those for S-1 (160 patients) from the Randomized Phase III Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Irinotecan plus S-1 with S-1 Alone as First-line Treatment for Advanced Gastric Cancer (GC0301/TOP-002), were available. Published clinical information for S-1 from other studies (total 705 patients) was also collected. A Weibull distribution was assumed for overall survival time, and parameters for SOX, CS, and S-1 were estimated parametrically. Posterior HR distributions were obtained with a Bayesian approach. The HR of SOX to S-1 was 0.817 (95 % credible interval 0.704-0.939), and the probability of the HR SOX to CS in G-SOX was 0.942 (95 % credible interval; 0.789-1.117), and the probability of HR SOX was superior to S-1 and noninferior to CS in AGC.

  1. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (CheckMate 012): results of an open-label, phase 1, multicohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Matthew D; Rizvi, Naiyer A; Goldman, Jonathan W; Gettinger, Scott N; Borghaei, Hossein; Brahmer, Julie R; Ready, Neal E; Gerber, David E; Chow, Laura Q; Juergens, Rosalyn A; Shepherd, Frances A; Laurie, Scott A; Geese, William J; Agrawal, Shruti; Young, Tina C; Li, Xuemei; Antonia, Scott J

    2017-01-01

    Nivolumab has shown improved survival in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with chemotherapy. We assessed the safety and activity of combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab as first-line therapy for NSCLC. The open-label, phase 1, multicohort study (CheckMate 012) cohorts reported here were enrolled at eight US academic centres. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically or cytologically confirmed recurrent stage IIIb or stage IV, chemotherapy-naive NSCLC. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by an interactive voice response system to receive nivolumab 1 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks, nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 12 weeks, or nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicities, or withdrawal of consent. Data from the latter two cohorts, which were considered potentially suitable for further clinical development, are presented in this report; data from the other cohort (as well as several earlier cohorts) are described in the appendix. The primary outcome was safety and tolerability, assessed in all treated patients. This ongoing study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01454102. Between May 15, 2014, and March 25, 2015, 78 patients were randomly assigned to receive nivolumab every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab every 12 weeks (n=38) or nivolumab every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab every 6 weeks (n=40). One patient in the ipilimumab every-6-weeks cohort was excluded before treatment; therefore 77 patients actually received treatment (38 in the ipilimumab every-12-weeks cohort; 39 in the ipilimumab every-6-weeks cohort). At data cut-off on Jan 7, 2016, 29 (76%) patients in the ipilimumab every-12-weeks cohort and 32 (82%) in the ipilimumab every-6-weeks cohort had discontinued treatment. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 14 (37%) patients in the

  2. Bariatric surgery: a viable treatment option for patients with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Sarah R; Labott, Susan; Stout, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    Although bariatric surgery has become a recognized treatment for obesity, its utility among patients with severe psychiatric disorders has not been extensively studied. A few studies have reported similar weight loss outcomes in these patients, but psychiatric status after bariatric surgery has been studied only minimally, and it is unknown if exacerbation of the mental illness affects weight loss. The aim of this study was to shed greater light on the issue of serious mental illness and bariatric surgery. Specifically, do patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II have poorer weight loss outcomes postbariatric surgery than the general bariatric surgery population? Also, do patients with these diagnoses experience an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms after bariatric surgery, and if so, is the exacerbation of these disorders linked to poorer weight loss results? Midwest university medical center. A medical record review of approximately 1500 bariatric patients in a Midwest university medical center was conducted to identify those patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II. Information was gathered on bariatric surgery outcomes and changes in psychiatric status postsurgery. Eighteen patients were identified as undergoing bariatric surgery and having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, or bipolar II. Weight loss in this group was significant and comparable to expected outcomes of absolute weight lost, changes in body mass index, and percentage excess weight loss for patients in the typical bariatric population. Postsurgery psychiatric status was known on 10 patients. All 10 patients experienced some exacerbation of psychiatric problems yet weight loss outcomes were still as expected. Bariatric surgery is a viable obesity treatment option for patients with schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II disorders. Symptom exacerbations occurred postsurgery, although it is not clear if these were due to the surgery or

  3. Comparison of single-agent chemotherapy and targeted therapy to first-line treatment in patients aged 80 years and older with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang QQ

    2015-04-01

    considered primarily for patients aged 80 years and older with advanced NSCLC who cannot tolerate chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, elderly, 80 years old, first-line, chemotherapy, targeted therapy 

  4. The First-Line Supervisor: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    form (because of the presumably adverse effects upon the principle of unity of command), Taylor’s writings, along with those of Fayol , Mooney, Urwick...Journal of Business of the University of Chicago, 1957, 30, 202-211. Taylor, F. W. The principles of scientific management . New York: Harper and...mry and Idontlty by block numbor) Supervisor First-line supervisor Foreman Leadership Management 20. ABSTRACT (Contlnu» on r»v»r»» »Id» II

  5. Combining ethidium monoazide treatment with real-time PCR selectively quantifies viable Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Vercammen, Francis; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Detection of the lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis relies on PCR-based techniques. Although highly accurate and sensitive, these methods fail to distinguish between viable and dead cells. In this study a novel approach combining the DNA intercalating dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) and real-time PCR is presented that allows quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis cells without the need for culturing. The developed method is able to suppress real-time PCR signals of heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores by 99.9 % and is able to discriminate viable from heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores in mixed samples. Furthermore, the novel approach was applied to assess the antifungal activity of the veterinary antiseptic F10(®) Antiseptic Solution. This disinfectant killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores effectively within 1 min at concentrations as low as 1:6400. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. First-line intra-arterial versus intravenous chemotherapy in unilateral sporadic group D retinoblastoma: evidence of better visual outcomes, ocular survival and shorter time to success with intra-arterial delivery from retrospective review of 20 years of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Francis L; Mosimann, Pascal; Puccinelli, Francesco; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Stathopoulos, Christina; Houghton, Susan; Bergin, Ciara; Beck-Popovic, Maja

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) as salvage treatment has improved the prognosis for eye conservation in group D retinoblastoma. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of consecutive patients with advanced unilateral disease treated with either first-line intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) or first-line IAC. This is a retrospective mono-centric comparative review of consecutive patients. Sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma group D cases treated conservatively at Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital and CHUV between 1997 and 2014. From January 1997 to August 2008, IVC, combined with focal treatments, was the primary treatment approach. From September 2008 to October 2014, IAC replaced IVC as first-line therapy. 48 patients met the inclusion criteria, receiving only either IAC or IVC as primary treatment modality. Outcomes of 23 patients treated by IVC were compared with those of 25 treated by IAC; mean follow-up was 105.3 months (range 29.2-218.6) and 41.7 months (range 19.6-89.5), respectively. Treatment duration was significantly shorter in the IAC group (p<0.001). Ten eyes in the IVC group underwent enucleation. Recordable visual acuity of the salvaged eyes was significantly better in the IAC group (0.9 vs 1.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, p<0.01). No extraocular disease, metastases or long-term systemic complications were observed in either group. The difference in the time frame between treatment groups had an impact on the availability of intravitreal chemotherapy treatment. Despite this, the results reported here imply that eyes treated with first-line IAC will have shorter treatment period, better ocular survival and visual acuity than first-line IVC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Efficacy evaluation of bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tablets-assisted blu-ray irradiation in treatment of neonatal jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-Ying Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tabletsassisted blu-ray irradiation in treatment of neonatal jaundice. Methods: A total of 118 cases of children with neonatal jaundice were randomly divided into observation group (n=59 and control group (n=59, control group received blu-ray irradiation treatment alone, observation group received bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tablets-assisted blu-ray irradiation treatment and then levels of bilirubin-related indicators, nerve damage indexes and liver function indexes of two groups were compared. Results: 3 d after treatment, total serum bilirubin (TSB, direct bilirubin (DB and transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB levels of observation group were lower than those of control group and differences were statistically significant; 3 d after treatment, serum neuron specific enolase (NSE, amyloid β-protein (A β and astrocytederived protein (S100 β levels of observation group were lower than those of control group and differences were statistically significant; 3 d after treatment, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels of observation group were lower than those of control group and differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tablets-assisted blu-ray irradiation has better effect in treatment of neonatal jaundice and has advantages in reducing bilirubin level, protecting nerve function and liver function and other aspects.

  8. Corticoide sistêmico como tratamento de primeira linha da hipertensão pulmonar secundária a síndrome POEMS Systemic corticosteroids as first-line treatment in pulmonary hypertension associated with POEMS syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Rached

    2009-08-01

    phenomena that involve the physiopathology of POEMS syndrome. We present the case of a 54-year-old woman diagnosed with POEMS syndrome and pulmonary hypertension, which were treated with corticosteroids as the first-line therapy. The patient presented with the classic symptoms of this syndrome: polyneuropathy (confirmed by electromyography, organomegaly, subclinical hypothyroidism and monoclonal gammopathy detected in urine, together with skin changes. Right heart catheterization revealed a mean pulmonary artery pressure of 48 mmHg, a cardiac output of 4.1 L/min and pulmonary vascular resistance of 8.05 Woods. The serum level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP was 150 pg/mL. No other underlying disease was found during the investigation. Prednisone (1 mg/kg for three months was then initiated, with a dramatic improvement in the clinical and functional condition. Levels of thyroid hormones and urinary protein levels (as determined using electrophoresis normalized. Mean pulmonary artery pressure decreased to 26 mmHg, cardiac output decreased to 3.8 L/min, and pulmonary vascular resistance decreased to 2.89 Woods. Serum levels of BNP dropped to 8 pg/mL. Our findings suggest that corticosteroids could play a role as a first-line treatment in pulmonary hypertension accompanied by POEMS syndrome. Due to the rarity of this presentation, a multicenter registry should be developed to allow the compilation of additional data to support this practice.

  9. Long-term efficacy of catheter ablation as first-line therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Johannessen, Arne; Raatikainen, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (MANTRA-PAF) trial compared radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) with antiarrhythmic drug therapy (AAD) as first-line treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Endpoint...

  10. Levofloxacin-Based First-Line Therapy versus Standard First-Line Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedikayil, Musthafa Chalikandy; AlSohaibani, Fahad Ibrahim; Alkhenizan, Abdullah Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Background First-line levofloxacin-based treatments eradicate Helicobacter pylori with varying success. We examined the efficacy and safety of first-line levofloxacin-based treatment in comparison to standard first-line therapy for H pylori eradication. Materials and Methods We searched literature databases from Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Register of Randomized Controlled Trials through March 2013 for randomized controlled trials comparing first-line levofloxacin and standard therapy. We included randomized controlled trials conducted only on naïve H pylori infected patients in adults. A systematic review was conducted. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.2. Treatment effect was determined by relative risk with a random or fixed model by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Results Seven trials were identified with 888 patients receiving 7 days of first-line levofloxacin and 894 treated with standard therapy (Amoxicillin, Clarithromycin and proton pump inhibitor) for 7 days. The overall crude eradication rate in the Levofloxacin group was 79.05% versus 81.4% in the standard group (risk ratio 0.97; 95% CI; 0.93, 1.02). The overall dropout was 46 (5.2%) in the levofloxacin group and 52 (5.8%) for standard therapy. The dizziness was more common among group who took Levofloxacin based treatment and taste disturbance was more common among group who took standard therapy. Meta-analysis of overall adverse events were similar between the two groups with a relative risk of 1.06 (95% CI 0.72, 1.57). Conclusion Helicobacter pylori eradication with 7 days of Levofloxacin-based first line therapy was safe and equal compared to 7 days of standard first-line therapy. PMID:24465624

  11. First line chemotherapy plus trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First line chemotherapy plus trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer HER2 positive - Observational institutional study. Meryem Aitelhaj, Siham Lkhoyaali, Ghizlane Rais, Saber Boutayeb, Hassan Errihani ...

  12. Viable Osteochondral Allograft for the Treatment of a Full-Thickness Cartilage Defect of the Patella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodmass, Jarret M.; Melugin, Heath P.; Wu, Isabella T.; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Stuart, Michael J.; Krych, Aaron J.

    2017-01-01

    Isolated cartilage defects can lead to significant pain and disability, prompting the development of a number of options for restorative treatment. Each method has advantages and limitations, and no single technique has gained widespread use. We present a technique for implantation of a

  13. Treatment of PTSD in Older Adults: Do Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Remain Viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2012-01-01

    The literature examining trauma among older adults is growing, but little is known about the efficacy of empirically supported interventions for PTSD within this population. Clinical writing on this topic often implies that cognitive-behavioral treatments may be ineffective or inappropriate for older adults with PTSD given physical and/or…

  14. Re-treatment after full-course radiotherapy: is it a viable option?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, F.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Div. of Experimental Therapy

    1999-07-01

    Re-irradiation of previously treated areas may become necessary for recurrent cancer, new primary tumours (common in head and neck cancer patients), or nodal and metastatic disease. Factors that should be taken into account in the decision to re-treat include: (1) Previously treated volume (how much overlap is there with new treatment fields) and dose fractionation schedule; (2) which critical tissues or organs are at risk; (3) how much time has elapsed since first treatment; (4) whether there are any practical alternatives to re-irradiation? Rapidly proliferating tissues generally recover well from the initial radiotherapy and will tolerate re-irradiation to almost full doses. Some slowly proliferating tissues are also capable of partial proliferative and functional recovery, although this takes several months and some residual damage remains. Preclinical data demonstrate that re-irradiation with reduced doses is possible in lung and spinal cord after intervals of 3-6 months. Other slowly proliferating organs, e.g. the kidneys, do not appear to be capable of recovery, even after low, subtolerance doses. The largest clinical experience of re-irradiation is for head and neck cancers. A review of this literature reveals that the most frequent normal tissue complication seen is trismus (lockjaw), which occurs in 16 to 30% of re-treated cases, with lower incidences of soft tissue or bone necrosis and fibrosis. Myelitis is rarely reported, even in the re-treatment situation. In general the highest incidence of local control for the lowest incidence of serious complications is achieved for combinations of external beam and brachytherapy, and for small, well-differentiated, new primary tumours rather than recurrent disease. Re-treatment with total doses <55 Gy gives very poor local control rates. Re-treatment schedules with curative intent require a high re-treatment dose, which is accompanied by an increased risk of normal tissue damage. To minimize serious complications

  15. Computational fluid dynamics evaluation of posterior septectomy as a viable treatment option for large septal perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Bradley A; Li, Chengyu; Farag, Alexander A; Bush, Benjamin; Krebs, Jillian P; Hutcheson, Ryan D; Kim, Kanghyun; Deshpande, Bhakthi; Zhao, Kai

    2017-07-01

    Numerous surgical techniques exist to treat nasal septal perforation (NSP). The surgical closure of large NSPs (>2 cm) is still challenging. Posterior septectomy has been reported as a simple alternative to treat large NSP, yet its mechanisms for symptom relief are not clear, and if failed, its consequence cannot be easily reversed. Ten NSP patients were recruited: 5 underwent posterior septectomy and 5 underwent conventional flap or button repair. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulated the nasal aerodynamics based on computed tomography (CT) scans. All patients had preoperative CT; however, only 4 had postoperative CT: 2 underwent posterior septectomy and the other 2 underwent flap repair. We examined surgical outcomes and the nasal airflow features among the 2 treatment options. Both groups of patients had good outcomes based on chart review. Patients undergoing septectomy had significantly larger perforation size (2.32 ± 0.87 vs 1.21 ± 0.60 cm), higher flow rate across the perforation (47.8 ± 28.6 vs 18.3 ± 12.2 mL/second), and higher wall shear stress (WSS) along the posterior perforation margin (1.39 ± 0.52 vs 1.15 ± 0.58 Pa). The posterior WSS significantly correlated with crossover flow velocity (r = 0.77, p = 0.009) and was reduced by almost 67% postseptectomy, and by 29% postrepair. This is the first CFD analysis on an NSP patient cohort. NSP resulted in flow disturbance and increased WSS that potentially led to symptomatology. The removal of high stress points along the posterior margin may explain why posterior septectomy can be an effective treatment option. Aerodynamic abnormalities, in addition to perforation size and location, could serve as basis for future treatment decisions. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. Is repositioning of drugs a viable alternative in the treatment of tuberculosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi

    2013-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem because of the scarcity of new antibiotics effective against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extensively drug resistance is particularly worrying in tuberculosis (TB), since the causative bacteria have become resistant to almost all available first- and second-line drugs and resistance is a threat to achieving control of the disease. Development of new drugs is a lengthy and costly endeavour. This is a particular problem for antibiotics, usage of which is likely to be of limited duration, and is even more true of antibiotics whose use is restricted to the treatment of a disease, such as TB, that is considered to be 'poverty related', and for which the return on the investment is seen as non-attractive. In spite of this, there is an emerging pipeline of new drugs under development that hopefully will bring new anti-TB drugs to the market in the near future. The strategy of drug repurposing, finding new uses for existing approved medicines, has seen unexpected success in other medical areas. More than one blockbuster drug has originated from this strategy. And in the field of TB, there have been several examples in recent years of this approach leading to the use of drugs for which there is undeniable evidence of efficacy in the treatment of the disease, the best example being the fluoroquinolones, which were not developed originally to treat TB. This article reviews some examples of repurposing of drugs in the treatment of TB, newer candidates for repurposing for which there is already preliminary evidence of activity and possible new options that merit further investigation.

  17. Multicenter, randomized, open-label Phase II study comparing S-1 alternate-day oral therapy with the standard daily regimen as a first-line treatment in patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Yasuhiro; Sho, Masayuki; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Nakamori, Shoji; Ueno, Hideki; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kitano, Masayuki; Sugimori, Kazuya; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Ueda, Kazuki; Nebiki, Hiroko; Nagakawa, Tatsuya; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Isao; Ohashi, Yasuo; Shirasaka, Tetsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Non-inferiority for overall survival (OS) following alternate-day treatment with the oral anticancer drug S-1 compared with standard daily treatment was assessed in Japanese patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer in a multicenter, randomized, phase II study. This trial was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (no. 000008604). Chemotherapy-naïve patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer were randomly assigned 2:1 to treatment with alternate-day (twice daily on alternate days from days 1 through 42 of a 42-day cycle) or daily (twice daily on days 1 through 28 of a 42-day cycle) treatment with S-1. The primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), time to treatment failure, response rate, quality of life assessments, and safety. A total of 190 patients were enrolled, of which 185 were included in the final analysis (alternate-day: 121; daily: 64). Median OS was 9.4 for the alternate-day group and 10.4 months for the daily group [hazard ratio (HR), 1.19; 95% credible interval, 0.86 to 1.64], indicating that non-inferiority of alternate-day treatment to daily treatment was not demonstrated. Median PFS was 3.0 for the alternate-day group and 4.2 months for the daily group (HR, 1.65; 95% credible interval, 1.20-2.29). The incidence of anorexia, fatigue, neutrophils, pigmentation, and pneumonitis was lower in alternate-day treatment compared with daily treatment. S-1 for advanced pancreatic cancer should be taken daily as recommended, based on the decreased OS and PFS and marginal improvement in safety observed in the alternate-day group.

  18. Bacteriophage treatment significantly reduces viable Clostridium difficile and prevents toxin production in an in vitro model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meader, Emma; Mayer, Melinda J; Gasson, Michael J; Steverding, Dietmar; Carding, Simon R; Narbad, Arjan

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is primarily a nosocomial pathogen, causing thousands of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in the UK each year. In this study, we used a batch fermentation model of a C. difficile colonised system to evaluate the potential of a prophylactic and a remedial bacteriophage treatment regime to control the pathogen. It is shown that the prophylaxis regime was effective at preventing the growth of C. difficile (p = <0.001) and precluded the production of detectable levels of toxins A and B. The remedial treatment regime caused a less profound and somewhat transient decrease in the number of viable C. difficile cells (p = <0.0001), but still resulted in a lower level of toxin production relative to the control. The numbers of commensal bacteria including total aerobes and anaerobes, Bifidobacterium sp., Bacteroides sp., Lactobacillus sp., total Clostridium sp., and Enterobacteriaceae were not significantly decreased by this therapy, whereas significant detrimental effects were observed with metronidazole treatment. Our study indicates that phage therapy has potential to be used for the control of C. difficile; it highlights the main benefits of this approach, and some future challenges. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of palbociclib plus letrozole on pain severity and pain interference with daily activities in patients with estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer as first-line treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T; Crown, J P; Lang, I; Bhattacharyya, H; Zanotti, G; Randolph, S; Kim, S; Huang, X; Huang Bartlett, C; Finn, R S; Slamon, D

    2016-05-01

    Background Palbociclib is a recently approved drug for use in combination with letrozole as initial endocrine-based therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (ER+/HER2-) breast cancer. This report assesses the impact of palbociclib in combination with letrozole versus letrozole alone on patient-reported outcomes of pain. Methods Palbociclib was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, phase II study (PALOMA-1/TRIO-18) among postmenopausal women with advanced ER+/HER2- breast cancer who had not received prior systemic treatment for their advanced disease. Patients received continuous oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily alone or the same letrozole dose and schedule plus oral palbociclib 125 mg, given once daily for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off over repeated 28-day cycles. The primary study endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival in the intent-to-treat population, and these results have recently been published (Finn et al., Lancet Oncol 2015;16:25-35). One of the key secondary endpoints was the evaluation of pain, as measured using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) patient-reported outcome tool. The BPI was administered at baseline and on day 1 of every cycle thereafter until disease progression and/or treatment discontinuation. Clinical trial registration This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00721409). Results There were no statistically significant differences in Pain Severity or Pain Interference scores of the BPI between the two treatment groups for the overall population or among those with any bone disease at baseline. A limitation of the study is that results were not adjusted for the concomitant use of opioids or other medications used to control pain. Conclusions The addition of palbociclib to letrozole was associated with increased efficacy without negatively impacting pain severity or pain interference with daily activities.

  20. Phase II/III weekly nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or carboplatin versus gemcitabine/carboplatin as first-line treatment of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (the tnAcity study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Denise A; Brufsky, Adam; Coleman, Robert E; Conte, Pierfranco F; Cortes, Javier; Glück, Stefan; Nabholtz, Jean-Mark A; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce; Beck, Robert M; Ko, Amy; Renschler, Markus F; Barton, Debora; Harbeck, Nadia

    2015-12-16

    Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive disease with unmet clinical needs. In a phase III study of patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, first-line gemcitabine/carboplatin resulted in a median progression-free survival of 4.6 months. nab-paclitaxel-based regimens (with gemcitabine or carboplatin±bevacizumab) also demonstrated efficacy and safety in first-line phase II trials of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer. In this international, multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II/III trial, the efficacy and safety of first-line nab-paclitaxel with gemcitabine or with carboplatin will be compared with gemcitabine/carboplatin (control arm) for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer. In the phase II portion, 240 patients with measurable metastatic triple-negative breast cancer and treatment-naive for metastatic disease will be randomized 1:1:1 (stratified by disease-free interval: ≤1 versus>1 year) to nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 plus gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2, nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 plus carboplatin area under the curve 2 mg×min/mL, or gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 plus carboplatin area under the curve 2 mg×min/mL, all given on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. Investigator-assessed progression-free survival (primary endpoint), overall response rate, overall survival, and safety will be assessed. A ranking algorithm of five efficacy and safety parameters will be used to pick the "winner" of the nab-paclitaxel regimens. In the phase III portion, 550 patients will be randomized 1:1 (stratified by disease-free interval: ≤1 versus >1 year, and prior adjuvant/neoadjuvant taxane use) to the nab-paclitaxel combination arm selected from the phase II portion or to the control arm. Patients in phase II will not be part of the phase III population. The phase III primary endpoint is blinded, independently-assessed progression-free survival; secondary endpoints include blinded, independently-assessed overall response

  1. A first-line nurse manager's goal-profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Gunilla; Pörn, Ingmar; Theorell, Töres; Gustafsson, Barbro

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this case study was to acquire understanding concerning the first-line nurse manager's goal-profile, i.e. prioritization of goals in her work as a first-line nurse manager, through use of an action-theoretic and confirmatory theory. The first-line nurse manager's pivotal role regarding quality of care and development in relation to on-going changes in the health care sector is stressed by many researchers and the transition from nurse to manager is described as a demanding challenge for the first-line nurse manager. The case study described in this paper concerns a first-line nurse manager in an actual working environment in care of older people. Data collection comprised interviews, observations, a job description and policy documents. A hermeneutic interpretation was used for data analysis. The results showed that the first-line nurse manager had three goals in her goal-profile, in the following order of priority: (i) a nurse goal that she had strongly accepted and in which she had excellent control, (ii) an administrator goal that she had accepted and in which she had control, (iii) a leadership goal that she had not accepted and in which she did not have control. Both the administrator and leadership goals were based on her job description, but the nurse goal was a personally chosen goal based on her own self-relation/goal-fulfillment. The first-line nurse manager's prioritized self-identity, based on successful realization of goals in her goal-profile, was decisive in the manifestation of her work. This study contributes to a new understanding of the first-line nurse manager's self-identity related to work in terms of goal acceptance and goal control of prioritized goals. This action-theoretic approach could be a valuable 'key' for understanding leadership (or lack of leadership) in clinical practice.

  2. Treatment of produced water: is a flotation viable process?; Tratamento da agua produzida: a flotacao e um processo viavel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Claudia Ramos; Freitas, Andrea Goncalves Bueno de; Silva, Gabriel Francisco da; Paixao, Ana Eleonora Almeida [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Rosivania da Paixao Silva [Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa e Extensao de Sergipe (FAPESE), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In petroleum oil wells there comes a situation when most of the oil drilled accompanies a large amount of water. This may be due to the proper conditions of the reservoir or as a consequence of the water injection in the secondary recovery processes from the well. The amount of produced water together with oil can vary to a great extent and it frequently attains to about 50% of the drilled oil. One technique employed for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly the oily ones which is of great interest is that of flotation. This phenomenon is being extensively used for oil removal from emulsified oils in various areas, such as that of dissolved air flotation (DAF) and the induced air flotation (IAF). The conventional flotation processes consist of the following stages: bubble gas generation (normally air) from the interior of the effluent; collision between the gas bubbles and the suspended oil drops in the water; adhesion of the gas bubbles in the oil drops and ascension of aggregate oil drops/bubbles until the surface, where the oil is removed. This work seeks to contribute for the understanding of the factors which contribute for the selection of the flotation process as one of the methods most viable for the treatment of the produced water. (author)

  3. Are big potassium-type Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels a viable target for the treatment of epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Antonio; Citraro, Rita; Constanti, Andrew; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    BK (big potassium) channels are Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels widely expressed in mammalian cells. They are extensively distributed in the CNS, the most abundant level being found in brain areas largely involved in epilepsy, namely cortex, hippocampus, piriform cortex, and other limbic structures. BK channels control action potential shape/duration, thereby regulating membrane excitability and Ca(2+) signaling. The potassium channel superfamily represents a rich source of potential targets for therapeutic intervention in epilepsy. Some studies have identified alterations in BK channel function, therefore, supporting the development of drugs acting on these channels for epilepsy treatment. The actual sketch is intriguing and controversial, since mechanisms altering the physiological role of BK channels leading to either a loss- or gain-of-function have both been linked to seizure onset. Not many studies have been performed to unravel the efficacy of drugs acting on these channels as potential antiepileptics; however, paradoxically, efficacy has been demonstrated for both BK channel openers and blockers. Furthermore, their potential usefulness in preventing epileptogenesis has not been investigated at all. Substantial data on risks and benefits of modulating these channels are urgently needed to draw a definitive conclusion on whether BK channels are a viable future target for the treatment of epilepsy.

  4. A decade of Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Nigeria: Efficacy of First Line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    treatment-naive patients following widespread use of ART after a significant period of time. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the commonly used first line ARVs in treatment-naive HIV infected patients following widespread use of ARVs. Our primary measures were body mass index (BMI), CD4+ cell counts and viral ...

