WorldWideScience

Sample records for viable effective public

  1. Municipal Bonds. A Viable Funding Option For Oradea Local Public Administration (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Bunescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy government resources are often insufficient to cover all the public budget needs. Public capital collecting process presents a particular interest considering the need of getting them with lower costs. The options for collecting public resources are characterized by diversity and complexity. One of them is based on municipal bonds funds. This paper explores the potential of public bonds issued at a local level in raising capital for infrastructure investments in Romanian public administration. This paper is not meant to be an empirical study at national level because sub-sovereign bonds market in Romania is not very developed. This paper is limited to a case study of public financing methods for a Romanian local public administration. Local authorities from Oradea have no other possibility without one of borrowing to achieve the objectives proposed. Thus, it resorted to a set of internal and external loans. Our study contents a comparative cost analysis of public financing by loans. The analysis lead to the result that the cheapest source of financing is the loan offered by the European Investment Bank, followed by municipal bonds issuing.

  2. Hepatitis C, illicit drug use and public health: does Canada really have a viable plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kalousek, Kate; Rehm, Jürgen; Powis, Jeff; Krajden, Mel; Reimer, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Some 300,000 individuals are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Canada. HCV infection is associated with major morbidity, mortality and health care costs; these indicators are projected to rise over the next decade. The vast majority of prevalent and incident HCV infections in Canada are illicit drug use-related; thus, the HCV disease burden can only be addressed through interventions targeting this primary risk factor. Both preventive (e.g., needle exchange, methadone treatment) and therapeutic (e.g., the accessibility of HCV treatment for illicit drug users) interventions aimed at HCV in illicit drug users have been broadly expanded in Canada in recent years. However, evidence suggests that existing preventive measures only offer limited effectiveness in reducing HCV risk exposure. Also, due to restricted resources, treatment for HCV currently only reaches an extremely small proportion (i.e., Canada is not achieving a net reduction in the prevalence of HCV-related to illicit drug use. In order to reduce the HCV disease burden, Canada needs to reconsider the scope, delivery and resourcing of both preventive and treatment interventions targeting the primary risk population of illicit drug users.

  3. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of γ irradiation of hydra: elimination of interstitial cells from viable hydra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, M.; Kakis, H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Hydra attenuata and H. magnipapillata were γ-irradiated from a cesium source. All doses which had any observable effect (3000 rad and above) resulted in a reduction in the number of interstitial cells and of their differentiated product cells, or in the complete elimination of these cells. Interstitial cells were essentially completely eliminated within 5 days after irradiation doses above 5500 rad, and these hydra died. Irradiation doses of 4200 to 5500 rad resulted in a mixture of effects: some hydra recovered completely, some lost all interstitial cells and died, and some lost interstitial cells but could be propagated, as asexually reproducing clones, by hand feeding them. Hydra of some of these hand-fed clones entirely lacked interstitial cells and did not recover interstitial cells during subsequent culturing. Yet when these hydra were repopulated by interstitial cells from a normal hydra, they were restored to normal. Nerve cells became depleted more slowly than interstitial cells following irradiation, so animals can be obtained which possess nerve but no stem (interstitial) cells. The nerve cells and other derivatives of interstitial cells eventually disappear upon prolonged culture of the hydra. Thus γ irradiation can be used to eliminate interstitial cells from hydra, leaving viable polyps composed only of epithelial cells

  5. Differential Effect of Viable Versus Necrotic Neutrophils on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth and Cytokine Induction in Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Lowe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils exert both positive and negative influences on the host response to tuberculosis, but the mechanisms by which these differential effects are mediated are unknown. We studied the impact of live and dead neutrophils on the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a whole blood bioluminescence-based assay, and assayed supernatant cytokine concentrations using Luminex™ technology and ELISA. CD15+ granulocyte depletion from blood prior to infection with M. tuberculosis-lux impaired control of mycobacteria by 96 h, with a greater effect than depletion of CD4+, CD8+, or CD14+ cells (p < 0.001. Augmentation of blood with viable granulocytes significantly improved control of mycobacteria by 96 h (p = 0.001, but augmentation with necrotic granulocytes had the opposite effect (p = 0.01. Both augmentations decreased supernatant concentrations of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL-12 p40/p70, but necrotic granulocyte augmentation also increased concentrations of IL-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2. Necrotic neutrophil augmentation reduced phagocytosis of FITC-labeled M. bovis BCG by all phagocytes, whereas viable neutrophil augmentation specifically reduced early uptake by CD14+ cells. The immunosuppressive effect of dead neutrophils required necrotic debris rather than supernatant. We conclude that viable neutrophils enhance control of M. tuberculosis in blood, but necrotic neutrophils have the opposite effect—the latter associated with induction of IL-10, growth factors, and chemoattractants. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which necrotic neutrophils may exert detrimental effects on the host response in active tuberculosis.

  6. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  7. Novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen; Ragsdale, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Suranyi, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market.

  8. Effective Public Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that public management differs from private management not just in degree but in quality, so that American business is an inappropriate analogy for evaluating public management. In particular, "purpose,""organization," and "people" have different meaning and significance in public agencies and private businesses. (JG)

  9. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  10. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  11. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  12. Immunomodulatory effect of non-viable components of probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus on holoxenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditu, L M; Chifiriuc, M C; Bezirtzoglou, E; Marutescu, L; Bleotu, C; Pelinescu, D; Mihaescu, G; Lazar, V

    2014-01-01

    Competition of probiotic bacteria with other species from the intestinal microbiota involves different mechanisms that occur regardless of probiotics' viability. The objective of this paper was to assess the cytokine serum levels in holoxenic mice after oral administration of non-viable components (NVC) of Enterococcus faecium probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in comparison to NVC of unstimulated E. faecium probiotic culture. Probiotic E. faecium CMGb 16 culture, grown in the presence of heat-inactivated cultures of E. coli and B. cereus CMGB 102, was subsequently separated into supernatant (SN) and heat-inactivated cellular sediment (CS) fractions by centrifugation. Each NVC was orally administered to holoxenic mice (balb C mouse strain), in three doses, given at 24 hours. Blood samples were collected from the retinal artery, at 7, 14, and 21 days after the first administration of the NVC. The serum concentrations of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) interleukins were assessed by ELISA method. After the oral administration of SN component obtained from the probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated cultures of B. cereus CMGB 102 and E. coli O28, the serum concentrations of IL-12 were maintained higher in the samples collected at 7 and 14 days post-administration. No specific TNF-α profile could be established, depending on stimulated or non-stimulated probiotic culture, NVC fraction, or harvesting time. The obtained results demonstrate that non-viable fractions of probiotic bacteria, stimulated by other bacterial species, could induce immunostimulatory effects mediated by cytokines and act, therefore, as immunological adjuvants.

  13. Phytoestrogens: a viable option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lori; Hicks, G Swink; Low, Annette K; Shepherd, Jinna M; Brown, C Andrew

    2002-10-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy is one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in the United States by traditional medical professionals. Over the past decade, the market for complementary/ alternative therapies for hormone replacement has dramatically increased. Women are seeking more "natural" alternatives to treat menopausal symptoms. Well-designed randomized clinical trials are often lacking, as is the information on efficacy and safety. This article will review several popular herbal therapies for menopausal symptoms including phytoestrogens, black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), chast tree (Vitex agnus-castus), and wild Mexican yam. Their use, mechanism of action, and adverse effects are outlined.

  14. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  15. Is physiotherapy self-referral with telephone triage viable, cost-effective and beneficial to musculoskeletal outpatients in a primary care setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Ross; Bakker, Edward; Burton, Maria

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish if physiotherapy self-referral (SR) is viable, cost effective and beneficial to musculoskeletal outpatients in a primary care setting. In an urban National Health Service (NHS) primary care physiotherapy service, waiting times, attendance rates and treatment ratios (thus, episode-of-care costs) were deemed unsustainable. The introduction of 'Any Qualified Provider' is imminent and will drive NHS physiotherapy services to compete directly with private counterparts. Current literature, healthcare policy and the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy strongly advocate SR to promote value for money and improve the patient experience. A repeated measure prospective cohort study introduced an SR pathway parallel to existing general practice (GP) referrals and compared costs, attendance and data relating to the patient experience across groups. SR referral groups were found to have a higher proportion of female patients presenting with acute conditions. Cost minimization analysis indicated an average 32.3% reduction in episode-of-care cost with an SR-initiated intervention. An estimated cost minimization of between £84,387.80 and £124,472.06 was calculated if SR were to be expanded service-wide. SR referral reduced waiting times and improved patient satisfaction relating to waiting times and communication compared with traditional pathways. The results of the present study showed that the introduction of the described SR pathway was feasible, cost-effective and offered comparable care. Certain aspects of the SR patient experience compared more favourably than those studied in traditional GP referral routes. They also added to an existing body of evidence supporting SR with a variety of administrative processes in various socioeconomic settings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Mutagenic effects of gamma rays on the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable macro mutations in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaiah, S.; Manjunath, A.; Puttaramanaik

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, uniform dry and healthy seeds of two cultivars of chilli namely Ceylon and Byadagi were exposed to 60 Co gamma rays at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 krad doses at BARC, Mumbai. Thus there were total 18 treatments, eight different doses of gamma rays and one control in each cultivar. The M2 populations were compared with the respective control populations for chlorophyll and viable mutations. The treated populations were compared with the respective control populations for chlorophyll mutations (M2 and M3) and viable mutations (M2)' The results of the study are presented

  17. Effective Instruction of Public Speaking

    OpenAIRE

    竹野, 茂; Shigeru, TAKENO

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the instruction of public speaking in a large-size class. The author has been in charge of the speech classes,SPEECH III and SPEECH IV mainly for the second year students at Miyazaki Municipal University for several years. At the preparation stage of SPEECH III, and IV, he intended that the class size was about 30 students as one group in the lecture style. But, in reality, more than 50 students took the course. Then he had to rethink the way of teaching. To solve the prob...

  18. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  19. Measuring effects of public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Underway for quite some time now has been the discussion on using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. However - with some exceptions this has been mainly a conceptual discussion vastly surpassed a corresponding development of appropriate monitoring tools. Also, even if both...... qualitative and quantitative studies have been made, they tend to lack connection to the underlying mechanisms envisaged in the conceptual and/or case based literature. A challenge in this endeavour prevails in the nature of how public procurement of innovation works. Some of the effects rendered may...... about the usefulness of public procurement of innovation are at all realistic and feasible in practice. After reviewing different currently available means to measure both public procurement of innovation measures, as well as public procurement of innovation, the paper outlines a case-based approach...

  20. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  1. Message Effects of Public Service Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    Public service advertisements, disseminated via the mass media, have been credited with "positive attitudinal effects" in past research, but only certain kinds of such advertisements are really effective. Of the types of appeals used in television commercials--informative, emotional, "establishment" (or status quo), and…

  2. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  3. Effect of Managers on Public Service Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Falk

    This report provides an overview of the PhD dissertation “Effects of Managers on Public Service Performance” carried out at the Department of Political Science, Aarhus University and SFI – The Danish National Centre for Social Research. The dissertation is part of the research project “School...... Management, Teaching, and Student Performance” supported by the Danish Strategic Research Council (now Innovation Fund Denmark) and headed by professor Søren Winter. The dissertation explores the effects of managers on public service performance. By combining theoretical insights and research designs from......?”, “How can we improve organizational performance?”, and “How can we measure public service performance?” The setting for the dissertation is Danish middle schools (folkeskoler). The education system is generally considered an important service area as it affects later life outcomes of individual children...

  4. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  5. Introduce of Viable But Nonculturable Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viable-But-Nonculturable-State (VBNC is the condition in which bacteria fail to grow on their routine bacteriological media where they would normally grow and develop into colonies, but are still alive and capable of renewed metabolic activity. VBNC state is useful for evaluating public health and for ascertaining the sterility of drinking water, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuff. A number of bacteria, mostly pathogenic to humans, have been proved to enter into this state in response to natural stresses such as starvation, incubation out of optimum growth temperature, increased osmotic pressure, etc. Once in the VBNC state, they undergo various physiological, structural, and genetic alterations. These alterations result in reduced cell size, conversion from bacilli to coccid, thickened cell walls, and peptidoglycan gaining many cross links. Metabolic changes also occur that include reductions in growth, nutrient transport, and respiratory rate; biosynthesis of new protein, and ATP remaining at a constant level. It has been shown that in the VBNC state, some pathogens conserve their virulence properties. Gene expression continues in the VBNC cell. Nucleic acids remain intact in the early VBNC phase but they gradually undergo degradation with prolonged VBNC. Cytological methods such as direct viable count and reduction of tetrazolium salts, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and green fluorescent protein have been used for the study of VBNC. Resuscitation from VBNC state starts when the inducing factor(s is/are lifted. Factors that help the resuscitation of VBNC bacteria include addition of certain nutrients and chemicals, introduction of a few culturable cells into the VBNC cell population, and passage through the animal host. As virulence properties are sustained during the VBNC phase, special care must be paid when evaluating sterility of drinking water.

  6. Effect of nuclear education on public attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1995-01-01

    A method is proposed to assess the effect of nuclear education. In this method, the nuclear education is treated as a part of the activities for public acceptance (PA), and a unit PA activity is assumed to give the same effect on the public, in essence, as a unit of nuclear information given by the newsmedia. Moreover, the change of attitude to nuclear energy is assumed to originate from enhanced understanding which, in turn, is brought by the stimulus given by the nuclear education. With the values of constants determined by using the data in Japan, example calculations were made for the educational time b 0 and the infiltration rate of education into minors B as parameters. It became clear from this calculation that the attitude to nuclear energy formed in the age of school children plays an essential role in shaping future public opinion since it is held in individuals without any notable modification for a long time after its formation, and that the effect of nuclear education to minors emerges depending on the variables b 0 and B in a highly non-linear manner. It was also found that there exists an optimum condition for nuclear education to attain the maximum amelioration of public opinion under a given condition of man-power for educational workers. (author)

  7. Predictive models for the effect of storage temperature on Vibrio parahaemolyticus viability and counts of total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Tamplin, Mark L

    2011-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an indigenous bacterium of marine environments. It accumulates in oysters and may reach levels that cause human illness when postharvest temperatures are not properly controlled and oysters are consumed raw or undercooked. Predictive models were produced by injecting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains, measuring viability rates at storage temperatures from 3.6 to 30.4°C, and fitting the data to a model to obtain parameter estimates. The models were evaluated with Pacific and Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) containing natural populations of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus viability was measured by direct plating samples on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar for injected oysters and by most probable number (MPN)-PCR for oysters containing natural populations. In parallel, total viable bacterial counts (TVC) were measured by direct plating on marine agar. Growth/inactivation rates for V. parahaemolyticus were -0.006, -0.004, -0.005, -0.003, 0.030, 0.075, 0.095, and 0.282 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.6, 12.6, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. The growth rates for TVC were 0.015, 0.023, 0.016, 0.048, 0.055, 0.071, 0.133, and 0.135 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.3, 14.9, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. Square root and Arrhenius-type secondary models were generated for V. parahaemolyticus growth and inactivation kinetic data, respectively. A square root model was produced for TVC growth. Evaluation studies showed that predictive growth for V. parahaemolyticus and TVC were "fail safe." The models can assist oyster companies and regulators in implementing management strategies to minimize V. parahaemolyticus risk and enhancing product quality in supply chains.

  8. Senior health clinics: are they financially viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Robin E; Crandall, Debra; Wright, Larry D; Beverly, Claudia J

    2009-07-01

    Are hospital-based outpatient interdisciplinary clinics a financially viable alternative for caring for our burgeoning population of older adults in America? Although highly popular, with high patient satisfaction rates among older adults and their families, senior health clinics (SHCs) can be expensive to operate, with limited quantifiable health outcomes. This study analyzed three geriatric hospital-based interdisciplinary clinics in rural Arkansas by examining their patient profiles, revenues, and expenses. It closely examined the effects of the downstream revenue using the multiplier effect and acknowledged other factors that weigh heavily on the success of SHCs and the care of older adults. The findings highlight the similarities and differences in the three clinics' operating and financial structures in addition to the clinics' and providers' productivity. The analysis presents an evidence-based illustration that SHCs can break even or lose large amounts of money.

  9. Quantification of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants by using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Tong, Tiezheng; Zeng, Siyu; Lin, Yiwen; Wu, Shuxu; He, Miao

    2014-02-01

    The detection of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is very important for public health, as WWTPs are a medium with a high potential for waterborne disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) to selectively detect and quantify viable bacteria cells in full-scale WWTPs in China. PMA was added to the concentrated WWTP samples at a final concentration of 100 micromol/L and the samples were incubated in the dark for 5 min, and then lighted for 4 min prior to DNA extraction and qPCR with specific primers for Escherichia coli and Enterococci, respectively. The results showed that PMA treatment removed more than 99% of DNA from non-viable cells in all the WWTP samples, while matrices in sludge samples markedly reduced the effectiveness of PMA treatment. Compared to qPCR, PMA-qPCR results were similar and highly linearly correlated to those obtained by culture assay, indicating that DNA from non-viable cells present in WWTP samples can be eliminated by PMA treatment, and that PMA-qPCR is a reliable method for detection of viable bacteria in environmental samples. This study demonstrated that PMA-qPCR is a rapid and selective detection method for viable bacteria in WWTP samples, and that WWTPs have an obvious function in removing both viable and non-viable bacteria. The results proved that PMA-qPCR is a promising detection method that has a high potential for application as a complementary method to the standard culture-based method in the future.

  10. More effective public communication - HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Credibility can be enhanced and communication can be made somewhat more effective by informally talking to a small group of people as opposed to speaking to large groups. The more informal the situation can be, and the approximation of a one-to-one speaker-to-audience ratio assists the audience in obtaining a feeling they are being treated equitably. This also assists the speaker in getting a feel for the chief concerns of that particular audience. The authors have also found that this same principle has worked rather well in dealing with the media. So far they have experienced fewer mistakes and fewer sensationalisms from the media personnel with which they have had the opportunity to sit down one-on-one and explain the program. The media reaches a much greater segment of the public than any of us as individuals, and an informed media can communicate much more effectively with the public than an uninformed one

  11. Effects of participating in public conversation groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Adolfo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the effects of the participation of health, education and religious professionals in public conversation groups with LGBT people. Participants were interviewed some weeks after the groups for feedback. Professionals declared that this dialogic method (known as Public Conversations Project allowed a qualification of their practices, awareness about the challenges of talking about gender and sexual diversity at their professional’s contexts, and a broader contact with narratives of violence and discrimination against LGBT people. The structure of dialogue allowed participants to talk and listen in a less evaluative context. Differences in the effects produced by each group are discussed in relation to the differences in the group composition and to the specificities of the health, educational and religious contexts.

  12. Effects of infant formula containing a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides or viable Bifidobacterium animalis on the intestinal microflora during the first 4 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.; Alles, M.S.; Knol, J.; Kok, F.J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Bindels, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Adding prebiotics or probiotics to infant formula to improve the intestinal flora of formula-fed infants is considered to be a major innovation. Several companies have brought relevant formulations onto the market. However, comparative data on the effects of pre- and probiotics on the intestinal

  13. Bimetric gravity is cosmologically viable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Akrami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bimetric theory describes gravitational interactions in the presence of an extra spin-2 field. Previous work has suggested that its cosmological solutions are generically plagued by instabilities. We show that by taking the Planck mass for the second metric, Mf, to be small, these instabilities can be pushed back to unobservably early times. In this limit, the theory approaches general relativity with an effective cosmological constant which is, remarkably, determined by the spin-2 interaction scale. This provides a late-time expansion history which is extremely close to ΛCDM, but with a technically-natural value for the cosmological constant. We find Mf should be no larger than the electroweak scale in order for cosmological perturbations to be stable by big-bang nucleosynthesis. We further show that in this limit the helicity-0 mode is no longer strongly-coupled at low energy scales.

  14. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  15. Corporate strategy and viable future land use: Planning for closure from the outset of mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warhurst, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the environmental impact of mining on viable future land use and underlines the imperative of improved environmental management and closure planning. It argues that pollution prevention, through planning for closure, can lead to cost-effective strategies for sustainable minerals development and viable future land use. This seems to be most true for greenfield sites since, generally, the earlier closure planning and pollution prevention is built into a project, the more cost-effective and environmentally benign closure will be. Further, for greenfield sites, pollution prevention techniques can be employed from the outset, at the stages of exploration and mine development, and then monitored and improved through the operation stage to closure, and can be kept in place to manage future land use. The paper discusses how global changes in the industry, following the liberalisation of investment regimes, and mergers and strategic alliances between key firms, has, by virtue of the diffusion of new technology, led to further opportunities to prevent pollution and optimise future land use through planning for closure from the outset. The objectives and components of closure plans are also reviewed as the paper draws on case studies to highlight some of the possible constraints and challenges to pollution prevention that may be faced at the level of both public policy and corporate strategy. The article concludes by suggesting a forward-looking approach to integrated environmental management and viable future land-use planning based on a dynamic model for environmental management. (author)

  16. Effective communications bring greater public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, C.

    1992-01-01

    In 1986, GPU Nuclear Corporation announced a plan to evaporate into the atmosphere 2.3 million gal of water remaining from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The water would be processed to remove most of the radioactivity, but still remaining were >1,000 Ci of tritium to be released to the atmosphere during the evaporation process. It was expected that, following regulatory approvals, it would take >2 yr to complete the process. Fed by well-established antinuclear groups, public concern about evaporating the TMI-2-accident-generated water ran high among residents living near the plant. In the years since the TMI-2 accident, GPU Nuclear had developed a highly effective communications program in the communities surrounding TMI. This ongoing program provided a solid foundation on which to create and implement a risk communications approach to community understanding and acceptance of the evaporation process

  17. Radiation disinfestation: A viable technology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing food production in many countries is often offset by spoilage losses that occur at different stages after harvesting, slaughtering, or catching. The situation becomes critical in developing countries as more food is needed to feed the ever-increasing population. One of the major problems of losses of food and agricultural products during storage is insect infestation. This paper reviews some insect infestation problems of valuable crops in developing countries such as cereals, pulses, dried fish and meat, fresh and dried fruits, coffee and cocoa beans, spices, and cured tobacco leaves. Present practices of chemical fumigation to eliminate insect problems in these crops give rise to concern from the points of view of both public health and occupational safety. Irradiation technology has been shown to be as effective as other insect disinfestation methods and could provide a viable alternative for this purpose. Insects do not develop resistance to physical techniques such as heat or irradiation as they do to chemical treatments. Applications of radiation for disinfestation of food and agricultural products of importance to developing countries are discussed. The economics of radiation disinfestation of cereals and pulses, dried fish, and fresh fruits are also discussed

  18. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2014-10-01

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  19. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-10-17

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  20. Effective public health management: The Nigerian experience | Abe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public health management in Nigeria is the process of mobilizing and deploying resources for the provision of effective public health services. To ensure an effective public health, population based strategies would need to be put in place and this would require proper management to yield desired results. This paper ...

  1. Private versus Public Feedback - The Incentive Effects of Symbolic Awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele

    We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....

  2. A study on improving the regulatory effectiveness and public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. S.; Choi, Y. G.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, H. W.

    2006-02-01

    The scope of this study is : review the theories about public participation in nuclear safety regulation, we develop an understanding of the concept and compare the effectiveness of different approaches to public participation. Reviews the cases of public participation in foreign countries and searches for important implications. To examine the current measures of public participation in nuclear safety regulatory process and to evaluate the present demand of the public including residents nearby nuclear facilities. Based upon the discussions on the above topics, examines prerequisites for success of public participation and presents alternatives of public participation in the concrete

  3. Policy alienation of public professionals: the effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, many public professionals face identification problems towards public policies they have to implement; that is, they experience policy alienation. We conceptualize policy alienation, starting from the sociological concept of alienation and showing how this can be used in the

  4. Sycamore produces viable seed after six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Ike

    1966-01-01

    In the early stages of any tree improvement program it is desirable to know how soon progenies of selected parents can themselves be included in a breeding program. How soon will they produce viable pollen and seed? In the case of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), the information is meager: the Woody- Plant Seed Manual lists the minimum commercial seedbearing age...

  5. Reputation Effects in Public and Private Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Iwasa, Yoh; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in a model of indirect reciprocity where people interact in public and private situations. Public interactions have a high chance to be observed by others and always affect reputation. Private interactions have a lower chance to be observed and only occasionally affect reputation. We explore all second order social norms and study conditions for evolutionary stability of action rules. We observe the competition between “honest” and “hypocritical” strategies. The former cooperate both in public and in private. The later cooperate in public, where many others are watching, but try to get away with defection in private situations. The hypocritical idea is that in private situations it does not pay-off to cooperate, because there is a good chance that nobody will notice it. We find simple and intuitive conditions for the evolution of honest strategies. PMID:26606239

  6. Charter Schools: A Viable Public School Choice Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Overviews the charter-school phenomenon and these schools' basic design. Discusses the government's role in education and identifies various school-choice options. Explores overall autonomy via legislative provisions and examines empirical evidence on charter schools' innovative features, teacher and student characteristics, and parental contracts…

  7. Viable business models for public utilities; Zukunftsfaehige Geschaeftsmodelle fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Weiss, Claudia [Buelow und Consorten GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Small suppliers are faced with mounting pressures from an increasingly complex regulatory regime and a market that rewards size. Many have been able to adapt to the new framework conditions by successively optimizing existing activities. However, when change takes hold of all stages of the value chain it is no longer enough to merely modify one's previous strategies. It rather becomes necessary to review one's business model for its sustainability, take stock of the company's competencies and set priorities along the value chain. This is where a network-oriented focussing strategy can assist in ensuring efficient delivery of services in core areas while enabling the company to present itself on the market with a full range of services.

  8. The viable but non-culturable state in pathogenic Escherichia coli: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Pienaar

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: This review discusses various general aspects of the VBNC state, the mechanisms and possible public health impact of indicator and pathogenic E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Method: A literature review was conducted to ascertain the possibleimpact of E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Results: Escherichia coli enter into the VBNC state by means of several induction mechanisms. Various authors have found that E. coli can be resuscitated post-VBNC. Certain strains of pathogenic E. coli are still able to produce toxins in the VBNC state, whilst others are avirulent during the VBNC state but are able to regain virulence after resuscitation. Conclusion: Pathogenic and indicator E. coli entering into the VBNC state could have an adverse effect on public health if conventional detection methods are used, where the number of viable cells could be underestimated and the VBNC cells still produce toxins or could, at anytime, be resuscitated and become virulent again.

  9. The public and effective risk communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Public perceptions of risk have often been dismissed on the basis of ¿irrationality¿, and have tended to be excluded from policy processes by risk assessors and managers. People¿s responses to different risks are determined by psychological factors. The technical risk estimates

  10. Public policy: effective treatment for tobacco disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheg, K E

    1996-01-01

    Public policy initiatives offer greater promise than other strategies for reducing the major public health problem of death and disease due to smoking. Three of the most critical public policy areas today are smoke-free environments, youth access, and advertising. While earlier laws separated smokers and nonsmokers into separate sections, the focus now is on smoke-free environments. Various places, however, most notably restaurants, often remain polluted with tobacco smoke and put women at heightened risk of disease and death. Restricting youth access to tobacco products has also gained momentum in the 1990s. The recently proposed Food and Drug Administration regulations designed to reduce smoking by minors by 50% over seven years are the most significant national public policy initiatives ever to address the problem of children smoking. Measures to counter the tobacco industry's massive advertising and promotion campaigns have also increased. The federal government has begun enforcing the prohibition on cigarette advertising on television, and local jurisdictions have restricted tobacco billboards and point-of-sale advertising.

  11. Regulation of Viable and Optimal Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: aubin.jp@gmail.com [VIMADES (Viabilité, Marchés, Automatique, Décisions) (France)

    2015-10-15

    This study deals with the evolution of (scalar) attributes (resources or income in evolutionary demography or economics, position in traffic management, etc.) of a population of “mobiles” (economic agents, vehicles, etc.). The set of mobiles sharing the same attributes is regarded as an instantaneous cohort described by the number of its elements. The union of instantaneous cohorts during a mobile window between two attributes is a cohort. Given a measure defining the number of instantaneous cohorts, the accumulation of the mobile attributes on a evolving mobile window is the measure of the cohort on this temporal mobile window. Imposing accumulation constraints and departure conditions, this study is devoted to the regulation of the evolutions of the attributes which are1.viable in the sense that the accumulations constraints are satisfied at each instant;2.and, among them, optimal, in the sense that both the duration of the temporal mobile window is maximum and that the accumulation on this temporal mobile window is the largest viable one. This value is the “accumulation valuation” function. Viable and optimal evolutions under accumulation constraints are regulated by an “implicit Volterra integro-differential inclusion” built from the accumulation valuation function, solution to an Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman partial differential equation under constraints which is constructed for this purpose.

  12. MODELLING OF FINANCIAL EFFECTIVENESS AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PROJECTS AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Aleksey Alekseevich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity of extension and development of tools for methodological evaluation of effectiveness of public-private partnership (PPP projects both individually and in comparison of effectiveness of various mechanisms of projects realization on the example of traditional public procurement. The author proposed an original technique of modelling cash flows of private and public partners when realizing the projects based on PPP and on public procurement. The model enables us promptly and with sufficient accuracy to reveal comparative advantages of project forms of PPP and public procurement, and also assess financial effectiveness of the PPP projects for each partner. The modelling is relatively straightforward and reliable. The model also enables us to evaluate public partner's expenses for availability, find the terms and thresholds for interest rates of financing attracted by the partners and for risk probabilities to ensure comparative advantage of PPP project. Proposed criteria of effectiveness are compared with methodological recommendations provided by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation. Subject: public and private organizations, financial institutions, development institutions and their theoretical and practical techniques for effectiveness evaluation of public-private partnership (PPP projects. Complexity of effectiveness evaluation and the lack of unified and accepted methodology are among the factors that limit the development of PPP in the Russian Federation nowadays. Research objectives: development of methodological methods for assessing financial efficiency of PPP projects by creating and justifying application of new principles and methods of modelling, and also criteria for effectiveness of PPP projects both individually and in comparison with the public procurement. Materials and methods: open database of ongoing PPP projects in the Russian Federation and abroad was used. The

  13. Assessing the Effect of China's National Publicity Films from the Perspective of Public Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article empirically assessed the effect of China’s national publicity film launched in Times Square in Manhattan, New York. To this end, the author gave a set of general criteria and indicators to measure the effect of national publicity films. Whether the publicity film was effective depends on whether American people’s image perceptions of China were improved after it was launched. Quantitative indicators are: the number of reports in the target country and the predispositions of the reports; the target country people’s participation and their predispositions; and the real behavior of the target country people. The analysis revealed that the 2011 national publicity film did not achieve the anticipated effect. The number of U.S. mainstream media reports was less than expected and their evaluations were quite negative; the participation of American people was low and the extent of the favorability both of the publicity film and China was not high; and the launch of the publicity film did not trigger a travel boom to China. Accordingly, this article suggested that the future implementation of China’s national publicity films focuses on two aspects: first, pay attention to cultural differences and enhance the comprehensibility of the discourse; second, practice what it preaches and strengthen the credibility of the discourse.

  14. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki [CRC Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public`s attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public`s attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author).

  15. Effective radiological communications with the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.G.; Roessler, G.S.; Brent, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    About the Health Physics Society. The Health Physics Society (HPS) is a professional organization whose mission is excellence in the science and practice of radiation safety. Since its formation in 1956, the Society has grown to approximately 6,000 scientists, physicians, engineers, lawyers, and other professionals representing academia, industry, government, national laboratories, and other organizations. Society activities include encouraging research in radiation science, developing standards, and disseminating radiation safety information. Society members are involved in understanding, evaluating, and controlling the potential risks from radiation relative to the benefits. Although the Society already was publishing the Health Physics Journal and Newsletter, in 1996, as part of furthering the HPS mission of information communication and radiological protection education, an HPS Web site was created at www.hps.org to disseminate information on the Society's activities, objectives, membership, news and events, publications, education, and public information. In September 2001, Web structure for the site was further developed and refined, and it was during this development phase that the concept of the ask the experts (ATE) feature was born. (orig.)

  16. Effective radiological communications with the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.G. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Roessler, G.S. [Healthy Physics Society, Elysian, MN (United States); Brent, R.L. [Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Environmental and Clinical Teratology Lab., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2004-07-01

    About the Health Physics Society. The Health Physics Society (HPS) is a professional organization whose mission is excellence in the science and practice of radiation safety. Since its formation in 1956, the Society has grown to approximately 6,000 scientists, physicians, engineers, lawyers, and other professionals representing academia, industry, government, national laboratories, and other organizations. Society activities include encouraging research in radiation science, developing standards, and disseminating radiation safety information. Society members are involved in understanding, evaluating, and controlling the potential risks from radiation relative to the benefits. Although the Society already was publishing the Health Physics Journal and Newsletter, in 1996, as part of furthering the HPS mission of information communication and radiological protection education, an HPS Web site was created at www.hps.org to disseminate information on the Society's activities, objectives, membership, news and events, publications, education, and public information. In September 2001, Web structure for the site was further developed and refined, and it was during this development phase that the concept of the ask the experts (ATE) feature was born. (orig.)

  17. A combination of direct viable count and fluorescence in situ hybridization for specific enumeration of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J; Moreno, Y; Amorocho, C M; Hernández, M

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a direct viable count (DVC)-FISH procedure for quickly and easily discriminating between viable and nonviable cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains, the traditional yogurt bacteria. direct viable count method has been modified and adapted for Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus analysis by testing different times of incubation and concentrations of DNA-gyrase inhibitors. DVC procedure has been combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the specific detection of viable cells of both bacteria with specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes (DVC-FISH). Of the four antibiotics tested (novobiocin, nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid and ciprofloxacin), novobiocin was the most effective for DVC method and the optimum incubation time was 7 h for both bacteria. The number of viable cells was obtained by the enumeration of specific hybridized cells that were elongated at least twice their original length for Lactobacillus and twice their original size for Streptococcus. This technique was successfully applied to detect viable cells in inoculated faeces. Results showed that this DVC-FISH procedure is a quick and culture-independent useful method to specifically detect viable Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus in different samples, being applied for the first time to lactic acid bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Axenic isolation of viable Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, K D; Buret, A; Olson, M E

    1991-06-01

    Large numbers of viable Giardia muris trophozoites were isolated from the duodenum of experimentally infected mice 6 days after inoculation with 1,000 G. muris cysts. A series of shaking, incubation, and washing steps in the presence of the broad-spectrum antibiotic piperacillin readily provided 4.9 +/- 1.5 x 10(5) G. muris trophozoites per mouse, free of detectable contaminant organisms. Anaerobic and microaerophilic culturing and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated axenic status and high purity of the isolates. The viability of trophozoites was 98 +/- 2%. Application of this technique should permit novel immunological and epidemiological analyses of G. muris infection and biochemical investigations of this protozoan parasite.

  19. New public diplomacy and its effects on international level

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Gurgu; Aristide Dumitru Cociuban

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The purpose of this article is to make known the new type of public diplomacy and the effects this new diplomacy can have internationally. The objectives of our article refer to the context of change, the role of the media in public diplomacy, new approaches and elements of public diplomacy, current diplomacy in scientific and technical way and the use of scientific cooperation to improve bilateral relations between countries.

  20. New public diplomacy and its effects on international level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gurgu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purpose of this article is to make known the new type of public diplomacy and the effects this new diplomacy can have internationally. The objectives of our article refer to the context of change, the role of the media in public diplomacy, new approaches and elements of public diplomacy, current diplomacy in scientific and technical way and the use of scientific cooperation to improve bilateral relations between countries.

  1. The effective use of fluorides in public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    , systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on......Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research...

  2. Job Performance Effectiveness: A Comparison of Teachers in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job Performance Effectiveness: A Comparison of Teachers in Public and Private Schools ... Teachers in the two types of schools were about the same in classroom ... Also that public school teachers must be provided with conducive teaching/learning environment to enable them meet up the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Public education on sources and effects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Rengan, K.

    1993-01-01

    A six-day workshop, developed for providing information on sources and effects of radioactive waste disposal to the general public, is described. The materials were used successfully with a group representing the general public. An extension of the workshop for high school and junior high school science teachers is discussed. (author) 1 tab

  4. Effectively selling astronomy to the public -- fusing lessons learned from education, entertainment, advertising and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Arthur; Day, Jacque

    2010-03-01

    A great celestial story is only as effective as the teller of the tale. With passion and knowledge at the helm, we must search for ways to pass on enthusiasm to others while conveying sound science. Based on our experiences, we present an integrated approach -- one that borrows elements from education, entertainment, advertising, and public relations -- to choose an event, hook and keep the public's attention while making them want more, and provide some tips for increasing media presence.

  5. Measuring the effect of Sustainable Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp MC; Kok L; Valk E de; DMG; M&V; M&V

    2018-01-01

    Many purchasing services of the Dutch local and central governments, aim to include the effects of products and services on human health and the environment in the procurement process. Sustainable procurement (SP) encompasses more than just price and quality considerations. SP can result, for

  6. Greenhouse effect economic simulation and public decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.

    2002-03-01

    As the other countries, engaged in the greenhouse effect fight, the France has to evaluate the greenhouse gases emissions and the corrective actions. Meanwhile the today models are not enough impressive. The economic tools authorize today a better evaluation. The technical working Group, presided by Pierre-Noel Giraud, proposes to use them largely and provides four main recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  7. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1996-01-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public's attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public's attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author)

  8. Sustainability and the Viable Systems Approach: Opportunities and Issues for the Governance of the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Barile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach for representing the territory as a dynamic system of intersubjective relationships that is able to guarantee not only the efficiency of the processes within organizations, but also effective results in the general context and a sustainable impact on the broader environment. This contribution is developed on the basis of the viable systems approach (vSa, which is intended as a theoretical framework for the analysis of social phenomena as well as for orienting government processes. Using this theoretical framework, the proposed approach leads to the representation of the territory as a viable system that is capable of surviving in its own context by creating value for the other entities of the context (public groups of governments, communities, investors, natural environment, future generations, non-human species, thus defining the essential conditions for a sustainable equilibrium. The consideration that social phenomena have to be analyzed by taking into account the different relations and interactions that orient the behavior of individuals and, as a consequence, their main collective manifestations, i.e., organizations, underlines the importance of shifting from a traditional reductionist approach to a systemic approach. In what follows, taking a cue from the definition of sustainability that implies a wider sharing, we provide some initial critical positions, and finally shape the useful elements that can be preparatory to the introduction of a working hypothesis that is capable of delineating a possible itinerary for the development of the territory.

  9. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  10. Effect of the depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Zhuang, Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the depreciation effect of public goods is considered in the public goods games, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r of each group as r‧=r( (β≥0). It is assumed that each individual enjoys the full profit r of the public goods if all the players of this group are cooperators. Otherwise, the value of public goods is reduced to r‧. It is found that compared with the original version (β=0), the emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for β>0, and there exist intermediate values of β inducing the best cooperation. Particularly, there exists a range of β inducing the highest cooperative level, and this range of β broadens as r increases. It is further presented that the variation of cooperator density with noise has close relations with the values of β and r, and cooperation at an intermediate value of β=1.0 is most tolerant to noise.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  12. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  13. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  14. Research on Effective Supply Mode of Rural Public Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of definition and classification of rural public goods, this paper analyses the status quo of public goods supply in vast rural areas of China, and it indicates that the electricity and communication facility in rural areas have not yet been popularized; the culture and education facility is critically backward; the medical care and social warfare institutions are short. It points out the rational supply model of public goods as follows: the government plays dominant role in the public goods supply with a large amount of investments, related to the quality of living and production of multitudinous farmers; small wieldy quasi-public goods that can be easily supplied and marginalized public goods can introduce multiplex supply main body under the framework of government guidance. According to this model, corresponding policy suggestions are put forward as follows: increase financial inputs, and perfect local financial system; actively encourage the majority of farmers in rural areas to participate in public goods supply mechanism, so that the supply has pertinence; vigorously develop multiplex supply system of rural public goods, to ensure effective supply.

  15. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  16. Improving the effectiveness of public entities procurement practices

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M. Com. (Business Management) The media and the Auditor General have extensively reported on the ineffective and unethical conduct of public sector employees regarding the procurement of goods and services. The Auditor General’s report demonstrates that there is evidence that public sector procurement processes are less than adequate to achieve constitutional procurement goals, which are to conduct processes that are fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective The delivery...

  17. An economically viable space power relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  18. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  19. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  20. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  1. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    developing inter-subjective knowledge which could aid policy advocacy, design and implementation ... Hermeneutics defends the ontological claim that human beings are ..... various public spaces and genres are closely attended to by CDA.

  2. School-Based Management and Effectiveness of Public Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to achieve its statutory roles, objectives and aspirations. We suggest that the adoption of School-based management by way of increasing the principals' sphere of influence would facilitate effective service delivery in schools. Keywords: school-based management, principals' effectiveness, public secondary schools.

  3. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, background variables do have a significant effect on some of the dimensions of Malaysians' attitudes towards modern biotechnology. The research findings will be useful for understanding the effect of background variables on public attitudes towards the application of gene technology in medicine.

  4. Effectively incorporating selected multimedia content into medical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Mietchen, Daniel; Faber, Cornelius; von Hausen, Wolfram; Schöbel, Christoph; Sellerer, Markus; Ziegler, Andreas

    2011-02-17

    Until fairly recently, medical publications have been handicapped by being restricted to non-electronic formats, effectively preventing the dissemination of complex audiovisual and three-dimensional data. However, authors and readers could significantly profit from advances in electronic publishing that permit the inclusion of multimedia content directly into an article. For the first time, the de facto gold standard for scientific publishing, the portable document format (PDF), is used here as a platform to embed a video and an audio sequence of patient data into a publication. Fully interactive three-dimensional models of a face and a schematic representation of a human brain are also part of this publication. We discuss the potential of this approach and its impact on the communication of scientific medical data, particularly with regard to electronic and open access publications. Finally, we emphasise how medical teaching can benefit from this new tool and comment on the future of medical publishing.

  5. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  6. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    Single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive technology commonly used for predicting lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and water content of agricultural products. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prospects of NIR spectroscopy in classifying viable and non...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable......-viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...

  7. A comment on framing effects in linear public good games

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Edward

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent papers have looked at framing effects in linear public good games. In this comment, I argue that, within this literature, the distinction between give-take and positive–negative framing effects has become blurred, and that this is a barrier towards understanding the experimental evidence on framing effects. To make these points, I first illustrate that frames can differ along both an externality and choice dimension. I then argue that the existing evidence is consistent wit...

  8. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  9. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  10. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Scott J N

    2010-12-03

    At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources.Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1) adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]); 2) maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3) consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers.To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners.We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it's needed, where it's needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities to the ownership and stewardship

  11. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  12. Can Malin's gravitational-field equations be modified to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, L.L.; Prestage, J.

    1976-01-01

    Malin's gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the PPN framework

  13. Perceived public health effects of occupational and residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at assessing the perceived public health effects of occupational and residential exposures to e-wastes in Alaba International and Computer Village markets, the two largest electronic markets in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross sectional, comparative study was carried out using questionnaire survey of randomly ...

  14. Public Management and Organizational Performance: The Effect of Managerial Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the first large study of public management quality and its effect on program performance. Using 5 years of data from more than 1000 Texas school districts, the authors measure quality as the additional salary paid to school superintendents over and above the normal determinants

  15. Effects of selling public intervention stocks of skimmed milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Roel; Silvis, Huib; Verhoog, David; Daatselaar, Co

    2018-01-01

    At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, this report analyses the potential market impacts and budgetary effects of different strategies of selling EU public intervention stocks of skimmed milk powder
    (SMP). A gradual phasing out of the EU's SMP stocks over

  16. The effectiveness of the Expanded Public Works Programme on job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of the Expanded Public Works Programme on job creation: a look at a South African ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... This paper reports of a study that examined how the eThekwini Municipality's EPWP has been ...

  17. Effectiveness of infrastructure asset management: challenges for public agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraven, Daan; Hartmann, Andreas; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to better understand the decisions in infrastructure asset management at public agencies and the challenges of these agencies to improve the effectiveness of their decision making. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review on asset management at

  18. Assessing the full effects of public investment in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, J.; Koopmans, C.C.; Hof, B.; Knee, P.; Lieshout, R.; Simmonds, P.; Wokke, F.