  5. Correlation of BRCA1, TXR1 and TSP1 mRNA expression with treatment outcome to docetaxel-based first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced/metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, C; Tsaroucha, E; Kaklamanis, L; Lagoudaki, E; Trypaki, M; Tryfonidis, K; Mavroudis, D; Stathopoulos, E; Georgoulias, V; Souglakos, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: We explored the predictive significance of BRCA1, TXR1 and TSP1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with docetaxel in association with cisplatin or gemcitabine. Methods: To analyse BRCA1, TXR1 and TSP1 mRNA expression from microdissected primary tumours of 131 patients with stage IIIB (wet) and IV NSCLC, RT–qPCR was used. Results: The mRNA levels of TXR1/TSP1 were inversely correlated (Spearman's test: −0.37; P=0.001). Low TXR1 mRNA levels were associated with higher response rate (RR; P=0.018), longer median progression-free survival (PFS; P=0.029) and median overall survival (mOS P=0.003), whereas high TSP1 expression was correlated with higher RR (P=0.035), longer PFS (P<0.001) and mOS (P<0.001). Higher BRCA1 mRNA expression was associated with higher RR (P=0.028) and increased PFS (P=0.021), but not mOS (P=0.4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low TXR1/high TSP1 expression was an independent factor for increased PFS (HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.32–0.76; P<0.001) and mOS (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.2–0.58; P<0.001), whereas high BRCA1 expression was correlated with increased PFS (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.37–0.78; P=0.001). Conclusions: These data indicate that TXR1/TSP1 and BRCA1 expression could be used for the prediction of taxanes' resistance in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:21157449

  6. Randomized phase II trial of All-trans-retinoic acid with chemotherapy based on paclitaxel and cisplatin as first-line treatment in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Oscar; González-De la Rosa, Claudia H; Aréchaga-Ocampo, Elena; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Geraldine; Cerón-Lizárraga, Tania L; Martínez-Barrera, Luis; Vázquez-Manríquez, María E; Ríos-Trejo, Miguel Angel; Alvarez-Avitia, Miguel A; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Rojas-Marín, Carlos; De la Garza, Jaime

    2010-07-20

    This randomized phase II trial evaluated whether the combination of cisplatin and paclitaxel (PC) plus all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increases response rate (RR) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an acceptable toxicity profile and its association with the expression of retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RAR-beta2) as a response biomarker. Patients with stages IIIB with pleural effusion and IV NSCLC were included to receive PC, and randomly assigned to receive ATRA 20 mg/m(2)/d (RA/PC) or placebo (P/PC) 1 week before treatment until two cycles were completed. RAR-beta2 expression was analyzed in tumor and adjacent lung tissue. One hundred seven patients were included, 55 in the P/PC group and 52 in the RA/PC group. RR for RA/PC was 55.8% (95% CI, 46.6% to 64.9%) and for P/PC, 25.4% (95% CI, 21.3 to 29.5%; P = .001). The RA/PC group had a longer median PFS (8.9 v 6.0 months; P = .008). Multivariate analysis of PFS showed significant differences for the RA/PC group (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.4 to 0.95). No significant differences in toxicity grade 3/4 were found between groups, except for hypertriglyceridemia (10% v 0%) in RA/PC (P = .05). Immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays showed expression of RAR-beta2 in normal tissues of all tumor samples, but only 10% of samples in the tumor tissue. Adding ATRA to chemotherapy could increase RR and PFS in patients with advanced NSCLC with an acceptable toxicity profile. A phase III clinical trial is warranted to confirm these findings.

  7. Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    of foodborne Campylobacter, combining real-time PCR (Q-PCR) with a simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 hours, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Campylobacter with an intact membrane. The method performance was evaluated......-values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range from 1x10(2)-1x10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by chicken rinse...... matrix or by species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed...

  8. Pharmacokinetics of first-line tuberculosis drugs in tanzanian patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tostmann, A.; Mtabho, C.M.; Semvua, H.H.; Boogaard, J. van den; Kibiki, G.S.; Boeree, M.J.; Aarnoutse, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    East Africa has a high tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality, yet there are very limited data on exposure to TB drugs in patients from this region. We therefore determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics of first-line TB drugs in Tanzanian patients using intensive pharmacokinetic sampling.

  9. Bilingual Cancer Information: Access Is the First Line of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, Patrick; Palmer, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Information about cancer, the disease that kills more Americans than any other except heart disease, is essential. In some ways, information is our first line of defense. It allows us to identify individual risk factors, to note when a problem means we should see a professional, and to avoid activities that might put us at risk. However,…

  10. Developing a predictive risk model for first-line antiretroviral therapy failure in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Julia K; Ive, Prudence; Horsburgh, C Robert; Berhanu, Rebecca; Shearer, Kate; Maskew, Mhairi; Long, Lawrence; Sanne, Ian; Bassett, Jean; Ebrahim, Osman; Fox, Matthew P

    A substantial number of patients with HIV in South Africa have failed first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although individual predictors of first-line ART failure have been identified, few studies in resource-limited settings have been large enough for predictive modelling. Understanding the absolute risk of first-line failure is useful for patient monitoring and for effectively targeting limited resources for second-line ART. We developed a predictive model to identify patients at the greatest risk of virologic failure on first-line ART, and to estimate the proportion of patients needing second-line ART over five years on treatment. A cohort of patients aged ≥18 years from nine South African HIV clinics on first-line ART for at least six months were included. Viral load measurements and baseline predictors were obtained from medical records. We used stepwise selection of predictors in accelerated failure-time models to predict virologic failure on first-line ART (two consecutive viral load levels >1000 copies/mL). Multiple imputations were used to assign missing baseline variables. The final model was selected using internal-external cross-validation maximizing model calibration at five years on ART, and model discrimination, measured using Harrell's C-statistic. Model covariates were used to create a predictive score for risk group of ART failure. A total of 72,181 patients were included in the analysis, with an average of 21.5 months (IQR: 8.8-41.5) of follow-up time on first-line ART. The final predictive model had a Weibull distribution and the final predictors of virologic failure were men of all ages, young women, nevirapine use in first-line regimen, low baseline CD4 count, high mean corpuscular volume, low haemoglobin, history of TB and missed visits during the first six months on ART. About 24.4% of patients in the highest quintile and 9.4% of patients in the lowest quintile of risk were predicted to experience treatment failure over five years on

  11. Role of First-Line Noninvasive Ventilation in Non-COPD Subjects With Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rialp, Gemma; Forteza, Catalina; Muñiz, Daniel; Romero, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in non-COPD patients with pneumonia is controversial due to its high rate of failure and the potentially harmful effects when NIV fails. The purpose of the study was to evaluate outcomes of the first ventilatory treatment applied, NIV or invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), and to identify predictors of NIV failure. Historical cohort study of 159 non-COPD patients with pneumonia admitted to the ICU with ventilatory support. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: invasive MV or NIV. Univariate and multivariate analyses with demographic and clinical data were performed. Analysis of mortality was adjusted for the propensity of receiving first-line invasive MV. One hundred and thirteen subjects received first-line invasive MV and 46 received first-line NIV, of which 27 needed intubation. Hospital mortality was 35, 37 and 56%, respectively, with no significant differences among groups. In the propensity-adjusted analysis (expressed as OR [95% CI]), hospital mortality was associated with age (1.05 [1.02-1.08]), SAPS3 (1.03 [1.00-1.07]), immunosuppression (2.52 [1.02-6.27]) and NIV failure compared to first-line invasive MV (4.3 [1.33-13.94]). Compared with invasive MV, NIV failure delayed intubation (p=.004), and prolonged the length of invasive MV (p=.007) and ICU stay (p=.001). NIV failure was associated with need for vasoactive drugs (OR 7.8 [95% CI, 1.8-33.2], p=.006). In non-COPD subjects with pneumonia, first-line NIV was not associated with better outcome compared with first-line invasive MV. NIV failure was associated with longer duration of MV and hospital stay, and with increased hospital mortality. The use of vasoactive drugs predicted NIV failure. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Meta-analysis of first-line therapies with maintenance regimens for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in molecularly and clinically selected populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pui San; Bilger, Marcel; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Haaland, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Evidence has suggested survival benefits of maintenance for advanced NSCLC patients not progressing after first-line chemotherapy. Additionally, particular first-line targeted therapies have shown survival improvements in selected populations. Optimal first-line and maintenance therapies remain unclear. Here, currently available evidence was synthesized to elucidate optimal first-line and maintenance therapy within patient groups. Literature was searched for randomized trials evaluating first-line and maintenance regimens in advanced NSCLC patients. Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed within molecularly and clinically selected groups. The primary outcome was combined clinically meaningful OS and PFS benefits. A total of 87 records on 56 trials evaluating first-line treatments with maintenance were included. Results showed combined clinically meaningful OS and PFS benefits with particular first-line with maintenance treatments, (1) first-line intercalated chemotherapy+erlotinib, maintenance erlotinib in patients with EGFR mutations, (2) first-line afatinib, maintenance afatinib in patients with EGFR deletion 19, (3) first-line chemotherapy + bevacizumab, maintenance bevacizumab in EGFR wild-type patients, (4) chemotherapy+conatumumab, maintenance conatumumab in patients with squamous histology, (5) chemotherapy+cetuximab, maintenance cetuximab or chemotherapy + necitumumab, maintenance necitumumab in EGFR FISH-positive patients with squamous histology, and (6) first-line chemotherapy+bevacizumab, maintenance bevacizumab or first-line sequential chemotherapy+gefitinib, maintenance gefitinib in patients clinically enriched for EGFR mutations with nonsquamous histology. No treatment showed combined clinically meaningful OS and PFS benefits in patients with EGFR L858R or nonsquamous histology. Particular first-line with maintenance treatments show meaningful OS and PFS benefits in patients selected by EGFR mutation or histology. Further research is needed

  13. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, John J.; MacIntyre, Hugh L.

    2015-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the as...

  14. Systematic review: What is the best first-line approach for cesarean section ectopic pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Kanat-Pektas

    2016-04-01

    Hysteroscopy and laparoscopic hysterotomy are safe and efficient surgical procedures that can be adopted as primary treatment modalities for CSEP. Uterine artery embolization should be reserved for cases with significant bleeding and/or a high suspicion index for arteriovenous malformation. Systemic methotrexate and D&C are not recommended as first-line approaches for CSEP, as these procedures are associated with high complication and hysterectomy rates.

  15. Assessing prognosis and optimizing treatment in patients with postchemotherapy viable nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors (NSGCT): results of the sCR2 international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fizazi, K.; Oldenburg, J.; Dunant, A.

    2008-01-01

    malignant cells, and a good International Germ Cell Consensus Classification group at presentation. Patients were assigned to one of three risk groups defined in sCR1: no risk factor (good risk), one risk factor (intermediate risk) and two to three risk factors (poor risk group). The 5-year PFS rate was 92...... with surveillance and treatment only at relapse. CONCLUSION: In patients with postchemotherapy viable NSGCT, a complete resection of residual masses should be rigorously pursued. These data validate the sCR1 prognostic index. Given their excellent outcome, patients in the favorable group may not require......BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to validate a prognostic index [surgical complete response 1 (sCR1)] in patients with postchemotherapy viable nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors (NSGCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data and specimens from 61 patients with normalized tumor markers...

  16. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter bacteria on chicken carcasses, using real-time PCR and propidium monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Hansen, T B; Christensen, L S; Olsen, J E; Hoorfar, J

    2010-08-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Campylobacter bacteria with an intact membrane. The method's performance was evaluated by assessing the contributions to variability by individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and differences in efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with cycle threshold (C(T)) values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by the chicken rinse matrix or by the species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter bacteria in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter bacteria but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.

  17. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J; MacIntyre, Hugh L

    2016-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water. In principle, the serial dilution culture-most probable number (SDC-MPN) method provides the appropriate measure for phytoplankton. But, the method has been criticized, particularly because it is thought that many phytoplankton species cannot be cultured. A review of the literature shows that although SDC-MPN has been used for more than 50 years-generally to identify and count phytoplankton species that cannot be preserved-its application to enumerate total viable phytoplankton seems to be new, putting past criticisms of the method in a different light. Importantly, viable cells need to grow only enough to be detected, not to be brought into sustained culture, and competition between species in a dilution tube is irrelevant as long as the winner is detectable. Thorough consideration of sources of error leads to recommendations for minimizing and quantifying uncertainties by optimizing growth conditions and conducting systematic comparisons. We conclude that with careful evaluation, SDC-MPN is potentially an effective method for assessing the viability of phytoplankton after BWT.

  18. Use of propidium monoazide and quantitative PCR for differentiation of viable Escherichia coli from E. coli killed by mild or pasteurizing heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianqin; Badoni, Madhu; Gill, Colin O

    2011-12-01

    Suspensions of Escherichia coli in peptone water were heated at temperatures between 52 and 90 °C, inclusive. Samples withdrawn at suitable times were not or were treated with propidium monoazide (PMA) or deoxycholate then PMA before extraction of DNA. DNA was quantified by real-time PCR for estimation of the numbers of E. coli from which template DNA for the PCR was obtained. Numbers of viable E. coli in suspensions at the times of sampling were determined from plate counts. For samples from suspensions heated at temperatures ≥ 52 ≤ 72 °C, PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values were little or no different for DNA from corresponding samples that were or were not treated with PMA. PMA treatment of samples heated to ≥ 80 °C largely inactivated E. coli DNA for PCR. When samples heated to ≤ 72 °C were treated with deoxycholate before treatment with PMA, Ct values for treated samples were greater than the Ct values for the corresponding untreated samples. Similar results were obtained with E. coli suspended in milk or fluid from ground beef pummeled with diluent. The results indicate that cells killed by heating to ≥ 80 °C are permeable to PMA, but most cells killed by heating to ≤ 72 °C are not. However, treatment with deoxycholate renders a substantial fraction of the latter cells permeable to PMA. Numbers of viable or dead E. coli can then be estimated from Ct values for samples not treated or treated with deoxycholate and PMA, provided viable cells are ≥ 1% of the total. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical and chemical treatment of end of life panels: An integrated automatic approach viable for different photovoltaic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Moscardini, Emanuela; Granata, Giuseppe; Abo Atia, Thomas; Altimari, Pietro; Havlik, Tomas; Toro, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Different kinds of panels (Si-based panels and CdTe panels) were treated according to a common process route made up of two main steps: a physical treatment (triple crushing and thermal treatment) and a chemical treatment. After triple crushing three fractions were obtained: an intermediate fraction (0.4-1mm) of directly recoverable glass (17%w/w); a coarse fraction (>1mm) requiring further thermal treatment in order to separate EVA-glued layers in glass fragments; a fine fraction (panels and Cd-Te panels with an overall recycling rate of 91%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Triple therapy versus sequential therapy for the first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji Young; Shim, Ki-Nam; Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Kang Hoon; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Seong-Eun; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Jung, Sung-Ae

    2017-01-21

    The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with triple therapy which was considered as standard first-line treatment has decreased to 70-85%. The aim of this study is to compare 7-day triple therapy versus 10-day sequential therapy as the first line treatment. Data of 1240 H. pylori positive patients treated with triple therapy or sequential therapy from January 2013 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients who had undertaken previous H. pylori eradication therapy or gastric surgery were excluded. There were 872 (74.3%) patients in the triple therapy group, and 302 (25.7%) patients in the sequential therapy group. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding age, residence, comorbidities or drug compliance, but several differences were noted in endoscopic characteristics and indication for the treatment. The eradication rate of H. pylori by intention to treat analysis was 64.3% in the triple therapy group, and 81.9% in the sequential therapy group (P = 0.001). In per protocol analysis, H. pylori eradication rate in the triple therapy and sequential therapy group was 81.9 and 90.3%, respectively (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in overall adverse events between the two groups (P = 0.706). For the rescue therapy, bismuth-containing quadruple therapy showed comparable treatment efficacy after sequential therapy, as following triple therapy. The eradication rate of triple therapy was below the recommended threshold. Sequential therapy could be effective and tolerable candidate for the first-line H. pylori eradication therapy.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity after first-line chemotherapy in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Sandrina; Smeets, Dominiek; Moisse, Matthieu; Braicu, Elena Ioana; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Zhao, Hui; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Berns, Els; Sehouli, Jalid; Zeillinger, Robert; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Cacsire Castillo-Tong, Dan; Lambrechts, Diether; Vergote, Ignace

    2016-01-01

    Most high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) patients benefit from first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, but progressively develop resistance during subsequent lines. Re-activating BRCA1 or MDR1 mutations can underlie platinum resistance in end-stage patients. However, little is known about resistance mechanisms occurring after a single line of platinum, when patients still qualify for other treatments. In 31 patients with primary platinum-sensitive HGSOC, we profiled tumours collected during debulking surgery before and after first-line chemotherapy using whole-exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism profiling. Besides germline BRCA1/2 mutations, we observed frequent loss-of-heterozygosity in homologous recombination (HR) genes and mutation spectra characteristic of HR-deficiency in all tumours. At relapse, tumours differed considerably from their primary counterparts. There was, however, no evidence of events reactivating the HR pathway, also not in tumours resistant to second-line platinum. Instead, a platinum score of 13 copy number regions, among other genes including MECOM, CCNE1 and ERBB2, correlated with platinum-free interval (PFI) after first-line therapy, whereas an increase of this score in recurrent tumours predicted the change in PFI during subsequent therapy. Already after a single line of platinum, there is huge variability between primary and recurrent tumours, advocating that in HGSOC biopsies need to be collected at relapse to tailor treatment options to the underlying genetic profile. Nevertheless, all primary platinum-sensitive HGSOCs remained HR-deficient, irrespective of whether they became resistant to second-line platinum, further suggesting these tumours qualify for second-line Poly APD ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor treatment. Finally, chromosomal instability contributes to acquired resistance after a single line of platinum therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A review of treatment options for Graves' disease: why total thyroidectomy is a viable option in selected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vinuta; Lind, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. If left untreated, patients may have multiple systemic complications such as cardiac, reproductive, and skeletal disease. Thionamides, such as methimazole and propylthiouracil, and I(131) iodine ablation are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Graves' disease. Total thyroidectomy is often overlooked for treatment and is usually only offered if the other options have failed. In our case, we discuss a patient who was admitted to our medical center with symptomatic hyperthyroidism secondary to long-standing Graves' disease. She had a history of non-compliance with medications and medical clinic follow-up. The risks and benefits of total thyroidectomy were explained and she consented to surgery. A few months after the procedure, she was biochemically and clinically euthyroid on levothyroxine. She had no further emergency room visits or admissions for uncontrolled thyroid disease. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of the more typically prescribed treatments, thionamides and I(131)iodine ablation. We also review the importance of shared decision making and the benefits of total thyroidectomy for the management of Graves' disease. Given the improvement in surgical techniques over the past decade and a significant reduction of complications, we suggest total thyroidectomy be recommended more often for patients with Graves' disease.

  3. Influência do CD 20 na refratariedade do linfoma de Hodgkin clássico ao tratamento inicial com o esquema ABVD, no Ceará, Brasil Influence of CD 20 antigen expression in the refractoriness of classical Hodgkin lymphoma in the first line treatment with ABVD protocol in Ceará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Pinto Giesta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A significância prognóstica do marcador imunológico CD 20 no linfoma de Hodgkin clássico (LHc ainda é incerta, particularmente no que se refere à refratariedade ao tratamento inicial. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a influência da positividade do marcador CD 20 na refratariedade do LHc ao tratamento poliquimioterápico inicial, com o esquema doxorubicina 25 mg/m², bleomicina 10 mg/m², vinblastina 6 mg/m² e dacarbazina 375 mg/m² (ABVD, no Ceará, Brasil. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico incluindo 97 pacientes com diagnóstico de LHc firmado entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2004. A análise foi realizada avaliando variáveis demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciada uma positividade do CD 20 em 38,1% dos pacientes. Na análise bivariada, CD 20 positivo (razão de chance [RC] = 4,02; intervalo de confiança [IC] = 1,09 - 8,54; p = 0,02, a presença de sintomas B (RC = 4,02; IC = 1,18-17,51; p = 0,01 e a elevação da desidrogenase lática (mediana não-refratários 248,5 [200,5 - 389,5]; mediana refratários 356 [208,5 - 545]; p = 0,03 apresentaram relação de pior prognóstico quanto à refratariedade. Na regressão logística, o CD 20 positivo (RC ajustada = 3,6; IC = 0,99 - 13,09; p = 0,05 e a presença de sintomas B (RC ajustada = 5,41; IC = 1,16 - 25,34; p = 0,03 continuaram apresentando pior prognóstico. DISCUSSÃO: Esses dados coincidem com a literatura, em que a positividade do marcador CD 20 está relacionada com pior resposta ao tratamento com ABVD. CONCLUSÃO: Os nossos dados indicam que o tratamento com ABVD não é completamente adequado para a abordagem terapêutica inicial deste subgrupo de pacientes e novas pesquisas precisam ser realizadas no sentido de aperfeiçoar o tratamento destes pacientes.INTRODUCTION: The prognostic value of CD20 antigen expression in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL is uncertain, particularly regarding the refractoriness to first-line treatment. OBJECTIVES

  4. Microwaving human faecal sludge as a viable sanitation technology option for treatment and value recovery - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Oluwasola O D; Sohail, M

    2017-02-01

    The prolonged challenges and terrible consequences of poor sanitation, especially in developing economies, call for the exploration of new sustainable sanitation technologies. Such technologies must be: capable of effectively treating human faecal wastes without any health or environmental impacts; scalable to address rapid increases in population and urbanization; capable of meeting environmental regulations and standards for faecal management; and competitive with existing strategies. Further and importantly, despite its noxiousness and pathogenic load, the chemical composition of human faecal sludge indicates that it could be considered a potentially valuable, nutrient-rich renewable resource, rather than a problematic waste product. New approaches to faecal sludge management must consequently seek to incorporate a 'valuable resource recovery' approach, compatible with stringent treatment requirements. This review intends to advance the understanding of human faecal sludge as a sustainable organic-rich resource that is typically high in moisture (up to 97 per cent), making it a suitable candidate for dielectric heating, i.e. microwave irradiation, to promote faecal treatment, while also recovering value-added products such as ammonia liquor concentrate (suitable for fertilizers) and chars (suitable for fuel) - which can provide an economic base to sustain the technology. Additionally, microwaving human faecal sludge represents a thermally effective approach that can destroy pathogens, eradicate the foul odour associated human faecal sludge, while also preventing hazardous product formations and/or emissions, aside from other benefits such as improved dewaterability and heavy metals recovery. Key technological parameters crucial for scaling the technology as a complementary solution to the challenges of onsite sanitation are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence and predictors of severe anemia in Asian HIV-infected children using first-line antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Kariminia, Azar; Chan, Kwai-Cheng; Ramautarsing, Reshmie; Huy, Bui Vu; Han, Ning; Nallusamy, Revathy; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Sirisanthana, Virat; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Kurniati, Nia; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Yusoff, Nik Khairulddin Nik; Razali, Kamarul; Fong, Siew Moy; Sohn, Annette H.; Lumbiganon, Pagakrong

    2013-01-01

    There are limited data on treatment-related anemia in Asian HIV-infected children. Data from Asian HIV-infected children aged <18 years on first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were used. Children who had pre-existing severe anemia at baseline were excluded. Anemia was graded using

  6. Taxanes alone or in combination with anthracyclines as first-line therapy of patients with metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Buyse, Marc; Sledge, George; Carmichael, James; Lueck, Hans-Joachim; Mackey, John R.; Nabholtz, Jean-Marc; Paridaens, Robert; Biganzoli, Laura; Jassem, Jacek; Bontenbal, Marijke; Bonneterre, Jacques; Chan, Stephen; Basaran, Gul Atalay; Therasse, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Taxanes (paclitaxel or docetaxel) have been sequenced or combined with anthracyclines (doxorubicin or epirubicin) for the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer. This meta-analysis uses data from all relevant trials to detect any advantages of taxanes in terms of tumor response,

  7. Association between tumor tissue TIMP-1 levels and objective response to first-line chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klintman, Marie; Würtz, Sidse Ørnbjerg; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2010-01-01

    patients who later developed metastatic breast cancer and these levels were related to the objective response to first-line chemotherapy. Increasing levels of TIMP-1 were associated with a decreasing probability of response to treatment, reaching borderline significance (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.97-2.62, P = 0...

  8. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Bhattacharya, Saugato; Sarkar, Tathagato; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro's limit (that is, above a potency of 12C) has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient's family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases.

  9. Quadruple, sequential, and concomitant first-line therapies for H. pylori eradication: a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francesco, Vincenzo; Pontone, Stefano; Bellesia, Annamaria; Serviddio, Gaetano; Panetta, Cristina; Palma, Rossella; Zullo, Angelo

    2017-10-18

    Current Italian guidelines recommend 10-day bismuth-based or bismuth-free (sequential and concomitant) regimens for first-line H. pylori eradication. However, comparison among these regimens is lacking in our country. To perform a 'head-to-head' comparison among these three therapies as first-line treatment for H. pylori eradication in clinical practice. This was a prospective, open-label randomized study enrolling consecutive patients diagnosed with H. pylori infection never previously treated. Patients were randomized to receive one of the following 10-day therapies: (a) Bismuth-based therapy: esomeprazole 20mg b.i.d and Pylera 3 tablets q.i.d; (b) Concomitant therapy: esomeprazole 20mg plus amoxicyllin 1,000mg, clarithromycin 500mg and tinidazole 500mg (all b.i.d.), and (c) Sequential therapy: esomeprazole 20mg plus amoxicyllin 1,000mg for 5days followed by esomeprazole 20mg plus clarithromycin 500mg and tinidazole 500mg for 5days (all b.i.d). H. pylori eradication was assessed by using UBT 4-6 weeks after the end of therapy. Overall, 187 patients were enrolled. The eradication rates achieved with Pylera, concomitant and sequential were 85.2%, 95.2%, and 93.6%, respectively, at intention to treat, and 94.5%, 96.7%, and 95.1% at per protocol analyses, without a statistically significant difference. The incidence of severe side-effects was higher with the bismuth-based therapy than with the two bismuth-free regimens (9.8% vs 1.6%; p=0.046). Bismuth-based and bismuth-free therapies are equally effective for first-line H. pylori eradication. However, bismuth therapy was more frequently interrupted for side-effects than bismuth-free therapies. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to first-line ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy for adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas An exploratory, retrospective analysis on large series from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleiffer, S.; Ouali, M.; van Glabbeke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are generally treated similarly, regardless of great differences between STS subtypes, disease presentation and patients' characteristics. As ifosfamide is frequently applied in first line systemic therapy, we aimed to establish...... for PFS. Conclusion: In this study, we established an independent set of prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to ifosfamide-based chemotherapy in advanced STS patients. This study provides important information for the interpretation and design of clinical trials for specific STS entities and may...

  11. Effectiveness and Safety of Concurrent Use of First-Line Antiretroviral and Antituberculous Drugs in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Ntokamunda Kadima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overlapping toxicity between drugs used for HIV and TB could complicate the management of HIV/TB coinfected patients, particularly those carrying multiple opportunistic infections. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and adverse drug events in HIV patients managed with first-line antiretroviral and first-line anti-TB drugs. Methods. This is a retrospective study utilizing medical dossiers from single-HIV infected and HIV/TB coinfected patients already initiated on ART. Predictors of outcomes included changes in CD4 cells/mm3, body weight, physical improvement, death rate, and adverse drug reactions. Results. Records from 60 HIV patients and 60 HIV/TB patients aged between 20 and 58 years showed that all clinical indicators of effectiveness were better in single-HIV infected than in HIV/TB coinfected patients: higher CD4 cell counts, better physical improvement, and low prevalence of adverse drug events. The most frequently prescribed regimen was TDF/3TC/EFV+RHZE. The mortality rate was 20% in HIV/TB patients compared to 8.3% in the single-HIV group. Conclusion. Treatment regimens applied are efficient in controlling the progression of the infection. However, attention should be paid to adjust dosing when combining nonnucleoside antiretrovirals (EFV and NVR with anti-TB drugs to minimize the risk of death by drug intoxication.