    2014-01-01

    Many space-related impact studies have been carried out in the past, but there is no conclusive, comprehensive evaluation of the economic and social effects of public investments in space. Such evaluations are not easy to perform, for several reasons: the space sector is not a recognised category in

  19. Branding your medical practice with effective public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Whether you think of it as your image, your standing in the community, or your reputation, your medical practice is also a brand. While many organizations, companies, products, and services are known for specific attributes that make them stand out from competitors, most use a combination of marketing disciplines to communicate who and what they are to their customers, consumers, and patients. Public relations is often considered the most powerful, cost-effective, and efficacious of the marketing disciplines, surpassing advertising, promotion, and direct mail in molding and developing brands. Your practice can benefit from a well-crafted branding public relations program.

  20. Effect of assistive technology in a public school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anne H; Ito, Max; Smith, Roger O; Andersen, Lori T

    2010-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA) requires assistive technology (AT) be considered at the yearly individualized education program (IEP) meeting of every student in special education. IDEA also directs that AT be implemented on the basis of peer-reviewed literature despite a paucity of research on AT's effectiveness in the public schools. This repeated-measures quasi-experimental study explored AT's effect in a public school special education setting. Participants (N=13) were a heterogeneous group of students in 1 school system who had newly provided AT to address academic and communication goals in one school year. Results suggest that relative to other interventions, AT provided by a multidisciplinary team may have a significant effect on IEP goal improvement (t[12] = 5.54, p= .00) for students in special education (F[2] = 9.35, p= .00), which may support AT's use in special education by occupational therapists as directed by IDEA.

  1. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-01-01

    The public's perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company's community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance

  2. The policy debate over public investment in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Eugene C

    2009-06-01

    Policy makers across the political spectrum, as well as many clinicians and physician professional associations, have proposed that better information on comparative clinical effectiveness should be a key element of any solution to the US health-care cost crisis. This superficial consensus hides intense disagreements over critical issues essential to any new public effort to promote more comparative effectiveness research (CER). This article reviews the background for these disputes, summarizes the different perspectives represented by policy makers and advocates, and offers a framework to aid both practicing and academic internists in understanding the key elements of the emerging debate. Regarding the fundamental question of "what is CER," disagreements rage over whether value or cost effectiveness should be a consideration, and how specific patient perspectives should be reflected in the development and the use of such research. The question of how to pay for CER invokes controversies over the role of the market in producing such information and the private (e.g., insurers and employers) versus public responsibility for its production. The financing debate further highlights the high stakes of comparative effectiveness research, and the risks of stakeholder interests subverting any public process. Accordingly there are a range of proposals for the federal government's role in prioritization, development, and dissemination of CER. The internal medicine community, with its long history of commitment to scientific medical practice and its leadership in evidence-based medicine, should have a strong interest and play an active role in this debate.

  3. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  4. A cost-effective method of achieving meaningful citizen participation in public roadway pipeline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Many proponents of gas pipeline studies using the public roadway for their facilities have trouble encouraging public participation. Problems resulting from a lack of public involvement are documented. A public participation process designed to gather meaningful public input is presented through a case study of a public roadway pipeline study in southern Ontario. Techniques are outlined to effectively stimulate public interest and document the public involvement process. Recommendations are made as to the transferability of this process to other jurisdictions.

  5. In the Name of Effective Consumer Protection and Public Policy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2016-01-01

    I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps...... that include the specific ideas behind consumer protection provisions as well as the interaction between the principle of effectiveness and principle of equivalence. It is found that the principle of effectiveness is stretched very long and is often not set aside by the “rule of reason”. It is also found...... that the CJEU is open to the idea of regarding consumer protection provisions as (EU) public policy rules which seems to challenge the traditional principle of equivalence. Based on the findings, the author elaborates on the concept of an European public policy doctrine....

  6. Detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yarui; Mustapha, Azlin

    2014-01-17

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with food has caused many serious public health problems in recent years. However, only viable cells of this pathogen can cause infections, and false-positive detection caused by dead cells can lead to unnecessary product recalls. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize a method that combines propidium monoazide (PMA) staining with real-time PCR to detect only viable cells of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMA is a DNA intercalating dye that can penetrate compromised membranes of dead cells and bind to cellular DNA, preventing its amplification via a subsequent PCR. Three strains of E. coli O157:H7 (505B, G5310 and C7927) at concentrations of 10(0) to 10(8)CFU/mL were used as live cells. Dead cells were obtained by heating cell suspensions at 85°C for 15 min. Suspensions were treated with PMA and the optimized assay was applied to artificially contaminated ground beef with two different fat contents (10% and 27%). DNA was extracted and amplified by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the uidA gene for detection of E. coli O157:H7. Plasmid pUC19 was added as an internal amplification control (IAC). A treatment of 25 μM PMA with a 10-min light exposure on ice was sufficient to eliminate DNA from 10(8) dead E. coli O157:H7 cells/mL. The optimized assay could detect as low as 10(2) CFU/mL viable E. coli O157:H7 in pure culture and 10(5) CFU/g in ground beef, in the presence of 10(6)/mL or g of dead cells. With an 8-h enrichment, 1 CFU/g viable E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef was detectable without interference from 10(6) dead cells/g. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR could effectively detect viable E. coli O157:H7 without being compromised by dead cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Public Health Effects of Medical Marijuana Legalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan M; Mendelson, Bruce; Berkes, Jay J; Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F; Booth, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    The public health consequences of the legalization of marijuana, whether for medical or recreational purposes, are little understood. Despite this, numerous states are considering medical or recreational legalization. In the context of abrupt changes in marijuana policy in 2009 in Colorado, the authors sought to investigate corresponding changes in marijuana-related public health indicators. This observational, ecologic study used an interrupted time-series analysis to identify changes in public health indicators potentially related to broad policy changes that occurred in 2009. This was records-based research from the state of Colorado and Denver metropolitan area. Data were collected to examine frequency and trends of marijuana-related outcomes in hospital discharges and poison center calls between time periods before and after 2009 and adjusted for population. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Hospital discharges coded as marijuana-dependent increased 1% per month (95% CI=0.8, 1.1, pcenter calls mentioning marijuana (pcenter calls increased 0.8% per month (95% CI=0.2, 1.4, pcenter calls also increased 56% (95% CI=49%, 63%, p<0.001) in the period following the policy change. Further, there was one hospital discharge coded as dependent for every 3,159 (95% CI=2465, 3853, p<0.001) medical marijuana registrant applications. The abrupt nature of these changes suggests public health effects related to broad policy changes associated with marijuana. This report may be used to assist in policy decisions regarding the short-term public health effects of marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Public music concerts in a psychiatric hospital: effects on public opinion and as therapy for patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaka, Y; Yokota, O; Tanioka, T; Nagata, K; Yasuoka, K; Toda, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effects of music therapy concerts, which were held 60 times over a four year period, 1992 to 1996, in Geiyo Psychiatric Hospital, Kochi Prefecture and found that; 1) Musicians who performed at the concerts were not only from Kochi prefecture but also from other prefectures (10 times) and from four foreign countries (7 times). 2) Live concerts in a small hall had a positive influence on patients and drew the patient's attention and interest away from their hallucinations and delusions to the real world. Moreover, the concerts provided the patients with chances to acquire social graces such as being well-groomed. 3) Explanations by the musicians, interviews with the musicians and the seasonal choruses accompanied by the musicians were helpful to give the patients motives for recovering communication skills and to interact with society. 4) Inquiries to the patients about the concerts indicated discrepancies between the poor observed estimations during the concerts (83.3%) and the good subjective impressions expressed by the patients (82.0%), suggesting that the patients were not good at expressing their internal emotions through facial expressions or attitudes. 5) Many citizens including children came to the concerts and/or gave aid to the hospital because the concerts were open to the public and we suggest that this contributed to improving the general publics' image of psychiatric hospitals. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of people in a control group had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals in Japan, but only 32% of the members of the general public who attended our concerts had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals. In addition, the revolving ratio of the hospital beds rose from 0.4 to 1.2 over the four years, which also suggests a beneficial effect on the patients.

  9. Informing the public on technical effectiveness of international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    In recent years, public interest regarding IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards effectiveness has partially shifted to detection of undeclared nuclear facilities. Nevertheless, important segments of the public remain vitally interested in whether international safeguards would be able to reliably and definitively detect diversion of bomb quantities of plutonium or highly enriched uranium from open-quotes bulk handlingclose quotes facilities. There now exists a sizable body of unclassified technical reports, based on experimental results over many years, written by various experts, describing actual capabilities and limitations of safeguards techniques and systems, which collectively lead to definitive evaluations of technical safeguards effectiveness. For a large-scale operation of spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium fuel fabrication, or gas centrifuge uranium enrichment, an undisputable conclusion is that international safeguards systems would be unable to reliably and definitively detect the diversion in a one-year period of a significant quantity of plutonium or enriched uranium; moreover, diversion of many significant quantities per year (from such an operation) would have negligible probability of definitive detection if conducted in accordance with particle diversion scenarios. To properly inform the public and government agencies, reports on technical effectiveness of international safeguards should incorporate these basic conclusions

  10. Aquatic Therapy: A Viable Therapeutic Recreation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Reviews literature on the effects of aquatic therapy (swimming and exercise) to improve function. Research shows that aquatic therapy has numerous psychological and physical benefits, and it supports the belief that participation can provide a realistic solution to maintaining physical fitness and rehabilitation goals while engaging in enjoyable…

  11. The cost-effectiveness of public postsecondary education subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, P; Fahs, M

    2001-02-01

    Although educational attainment is a well-recognized covariate of health status, it is rarely thought of as a tool to be used to improve health. Since fewer than 40% of U.S. citizens have a college degree, it may be possible for the government to improve the health status of the population by assuming a larger burden of the cost of postsecondary education. This paper examines the costs and health effects of a government subsidy for public postsecondary education institutions. All high school graduates in 1997 were included in a decision analysis model as a hypothetical cohort. Data from the U.S. Department of Education, the World Health Organization, and the National Center for Health Statistics were used as model inputs. Results. Relative to the present educational system, a federal subsidy for public and private colleges equal to the amount now paid by students for tuition and living expenses would save $6,176 and avert 0.0018 of a disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) per person annually if enrollment increased 5%. The overall savings among 1997 high school graduates would be $17.1 billion and 4,992 DALYs would be averted per year relative to the present educational system. If enrollment increased by just 3%, $3,743 would be saved and 0.0011 DALYs would be averted per person. An enrollment increase of 7% would lead to savings of $8,610 and 0.0025 DALYs would be averted per person relative to the present educational system. If the government were to offer a full subsidy for college tuition at public universities, both lives and money would be saved, so long as enrollment levels increased. Providing a free postsecondary education for students attending public schools may be more cost-effective than most health investments. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  12. Public good provision and public bad prevention: the effect of framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.H.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Offerman, T.J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods (bads) is presented. In the public good presentation of the dilemma the subjects choose between contributing or not. The public good is provided for all group-members if and only if the number of contributors

  13. Public good provision and public bad prevention: The effect of framing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.; Schram, A.; Offermans, T.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods/bads is presented. Alternatively, the situation is presented as the provision of a public good or the prevention of a public bad. From a strategic point of view, these presentations are equivalent. In early

  14. Making the Public Distribution System Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarshi Das

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on empirical observations of operation of public distribution system in different states of India, the paper constructs a preliminary game theoretic model. It argues that an effective public distribution must be as universal as possible, delivery mechanism of fair price shops should be re- formed, they should be make them commercially viable and that special attention should be paid to PDS at times of high food inflation.

  15. Optional contributions have positive effects for volunteering public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.

  16. Viable Solutions for seemingly Intractable Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Life is filled with seemingly intractable problems. But life wisdom affirms that if there is a problem, there must be a solution. Or better yet, the solution to the problem lies within the problem itself. Problems have their roots in disharmony. Disharmony arises when a part separates itself from the whole and acts independently of the wider reality of which it is a part, as financial markets have separated themselves from the real economy and economy has detached itself from social and ecological consequences. Insistence on out-moded approaches under new conditions generates intractable problems, as when the framework of a heterogeneous nation-state is employed for the dominance of a single ethnic or religious group. Knowledge and culture are the supreme values of a society and core element of its capacity for accomplishment and development, yet both tend to be exclusively possessed by elites for their own benefit, rather than freely distributed to maximize their impact on society as a whole. Society evolves by the transformation of ignorance into knowledge. Life evolves by organization. The linking and integration of social organizations spur development. Mind itself is an organization and powerful force for development. Energy makes organization more efficient. Any problem can be solved by raising the effectiveness of energy by converting it into skill or capacity and transforming it into power through organization. What one person sees as a problem is an opportunity for another with wider vision. The difference in perception accounts for the difference in levels of accomplishment. So, those with the right perspective see opportunities where others see insolvable problems. Current problems are the result of irrationality, refusal to benefit from past experience and insistence on repeating past errors. Modern science, which was born to fight the superstition of religion, has become a source of superstition. Fully availing of the latest

  17. Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talons and beaks are viable but underutilized samples for detecting organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisoning in raptors. Ngaio Richards, Irene Zorrilla, Joseph Lalah, Peter Otieno, Isabel Fernandez, Monica Calvino, Joaquin Garcia ...

  18. Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for Poverty Alleviation in the Rural Areas of Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... a source of income, also the paper focus on the roles of women in aquaculture, ...

  19. Route effect on the perception of public transport services quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica-Olmo, J.; Gachs-Sanchez, H.M.; Lizarraga, C.

    2016-07-01

    User satisfaction sets a basic example for public service quality, especially those considered as basic necessities. The quality in transport service related to conceptualization and measurement, as a decisive demand key, presents challenges for both economic and mobility policies.Several operator companies are involved in the transport sector. Therefore this report aims to design a model of overall satisfaction based on the level of satisfaction with a specific set of factors, considering individual characteristics of users and the differential effect of different bus lines.The current presentation has applied a combined method, using Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA) and a Logit Multilevel Model (LMLM) in two-steps. (Author)

  20. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  1. Radiogenic health effects: communicating risks to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelczyk, Jadwiga

    1999-01-01

    Harmful effects of prolonged radiation exposures were recognized early on following the discovery of X-rays by W.C. Roentgen in 1895. The type and severity of radiogenic effects are functions of a number of factors, radiation quality and quantity, chemical toxicity, and radiosensitivity of irradiated tissues being the most significant ones. Currently, there are several human registries for radiogenic cancers. Atomic bomb and nuclear test survivors, and populations exposed to medical irradiation constitute the largest study cohorts. Two general types of radiogenic effects have emerged from these registries: prompt and delayed. While the effects of acute exposures are very well documented, investigations of the effects of low-level exposures require the use of mathematical models. Communicating the risks of lower-level chronic radiation exposures to the general public remains a challenging task. The most effective approaches include clear interpretation and placing radiation risks in perspective: risks versus benefits, and comparisons with risks carried by common activities in which we all engage. (author)

  2. Strategy Implementation Style and Public Service Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Andrews

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Strategic decision-making theories suggest that organizations that combine rational and incremental strategy implementation styles are likely to perform better than those that emphasize a single style. To assess whether these arguments apply to the public sector; we explore the strategy implementation style and perceived service effectiveness, efficiency and equity of Turkish municipal government departments. Using fuzzy cluster analysis, we identify four distinctive though inter-related styles of strategy implementation in our sample organizations: logical-incremental; mostly rational; mostly incremental; and no clear approach. A logical-incremental and mostly rational style of implementation are associated with better effectiveness, efficiency and equity; with the absence of an implementation style associated with worse performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  4. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  6. What Constrains Effective Public Financial Management in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the management of the area of public finance is highly legislated, the waste with which these resources slip through the public coffers remains a paradox. The purpose of this article is to examine the five self-reinforcing variables that are mostly fingered for this dilemma. These are: (1) public finance as a political ...

  7. Walking with music is a safe and viable tool for gait training in Parkinson's disease: the effect of a 13-week feasibility study on single and dual task walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Natalie; Doan, Jon B; Turnbull, George; Suchowersky, Oksana; Bonfield, Stephan; Hu, Bin; Brown, Lesley A

    2010-07-13

    This study explored the viability and efficacy of integrating cadence-matched, salient music into a walking intervention for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-two people with PD were randomised to a control (CTRL, n = 11) or experimental (MUSIC, n = 11) group. MUSIC subjects walked with an individualised music playlist three times a week for the intervention period. Playlists were designed to meet subject's musical preferences. In addition, the tempo of the music closely matched (±10-15 bpm) the subject's preferred cadence. CTRL subjects continued with their regular activities during the intervention. The effects of training accompanied by "walking songs" were evaluated using objective measures of gait score. The MUSIC group improved gait velocity, stride time, cadence, and motor symptom severity following the intervention. This is the first study to demonstrate that music listening can be safely implemented amongst PD patients during home exercise.

  8. The Effect of a High School Speech Course on Public Speaking Anxiety for Students in a College-Level Public Speaking Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen Hill

    2012-01-01

    Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…

  9. Vaccines against drugs of abuse: a viable treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Kathleen M

    2003-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for this disease because the relapse rate among drug abusers seeking treatment is quite high. During the past decade, many groups have explored the feasibility of using vaccines directed against drugs of abuse as a means of eliminating illicit drug use as well as drug overdose and neurotoxicity. Vaccines work by inducing drug-specific antibodies in the bloodstream that bind to the drug of abuse and prevent its entry into the brain. The majority of work in this area has been conducted with vaccines and antibodies directed against cocaine and nicotine. On the basis of preclinical work, vaccines for cocaine and nicotine are now in clinical trials because they can offer long-term protection with minimal treatment compliance. In addition, vaccines and antibodies for phencyclidine, methamphetamine and heroin abuse are currently under development. An underlying theme in this research is the need for high concentrations of circulating drug-specific antibodies to reduce drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour when the drug is repeatedly available, especially in high doses. Although vaccines against drugs of abuse may become a viable treatment option, there are several drawbacks that need to be considered. These include: a lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice;a lack of an effect on drug craving that predisposes an addict to relapse; and tremendous individual variability in antibody formation. Forced or coerced vaccination is not likely to work from a scientific perspective, and also carries serious legal and ethical concerns. All things considered, vaccination against a drug of abuse is likely to work best with individuals who are highly motivated to quit using drugs altogether and as part of a comprehensive treatment programme. As such, the medical treatment of drug abuse will not be radically

  10. Mapping In Vivo Tumor Oxygenation within Viable Tumor by 19F-MRI and Multispectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying oxygenation in viable tumor remains a major obstacle toward a better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and improving treatment strategies. Current techniques are often complicated by tumor heterogeneity. Herein, a novel in vivo approach that combines 19F magnetic resonance imaging (19F-MRIR1 mapping with diffusionbased multispectral (MS analysis is introduced. This approach restricts the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 measurements to viable tumor, the tissue of therapeutic interest. The technique exhibited sufficient sensitivity to detect a breathing gas challenge in a xenograft tumor model, and the hypoxic region measured by MS 19F-MRI was strongly correlated with histologic estimates of hypoxia. This approach was then applied to address the effects of antivascular agents on tumor oxygenation, which is a research question that is still under debate. The technique was used to monitor longitudinal pO2 changes in response to an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (B20.4.1.1 and a selective dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (GDC-0980. GDC-0980 reduced viable tumor pO2 during a 3-day treatment period, and a significant reduction was also produced by B20.4.1.1. Overall, this method provides an unprecedented view of viable tumor pO2 and contributes to a greater understanding of the effects of antivascular therapies on the tumor's microenvironment.

  11. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  12. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  13. Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving smallholder and cooperative agribusiness management: A case study of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. ... South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Empirical evidence from this study shows that six months after attending the workshops, ...

  14. A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Two titles in one cover. On page 56-112 there's the English version of the book: 'A viable real estate economy with disruption and blockchain. Does real estate still have the value that it had, or is the valuation of real estate going to change due to surprising products and services, innovative

  15. The Pill Not Taken: Revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2014-01-01

    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to…

  16. Comparing New School Effects in Charter and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school…

  17. The effect of public health spending on under-five mortality rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of public health spending on under-five mortality rate in Uganda. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... rate, Neonatal mortality rate, Public health expenditure, Sustainable Development Goals and Health status ...

  18. Studies on chlorophyll and viable mutations in green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) II: Response to mutagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswami, S; Rathinam, M [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India). Dept. of Agricultural Botany

    1980-09-01

    The frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable mutations in relation to type and dose of mutagen and cluster progenies were studied in four green gram cultivars viz., Kopergaon, Pusa Baisakhi, L. 24/2 and Sel. 122 subjected to two levels of EMS and gamma irradiation, severally and in conjunction. While chlorophyll mutations did not vary with the mutagen dose, viable mutations exhibited a direct relationship. Combinations of the mutagens were more effective in mutation induction. While no difference was manifested between the cluster families in respect of chlorophyll mutations, progenies of the second cluster recorded less viable mutations than either the first or the third. Viridis and xanthoviridis among chlorophyll mutations, and those affecting plant duration and stature among viable were more predominant.

  19. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking...... the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order...

  20. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin; Akbari, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order for researchers and students to identify these journals.

  1. Effects of public premiums on children's health insurance coverage: evidence from 1999 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Genevieve; Hadley, Jack; Blavin, Fredric

    This study uses 2000 to 2004 Current Population Survey data to examine the effects of public premiums on the insurance coverage of children whose family incomes are between 100% and 300% of the federal poverty level. The analysis employs multinomial logistic models that control for factors other than premium costs. While the magnitude of the estimated effects varies across models, the results consistently indicate that raising public premiums reduces enrollment in public programs, with some children who forgo public coverage having private coverage instead and others being uninsured. The results indicate that public premiums have larger effects when applied to lower-income families.

  2. Mastering public health: essential skills for effective practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Gaufin, Joyce R

    2012-01-01

    .... Designed for new and seasoned public health workers alike, this user-friendly guide focuses on the day-to-day practical skills and competencies that are often not taught in educational or training programs...

  3. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS EFFECTIVE MECHANISM OF SPORTS INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Moskvin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the current state of sports infrastructure in Russia and also explores the experience of using public-private partnership at Olympic facilities construction in Sochi.