  12. Delayed pressure urticaria - dapsone heading for first-line therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Sonja Alexandra; Kiefer, Sabine; Luger, Thomas Anton; Brehler, Randolf

    2011-11-01

    Pressure urticaria as a subform of physical urticaria is rare and treatment is often difficult. Established therapeutic regimes include antihistamines (generally exceeding approved dosages in order to achieve a therapeutic benefit) or antihistamines combined with montelukast. Complete relief of symptoms is difficult. We used dapsone as an early therapeutic alternative in the event of treatment failure and established a standardized therapeutic regime at our clinic. We surveyed 31 patients retrospectively who had received dapsone between 2003-2009. In 74 % of patients in whom symptoms persisted despite established therapies, the results of treatment with dapsone were good or very good. Longer-term pressure urticaria and the co-existence of a chronic spontaneous urticaria were associated with a smaller benefit (pdapsone in patients with pressure urticaria has such a good risk-benefit ratio that we support early treatment initiation. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  13. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Haque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro’s limit (that is, above a potency of 12C has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. Methods: The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient’s family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. Results: The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Conclusion: Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases.

  14. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Bhattacharya, Saugato; Sarkar, Tathagato; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro’s limit (that is, above a potency of 12C) has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. Methods: The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient’s family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. Results: The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Conclusion: Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases. PMID:28097045

  15. Cost-effectiveness of tenofovir instead of zidovudine for use in first-line antiretroviral therapy in settings without virological monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor von Wyl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most recent World Health Organization (WHO antiretroviral treatment guidelines recommend the inclusion of zidovudine (ZDV or tenofovir (TDF in first-line therapy. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis with emphasis on emerging patterns of drug resistance upon treatment failure and their impact on second-line therapy. METHODS: We used a stochastic simulation of a generalized HIV-1 epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa to compare two strategies for first-line combination antiretroviral treatment including lamivudine, nevirapine and either ZDV or TDF. Model input parameters were derived from literature and, for the simulation of resistance pathways, estimated from drug resistance data obtained after first-line treatment failure in settings without virological monitoring. Treatment failure and cost effectiveness were determined based on WHO definitions. Two scenarios with optimistic (no emergence; base and pessimistic (extensive emergence assumptions regarding occurrence of multidrug resistance patterns were tested. RESULTS: In the base scenario, cumulative proportions of treatment failure according to WHO criteria were higher among first-line ZDV users (median after six years 36% [95% simulation interval 32%; 39%] compared with first-line TDF users (31% [29%; 33%]. Consequently, a higher proportion initiated second-line therapy (including lamivudine, boosted protease inhibitors and either ZDV or TDF in the first-line ZDV user group 34% [31%; 37%] relative to first-line TDF users (30% [27%; 32%]. At the time of second-line initiation, a higher proportion (16% of first-line ZDV users harboured TDF-resistant HIV compared with ZDV-resistant viruses among first-line TDF users (0% and 6% in base and pessimistic scenarios, respectively. In the base scenario, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio with respect to quality adjusted life years (QALY was US$83 when TDF instead of ZDV was used in first-line therapy (pessimistic scenario: US$ 315

  16. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  17. Prevalence of immunological failure and durability of first line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This a crossectional retrospective follow up study was conducted to determine the prevalence of immunological treatment failure and risk factors associated to it among patients on ARV therapy at Bugando Medical Centre. Method: A crossectional Retrospective study was conducted among all patients on ART from 2005 ...

  18. Systematic review: What is the best first-line approach for cesarean section ectopic pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat-Pektas, Mine; Bodur, Serkan; Dundar, Ozgur; Bakır, Vuslat Lale

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review aims to analyze the case reports, case series, or clinical studies describing the women with cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy (CSEP), and thus, to determine the efficacy and safety of different primary treatment modalities in the management of CSEP. A thorough search of electronic databases showed that 274 articles on CSEP were published between January 1978 and April 2014. Systemic methotrexate, uterine artery embolization, dilatation and curettage (D&C), hysterotomy, and hysteroscopy were the most frequently adopted first-line approaches. The success rates of systemic methotrexate, uterine artery embolization, hysteroscopy, D&C, and hysterotomy were 8.7%, 18.3%, 39.1%, 61.6%, and 92.1%, respectively. The hysterectomy rates were 3.6%, 1.1%, 0.0%, 7.3%, and 1.7% in CSEP cases that were treated by systemic methotrexate, uterine artery embolization, hysteroscopy, D&C, and hysterotomy, respectively. The ability to achieve a subsequent term pregnancy is related to successful systemic methotrexate treatment (p = 0.001) or hysterotomy (p = 0.009). Future term pregnancy was significantly more frequent in the hysterotomy group (p = 0.001). Hysteroscopy and laparoscopic hysterotomy are safe and efficient surgical procedures that can be adopted as primary treatment modalities for CSEP. Uterine artery embolization should be reserved for cases with significant bleeding and/or a high suspicion index for arteriovenous malformation. Systemic methotrexate and D&C are not recommended as first-line approaches for CSEP, as these procedures are associated with high complication and hysterectomy rates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. First-line sunitinib or pazopanib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: The Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Aly-Khan A; Li, Haocheng; Heng, Daniel Y C; Wood, Lori; Kalirai, Austin; Bjarnason, Georg A; Sim, Hao-Wen; Kollmannsberger, Christian K; Kapoor, Anil; Hotte, Sebastien J; Vanhuyse, Marie; Czaykowski, Piotr; Reaume, M Neil; Soulieres, Denis; Venner, Peter; North, Scott; Basappa, Naveen S

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trial data has shown pazopanib to be non-inferior in overall survival (OS) compared to sunitinib as first-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes and compare dose-modifying toxicities of mRCC patients treated with suntinib or pazopanib in the real-world setting. Data were collected on mRCC patients using the prospective Canadian Kidney Cancer Information System (CKCis) database from January 2011 to November 2015. Statistical analyses were performed using Cox regression adjusted for several risk factors and the Kaplan-Meier method. We identified 670 patients treated with sunitinib (n=577) and pazopanib (n=93). There were no significant differences in International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) risk groups (p=0.807). Patients treated with sunitinib had improved OS compared with pazopanib (median 31.7 vs. 20.6 months, p=0.028; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.94). Time to treatment failure (TTF) was numerically, but not statistically, improved with sunitinib (medians 11.0 vs. 8.4 months, p=0.130; aHR 0.87; 95% CI 0.59-1.28). Outcomes with individualized dosing on sunitinib were unavailable for this analysis. Patients treated with sunitinib had a higher incidence of mucositis, hand-foot syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease; patients treated with pazopanib had a higher incidence of hepatotoxicity. In Canadian patients with mRCC, treatment with sunitinib appears to be associated with an improved OS compared to pazopanib in the first-line setting. Patient selection factors and the contemporary practice of individualized dosing with sunitinib may contribute to these real-world outcomes and warrant further investigation.

  20. Determinants of durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen and time from first-line failure to second-line antiretroviral therapy initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmonde, Sophie; Eboua, François T; Malateste, Karen

    2015-01-01

    DEA clinical centres in five West-African countries. We estimated the incidence of switch (at least one a drug class change) within 24 months of ART and associated factors were identified in a multinomial logistic regression. Among children with clinical-immunological failure, we estimated the 24-month...... post-ART initiation, 188 (7%) had switched to second-line. The most frequent reasons were drug stock outs (20%), toxicity (18%), treatment failure (16%) and poor adherence (8%). Over the 24-month follow-up period, 322 (12%) children failed first-line ART after a median time of 7 months....... Of these children, 21 (7%) switched to second-line after a median time of 21 weeks in failure. This was associated with older age [subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.33] and longer time on ART (sHR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07-1.25). CONCLUSION: Switches for clinical failure were...

  1. The cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in combination with letrozole versus letrozole alone as first-line treatment of oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer (PALOMA-1/TRIO-18): a randomised phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Richard S; Crown, John P; Lang, Istvan; Boer, Katalin; Bondarenko, Igor M; Kulyk, Sergey O; Ettl, Johannes; Patel, Ravindranath; Pinter, Tamas; Schmidt, Marcus; Shparyk, Yaroslav; Thummala, Anu R; Voytko, Nataliya L; Fowst, Camilla; Huang, Xin; Kim, Sindy T; Randolph, Sophia; Slamon, Dennis J

    2015-01-01

    Palbociclib (PD-0332991) is an oral, small-molecule inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6 with preclinical evidence of growth-inhibitory activity in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells and synergy with anti-oestrogens. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of palbociclib in combination with letrozole as first-line treatment of patients with advanced, oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. In this open-label, randomised phase 2 study, postmenopausal women with advanced oestrogen receptor-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer who had not received any systemic treatment for their advanced disease were eligible to participate. Patients were enrolled in two separate cohorts that accrued sequentially: in cohort 1, patients were enrolled on the basis of their oestrogen receptor-positive and HER2-negative biomarker status alone, whereas in cohort 2 they were also required to have cancers with amplification of cyclin D1 (CCND1), loss of p16 (INK4A or CDKN2A), or both. In both cohorts, patients were randomly assigned 1:1 via an interactive web-based randomisation system, stratified by disease site and disease-free interval, to receive continuous oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily or continuous oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily plus oral palbociclib 125 mg, given once daily for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off over 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Accrual to cohort 2 was stopped after an unplanned interim analysis of cohort 1 and the statistical analysis plan for the primary endpoint was amended to a combined analysis of cohorts 1 and 2 (instead of cohort 2 alone). The study is ongoing but closed to accrual; these are the results of the final analysis of progression-free survival. The study is registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00721409. Between Dec 22, 2009, and May 12, 2012, we randomly assigned 165 patients, 84 to palbociclib

  2. First-line Nurse Managers' Preconditions for Practise : The Important Interplay between Person and Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Skytt, Bernice

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to study personal and organizational conditions for first-line nurse managers and to identify and assess the skills and abilities important for leadership and management. Interviews were conducted with 5 first-line nurse managers, 5 registered nurses, 5 assistant nurses and one head of department delineating their perceptions of current and ideal roles of first-line nurse managers. Factor analysis was conducted to estimate validity and reliability of the Leadership and Management ...

  3. Prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to first-line ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy for adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas An exploratory, retrospective analysis on large series from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleiffer, S.; Ouali, M.; van Glabbeke, M.

    2010-01-01

    for PFS. Conclusion: In this study, we established an independent set of prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to ifosfamide-based chemotherapy in advanced STS patients. This study provides important information for the interpretation and design of clinical trials for specific STS entities and may......Background: Adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are generally treated similarly, regardless of great differences between STS subtypes, disease presentation and patients' characteristics. As ifosfamide is frequently applied in first line systemic therapy, we aimed to establish...... prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to ifosfamide-based therapy. Methods: A retrospective, exploratory analysis was performed on data from 1337 advanced STS patients who received first-time ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy. For predictive factor analysis, 660 patients treated with doxorubicin...

  4. Factors that facilitate registered nurses in their first-line nurse manager role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziraki, Karen; McKey, Colleen; Peachey, Gladys; Baxter, Pamela; Flaherty, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    To determine the factors that attract and retain Registered Nurses in the first-line nurse manager role. The first-line nurse manger role is pivotal in health-care organisations. National demographics suggest that Canada will face a first-line nurse manager shortage because of retirement in the next decade. Determination of factors that attract and retain Registered Nurses will assist organisations and policy makers to employ strategies to address this shortage. The study used an exploratory, descriptive qualitative approach, consisting of semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Registered Nurses in first-line nurse manager roles. The findings revealed a discrepancy between the factors that attract and retain Registered Nurses in the first-line nurse manager role, underscored the importance of the mentor role and confirmed the challenges encountered by first-line nurse managers practicing in the current health-care environment. The first-line nurse manager role has been under studied. Further research is warranted to understand which strategies are most effective in supporting first-line nurse managers. Strategies to support nurses in the first-line nurse manager role are discussed for the individual, programme, organisation and health-care system/policy levels. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6...... for baseline characteristics and clinical status at 2, 4 and 6 months after the initiation of treatment. At a 1 year follow-up, therapy failure was defined as death or a relapse of tuberculosis. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations below the normal ranges were frequently observed: isoniazid in 71%, rifampicin in 58......%, ethambutol in 46%, pyrazinamide in 10% and both isoniazid and rifampicin in 45% of the patients. The plasma concentrations of isoniazid correlated inversely with the C-reactive protein level at the time of sampling (P = 0.001). During 1 year of follow-up, therapy failure occurred in five patients. Therapy...

  6. First-line Bismuth-containing Five-day Concomitant Quintuple Therapy for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolapcioglu, Can; Sayiner, Mehmet; Akkus, Esra Elif; Kural, Abdulaziz; Dolapcioglu, Hatice; Dabak, Resat; Ahishali, Emel

    2016-04-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in increased rates of antibiotic resistance and decreased rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, leading to a search for newer therapeutic options. This study aimed to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and patient compliance of a first-line bismuth-containing 5-day concomitant quintuple therapy. This prospective study included 144 eradication treatment naïve H. pylori positive patients with dyspeptic complaints. Patients received the following concomitant quintuple therapy for 5 days: bismuth subcitrate 300 mg q.i.d, omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d, clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d. Eradication was assessed with H. pylori stool antigen test or urea-breath test 6 weeks after the completion of therapy. Treatment compliance rate in this study was 97.2%. Intention to treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 134/144 (93.1%, 95% CI, 88.9-97.2) and 134/140 (95.7%, 95% CI, 92.2-98.6), respectively. Side effect was reported by 8.5% of the patients that attended follow-up visits, including epigastric pain (2.8%), nausea/vomiting (2.1%), diarrhea (1.4%), taste disturbance (1.4%), and fatigue (0.7%). Bismuth-containing, short course, quintuple concomitant therapy appears to be an effective and safe therapeutic option for the first-line H. pylori eradication, particularly in populations with high resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Long-term effects of antibiotics on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand, nitrification, and viable bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are contaminants of the environment because of their widespread use and incomplete removal by microorganisms during wastewater treatment. The influence of a mixture of ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GM), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)/trimethoprim (TMP), and vancomycin (VA), up to a final concentration of 40 mg/L, on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrification, and survival of bacteria, as well as the elimination of the antibiotics, was assessed in a long-term study in laboratory treatment plants (LTPs). In the presence of 30 mg/L antibiotics, nitrification of artificial sewage by activated sludge ended at nitrite. Nitrate formation was almost completely inhibited. No nitrification at all was possible in the presence of 40 mg/L antibiotics. The nitrifiers were more sensitive to antibiotics than heterotrophic bacteria. COD elimination in antibiotic-stressed LTPs was not influenced by ≤20 mg/L antibiotics. Addition of 30 mg/L antibiotic mixture decreased COD removal efficiency for a period, but the LTPs recovered. Similar results were obtained with 40 mg/L antibiotic mixture. The total viable count of bacteria was not affected negatively by the antibiotics. It ranged from 2.2 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) compared with the control at 1.4 × 10(6)-6.3 × 10(6) CFU/mL. Elimination of the four antibiotics during phases of 2.4-30 mg/L from the liquid was high for GM (70-90 %), much lower for VA, TMP, and CIP (0-50 %), and highly fluctuating for SMZ (0-95 %). The antibiotics were mainly adsorbed to the sludge and not biodegraded.

  8. Meta-analysis of first-line triple therapy for helicobacter pylori eradication in Korea: is it time to change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Lim, Hyun; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Ahn, Ji Yong; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2014-05-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy consisting of PPI, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, is the recommended first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of triple therapy has declined over the past few decades. We analyzed the eradication rate and adverse events of triple therapy to evaluate current practices in Korea. A comprehensive literature search was performed up to August 2013 of 104 relevant studies comprising 42,124 patients. The overall eradication rate was 74.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.1%-77.2%) by intention-to-treat analysis and 82.0% (95% CI, 80.8%-83.2%) by per-protocol analysis. The eradication rate decreased significantly from 1998 to 2013 (P pylori eradication has decreased to an unacceptable level. A novel therapeutic strategy is warranted to improve the effectiveness of first-line treatment for H. pylori infection in Korea.

  9. Implementing Human Resource Management Successfully: A First-Line Management Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Nehles, Anna Christina; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Looise, Jan C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we will address the success of Human Resource Management (HRM) implementation, concentrating not on the HR function but on first-line managers. First-line managers find implementing HR practices at the operational level difficult and show reluctance with their HR responsibilities.

  10. S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) plus bevacizumab versus mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: updated overall survival analyses of the open-label, non-inferiority, randomised phase III: SOFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hideo; Yamada, Yasuhide; Takahari, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masato; Yoshida, Motoki; Iwamoto, Shigeyoshi; Shimada, Ken; Komatsu, Yoshito; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Satoh, Taroh; Takahashi, Keiichi; Mishima, Hideyuki; Muro, Kei; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakata, Yuh; Morita, Satoshi; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    The SOFT study previously demonstrated that S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) plus bevacizumab was non-inferior to l-leucovorin, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab in terms of the primary end point of progression-free survival (PFS) as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The overall survival (OS) data were immature at the time of the primary analysis. A total of 512 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab (5 mg/kg of bevacizumab, followed by 200 mg/m2 of l-leucovorin given simultaneously with 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin, followed by a 400 mg/m2 bolus of 5-FU on day 1 and then 2400 mg/m2 of 5-FU as an intravenous infusion over the course of 46 hours, every 2 weeks) or SOX plus bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg of bevacizumab, 130 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin on day 1 and 40-60 mg of S-1 two times per day for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week rest). The primary end point was PFS. After the primary analysis, the follow-up survey was cut-off on 30 September 2013, and the final OS data were analysed. With a median follow-up of 37.7 months, the median survival time (MST) was 29.7 months with mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab and 29.6 months with SOX plus bevacizumab (HR, 1.018; 95% CI 0.823 to 1.258). Median PFS was 11.7 months in the mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab group and 12.2 months in the SOX plus bevacizumab group (HR, 1.051; 95% CI 0.876 to 1.262; pnon-inferiority=0.0115). Our results reconfirmed that SOX plus bevacizumab is non-inferior to mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab in terms of PFS. MST did not differ between the groups. SOX plus bevacizumab is considered an effective regimen for first-line chemotherapy in patients with mCRC and can be used instead of mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab. JapicCTI-090699.

  11. First-line chemotherapy with pemetrexed plus cisplatin for malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Eriko; Kijima, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Kozo; Negi, Yoshiki; Kanemura, Shingo; Mikami, Koji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Mesothelioma of peritoneal origin has wider variation in treatment outcomes than mesothelioma of pleural origin, likely because peritoneal mesothelioma comprises borderline malignant variants and aggressive malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM). This study retrospectively evaluates the efficacy of first-line systemic pemetrexed and cisplatin chemotherapy in MPeM. Twenty-four patients with histologically proven MPeM were treated with pemetrexed plus cisplatin as a first-line systemic chemotherapy. The response was evaluated radiologically according to standard Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Twenty-two patients underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/(FDG-PET)/computed tomography(CT) at baseline, and 13 were eligible for metabolic assessment. Two complete responses and 9 partial responses were achieved. Overall response rate and disease control rate were 45.8% and 91.7%, respectively. Median progression-free survival and median overall survival were 11.0 months and 15.8 months, respectively. Wet- type MPeM had significantly longer survival (40.9 months median) than other clinical types (15.5 months) (P = 0.045). The baseline maximum standardized uptake value in 22 patients was 8.93 (range, 2.5-16.77). Systemic pemetrexed plus cisplatin is active for MPeM. Disparity with the outcome of cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) needs to receive more emphasis, since peritoneal mesothelioma has a 5-year survival rate of 50%.

  12. Neutropenia-related costs in patients treated with first-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Michael E; Muehlenbein, Catherine E; Marciniak, Martin D; Faries, Douglas E; Motabar, Saeed; Gillespie, Theresa W; Lipscomb, Joseph; Knopf, Kevin B; Buesching, Don P

    2009-10-01

    Neutropenia is a major adverse event often associated with chemotherapy administration. Neutropenia-related complications often lead to increased use of costly health care including inpatient and outpatient services. Monitoring and treatment of neutropenia thus place an economic burden on the health care system. To evaluate (a) costs and medical resource use for chemotherapy- related afebrile and febrile neutropenia in an elderly population with Stage IIIB or Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and (b) costs unrelated to neutropenia and total all-cause health care costs during first-line chemotherapy. Study patients in this retrospective database analysis were aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of Stage IIIB or Stage IV NSCLC in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry from 1998 through 2002. Neutropenia was identified by the presence of a primary or secondary diagnosis code for diseases of white blood cells (ICD-9-CM = 288.xx) during a period of first-line chemotherapy treatment. Febrile neutropenia was defined by (a) an inpatient hospitalization with a primary or secondary diagnosis for neutropenia occurring at any time during first-line chemotherapy or (b) intravenous or intramuscular antibiotic administration occurring after the initial neutropenia diagnosis and during first-line chemotherapy. Patients with neutropenia without these events were considered to have afebrile neutropenia. Patients were followed in the SEER-Medicare database to evaluate costs (defined as all Medicare payments, primary insurer payments, and patient copayments and deductibles) and resource use associated with afebrile or febrile neutropenia while on first-line chemotherapy. If a patient switched to second-line chemotherapy, the day prior to the switch was defined as the end of first-line treatment. If a switch to second-line therapy did not occur, then first-line therapy was assumed to end 30 days following administration of the last first-line

  13. [A study of leadership training program demands of first-line nurse managers in university hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, M S

    1998-01-01

    There is an important concern regarding the First-line nurse manager's leadership because of the recognition that effectiveness of Leadership in this position results in benefits for the whole health care organization. So knowledge and practice of effective leadership behavior are now more essential to nursing than ever before. First-line Nurse Managers must be effective leaders to meet today's challenge because staff nurse, patient are affected by them. So the purpose of this study was to identify and to analyse the need for Leadership program of First Line nurse managers in university hospitals. There were three major purposes of this study. First, identify First-line nurse managers general characteristic, second, identify their experience of leadership training, third, identify and analysis their demands for leadership training program. The subjects for this study was 167 First-line nurse manager randomly from 18 university hospitals in Korea. The data were collected through questionnaires from Oct. 13th to Nov. 20th, 1997, data was analysed using frequencies and percentages. Especially the steps of analysis of descriptions were as follows: Initial analysis centered on the identification of the demands of first-line nurse managers. Later analysis collapsed the demands into broad categories. From the collect data, 283 demands of first-line nurse managers were identified. These demands were then sorted into 3 broad categories that included: Self development as first-line nurse managers, relationship with others, and practice The result of the study were as follows: 1) Most of nurse managers (79.6%) had leadership training course and had good experience to improve self leadership. 2) Their demands of leadership training course are as follows: First, for self as first-line nurse managers, they want to learn leadership theory, identify their leadership style and then develop their leadership skill. Second, for others as first-line nurse managers, they want to improve

  14. Caring behaviour perceptions from nurses of their first-line nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao; Liu, Yilan; Zeng, Qingsong

    2015-12-01

    Nursing is acknowledged as being the art and science of caring. According to the theory of nursing as caring, all persons are caring but not every behaviour of a person is caring. Caring behaviours in the relationship between first-line nurse managers and Registered Nurses have been studied to a lesser extent than those that exist between patients and nurses. Caring behaviour of first-line nurse managers from the perspective of Registered Nurses is as of yet unknown. Identifying caring behaviours may be useful as a reference for first-line nurse managers caring for nurses in a way that nurses prefer. To explore first-line nurse managers' caring behaviours from the perspective of Registered Nurses in mainland China. Qualitative study, using descriptive phenomenological approach. Fifteen Registered Nurses recruited by purposive sampling method took part in in-depth interviews. Data were analysed according to Colaizzi's technique. Three themes of first-line nurse managers' caring behaviours emerged: promoting professional growth, exhibiting democratic leadership and supporting work-life balance. A better understanding of the first-line nurse managers' caring behaviours is recognised. The three kinds of behaviours have significant meaning to nurse managers. Future research is needed to describe what first-line nurse managers can do to promote nurses' professional growth, increase the influence of democratic leadership, as well as support their work-life balance. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. First-line managers: scope of responsibility in a time of fiscal restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, S; Crawford, M

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal restraint and government cost control have contributed to the downsizing and restructuring of Canadian health care organizations. As key players in the hospital sector, the role and responsibilities of first-line nurse managers have been significantly affected by these changes. This paper presents data from a survey of 200 first-line nurse managers in British Columbia which investigated the current scope of the first-line manager's role, the number of hierarchical levels within nursing departments, and views on managerial union membership.

  16. Vacuum-assisted closure for sternal wounds: a first-line therapeutic management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Jayant P; Ogilvie, Michael; Wu, Liza C; Lohman, Robert F; Gottlieb, Lawrence J; Franczyk, Mietka; Song, David H

    2005-09-15

    . The authors report the largest series of patients treated with this therapy for post-sternotomy sternal wounds and believe it is safe and effective as a first-line therapy in the management of sternal wounds. The mortality rate from their study represents the patients' underlying disease process and comorbidities and is not a reflection of complications associated with the therapy. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy has been shown to decrease wound edema, decrease the time to definitive closure, and reduce wound bacterial colony counts. The authors have implemented the therapy for most patients with sternal wounds/mediastinitis at their institution, and believe it should be a standard protocol in the first-line management of these types of wounds.

  17. Long-term outcome of HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer patients treated with first-line trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B; Kotsori, K; Mohammed, K; Walsh, G; Smith, I E

    2015-12-01

    Trastuzumab has changed the natural history of metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer. Some patients remain well and in remission for many years. There is currently no established duration after which trastuzumab in the advanced setting can be safely discontinued. This study aims to evaluate long-term efficacy and cardiac safety of trastuzumab when used as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer. We retrospectively identified 215 patients with HER2 positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who commenced first line trastuzumab-containing therapy for metastatic disease between 2001 and 2010 at The Royal Marsden Hospital. The median progression free survival for all patients was 12 months (95%CI: 10.3-14.6 months); 103 (48%) patients remained in remission beyond one year, 59 (27%) beyond two years and 25 (12%) beyond five years. The median overall survival was 2.6 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2-3.3). The objective response rate (ORR) was 65% with 17 (8%) complete responses and 120 (57%) partial responses. Trastuzumab was well tolerated. Twenty eight (13%) patients recorded any grade of left ventricular dysfunction. There was no significant difference in cardiac toxicity between those patients on less than or more than one year of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab is associated with long-term remissions in a significant proportion of patients with metastatic HER2 positive disease when used in the first-line advanced setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Observation of EGFR-TKI as A First-line Therapy on Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjie LI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI significantly benefits advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations in progression-free survival time with better tolerance. This study is undertaken to analyze efficacy and tolerance of advanced NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations taking EGFR-TKI as a first-line therapy. Methods Tumor samples from 54 patients with advanced NSCLC were examined for EGFR activating mutations (deletion mutation in exon 19 and the L858R point mutation in exon 21 by direct sequencing. The patients were first-line treated with oral administration of EGFR-TKI until disease progression. The efficacy and adverse events were observed, and survival was followed up. Results Among the patients, 61% (33 of 54 had EGFR exon 19 deletion, and 39% (21 of 54 had EGFR L858R point mutation. All patients received first-line TKI therapy. The total response rate was 96%, median progression free survival (PFS was 8.3 months and median survival was 19.5 months. The patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion had significantly longer median PFS (9 versus 7 months, P=0.002 and longer median overall survival (OS(25 versus 16 months, P=0.001 than patients with EGFR L858R point mutation. There is no significance in efficacy between gefitinib and erlotinib, and gefitinib is safer than erlotinib. The most common adverse events were rash and diarrhea. Two (4% grade 4 skin toxity effects, two (4% grade 3 aminotransferase level elevations, and one (1 grade 3 stomatitis were observed. Conclusion The first-line EGFR-TKI treatment in advanced NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations is efficient and safe, which is more efficient in patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion than those with EGFR L858R mutation.