  4. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  5. To the public procurement cost-effectiveness evaluation in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Kramin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to search for and substantiate the single criterion of economic efficiency of state purchases in Russia. Methods econometric modelling benchmarking. Results the article identifies the need to assess the effectiveness of the state purchases system in Russia under the conditions of its reforming. The studies are analyzed which are devoted to the approaches to estimating the state purchases efficiency and the problems of ensuring the transparency of purchasing procedures. Special attention is paid to the analysis of studying the benchmarking of state purchases which helped to identify the key areas of benchmarking focusing on certain performance indicators. To implement the research objective the purchases effectiveness was analyzed from the viewpoint of the savings achieved. For this we studied the evaluation of savings in purchases as reflected in various sources of information including the data of the state statistics authorities audit and monitoring of purchases. As a result of the data systematization and generalization we identified a functional relationship between savings in purchases and the average number of participants in the purchasing process. A similar conclusion was formulated according to the analysis of indicators of the national rating of purchases transparency. There was also built a functional dependency of the discount on increasing the number of purchasing participants up to five for different ways of determining the provider. A slowdown of the discount to the initial price was revealed as the number of eligible applications grows. Based on the regional rating of the public purchases ldquoPurchases 360rdquo a factor analysis of differences of the Russian constituent entities was carried out in terms of savings. The analysis confirmed the hypothesis about the existence of a relationship between savings and the level of competition in purchases. The study also identified other factors that determine the level of

  6. Centralized Management For Effective Public Diplomacy: Case of Hasabara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy V. Kabernik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is the first in the series dedicated to review and analysis of cases of centralization of public diplomacy affairs management for better promoting the agenda of the state. Introduction focuses on the erosion of traditional diplomatic practices shifting towards the stark attraction of soft power and public diplomacy. The evolution of modern public diplomacy in new media and the ways of its practical implementation reviewed, stating the raising power of non-government actors and mass media with their greater influence developing political agenda. The shift is analyzed on temporal basis bearing in mind inception of web 2.0 happening almost simultaneously with theoretical basis of soft power and the role of public diplomacy in propagating it. The case outlined in the first part reviews the evolution of Israeli's Hasbara - public diplomacy apparatus implemented in Jewish State. This evolution demonstrates the shift from decentralized management and coordination paradigm towards structured complex of measures led by government bodies. The sources and reasons for such a shift are being analyzed while national specifics for public diplomacy coordination is outlined. Results of the study underline the deficiencies of the chosen centralization paradigm via government bodies' control. The approach is being compared with the current practices implemented in Russia, outlining the best practices and mistakes to avoid that could be deducted from Israeli experience.

  7. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  8. The Mediating Effect of Social Capital on the Relationship Between Public Health Managers' Transformational Leadership and Public Health Nurses' Organizational Empowerment in Korea Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Young

    2017-12-01

    This study was to verify the effect of public health nurse's (PHN's) social capital on the relationship between public health manager's (PHM's) transformational leadership and PHN's organizational empowerment in Korea public health. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 303 PHNs from public health centers in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do cities in South Korea. Data were collected from February 29, 2016 to April 8, 2016, using structured questionnaires which included general characteristics, transformational leadership, organizational empowerment, and social capital. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlations, and structural equation model. PHM's transformational leadership has a positive effect on PHN's social capital and PHN's organizational empowerment. Social capital had a mediating effect between transformational leadership and organizational empowerment in PHNs. This study suggests that PHM's transformational leadership is a contributing factor to improve PHN's organizational empowerment, and transformational leadership can lead to improve PHN's organizational empowerment through PHN's social capital. So, an intervention program to promote organizational empowerment should include strategies to enhance PHM's transformational leadership as well as to improve PHN's social capital. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

  10. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  11. Estimated effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Li, Winny; Yau, Brandon; Persaud, Nav

    2017-02-27

    Canada's universal health care system does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. We sought to estimate the effects of adding universal public coverage of an essential medicines list to existing public drug plans in Canada. We used administrative and market research data to estimate the 2015 shares of the volume and cost of prescriptions filled in the community setting that were for 117 drugs on a model list of essential medicines for Canada. We compared prices of these essential medicines in Canada with prices in the United States, Sweden and New Zealand. We estimated the cost of adding universal public drug coverage of these essential medicines based on anticipated effects on medication use and pricing. The 117 essential medicines on the model list accounted for 44% of all prescriptions and 30% of total prescription drug expenditures in 2015. Average prices of generic essential medicines were 47% lower in the US, 60% lower in Sweden and 84% lower in New Zealand; brand-name drugs were priced 43% lower in the US. Estimated savings from universal public coverage of these essential medicines was $4.27 billion per year (range $2.72 billion to $5.83 billion; 28% reduction) for patients and private drug plan sponsors, at an incremental government cost of $1.23 billion per year (range $373 million to $1.98 billion; 11% reduction). Our analysis showed that adding universal public coverage of essential medicines to the existing public drug plans in Canada could address most of Canadians' pharmaceutical needs and save billions of dollars annually. Doing so may be a pragmatic step forward while more comprehensive pharmacare reforms are planned. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  12. The Effective Public Manager. Achieving Success in Government. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven

    The problems faced by public managers in managing an agency's internal operations and communicating with the outside world are described, and strategies for addressing these management problems are provided, as is personal advice on how to build and maintain a professional reputation and advance in the bureaucratic hierarchy. The following…

  13. The Effect of Outsourcing on the Performance of Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Lonny J.

    2009-01-01

    Public education in the 21st century is faced with many difficult challenges. The first and probably most common issue is related to finance. As the economy continues to worsen, school districts are forced to find new revenue streams while at the same time reducing expenditures. In the current economic climate, it is becoming more difficult for…

  14. Public - private interdependence: An effective tool in water supply services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Iosif

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the impact of certain determinants on the choice of local authorities to use public - private interdependence for the provision of water supply services, based on the Spanish and Romanian local experiences. Being aware of their impact, the authorities could place a particular focus on the determinants that lead to local development. Several studies reveal that public – private interdependence is a powerful tool for building local development (Melo & do Carmo, 2008; Dessi & Floris, 2009 and states are interested in finding out ways to obtain it. The complex methodology of the paper was designed in accordance with the particularities of each country studied. Gathering the data for Romania implied conducting several interviews, and for Spain survey, exploratory analysis and semi-structured interviews were applied. The determinants’ influence was tested through logit or linear probability model. The analysis validates that population, density of population, indirect taxes, affiliation of the city representative to a certain political party is influencing the option of local public authorities. The paper brings recommendations on promoting public - private interdependence in water supply services. The paper is mainly valuable for the parallel that is made between Spain and Romania in water supply services and it brings progress in comparative country cases.

  15. When is public enforcement of insider trading regulations effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate when public enforcement of insider trading regulations reduces the amount of insider trading. We model a game between a potentially self-interested regulator enforcing insider trading laws and a trader who may be trading on inside information. We show that equilibrium

  16. The Effect of Leadership in a Public Bad Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moxnes, E.; van der Heijden, E.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    With regard to global or regional environmental problems, do countries that take unilateral actions inspire other countries to curtail emissions?In this paper this possibility is investigated by the use of a novel design of a laboratory public bad experiment with a leader.Twelve groups of five

  17. Evaluating the Effects of Co-Production Initiatives in Public Service Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine; Mortensen, Nanna Møller

    2017-01-01

    A change from New Public Management to New Public Governance (NPG) does not occur overnight. This forces public service organizations to develop new hybrid organizational forms as strategic response to the current situation. In NPG the basic assumption is that coproduction will result in increased...... efficiency and effectiveness for public service organizations as a new organizational recipe. However, a recent review determines that only few empirical studies document these claimed effects. To enable the creation of more empirical evidence that establish the effects of co-production, the purpose of our...

  18. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  19. Audit the effectiveness of the electronic system of public (state) procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Pysmenna, М.

    2017-01-01

    The study deals with the methodology of the audit the effectiveness of e-environment for public procurement. The purpose of this paper is deepening theoretical and methodological framework for auditing electronic systems for public (government) procurement. Research methods included analysis of legislation in the area of procurement, monitoring of individual transactions of public (state) procurement, interview with the responsible persons of budgetary funds on the assessment of the effective...

  20. Effect of science communication with the public on inference of risk perception of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2006-01-01

    Our previous study showed a big difference between expert's own risk perception and experts' inference of the public risk perception about technologies. So, this study tried to clarify the effect of the perceived distance in risk perception between the public and experts themselves on forwardness in science communication to the public. The questionnaire survey results reaffirmed that experts were inclined to feel larger difference in risk perception between the public and themselves on the subject of their own specialty than of non-specialty. The result also suggested the tendency that the bigger experts recognized difference in risk perception from the public, the less they actually had experiences of science communication including communication with the public. Moreover, the result showed that experiences of science communication had positive effects on belief of the public's scientific literacy. (author)

  1. The effectiveness of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Novljan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes methods of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries, and calls attention to the problems attached to it. The argued presumption is that the performance measuring carried out on the state level, is not always a sufficient and adequate foundation for plarming of the developmenl and functioning of an individual library which has to cater for the needs and wishes of the population in a certain area.

  2. The effects of affiliations on the initial public offering pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Geranio, Manuela; Mazzoli, Camilla; Palmucci, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of affiliations between lead managers, venture capitalists, and institutional investors on the Initial Public Offering (IPO) pricing. Using a sample of 1996 US IPOs issued between 1997 and 2010, we find that affiliations strongly and positively affect the offer price by improving the information production process. We also show that the underpricing is affected by affiliations because of conflicts of interest that exist between the players: when an institutional ...

  3. The Effect of Gender in the Publication Patterns in Mathematics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mihaljević-Brandt

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing number of women graduating in mathematics, a systemic gender imbalance persists and is signified by a pronounced gender gap in the distribution of active researchers and professors. Especially at the level of university faculty, women mathematicians continue being drastically underrepresented, decades after the first affirmative action measures have been put into place. A solid publication record is of paramount importance for securing permanent positions. Thus, the question arises whether the publication patterns of men and women mathematicians differ in a significant way. Making use of the zbMATH database, one of the most comprehensive metadata sources on mathematical publications, we analyze the scholarly output of ∼150,000 mathematicians from the past four decades whose gender we algorithmically inferred. We focus on development over time, collaboration through coautorships, presumed journal quality and distribution of research topics-factors known to have a strong impact on job perspectives. We report significant differences between genders which may put women at a disadvantage when pursuing an academic career in mathematics.

  4. The Effect of Gender in the Publication Patterns in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević-Brandt, Helena; Santamaría, Lucía; Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of women graduating in mathematics, a systemic gender imbalance persists and is signified by a pronounced gender gap in the distribution of active researchers and professors. Especially at the level of university faculty, women mathematicians continue being drastically underrepresented, decades after the first affirmative action measures have been put into place. A solid publication record is of paramount importance for securing permanent positions. Thus, the question arises whether the publication patterns of men and women mathematicians differ in a significant way. Making use of the zbMATH database, one of the most comprehensive metadata sources on mathematical publications, we analyze the scholarly output of ∼150,000 mathematicians from the past four decades whose gender we algorithmically inferred. We focus on development over time, collaboration through coautorships, presumed journal quality and distribution of research topics-factors known to have a strong impact on job perspectives. We report significant differences between genders which may put women at a disadvantage when pursuing an academic career in mathematics.

  5. Publication planning: an effective corporate strategy to influence health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies integrate scientific publications into the communication strategies they employ to influence the practices of health professionals. In their"publication plan", pharmaceutical companies, or the communication agencies they hire, develop key messages to promote their drugs and then plan in advance how, when and where to disseminate them in medical journals or at conferences. Although their true intent is promotional, these messages must appear to be purely scientific, and are therefore disseminated as research articles, review articles, editorials, commentaries. Publication planning involves the use of "ghost" authors who work directly for pharmaceutical companies, but whose contribution is rarely acknowledged in the final published article. Key opinion leaders are recruited as the honorary authors of these articles, to which they have made little, if any, contribution. The criteria for authorship set by journals that publish primary research articles do not provide adequate protection against the practice of ghost and honorary authorship. Certain journals publishing primary research derive a large proportion of their revenue from selling reprints used by pharmaceutical companies to promote their drugs, especially by their sales representatives.

  6. Contracting of energy services: often a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, M.; Bruendler, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the outsourcing of energy services as a viable alternative to the operation of own energy facilities. The advantages of contracting for enterprises wanting to focus on their core competencies and have their energy infrastructure financed, built, maintained and operated by a third party are discussed. Financial aspects are looked at and examples in connection with the calculation of actual energy costs are given. The article is concluded with tips on the evaluation of offers for contracting services and on the definition of ownership aspects and property boundaries

  7. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  8. The operations and effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection services in Kampala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.; Mol, A.P.J.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container

  9. Formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori: viables o degenerativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cava

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available De los trabajos presentados acerca de las formas cocoides de Helicobacter pylori se deduce una controversia mucho mayor que la resultante del mero estudio clínico de este microorganismo. Parece claro que existe una conversión tanto in vivo como in vitro de las formas espirales a las formas cocoides inducida por varios motivos, como cultivos prolongados, estrés físico y químico, y agentes antimicrobianos. En esta revisión repasamos los puntos de vista que han dividido a investigadores de esta área en dos grupos bien definidos: Los que consideran a estas formas cocoides como un producto no viable de degeneración celular y los que piensan que estas formas son estructuras viables,durmientes o de resistencia frente a condiciones ambientales adversas. Esta discrepancia conlleva a que interrogantes sobre la relación entre la transmisión de la enfermedad y estas formas cocoides permanezcan sin respuesta todavía.

  10. Separation of viable lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Nishino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits to humans. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB are probiotic organisms used in the production of fermented foods, such as yogurt, cheese, and pickles. Given their widespread consumption, it is important to understand the physiological state of LAB in foods such as yogurt. However, this analysis is complicated, as it is difficult to separate the LAB from milk components such as solid curds, which prevent cell separation by dilution or centrifugation. In this study, we successfully separated viable LAB from yogurt by density gradient centrifugation. The recovery rate was >90 %, and separation was performed until the stationary phase. Recovered cells were observable by microscopy, meaning that morphological changes and cell viability could be directly detected at the single-cell level. The results indicate that viable LAB can be easily purified from fermented milk. We expect that this method will be a useful tool for the analysis of various aspects of probiotic cells, including their enzyme activity and protein expression. Keywords: Food analysis, Microbiology

  11. RETRACTED: The Mediating Effect of Social Capital on the Relationship Between Public Health Managers' Transformational Leadership and Public Health Nurses' Organizational Empowerment in Korea Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Young Jun, MPH, RN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.The Editor-in-Chief and ANR editorial board have decided to retract this article because the scientific integrity of the content cannot be guaranteed. The article shows evidence of redundant publication and falsification of instruments.This article was a duplicate of a paper that had already been published in Journal of the Korean Data & Information Science Society Vol 29, No. 3, May 2017. doi 10.7465/jkdi.2017.28.3.585 The identical data collection period, study sample, variables, and instruments between these two papers show strong evidence of plagiarism. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited.This article is published based on a master’s thesis (Kim YE. The effects of the transformational leadership of managers perceived by public health nurses and their social capital on empowerment [master’s thesis]. Dague (Korea: Kyungpook National University; 2016. p. 1-57. and the author of this dissertation is deleted. Inappropriate use of master’s thesis without appropriate disclosure and/or citation was made.The instruments [Multifactor leadership questionnaire (Kim DW. The relationship between transformational leadership and quality of nurses' care Service with nurses' organization citizenship behavior as a moderator. Health Soc Welf Rev. 2011;31(2:206e36. Korean, social capital (Han JW, Woo HY, Ju ES, Lim SH, Han SS. Effects of nurses' social capital on turnover intention: focused on the mediating effects organizational commitment and organizational cynicism. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2013;43(4:517e25. https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2013.43.4.517. Korean, and Organizational empowerment (Oh EH, Chung BY. The effect of

  12. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings and commuting behaviour. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on these outcomes is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail ...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen Metropolitan area...

  13. Effects of Persuasive Appeals in Public Service Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that of four message types perceived on the basis of persuasive appeal--emotional, logical, source-attribute, and fear--emotional appeal is the most effective and source-attribute the least effective method of advertising. (RB)

  14. An investigation into the effectiveness of public entities’ procurement practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitswadi Mofokeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of services through the procurement of goods and services requires proper strategic leadership and management processes. Inappropriate planning, under-spending of budgets and ineffective procurement form part of the root causes of poor service delivery, as this restricts the movement of resources to the right places. This study identified the leading procurement practices as: procurement strategy and leadership, the procurement process, human resource management, procurement information systems, supplier management and procurement performance management. These practices were then tested in public entities, mainly in Gauteng Province, South Africa, to determine the extent to which they are applied. The study found that there is a major divide between the perception of the level of application of the leading practices and actual implementation. Processes, skills, performance management, information technology (IT systems and supplier management are applied inadequately or inappropriately. Most entities thus show a poor understanding of customer needs and there seems to be a general lack of customer focus. The study highlighted the best practice areas in which public entities are able to focus their efforts to better achieve excellent customer service and thus service delivery.

  15. Vocational Study and Public Service Motivation: Disentangling the Socializing Effects of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of Public Service Motivation investigate differences in motivation between public and private sector employees, but how these differences emerge and evolve in a pre-entry setting is still puzzling. Based on cross-sectional survey data with 3,521 Danish students enrolled in different...... vocational studies and at different stages (years) of their educational programs, this article investigates the socializing effects of higher education into different levels of public service motivation. The analysis demonstrates that students’ levels of public service motivation at different stages...... of their educational programs depends on the field of study: The level of public service motivation among students in vocational studies aimed at jobs with core public service delivery stays the same during education, whereas the level of public service motivation among students in other fields increases substantively...

  16. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear disaster on global public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghwan; Kim, Minki; Kim, Wonjoon

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster has significantly changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. It is important to understand how this change has occurred in different countries before the global community revises existing nuclear policies. This study examines the effect of the Fukushima disaster on public acceptance of nuclear energy in 42 countries. We find that the operational experience of nuclear power generation which has significantly affected positive public opinion about nuclear energy became considerably negative after the disaster, suggesting fundamental changes in public acceptance regardless of the level of acceptance before the disaster. In addition, contrary to our expectation, the proportion of nuclear power generation is positively and significantly related to public acceptance of nuclear energy after the Fukushima accident and government pressure on media content led to a greater decrease in the level of public acceptance after the accident. Nuclear energy policymakers should consider the varied factors affecting public acceptance of nuclear energy in each country depending on its historical, environmental, and geographical circumstances before they revise nuclear policy in response to the Fukushima accident. - Highlights: • Fukushima accident has negatively changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. • Effect of operational experience became considerably negative after the accident. • Effect of proportion of nuclear power generation is positive after the accident. • Effect of government pressure on media content became negative after the accident. • Country specific policy responses on nuclear public acceptance are required

  17. Synergy effects between MINUSTAH and public security in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Harig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the complex relationship between UN Peace Operations and public security in Brazil. It shows that there are obvious similarities at an operational level between military actions in MINUSTAH and Rio´s Pacification, which arguably result in reciprocal learning processes among troops. With the establishment of dedicated training centres and a considerable amount of practical experience in missions that differ significantly from combat-orientated warfare, soldiers are becoming increasingly familiar with police tasks. Considering the extension of the legal framework for allowing domestic military actions, I argue that this “police-ization of the military” (Dunlap, 1999, p. 222 is probably more significant for internal “Guaranteeing Law and Order” (GLO missions than for further Brazilian participations in Peace Operations.

  18. Effectiveness of presidents as public communicators and presidential performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia García Beaudoux

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in the first place, we present perspectivas elaborated by various authors highlighting the efectiveness of presidents as public communicators as a relevant variable related to the prediction of presidential performance. Second, indicators for the empirical meassurment of the variable are proposed. Third, we discuss the results obtained by means of an empirical exploration that involved the application of the above mentioned indicators to the discourses of four argentinean presidents: Raúl Alfonsín (1983-1989, Carlos Menem (1989-1995 y 1995-1999, Fernando de la Rúa (1999-2001 and Néstor Kirchner (2003-2007. In the last part, we discuss the utility of the variable for evaluating and predicting presidential performance.

  19. Cutting-edge technology for public health workforce training in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Nash, Michelle C; Salemi, Jason L; Mbah, Alfred K; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2013-06-01

    A critical mass of public health practitioners with expertise in analytic techniques and best practices in comparative effectiveness research is needed to fuel informed decisions and improve the quality of health care. The purpose of this case study is to describe the development and formative evaluation of a technology-enhanced comparative effectiveness research learning curriculum and to assess its potential utility to improve core comparative effectiveness research competencies among the public health workforce. Selected public health experts formed a multidisciplinary research collaborative and participated in the development and evaluation of a blended 15-week comprehensive e-comparative effectiveness research training program, which incorporated an array of health informatics technologies. Results indicate that research-based organizations can use a systematic, flexible, and rapid means of instructing their workforce using technology-enhanced authoring tools, learning management systems, survey research software, online communities of practice, and mobile communication for effective and creative comparative effectiveness research training of the public health workforce.

  20. The Recruitment Process as a Part of Effective Human Resource Management in Public Administration in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Tišma, Sanja; Ozimec, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Facing global trends, recognizing and retaining talented and perspective employees became an important issue in every public administration reform. Human resources management in public administration has a mission to help an institution to meet strategic goals by attracting, maintaining and managing employees more effectively. On its way to EU Croatia also has to cope with improvements and development of its public administration system with accent on HRM importance. Taking into account other...

  1. The Effect of Public Support on College Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the extent that state financial support for higher education raises college attainment. Despite its manifest importance for policy, this is the first study to estimate this effect directly. Many studies have estimated the effect of college price on attendance, but state support for higher education and college price do not…

  2. An evaluation framework for effective public participation in EIA in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, Obaidullah; Fischer, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness of public participation in EIA related decisions is of crucial importance for developing a better understanding of overall EIA effectiveness. This paper aims to contribute to the professional debate by establishing a country specific evaluation framework for Pakistan, which, it is suggested, could also potentially be used in other developing countries. The framework is used to evaluate performance of public participation in EIA in terms of 40 attributes for four selected projects from the province of Punjab. The evaluation is based on interviews with stakeholders, review of EIA reports as well as public hearing proceedings and environmental approval conditions. The evaluation of the selected projects revealed an overall weak influence of public participation on substantive quality of EIA and on the final decision. Overall, EIA public participation has succeeded in providing a more egalitarian environment. Furthermore, it appears fair to say that sufficient time for submitting written comments on EIA reports as well as for raising concerns during public hearings had been given. Also, public consultation was significantly contributing to educating participants. Despite some impediments, it is argued that public participation in EIA is gradually gaining ground in Pakistan. Recommendations to enhance EIA public participation effectiveness in Pakistan include applying a more proactive approach which should take place before EIA is conducted and before site selection for development projects is happening.

  3. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  4. Selection of viable cell subpopulations from murine tumours using FACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.J.; Durand, R.E.; Olive, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors developed a technique which enables isolation of viable tumour cells subpopulation as a function of their distance from the blood supply. The basis for this separation procedure is that the fluorochrome, Hoechst 33342, as a result of its high avidity for cellular DNA, exhibits a marked diffusion/consumption gradient when it has to pass through several cell layers. As a result intravenous injection of Hoechst 33342 into tumour bearing animals, results in a heterogeneous straining pattern within the tumour with cells close to blood vessels being brightly fluorescent while those more distant are less intensely stained. Since these differences in staining intensity persist after tumour disaggregation, cells can be sorted into subpopulations on the basis of their fluorescence intensity using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. This technique offers the unique possibility of identifying the location of those cell subpopulations resistant to treatment with either radiation or chemotherapeutic drugs

  5. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  6. Cummins L10G in Kenworth truck 'viable today'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    As the culmination of five years of developmental work by Cummins Engines, BC Research Inc., and BC Gas Utility Ltd., a T800 Kenworth truck was outfitted with a new Cummins L10G natural gas engine, and two lightweight fully -wrapped Dynetek cylinders; it was pronounced to be 'a viable clean truck today'. The L10G spark-ignited engine operates at a relatively high peak efficiency of 37 per cent and is commercially available to meet the current California Air Resources Board heavy duty vehicle emission standards without the use of a catalytic converter. The L10G engine produces no particulate emissions, a very significant advantage, in view of the fact that particulate emissions have been identified as major contributors to respiratory ailments

  7. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond. (invited comment)

  8. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  9. Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

    2014-02-01

    Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli) · g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity.

  10. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings and commuting behaviour. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on these outcomes is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail...... and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen Metropolitan area...

  11. Investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for vulnerabilities to corruption in the chinese public construction sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Subliminal Messages on Public Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, James A.

    A study investigated the effectiveness of subliminal techniques (such as tape recorded programs) for improving public speaking ability. It was hypothesized that students who used subliminal tapes to improve public speaking ability would perform no differently from classmates who listened to identical-sounding placebo tape programs containing no…

  13. Rolling back the public sector: differential effects on growth, employment and investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    The macroeconomic effects of different ways of rolling back the welfare state are analysed. Cutting public spending on market goods induces a lower interest rate, a higher wage, a lower capital stock, and a fall in employment. Cutting public employment or the labour income tax rate leads, in

  14. Performance management and cost effectiveness of public services : empirical evidence from Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Hans; van Hulst, B.L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of public organizations is one of the key topics in public administration research. Cost-effectiveness as a dimension of performance has hardly been studied in this literature, however. Many governments currently are cutting budgets on an unprecedented scale after the world-wide

  15. Organizational crisis-denial strategy: the effect of denial on public framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    By applying a framing perspective, this study explores the effect of a crisis-denial strategy on public response. The online public framing of a specific crisis is compared with the crisis-denial frame provided by the organization. An automated semantic-network analysis is used to identify frames

  16. Risk-based estimate of effect of foodborne diseases on public health, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Reij, M.W.; Havelaar, A.H.; Zwietering, M.H.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The public health effects of illness caused by foodborne pathogens in Greece during 1996–2006 was quantified by using publicly available surveillance data, hospital statistics, and literature. Results were expressed as the incidence of different disease outcomes and as disability-adjusted life years

  17. Current Perspectives on Viable but Non-culturable State in Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihong; Zhong, Junliang; Wei, Caijiao; Lin, Chii-Wann; Ding, Tian

    2017-01-01

    The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state, a unique state in which a number of bacteria respond to adverse circumstances, was first discovered in 1982. Unfortunately, it has been reported that many foodborne pathogens can be induced to enter the VBNC state by the limiting environmental conditions during food processing and preservation, such as extreme temperatures, drying, irradiation, pulsed electric field, and high pressure stress, as well as the addition of preservatives and disinfectants. After entering the VBNC state, foodborne pathogens will introduce a serious crisis to food safety and public health because they cannot be detected using conventional plate counting techniques. This review provides an overview of the various features of the VBNC state, including the biological characteristics, induction and resuscitation factors, formation and resuscitation mechanisms, detection methods, and relationship to food safety.

  18. The Effect of Publicized Quality Information on Home Health Agency Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeah Kyoungrae; Wu, Bingxiao; Kim, Hyunjee; Polsky, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We examine consumers' use of publicized quality information in Medicare home health care markets, where consumer cost sharing and travel costs are absent. We report two findings. First, agencies with high quality scores are more likely to be preferred by consumers after the introduction of a public reporting program than before. Second, consumers' use of publicized quality information differs by patient group. Community-based patients have slightly larger responses to public reporting than hospital-discharged patients. Patients with functional limitations at the start of their care, at least among hospital-discharged patients, have a larger response to the reported functional outcome measure than those without functional limitations. In all cases of significant marginal effects, magnitudes are small. We conclude that the current public reporting approach is unlikely to have critical impacts on home health agency choice. Identifying and releasing quality information that is meaningful to consumers may help increase consumers' use of public reports. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Changing public attitudes towards corporal punishment: the effects of statutory reform in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J V

    2000-08-01

    One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation which changed public opinion. The aim of this brief article is to review the public opinion findings in Sweden in order to evaluate in greater detail the impact of changing the law. A search was conducted to generate all published and publicly-available quantitative surveys of the public in Sweden and elsewhere. The results of time-series analysis of the data are clear. The 1979 legal reform in Sweden did not reduce the level of public support for parental use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children. Support for physical punishment began declining years before the reform was passed and the decline was in no way accelerated by the law reform. Changes in public opinion may have generated the legal reform, but the reverse is not true. Data from other jurisdictions also support the view that there is no relationship between the status of the law and the nature of public views with regard to corporal punishment. This result is consistent with analyses of the effects of legal reforms in other areas. The Swedish ban on corporal punishment did not affect public attitudes. Changing public views requires other initiatives.

  20. Information Warfare: using the viable system model as a framework to attack organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Hutchinson

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is the glue in any organization. It is needed for policy, decision-making, control, and co-ordination. If an organisation's information systems are disrupted or destroyed, then damage to the whole inevitably follows. This paper uses a proven systemic, analytic framework the Viable System Model (VSM - in a functionalist mode, to analyse the vulnerabilities of an organisation's information resources to this form of aggression. It examines the tactics available, and where they can be used to effectively attack an organisation.

  1. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  2. Intranet Effectiveness: A Public Relations Paper-and-Pencil Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgolo-Poore, Marie E.; Pitt, Leyland F.; Ewing, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process directed at developing a simple paper-and-pencil checklist to assess Intranet effectiveness. Discusses the checklist purification procedure, and attempts to establish reliability and validity for the list. Concludes by identifying managerial applications of the checklist, recognizing the limitations of the approach, and…

  3. Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…

  4. Effective Schools. What Makes a Public School Work Well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Children, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Most effective schools share a number of key characteristics, including clear-cut goals and objectives, adequate funding and financial management, quality academic programs, valid assessment programs, parent and family involvement, teacher and staff development, high expectations for students, community involvement, comprehensive support services,…

  5. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except... required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as prescribed in this section...

  6. Decomposing the effects of negative framing in linear public goods games.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, C.

    2015-01-01

    I examine two dimensions of framing in public goods games: Contributing vs. Taking and Gains vs. Losses. I find decreased cooperation under the Taking frame, but not under the Loss frame. This framing effect is stronger for men than women.

  7. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  8. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines : comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  9. Communicating climate change: Improving the effectiveness of public campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Hidalgo Villodres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on climate change highlights the need to develop more effective campaigns to increase citizens’ awareness of this issue, increase their willingness to accept the measures necessary to halt this phenomenon and change their behaviour. This paper describes a study which analyzed the effectiveness of an advertising message that combined informative and motivational variables on pro-environmental attitudes and intended behaviour. The study sample consisted of 180 university students, divided into two equivalent groups. The results supported the initial hypothesis,the participants in the group that received specific behaviour guidelines (to increase perceived control together with information on economic savings (motivational variable displayed more changes in self-efficacy, pro-environmental attitudes and intention of behaviour than the group that did not receive this information.

  10. Assessing the effect of public policy on worker absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Per; Palme, Mårten

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the effect of economic incentives on worker absenteeism, using panel data on work absence for 1990 and 1991 with a sample of 1,396 Swedish blue-collar workers. During this period Sweden implemented major reforms of both its national income replacement program for short-term sickness and income taxes. Both affected the worker's cost of missing work. Our econometric model allows for state-dependent dynamic behavior and control for unobserved heterogeneity. The latter proves to be an ...

  11. Tax Havens and Effective Tax Rates: An Analysis of Private versus Public European Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Jaafar; John Thorton

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of tax-haven operations on the effective corporate tax burdens of publicly listed and privately held firms domiciled in Europe. In particular, we consider how European firmsÕ tax haven operations interacts with factors such listing status and home-country tax reporting systems to determine the relative tax burdens of publicly listed and private firms. Our main empirical results show that tax haven operations is associated with lower effective tax rates for both private a...

  12. A concise guide to effective management of the public works equipment fleet

    OpenAIRE

    De Armas, Vicente.

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of today's trends in fleet management, including, organization, privatization, effects of environmental regulations and a discussion on info...

  13. 76 FR 22414 - Amended Proposed Withdrawal, Notice of Public Meetings, Partial Termination of Segregative Effect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Withdrawal, Notice of Public Meetings, Partial Termination of Segregative Effect; Arizona, California... the proposed SEZs to include some additional lands. It also terminates the segregative effect as to... proposal is cancelled and the segregative effect established by the June 30, 2009, Notice of Proposed...

  14. An economically viable alternative to coastal discharge of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Unger, C.V.; Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The discharge of produced waters to coastal estuaries has been common practice on the Texas coast for many years as these discharges are currently exempt from NPDES permitting. A study of the active produced water discharges in Nueces Bay, Texas revealed that all eight effluents were highly toxic as determined by the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development assays. An alternative to discharging produced water into coastal estuaries is the use of disposal wells. Inactive wells can be converted to produced water disposal wells. Production records for the Nueces Bay, Texas area reveal that 52% of the gas wells produce less than 100 mcf/d and 50% of the oil wells produce less than 10 b/d. Using conservative estimates, the cost of converting an inactive well to a disposal well was calculated to be $31,500 which could be paid out by a gas well producing as little as 100 mcf/d in 26 months using only 50% of the well's profit. Combining multiple leases to a single disposal well would reduce proportionately the cost to each operation. This study has demonstrated that economically viable disposal options could be achieved in the Nueces Bay area through the imaginative and cooperative formation of produced water disposal ventures. This same model could be applied to produced water discharges in other coastal areas

  15. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  16. Physiology limits commercially viable photoautotrophic production of microalgal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Philip; Flynn, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential. We demonstrate how physiological and operational trade-offs combine to restrict the potential for solar-powered algal-biodiesel production in open ponds to a ceiling of ca. 8000 L ha -1 year -1 . For industrial-scale operations, practical considerations limit production to ca. 6000 L ha -1 year -1 . According to published economic models and life cycle analyses, such production rates cannot support long-term viable commercialisation of solar-powered cultivation of natural microalgae strains exclusively as feedstock for biofuels. The commercial viability of microalgal biofuels depends critically upon limitations in microalgal physiology (primarily in rates of C-fixation); we discuss the scope for addressing this bottleneck concluding that even deployment of genetically modified microalgae with radically enhanced characteristics would leave a very significant logistical if not financial burden.

  17. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  18. Developing public health performance measures to capture the effects of transportation facilities on multiple public health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Increasingly, federal transportation and public health agencies are working together to identify : transportation investments that improve public health. Investments in transportation : infrastructure represent one method to utilize transportation to...

  19. Consumption value theory and the marketing of public health: an effective formative research tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Douglas G; Byus, Kent

    2002-01-01

    Contemporary public health requires the support and participation of its constituency. This study assesses the capacity of consumption value theory to identify the basis of this support. A telephone survey design used simple random sampling of adult residents of Cherokee County, Oklahoma. Factor analysis and stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify and classify personal and societal level support variables. Most residents base societal level support on epistemic values. Direct services clientele base their support on positive emotional values derived from personal contact and attractive programs. Residents are curious about public health and want to know more about the health department. Where marketing the effectiveness of public health programs would yield relatively little support, marketing health promotion activities may attract public opposition. This formative research tool suggests a marketing strategy for public health practitioners.

  20. Droplet digital PCR improves absolute quantification of viable lactic acid bacteria in faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Guillaume; Cotillard, Aurélie; Fourmestraux, Candice; Pruvost, Laurence; Miguet, Jean; Boyer, Mickaël

    2018-03-14

    Analysing correlations between the observed health effects of ingested probiotics and their survival in digestive tract allows adapting their preparations for food. Tracking ingested probiotic in faecal samples requires accurate and specific tools to quantify live vs dead cells at strain level. Traditional culture-based methods are simpler to use but they do not allow quantifying viable but non-cultivable (VBNC) cells and they are poorly discriminant below the species level. We have set up a viable PCR (vPCR) assay combining propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment and either real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) or droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to quantify a Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strains in piglet faeces. Adjustments of the PMA treatment conditions and reduction of the faecal sample size were necessary to obtain accurate discrimination between dead and live cells. The study also revealed differences of PMA efficiency among the two L. paracasei strains. Both PCR methods were able to specifically quantify each strain and provided comparable total bacterial counts. However, quantification of lower numbers of viable cells was best achieved with ddPCR, which was characterized by a reduced lower limit of quantification (improvement of up to 1.76 log 10 compared to qPCR). All three strains were able to survive in the piglets' gut with viability losses between 0.78 and 1.59 log 10 /g faeces. This study shows the applicability of PMA-ddPCR to specific quantification of small numbers of viable bacterial cells in the presence of an important background of unwanted microorganisms, and without the need to set up standard curves. It also illustrates the need to adapt PMA protocols according to the final matrix and target strain, even for closely related strains. The PMA-ddPCR approach provides a new tool to quantify bacterial survival in faecal samples from a preclinical and clinical trial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by

  1. Do driving restriction policies effectively motivate commuters to use public transportation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yunxia; Hong, Zaisheng; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Driving restriction policies have been implemented in some large Chinese cities to cope with severe urban smog pollution. We explored the roles of policy acceptance and other factors in commuters' transport mode decisions, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Tianjin, China. A structural equation model was developed to test eight hypotheses, two of which were rejected. The results indicate that a driving restriction policy alone cannot effectively motivate commuters to use public transport if the policymakers fail to improve public transport, enhance commuters' awareness of consequences, increase commuters' perceived behavior control, and encourage car owners to change driving behavior. Comparisons between car owners and non-owners indicated that car owners view driving restriction policy and public transport more negatively. These negative views could be a barrier for the promotion of public transport among car owners. In addition, attitude toward public transport was found to have positive correlation with commuting time. - Highlights: • Attitude towards public transport has an impact on policy acceptance. • Driving habit indirectly affects policy acceptance and perceived behavior control. • Driving restriction policy and public transport are not popular among car owners. • Attitude towards public transport correlates positively with commuting time.

  2. Economic and Environmental Effects of Public Transport Subsidy Policies: a Spatial CGE Model of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays an important role in the environment. This study established a Spatial Computable General Equilibrium (SCGE model to examine the economic and environmental effects of public transport subsidy policies. The model includes firms, consumers, and traffic modules in one framework. Statistical data from Beijing were used in calibration to obtain benchmark equilibrium. Based on the equilibrium, simulations compared citywide social welfare, jobs-housing spatial population distribution, and environmental outputs under four subsidy policies: fare subsidy, cash grants, road expansion, and public transport speedup. Based on the results regarding the effects of public transport policies, conclusions can be drawn about which policies will have greater overall social influence and should therefore be used.

  3. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  4. The Effect of “Speak Up” Training Toward Apprehension of Speaking in Front of Public

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia, Rizky Nur; Hidayati, Farida

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of “SPEAK uP” training toward apprehension of speaking in front of public.The characteristic subject of this study is to students of SMK Negeri 8 Semarang who took social worker studies as their major; mostly they are having apprehension in ability of speaking in front of public with high and extra high category level on apprehension of speaking in front of public, those students had agreed to join “SPEAK uP” training completely. This study generally...

  5. „Model of Effective Management of Bulgarian Public Administration Managing EU Funds“

    OpenAIRE

    Nozharov, Shteryo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The paper analyzes the possibilities of constructing a model for the effective management of the Bulgarian public administration responsible for managing the EU funds amid the global financial crisis by using McKinsey’s 7S model. The change of the management model of the public administration in charge of the absorption of EU funds in Bulgaria would increase the absorption rate of the funds while streamlining budgetary costs on the maintenance of the administration. The aim of the s...

  6. Informing people about radiation risks: a review of obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons

  7. Promoting public transport as a subscription service: Effects of a free month travel card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers, book clubs, telephone services and many other subscription services are often marketed to new customers by means of a free or substantially discounted trial period. This article evaluates this method as a means to promote commuting by public transport in a field experiment and based...... that had an effect was the free month travel card, which led to a significant increase in commuting by public transport.As expected, the effect was mediated through a change in behavioural intentions rather than a change in perceived constraints. As expected, the effect became weaker when the promotion...

  8. Detrimental Effects of Performance-Related Pay in the Public Sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Performance-related pay has been a key ingredient in New Public Management reforms. Nevertheless, the research presented here indicates some adverse effects of such incentives. These incentives may impair an initial motivation to work and change the norms that guide behavior. An issue which...... in particular has been given insufficient attention is fairness. Findings drawn from experimental economics supported by field studies demonstrate that perceived unfairness may have important negative effects on performance. The implication of a broader perspective in the analysis of performance-related pay...... in the public sector is that such a pay system, contrary to its aim, may have detrimental effects on performance....

  9. No, Virginia, It's Not True What They Say About Publicity's "Implied Third-Party Endorsement" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, Kirk

    1999-01-01

    Re-examines "implied third-party endorsement" as an explanation of publicity's effectiveness. Argues that any effect involves inferences by audience members who use biased processing that favors news and disfavors advertising. Suggests that the presentation of information as news is not necessarily perceived by audiences as an…

  10. On the trace-free Einstein equations as a viable alternative to general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, George F R; Van Elst, Henk; Murugan, Jeff; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The quantum field theoretical prediction for the vacuum energy density leads to a value for the effective cosmological constant that is incorrect by between 60 and 120 orders of magnitude. We review an old proposal of replacing Einstein's field equations by their trace-free part (the trace-free Einstein equations), together with an independent assumption of energy-momentum conservation by matter fields. While this does not solve the fundamental issue of why the cosmological constant has the value that is observed cosmologically, it is indeed a viable theory that resolves the problem of the discrepancy between the vacuum energy density and the observed value of the cosmological constant. However, one has to check that, as well as preserving the standard cosmological equations, this does not destroy other predictions, such as the junction conditions that underlie the use of standard stellar models. We confirm that no problems arise here: hence, the trace-free Einstein equations are indeed viable for cosmological and astrophysical applications. (papers)

  11. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  12. Social Enterprise in Higher Education: A Viable Venture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Richard A.; Sliva, Shannon M.

    2016-01-01

    Social enterprise is a burgeoning, although nebulously defined, strategy for linking market-based revenues with social good in nonprofit, for-profit, and public organizations. This article offers a unifying definition of social enterprise, tracks its development throughout traditional sectors, and takes a first step in extending the concepts of…

  13. Electric power - a viable export commodity, v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume presents summaries of the addresses given by the chairman and the president of the Canadian Nuclear Association, as well as reports of the CNA economic development, education and manpower, international affairs, leglislative, public affairs, safety and environment, social issues, and technology committees

  14. Viable-but-Nonculturable Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica Serovar Thompson Induced by Chlorine Stress Remain Infectious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum J. Highmore

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological safety of fresh produce is monitored almost exclusively by culture-based detection methods. However, bacterial food-borne pathogens are known to enter a viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC state in response to environmental stresses such as chlorine, which is commonly used for fresh produce decontamination. Here, complete VBNC induction of green fluorescent protein-tagged Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson was achieved by exposure to 12 and 3 ppm chlorine, respectively. The pathogens were subjected to chlorine washing following incubation on spinach leaves. Culture data revealed that total viable L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson populations became VBNC by 50 and 100 ppm chlorine, respectively, while enumeration by direct viable counting found that chlorine caused a <1-log reduction in viability. The pathogenicity of chlorine-induced VBNC L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson was assessed by using Caenorhabditis elegans. Ingestion of VBNC pathogens by C. elegans resulted in a significant life span reduction (P = 0.0064 and P < 0.0001, and no significant difference between the life span reductions caused by the VBNC and culturable L. monocytogenes treatments was observed. L. monocytogenes was visualized beyond the nematode intestinal lumen, indicating resuscitation and cell invasion. These data emphasize the risk that VBNC food-borne pathogens could pose to public health should they continue to go undetected.

  15. Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

  16. Effectiveness of public health interventions in food safety: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M E; Gardner, C E; Dwyer, J J; Isaacs, S M; Krueger, P D; Ying, J Y

    1998-01-01

    To summarize evidence on the effectiveness of public health interventions regarding food safety at restaurants, institutions, homes and other community-based settings. This systematic review of published and unpublished studies involved a comprehensive literature search, screening for relevance, quality assessment of relevant studies, data extraction and synthesis. The interventions identified in 15 studies included in this review were grouped into three categories: inspections, food handler training, and community-based education. The evidence suggests that: routine inspection (at least once per year) of food service premises is effective in reducing the risk of foodborne illness; food handler training can improve the knowledge and practices of food handlers; and selected community-based education programs can increase public knowledge of food safety. There is some evidence for the effectiveness of multiple public health interventions on food safety. Future research needs include evaluation of HACCP and community-based education programs.

  17. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  18. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4 Graders: Evidence from TIMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

  19. Assessing communications effectiveness in meeting corporate goals of public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D; Bopp, Kenneth D; Boren, Suzanne Austin

    2005-01-01

    Much evaluation of health communications in public health is considered from a program perspective of smoking cessation, weight reduction, education on sexually transmitted diseases, etc. These studies have advanced the knowledge base of communications theory and evaluation and have contributed to program effectiveness. In program-based evaluation the communications process is structured as part of the program itself. This article extends program-based communications evaluation to view communications from the perspective of the consumer and how effectively public health departments respond to consumer expectations. It develops a conceptual model for evaluating elements of communications such as its importance in defining mission and goals within the community, managing strategic constituencies, and enlisting individuals and groups as customers and co-producers of health. It gives a broader perspective on how communications in public heath organizations are managed and a basis for assessing whether they are being managed effectively.