  19. Interventions to improve adherence to first-line antibiotics in respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Monedero, María José; García, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    intervention (II), aimed to improve the adherence to recommendations on first-line antibiotics in patients with respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Methods: General practitioners (GPs) from different regions of Spain were offered two different interventions on antibiotic prescribing. They registered all.......8-26%), respectively. Conclusion: Multifaceted interventions targeting GPs can improve adherence to recommendations for first-line antibiotic prescribing in patients with RTI, with intensive interventions that include point-of-care testing being more effective....

  20. Therapeutic compliance of first line disease-modifying therapies in patients with multiple sclerosis. COMPLIANCE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, A; Mora, S; Blanco, J

    2015-05-01

    Non-adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis may be associated with reduced efficacy. We assessed compliance, the reasons for non-compliance, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life (QoL) of patients treated with first-line therapies. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted that included relapsing multiple sclerosis patients. Compliance in the past month was assessed using Morisky-Green test. Seasonal compliance and reasons for non-compliance were assessed by an ad-hoc questionnaire. Treatment satisfaction and QoL were evaluated by means of TSQM and PRIMUS questionnaires. A total of 220 patients were evaluated (91% relapsing-remitting); the mean age was 39.1 years, 70% were female, and the average time under treatment was 5.4 years. Subcutaneous interferon (IFN) β-1b was used in 23% of the patients, intramuscular IFN β-1a in 21%, subcutaneous IFN β-1a in 37%, and with glatiramer acetate in 19%. The overall compliance was 75%, with no significant differences related to the therapy, and 81% did not report any seasonal variation. Compliant patients had significantly lower disability scores and time of diagnosis, and greater satisfaction with treatment and its effectiveness. Discomfort and flu-like symptoms were the most frequent reasons for non-compliance. The satisfaction and QoL were associated with less disability and number of therapeutic switches. The rate of compliance, satisfaction and QoL in multiple sclerosis patients under DMTs is high, especially for those newly diagnosed, less disabled, and with fewer therapeutic switches. Discomfort and flu-like symptoms associated with injected therapies significantly affect adherence. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Rabeprazole, Minocycline, Amoxicillin, and Bismuth as First-Line and Second-Line Regimens for Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiqiang; Suo, Baojun; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhou, Liya

    2016-12-01

    Because of general unavailability of tetracycline, common adverse effects, and complicated administration, the clinical application of bismuth quadruple therapy often faces difficulties. Whether the combination of minocycline and amoxicillin can replace tetracycline and metronidazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication remains unclear. This study was to determine the efficacy, compliance, and safety of rabeprazole, minocycline, amoxicillin, and bismuth (RMAB) therapy as first-line and second-line regimens. Between July 2013 and December 2015, a total of 160 patients in first-line and 70 patients in second-line therapies received rabeprazole 10 mg, minocycline 100 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg, and bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg twice daily for 14 days. Eradication status was assessed 6-12 weeks after treatment. RMAB therapy achieved the eradication rates of 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 81.9-92.5%, intention-to-treat analysis), 90.9% (85.7-95.5%, modified intention-to-treat analysis), and 92.6% (88.5-96.6%, per-protocol analysis) in first-line therapy in a setting with high antibiotic resistance rates (amoxicillin 3.4%, clarithromycin 39.7%, metronidazole 60.3%, levofloxacin 36.2%, tetracycline 3.4%, and minocycline 6.9%). As for second-line therapy, the eradication rates were 82.9% (74.3-91.4%, intention-to-treat analysis), 86.6% (77.6-94.0%, modified intention-to-treat analysis), and 89.1% (81.3-95.3%, per-protocol analysis). Totally, 24.0% patients had adverse effects, 2.2% discontinued medications, and good compliance was achieved in 94.7%. Poor compliance and minocycline resistance were identified as the risk factors for treatment failure. Significant differences in efficacy existed among the groups of both sensitive (48/51 and 18/20), isolated amoxicillin resistance (1/1 and 0/0), isolated minocycline resistance (2/3 and 1/1), and dual resistance (0/1 and 0/1) in both first-line (p = .004) and second-line (p = .035) therapies. The eradication efficacies of RMAB

  2. An ANOCEF genomic and transcriptomic microarray study of the response to radiotherapy or to alkylating first-line chemotherapy in glioblastoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducray François

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular characteristics associated with the response to treatment in glioblastomas (GBMs remain largely unknown. We performed a retrospective study to assess the genomic characteristics associated with the response of GBMs to either first-line chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The gene expression (n = 56 and genomic profiles (n = 67 of responders and non-responders to first-line chemotherapy or radiation therapy alone were compared on Affymetrix Plus 2 gene expression arrays and BAC CGH arrays. Results According to Verhaak et al.'s classification system, mesenchymal GBMs were more likely to respond to radiotherapy than to first-line chemotherapy, whereas classical GBMs were more likely to respond to first-line chemotherapy than to radiotherapy. In patients treated with radiation therapy alone, the response was associated with differential expression of microenvironment-associated genes; the expression of hypoxia-related genes was associated with short-term progression-free survival ( 10 months. Consistently, infiltration of the tumor by both CD3 and CD68 cells was significantly more frequent in responders to radiotherapy than in non-responders. In patients treated with first-line chemotherapy, the expression of stem-cell genes was associated with resistance to chemotherapy, and there was a significant association between response to treatment and p16 locus deletions. Consistently, in an independent data set of patients treated with either radiotherapy alone or with both radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, we found that patients with the p16 deletion benefited from adjuvant chemotherapy regardless of their MGMT promoter methylation status, whereas in patients without the p16 deletion, this benefit was only observed in patients with a methylated MGMT promoter. Conclusion Differential expression of microenvironment genes and p16 locus deletion are associated with responses to radiation therapy and to first-line

  3. Cost-effectiveness of tenofovir instead of zidovudine for use in first-line antiretroviral therapy in settings without virological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wyl, Viktor; Cambiano, Valentina; Jordan, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    The most recent World Health Organization (WHO) antiretroviral treatment guidelines recommend the inclusion of zidovudine (ZDV) or tenofovir (TDF) in first-line therapy. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis with emphasis on emerging patterns of drug resistance upon treatment failure and the...

  4. Efficacy of caspofungin combined with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole as first-line therapy to treat non-HIV patients with severe pneumocystis pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gensheng; Chen, Miaomiao; Zhang, Shufang; Zhou, Hongwei; Ji, Xiaozhen; Cai, Jiachang; Lou, Tianzheng; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Ning

    2018-02-01

    Combined treatment with caspofungin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) as salvage therapy in non-HIV positive patients with severe pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) yields poor outcomes. It remains unknown whether the use of this combination strategy as a first-line therapy would improve patient outcomes. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of caspofungin combined with TMP/SMZ as a first-line therapy in non-HIV positive patients with severe PCP. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between March 2016 and February 2017. Patient clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between two groups receiving first-line and second-line therapy respectively. In addition, similar cases from previous studies were assessed. A total of 14 patients were included in the present study (mean age, 58.79±14.41 years); including 9 patients receiving caspofungin and TMP/SMZ as a first-line therapy and 5 that received it as a second-line therapy. The overall positive response rate was 71.43% (10/14), with 88.89 (8/9) and 40.00% (2/5) in the first-line and second-line therapy groups, respectively (P=0.095). The positive response rates of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation differed significantly between the first-line (5/6, 83.33%) and the second-line (0/3, 0%) therapy groups (P=0.048). All-cause hospital mortality was 42.86% (6/14), with mortality rates of 33.33 (3/9) and 60.00% (3/5) in the first-line and second-line therapy groups, respectively (P=0.580). Combined with previously reported cases (n=27), the positive response rate was significantly greater in the first-line therapy group (11/12, 91.67%) than in the second-line therapy group (8/15, 53.33%, P=0.043). No significant differences were in all-cause mortality rates between the two groups (25.00 vs. 46.67%, P=0.424) were identified, despite the fact that all-course mortality in the first-line therapy group was ~50% that of the second-line therapy group. Therefore, the results of the

  5. Elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis: differential diagnosis and choice of first-line and subsequent therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Blanco, Juan Ignacio; Calvo-Alén, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) has been considered a benign form of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it most probably encompasses different subsets of patients with distinct outcomes. According to data reported in the most recent studies directly comparing older and younger RA patients, it seems that, overall, the prognosis of EORA patients is not very different from that of other patients with this disease. However, some cases with negative rheumatoid factor and polymyalgia-like symptoms appear to be a distinct subset with a different genetic basis and a more benign course. The differential diagnosis of EORA from other rheumatological disorders that are prevalent in this stratum of the population, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, crystal-induced arthritis or osteoarthritis, may be complicated because these disorders can present with signs and symptoms similar to those of RA in some circumstances. A prompt diagnosis of true RA is important because early treatment should be implemented. It is recommended that therapy of EORA be tailored according to disease activity, with the aim of achieving clinical remission or the lowest possible level of disease activity in order to minimize potential functional sequelae. Co-morbidities and drug toxicity profiles are major considerations when choosing the most suitable therapy for EORA patients. Prudent use and careful follow-up of all treatments are also required because of the increased risk of adverse events in elderly patients. However, no special contraindications to the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in this age group apply, and use of biological therapies currently used in younger RA patients has also been described in these patients. Therefore, a therapeutic strategy for first-line and subsequent treatment that is in accordance with the disease activity of patients with EORA is suggested.

  6. First-Line Nursing Home Managers in Sweden and their Views on Leadership and Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Cronfalk, Berit Seiger; Henriksen, Eva; Norberg, Astrid; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Sandberg, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate first-line nursing home managers' views on their leadership and related to that, palliative care. Previous research reveals insufficient palliation, and a number of barriers towards implementation of palliative care in nursing homes. Among those barriers are issues related to leadership quality. First-line managers play a pivotal role, as they influence working conditions and quality of care. Nine first-line managers, from different nursing homes in Sweden participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative descriptive content analysis. In the results, two categories were identified: embracing the role of leader and being a victim of circumstances, illuminating how the first-line managers handle expectations and challenges linked to the leadership role and responsibility for palliative care. The results reveal views corresponding to committed leaders, acting upon demands and expectations, but also to leaders appearing to have resigned from the leadership role, and who express powerlessness with little possibility to influence care. The first line managers reported their own limited knowledge about palliative care to limit their possibilities of taking full leadership responsibility for implementing palliative care principles in their nursing homes. The study stresses that for the provision of high quality palliative care in nursing homes, first-line managers need to be knowledgeable about palliative care, and they need supportive organizations with clear expectations and goals about palliative care. Future action and learning oriented research projects for the implementation of palliative care principles, in which first line managers actively participate, are suggested.

  7. First-Line Nursing Home Managers in Sweden and their Views on Leadership and Palliative Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Cronfalk, Berit Seiger; Henriksen, Eva; Norberg, Astrid; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Sandberg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate first-line nursing home managers’ views on their leadership and related to that, palliative care. Previous research reveals insufficient palliation, and a number of barriers towards implementation of palliative care in nursing homes. Among those barriers are issues related to leadership quality. First-line managers play a pivotal role, as they influence working conditions and quality of care. Nine first-line managers, from different nursing homes in Sweden participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative descriptive content analysis. In the results, two categories were identified: embracing the role of leader and being a victim of circumstances, illuminating how the first-line managers handle expectations and challenges linked to the leadership role and responsibility for palliative care. The results reveal views corresponding to committed leaders, acting upon demands and expectations, but also to leaders appearing to have resigned from the leadership role, and who express powerlessness with little possibility to influence care. The first line managers reported their own limited knowledge about palliative care to limit their possibilities of taking full leadership responsibility for implementing palliative care principles in their nursing homes. The study stresses that for the provision of high quality palliative care in nursing homes, first-line managers need to be knowledgeable about palliative care, and they need supportive organizations with clear expectations and goals about palliative care. Future action and learning oriented research projects for the implementation of palliative care principles, in which first line managers actively participate, are suggested. PMID:25628769

  8. Long-term efficacy of first line antiretroviral therapy in Indian HIV-1 infected patients: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal Neogi

    Full Text Available Short term efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in resource-constrained settings is comparable to that found in western studies. However, long term data are limited. India has the third largest HIV infected population in the world but the long-term outcome of first line therapy according to the national guidelines has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, we conducted a long-term longitudinal analysis of the efficacy of the national first-line therapy in India from an observational cohort of Indian patients in two different clinical settings.A total 323 patients who had been on ART for a median of 23 months and achieved virological suppression 2000 copies/mL. Adherence and treatment interruptions (>48 h were assessed via self-report. In the studied patients, the median duration of viral suppression was 44 months; 15.8% of patients showed viral rebound, and 2.8% viral failure. Viral rebound or failure was significantly negatively related to perfect adherence (100% adherence and no treatment interruption >48 hrs. Virological re-suppression in the subsequent visit was observed in three patients without any change in therapy despite the presence of key mutations.Our study reports for the first time, a good long-term response to the first line therapy for a median of nearly four years although a less than perfect adherence increases the risk for treatment failure and subsequent drug resistance development. The empirical findings in this study also indicate the overall success of the Indian ART program in two different settings which likely are representative of other clinics that operate under the national guidelines.

  9. Nanoscaled hydrated antimony (V) oxide as a new approach to first-line antileishmanial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonia Mr; Grafova, Iryna; Soares, Fabiane V; Gentile, Gennaro; Wyrepkowski, Claudia Dc; Bolson, Marcos A; Sargentini, Ézio; Carfagna, Cosimo; Leskelä, Markku; Grafov, Andriy

    Coordination compounds of pentavalent antimony have been, and remain, the first-line drugs in leishmaniasis treatment for >70 years. Molecular forms of Sb (V) complexes are commercialized as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam(®)) and meglumine antimoniate (MA) (Glucantime(®)). Ever-increasing drug resistance in the parasites limits the use of antimonials, due to the low drug concentrations being administered against high parasitic counts. Sb(5+) toxicity provokes severe side effects during treatment. To enhance therapeutic potency and to increase Sb (V) concentration within the target cells, we decided to try a new active substance form, a hydrosol of Sb2O5·nH2O nanoparticles (NPs), instead of molecular drugs. Sb2O5·nH2O NPs were synthesized by controlled SbCl5 hydrolysis in a great excess of water. Sb2O5·nH2O phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The surface of Sb (V) NPs was treated with ligands with a high affinity for target cell membrane receptors. The mean particle size determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy was ~35-45 nm. In vitro tests demonstrated a 2.5-3 times higher antiparasitic activity of Sb (V) nanohybrid hydrosols, when compared to MA solution. A similar comparison for in vivo treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis with Sb(5+) nanohybrids showed a 1.75-1.85 times more effective decrease in the lesions. Microimages of tissue fragments confirmed the presence of NPs inside the cytoplasm of infected macrophages. Sb2O5·nH2O hydrosols are proposed as a new form of treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis. The NPs penetrate directly into the affected cells, creating a high local concentration of the drug, a precondition to overcoming the parasite resistance to molecular forms of pentavalent antimonials. The nanohybrids are more effective at a lower dose, when compared to MA, the molecular drug. Our data suggest that the new form of treatment has the potential to

  10. First-line chemotherapy in low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzam, Mo’iad; Tidy, John; Hancock, Barry W; Osborne, Raymond; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in Issue 1, 2009. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare but curable disease arising in the fetal chorion during pregnancy. Most women with low-risk GTN will be cured by evacuation of the uterus with or without single-agent chemotherapy. However, chemotherapy regimens vary between treatment centres worldwide and the comparable benefits and risks of these different regimens are unclear. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of first-line chemotherapy in the treatment of low-risk GTN. Search methods In September 2008, we electronically searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 3, 2008), MEDLINE and EMBASE. In addition, we searched online trial registers, conference proceedings and reference lists of identified studies. We re-ran these searches in February 2012 for this updated review. Selection criteria For the original review, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and non-RCTs that compared first-line chemotherapy for the treatment of low-risk GTN. For this updated version of the review, we included only RCTs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data to a pre-designed data extraction form. Meta-analysis was performed by pooling the risk ratio (RR) of individual trials. Main results We included five moderate to high quality RCTs (517 women) in the updated review. These studies all compared methotrexate with dactinomycin. Three studies compared weekly intramuscular (IM) methotrexate with bi-weekly pulsed intravenous (IV) dactinomycin (393 women), one study compared five-day IM methotrexate with bi-weekly pulsed IV dactinomycin (75 women) and one study compared eight-day IM methotrexate-folinic acid (MTX-FA) with five-day IV dactinomycin (49 women). Overall, dactinomycin was associated

  11. Economic Outcomes of First-Line Regimen Switching Among Stable Patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Lisa; Buikema, Ami R; Seare, Jerry; Bengtson, Lindsay G S; Johnson, Jonathan; Cao, Feng; Villasis-Keever, Angelina

    2017-07-01

    Although switching of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a valid approach for addressing treatment failure in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ART changes among those who are well maintained on their current regimens may lead to the development of new side effects or resistance. To examine the effect of first-line regimen switching on subsequent health care utilization and cost among stable HIV patients. This was a retrospective claims data study of adult patients with HIV who initiated ART between 2007 and 2013 and had been treated with their initial regimens for at least 6 continuous months. Those with evidence of pregnancy or HIV-2 were excluded. Patients who underwent an ART change were assigned to a switcher cohort; a nonswitcher cohort was then generated by matching up to 20 nonswitchers for each switcher, with replacement. The index date was the date of the first ART change for switchers and was the claim date closest to the corresponding switcher's switch date for nonswitchers. Patient characteristics at baseline and post-index annualized health care utilization and costs were analyzed descriptively and with multivariable models. Analyses were performed in the full population and among patients designated as virologically stable (had undetectable viral ribonucleic acid [RNA] for 90 days pre-index) and virologically and clinically stable (had undetectable viral RNA and no apparent clinical reason for switching ART). The study population consisted of 6,983 individuals, which included 927 switchers (168 virologically stable; 55 virologically+clinically stable), who were matched with replacement with 18,511 nonswitcher comparators. The switcher cohort was 88.8% male (mean age 43.8 years). Mean preindex and follow-up treatment durations for switchers and nonswitchers were 1.8 years and 1.5 years, respectively; demographic characteristics, pre-index treatment duration, and follow-up duration were similar between cohorts. Significantly more

  12. Mean CD4 cell count changes in patients failing a first-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmy Alexandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in CD4 cell counts are poorly documented in individuals with low or moderate-level viremia while on antiretroviral treatment (ART in resource-limited settings. We assessed the impact of on-going HIV-RNA replication on CD4 cell count slopes in patients treated with a first-line combination ART. Method Naïve patients on a first-line ART regimen with at least two measures of HIV-RNA available after ART initiation were included in the study. The relationships between mean CD4 cell count change and HIV-RNA at 6 and 12 months after ART initiation (M6 and M12 were assessed by linear mixed models adjusted for gender, age, clinical stage and year of starting ART. Results 3,338 patients were included (14 cohorts, 64% female and the group had the following characteristics: a median follow-up time of 1.6 years, a median age of 34 years, and a median CD4 cell count at ART initiation of 107 cells/μL. All patients with suppressed HIV-RNA at M12 had a continuous increase in CD4 cell count up to 18 months after treatment initiation. By contrast, any degree of HIV-RNA replication both at M6 and M12 was associated with a flat or a decreasing CD4 cell count slope. Multivariable analysis using HIV-RNA thresholds of 10,000 and 5,000 copies confirmed the significant effect of HIV-RNA on CD4 cell counts both at M6 and M12. Conclusion In routinely monitored patients on an NNRTI-based first-line ART, on-going low-level HIV-RNA replication was associated with a poor immune outcome in patients who had detectable levels of the virus after one year of ART.

  13. Intratympanic steroid injection as a first-line therapy in uremia patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsun-Tien; Hsueh, Naiwei; Huang, Chih-Ming; Lin, Hung-Ching

    2015-08-01

    ITSI as a first-line therapy in uremia patients with SSNHL offers a valid and safe treatment compared with intravenous systemic steroid treatment. A specific pathophysiology caused by possible sodium pump paralysis may be explained for uremia patients with SSNHL. To compare the efficacy of intratympanic steroid injection (ITSI) with that of systemic intravenous steroids as a first-line therapy in uremia patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). A total of 23 consecutive uremia patients with SSNHL were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: the ITSI group (n = 15) and the non-ITSI group (n = 8), in which patients received intravenous systemic steroid treatment. The two groups were homogeneous in all respects. The hearing improvement and relative gain were statistically significant between the two groups. The value of hearing gain (ΔPTA = PTA pre - PTA post) in the ITSI group and the non-ITSI group was 24.6 ± 16.4dB and 8.4 ± 19.3dB. The value of relative gain (ΔPTA/PTApre) in the ITIS group and the non-ITSI group was 31.1 ± 22% and 9.4 ± 20.5%. In the ITSI group, 11 patients (73.3%) exhibited hearing recovery (ΔPTA > 10 dB).

  14. Impact of three courses of intensified CHOP prior to high-dose sequential therapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation as first-line treatment in poor-risk, aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma : comparative analysis of Dutch-Belgian hemato-oncology cooperative group studies 27 and 40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, GW; van der Holt, B; MacKenzie, MA; van't Veer, MB; Wijermans, PW; Ossenkoppele, GL; Schouten, HC; Sonneveld, P; Steijaert, MMC; Kluin, PM; Kluin-Nelemans, NC; Verdonck, LF

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Timing, appropriate amount, and composition of treatment before high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with poor-risk, aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are still unknown. We conducted two consecutive multicenter phase 11 trials with up-front,

  15. Impact of three courses of intensified CHOP prior to high-dose sequential therapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation as first-line treatment in poor-risk, aggressive non-hodgkin's lymphoma: comparative analysis of Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group Studies 27 and 40.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, G.W. van; Holt, B. van der; MacKenzie, M.A.; Veer, M.B. van 't; Wijermans, P.W.; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; Schouten, H.C.; Sonneveld, P.; Steijaert, M.M.; Kluin, P.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Verdonck, L.F.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Timing, appropriate amount, and composition of treatment before high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with poor-risk, aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are still unknown. We conducted two consecutive multicenter phase II trials with up-front,

  16. Resin-based Yttrium-90 microspheres for unresectable and failed first-line chemotherapy intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongzhi; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo; Frey, Gregory; Sella, David M; McKinney, J Mark; Wang, Weiping

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the value of resin-based yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) radioembolization for unresectable and failed first-line chemotherapy (cisplatin plus gemcitabine) intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). From February 2006 to September 2015, a retrospective study was conducted of all patients who underwent resin-based 90 Y therapy for unresectable and failed first-line chemotherapy ICC. Tumor response was assessed using modified RECIST criteria; side effects were assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03; survivals were calculated from the date of diagnosis of ICC, beginning of first-line chemotherapy and first 90 Y procedure, respectively; effects of factors on survival were analyzed by Cox regression model. Twenty-four patients (eight male and 16 female) were included in this study. Mean 5.6 ± 1.6 cycles of first-line chemotherapy were performed prior to 90 Y treatment. The mean delivered activity of 90 Y was 1.6 ± 0.4 GBq with a total of 27 treatments. Disease control rate was 81.8% at 3 months after 90 Y therapy, with partial response (n = 8, 36.4%), stable disease (n = 10, 45.5%) and progressive disease (n = 6, 18.2%). CA199 changes pre- and 1 month post-treatment were complete (n = 2), partial (n = 2), none (n = 5) and progression (n = 2), respectively. Side effects included fatigue (n = 21, 87.5%), anorexia (n = 19, 79.2%), nausea (n = 15, 62.5%), abdominal pain (n = 10, 58.3%), vomiting (n = 4, 16.7%) and fever (n = 3, 12.5%). Radiation-induced gastrointestinal ulcer was identified in one patient. The mean follow-up was 11.3 ± 6.6 months, and the median survivals from the time of diagnosis of ICC, beginning of first-line chemotherapy and first 90 Y procedure were 24.0, 16.0 and 9.0 months, respectively, and the 6-, 12-, 18-, 24- and 30-month survival after 90 Y therapy were 69.9, 32.6, 27.2, 20.4 and 20.4%, respectively. ECOG performance status (P = 0.002) and lymph node metastases (P = 0

  17. The effectiveness of the McKenzie method in addition to first-line care for acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Luciana A C; Maher, Chris G; Herbert, Rob D; Clare, Helen; McAuley, James H

    2010-01-26

    Low back pain is a highly prevalent and disabling condition worldwide. Clinical guidelines for the management of patients with acute low back pain recommend first-line treatment consisting of advice, reassurance and simple analgesics. Exercise is also commonly prescribed to these patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of adding the McKenzie method to the first-line care of patients with acute low back pain. A multi-centre randomized controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up was conducted between September 2005 and June 2008. Patients seeking care for acute non-specific low back pain from primary care medical practices were screened. Eligible participants were assigned to receive a treatment programme based on the McKenzie method and first-line care (advice, reassurance and time-contingent acetaminophen) or first-line care alone, for 3 weeks. Primary outcome measures included pain (0-10 Numeric Rating Scale) over the first seven days, pain at 1 week, pain at 3 weeks and global perceived effect (-5 to 5 scale) at 3 weeks. Treatment effects were estimated using linear mixed models. One hundred and forty-eight participants were randomized into study groups, of whom 138 (93%) completed the last follow-up. The addition of the McKenzie method to first-line care produced statistically significant but small reductions in pain when compared to first-line care alone: mean of -0.4 points (95% confidence interval, -0.8 to -0.1) at 1 week, -0.7 points (95% confidence interval, -1.2 to -0.1) at 3 weeks, and -0.3 points (95% confidence interval, -0.5 to -0.0) over the first 7 days. Patients receiving the McKenzie method did not show additional effects on global perceived effect, disability, function or on the risk of persistent symptoms. These patients sought less additional health care than those receiving only first-line care (P = 0.002). When added to the currently recommended first-line care of acute low back pain, a treatment programme

  18. The effectiveness of the McKenzie method in addition to first-line care for acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Rob D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain is a highly prevalent and disabling condition worldwide. Clinical guidelines for the management of patients with acute low back pain recommend first-line treatment consisting of advice, reassurance and simple analgesics. Exercise is also commonly prescribed to these patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of adding the McKenzie method to the first-line care of patients with acute low back pain. Methods A multi-centre randomized controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up was conducted between September 2005 and June 2008. Patients seeking care for acute non-specific low back pain from primary care medical practices were screened. Eligible participants were assigned to receive a treatment programme based on the McKenzie method and first-line care (advice, reassurance and time-contingent acetaminophen or first-line care alone, for 3 weeks. Primary outcome measures included pain (0-10 Numeric Rating Scale over the first seven days, pain at 1 week, pain at 3 weeks and global perceived effect (-5 to 5 scale at 3 weeks. Treatment effects were estimated using linear mixed models. Results One hundred and forty-eight participants were randomized into study groups, of whom 138 (93% completed the last follow-up. The addition of the McKenzie method to first-line care produced statistically significant but small reductions in pain when compared to first-line care alone: mean of -0.4 points (95% confidence interval, -0.8 to -0.1 at 1 week, -0.7 points (95% confidence interval, -1.2 to -0.1 at 3 weeks, and -0.3 points (95% confidence interval, -0.5 to -0.0 over the first 7 days. Patients receiving the McKenzie method did not show additional effects on global perceived effect, disability, function or on the risk of persistent symptoms. These patients sought less additional health care than those receiving only first-line care (P = 0.002. Conclusions When added to the currently recommended

  19. Proteinuria with first-line therapy of metastatic renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Josiah D; Chen, Adrienne H; Atkinson, Bradley J; Cauley, Diana H; Tannir, Nizar M

    2016-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are approved for metastatic renal cell cancer. Proteinuria can occur, but there is limited data regarding the incidence, monitoring, and management in metastatic renal cell cancer patients. Our primary objective was to describe the incidence and severity of proteinuria in metastatic renal cell cancer patients treated in the first-line setting with pazopanib, bevacizumab, or everolimus. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer enrolled from January 2011-April 2013 in a phase II trial. Baseline and toxicity data were extracted from the electronic medical record. Descriptive statistics were used. In all, 129 patients were eligible for analysis. The overall incidence of proteinuria was 81%, with most events being Grade 1 or 2. The incidence of proteinuria was 80% (n = 35) for pazopanib, 64% (n = 25) for bevacizumab, and 96% (n = 44) for everolimus. At peak proteinuria, 80% (n = 28), 64% (n = 16), and 80% (n = 35) of patients on pazopanib, bevacizumab, and everolimus, respectively, were managed with continued monitoring at the same dose. The overall incidence of Grades 3 and 4 events was 24% (n = 6) and found in the bevacizumab group. A high incidence of proteinuria with minor severity within each class was demonstrated. It may be reasonable to continue therapy at the same dose for Grade 1 or 2 proteinuria. Treatment modification or discontinuation of therapy may be warranted with Grade 3 or 4 proteinuria. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Partial Adrenalectomy: An Underutilized First Line Therapy for Small Adrenal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Deborah R.; Storey, Benjamin B.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Linehan, W. Marston; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Many patients with small adrenal masses undergo total adrenalectomy. We evaluate the outcomes of partial adrenalectomy by performing a comprehensive literature review. Materials and Methods We performed a Pubmed search of literature published in the English language using the following queries: “partial adrenalectomy” and “adrenal sparing surgery”, and identified 317 and 155 articles, respectively. We excluded case reports or series containing less than 5 patients, articles not focused on surgical management, and those that did not indicate perioperative outcomes. The remaining articles were cross-referenced by author and institution in order to eliminate studies with redundant cases. Demographics, diagnosis, tumor characteristics, perioperative and functional outcomes, as well as recurrence data was collected when available. Results Twenty-two articles from 22 first authors met our inclusion criteria describing outcomes of 417 patients. There is an increasing trend towards utilization of partial adrenalectomy worldwide over the past 20 years. Partial adrenalectomy is most commonly performed for Conn's Syndrome, followed by pheochromocytoma. Most of the procedures are performed laparoscopically with minimal morbidity. The recurrence rate is only at 3% and over 90% of patients remain steroid independent. Conclusions Surgical outcomes and perioperative complications of partial adrenalectomy are similar to those reported for total adrenalectomy. When partial adrenalectomy is performed for small adrenal lesions, the rate of malignancy is negligible, the recurrence rate is low, and the vast majority of patients remain steroid independent at long-term follow up. These data strongly support acceptance of partial adrenalectomy as a first line treatment for small adrenal masses. PMID:20546805

  1. First-line sunitinib versus pazopanib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Morales, Jose Manuel; Swierkowski, Marcin; Wells, J Connor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunitinib (SU) and pazopanib (PZ) are standards of care for first-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, how the efficacy of these drugs translates into effectiveness on a population-based level is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the International m...

  2. Bismuth, lansoprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin as first-line Helicobacter pylori therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Shudong; Graham, David Y; Lu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of replacing tetracycline with amoxicillin in bismuth quadruple therapy. Subjects who were infected with Helicobacter pylori and naïve to treatment were randomly (1:1) assigned to receive a 14-day modified bismuth quadruple therapy: lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg (elemental bismuth), twice a day with metronidazole 400 mg four times a day (metronidazole group) or clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day (clarithromycin group). Six weeks after treatment, H. pylori eradication was assessed by 13C-urea breath test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the twofold agar dilution method. This was a non-inferiority trial. Two hundred and fifteen subjects were randomised. Metronidazole and clarithromycin containing regimens achieved high cure rates: 94 of 97 (96.9%, 95% CI 93.5% to 100%) and 93 of 98 (94.9%, 95% CI 90.5% to 99.3%) by per-protocol and 88.9% (95% CI 83.0% to 94.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI 82.8% to 94.8%) by intention-to-treat, respectively. Amoxicillin, metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance rates were 1.5%, 45.5% and 26.5%, respectively. Only clarithromycin resistance reduced treatment success (e.g., susceptible 98.6%, resistant 76.9%, p=0.001). Adverse events were more common in the metronidazole group. These results suggest that amoxicillin can substitute for tetracycline in modified 14 day bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line treatment and still overcome metronidazole resistance in areas with high prevalence of metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance. Using clarithromycin instead of metronidazole was only effective in the presence of susceptible strains. NCT02175901. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Comparing the Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Sequential Therapy as the First-Line Therapy of Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The decline of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication rates with standard triple therapy resulted in a search for novel therapies for first-line therapy of H. pylori infection. Aim. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of concomitant therapy with sequential therapy as the first-line therapy of H. pylori eradication. Methods. We reviewed medical records of patients who were confirmed to have H. pylori infection and received eradication treatment from September 2012 to March 2015. The concomitant group was treated with rabeprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole for 7 days. The sequential group was treated with rabeprazole and amoxicillin for 5 days and then rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole for an additional 5 days. Six weeks after the treatment period, patients in both groups underwent 13C-Urea breath test (UBT to confirm H. pylori eradication. Results. The eradication rate was 90.3% in the concomitant group and 85.5% in the sequential group. However, the eradication rates between the two groups showed no statistical difference (P=0.343. Conclusion. No statistical difference was found in eradication rates between the two groups. However, in areas where antibiotic resistance is high, concomitant therapy may be more effective than sequential therapy for H. pylori eradication.

  4. Gemcitabine and irinotecan as first-line therapy for carcinoma of unknown primary: results of a multicenter phase II trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shernan G Holtan

    Full Text Available Metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP has a very poor prognosis, and no standard first-line therapy currently exists. Here, we report the results of a phase II study utilizing a combination of gemcitabine and irinotecan as first-line therapy. Treatment was with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2 and irinotecan 75 mg/m(2 weekly times four on a six week cycle (Cohort I. Due to excessive toxicity, the dose and schedule were modified as follows: gemcitabine 750 mg/m(2 and irinotecan 75 mg/m(2 given weekly times three on a four week cycle (Cohort II. The primary endpoint was the confirmed response rate (CR + PR. Secondary endpoints consisted of adverse events based upon the presence or absence of the UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1*28 (UGT1A1*28 polymorphism, time to progression, and overall survival. Thirty-one patients were enrolled with a median age of 63 (range: 38-94, and 26 patients were evaluable for efficacy. Significant toxicity was observed in Cohort 1, characterized by 50% (7/14 patients experiencing a grade 4+ adverse event, but not in cohort II. The confirmed response rate including patients from both cohorts was 12% (95% CI: 2-30%, which did not meet the criteria for continued enrollment. Overall median survival was 7.2 months (95% CI: 4.0 to 11.6 for the entire cohort but notably longer in cohort II than in cohort I (9.3 months (95% CI: 4.1 to 12.1 versus 4.0 months (95% CI: 2.2 to 15.6. Gemcitabine and irinotecan is not an active combination when used as first line therapy in patients with metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary. Efforts into developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches remain important for improving the outlook for this heterogeneous group of patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00066781.

  5. HIV multi-drug resistance at first-line antiretroviral failure and subsequent virological response in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Law, Matthew; Kantor, Rami; Praparattanapan, Jutarat; Li, Patrick CK; Phanuphak, Praphan; Merati, Tuti; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Lee, Christopher KC; Ditangco, Rossana; Mustafa, Mahiran; Singtoroj, Thida; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure often results from the development of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs). Three patterns, including thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), 69 Insertion (69Ins) and the Q151M complex, are associated with resistance to multiple-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and may compromise treatment options for second-line ART. Methods We investigated patterns and factors associated with multi-NRTI RAMs at first-line failure in patients from The TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance – Monitoring study (TASER-M), and evaluated their impact on virological responses at 12 months after switching to second-line ART. RAMs were compared with the IAS-USA 2013 mutations list. We defined multi-NRTI RAMs as the presence of either Q151M; 69Ins; ≥2 TAMs; or M184V+≥1 TAM. Virological suppression was defined as viral load (VL) 2 years (OR=6.25, 95% CI [2.39–16.36], p<0.001). Among 87/105 patients with available VL at 12 months after switch to second-line ART, virological suppression was achieved in 85%. The median genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) for the second-line regimen was 2.00. Patients with ART adherence ≥95% were more likely to be virologically suppressed (OR=9.33, 95% CI (2.43–35.81), p=0.001). Measures of patient resistance to second-line ART, including the GSS, were not significantly associated with virological outcome. Conclusions Multi-NRTI RAMs at first-line failure were associated with low CD4 level and longer duration of ART. With many patients switching to highly susceptible regimens, good adherence was still crucial in achieving virological response. This emphasizes the importance of continued adherence counselling well into second-line therapy. PMID:25141905

  6. Three drugs vs two drugs first-line chemotherapy regimen in advanced gastric cancer patients: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittoni, Alessandro; Del Prete, Michela; Scartozzi, Mario; Pistelli, Mirco; Giampieri, Riccardo; Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Cascinu, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced gastric cancer is still a matter of debate. Aim of our analysis was to retrospectively assess whether an intensive, three-drugs, front line approach could be comparable to a sequential (two-drugs front line then second line) in terms of RR (response rate), PFS (progression free survival) and OS (overall survival) in advanced gastric cancer patients in the clinical practice. Patients with metastatic gastric cancer who have received a first-line combination chemotherapy with a two or three-drugs regimen were included in our analysis. We divided our patients into two groups, A and B, based on the first line chemotherapy administered (group A = three drugs; group B = two drugs). A total of 425 patients were eligible for our analysis. 216 patients (50.8 %) received three chemotherapeutic agents (group A) and 209 patients (49.2 %) received a two drugs regimen as first-line combination chemotherapy (group B). RR for group A and B was 44 and 29.6 %, respectively (p = 0.0005), median PFS was 7.3 months in group A and 4.5 months in group B (p = 0.0007). No significant difference was found in terms of OS. The addition of a third drug to a doublet chemotherapy regimen appeared more active in terms of response rate and PFS. However median OS resulted comparable. On this basis, the use of a sequential approach may represent a reasonable strategy for patients unwilling or unable to undergo a more intensive treatment without compromising OS.

  7. Efficacy of triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin as first-line treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori Eficacia de una triple terapia con un inhibidor de la bomba de protones, levofloxacino y amoxicilina, como primer tratamiento, en la erradicación de Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro-Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: triple therapy including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (PPI-CA is the first-choice treatment used for H. pylori eradication. The efficacy of this treatment is declining of late, and alternative therapies are currently under evaluation. Objectives: to evaluate the efficacy, safety and compliance of a triple therapy with a PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin (PPI-LA - replacing clarithromycin - for the eradication of H. pylori. Methods: the study included 135 patients (65% women, mean age 53 years, with dyspeptic symptoms and H. pylori infection proven by a positive urease rapid test, histological analysis, or C13-urea breath test. Diagnosis: non-investigated dyspepsia 48.9%, functional dyspepsia 36.3%, and ulcerative dyspepsia 14.8%. Treatment was indicated with a proton pump inhibitor at usual doses, amoxicillin 1 g, and levofloxacin 500 mg, administered jointly during breakfast and dinner for 10 days. We studied the performance of this triple therapy and its effects using a questionnaire, and effectiveness by the negativity of the C13-urea breath test after 6-8 weeks after treatment discontinuation. Per protocol, we compared the effectiveness of PPI-LA with a control group of 270 patients treated with PPI-CA for 10 days. Results: 130 patients (96.2% could complete the treatment and follow-up protocol. Effectiveness (intention to treat was 71.8% (97/135 and 74.6% (per protocol (97/130. Sixteen patients (11.8% had well-tolerated adverse effects, except for 5 subjects (3.7% who dropped out. PPI-CA was effective (per protocol in 204 patients out of 270 (75.5% in the control group. Conclusions: triple therapy with a PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin for 10 days is a well-tolerated treatment that is easy to comply with; however it has low efficiency - less than 80% - and is not recommended as a first-choice treatment for H. pylori eradication. Similar results were obtained with the classic triple therapy using a

  8. Standard first-line chemotherapy with or without nintedanib for advanced ovarian cancer (AGO-OVAR 12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Bois, Andreas; Kristensen, Gunnar; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    ; and one due to peritonitis) and in one patient in the placebo group (cause unknown). INTERPRETATION: Nintedanib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel is an active first-line treatment that significantly increases progression-free survival for women with advanced ovarian cancer, but is associated......BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is a target in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Nintedanib, an oral triple angiokinase inhibitor of VEGF receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor, has shown activity in phase 2 trials in this setting. We investigated......) and paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) in addition to either 200 mg of nintedanib (nintedanib group) or placebo (placebo group) twice daily on days 2-21 of every 3-week cycle for up to 120 weeks. Patients, investigators, and independent radiological reviewers were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint...

  9. Male first-line managers' experiences of the work situation in elderly care: an empowerment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Heidi; Engström, Maria; Häggström, Elisabeth; Wadensten, Barbro; Skytt, Bernice

    2015-09-01

    To describe male first-line managers' experiences of their work situation in elderly care. First-line managers' work is challenging. However, less attention has been paid to male managers' work situation in health care. Knowledge is needed to empower male managers. Fourteen male first-line managers were interviewed. The interview text was subjected to qualitative content analysis. Work situations were described as complex and challenging; challenges were the driving force. They talked about 'Being on one's own but not feeling left alone', 'Having freedom within set boundaries', 'Feeling a sense of satisfaction and stimulation', 'Feeling a sense of frustration' and 'Having a feeling of dejection and resignation'. Although the male managers report deficiencies in the support structure, they largely experience their work as a positive challenge. To meet increasing challenges, male first-line managers need better access to supportive structural conditions. Better access to resources is needed in particular, allowing managers to be more visible for staff and to work with development and quality issues instead of administrative tasks. Regarding organisational changes and the scrutiny of management and the media, they lack and thus need support and information from superiors. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Factors contributing to managerial competence of first-line nurse managers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Joko; Aungsuroch, Yupin; Fisher, Mary L

    2017-11-16

    To determine the factors contributing to managerial competence of first-line nurse managers. Understanding factors affecting managerial competence of nurse managers remains important to increase the performance of organizations; however, there is sparse research examining factors that influence managerial competence of first-line nurse managers. Systematic review. The search strategy was conducted from April to July 2017 that included 6 electronic databases: Science Direct, PROQUEST Dissertations and Theses, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar for the years 2000 to 2017 with full text in English. Quantitative and qualitative research papers that examined relationships among managerial competence and antecedent factors were included. Quality assessment, data extractions, and analysis were completed on all included studies. Content analysis was used to categorize factors into themes. Eighteen influencing factors were examined and categorized into 3 themes-organizational factors, characteristics and personality traits of individual managers, and role factors. Findings suggest that managerial competence of first-line nurse managers is multifactorial. Further research is needed to develop strategies to develop managerial competence of first-line nurse managers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. First-Line Nivolumab in Stage IV or Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, D. P.; Reck, M.; Paz-Ares, L.; Creelan, B.; Horn, L.; Steins, M.; Felip, E.; van den Heuvel, M. M.; Ciuleanu, T. -E.; Badin, F.; Ready, N.; Hiltermann, T. J. N.; Nair, S; Juergens, R.; Peters, S.; Minenza, E.; Wrangle, J. M.; Rodriguez-Abreu, D.; Borghaei, H.; Blumenschein, G. R.; Villaruz, L. C.; Havel, L.; Krejci, J.; Corral Jaime, J.; Chang, C. -H.; Geese, W. J.; Bhagavatheeswaran, P.; Chen, Alexander C.; Socinski, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nivolumab has been associated with longer overall survival than docetaxel among patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In an open-label phase 3 trial, we compared first-line nivolumab with chemotherapy in patients with programmed death ligand 1

  12. adverse events to first line anti-tuberculosis drugs in patients co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    status on the risk of developing adverse events to first line anti-TB therapy. Method: The study was ... used in evaluating adverse drugs events and reactions. 8. In addition ..... drugs on directly observed (DOTs) therapy. Their study showed an ...

  13. Managerial work behavior and hierarchical level: implications for the managerial training of first-line supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodela, E S

    1991-04-01

    Mintzberg proposed that managers at all levels enact ten roles. There is, however, a relative importance ascribed to the various roles given the manager's location in the hierarchy. Like Mintzberg's ideas on the utility of ten roles, we found that managers at all levels, to varying degrees, need the three skills proposed by Katz. We have argued that a variety of roles and skills describe what managers do. At the same time, the predominance of one role or skill over another may be influenced by the location of the manager in the hierarchy. The question is not whether roles would be enacted at different levels or whether skills will be required, but whether one role or skill or a set of roles and skills will be predominant for the first-line supervisor. The first-line supervisor's work requires that he or she be predominantly proficient in the areas of human and technical skills in order to fulfill supervisory responsibilities. Current empirical research supports this assertion; however, the continuing study of managerial roles and skills and other variables such as functional specialty will offer other opportunities for the study of first-line supervisors. For example, will the predominance of the roles and skills that we have discussed vary if the supervisor is a line or staff manager or if the supervisor works in a production or service related organization? Organizations adapt to change to meet the expectations of those within and outside the organization with something at stake. Organizations need managers to facilitate the realization of organizational goals, so organizations need to continuously train managers, targeting appropriate roles and skills given each manager's location in the hierarchy. The preceding pages should provide resource materials to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating and designing the training and development of first-line supervisors. This roles-and-skills information can be productively utilized to assist the

  14. Ribociclib as First-Line Therapy for HR-Positive, Advanced Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Stemmer, Salomon M; Burris, Howard A; Yap, Yoon-Sim; Sonke, Gabe S; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Campone, Mario; Blackwell, Kimberly L; André, Fabrice; Winer, Eric P; Janni, Wolfgang; Verma, Sunil; Conte, Pierfranco; Arteaga, Carlos L; Cameron, David A; Petrakova, Katarina; Hart, Lowell L; Villanueva, Cristian; Chan, Arlene; Jakobsen, Erik; Nusch, Arnd; Burdaeva, Olga; Grischke, Eva-Maria; Alba, Emilio; Wist, Erik; Marschner, Norbert; Favret, Anne M; Yardley, Denise; Bachelot, Thomas; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Blau, Sibel; Xuan, Fengjuan; Souami, Farida; Miller, Michelle; Germa, Caroline; Hirawat, Samit; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2016-11-03

    The inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) could potentially overcome or delay resistance to endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer that is positive for hormone receptor (HR) and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). In this randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the selective CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib combined with letrozole for first-line treatment in 668 postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative recurrent or metastatic breast cancer who had not received previous systemic therapy for advanced disease. We randomly assigned the patients to receive either ribociclib (600 mg per day on a 3-weeks-on, 1-week-off schedule) plus letrozole (2.5 mg per day) or placebo plus letrozole. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, overall response rate, and safety. A preplanned interim analysis was performed on January 29, 2016, after 243 patients had disease progression or died. Prespecified criteria for superiority required a hazard ratio of 0.56 or less with P<1.29×10-5. The duration of progression-free survival was significantly longer in the ribociclib group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.72; P=3.29×10-6 for superiority). The median duration of follow-up was 15.3 months. After 18 months, the progression-free survival rate was 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.6 to 70.3) in the ribociclib group and 42.2% (95% CI, 34.8 to 49.5) in the placebo group. In patients with measurable disease at baseline, the overall response rate was 52.7% and 37.1%, respectively (P<0.001). Common grade 3 or 4 adverse events that were reported in more than 10% of the patients in either group were neutropenia (59.3% in the ribociclib group vs. 0.9% in the placebo group) and leukopenia (21.0% vs. 0.6%); the rates of discontinuation because of adverse events were 7.5% and 2

  15. Success rates of first-line antibiotics for culture-negative sub-acute and chronic septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit; Phoompoung, Saravut

    2014-09-01

    A combination of surgical and medical treatment is normally required for patients with septic arthritis. Antibiotics selected for use on these patients are normally based on tissue culture results. However, in sub-acute and chronic septic arthritis cases, the results of the culture are usually negative as a result of prior treatment. The present study will investigate the incidence of culture-negative septic arthritis and the outcomes based on the use of first-line drug antibiotics for the treatment of sub-acute and chronic septic arthritis. For the present study, the authors retrospectively reviewed medical records of surgically treated septic arthritis cases over the past 10 years at Siriraj Hospital. The patient culture results, the antibiotics used, and the results of treatment were all recorded and analyzed. One hundredfifty-three septic arthritis patients were reviewed. Sixty-two patients were classified as having been diagnosed with either sub-acute or chronic septic arthritis. Thirty-six of 62 patients (58.1%) had a negative culture result. In the culture-positive patients, 42.3% had Streptococcus, 26.9% had Staphylococcus aureus, 11.5% had other gram positive bacteria, 15.4% had gram-negative bacteria, and 3.8% had tuberculus infection. In the culture-negative sub-acute and chronic group (36 of 62), 23 patients received Cefazolin, nine patients received Cloxacillin, and four patients received Clindamycin. Successful results were 69.9%, 66.7% and 75%, respectively. The present study reflects that the incidence ofculture-negative, sub-acute and chronic septic arthritis is approximately 58.1%. The first-line class of antibiotics remains the appropriate antibiotic choice for these patients because they are still effective for treatment of septic arthritis in up to 70% of all cases.

  16. High dose amoxicillin-based first line regimen is equivalent to sequential therapy in the eradication of H. pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, F; Ojetti, V; Gabrielli, M; Petruzziello, C; Tortora, A; Gasbarrini, G; Lopetuso, L R; Scaldaferri, F; Gasbarrini, A

    2016-01-01

    Helicobater (H.) pylori eradication rates with standard first-line triple therapy have declined to unacceptable levels. To date, amoxicillin-resistant H. pylori strains have rarely been detected. Whether increasing the dosage of amoxicillin in a standard 7 days eradicating regimen may enhance its efficacy is not known. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of a 7 days high-dose amoxicillin based first-line regimen with sequential therapy. We have retrospectively analyzed data from 300 sex and age matched patients, who underwent 3 different therapeutic schemes: (1) standard LCA, lansoprazole 30 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin 1000 mg bid for 7 days; (2) high dose LCA (HD-LCA), lansoprazole 30 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin 1000 mg tid for 7 days; (3) sequential LACT, lansoprazole 30 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1000 mg bid for 5 days, followed by lansoprazole 30 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and tinidazole 500 mg bid for 5 days. Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Compliance and occurrence of adverse effects were also assessed. Eradication rates were: 55% for LCA, 75% for HD-LCA and 73% for LACT. Eradication rates were higher in HD-LCA group compared to LCA (pamoxicillin based eradicating treatment is superior to standard triple therapy and equivalent to sequential therapy; compared to the latter, the shorter duration may represent an advantage.

  17. Six versus fewer planned cycles of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Antonio; Chiodini, Paolo; Sun, Jong-Mu

    2014-01-01

    -analysis. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, proportion of patients with an objective response, and toxicity. Statistical analyses were by intention-to-treat, stratified by trial. Overall survival and progression-free survival were compared by log-rank test......BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard first-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. However, the optimum number of treatment cycles remains controversial. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data to compare....... The proportion of patients with an objective response was compared with a Mantel-Haenszel test. Prespecified analyses explored effect variations by trial and patient characteristics. FINDINGS: Five eligible trials were identified; individual patient data could be collected from four of these trials, which...

  18. Should progressive perineal dilation be considered first line therapy for vaginal agenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargollo, Patricio C; Cannon, Glenn M; Diamond, David A; Thomas, Phaedra; Burke, Vicki; Laufer, Marc R

    2009-10-01

    ) dilation and the initiation of sexual activity. Complications were minor. Three patients reported infrequent pain and 2 reported a single episode of bleeding with dilation. A total of 18 sexually active patients reported satisfactory intercourse without dyspareunia. Progressive perineal dilation for neovaginal creation is a valuable, minimally invasive therapy to create a functional vagina with a high success rate and a much lower complication rate than that in published surgical series. Given these findings, progressive perineal dilation should be offered as first line therapy in adolescents with a congenitally absent vagina.

  19. Inhaled corticosteroids should be the first line of treatment for children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Paul L. P.

    2011-01-01

    Although montelukast is claimed to be preferable to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis, virus-induced exacerbations, exercise induced asthma, and in those experiencing difficulties with inhalation therapy, there is no scientific evidence to support any of these

  20. 131I-MIBG as a first-line treatment in high-risk neuroblastoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, C. A.; de Kraker, J.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Voûte, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The observed response to 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy in advanced neuroblastoma after conventional therapy, the non-invasiveness of the procedure, and the high metabolic activity which is frequently observed in untreated tumours led to the concept of substituting 131I-MIBG therapy for

  1. Weekly oral paclitaxel as first-line treatment in patients with advanced gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijtzer, C. M. F.; Boot, H.; Beijnen, J. H.; Lochs, H. L.; Parnis, F. X.; Planting, A. S. T.; Pelgrims, J. M. G.; Williams, R.; Mathôt, R. A. A.; Rosing, H.; Schot, M. E.; van Tinteren, H.; Schellens, J. H. M.

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic study has shown that co-administration of cyclosporin A (CsA), which acts as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP-3A blocker, resulted in an 8-fold increase in the systemic exposure of oral paclitaxel. Two doses of oral paclitaxel on 1 day in combination with CsA resulted in higher

  2. Trial efficacy vs real world effectiveness in first line treatment of multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwing, J.; Heeg, B.M.; Karstorp, S.; Postma, M.; Silvennoinen, R.; Putkonen, M.; Anttila, P.; Remes, K.; Abildgaard, N.; Waage, A.; Nahi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large randomized clinical trials (RCT) are the foundation of the registration of newly developed drugs. A potential problem with RCTs is that the inclusion/exclusion criteria will make the population different from the actual population treated in real life. Hence, it is important to

  3. Power in health care organizations: contemplations from the first-line management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosaari, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine health care organizations' power structures from the first-line management perspective. What liable power structures derive from the theoretical bases of bureaucratic, professional and result based organizations, and what power type do health care organizations represent, according to the empirical data? The paper seeks to perform an analysis using Mintzberg's power configurations of instrument, closed system, meritocracy and political arena. The empirical study was executed at the end of 2005 through a survey in ten Finnish hospital districts in both specialized and primary care. Respondents were all first-line managers in the area and a sample of staff members from internal disease, surgical and psychiatric units, as well as out-patient and primary care units. The number of respondents was 1,197 and the response percentage was 38. The data were analyzed statistically. As a result, it can be seen that a certain kind of organization structure supports the generation of a certain power type. A bureaucratic organization generates an instrument or closed system organization, a professional organization generates meritocracy and also political arena, and a result-based organization has a connection to political arena and meritocracy. First line managers regarded health care organizations as instruments when staff regarded them mainly as meritocracies having features of political arena. Managers felt their position to be limited by rules, whereas staff members regarded their position as having lots of space and influence potential. If the organizations seek innovative and active managers at the unit level, they should change the organizational structure and redistribute the work so that there could be more space for meaningful management. This research adds to the literature and gives helpful suggestions that will be of interest to those in the position of first-line management in health care.