  20. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion – viable alternative options for terrestrial weed management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Saha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of terrestrial weed is of great concern for the scientific community as these weeds cause adverse effect in different ecosystems like forest, agriculture and urban. The widespread of these weeds by their adaptive capability and morphological advancement is difficult to control. Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantana camara, Saccharum spontaneum, Ageratum conyzoides are the weeds that spread all over the world. There are various management practices employed for the control of this weeds. But all of these practices have some drawbacks those are neither environment friendly nor economical. In this paper a review has been done to evaluate various alternative management practices for these terrestrial weeds and to analyze their feasibility. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion can be viable alternative option which is cost effective as well. There are few studies regarding vermicomposting and anaerobic digestions of terrestrial weeds are done.

  1. Overview of the Main Theories on the Economic Effects of Public Indebtedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bilan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly reviews the main theories formulated over time on the economic effects of public indebtedness, with the aim to highlight their common and divergent points, the arguments they rely upon, as well as their relevance, given the current economic environment. Three major views are considered, namely the classical one, the Keynesian one and the view of neoliberal economists (monetarist economists and representatives of the school of rational expectations. The comparative approach of the different views allowed us to shape some criteria of decision which may prove useful for public policymakers in formulating public debt policies conducive to economic growth: public indebtedness should not become common practice but be reserved for those situations in which the economy is confronted with unusual phenomena, such as economic downturns; borrowed resources should be used especially on those destinations which create added value in the economy, such as public investment; public debt should not accumulate at a fast pace and should be kept within reasonable limits, to avoid possible side effects on economic growth.

  2. Effects of pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Henk; Ter Huurne, Ellen; Taal, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The effect of public service announcements aimed at promoting primary prevention of skin cancer may be limited by superficial cognitive processing. The use of both pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements were evaluated for their potentially beneficial effects on judgment, cognitive processing and persuasiveness. In a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design individuals were shown public service announcements that advocated the advantages of sun protection measures in different versions in which a picture was present or not present and a textual argument was present or not present. The 159 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. In each condition, participants were shown 12 different public service announcements designed according to the condition. Participants judged each public service announcement on attractiveness, credibility, clarity of communication and the required amount of reflection. After the judgment task, they completed a questionnaire to assess knowledge, perceived advantages and disadvantages of sun protection and intended use of sun protection measures. Pictures enhanced attractiveness, but diminished comprehension. Textual arguments enhanced attractiveness, credibility and comprehension. Pictures as well as textual arguments increased knowledge of sun protection measures. Pictures and textual arguments in public service announcements positively influence the individual's perception of the advantages of sun protection methods and the advantages of their adoption.

  3. The effect of public awareness campaigns on suicides: evidence from Nagoya, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Public awareness campaigns about depression and suicide have been viewed as highly effective strategies in preventing suicide, yet their effectiveness has not been established in previous studies. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a public-awareness campaign by comparing suicide counts before and after a city-wide campaign in Nagoya, Japan, where the city government distributed promotional materials that were aimed to stimulate public awareness of depression and promote care-seeking behavior during the period of 2010-2012. In each of the sixteen wards of the city of Nagoya, we count the number of times that the promotional materials were distributed per month and then examine the association between the suicide counts and the frequency of distributions in the months following such distributions. We run a Poisson regression model that controls for the effects of ward-specific observed and unobserved heterogeneities and temporal shocks. Our analysis indicates that more frequent distribution of the campaign material is associated with a decrease in the number of suicides in the subsequent months. The campaign was estimated to have been especially effective for the male residents of the city. The underlying mechanism of how the campaign reduced suicides remains to be unclear. Public awareness campaigns can be an effective strategy in preventing suicide. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%, 8 (50%, and 6 (37% had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10 of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ≥S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this.

  5. Does enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 enter the viable but nonculturable state in salted salmon roe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, S I; Kii, T; Asakura, H; Shirahata, T; Ikeda, T; Takeshi, K; Itoh, K

    2000-12-01

    An outbreak caused by salted salmon roe contaminated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in Japan in 1998. Since about 0.75 to 1.5 viable cells were estimated to cause infection, we presumed that O157 might enter the viable but nonculturable (VNC) state in salted salmon roe and consequently that viable cell numbers might be underestimated. Although patient-originating O157 cells could not grow on agar plates after 72 h of incubation in 13% NaCl, they were resuscitated in yeast extract broth, and more than 90% of the cells were shown to be viable by fluorescent staining, suggesting that almost all of them could enter the VNC state in NaCl water. Roe-originating O157 was resistant to NaCl because it could grow on agar after 72 h of incubation in NaCl water, but about 20% of cells appeared to enter the VNC state. Therefore, germfree mice were infected with O157 to examine the resuscitation of cells in the VNC state and the retention of pathogenicity. O157 that originated in roe, but not patients, killed mice and was isolated from the intestine. However, these isolates had become sensitive to NaCl. O157 cells of roe origin incubated in normal media also killed mice and were isolated from the intestine, but they also became transiently NaCl sensitive. We therefore propose that bacterial cells might enter the VNC state under conditions of stress, such as those encountered in vivo or in high salt concentrations, and then revive when those conditions have eased. If so, the VNC state in food is potentially dangerous from a public health viewpoint and may have to be considered at the time of food inspection. Finally, the establishment of a simple recovery system for VNC cells should be established.

  6. Viable circumstances for financial negotiations in Pakistan contracting process

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Ejaz; Nadeem, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In Pakistan, competitive forms of procurement include only two-step sealed bidding. In the United States, negotiated procurement falls under competitive forms of procurement. Pakistan established the Pakistan Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) in 2002 on the recommendations of the World Bank and enacted PPRA rules in 2004 based on the 1994 UNCITRAL model procurement law. The purpose of PPRA rules in 2004 was twofold: First, it imp...

  7. The Potential Return on Public Investment in Detecting Adverse Drug Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Krista F; Desai, Rishi J; Park, Moa; Gagne, Joshua J; Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-06-01

    Many countries lack fully functional pharmacovigilance programs, and public budgets allocated to pharmacovigilance in industrialized countries remain low due to resource constraints and competing priorities. Using 3 case examples, we sought to estimate the public health and economic benefits resulting from public investment in active pharmacovigilance programs to detect adverse drug effects. We assessed 3 examples in which early signals of safety hazards were not adequately recognized, resulting in continued exposure of a large number of patients to these drugs when safer and effective alternative treatments were available. The drug examples studied were rofecoxib, cerivastatin, and troglitazone. Using an individual patient simulation model and the health care system perspective, we estimated the potential costs that could have been averted by early systematic detection of safety hazards through the implementation of active surveillance programs. We found that earlier drug withdrawal made possible by active safety surveillance would most likely have resulted in savings in direct medical costs of $773-$884 million for rofecoxib, $3-$10 million for cerivastatin, and $38-$63 million for troglitazone in the United States through the prevention of adverse events. By contrast, the yearly public investment in Food and Drug Administration initiated population-based pharmacovigilance activities in the United States is about $42.5 million at present. These examples illustrate a critical and economically justifiable role for active adverse effect surveillance in protecting the health of the public.

  8. [A comparative study on Koii (public doctor) system and its effect on public health in colonial Taiwan and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Myungki

    2014-08-01

    manpower shortage, thus shifting their duties like vaccination onto police officers who was inevitably inferior to doctors in medical terms, whereas vaccination was led by Koiis in Taiwan, with the help of police officers and traditional doctors. The difference between Korea and Taiwan in terms of Koii system and its effect implies that public health network in colonial Taiwan was better organized and more stable than that in colonial Korea, and therefore we should be careful about applying the concept of disciplinary power or modernization theory to colonial medical history of Korea.

  9. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma E; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-10-01

    Public attitudes about drug addiction and mental illness were compared. A Web-based national survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support in regard to drug addiction and mental illness. Respondents held significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices against persons with drug addiction, more skeptical about the effectiveness of treatments, and more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping them. Drug addiction is often treated as a subcategory of mental illness, and insurance plans group them together under the rubric of "behavioral health." Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches to reducing stigma and advancing public policy.

  10. Fukushima effects in Germany? Changes in media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Dorothee; Wolling, Jens

    2016-10-01

    Based on a literature review on factors that explain media effects and previous findings on media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power, this article examines the effects of Fukushima on media coverage and public opinion in Germany in two studies. The first study uses content analysis data to analyse changes in media coverage, and the second one is based on panel survey data to examine attitude changes on an individual level. The results of both studies show changes in media coverage and public opinion on nuclear power. Furthermore, the second study reveals that individual attitude changes cannot necessarily be explained by the same factors as the distribution of attitudes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Between the effectivity and affectivity: new teachers in times of new public management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andres Soto Lagos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Educational Public Policy in the current neoliberal context hold their proposals under the New Public Management (NPM. These devices promote a professionalization of the teaching role, positioning them as responsible for changes in education in the country. This research focuses on the discourse analysis of twelve official documents of the Ministry of Education of Chile, which under the logic of NPM promote emotions and effectiveness to interpellate teachers and invite them to work in adverse conditions. The results shows two interpellations to teachers in the country, one that relates to the effectiveness, based on competition, and other centered in affections, both challenging teachers individually and emotional. It is discussed relative to the direction of public policy devices that are supported from the NPM.

  12. Agorá Acoustics - Effects of arcades on the acoustics of public squares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paini, Dario; Gade, Anders Christian; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    This paper is part of a PhD work, dealing with the acoustics of the public squares (‘Agorá Acoustics’), especially when music (amplified or not) is played. Consequently, our approach will be to evaluate public squares using the same set of acoustics concepts for subjective evaluation and objective...... measurements as applied for concert halls and theatres. In this paper the acoustical effects of arcades will be studied, in terms of reverberation (EDT and T30), clarity (C80), intelligibility (STI) and other acoustical parameters. For this purpose, also the theory of coupled rooms is applied and compared...... with results. An acoustic modelling program, ODEON 7.0, was used for this investigation. Three different sizes of public squares were considered. In order to evaluate the ‘real’ effects of the arcades on the open square, models of all three squares were designed both with and without arcades. The sound source...

  13. Differential effects of negative publicity on beef consumption according to household characteristics in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyungho; Lim, Byung In; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines how South Korean households responded to an unprecedented boycott campaign against US beef from spring to summer of 2008, and investigates differential responses in relation to households' characteristics. It was found that beef consumption reduced by 4.8% immediately after the so-called candle-light demonstration. Instead, pork and chicken consumption increased by 17.2% and 16.6%, respectively. This confirms a substitution effect due to the negative publicity concerning US beef. It was also found that the negative publicity effect was transitory and the reactions of consumers were not uniform; they differed depending on their socio-economic characteristics. The econometric model revealed that younger, less-educated, and/or lower-income households were more susceptible to the negative publicity, and reduced their beef consumption more than other households. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Technological Innovation and Beyond: Exploring Public Value of University Inventions Based on Contingent Effectiveness Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Evita; Li-Ying, Jason; Faria, Lourenco

    2017-01-01

    University inventions are traditionally seen as significant input into development of new technologies and innovations in the market as they generate growth and regional development. (REF) Yet, these inventions developed into new technologies can simultaneously create public values such as those...... that are related with sustainability goals. In this paper, we apply the Contingent Effectiveness Model by Bozeman et.al. (2015) as a framework to consider the effectiveness of technology transfer from university to industry via licensing, and examine what values derive during the commercialization process...... of university inventions. We define four main values: technological, economic, social and environmental, and place the latter two under the concept of public value. The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of public value and incorporate it into technology transfer literature. We assign...

  15. Lobbying and Social Participation – Key Features for an Effective Public Administration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria IRIMIEȘ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying is one of the main structural elements of democratic governance and sustainable development and is essential to achieving competitive and effi cient administrative and decisional processes in local governance. Successfully implementing lobbying regulations and techniques is of extreme importance for any public system, where social participation in the decision-making process can strongly contribute to social, political and economic / fi nancial effi - ciency. Over the last 15 years, several legislative initiatives have tried to design a coherent framework for lobby, but they are still unapplied either due to insuffi cient public understanding of the concept, or due to more or less justifi ed uncertainties and fears. The necessity of regulating lobbying in Romania is placed in a context where an important number of anticorruption international and domestic recommendations and state reliability statistics, added to a certain lack of effectiveness in time and public money management, show that the public administration system needs to be reformed. And lobbying is, as the following article shows, a must for any public reform of public administration in Romania. The case of multilingual entrance signs / labels in Cluj-Napoca is an unquestionable and unbeatable example that the simple existence of legal frameworks of lobbying could turn into real time, energy and money savers.

  16. Radioactive wastes repository in Temascalapa, State of Mexico, public opinion. Determination of health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Tinoco, E.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear waste usually concerns public about the impact on public health and the environment. In Mexico, such interest exists, particularly in the Temascalapa Municipality, Mexico where a low level waste repository recognized by the IAEA, has been functioning since 1972. Maquixco repository is located at 42 Kilometers northeast of Mexico City. Although the environmental radiological monitoring records have demonstrated negligible impact on the environment, in 1998 an unusual public polemic on radioactive health effects appeared among Temascalapa residents. This paper presents a research performed during 1998 with the participation of the National Nuclear Research Institute of Mexico and the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The research design allowed the involvement of local authorities, as a way of stimulate public participation. The research was performed in nine locations of the Temascalapa Municipality, it was focused on public polemics, associated to Maquixco repository as well as trying to identify demographic factors that exert influence on public attitudes. There are also presented the results of personal dosimetry analysis performed on a four hundred residents sample of this Municipality. (Author)

  17. Viable suspensions of maize (Zea mays L.) pollen with exogenous DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broglia, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione

    1996-12-01

    A viable suspension of maize pollen in aqueous medium containing exogenous DNA would be a suitable tool in attempting maize genetic transformation via pollen grains by different techniques. In this work the effects of addition of DNA to hypertonic aqueous media able to preserve maize pollen viability were investigated. An almost total loss of viability was found when pollen was incubated with native DNA in water or sucrose medium due to the immediate sticking of DNA on the pollen wall. Calcium in the incubation medium avoided DNA sticking preserving pollen fertilization ability. Pre-washing of pollen in hypertonic sucrose solution was proved to remove DNA binding components from the pollen wall. PEG 20%, that is known to inhibit pollen, and silk nucleases, was also used instead of sucrose, without any reduction in the seed-set yields.

  18. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Judith Gonsalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42 h showed that at the end of 24 h, growth coefficient (k of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, ‘k’ value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g = 0.564, the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, ‘g’ of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.615, Free = 0.0086 was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria = 0.056, Free = 0.068. Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the “persistent variants” where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny.

  20. Systems thinking benefits in supply change management:an illustration of the viable systems model in a supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Chronéer, Diana; Mirijamdotter, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Existing product development models are solely an organisational matter. They do not take into consideration the whole supply chain and its different actors. We investigate in this paper how Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Viable System Model (VSM) can support and create an effective use of information in product development and hence identify critical linkages in the supply chain. The aim is to introduce VSM as a framework that enable an analysis of company's supply chains and visualize vi...

  1. Correcting for day of the week and public holiday effects: improving a national daily syndromic surveillance service for detecting public health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Jeffery, Elizabeth; Morbey, Roger; House, Thomas; Elliot, Alex J; Harcourt, Sally; Smith, Gillian E

    2017-05-19

    As service provision and patient behaviour varies by day, healthcare data used for public health surveillance can exhibit large day of the week effects. These regular effects are further complicated by the impact of public holidays. Real-time syndromic surveillance requires the daily analysis of a range of healthcare data sources, including family doctor consultations (called general practitioners, or GPs, in the UK). Failure to adjust for such reporting biases during analysis of syndromic GP surveillance data could lead to misinterpretations including false alarms or delays in the detection of outbreaks. The simplest smoothing method to remove a day of the week effect from daily time series data is a 7-day moving average. Public Health England developed the working day moving average in an attempt also to remove public holiday effects from daily GP data. However, neither of these methods adequately account for the combination of day of the week and public holiday effects. The extended working day moving average was developed. This is a further data-driven method for adding a smooth trend curve to a time series graph of daily healthcare data, that aims to take both public holiday and day of the week effects into account. It is based on the assumption that the number of people seeking healthcare services is a combination of illness levels/severity and the ability or desire of patients to seek healthcare each day. The extended working day moving average was compared to the seven-day and working day moving averages through application to data from two syndromic indicators from the GP in-hours syndromic surveillance system managed by Public Health England. The extended working day moving average successfully smoothed the syndromic healthcare data by taking into account the combined day of the week and public holiday effects. In comparison, the seven-day and working day moving averages were unable to account for all these effects, which led to misleading smoothing

  2. Correcting for day of the week and public holiday effects: improving a national daily syndromic surveillance service for detecting public health threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Buckingham-Jeffery

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As service provision and patient behaviour varies by day, healthcare data used for public health surveillance can exhibit large day of the week effects. These regular effects are further complicated by the impact of public holidays. Real-time syndromic surveillance requires the daily analysis of a range of healthcare data sources, including family doctor consultations (called general practitioners, or GPs, in the UK. Failure to adjust for such reporting biases during analysis of syndromic GP surveillance data could lead to misinterpretations including false alarms or delays in the detection of outbreaks. The simplest smoothing method to remove a day of the week effect from daily time series data is a 7-day moving average. Public Health England developed the working day moving average in an attempt also to remove public holiday effects from daily GP data. However, neither of these methods adequately account for the combination of day of the week and public holiday effects. Methods The extended working day moving average was developed. This is a further data-driven method for adding a smooth trend curve to a time series graph of daily healthcare data, that aims to take both public holiday and day of the week effects into account. It is based on the assumption that the number of people seeking healthcare services is a combination of illness levels/severity and the ability or desire of patients to seek healthcare each day. The extended working day moving average was compared to the seven-day and working day moving averages through application to data from two syndromic indicators from the GP in-hours syndromic surveillance system managed by Public Health England. Results The extended working day moving average successfully smoothed the syndromic healthcare data by taking into account the combined day of the week and public holiday effects. In comparison, the seven-day and working day moving averages were unable to account for all

  3. The use of performance measurement systems in the public sector: effects on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the use of performance measurement systems in the public sector. We hypothesize that the way in which these systems are being used affects organizational performance, and that these performance effects depend on contractibility. Contractibility encompasses clarity of goals, the ability to

  4. The Student Equity Effects of the Public School Finance System in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.; LaCost, Barbara Y.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the student equity effects of Louisiana's public school finance program in terms of fiscal neutrality and revenue inequality over a nine-year period, using regression techniques. Overall, Louisiana's system became less equal over the time period examined, while revenue distribution became more equal. Includes 35 references. (MLH)

  5. The Effect of Pecha Kucha Presentations on Students' English Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the Pecha Kucha presentation format on English as foreign language learners' public speaking anxiety. The participants were 49 students in the English Translation and Interpretation Department of a state university in Turkey. A pre- and post-test experimental research design was used in…

  6. Evaluating the Effect of a Television Public Service Announcement about Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Secco, Mary; Yake, Laura; Speechley, Kathy N.

    2010-01-01

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial advertisements aiming to improve knowledge, attitudes and/or behavior. No evaluations of epilepsy PSAs exist. This study sought to evaluate a televised PSA showing first aid for a seizure. A multilevel regression analysis was used to determine the effect of the PSA on epilepsy knowledge and…

  7. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  8. School Violence and Its Effect on the Constitutionality of Public School Uniform Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    The Arizona Court of Appeals, in the first court decision regarding public school uniform policies, held that mandatory school uniforms do not violate students' First Amendment rights. Discusses the Arizona decision and its effect on the structuring of school uniform policies and their potential successful institution at the high school level. (31…

  9. The Moderating Effect of Sex on the Prediction of Job Satisfaction in the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond

    1982-01-01

    Examined the moderating effect of sex on the contribution of specific job characteristics as sources of general job satisfaction. A survey of over 2,000 public employees showed only minimal sex differences. Supervision was more important to females. Females also tended to be more satisfied with their salaries. (JAC)

  10. Assessing the Warm Glow Effect in Contingent Valuations for Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Jae; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Jung, Eun-Joo

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to present evidence of the warm glow effect in a public library setting. More specifically, it tests whether individual respondents with different values for the warm glow component report different values for their willingness to pay (WTP). The data come from a contingent valuation survey conducted on randomly selected citizens…

  11. School Choice in Indianapolis: Effects of Charter, Magnet, Private, and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Waddington, R. Joseph

    2018-01-01

    School choice researchers are often limited to comparing one type of choice with another (e.g., charter schools vs. traditional public schools). One area researchers have not examined is the effects of different school types within the same urban region. We fill this gap by analyzing longitudinal data for students (grades 3-8) in Indianapolis,…

  12. Administrative Support and Its Mediating Effect on US Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Benjamin R.; Chang, Mido; Kim, Sunha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of administrative support on teachers' job satisfaction and intent to stay in teaching. The study employed a path analysis to the data of regular, full-time, public school teachers from the Schools and Staffing Survey teacher questionnaire. Administrative support was the most significant predictor of teachers' job…

  13. The Social Effects of Advertising as Perceived by Advertising Executives, Businessmen, and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…

  14. Evaluation of the effective dose equivalent to tbe public of Pavia after the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altieri, S.; Berzero, A.; Meloni, S.; Rosti, G.; Genova, N.