  4. Resilience and work-life balance in first-line nurse manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyoung; Windsor, Carol

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how first-line nurse managers constructed the meaning of resilience and its relationship to work-life balance for nurses in Korea. Participants were 20 first-line nurse managers working in six university hospitals. Data were collected through in-depth interviews from December 2011 to August 2012, and analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method. Analysis revealed that participants perceived work-life balance and resilience to be shaped by dynamic, reflective processes. The features consisting resilience included "positive thinking", "flexibility", "assuming responsibility", and "separating work and life". This perception of resilience has the potential to facilitate a shift in focus from negative to positive experiences, from rigidity to flexibility, from task-centered to person-centered thinking, and from the organization to life. Recognizing the importance of work-life balance in producing and sustaining resilience in first-line nurse managers could increase retention in the Korean nursing workforce. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. HIV Drug Resistance Mutations in Non-B Subtypes After Prolonged Virological Failure on NNRTI-Based First-Line Regimens in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kityo, Cissy; Thompson, Jennifer; Nankya, Immaculate; Hoppe, Anne; Ndashimye, Emmanuel; Warambwa, Colin; Mambule, Ivan; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Mugyenyi, Peter; Walker, A Sarah; Paton, Nicholas I

    2017-06-01

    To determine drug resistance mutation (DRM) patterns in a large cohort of patients failing nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens in programs without routine viral load (VL) monitoring and to examine intersubtype differences in DRMs. Sequences from 787 adults/adolescents who failed an NNRTI-based first-line regimen in 13 clinics in Uganda, Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Malawi were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between specific DRMs and Stanford intermediate-/high-level resistance and factors including REGA subtype, first-line antiretroviral therapy drugs, CD4, and VL at failure. The median first-line treatment duration was 4 years (interquartile range 30-43 months); 42% of participants had VL ≥100,000 copies/mL and 63% participants had CD4 reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations K65R and Q151M; NNRTI mutations E138A, V106M, Y181C, K101E, and H221Y). The presence of tenofovir resistance was similar between subtypes [P (adjusted) = 0.32], but resistance to zidovudine, abacavir, etravirine, or rilpivirine was more common in subtype-C than in subtype-D/subtype-A [P (adjusted) reverse transcriptase inhibitor and NNRTI susceptibility. In particular, higher rates of etravirine and rilpivirine resistance in subtype-C may limit their potential utility in salvage regimens.

  6. First-line antiretroviral therapy and dyslipidemia in people living with HIV-1 in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengne André

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on lipid profile derangements induced by antiretroviral treatment in Africa are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of lipid profile derangements associated with first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART among Cameroonians living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2009 and January 2010, and involved 138 HIV patients who had never received ART (ART-naive group and 138 others treated for at least 12 months with first line triple ART regimens that included nevirapine or efavirenz (ART group. Lipid profile was determined after overnight fast and dyslipidemia diagnosed according to the US National Cholesterol Education Program III criteria. Data comparison used chi-square test, Student t-test and logistic regressions. Results The prevalence of total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl was 37.6% and 24.6% respectively in ART group and ART-naive groups (p = 0.019. The equivalents for LDL-cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl were 46.4% and 21% (p ≤ 0.001. Proportions of patients with total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio ≥ 5 was 35.5% in ART group and 18.6% in ART-naive group (p ≤ 0.001. The distribution of HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides was similar between the two groups. In multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, CD4 count and co-infection with tuberculosis, being on ART was significantly and positively associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TC/HDL cholesterol. The adjusted odd ratios (95% confidence interval, p-value ART-treated vs. ART-naïve was 1.82 (1.06-1.12, p = 0.02 for TC ≥ 200 mg/dl; 2.99 (1.74-5.15, p Conclusions First-line antiretroviral therapy that includes nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is associated with pro-atherogenic adverse lipid profile in people with HIV-1 infection compared to untreated HIV-infected subjects in

  7. First-line antituberculosis drugs disrupt endocrine balance and induce ovarian and uterine oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Olayinka A; Adesanoye, Omolola A; Abolaji, Olalekan A; Kehinde, Aderemi O; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A

    2017-11-08

    The first-line antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA), are effective in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, the toxicity of these drugs in the clinical setting limits their use. Here, we evaluated the effects of anti-TB drugs on the reproductive system in female rats. Thirty-five female Wistar rats were assigned into five groups of seven animals each. The control group received normal saline, whereas others received INH (5 mg/kg), RIF (10 mg/kg), EMB (15 mg/kg), and PZA (15 mg/kg) through gavage thrice a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Administration of anti-TB drugs significantly (pline anti-TB drugs elicited reproductive toxicity in the uterus and ovaries of rats through mechanisms that involved oxidative stress.

  8. First-line anti-tubercular drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in IRAN: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Pourakbari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in the world. Surveillance of anti-TB drug resistance is important for monitoring of TB control strategies. The occurrence of drug resistance, particularly multi-drug resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR, defined as resistance to at least rifampicin (RIF and isoniazid (INH, has become a significant public health dilemma. However, the status of drug-resistance TB in Iran has been reported inconsistently. Therefore, the aim of this study was to summarize reports on first-line anti-tubercular drug resistance of M. tuberculosis in Iran.Material and Methods: We systematically reviewed published studies on drug-resistant M. tuberculosis in Iran. Search terms ̎Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility ̎ and ̎Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant ̎ were used in PubMed, Google Scholar, Magiran, IrMedex and SID. Results: Fifty- two eligible articles, published during 1998-2014, were included in this review. Most studies were conducted in Tehran. The most common laboratory method was used for anti-drug resistant of M. tuberculosis was Agar proportion. The average prevalence of resistant against INH in Tehran was 26%, RIF 23%, streptomycin (SM 22.5% and ethambotol (EMB 16% by Agar proportion method. In general, resistance to INH was more common than RIF, SM and EMB in Tehran. The average prevalence of resistant against INH in Tabriz was 15%, RIF 5%, SM 19% and EMB 2% by proportion. The highest resistance to first-line drugs was seen in Tehran.Conclusions: In conclusion, this systematic review summarized the prevalence and distribution of first-line anti-tubercular drug resistance of M. tuberculosis in Iran. Our results suggested that effective strategies to minimize the acquired drug resistance, to control the transmission of resistance and improve the diagnosis measures for TB control in Iran.

  9. First-Line Anti-Tubercular Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in IRAN: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourakbari, Babak; Mamishi, Setareh; Mohammadzadeh, Mona; Mahmoudi, Shima

    2016-01-01

    The spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems through the world. Surveillance of anti-TB drug resistance is essential for monitoring of TB control strategies. The occurrence of drug resistance, particularly multi-drug resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR), defined as resistance to at least rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH), has become a significant public health dilemma. The status of drug-resistance TB in Iran, one of the eastern Mediterranean countries locating between Azerbaijan and Armenia and high-TB burden countries (such as Afghanistan and Pakistan) has been reported inconsistently. Therefore, the aim of this study was to summarize reports of first-line anti-tubercular drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in Iran. We systematically reviewed published studies on drug-resistant M. tuberculosis in Iran. The search terms were "Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility" or "Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant" and Iran. Fifty-two eligible articles, published during 1998-2014, were included in this review. Most of the studies were conducted in Tehran. The most common used laboratory method for detecting M. tuberculosis drug resistant was Agar proportion. The highest resistance to first-line drugs was seen in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The average prevalence of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), streptomycin (SM), and ethambotol (EMB) resistance via Agar proportion method in Tehran was 26, 23, 22.5, and 16%, respectively. In general, resistance to INH was more common than RIF, SM, and EMB in Tehran Conclusions: In conclusion, this systematic review summarized the prevalence and distribution of first-line anti-tubercular drug resistance of M. tuberculosis in Iran. Our results suggested that effective strategies to minimize the acquired drug resistance, to control the transmission of resistance and improve the diagnosis measures for TB control in Iran.

  10. Vinorelbine as first-line or second-line therapy for advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjer, Sven T; Ejlertsen, Bent; Mouridsen, Henning

    2008-01-01

    proven breast cancer and had received a prior epirubicin based regimen either adjuvant or as first line therapy for advanced disease. Vinorelbine was administered intravenously day 1 and 8 in a 3 weeks' schedule. Subsequently 48 additional patients were treated at one dose-level below MTD. RESULTS: Fifty......-five patients were included in the dose-escalation study, which defined 40 mg/m(2) as the MTD. Neutropenia of short duration and autonomic neuropathy causing constipation were the most common dose-limiting toxicities. At the 35 mg/m(2) dose-level 60 patients were included in total. Seven (12%; 95% CI 6 to 22...

  11. Is Resistance to Dolutegravir Possible When This Drug Is Used in First-Line Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Mesplède

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dolutegravir (DTG is an HIV integrase inhibitor that was recently approved for therapy by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. When used as part of first-line therapy, DTG is the only HIV drug that has not selected for resistance mutations in the clinic. We believe that this is due to the long binding time of DTG to the integrase enzyme as well as greatly diminished replication capacity on the part of viruses that might become resistant to DTG. We further speculate that DTG might be able to be used in strategies aimed at HIV eradication.

  12. Mobilizing First-Line Managers as Organizational Strategy Makers: The Case of Environmentally Sustainable Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Gjøsæter, Åge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate how first-line managers are mobilized as organizational strategy makers. The research case is a campaign launched by a Norwegian shipping company servicing the petroleum industry. The strategic idea on which the campaign was based was to operate the company`s fleet of offshore service vessels in an environmentally sustainable way, to be realized by carrying out fuel-saving operations on board the vessels. A strategic idea is supposed to set out a vie...

  13. Potential role for mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors as first-line therapy in hormone receptor–positive advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck JT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available J Thaddeus Beck Highlands Oncology Group, Fayetteville, AR, USA Abstract: Despite advances in cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapies, 5-year ­survival rates remain low for patients with advanced breast cancer at diagnosis. This highlights the limited effectiveness of current treatment options. An improved understanding of cellular functions associated with the development and progression of breast cancer has resulted in the creation of a number of novel targeted molecular therapies. However, more work is needed to improve outcomes, particularly in the first-line recurrent or metastatic hormone receptor–positive breast cancer setting. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway is a major intracellular signaling pathway that is often upregulated in breast cancer, and overactivation of this pathway has been associated with primary or developed resistance to endocrine treatment. Clinical data from the Phase III Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus-2 (BOLERO-2 study of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus combined with exemestane in hormone receptor–positive advanced breast cancer were very promising, highlighting the potential role of mTOR inhibitors in combination with endocrine therapies as a first-line treatment option for these patients. It is hoped that the use of mTOR inhibitors combined with current standard-of-care endocrine therapies, such as aromatase inhibitors, in the first-line advanced breast cancer setting may result in greater antitumor effects and also delay or reverse treatment resistance. Keywords: mammalian target of rapamycin, everolimus, hormone receptor–positive breast cancer, first-line

  14. Early identification of resistance to first-line single-agent methotrexate in patients with persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trommel, N.E. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Schijf, C.P.T.; Kate-Booij, M.J.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: A generally accepted definition for resistance to first-line single-agent chemotherapy for persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD) is lacking. In the present study, a normogram for serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) from patients with normalization of serum hCG after first-line

  15. [Cuadruple concomitant non-bismuth therapy vs. classical triple therapy as first line therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Ana; Ostiz, Miriam; Amorena, Edurne; Kutz, Marcos; La Iglesia, Matilde

    2016-09-02

    In a previous study we found that the classical triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) had low efficacy (under 70%) in our area. After this finding, in mid 2012 quadruple concomitant therapy started to be prescribed in our hospital. The aim of the present study is to compare the efficacy of classical triple therapy and quadruple concomitant therapy without bismuth. Observational retrospective study of prescribed treatments between 1st January 2012 and 5th May 2014 and their efficacy. During the study period 510 patients were prescribed a first line therapy; in 179 cases (35,1%) the combination amoxiciline+clarithromicine+PPI was prescribed during 7-14 days, and 298 patients (58,4%) were treated with amoxicillin+clarithromycin+metronidazole+PPI for 10 days. The quadruple concomitant therapy had a higher efficacy than the classical triple therapy, both in an "intention to treat" (84.8% vs. 65.7%, P=.001) and "per protocol" (86.9% vs. 67.2%, P=.001) analysis. Triple therapy had a higher efficacy when it was prescribed for 10 days compared to 7 days (77.9% vs. 56.5%, P=.005 per "intention to treat" and 77.9% vs. 58.5%, P=.011 "per protocol"). When quadruple concomitant therapy was compared with classical triple therapy prescribed over 10 days no significant differences were found. In our setting, cuadruple concomitant therapy without bismuth has a high efficacy as first line therapy for H. pylori eradication, with much better results than classical triple therapy in the way that it is most widely prescribed (short courses of 7-day with a single dose of omeprazole). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The management of first-line biologic therapy failures in rheumatoid arthritis: Current practice and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Ennio Giulio; Raimondo, Maria Gabriella; Becciolini, Andrea; Crotti, Chiara; Biggioggero, Martina; Caporali, Roberto

    2017-10-14

    The introduction of biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) has dramatically changed the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, in a real-life setting about 30-40% of bDMARD treated patients experience drug discontinuation because of either inefficacy or adverse events. According to international recommendations, to date the best strategy for managing first-line bDMARD failures has not been defined yet and available data (especially on TNF inhibitors [TNFis]) seem to drive toward a personalized approach for the individual patient. Some TNFi partial responders may benefit from optimization of concomitant methotrexate therapy or from switching to a different concomitant sDMARD such as leflunomide. Conversely, apart from infliximab, TNFi dose escalation seems to be poor efficacious and poor cost-effective compared with alternative strategies. Albeit counterintuitive, the use of a second TNFi after the failure of the first-one (cycling strategy) is supported by clear evidences and has become widespread in the 2000s as the result of the limited alternative options till the introduction of bDMARDs with a mechanism of action other than TNF blockade. Nowadays, the use of abatacept, rituximab, tocilizumab, or JAK inhibitors as second-line agent (swapping strategy) is strongly supported by RCTs and real-life experiences. In the absence of head-to-head trials directly comparing these two strategies, meta-analyses of separated RCTs failed to find significant differences in favor of one or another choice. However, results from most observational studies, including well designed prospective pragmatic randomised analyses, demonstrated the superiority of swapping over cycling approach, whereas only few studies reported a comparable effectiveness. In this review, we aimed to critically analyze all the potential therapeutic options for the treatment of first-line bDMARD failures in order to provide a comprehensive overview of available strategies to be

  17. Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wright

    Full Text Available In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO's public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region.We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD. We dichotomised each country's per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H and lower-middle/low (T-L. Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class.A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95% CI of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52, 0.33 (0.30-0.36 and 0.21 (0.18-0.23 for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 & HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring.Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher-income countries, an increased rate of RNA-VL monitoring was

  18. First-line nurse leaders' health-care change management initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphee, Maura; Suryaprakash, Nitya

    2012-03-01

    To examine nurse leaders' change management projects within British Columbia, Canada. British Columbia Nursing Leadership Institute 2007-10 attendees worked on year-long change management initiatives/projects of importance to their respective health-care institutions. Most leaders were in first-line positions with leaders' project reports (N = 133) were content analysed for specific themes: types of projects; scope of projects (e.g. unit or local level, departmental, institutional); influence targets or key stakeholder groups targeted by the projects; leadership successes and challenges. Of study participants, 77% successfully completed their projects. Staff tool and resource development and existing services improvement were major project types. Care delivery teams were the major influence targets. Only 25% of projects were at the unit level. Many projects had broader scopes, such as institutional levels. Participants cited multiple leadership successes, including enhanced leadership styles and organizational skills. First-line nurse leaders were able to successfully manage projects beyond their traditional scope of responsibilities. The majority of projects dealt with staff needs and healthcare restructuring initiatives. Constant change is a global reality. Change management, a universal competency, must be included in leadership development programmes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Sequential versus standard triple first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Olga P; McNicholl, Adrian G; Megraud, Francis; Savarino, Vincenzo; Oderda, Giuseppina; Fallone, Carlo A; Fischbach, Lori; Bazzoli, Franco; Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-06-28

    Non-bismuth quadruple sequential therapy (SEQ) comprising a first induction phase with a dual regimen of amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for five days followed by a triple regimen phase with a PPI, clarithromycin and metronidazole for another five days, has been suggested as a new first-line treatment option to replace the standard triple therapy (STT) comprising a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin and amoxicillin, in which eradication proportions have declined to disappointing levels. To conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of a SEQ regimen with STT for the eradication of H. pylori infection, and to compare the incidence of adverse effects associated with both STT and SEQ H. pylori eradication therapies. We conducted bibliographical searches in electronic databases, and handsearched abstracts from Congresses up to April 2015. We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 10-day SEQ and STT (of at least seven days) for the eradication of H. pylori. Participants were adults and children diagnosed as positive for H. pylori infection and naïve to H. pylori treatment. We used a pre-piloted, tabular summary to collect demographic and medical information of included study participants as well as therapeutic data and information related to the diagnosis and confirmatory tests.We evaluated the difference in intention-to-treat eradication between SEQ and STT regimens across studies, and assessed sources of the heterogeneity of this risk difference (RD) using subgroup analyses.We evaluated the quality of the evidence following Cochrane standards, and summarised it using GRADE methodology. We included 44 RCTs with a total of 12,284 participants (6042 in SEQ and 6242 in STT). The overall analysis showed that SEQ was significantly more effective than STT (82% vs 75% in the intention-to-treat analysis; RD 0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06 to 0.11; P compared to Asia, Africa or South America

  20. [Clinical Experience of S-1 and Oxaliplatin(SOX)as the First-Line Chemotherapy for Metastatic/Recurrent Gastric Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Takahiro; Tamura, Tatsuro; Shibutani, Masatsune; Ohira, Goh; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Kimura, Kenjiro; Nagahara, Hisashi; Amano, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Ohira, Masaichi

    2017-05-01

    We retrospectively investigated the efficacy and safety of S-1 and oxaliplatin(SOX)as the first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic/recurrent gastric cancer. A total of 27 patients who received SOX as the first-line chemotherapy in our hospital were considered for the study. The SOX chemotherapy schedule consisted of 1 course every 3 weeks. S-1 was administered orally, at 80-120mg-body, every day for 14 days. Oxaliplatin was infused at 100mg/m2 on day 1 of each course. The median number of treatment courses was 7. The response rate and disease control rate were 47.6% and 76.2%, respectively. The observed adverse events of Grade 3 or more included neutropenia(33.3%); peripheral neuropathy and anorexia(11.1%); thrombocytopenia(7.4%); and anemia, diarrhea, fatigue, and hypercalcemia(3.7%). The median overall survival was not achieved, and the 1-year survival rate was 63.2%. Therefore, SOX is an effective and feasible first-line chemotherapy that is easily available for ambulatory treatment of patients with metastatic/recurrent gastric cancer.

  1. Addition of bevacizumab to first-line chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis, with emphasis on chemotherapy subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macedo Ligia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bevacizumab has an important role in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. However, clinical trials studying its effect have involved distinct chemotherapy regimens with divergent results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to gather current data and evaluate not only the efficacy of bevacizumab, but also the impact of divergent backbone regimens. Methods A wide search of randomized clinical trials using bevacizumab in first-line metastatic colorectal cancer was performed in Embase, MEDLINE, LILACS and Cochrane databases. Meeting presentations and abstracts were also investigated. The resulting data were examined and included in the meta-analysis according to the type of regimen. Results Six trials, totaling 3060 patients, were analyzed. There was an advantage to using bevacizumab for overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS (HR = 0.84; CI: 0.77-0.91; P Conclusions Bevacizumab has efficacy in first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer, but the current data are insufficient to support efficacy in all regimens, especially infusional fluorouracil regimens, like FOLFIRI and FOLFOX.

  2. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  3. Effectiveness and tolerance of single tablet versus once daily multiple tablet regimens as first-line antiretroviral therapy - Results from a large french multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Laurent; Ferry, Tristan; Pugliese, Pascal; Valantin, Marc-Antoine; Allavena, Clotilde; Cabié, André; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Rey, David; Duvivier, Claudine; Cheret, Antoine; Dellamonica, Pierre; Pradat, Pierre; Parienti, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Pill burden during antiretroviral treatment (ART) is associated with worse adherence and impaired virological suppression. We compared the effectiveness, tolerance, and persistence on treatment of single tablet regimens (STRs) with non-STR once-daily regimens in patients receiving first-line ART. Retrospective analysis of naïve HIV-1 infected patients prospectively enrolled in the French Dat'AIDS cohort and initiating first-line ART with STRs or once-daily non-STRs from 2004 to 2013. The primary outcome was time to treatment discontinuation defined by any change in the treatment regimen. STR and non-STR groups were compared controlling for baseline risk factors by inverse probability weighted treatment Cox analysis (IPWT) and propensity-score matching (PSM). Overall, 3212 patients (STR 499, non-STR 2713) were included. Median time to treatment discontinuation was shorter in non-STR patients than in STR patients, both in the IPWT (HR = 0.61, p<0.0001) and the PSM cohort (HR = 0.55, p<0.0001). This difference disappeared when censoring ART modification for simplification, both in the IPWT (HR = 0.97, p = 0.65) and the PSM cohort (HR = 0.91, p = 0.33). A lower rate of virological failure was observed with STRs than with non-STRs in both cohorts (HR = 0.23; p = 0.002 and HR = 0.22, p = 0.003, respectively). A lower rate of treatment modification for adverse event was observed with non-STRs in the IPWT cohort (HR = 1.46, p<0.0001), but not in the PSM cohort (HR = 1.22, p = 0.11). First-line therapy with STRs was associated with a longer time to treatment discontinuation than with non-STRs. However, when ART modification for simplification was not considered as a failure, STRs and non-STRs were similar.

  4. Use of Low Dose Ziconotide as First-Line Intrathecal Monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusik, Julia; Argoff, Charles; Peng, Sophia; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2017-06-01

    Ziconotide use in intrathecal drug therapy (IDT) has been limited by dosing related side effects. We examine our experience with ziconotide as a first line IDT monotherapy in patients with chronic pain and present our low and slow dosing algorithm aimed at reducing these patient experienced side effects while adequately managing pain. We retrospectively reviewed demographics, dosing, and outcomes of 15 consecutive patients with complete three-month data sets implanted with intrathecal pain pumps more than three years utilizing ziconotide as a first-line monotherapy. Ziconotide response was assessed at visit 5 (69 ± 10 days) and responders were characterized by having 30% or greater improvement in numerical rating scale scores (n = 7), or activities of daily living (ADL) (n = 7). Eight of our patients had a response in at least one measure (53%). In our eight responders, NRS score decreased from 8.4 ± 0.7 at baseline (consult visit) to 2.4 ± 1.0 at 2.6 months and 4.0 ± 1.3 at most recent follow-up, mean of 12.9 months after implant. We noted that our responders tended to have neuropathic pain with an objective etiology. Initial dosing in 12 patients was 1.2 mcg/day (range for the other three patients was 0.6-1.4). Following initial dosing, visits were at 2-4 week intervals with mean titration doses between 1.1 and 2.8 mcg/day. Slight dizziness in two patients and transient urinary retention in one patient occurred, all resolving with dose reduction. No patients had discontinued use at three-month follow-up. We present our experience with low and slow ziconotide IDT as a first-line monotherapy, which showed no side effects resulting in discontinuation of the medication at three-month follow-up. Using a conservative dosing strategy, we were able to effectively treat 53% of patients. © 2016 International Neuromodulation Society.

  5. Choice of nasal nitric oxide technique as first-line test for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, J K; Nielsen, K G

    2011-01-01

    . 282 subjects, 117 consecutive referrals, 59 PCDs, 49 CF patients and 57 healthy subjects, were included. All methods separated significantly between PCD and non-PCD, including CF with reliability, in ranking order BH-nNO>OE-R-nNO>TB-nNO. Acceptability in children ranked in reverse order. A problematic...... high fraction (39%) of false positive TB-nNO was found in young children. An unexpected large fraction (6.8%) of PCDs had nNO values above cut-off. nNO is a helpful first-line tool in real-life PCD work-up in all age groups if the sampling method is chosen according to age. nNO can be misleading...

  6. Human african trypanosomiasis diagnosis in first-line health services of endemic countries, a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mitashi

    Full Text Available While the incidence of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT is decreasing, the control approach is shifting from active population screening by mobile teams to passive case detection in primary care centers. We conducted a systematic review of the literature between 1970 and 2011 to assess which diagnostic tools are most suitable for use in first-line health facilities in endemic countries. Our search retrieved 16 different screening and confirmation tests for HAT. The thermostable format of the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT test was the most appropriate screening test. Lateral flow antibody detection tests could become alternative screening tests in the near future. Confirmation of HAT diagnosis still depends on visualizing the parasite in direct microscopy. All other currently available confirmation tests are either technically too demanding and/or lack sensitivity and thus rather inappropriate for use at health center level. Novel applications of molecular tests may have potential for use at district hospital level.

  7. Rapid first-line discrimination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains using MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus; Grønvall Kjær Hansen, Sanne; Møller, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    Fast and reliable discrimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is essential in identifying an outbreak. Molecular typing methods, such as S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are generally...... used for this purpose. These methods are all relatively time-consuming and not performed routinely in all laboratories. The aim of this study is to examine whether MALDI-TOF MS can be used as a fast, simple and easily implemented method for first-line discrimination of MRSA isolates. Mass spectra from...... 600 clinical MRSA isolates were included in the study, representing 89 spa types, associated with 16 different known clonal complexes. All spectra were obtained directly from colony material obtained from overnight cultures without prior protein extraction. We identified 43 useful discriminatory m...

  8. Oral Teicoplanin as an Alternative First-Line Regimen in Clostridium difficile Infection in Elderly Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davido, Benjamin; Leplay, Céline; Bouchand, Frédérique; Dinh, Aurélien; Villart, Maryvonne; Le Quintrec, Jean-Laurent; Teillet, Laurent; Salomon, Jérôme; Michelon, Hugues

    2017-07-01

    Elderly patients are more susceptible to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Despite existing guidelines, there is no specific treatment for CDI in geriatrics. Vancomycin is commonly used in the treatment of CDI. Teicoplanin is an alternative glycopeptide which recently received marketing authorization approval for CDI in Europe. Evaluate the potential interest of oral teicoplanin and assess whether such treatment could potentially become an alternative treatment in mild to severe CDIs in elderly patients. A prospective monocentric study was conducted over 10 months (from December 2015 to October 2016) in a geriatric unit (Sainte Périne, AP-HP, Paris, France). According to the remote infectious disease specialist, some hospitalized patients suffering from CDI and aged over 65 years received oral teicoplanin 200 mg twice a day (highest dose recommended). The clinical response to teicoplanin and relapses after treatment were evaluated. Patients were monitored up to 90 days after teicoplanin administration, and analyzed in non-responder imputation analysis. Eleven patients received teicoplanin among 19 CDIs during the study time period. In non-responder imputation analysis, 90.9% (n = 10) successfully responded to oral teicoplanin. The rate of relapse observed after a 90-day follow-up was 36.4%. Patients reported no drug-related adverse effects. Oral teicoplanin is a glycopeptide that could be proposed as an alternative to other recommended drugs for CDI. In our case series, teicoplanin seems to be an effective therapy as a first-line regimen for CDI in geriatrics. Such treatment has good acceptability in geriatrics, considering it can be taken orally twice a day.

  9. Intratympanic Methylprednisolone Injection as First Line Therapy for Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Patar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Steroid therapy is considered to be the gold standard for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL. Delivering steroids by intratympanic injection is more efficient than systemic injections with minimum or no side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intratympanic methylprednisolone injections as initial first line therapy for unilateral idiopathic SSNHL and the ease of giving it by otoendoscopy. Materials and Methods A prospective analysis was performed for the patients diagnosed as unilateral idiopathic SSNHL from April 2014 to April 2016 and receiving intratympanic steroids injections as first line therapy. Patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of at least 30 dB at 3 contiguous frequencies occurring within a period of not more than 3 days are only included. All of the intratympanic steroid (ITS injections were administered as OPD procedures. Each patient was treated by 3 injections given at 3 days interval.  Results A total of 22 patients who underwent primary intratympanic steroid (ITS injection for unilateral SSNHL during the study period were included in the study. The mean age was 42.22 years (+ 9.79 and age ranged from 27 to 68 years. Patients included in our study came within 2nd to 27th day of occurrence of deafness and the mean duration (days from onset of disease to start of ITS was 7.86 days. The average hearing gain in our study was 44.22 dB. In the present study 11 patients (50% showed complete hearing improvement and 10 cases (45.45% had partial and one (4.54% showed no hearing recovery at 3 weeks follow up period. Conclusion Minimal systemic absorption with minimum or no systemic effects and high percentage of success rate encouraged the surgeons to prefer ITS as primary therapy for idiopathic unilateral SSNHL. It is effective, cheap, well-tolerated and can be performed as OPD procedure.