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl radionuclide monitoring campaign in air particulate and foodstuffs was carried out and continued up to June 1987. On the basis of collected data estimates of the collective effective dose equivalent commitment to the public of province of Pavia, by external irradiation or by inhalation, were carried out and are reported in the present paper

  15. Effects of Competing Narratives on Public Perceptions of Opioid Pain Reliever Addiction during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; McGinty, Emma E; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-10-01

    Opioid pain reliever addiction has increased among women of reproductive age over the last fifteen years. News media and public attention have focused on the implications of this trend for infants exposed to opioids prenatally, with state policy responses varying in the extent to which they are punitive or public health oriented. We fielded a six-group randomized experiment among a nationally representative sample of US adults to test the effects of narratives portraying a woman with opioid pain reliever addiction during pregnancy on beliefs about people addicted to opioid pain relievers, perceptions of treatment effectiveness, policy attitudes, and emotional responses. Portraying a high socioeconomic status (SES) woman in the narrative lowered perceptions of individual blame for addiction and reduced public support for punitive policies. Depicting the barriers to treatment faced by a low SES woman lowered support for punitive policies and increased support for expanded insurance coverage for treatment. The extent to which narratives portraying successfully treated addiction affected public attitudes depended on the SES of the woman portrayed. These findings can inform the development of communication strategies to reduce stigma toward this population, reduce support for punitive policies, and increase support for more public health-oriented approaches to addressing this problem. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  16. Stigma, Discrimination, Treatment Effectiveness and Policy Support: Comparing Public Views about Drug Addiction with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Pescosolido, Bernice; Goldman, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compares current public attitudes about drug addiction with attitudes about mental illness. Methods A web-based national public opinion survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support. Results Respondents hold significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction compared to those with mental illness. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them on a job. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices, more skeptical about the effectiveness of available treatments, and more likely to oppose public policies aimed at helping persons with drug addiction. Conclusions Drug addiction is often treated as a sub-category of mental illness, and health insurance benefits group these conditions together under the rubric of behavioral health. Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches for advancing stigma reduction and public policy. PMID:25270497

  17. Blended learning is an effective strategy for acquiring competence in public health biostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Natasa; Masic, Srdjan; Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Trajkovic, Goran; Marinkovic, Jelena; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena; Bukumiric, Zoran; Savic, Marko; Cirkovic, Andja; Gajic, Milan; Stanisavljevic, Dejana

    2018-04-01

    We sought to determine whether blended learning is an effective strategy for acquiring competence in public health biostatistics. The trial was conducted with 69 Masters' students of public health attending the School of Public Health at University of Belgrade. Students were exposed to the traditional and blended learning styles. Blended learning included a combination of face-to-face and distance learning methodologies integrated into a single course. Curriculum development was guided by competencies as suggested by the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER). Teaching methods were compared according to the final competence score. Forty-four students were enrolled in the traditional method of education delivery, and 25 to the blended learning format. Mean exam scores for the blended learning group were higher than for the on-site group for both the final statistics score (89.65 ± 6.93 vs. 78.21 ± 13.26; p  0.8). A blended learning approach is an attractive and effective way of acquiring biostatistics competence for Masters of Public Health (MPH) graduate students.

  18. Strategies for improving production performance of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici viable cell by overcoming lactic acid inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Wasoh, Helmi; Kapri, Mohd Rizal; Halim, Murni

    2017-11-27

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Fermentation conditions such as concentration of initial glucose in the culture, concentration of lactic acid accumulated in the culture, types of pH control strategy, types of aeration mode and different agitation speed had influenced the cultivation performance of batch fermentation of Pediococcus acidilactici. The maximum viable cell concentration obtained in constant fed-batch fermentation at a feeding rate of 0.015 L/h was 6.1 times higher with 1.6 times reduction in lactic acid accumulation compared to batch fermentation. Anion exchange resin, IRA 67 was found to have the highest selectivity towards lactic acid compared to other components studied. Fed-batch fermentation of P. acidilactici coupled with lactic acid removal system using IRA 67 resin showed 55.5 and 9.1 times of improvement in maximum viable cell concentration compared to fermentation without resin for batch and fed-batch mode respectively. The improvement of the P. acidilactici growth in the constant fed-batch fermentation indicated the use of minimal and simple process control equipment is an effective approach for reducing by-product inhibition. Further improvement in the cultivation performance of P. acidilactici in fed-bath fermentation with in situ addition of anion-exchange resin significantly helped to enhance the growth of P. acidilactici by reducing the inhibitory effect of lactic acid and thus increasing probiotic production.

  19. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory

  20. The Effect of Public Service Advertising on Cardiovascular Disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Juhyun; Na, Baeg Ju; Lee, Moo-Sik; Seo, Soonryu; Sung, Changhyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jin Yong

    2016-08-01

    Public Service Advertising (PSA) is a public interest message disseminated in the form of an advertisement communication and its main purpose is to promote public behavioral changes regarding a social issue. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) has been delivering PSA by various media. However, the effect of PSAs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of broadcasted PSA produced by KCDC on cardiovascular disease (CVD). One thousand adult participants throughout 15 provinces in Korea were chosen through the quota sampling method in 2012. A face-to-face research survey with 13 questions was conducted using a Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) system. Previous exposure to the PSA message, understanding, and behavioral intention to change was assessed. After watching the PSA, about 75% of participants answered that they could understand the contents well and 70% had willingness to change their behaviors associated with CVD. However, only 24% of participants answered they watched the PSA during the past year. The PSA had positive effects on increasing the level of understanding and intention to change behaviors regarding CVD. However, the level of exposure was low. KCDC should make an effort to increase the public exposure level, which could be an important success factor regarding the PSA. In addition, KCDC should consider customized PSA for vulnerable people such as multi-cultural families, the disabled, and the elderly.

  1. Presence and Persistence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Legionella pneumophila Bacteria in Garden Soil in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijnsbergen, E; van Deursen, A; Bouwknegt, M; Bruin, J P; de Roda Husman, A M; Schalk, J A C

    2016-09-01

    Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. Copyright © 2016 van Heijnsbergen et al.

  2. Presence and Persistence of Viable, Clinically Relevant Legionella pneumophila Bacteria in Garden Soil in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijnsbergen, E.; van Deursen, A.; Bouwknegt, M.; Bruin, J. P.; Schalk, J. A. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. Legionella bacteria were detected in 22 of 177 garden soil samples (12%) by amoebal coculture. Of these 22 Legionella-positive soil samples, seven contained Legionella pneumophila. Several other species were found, including the pathogenic Legionella longbeachae (4 gardens) and Legionella sainthelensi (9 gardens). The L. pneumophila isolates comprised 15 different sequence types (STs), and eight of these STs were previously isolated from patients according to the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) database. Six gardens that were found to be positive for L. pneumophila were resampled after several months, and in three gardens, L. pneumophila was again isolated. One of these gardens was resampled four times throughout the year and was found to be positive for L. pneumophila on all occasions. IMPORTANCE Tracking the source of infection for sporadic cases of Legionnaires' disease (LD) has proven to be hard. L. pneumophila ST47, the sequence type that is most frequently isolated from LD patients in the Netherlands, is rarely found in potential environmental sources. As L. pneumophila ST47 was previously isolated from a garden soil sample during an outbreak investigation, garden soils were investigated as reservoirs and potential sources of pathogenic Legionella bacteria. The detection of viable, clinically relevant Legionella strains indicates that garden soil is a potential source of Legionella bacteria, and future research should assess the public health implication of the presence of L. pneumophila in garden soil. PMID:27316958

  3. Making decentralised systems viable: a guide to managing decentralised assets and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willetts, J; Fane, S; Mitchell, C

    2007-01-01

    Decentralised systems have the potential to provide a viable option for long term sustainable management of household wastewater. Yet, at present, such systems hold an uncertain status and are frequently omitted from consideration. Their potential can only be realised with improved approaches to their management, and improved methods to decision-making in planning of wastewater systems. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the value of a novel framework to guide the planning of decentralised systems so that asset management and risk management are explicitly considered. The framework was developed through a detailed synthesis of literature and practice in the area of asset management of centralised water and wastewater systems, and risk management in the context of decentralised systems. Key aspects of the framework are attention to socio-economic risks as well as engineering, public health and ecological risks, the central place of communication with multiple stakeholders and establishing a shared asset information system. A case study is used to demonstrate how the framework can guide a different approach and lead to different, more sustainable outcomes, by explicitly considering the needs and perspectives of homeowners, water authorities, relevant government agencies and society as a whole.

  4. Effectiveness of the toll-free line for public insurance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Cynthia M

    2005-03-01

    Toll-free lines for public insurance programs are a major point of entry to inquire about information. More than 1 million Californians are eligible for public insurance programs based on income but not yet enrolled. In 2000 and 2002, a "mystery-shopper" survey was conducted to ascertain overall effectiveness and interlanguage variation for information provided in Armenian, Cantonese, English, Farsi, Hmong, Khmer, Korean, Russian, Spanish, and Vietnamese. Although the 2002 study showed statistically significant improvements from 2000, many constructs remained problematic. In 2002, for example, statistically significant interlanguage variation was identified in discussing and checking eligibility for the program. Specifically, Spanish and Armenian callers were less likely than other language callers to have eligibility checked or deemed eligible. Removing barriers to enrollment in public insurance programs often requires political solutions, but improving customer service for the toll-free line necessitates efficiency and a focus on continuous quality improvement.

  5. Examination of the effects of public spending and trade policy on real exchange rate in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang ACHAMOH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study adopts the inter-temporal model of Rodríguez (1989 and Edward (1989 extended in Elbadawi and Soto (1997 to empirically examine the effect of public expenditure and trade openness on the real exchange rate using Cameroon data from 1977 to 2010. After exploring some issues on exchange rate and reviewing the relevant literature, the study employs residual based-cointegration technique. All the variables were stationary at level form or first differences. Public spending significantly appreciates the real exchange likewise the trade openness variable in the longrun. The results of the study suggests that appreciation of real exchange rate could be prevented by contracting public spending or adopting restrictive trade measures especially in the long run.

  6. To What Extent Should Public Corporations Be Consolidated? Considering the Effects on Public Deficit and Debt in Spanish Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de VICENTE LAMA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation perimeter of the public sector is the most important line between the micro and macro systems of government accounting. This paper focuses on the public sector boundary and assesses the potential impact on key reported figures – such as the ‘Maastricht’ deficit and debt ratios – that would result from moving public corporations inside the perimeter of the consolidated general government sector, public corporations that currently lie outside the general government sector. After examining 90 Spanish local governments with populations of over 50,000 during the 2010-2012 period, our results show that including public corporations within the general government sector perimeter leads to substantial differences in deficit and debt ratios, and that these differences significantly increase the number of municipalities in violation of fiscal limits imposed by the government. We also find that municipalities’ pre- and post-consolidation debt ratios are significantly different depending on the ruling party’s political ideology.   

  7. Economic evaluation of the air pollution effect on public health in China's 74 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Pan, Dongyan; Yu, Chen; Si, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Air deterioration caused by pollution has harmed public health. The existing studies on the economic loss caused by a variety of air pollutants in multiple cities are lacking. To understand the effect of different pollutants on public health and to provide the basis of the environmental governance for governments, based on the dose-response relation and the willingness to pay, this paper used the latest available data of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from January 2015 to June 2015 in 74 cities by establishing the lowest and the highest limit scenarios. The results show that (1) in the lowest and highest limit scenario, the health-related economic loss caused by PM10 and SO2 represented 1.63 and 2.32 % of the GDP, respectively; (2) For a single city, in the lowest and the highest limit scenarios, the highest economic loss of the public health effect caused by PM10 and SO2 was observed in Chongqing; the highest economic loss of the public health effect per capita occurred in Hebei Baoding. The highest proportion of the health-related economic loss accounting for GDP was found in Hebei Xingtai. The main reason is that the terrain conditions are not conducive to the spread of air pollutants in Chongqing, Baoding and Xingtai, and the three cities are typical heavy industrial cities that are based on coal resources. Therefore, this paper proposes to improve the energy structure, use the advanced production process, reasonably control the urban population growth, and adopt the emissions trading system in order to reduce the economic loss caused by the effects of air pollution on public health.

  8. Effects of Alternative Framing on the Publics Perceived Importance of Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Sorensen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication of science to the general public is important for numerous reasons, including support for policy, funding, informed public decision making, among others. Prior research has found that scientists participating in public policy and public communication must frame their communication efforts in order to connect with audiences. A frame is the mechanism that individuals use to understand and interpret the world around them. Framing can encourage specific interpretations and reference points for a particular issue or event; especially when meaning is negotiated between the media and public audiences. In this study, we looked at the effect of framing within an environmental conservation context. To do this we had survey respondents rank common issues, among them being environmental conservation, from most important to least important for the government to address. We framed environmental conservation using three synonymous terms (environmental security, ecosystem services, and environmental quality to assess whether there was an effect on rankings dependent on how we framed environmental conservation. We also investigated the effect of individuals’ personality characteristics (identity frame on those environmental conservation rankings. We found that individuals who self-identified as environmentalist were positively associated with ranking highly (most important environmental conservation when it was framed as either environmental quality or ecosystem services, but not when it was framed as environmental security. Conversely, those individuals who did not rank themselves highly as self-identified environmentalists were positively associated with environmental conservation when it was framed as environmental security. This research suggests that framing audience specific messages can engender audience support in hot-button issues such as environmental conservation and climate change.

  9. Membrane Lipids as Indicators for Viable Bacterial Communities Inhabiting Petroleum Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Andrea; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Horsfield, Brian; van der Kraan, Geert M; Köhler, Thomas; Janka, Christoph; Morris, Brandon E L; Wilkes, Heinz

    2017-08-01

    Microbial activity in petroleum reservoirs has been implicated in a suite of detrimental effects including deterioration of petroleum quality, increases in oil sulfur content, biofouling of steel pipelines and other infrastructures, and well plugging. Here, we present a biogeochemical approach, using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), for detecting viable bacteria in petroleum systems. Variations within the bacterial community along water flow paths (producing well, topside facilities, and injection well) can be elucidated in the field using the same technique, as shown here within oil production plants in the Molasse Basin of Upper Austria. The abundance of PLFAs is compared to total cellular numbers, as detected by qPCR of the 16S rDNA gene, to give an overall comparison between the resolutions of both methods in a true field setting. Additionally, the influence of biocide applications on lipid- and DNA-based quantification was investigated. The first oil field, Trattnach, showed significant PLFA abundances and cell numbers within the reservoir and topside facilities. In contrast, the second field (Engenfeld) showed very low PLFA levels overall, likely due to continuous treatment of the topside facilities with a glutaraldehyde-based antimicrobial. In comparison, Trattnach is dosed once per week in a batch fashion. Changes within PLFA compositions across the flow path, throughout the petroleum production plants, point to cellular adaptation within the system and may be linked to shifts in the dominance of certain bacterial types in oil reservoirs versus topside facilities. Overall, PLFA-based monitoring provides a useful tool to assess the abundance and high-level taxonomic diversity of viable microbial populations in oil production wells, topside infrastructure, pipelines, and other related facilities.

  10. Effectiveness of short-term psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient psychotherapy unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short-term psychodynamic group therapy in heterogeneous patient groups is common in the public Danish psychiatric system but is in need of evaluation. AIM: To investigate improvement in 39-session psychodynamic group therapy using three criteria: 1) effect size (Cohen's d), 2...... compared with Danish norms. Clinical implications: Patients referred to public outpatient treatment settings may need alternative or longer treatment than 39 sessions of psychodynamic group therapy over 3 months.......) and subscales. Analyses were conducted on the total sample and after exclusion of 32 GSI pre-treatment no-cases. RESULTS: The total sample GSI effect size was 0.74 indicating a moderate to large effect size (ranging from 0.67 in depressed to 0.74 in neurotic and personality disorder patients), which increased...

  11. Different goods, different effects: Exploring the roles of generalized trust in public goods provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim

    -product situation (whether to buy organic food or not). This design provides a possibility to detect whether any effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior or due to altruistic motives among trusters. The results show that generalized trust enhances recycling significantly whereas it only has a very......This paper tests the hypothesis that generalized trust helps solve large-n collective action problems in a rationalistic framework. A rigors test is employed in that the hypothesis is tested in two different choice situations; a pure public good situation (whether to recycle or not) and a joint...... week positive effect on organic food consumption. Hence, generalized trust only affects public good provision when a collective action problem is present. The analyses thus sustain the hypothesis. It is furthermore concluded that the effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior...

  12. Double Crowding-Out Effects of Means-Tested Public Provision for Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Courbage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Publicly provided long-term care (LTC insurance with means-tested benefits is suspected to crowd out either private saving or informal care. This contribution predicts crowding-out effects for both private saving and informal care for policy measures designed to relieve the public purse from LTC expenditure such as more stringent means testing and increased taxation of inheritance. These effects result from the interaction of a parent who decides on the amount of saving in retirement and a caregiver who decides on the effort devoted to informal care which lowers the probability of admission to a nursing home. Double crowding-out effects are also found to be the consequence of exogenous influences, notably a higher opportunity cost of caregiving.

  13. The Beagle 2 Effect - public response to the UK Mars lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    As a prerequisite for understanding science, the target audience must first be aware of an issue and then continue to maintain interest. We discuss the impact of the Beagle 2 mission to Mars on raising awareness amongst the general public as the first step to increasing understanding of the scientific and technological challenges and solutions such a mission addresses. The massive amount of public interest created is now being ttributed to the so-called "Beagle 2 Effect". We consider the reasons why the public, particularly, but not exclusively, in the UK took Beagle 2 to heart. Initially our strategy, as part of the PR plan for Beagle 2, was to collate media coverage for various stages and discrete campaigns in particular to use press cuttings to determine the level of recognition of Beagle 2 as a brand. At the start of the project this information was to support sponsorship bids, latterly the intrinsic value of media, and hence public, awareness was recognised by the major partners in the project. Much of the subsequent public awareness resulted from the comprehensive coverage in all branches of the media. A second opportunity to evaluate the response to the mission was presented to us as it became increasingly clear that Beagle 2 was able to engage an audience much wider than that typically interested in space, or science in general. We highlighted how far mention of Beagle 2 has spread. Additionally numerous unsolicited letters have been received from the public and these have been collated to indicate the factors which appear to have contributed to the widespread interest in Beagle 2. It is not clear whether the "Beagle 2 Effect" can, or will, be transferred to subsequent space missions.

  14. Effects of Public Relations Activities on Customer Satisfaction in the University Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gedikçi, Öndoğan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Like all organizations in the process of globalization, university libraries also have focused on their customers much more in order to continue their existence and they have diversified their services in order to increase customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction emerges as a result of integration of many interdependent components. In this study, public relations works, the most important factor affecting the customer satisfaction, are handled and it is tried to determine the effect of public relations works conducted at Selcuk University Central Library on the customer satisfaction. In the study used descriptive methods, data were obtained from all customer groups who came to the Central Library through questionnaire. It was come out that all customer groups who came to the Central Library were satisfied with public relations works related to the library's physical elements and service elements, but they were not content with public relations works conducted out of the organization in order to improve the customer relations. In consequence of the research, it was observed that the variable that customers gives more importance is the physical elements variable ( =3,86. The most intense relationship between variables is between service element with the physical elements (r=0,667, p<0,01 and public relations elements (r=0,642, p<0,0.

  15. Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2017-05-11

    Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.

  16. The effects of media on the level of accountability of public organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Matani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of democratic political systems is the accountability against their own performances. Media, one of the powerful elements of civil society and effectual on public thought, plays an important role in making the government responsive. To achieve this goal, the present study tries to investigate the effect of media on the improvement of the accountability level of the government agencies. The statistical society of this research includes all male students of Azad Ghaemshahr University where 320 students were selected through purposive sampling method based on Kerjesy and Morgan table. Applied research method is used in this survey. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect the required data. In order to validate the instrument, appropriate questions related to each variable were extracted from valid sources and finally approved by authorities. In order to calculate the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 89. Since the distribution of the data was normal, parametric statistical tests were used to testify the hypotheses. The findings of the study show that the media could be effective in terms of making public organizations responsive, through leading and training the public, unifying demands, and monitoring and broadcasting. However, the findings reveal that if the media were free and independent, they would better perform their responsibilities. Finally, the study at hand concludes that in comparison to other media, television is much more powerful in terms of pushing the public sector to be responsive.

  17. "Is political behavior a viable coping strategy to perceived organizational politics? Unveiling the underlying resource dynamics": Correction to Sun and Chen (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Reports an error in "Is Political Behavior a Viable Coping Strategy to Perceived Organizational Politics? Unveiling the Underlying Resource Dynamics" by Shuhua Sun and Huaizhong Chen ( Journal of Applied Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, May 22, 2017, np). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-22542-001.) We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. An improved public goods game model with reputation effect on the spatial lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Tianwei; Ding, Shuai; Fan, Wenjuan; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The reputation effect is added into the spatial public goods game model. • The individual utility is calculated as a combination of payoff and reputation. • The individual reputation will be adaptively modified as the system evolves. • The larger the reputation factor, the higher the cooperation level. - Abstract: How to model the evolution of cooperation within the population is an important and interdisciplinary issue across the academia. In this paper, we propose an improved public goods game model with reputation effect on spatial lattices to investigate the evolution of cooperation regarding the allocation of public resources. In our model, we modify the individual utility or fitness as a product of the present payoff and reputation-related power function, and strategy update adopts a Fermi-like probability function during the game evolution. Meanwhile, for an interaction between a pair of partners, the reputation of a cooperative agent will be accrued beyond two units, but the defective player will decrease his reputation by one unit. Extensive Monte Carlo numerical simulations indicate the introduction of reputation will foster the formation of cooperative clusters, and greatly enhance the level of public cooperation on the spatial lattices. The larger reputation factor leads to the higher cooperation level since the reputation effect will be enormously embedded into the utility evaluation under this scenario. The current results are vastly beneficial to understand the persistence and emergence of cooperation among many natural, social and synthetic systems, and also provide some useful suggestions to devise the feasible social governance measures and modes for the public resources or affairs.

  19. Environmental Public Health Tracking: a cost-effective system for characterizing the sources, distribution and public health impacts of environmental hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P J; Middleton, J D; Rudge, G

    2017-09-01

    The contemporary environment is a complex of interactions between physical, biological, socio-economic systems with major impacts on public health. However, gaps in our understanding of the causes, extent and distribution of these effects remain. The public health community in Sandwell West Midlands has collaborated to successfully develop, pilot and establish the first Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) programme in Europe to address this 'environmental health gap' through systematically linking data on environmental hazards, exposures and diseases. Existing networks of environmental, health and regulatory agencies developed a suite of innovative methods to routinely share, integrate and analyse data on hazards, exposures and health outcomes to inform interventions. Effective data sharing and horizon scanning systems have been established, novel statistical methods piloted, plausible associations framed and tested, and targeted interventions informed by local concerns applied. These have influenced changes in public health practice. EPHT is a powerful tool for identifying and addressing the key environmental public health impacts at a local level. Sandwell's experience demonstrates that it can be established and operated at virtually no cost. The transfer of National Health Service epidemiological skills to local authorities in 2013 provides an opportunity to expand the programme to fully exploit its potential. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Long-Run Effects of Public-Private Research Joint Ventures:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kuhn, Johan Moritz

    Subsidized research joint ventures (RJVs) between public research institutions and industry have become increasingly popular in Europe and the US. We study the long-run effects of such a support scheme that has been maintained by the Danish government since 1995. To cope with identification...... problems we apply nearest neighbor caliper matching and conditional difference-in-difference estimation methods. Our main findings are that (i) program participation effects are instant for annual patent applications and last for three years, (ii) employment effects materialize first after one year...