  10. Physical therapists as first-line diagnosticians for traumatic acute rotator cuff tears: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Knut E; Hänninen, Jonas; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Lunsjö, Karl

    2017-11-29

    Early diagnosis of traumatic acute full-thickness rotator cuff tears (FTRCT) is important to offer early surgical repair. Late repairs following fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles have less favorable results. We think that physical therapists are valuable diagnosticians in a screening process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of physical therapists as first-line diagnosticians in detecting acute traumatic FTRCT. Between November 2010 and January 2014, 394 consecutive patients having an age between 18 and 75 years who sought medical care because of acute shoulder trauma with acute onset of pain, limited abduction and negative plain radiographs were included in the study. A clinical assessment was conducted by a physical therapist 1 week after the trauma. The patients were divided into three groups by the physical therapist according to the findings: FTRCT (Group I, n = 122); sprain (Group II, n = 62); or other specific diagnoses (Group III, n = 210). Group III patients were discharged and excluded from the study. Magnetic Resonance Imaging shoulder was performed for all Group I patients and for all patients with persistent symptoms in Group II. 79/184 patients had FTRCTs documented by MRI in groups I and II. The clinical assessment of the physical therapist had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 68%, and usefulness index of 0.45 (> 0.35 considered useful) for diagnosing FTRCT. Physical therapists can be useful as first-line diagnosticians in detecting traumatic FTRCT.

  11. Resistance to first-line antituberculosis drugs in Spain, 2010-2011. RETUBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquer, Rafael; Rodrigo, Teresa; Casals, Martí; Ruiz Manzano, Juan; García-García, José María; Calpe, José Luís; Valencia, Eulalia; Pascual, Teresa; Mir, Isabel; Jiménez, María Ángeles; Cañas, Fernando; Vidal, Rafael; Penas, Antón; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of current resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Spain is unknown. The objective of this study is to describe resistance to first-line antituberculosis drugs and determine the associated factors. Prospective multicenter study of adult tuberculosis patients with positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and antibiogram including first-line drugs in 32 hospitals and one out-patient center of the Spanish Health System between 2010 and 2011. A total of 519 patients, 342 Spanish nationals and 177 (34.1%) foreigners were studied. Drug resistance was found in 48 (9.2%), of which 35 (6.7%) were isoniazid-resistant. There were 10 (1.9%) multiresistant cases and no strain was extremely resistant. Initial isoniazid resistance was detected in 28 of the 487 (5.7%) antituberulosis-naïve patients, most of whom were foreigners (P<.01). Acquired resistance was seen in 7 (22.6%) previously treated cases. Multiresistance was initial in 6 cases (1.2%) and acquired in another 4 (12.9%). Factors associated with initial isoniazid resistance were immigrant status and group cohabitation OR=2.3; 95%CI: .98-5.67 and OR=2.2; 95%CI: 1.05-7.07 respectively). The factor associated with acquired resistance to isoniazid was age below 50 years (P=.03). The rate of initial isoniazid resistance is greater than estimated, probably due to the increase in immigration during recent years, suggesting that systematic national monitoring is required. Immigrants and those who cohabit in groups have a higher risk of isoniazid resistance. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  12. Comparing the effects of first-line antiepileptic drugs on the gait of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

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    Suiter, E J; Packer, R M A; Volk, H A

    2016-06-25

    Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a common chronic neurological disease of the dog. Previous studies of anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment have indicated that acceptable AED adverse effects are as important to owners as reductions in seizure frequency. AEDs in both dogs and human beings are frequently associated with the adverse-effect ataxia. The aim of this study was to compare ataxia levels in dogs with IE treated chronically with phenobarbitone or imepitoin, the two currently available first-line AED treatments. The gait of 6 imepitoin-treated dogs, 8 phenobarbitone-treated dogs and 10 age-matched healthy control dogs were compared. Fifty strides from a walking gait were analysed for each dog, quantifying ataxia via the variability in six established gait parameters. Three variables differed significantly between groups: lateral distance between (i) pelvic paw placements, (ii) thoracic paw placements and (iii) stance time, which were significantly more variable in the phenobarbitone-treated dogs than imepitoin-treated or control dogs. These results indicate that dogs treated with phenobarbitone experience ataxia compared with controls and imepitoin-treated dogs. Conversely, there was no difference between imepitoin-treated dogs and controls. These results along with further research are needed to quantify AEDs adverse effects, to help vets and owners make more informed drug-choices. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Application of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor as the First-line Therapy in Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Chunsun LI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI has been widely used as the second- and third-line therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, its effect in the first-line treatment is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EGFRTKI as first-line therapy. Methods The clinical characteristics, responses rate, disease control rate and overall survival were retrospectively analyzed in 77 chemonaive patients with advanced NSCLC. All of the patients received oral gefitinib (250 mg/d or erlotinib (150 mg/d until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurrence. Results The overall response rate was 33.8% and the disease control rate was 68.8%. The median progression-free survival and the median survival time were 6.0 months and 8.9 months, respectively. One-year survival rate was 61.4%. Responses correlated significantly with histology, PS score, smoking history, skin rash, EGFR mutations and serum CEA. Histology and skin rash were the independent predictors of survival. Common toxicities were skin rash and mild diarrhea. EGFR-TKI could improve the clinical symptoms and the quality of life. Conclusion EGFR-TKI is effective and well tolerated as first-line therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC.

  14. First-line bevacizumab-containing therapy for triple-negative breast cancer: analysis of 585 patients treated in the ATHENA study.

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    Thomssen, Christoph; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Biganzoli, Laura; Cortes-Funes, Hernan; Petráková, Katarína; Kaufman, Bella; Duenne, Anja; Smith, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is poor and treatment options are limited. Bevacizumab improves the efficacy of standard first-line therapy in locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer (LR/mBC). The benefit of bevacizumab seen in patients with TNBC appears similar to that observed in the overall population. We conducted an exploratory analysis of patients with TNBC treated in the single-arm routine oncology practice ATHENA study. Patients with previously untreated LR/mBC received standard first-line chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks, until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or patient/physician decision). Of 2,264 patients treated in ATHENA, 585 (26%) had TNBC. Most patients received single-agent taxane with bevacizumab. In the TNBC subgroup, the overall response rate was 49%, including complete responses in 10%; only 16% had primary resistant disease. Median time to progression was 7.2 months (95% CI 6.6-7.8) and median overall survival was 18.3 months (95% CI 16.4-19.7). The 1-year overall survival rate was 60%. The safety profile in TNBC was consistent with results in the overall population. This exploratory subgroup analysis suggests that first-line chemotherapy in combination with bevacizumab is an active regimen in patients with metastatic TNBC. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. First-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in patients ≥75 years: a retrospective single-centre analysis.

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    Debled, Marc; Madranges, Nicolas; Mertens, Cécile; Durand, Michel; Brouste, Véronique; Brain, Etienne; Mauriac, Louis

    2011-10-01

    Data on chemotherapy for elderly patients with metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) are limited. We performed a 7-year retrospective analysis of MBC patients at our institution receiving first-line chemotherapy aged ≥75 years. Of 117 patients, 103 received monotherapy (67 capecitabine, 29 vinorelbine, 5 docetaxel, 2 liposomal doxorubicin) and 14 received polychemotherapy (12 anthracycline-based, 2 vinorelbine-gemcitabine). Chemotherapy demonstrated acceptable tolerability. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from initiation of chemotherapy were 6.2 months and 13.8 months, respectively. At 2 years, 25% of patients were alive; however, 25% died within 3 months of beginning chemotherapy. Independent prognostic factors for longer PFS were good performance status, absence of visceral disease and capecitabine treatment. Good performance status and lack of visceral disease were also significant for OS. These results suggest that palliative chemotherapy should not be systematically excluded in this setting, but should be carefully discussed as it appears to be feasible with apparent benefit in selected patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clonidine as a First-Line Sedative Agent After Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Niina; de Wildt, Saskia N; Cortina, Gérard; Clifford, Michael; Ducruet, Thierry; Tibboel, Dick; Millar, Johnny

    2016-04-01

    To determine the cardiovascular tolerance of clonidine used as a first-line sedative after cardiac surgery in small infants. Retrospective chart review. A tertiary and quaternary referral cardiac PICU. All infants younger than 2 months who received a clonidine infusion for sedation after cardiac surgery from October 2011 to July 2013. None. Heart rate, blood pressure, central venous and left atrial pressure, vasoactive inotropic score, volume of fluid bolus, and lactate and central mixed venous saturation were assessed. Preinfusion values were compared with postinfusion values. Of 224 potentially eligible patients, only 23 infants met inclusion criteria, as most patients only received high doses of morphine and some received midazolam instead of clonidine. Clonidine administration was started at a median of 12 hours after surgery (Q1-Q3, 5-23), and infusion rate was 0.5-2 μg/kg/hr for a median duration of 30 hours (Q1-Q3, 12-54). Heart rate decreased (maximal mean decrease: 12% [149 beats/min (SD, 17) to 131 beats/min (SD, 17)]; p sedative added to morphine in selected patients seems hemodynamically safe. The observed decrease in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure seems of minimal clinical importance as all other hemodynamic variables remained stable or improved. The safety of clonidine given early after cardiac surgery as alternative to midazolam merits further study.

  17. Leadership and management skills of first-line managers of elderly care and their work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrazek, Fathya; Skytt, Bernice; Aly, Magda; El-Sabour, Mona Abd; Ibrahim, Naglaa; Engström, Maria

    2010-09-01

    To study the leadership and management skills of first-line managers (FLMs) of elderly care and their work environment in Egypt and Sweden. FLMs in Egypt and Sweden are directly responsible for staff and quality of care. However, FLMs in Sweden, in elderly care, have smaller units/organizations to manage than do their colleagues in Egypt. Furthermore, family care of the elderly has been the norm in Egypt, but in recent years institutional care has increased, whereas in Sweden, residential living homes have existed for a longer period. A convenience sample of FLMs, 49 from Egypt and 49 from Sweden, answered a questionnaire measuring leadership and management skills, structural and psychological empowerment, job satisfaction and psychosomatic health. In both countries, FLMs' perceptions of their leadership and management skills and psychological empowerment were quite high, whereas scores for job satisfaction and psychosomatic health were lower. FLMs had higher values in several factors/study variables in Egypt compared with in Sweden. The work environment, both in Egypt and Sweden, needs to be improved to increase FLMs' job satisfaction and decrease stress. The cultural differences and levels of management have an effect on the differences between the two countries. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. First-Line Helicobacter pylori Eradication with Vonoprazan, Clarithromycin, and Metronidazole in Patients Allergic to Penicillin

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    Soichiro Sue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the efficacy of 7-day first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication with vonoprazan (VPZ, clarithromycin (CAM, and metronidazole (MNZ in patients with penicillin allergy. Methods. Patients with penicillin allergy, diagnosed with Helicobacter pylori infection and did not have history of Helicobacter pylori eradication, were eligible for the study. Twenty patients were prospectively treated with 20 mg VPZ twice daily, 200 or 400 mg CAM twice daily, and 250 mg MNZ twice daily for 7 days. We also collected the data from 30 patients retrospectively treated with proton pump inhibitor (PPI, CAM, and MNZ. Safety was evaluated in patients completing an adverse effect questionnaire. Results. Both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol effectiveness of VPZ-based eradication were 100% (95% CI: 86.1–100%; n=20. The eradication rates of PPI-based regimen were 83.3% (95% CI: 65.3–94.4% in the ITT and 82.7% (95% CI: 64.2–94.2% in the PP analyses. Abdominal fullness was more frequent in VCM compared to PCM. However, all patients with VCM regimen had taken 100% of their course of medication. Conclusion. Triple therapy with VPZ, CAM, and MNZ is well tolerated and effective for eradicating Helicobacter pylori in patients allergic to penicillin. This study was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000016335.

  19. First-line rescue system of Chinese army in non-warfare military operations

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    Wei ZHAO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, non traditional security threats have become increasingly prominent, non warfare military activity has become general trend of global military development, and it has become the main activities of the peacetime arm forces in all countries. Therefore, to carry out and strengthen the medical support in non-war military operations is a long-term strategic task of Chinese Army medical service. The concept about non-war military activities and characteristics of medical support, and the existing problems, and measures of establishment of first-line rescue system are presented in this paper. Under the reformation of military affairs, the front-line ambulance system in non-war military action will work closely around the key security such as disaster relief, peacekeeping operations, public health emergencies and major events. It is necessary to learn the advanced experience from developed countries, and continuously deepen medical security work in non-war military operations on the basis of "non-combat" and "war"-oriented concept. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.01.17

  20. Texture analysis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on contrast-enhanced computed tomography: prediction of the response to the first-line chemotherapy

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    Farina, Davide; Morassi, Mauro; Maroldi, Roberto [University of Brescia, Department of Radiology, Brescia (Italy); Roca, Elisa; Tassi, Gianfranco [University of Brescia, Department of Pneumology, Brescia (Italy); Cavalleri, Giuseppe [University of Brescia, Department of Electronic Engineering, Brescia (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    To assess whether tumour heterogeneity, quantified by texture analysis (TA) on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT), can predict response to chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fifty-three CECT studies of patients with advanced NSCLC who had undergone first-line chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Response to chemotherapy was evaluated according to RECIST1.1. Tumour uniformity was assessed by a TA method based on Laplacian of Gaussian filtering. The resulting parameters were correlated with treatment response and overall survival by multivariate analysis. Thirty-one out of 53 patients were non-responders and 22 were responders. Average overall survival was 13 months (4-35), minimum follow-up was 12 months. In the adenocarcinoma group (n = 31), the product of tumour uniformity and grey level (GL*U) was the unique independent variable correlating with treatment response. Dividing the GL*U (range 8.5-46.6) into tertiles, lesions belonging to the second and the third tertiles had an 8.3-fold higher probability of treatment response compared with those in the first tertile. No association between texture features and response to treatment was observed in the non-adenocarcinoma group (n = 22). GL*U did not correlate with overall survival. TA on CECT images in advanced lung adenocarcinoma provides an independent predictive indicator of response to first-line chemotherapy. (orig.)

  1. Response to first line chemotherapy regimen is associated with efficacy of nivolumab in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderbhai, Courèche-Guillaume; Richard, Corentin; Fumet, Jean David; Aarnink, Anne; Ortiz-Cuaran, Sandra; Pérol, Maurice; Foucher, Pascal; Coudert, Bruno; Favier, Laure; Lagrange, Aurélie; Limagne, Emeric; Boidot, Romain; Ladoire, Sylvain; Poudenx, Michel; Ilie, Marius; Hofman, Paul; Saintigny, Pierre; Ghiringhelli, François

    2017-01-01

    Nivolumab, an anti PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor has demonstrated efficacy in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after failure to standard chemotherapy. Standard chemotherapy agents could promote antitumor immune response. We thus examined whether the response to first line chemotherapy could impact on nivolumab benefit. One hundred and 15 patients with NSCLC were included in this retrospective study from 4 different French centers. Forty-three squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and 72 non-SCC received nivolumab between 2015 and 2016 (3 mg/kg IV Q2W). Response to first-line chemotherapy and to nivolumab was retrospectively assessed on CT-scan by central review. The association between RECIST response to first-line chemotherapy and nivolumab efficacy were determined using Fisher's exact test and Cox proportional hazard model. Respectively 46 (40%), 44 (38%) and 25 (22%) patients experienced partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD) in response to first-line platinum- based chemotherapy. Twenty 5 (21%), 34 (30%), 56 (49%) respectively experienced PR, SD and PD in response to nivolumab. 60% (54/90) of patients who experienced clinical benefit (PR + SD) after first-line chemotherapy also had clinical benefit after nivolumab, while only 20% (5/25) of patients with initial PD subsequently experienced clinical benefit with nivolumab (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.001). The type of first-line doublet chemotherapy did not influence the response rate to nivolumab. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with clinical benefit from first-line chemotherapy had higher second-line PFS (P = 0.003) (median PFS on nivolumab of 5, 3.3 and 1.9 months for patients with PR, SD and PD in response to first-line therapy, respectively). Similar results were obtained for OS. Thus this study suggests that the efficacy of first-line chemotherapy may be a valuable surrogate marker of the benefit of nivolumab in terms of PFS and OS.

  2. Thirty-Month Complete Response as a Surrogate End Point in First-Line Follicular Lymphoma Therapy: An Individual Patient-Level Analysis of Multiple Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian; Flowers, Christopher R; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Marcus, Robert; Herold, Michael; Hagenbeek, Anton; Kimby, Eva; Hochster, Howard; Vitolo, Umberto; Peterson, Bruce A; Gyan, Emmanuel; Ghielmini, Michele; Nielsen, Tina; De Bedout, Sabine; Fu, Tommy; Valente, Nancy; Fowler, Nathan H; Hoster, Eva; Ladetto, Marco; Morschhauser, Franck; Zucca, Emanuele; Salles, Gilles; Sargent, Daniel J

    2017-02-10

    Purpose Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent cancer, with effective but rarely curative treatment options. As a standard study end point for first-line FL therapy, progression-free survival (PFS) requires extended follow-up (median PFS, > 7 years). To provide patients with earlier access to newer therapies, an earlier end point to expedite clinical trials is needed. Our objective was to formally assess the complete response rate at 30 months (CR30) after initiation of induction therapy as a potential surrogate end point for PFS in first-line FL therapy. Patients and Methods We analyzed individual patient data from 13 randomized multicenter trials of induction and maintenance regimens in first-line FL therapy published after 1990 and with sufficient data to evaluate whether CR30 could predict treatment effects on PFS. Correlation of the CR30 odds ratio with the PFS hazard ratio was evaluated by both linear regression (R2WLS) and bivariate copula (R2Copula) models. Prespecified criteria for surrogacy required either R2WLS or R2Copula ≥ 0.80, with a lower-bound 95% CI > 0.60. Results Data from eight induction and five maintenance randomized trials in 3,837 evaluable patients were analyzed. The prespecified surrogacy threshold was met, with an R2WLS of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.96) and an R2Copula of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.00). Multiple sensitivity and supplemental analyses supported the robustness of the findings. A minimum 11% absolute improvement in CR30 from a 50% control rate predicted a significant treatment effect on PFS (hazard ratio, 0.69). Conclusion This large, prospective, pooled analysis of randomized chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and chemoimmunotherapy trials demonstrates that CR30 is a surrogate end point for PFS in first-line FL treatment trials. Use of this end point may expedite therapeutic development with the intent of bringing novel therapies to this patient population years before PFS results are mature.

  3. Phase I/II Trial of Sorafenib in Combination with Vinorelbine as First-Line Chemotherapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer.

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    Cristiano Ferrario

    Full Text Available Preclinical models have reported a synergistic interaction between sorafenib and vinorelbine. We investigated the toxicity, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics interaction of this combination as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic breast cancer.Patients were HER2-negative and treated with vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 IV days 1,8 every 21 plus daily oral sorafenib. In the phase I portion (3+3 design patients received sorafenib 200 mg BID (cohort 1 or 400 mg BID (cohort 2. In the phase II expansion, 21 more evaluable patients were planned to receive the maximum tolerated dose (MTD. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in 6 patients: blood concentrations were compared for each drug in the presence or absence of the other drug.In cohort 1, one patient experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT (grade 3 pancreatitis, requiring the expansion of this cohort to 6 patients, without further documented DLTs. In cohort 2, one patient of six experienced a grade 4 DLT (asymptomatic rise in amylase not requiring drug discontinuation, establishing this dose level as the MTD (sorafenib 400 mg BID. After expansion at the MTD, a total of 27 patients (median age 57 were treated for a median of 8 cycles. One grade 5 febrile neutropenia occurred. With repeated cycles, 52% of patients required at least 1 dose reduction of either drug. One patient experienced a sustained grade 3 fatigue resulting in treatment discontinuation. The response rate was 30%. Median PFS was 5.7 months (95% CI 4.4-7.6, and clinical benefit (absence of disease progression at 6 months was 48%. PK analysis showed a significant interaction between the two drugs, resulting in a higher Cmax of vinorelbine in the presence of sorafenib.The combination of sorafenib and vinorelbine at full doses is feasible but not devoid of toxicity, likely also due to a significant PK interaction.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00764972.

  4. Scandinavian SSAI clinical practice guideline on choice of first-line vasopressor for patients with acute circulatory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, M H; Claudius, C; Junttila, E; Haney, M; Oscarsson-Tibblin, A; Haavind, A; Perner, A

    2016-11-01

    Adult critically ill patients often suffer from acute circulatory failure, necessitating use of vasopressor therapy. The aim of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI) task force for Acute Circulatory Failure was to present clinically relevant, evidence-based treatment recommendations on this topic. This guideline was developed according to standards for trustworthy guidelines, including a systematic review of the literature and use of the GRADE methodology for assessment of the quality of evidence and for moving from evidence to recommendations. We assessed the following subpopulations of patients with acute circulatory failure: 1) shock in general, 2) septic shock, 3) cardiogenic shock, 4) hypovolemic shock and 5) other types of shock, including vasodilatory shock. We assessed patient-important outcome measures, including mortality, serious adverse reactions and quality-of-life. For patients with shock in general and those with septic shock, we recommend using norepinephrine rather than dopamine, and we suggest using norepinephrine rather than epinephrine, vasopressin analogues, and phenylephrine. For patients with cardiogenic shock and those with hypovolemic shock, we suggest using norepinephrine rather than dopamine, and we provide no recommendations/suggestions of norepinephrine vs. epinephrine, vasopressin analogues, and phenylephrine. For patients with other types of shock, including vasodilatory shock, we suggest using norepinephrine rather than dopamine, epinephrine, vasopressin analogues, and phenylephrine. We recommend using norepinephrine rather than other vasopressors as first-line treatment for the majority of adult critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  5. Effects of moderate beer consumption on first-line immunity of healthy adults.

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    Romeo, J; Wärnberg, J; Díaz, L E; González-Gross, M; Marcos, A

    2007-06-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has shown to induce benefits on host specific (cell-mediated and humoral) immune system, but there is scarce literature regarding first-line immune responses. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in non-specific immunity after alcohol abstention and moderate beer consumption in healthy adults. After a 30 day-alcohol abstemious period, 57 healthy volunteers were submitted to a daily moderate consumption of beer (330 mL for women and 660 mL for men, respectively) during the following 30 days. White blood cell counts and phagocytic and oxidative burst activity were evaluated at three points: a) basal, b) abstemious, c) after moderate consumption of beer. Absolute values of leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and basophiles (x10(9)/L) increased significantly in women from point b to point c (6.34 +/- 1.26 vs. 7.27 +/- 1.97, 3.43 +/- 0.88 vs. 4.13 +/- 1.53, 2.14 +/- 0.50 vs. 2.38 +/- 0.63, and 0.05 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.06 +/- 0.03, respectively; p consumption of beer in both women (33.90 +/- 19.00 vs. 48.86 +/- 21.83) and men (27.39 +/- 18.13 vs. 39.25 +/- 24.53). In healthy adults, after 30 days of moderate beer consumption the parameter describing the non-specific immunity improved when compared to the basal situation. For several of these parameters, the response is more enhanced in women.

  6. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

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    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  7. Comparative Safety and Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events Associated With Efavirenz Use in First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Nathan; Shubber, Zara; Pozniak, Anton; Vitoria, Marco; Doherty, Meg; Kirby, Catherine; Calmy, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is widely used for the treatment of antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive individuals, but there are concerns about the risk of adverse neuropsychiatric events. We systematically reviewed the safety of EFV in first-line therapy. Four databases were searched until October 2014 for randomized trials comparing EFV against non-EFV-based regimens for the treatment of antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive adults and children. The primary outcome was drug discontinuation as a result of any adverse event. Relative risks and proportions were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Forty-two trials were included for review. A lower relative and absolute risk of discontinuations due to adverse drug reactions was seen with EFV compared to nevirapine. The relative and absolute risk of discontinuation was greater for EFV compared with low-dose EFV, rilpivirine, tenofovir, atazanavir, and maraviroc. The relative risk of discontinuation was greater for EFV compared with dolutegravir and raltegravir, but absolute risks were not significantly different. There was no difference in the risk of any severe clinical adverse events for any comparison. With the exception of dizziness, fewer than 10% of patients exposed to EFV experienced any other specific type of neuropsychiatric event. No suicides were reported. This review found that over 90% of patients remained on an EFV-based first-line regimen after an average follow-up time of 78 weeks. The relative risk of discontinuations due to adverse events was higher for EFV compared with most other first-line options, but absolute differences were less than 5% for all comparisons.

  8. Prevalence of dyslipidemia among HIV-infected patients using first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional comparative group study

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    Tadewos Agete

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on lipid profile abnormalities among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia are very limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and characteristics of lipid profiles among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV using first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Southern Ethiopia. Methods This cross sectional comparative group study was conducted between March and May 2012, and included 113 HIV infected patients treated for a minimum of one year with first-line HAART regimens that included Efavirenz and Nevirapine (HAART group and others 113 who had never received HAART (pre-HAART group. Serum lipid profiles were determined after overnight fasting and dyslipidemia was assessed according to the United State National Cholesterol Education program-III guideline. For statistical analysis Chi-square, student’s t-test, and logistic regression were used using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 20. Result Ninety-three (82.3% of HAART and 87 (76.9% pre-HAART patients had at least one laboratory abnormality, which is compatible with a diagnosis of dyslipidemia. Total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl occurred in 43.4% of HAART and 15.9% pre-HAART patients (p= Conclusion Use of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens that contain Efavirenz and Nevirapine were associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, an established atherogenic lipid profiles. Lipid profiles should be performed at baseline before commencement of antiretroviral therapy and then periodically through treatment follow-up to monitor any rising trends.

  9. The effect of smoking and age on the response to first-line therapy of hidradenitis suppurativa: An institutional retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, George; Anadkat, Milan J

    2017-01-01

    Treatment for hidradenitis suppurativa is often empiric and inadequate, and determining which patients will respond is difficult. We sought to determine which patient factors are associated with a positive response to first-line medical therapy. A single-center retrospective cohort study of all patients with hidradenitis suppurativa seen between January 1, 1992, and October 1, 2014, was conducted. Response to first-line medical therapy (oral/topical antibiotics, intralesional corticosteroids, and topical washes) was examined at follow-up within 6 months of initiating therapy. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was built examining response to treatment and the interplay of patient factors and treatment initiated. In all, 198 patients were included in the final model. Nonsmokers (odds ratio 2.634, 95% confidence interval 1.301-5.332, P = .007) and older individuals (odds ratio 1.046 for each additional year, 95% confidence interval 1.020-1.072, P therapy, and which patients may require therapy escalation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of chemotherapy in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated metastatic pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients who had acquired resistance to first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Han; Hung, Hsiu-Ying; Sung, Yi-Chen; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Lee, Yu-Chin; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Chen, Yuh-Min

    2016-01-01

    Salvage chemotherapy is frequently used when tumour epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated patients experience disease progression with first-line EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. However, the efficacy of salvage chemotherapy is still unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the chart records of our pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients between 2010 and 2013. Five hundred and six of the 1240 stage IV adenocarcinoma patients had an EGFR mutation and 338 received first-line EGFR-TKI treatment. In all, 169 patients in this group received salvage chemotherapy after failure of EGFR-TKI, and 102 patients were eligible for this study. The chemotherapy response rate of these 102 patients was 24.5%, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 4.5?months, and median survival time was 14.6?months. Patients who received pemetrexed-based chemotherapy had longer PFS and overall survival (OS), although the extent was statistically insignificant. Progression-free survival and OS were longer for patients who received combination chemotherapy than single-agent chemotherapy. Pemetrexed-based combination chemotherapy is preferred before a more efficient treatment strategy is found.

  11. A survey of ATRIPLA use in clinical practice as first-line therapy in HIV-positive persons in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Reiss, P; Rakhmanova, A

    2014-01-01

    ATRIPLA is licensed for use only in HIV-positive persons whose viral loads therapy (ART) in EuroSIDA using a web-based survey performed in Autumn 2012. 96/112 clinics (85.7 %) completed the survey. Recommendations...... when initiating first-line ART was TRUVADA plus efavirenz in 36 (37.5 %), ATRIPLA in 35 (36.5 %), a different first-line regimen in 12 clinics (12.5 %), and no recommendation in 7 clinics (7.3 %). ATRIPLA was commonest in Northern (15/21 clinics; 71.4 %), and least common in Eastern Europe (2....../31 clinics; 6.5 %; p therapy, despite EMA recommendations....

  12. Survival outcomes for first-line antiretroviral therapy in India's ART program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Rakhi; Rewari, Bharat B; Kumar, G Anil; Tanwar, Sukarma; Kumar, S G Prem; Vishnumolakala, Venkata S; Duber, Herbert C; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Dandona, Lalit

    2016-10-11

    Little is known about survival outcomes of HIV patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) on a large-scale in India, or facility level factors that influence patient survival to guide further improvements in the ART program in India. We examined factors at the facility level in addition to patient factors that influence survival of adult HIV patients on ART in the publicly-funded ART program in a high- and a low-HIV prevalence state. Retrospective chart review in public sector ART facilities in the combined states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (APT) before these were split in 2014 and in Rajasthan (RAJ), the high- and a low-HIV prevalence states, respectively. Records of adults initiating ART between 2007-12 and 2008-13 in APT and RAJ, respectively, were reviewed and facility-level information collected at all ART centres and a sample of link ART centres. Survival probability was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method, and determinants of mortality explored with facility and patient-level factors using Cox proportional hazard model. Based on data from 6581 patients, the survival probability of ART at 60 months was 76.3 % (95 % CI 73.0-79.2) in APT and 78.3 % (74.4-81.7) in RAJ. The facilities with cumulative ART patient load above the state average had lower mortality in APT (Hazard ratio [HR] 0.74, 0.57-0.95) but higher in RAJ (HR 1.37, 1.01-1.87). Facilities with higher proportion of lost to follow-up patients in APT had higher mortality (HR 1.47, 1.06-2.05), as did those with higher ART to pre-ART patient ratio in RAJ (HR 1.62, 1.14-2.29). In both states, there was higher hazard for mortality in patients with CD4 count 100 cells/mm 3 or less at ART initiation, males, and in patients with TB co-infection. These data from the majority of facilities in a high- and a low-HIV burden state of India over 5 years reveal reasonable and similar survival outcomes in the two states. The facilities with higher ART load in the longer established ART program in

  13. Toxicity associated with stavudine dose reduction from 40 to 30 mg in first-line antiretroviral therapy.

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    Mar Pujades-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To compare the incidence and timing of toxicity associated with the use of a reduced dose of stavudine from 40 to 30 mg in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART for HIV treatment and to investigate associated risk factors. METHODS: Multicohort study including 23 HIV programs in resource-limited countries. Adults enrolled between January 2005 and December 2009. Four-year rates of all-cause and stavudine-specific toxicity were estimated. Multilevel mixed-effect Poisson and accelerated failure models were used to investigate factors associated with toxicity and timing of diagnosis. FINDINGS: A total of 48,785 patients contributed 62,505 person-years of follow-up. Rate of all-cause toxicity was 7.80 (95%CI 7.59-8.03 per 100 person-years, but varied greatly across sites (range 0.41-21.76. Patients treated with stavudine 40 mg had higher rates of toxicity (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 1.18, 95%CI 1.06-1.30 during the first year of ART; and 1.51, 95%CI 1.32-1.71 during the second year. Women, older age, initial advanced clinical stage, and low CD4 count were associated with increased toxicity rate ratios. Timing of lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy diagnosis were 12% and 13% shorter, respectively, in patients treated with stavudine 40 mg than in those receiving 30 mg stavudine dose (P = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively. INSTERPRETATION: Higher rates of drug-related toxicity were reported in patients receiving stavudine 40 mg compared with 30 mg, and the time to toxicity diagnosis was shorter in patients treated with the higher dose. Higher rates of toxicity were observed during the first two years of ART.

  14. Polymorphism of TS 3'-UTR predicts survival of Chinese advanced gastric cancer patients receiving first-line capecitabine plus paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; He, Q; Hua, D; Mao, Y; Li, Y; Shen, L

    2013-08-01

    Capecitabine-containing chemotherapy was widely used in clinic medication. We investigated the association of the thymidylate synthase (TS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) polymorphisms with the clinical outcome of Chinese advanced gastric cancer patients receiving first-line capecitabine plus paclitaxel. Blood samples were collected prior to treatment from 125 patients with advanced gastric cancer and the TS (two or three repeats of a 28 bp sequence in 5'-untranslated region and 6 bp insertion or deletion in 3'-untranslated region), MTHFR (C677T) and DPD (IVS14+1G > A) polymorphisms were determined using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. The median age of 125 patients was 58 years (range, 23-76) with female 42 and male 83, and the response rate, median progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 43.2 %, 5.2 and 11.0 months. The median OS in patients with TS ins6/ins6 genotype (6.8 months) was significantly shorter than those in patients with ins6/del6 (11.0 months, P = 0.016) and del6/del6 (11.5 months, P = 0.039) genotypes. Cox multivariate analysis also showed that TS ins6/ins6 genotype was the independent poor OS predictor (P = 0.001, HR = 3.182). No significant associations were found between the polymorphisms of TS 5'-UTR/MTHFR and clinical outcome, and no IVS14+1G > A polymorphism of DPD was found in this study. We first reported that TS 3'-UTR ins6/ins6 genotype could predict the poor survival of advanced gastric cancer patients treated with capecitabine plus paclitaxel, which would be further verified in a large multicenter study.

  15. Continuation or reintroduction of bevacizumab beyond progression to first-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: final results of the randomized BEBYP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, G; Salvatore, L; Boni, L; Loupakis, F; Cremolini, C; Fornaro, L; Schirripa, M; Cupini, S; Barbara, C; Safina, V; Granetto, C; Fea, E; Antonuzzo, L; Boni, C; Allegrini, G; Chiara, S; Amoroso, D; Bonetti, A; Falcone, A

    2015-04-01

    The combination of bevacizumab with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is a standard first-line treatment option in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We studied the efficacy of continuing or reintroducing bevacizumab in combination with second-line chemotherapy after progression to bevacizumab-based first-line therapy. In this phase III study, patients with mCRC treated with fluoropyrimidine-based first-line chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were randomized to receive in second-line mFOLFOX-6 or FOLFIRI (depending on first-line regimen) with or without bevacizumab. The primary end point was progression-free survival. To detect a hazard ratio (HR) for progression of 0.70 with an α and β error of 0.05 and 0.20, respectively, 262 patients were required. In consideration of the results of the ML18147 trial, the study was prematurely stopped. Between April 2008 and May 2012, a total of 185 patients were randomized. Bevacizumab-free interval was longer than 3 months in 43% of patients in chemotherapy alone arm and in 50% of patients in the bevacizumab arm. At a median follow-up of 45.3 months, the median progression-free survival was 5.0 months in the chemotherapy group and 6.8 months in the bevacizumab group [adjusted HR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.95; stratified log-rank P = 0.010]. Subgroup analyses showed a consistent benefit in all subgroups analyzed and in particular in patients who had continued or reintroduced bevacizumab. An improved overall survival was also observed in the bevacizumab arm (adjusted HR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.56-1.06; stratified log-rank P = 0.043). Responses (RECIST 1.0) were similar in the chemotherapy and bevacizumab groups (17% and 21%; P = 0.573). Toxicity profile was consistent with previously reported data. This study demonstrates that the continuation or the reintroduction of bevacizumab with second-line chemotherapy beyond first progression improves the outcome and supports the use of this strategy in the treatment of m

  16. Non-Cross Resistant Sequential Single Agent Chemotherapy in First-Line Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Results of a Phase II Study

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    V. Surmont

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. sequential chemotherapy can maintain dose intensity and preclude cumulative toxicity by increasing drug diversity. Purpose. to investigate the toxicity and efficacy of the sequential regimen of gemcitabine followed by paclitaxel in first line advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with good performance status (PS. Patients and methods. gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 was administered on day 1 and 8 of course 1 and 2; Paclitaxel 150 mg/m2 on day 1 and 8 of course 3 and 4. Primary endpoint was response rate (RR, secondary endpoints toxicity and time to progression (TTP. Results. Of the 21 patients (median age 56, range 38–80 years; 62% males, 38% females 10% (2/21 had stage IIIB, 90% (19/21 stage IV, 15% PS 0, 85% PS 1. 20% of patients had a partial response, 30% stable disease, 50% progressive disease. Median TTP was 12 weeks (range 6–52 weeks, median overall survival (OS 8 months (range 1–27 months, 1-year survival was 33%. One patient had grade 3 hematological toxicity, 2 patients a grade 3 peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions. sequential administration of gemcitabine followed by paclitaxel in first line treatment of advanced NSCLC had a favourable toxicity profile, a median TTP and OS comparable with other sequential trials and might , therefore, be a treatment option for NSCLC patients with high ERCC1 expression.

  17. Cost effectiveness analysis of fesoterodine compared to mirabegron in first-line therapy setting for overactive bladder with urge urinary incontinence, from the Spanish National Health System perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Sánchez-Ballester, F; Peral, C; Rejas, J; Ramos, J; Snedecor, S J; Sudharshan, L; Liu, S; Luo, X

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of first-line treatment of Overactive Bladder (OAB) with fesoterodine relative to mirabegron, from the Spanish National Health System (NHS) perspective. A decision tree model was developed to represent a typical clinical process of 52-week of treatment for an OAB patient with urge urinary incontinence (UUI) initiating first-line therapy with fesoterodine 4mg, including optional titration to 8mg, vs.mirabegron 50mg. Efficacy data were obtained from a Bayesian indirect treatment meta-analysis. Patients with UUI of less than one episode/day were defined as treatment responder and persistence was assessed at weeks 4, 12 and 24. At week 12, non-responders discontinued treatment permanently. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated based on time spent in responder and non-responder states. OAB-related drug and medical care costs including physician visits, laboratory tests, incontinence pads, and comorbidities (fracture, skin infection, urinary tract infections and depression) were modeled and expressed in €2015. At week 52, the percentage of responders was 20.8% for patients starting on fesoterodine 4mg who optionally titrated to 8mg and 19.4% for patients treated with mirabegron. QALYs were slightly higher with fesoterodine than mirabegron (0.7703vs. 0.7668, difference=0.0035). Fesoterodine treatment also had slightly higher total costs than mirabegron (3,296€vs. 3,217, difference=79€), resulting in a cost of 22,523/QALY€ gained for fesoterodine versus mirabegron. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the slight advantage of fesoterodine with a 61.1% probability of being cost-effective at the 30,000€ willingness-to-pay for 1QALY threshold. Given the relatively small 1-year cost difference between the two treatments, fesoterodine can be considered a cost-effective option relative to mirabegron for the first-line management of OAB with UUI in Spain. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S

  18. Magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia among adult HIV patients receiving first line HAART in Northwestern Tanzania: a cross sectional clinic based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Daniel Wilfred; Kilonzo, Semvua Bukheti; Mpondo, Bonaventura Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Moderate to severe anemia is an important clinical problem in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. The rate of progression and mortality in this sub group of patients is high compared to non anemic patients. In sub Saharan Africa with scale up of Anti retroviral therapy, the magnitude of this problem is not known especially in Tanzania. This study aimed at determining the magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia in HIV patients receiving first line ART in northwestern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional clinic based study, involving adult HIV patients on first line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy at Bugando Medical Centre Care and Treatment Center. The patients’ data were analyzed using STATA version 11 to determine the prevalence of moderate to severe anemia and risk factors that could predict occurrence of anemia. Results In this study 346 patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy were enrolled, of whom 100(40.46%) had moderate to severe anemia. The odds of being anemic were strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 count (100fl. Conclusion The prevalence of moderate to severe anemia is significantly high in this cohort of HIV-infected patients on first line Anti Retroviral Therapy and it is strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 and HIV stage 3 and 4. On clinical grounds this suggests that patients who are initiated on Zidovudine based regimen and those in advanced HIV at enrollment should have regular haemoglobin follow up to identify anemia at its earliest stage to improve the clinical outcome of these patients. PMID:27200131

  19. Efficacy analysis of two drugs consisting platinum combined with first-line chemotherapeutics regimens on 117 elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma

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    Li-li ZHANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of Gemcitabine(GEM, Vinorelbine(NVB,Paclitaxel(TAX and other first-line chemotherapeutics plus platinum containing drugs on the elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC who had undergone surgery, and analyze the clinicopathological factors influencing the prognosis. Methods One hundred and seventeen advanced NSCLC patients aged 60 or over were treated with GP(GEM+platinum, or NP(NVB+platinum, or TP(TAX+platinum, or other first-line chemotherapeutics plus platinum(OCP after surgery, and their clinical data were then retrospectively studied to look for the relationship of patients' prognosis to clinicopathological factors(gender, operation methods, pathologicaltypes, differentiation, clinical stages.The survival curve was plotted with Kaplan-Meier method, hypothesis test was performed by log-rank, and the independent prognostic factors were screened with Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results Theone-, three- and five-year survival rates of the 117 patients were 47.23%,17.52% and 8.05%, respectively. The progression free survival(PFS of GP, NP, TP and OCP groups were 6.0, 5.2, 6.1 and5.5 months(P>0.05, respectively. The median progression free survival was 5.7 months. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that the differentiated degrees and clinical stages of elderly NSCLC patients were the independent prognostic factors. Conclusions Clinicopathological factors(differentiated degree andclinical stages are closely related to one-, three- and five-year survival rates of advanced NSCLC in elderly patients who received treatment of first-line chemotherapeutics plus platinum. However, the efficacy ofGP, NP, TP or OCP shows no significant difference.

  20. Second-line salvage chemotherapy for transplant-eligible patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma resistant to platinum-containing first-line salvage chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Diego; Seshadri, Tara; Puig, Noemi; Massey, Christine; Tsang, Richard; Keating, Armand; Crump, Michael; Kuruvilla, John

    2012-05-01

    The management of patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma who achieve less than a partial response to first-line salvage chemotherapy is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate response and outcomes to second-line salvage and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients not achieving a complete or partial response to platinum-containing first-line salvage chemotherapy. Consecutively referred transplant-eligible patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma after primary chemotherapy received gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin as first salvage chemotherapy. Those achieving a complete or partial response, and those with a negative gallium scan and stable disease with bulk chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. Patients with progressive disease or stable disease with a positive gallium scan or bulk ≥ 5 cm were given second salvage chemotherapy with mini-BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan). Patients who responded (according to the same definition) proceeded to autologous stem cell transplantation. One hundred and thirty-one patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma received first-line salvage gemcitabine, dexamethasone, and cisplatin; of these patients 99 had at least a partial response (overall response rate 76%). One hundred and twelve (85.5%) patients proceeded to autologous stem cell transplantation, while the remaining 19 (14.5%) patients received mini-BEAM. Among these 19 patients, six had at least a partial response (overall response rate 32%), and nine proceeded to autologous stem cell transplantation. The remaining ten patients received palliative care. Seven of the nine patients transplanted after mini-BEAM had a subsequent relapse. Patients receiving second salvage mini-BEAM had poor outcomes, with a 5-year progression-free survival rate of 11% and a 5-year overall survival rate of 20%. Patients who require a second salvage regimen to achieve disease control prior to

  1. Prognostic impact of pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with first-line docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigliero, Consuelo; Pisano, Chiara; Tucci, Marcello; Vignani, Francesca; Bertaglia, Valentina; Iaconis, Davide; Guglielmini, Pamela; Numico, Gianmauro; Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Di Maio, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a measure of systemic inflammatory response, has been associated with poor outcome in several solid tumors, including prostate cancer. We retrospectively investigated the prognostic role of pretreatment NLR in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with first-line docetaxel. All CRPC patients treated with first-line docetaxel at two Italian institutions, with available data about baseline neutrophil and lymphocyte values, were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were divided in two groups according to NLR ratio (low NLR: ≤3; high NLR: >3). Outcome measures were progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS), measured from the start of docetaxel treatment. Univariate and multivariate analysis (adjusting for baseline prostate-specific antigen, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin, albumin, performance status, use of opioids and presence of visceral disease) were performed. One hundred and seventy-nine patients treated between 2004 and 2016 were analyzed and 110 had information about pretreatment NLR. Forty-six patients (42%) had low NLR and 64 (58%) had high NLR. Median PFS was 8.8 months in patients with low NLR versus 7.3 months in those with high NLR [hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.69, p = .58]. Median OS was 34.9 months in patients with low NLR versus 20.2 months in those with high NLR (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.07-3.19, p = .02). At multivariate analysis, NLR confirmed an independent impact on OS (HR 3.16, 95% CI 1.50-6.65, p = .002). In this retrospective series, metastatic CRPC patients who started first-line docetaxel with a low pretreatment NLR had a significantly better survival. In addition to known prognostic factors, NLR can be useful to improve prognostic evaluation of patients in this setting.

  2. Correlation between Serum Tumor Markers and Efficacy of First-line EGFR-TKIs in Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma

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    Hanxiao CHEN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs significantly improve the survival of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring EGFR mutation. Limited to the standards of tumor tissue samples and detection methods, still some people can’t receive target therapy following genetic guidance. This study was to explore the relevance between serum tumor markers and treatment of EGFR-TKIs. Methods We retrospectively collected the clinical information of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring EGFR mutation, who received EGFR-TKIs as first-line therapy from June 2009 to June 2014 in Peking University Cancer Hospital, analyzed the relationship between serum tumor markers and efficacy of EGFR-TKIs. Results The objective response rate (ORR was 52.8% and the disease control rate (DCR was 89.3%. The results showed that, patients with high CEA level before treatment responded better to TKIs (ORR 61.3% vs 35.9%, DCR 95.2% vs 74.4%, P<0.001. Similar phenomena was found in patients with CEA decreased 1 month later (61.5% vs 25%, P=0.002. Progression-free survival (PFS significantly prolonged in patients with elevated baseline CEA (mPFS 9.8 mo vs 5.9 mo, P=0.027. To the opposite, PFS was significantly shorter in patients with elevated baseline CYFRA21-1 and CA125 (mPFS 9.0 mo vs 11.4 mo, P=0.029; 9.0 mo vs 11.5 mo, P=0.023, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG score of 0-1, normal baseline CYFRA21-1 and CEA decline predicted longer PFS. The overall survival (OS was highly associated with elevated CYFRA21-1 and CA125 (median OS 25.1 mo vs 52.5 mo, P=0.003; 22.7 mo vs 55.0 mo, P<0.001, respectively, while independent of CEA. Conclusion High level of baseline CEA and decline 1 month after treatment could predict the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. While high levels of baseline CYFRA21-1 and CA125 indicated shortened

  3. Pooled analysis of phase II trials evaluating weekly or conventional cisplatin as first-line therapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maughan, Benjamin L; Agarwal, Neeraj; Hussain, Syed A

    2013-01-01

    Weekly gemcitabine with GC every 3-4 weeks is considered conventional first-line chemotherapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC). Weekly split-dose cisplatin with wGC might be less toxic and have similar activity, but has not been compared with GC. We pooled published phase II trials of GC...

  4. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes as maintenance immunotherapy after first line chemotherapy in NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Benjamin; Charrier, Mélinda; Lapierre, Valérie; Dansin, Eric; Lantz, Olivier; Planchard, David; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Livartoski, Alain; Barlesi, Fabrice; Laplanche, Agnès; Ploix, Stéphanie; Vimond, Nadège; Peguillet, Isabelle; Théry, Clotilde; Lacroix, Ludovic; Zoernig, Inka; Dhodapkar, Kavita; Dhodapkar, Madhav; Viaud, Sophie; Soria, Jean-Charles; Reiners, Katrin S.; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Vély, Frédéric; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Eggermont, Alexander; Pitt, Jonathan M.; Zitvogel, Laurence; Chaput, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) are small extracellular vesicles secreted by viable dendritic cells. In the two phase-I trials that we conducted using the first generation of Dex (IFN-γ-free) in end-stage cancer, we reported that Dex exerted natural killer (NK) cell effector functions in patients. A second generation of Dex (IFN-γ-Dex) was manufactured with the aim of boosting NK and T cell immune responses. We carried out a phase II clinical trial testing the clinical benefit of IFN-γ-Dex loaded with MHC class I- and class II-restricted cancer antigens as maintenance immunotherapy after induction chemotherapy in patients bearing inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without tumor progression. The primary endpoint was to observe at least 50% of patients with progression-free survival (PFS) at 4 mo after chemotherapy cessation. Twenty-two patients received IFN-γ-Dex. One patient exhibited a grade three hepatotoxicity. The median time to progression was 2.2 mo and median overall survival (OS) was 15 mo. Seven patients (32%) experienced stabilization of >4 mo. The primary endpoint was not reached. An increase in NKp30-dependent NK cell functions were evidenced in a fraction of these NSCLC patients presenting with defective NKp30 expression. Importantly, MHC class II expression levels of the final IFN-γ-Dex product correlated with expression levels of the NKp30 ligand BAG6 on Dex, and with NKp30-dependent NK functions, the latter being associated with longer progression-free survival. This phase II trial confirmed the capacity of Dex to boost the NK cell arm of antitumor immunity in patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:27141373

  5. Immunologic and virologic failure after first-line NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy in Thai HIV-infected children

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    Phasomsap Chayapa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data of immunologic and virologic failure in Asian HIV-infected children using non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. We examined the incidence rate of immunologic failure (IF and virologic failure (VF and the accuracy of using IF to predict VF in Thai HIV-infected children using first-line NNRTI-based HAART. Methods Antiretroviral (ART-naïve HIV-infected children from 2 prospective cohorts treated with NNRTI-based HAART during 2001-2008 were included. CD4 counts were performed every 12 weeks and plasma HIV-RNA measured every 24 weeks. Immune recovery was defined as CD4%≥25%. IF was defined as persistent decline of ≥5% in CD4% in children with CD4%1,000 copies/ml after at least 24 weeks of HAART. Clinical and laboratory parameter changes were assessed using a paired t-test, and a time to event approach was used to assess predictors of VF. Sensitivity and specificity of IF were calculated against VF. Results 107 ART-naive HIV-infected children were included, 52% female, % CDC clinical classification N:A:B:C 4:44:30:22%. Baseline data were median (IQR age 6.2 (4.2-8.9 years, CD4% 7 (3-15, HIV-RNA 5.0 (4.9-5.5 log10copies/ml. Nevirapine (NVP and efavirenz (EFV-based HAART were started in 70% and 30%, respectively. At 96 weeks, none had progressed to a CDC clinical classification of AIDS and one had died from pneumonia. Overall, significant improvement of weight for age z-score (p = 0.014, height for age z-score, hemoglobin, and CD4 were seen (all p 10copies/ml. Thirty five (32.7% children experienced VF within 96 weeks. Of these, 24 (68.6% and 31 (88.6% children had VF in the first 24 and 48 weeks respectively. Only 1 (0.9% child experienced IF within 96 weeks and the sensitivity (95%CI of IF to VF was 4 (0.1-20.4% and specificity was 100 (93.9-100%. Conclusion Immunologic failure, as defined here, had low sensitivity compared to VF and

  6. Randomized Clinical Trial: Esomeprazole, Bismuth, Levofloxacin, and Amoxicillin or Cefuroxime as First-Line Eradication Regimens for Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Song, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Liya; Xue, Yan; Ding, Yu; Suo, Baojun; Tian, Xueli; Wang, Li

    2017-06-01

    The eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection remains a challenge, especially in the patients unsuitable to take penicillin. Cephalosporin has the potential to replace amoxicillin for H. pylori eradication. To compare the effectiveness, safety, and compliance of amoxicillin- and cefuroxime-containing quadruple regimens in treatment-naïve patients. In this open-label randomized control study, 400 patients with H. pylori infection were divided into amoxicillin-containing (esomeprazole 20 mg twice/day, amoxicillin 1000 mg twice/day, levofloxacin 500 mg once/day, and bismuth 220 mg twice/day for 14 days) or cefuroxime-containing (esomeprazole 20 mg twice/day, cefuroxime 500 mg twice/day, levofloxacin 500 mg once/day, and bismuth 220 mg twice/day for 14 days) quadruple therapy groups. The safety and compliance were assessed 1-3 days after eradication. Urea breath test was performed 8-12 weeks after eradication to determine treatment outcome. The baseline data including antibiotic resistance were well matched between the two groups. The eradication rates between amoxicillin- and cefuroxime-containing quadruple therapy groups were not significantly different [intention-to-treat analysis: 83.5% (95% confidence interval 78.3-88.7%) vs. 81.0% (75.5-86.5%), P = 0.513; modified intention-to-treat analysis: 90.3% (86.0-94.6%) vs. 88.5% (83.9-93.2%), P = 0.586; per-protocol analysis: 91.6% (87.5-95.7%) vs. 89.8% (85.3-94.3%), P = 0.560]. The incidence of adverse effects (18.4 vs. 20.1%, P = 0.678) and compliance (94.7 vs. 94.2%, P = 0.813) were also similar. Variate analyses showed that antibiotic resistance and poor compliance were the independent risk factors for eradication failure. Esomeprazole, bismuth, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin or cefuroxime achieved similar and relatively satisfactory cure rates, safety, and compliance in first-line H. pylori eradication. Cefuroxime may be a good alternative medicine for eradication instead of amoxicillin for

  7. Retrospective study of RAS/PIK3CA/BRAF tumor mutations as predictors of response to first-line chemotherapy with bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Izuma; Shinozaki, Eiji; Matsushima, Tomohiro; Wakatsuki, Takeru; Ogura, Mariko; Ichimura, Takashi; Ozaka, Masato; Takahari, Daisuke; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Chin, Keisho; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Kensei

    2017-01-09

    After analysis of minor RAS mutations (KRAS exon 3, 4/NRAS) in the FIRE-3 and PRIME studies, an expanded range of RAS mutations were established as a negative predictive marker for the efficacy of anti-EGFR antibody treatment. BRAF and PIK3CA mutations may be candidate biomarkers for anti-EGFR targeted therapies. However, it remains unknown whether RAS/PIK3CA/BRAF tumor mutations can predict the efficacy of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. We assessed whether selection according to RAS/PIK3CA/BRAF mutational status could be beneficial for patients treated with bevacizumab as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Of the 1001 consecutive colorectal cancer patients examined for RAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF tumor mutations using a multiplex kit (Luminex®), we studied 90 patients who received combination chemotherapy with bevacizumab as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. The objective response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated according to mutational status. The ORR was higher among patients with wild-type tumors (64.3%) compared to those with tumors that were only wild type with respect to KRAS exon 2 (54.8%), and the differences in ORR between patients with wild-type and mutant-type tumors were greater when considering only KRAS exon 2 mutations (6.8%) rather than RAS/PIK3CA/BRAF mutations (18.4%). There were no statistically significant differences in ORR or PFS between all wild-type tumors and tumors carrying any of the mutations. Multivariate analysis revealed that liver metastasis and RAS and BRAF mutations were independent negative factors for disease progression after first-line treatment with bevacizumab. Patient selection according to RAS/PIK3CA/BRAF mutations could help select patients who will achieve a better response to bevacizumab treatment. We found no clinical benefit of restricting combination therapy with bevacizumab for metastatic colorectal cancer patients with EGFR-wild type