  1. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, W. T.; Villasor, H. P.

    2003-01-01

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included

  2. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  3. Flextime: A Viable Solution to Work/Family Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen E.; Staines, Graham L.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research regarding advantages and disadvantages of flextime to both employers and employees; evaluates effects of flextime on resolving work/family conflicts; and establishes future programmatic, research, and policy directions regarding flextime. Claims flextime is beneficial in resolving work/family conflicts but not as beneficial as…

  4. Poverty alleviation in Uganda: the case for a viable optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation is a long and painstaking process. It involves knowing what poverty is, its causes and means of alleviating it. Poverty is one of the scourges including disease and ignorance a combination of which deprives humanity of the basic needs for living. Among the strategies to alleviate poverty is effective ...

  5. Social Media in Diabetes Education: A Viable Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julie; Cox, Jill N.; Corbin, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    As Extension educators are encouraged to implement more cost-effective and efficient means of programming, the use of Web-based social media has become a popular option. Penn State Extension implemented a social media awareness survey among participants in its community-based diabetes education program to determine familiarity with this medium,…

  6. Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.P._Ezekiel & D.O_Oriakhogba

    rates.22 Politically also, the role of the local government is to ensure effective .... potential cost savings that might result from large governmental unit.32 Under ... institutional status.33 These are very common in the USA and France. .... the thresholds of consent (in House of Assembly in respect to the area and local.

  7. The effect of public social context on self-control: depletion for neuroticism and restoration for impression management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel, Liad; Baumeister, Roy F

    2012-03-01

    The present study explores the role of personality in moderating the effect of public social context on self-control. The authors predicted that in public settings neuroticism would be associated with ego-depletion effects and individual differences in impression management (IM) would be associated with restoration effects. Three experiments supported the hypothesis. In Study 1 neuroticism was associated with impaired self-control and IM was associated with enhanced self-control following an initial phase of working on a simple task in public (vs. in private). Study 2 replicated and extended these results to other domains of self-control. Study 3 explored whether public social context can cancel out early depletion effects. In this study, depleted participants engaged in a task that required self-control either alone or in public. As expected, the public settings were associated with restored self-control resources mostly among high IM individuals. Implications for self-control, neuroticism, and IM are discussed.

  8. Effects of Print Publication Lag in Dual Format Journals on Scientometric Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background Publication lag between manuscript submission and its final publication is considered as an important factor affecting the decision to submit, the timeliness of presented data, and the scientometric measures of the particular journal. Dual-format peer-reviewed journals (publishing both print and online editions of their content) adopted a broadly accepted strategy to shorten the publication lag: to publish the accepted manuscripts online ahead of their print editions, which may follow days, but also years later. Effects of this widespread habit on the immediacy index (average number of times an article is cited in the year it is published) calculation were never analyzed. Methodology/Principal Findings Scopus database (which contains nearly up-to-date documents in press, but does not reveal citations by these documents until they are finalized) was searched for the journals with the highest total counts of articles in press, or highest counts of articles in press appearing online in 2010–2011. Number of citations received by the articles in press available online was found to be nearly equal to citations received within the year when the document was assigned to a journal issue. Thus, online publication of in press articles affects severely the calculation of immediacy index of their source titles, and disadvantages online-only and print-only journals when evaluating them according to the immediacy index and probably also according to the impact factor and similar measures. Conclusions/Significance Caution should be taken when evaluating dual-format journals supporting long publication lag. Further research should answer the question, on whether the immediacy index should be replaced by an indicator based on the date of first publication (online or in print, whichever comes first) to eliminate the problems analyzed in this report. Information value of immediacy index is further questioned by very high ratio of authors’ self-citations among the

  9. Technological innovation and its effect on public health in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Preetinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background Good public health ensures an efficient work force. Organizations can ensure a prominent position on the global stage by staying on the leading edge of technological development. Public health and technological innovation are vital elements of prosperous economies. It is important to understand how these elements affect each other. This research study explored and described the relationship between these two critical elements/constructs. Methods Indicators representing technological innovation and public health were identified. Indicator data from 2000 to 2009 were collected from various US federal government sources, for the four US Census regions. The four US Census regions were then compared in terms of these indicators. Canonical correlation equations were formulated to identify combinations of the indicators that are strongly related to each other. Additionally, the cause–effect relationship between public health and technological innovation was described using the structural equation modeling technique. Results The four US Census regions ranked differently in terms of both type of indicators in a statistically significant manner. The canonical correlation analysis showed that the first set of canonical variables had a fairly strong relationship, with a magnitude > 0.65 at the 95% confidence interval, for all census regions. Structural equation modeling analysis provided β 12.98, for all census regions. The threshold Student’s t statistic was 1.98. Hence, it was found that the β values were significant at the 95% confidence interval, for all census regions. Discussion The results of the study showed that better technological innovation indicator scores were associated with better public health indicator scores. Furthermore, the study provided preliminary evidence that technological innovation shares causal relation with public health. PMID:23378771

  10. Publication Bias in Psychology: A Diagnosis Based on the Correlation between Effect Size and Sample Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühberger, Anton; Fritz, Astrid; Scherndl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias. Methods We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values. Results We found a negative correlation of r = −.45 [95% CI: −.53; −.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings. Conclusion The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology. PMID:25192357

  11. Compost plant of Medellin - An economically viable project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoya V, Julian; Arango M, Carlos Andres

    1999-01-01

    ; garbage delivered to the treatment plant must be selected previously. An aggressive campaign to improve public image of the project has to be implemented. Intangible benefits of the project have to be brought out: Citizen environmental education, increase of the life span for the sanitary landfill

  12. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication.

  13. Are EM's communication tools effective? Evaluation research of two EM publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, Evelyn; Gardner, Gene; Harvey, Tony

    1992-01-01

    As a reflection of its growing culture of openness, and in response to the public's need for accurate information about its activities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has increased the amount of information available to the public through communication tools such as brochures, fact sheets, and a travelling exhibit with an interactive computer display. Our involvement with this effort has been to design, develop, and critique booklets, brochures, fact sheets and other communication tools for EM. This paper presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of two communication tools we developed: the EM Booklet and the EM Fact Sheets. We measured effectiveness using non-parametric testing. This paper describes DOE's culture change, EM's communication tools and their context within DOE'S new open culture, our research, test methods and results, the significance of our research, and our plans for future research. (author)

  14. The effectiveness of knowledge translation strategies used in public health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaRocca Rebecca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature related to the effectiveness of knowledge translation (KT strategies used in public health is lacking. The capacity to seek, analyze, and synthesize evidence-based information in public health is linked to greater success in making policy choices that have the best potential to yield positive outcomes for populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of KT strategies used to promote evidence-informed decision making (EIDM among public health decision makers. Methods A search strategy was developed to identify primary studies published between 2000–2010. Studies were obtained from multiple electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Searches were supplemented by hand searching and checking the reference lists of included articles. Two independent review authors screened studies for relevance, assessed methodological quality of relevant studies, and extracted data from studies using standardized tools. Results After removal of duplicates, the search identified 64, 391 titles related to KT strategies. Following title and abstract review, 346 publications were deemed potentially relevant, of which 5 met all relevance criteria on full text screen. The included publications were of moderate quality and consisted of five primary studies (four randomized controlled trials and one interrupted time series analysis. Results were synthesized narratively. Simple or single KT strategies were shown in some circumstances to be as effective as complex, multifaceted ones when changing practice including tailored and targeted messaging. Multifaceted KT strategies led to changes in knowledge but not practice. Knowledge translation strategies shown to be less effective were passive and included access to registries of pre-processed research evidence or print materials. While knowledge brokering did not have a significant effect generally

  15. Defined Combinations of Cryomedia and Thawing Extenders Influence the Viable X-Y Boar Sperm Ratio in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchunjit, W; Kaeoket, K; Kitiyanant, Y; Taylor, J; Wongtawan, T

    It is believed that plasma membrane X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm are different; therefore the freezing and thawing process may affect X- and Y-sperm differently. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cryomedia and thawing extenders on the survival of X and Y-sperm. Three different cryomedia and thawing extenders were compared. Viable motile sperm were separated using a swim-up technique. Real-time PCR was used to identify the sperm type. Using CryoA for freezing and Beltsville-Thawing-Solution (BTS) as the thawing extender yielded significantly higher numbers of viable motile Y sperm (64 percent) than control (48 percent) (P semen freezing with CryoC and thawing with Androstar Plus gave a significantly lower number of viable motile Y sperm (32 percent) than control (51 percent). Our results revealed that defined combinations of cryomedia and thawing extenders significantly altered the survival ratio of frozen-thawed X-Y sperm in vitro, which has potential implications for artificial insemination.

  16. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Ajay Logani; Naseem Shah

    2013-01-01

    Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The ...

  17. The Effect of the Global Financial Crisis and the Sovereign Debt Crisis on Public Sector Accounting: A Contextual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Igbawase Abanyam; Paul Aondona Angahar

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of global financial crisis and the sovereign debt crisis on public sector accounting. The global financial crisis and sovereign debt crisis were contextually analysed bringing out clearly its effect on public sector accounting which include accounting issues related to public sector intervention, accounting for recapitalization of investment, accounting for fiscal support, accounting for financial guarantees. The paper found out that, the unresolved fiscal and d...

  18. The Effect of Gender on Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in Malaysian Public Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ma’rof Bin Redzuan, Haslinda Abdullah, Aida Mehrad, Hanina Halimatussadiah

    2015-01-01

    Based on last due decades, job satisfaction assumed as one of the imperative organizational factors that has great role among staff at workplace; furthermore,focusing on this important factor and finding effective items that impact on the level of job satisfaction is very essential. The main purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between gender and job satisfaction of academic staff at public universities in Malaysia. The Job Descriptive Index inventory (JDI) was used to mea...

  19. International economy. 82, controlling greenhouse effect: the stake of the international public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.; Oliveira-Martins, J.; Sgard, J.

    2000-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is one of the first stake of public policy which needs to be considered at the worldwide level. The climate changes shade doubts on the economic growth strategies adopted by all countries, and, if no major effort is made in the mastery of energy demand, worldwide greenhouse gas emissions will rapidly reach dangerous thresholds. This book gives a status of the research carried out on the economical impact of these policies. (J.S.)

  20. Acts of Atrocity: Effects on Public Opinion Support During War or Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    while] general public disenchantment, however, seems to have been largely practical , springing from the failure of our substantial military...have much effect on the majority of Americans focused on more practical measures for determining their support or opposition for the Vietnam War...of male detainees to masturbate while being photographed and videotaped; arranging naked male detainees in a pile and then jumping on them

  1. Production of viable male unreduced gametes in Brassica interspecific hybrids is genotype specific and stimulated by cold temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowling Wallace A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unreduced gametes (gametes with the somatic chromosome number may provide a pathway for evolutionary speciation via allopolyploid formation. We evaluated the effect of genotype and temperature on male unreduced gamete formation in Brassica allotetraploids and their interspecific hybrids. The frequency of unreduced gametes post-meiosis was estimated in sporads from the frequency of dyads or giant tetrads, and in pollen from the frequency of viable giant pollen compared with viable normal pollen. Giant tetrads were twice the volume of normal tetrads, and presumably resulted from pre-meiotic doubling of chromosome number. Giant pollen was defined as pollen with more than 1.5 × normal diameter, under the assumption that the doubling of DNA content in unreduced gametes would approximately double the pollen cell volume. The effect of genotype was assessed in five B. napus, two B. carinata and one B. juncea parents and in 13 interspecific hybrid combinations. The effect of temperature was assessed in a subset of genotypes in hot (day/night 30°C/20°C, warm (25°C/15°C, cool (18°C/13°C and cold (10°C/5°C treatments. Results Based on estimates at the sporad stage, some interspecific hybrid genotypes produced unreduced gametes (range 0.06 to 3.29% at more than an order of magnitude higher frequency than in the parents (range 0.00% to 0.11%. In nine hybrids that produced viable mature pollen, the frequency of viable giant pollen (range 0.2% to 33.5% was much greater than in the parents (range 0.0% to 0.4%. Giant pollen, most likely formed from unreduced gametes, was more viable than normal pollen in hybrids. Two B. napus × B. carinata hybrids produced 9% and 23% unreduced gametes based on post-meiotic sporad observations in the cold temperature treatment, which was more than two orders of magnitude higher than in the parents. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sources of unreduced gametes, required for the triploid

  2. Changes in the relative population size of selected ruminal bacteria following an induced episode of acidosis in beef heifers receiving viable and non-viable active dried yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R; Vyas, D; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the changes in the relative population size (RPS) of select ruminal bacteria and rumen fermentation variables in beef heifers supplemented with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as viable active dried (ADY) or killed dried (KDY) yeast following an induced episode of ruminal acidosis. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 50% forage and 50% grain (dry matter basis) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 28-day periods. Treatments were: (i) control (CTRL; no yeast); (ii) ADY (4 g day -1 providing 10 10  CFU per g; AB Vista, UK); and (iii) KDY (4 g day -1 autoclaved ADY). The acidosis challenge was induced on day 22 and rumen samples were collected on day 15 (baseline; BASE), day 22 (challenge day; CHAL), and on day 29 (168th hour post acid challenge or recovery, REC) of each period. Over the study, duration of pH Yeast supplementation, irrespective of its viability, showed beneficial effects on ruminal pH variables in animals more susceptible to acidosis. Rumen microbial population was altered with the induction of severe acidosis. Most of the changes reverted back to baseline values during the recovery phase. Yeast supplementation reduced subacute rumen acidosis in the most susceptible cattle, but failed to attenuate severe acidosis induced by a grain challenge. The study provided valuable insight into the mechanism by which acidosis affects cattle performance. Individual animal variation in ruminal fermentation partly explained the variability in response to yeast supplementation in the study. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Effective mechanisms for environmental awareness enhancement of the Thai public company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilokwan, P.; Limjirakan, S.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore effective mechanisms towards environmental awareness enhancement of the Thai public company. The environmental awareness has been strongly mentioned in the international agenda such as Agenda 21 to achieve sustainable development and be implemented at the global communities in all sectors. Thailand’s environmental awareness has been set up as the national policy and continuously promoted in the business sectors. The selected study area is one of Thai industrial public companies mainly utilizing natural resources for its business. Data collection was conducted by using questionnaires with a stratified sampling method comprising of 28 managerial and 134 operational levels. Descriptive statistics were be used for data analysis presented in terms of percentage. The study found that the effective mechanisms towards environmental awareness enhancement include employees’ participation in environmental friendly field trip, environmental knowledge provided by the company, supply chain involvement, law enforcement, and international environmental standard applied by the company. This study would recommend that public participation should be involved in order to make the mechanisms effectively.

  4. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. We assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Report No. 13, we show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk that applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age. (author)

  5. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Monica S; Swinburn, Tracy K; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda.

  6. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age

  7. Flexible Nanosomes (SECosomes) Enable Efficient siRNA Delivery in Cultured Primary Skin Cells and in the Viable Epidermis of Ex Vivo Human Skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusens, Barbara; Van Gele, Mireille; Braat, Sien; De Smedt, Stefaan C.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Prow, Tarl W.; Sanchez, Washington; Roberts, Michael S.; Sanders, Niek N.; Lambert, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which nanoscale-engineered systems cross intact human skin and can exert pharmacological effects in viable epidermis is controversial. This research seeks to develop a new lipid-based nanosome that enables the effective delivery of siRNA into human skin. The major finding is that an

  8. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The paper presents a brief review of palatogingival groove and highlights an easy and predictable alternative for its management.

  9. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  10. Doctor knows best: physician endorsements, public opinion, and the politics of comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alan S; Patashnik, Eric M; Doherty, David; Dowling, Conor M

    2014-02-01

    The Obama administration has made a major investment in comparative effectiveness research (CER) to learn what treatments work best for which patients. CER has the potential to reduce wasteful medical spending and improve patient outcomes, but the political sustainability of this initiative remains unclear because of concerns that it will threaten the doctor-patient relationship. An unresolved question is whether it is possible to boost public support for the use of CER as a cost-control strategy. We investigate one potential source of public support: Americans' trust in physicians as faithful agents of patient interests. We conducted two national surveys to explore the public's confidence in doctors compared to other groups. We find that doctors are viewed as harder workers, more trustworthy, and more caring than other professionals. Through survey experiments, we demonstrate that the support of doctors' groups for proposals to control costs and use CER have a greater influence on aggregate public opinion than do cues from political actors including congressional Democrats, Republicans, and a bipartisan commission. Our survey results suggest that the medical profession's stance will be an important factor in shaping the political viability of efforts to use CER as a tool for health care cost control.

  11. Casing drilling TM : a viable technology for coal bed methane?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Muqeem, M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper highlighted the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling more than 30 wells using only casings as the drill stem, suggesting that such technology could be advantageous for Coal Bed Methane (CBM) exploration and development. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig that is ideal to meet the great demand for CBM development in Canada. The Casing Drilling TM system, when used in conjunction with the drilling rig, could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of CBM reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead and wire line retrieval can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or coal beds under balanced with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while finding gas at the same time. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling TM could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO

  13. Photocatalysis: A viable alternative for the elimination of organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Pavas, Edison

    2002-01-01

    The basic idea of this project is to present photo catalysis as a simple, economic, effective and innovative technology, for the treatment of phenolic waters found in the effluents from several industrial processes, by determining the optimum conditions of operation and by identifying the parameters that govern the process. The attractiveness of this technology is based on its profitability, easy of implementation and use. The required capital investment is minimal in comparison with other technologies. The UV radiation from the sun or artificial sources (lamps) is used to activate the catalyst (TiO) to destroy the organic pollutants present in liquids effluent. The process was carried out continuously with using ph, catalyst (TiO 2 ) concentration and recirculation time as variables

  14. Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Ayame, J.; Takashita, H.; Yamamoto, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

  15. Effect of numbers vs pictures on perceived effectiveness of a public safety awareness advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniak, S; Lammers, H B

    1991-08-01

    In a 2 x 2 completely randomized factorial experiment, 24 women and 16 men rated the perceived effectiveness of an earthquake preparedness advertisement which contained either a picture or no picture of prior earthquake damage and contained either statistics or no statistics on likelihood of an earthquake. A main effect for superiority of the picture was found. The presence of statistics had no main or interactive effects on the perceived effectiveness of the advertisement.

  16. Designing viable cropping options for salt-affected lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Meinke, Holger

    2017-04-01

    Salinity cost agricultural sector over 27Bln pa in lost opportunities and is an issue that crosses all spatial and temporal scales - from individual fields, farms, catchments, landscapes to national and global levels. Salinity manifests itself in many forms and often leads to further soil degradation such as erosion, nutrient and soil organic matter depletion, and a loss of (soil) biodiversity. Salinity may also cause major disturbance to ecosystems due to its impact on resources (e.g. pollution of aquifers). In extreme cases it can turn previously highly productive areas into wastelands. An increasing global population and unprecedented urban sprawls are now putting additional pressures on our soil and water resources, particularly in regions where urbanisation directly competes with agriculture for access to land and water. And although everyone agrees that avoiding soil salinity in the first instance would be the most effective way of combating it, reality is that the amount of saline land and water resources is rapidly increasing, and will continue to increase, especially in developing countries. Purposefully designing our cropping systems that can cope with various levels of salinity could be one answer to this increasing problem. In this work we review some of the key cropping options that can be deployed to either avoid, reduce or remediate salt-affected lands. We argue that for these measures to be most effective an ongoing science - policy - society dialogue is required to ensure that policy frameworks that govern land and water management are conducive to reducing salinity or even assist in restoring affected areas. We first consider several case studies highlighting the extent of the problem using ongoing salinity hotspots around the globe. We then look at halophytes as a possible biological tools to remediate already saline sols, and discuss prospects of mixed (halophytes and glycophytes) cropping solutions for various agricultural systems at different

  17. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca; Naegel, Arne; Heisig, Michael; Wittum, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living

  18. Solar System constraints on a cosmologically viable f(R) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisabr, Yousef, E-mail: y-bisabr@srttu.ed [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-18

    Recently, a model f(R) theory is proposed (Miranda et al. (2009)) which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from LAMBDACDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  19. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker

  20. Solar System constraints on a cosmologically viable f(R) theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisabr, Yousef

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a model f(R) theory is proposed (Miranda et al. (2009)) which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from ΛCDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  1. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Ravel, J.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    , direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. V. harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d...

  2. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  3. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  4. The Effect of Marijuana Scenes in Anti-marijuana Public Service Announcements on Adolescents’ Evaluation of Ad Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N.; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature—marijuana scenes—on adolescents’ perception of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents’ evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements (PSAs) that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana PSAs negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads amon...

  5. Neural reflex pathways in intestinal inflammation: hypotheses to viable therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemze, Rose A; Luyer, Misha D; Buurman, Wim A; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2015-06-01

    Studies in neuroscience and immunology have clarified much of the anatomical and cellular basis for bidirectional interactions between the nervous and immune systems. As with other organs, intestinal immune responses and the development of immunity seems to be modulated by neural reflexes. Sympathetic immune modulation and reflexes are well described, and in the past decade the parasympathetic efferent vagus nerve has been added to this immune-regulation network. This system, designated 'the inflammatory reflex', comprises an afferent arm that senses inflammation and an efferent arm that inhibits innate immune responses. Intervention in this system as an innovative principle is currently being tested in pioneering trials of vagus nerve stimulation using implantable devices to treat IBD. Patients benefit from this treatment, but some of the working mechanisms remain to be established, for instance, treatment is effective despite the vagus nerve not always directly innervating the inflamed tissue. In this Review, we will focus on the direct neuronal regulatory mechanisms of immunity in the intestine, taking into account current advances regarding the innervation of the spleen and lymphoid organs, with a focus on the potential for treatment in IBD and other gastrointestinal pathologies.

  6. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Kenisha; Cooper, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  7. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, Kenisha, E-mail: k.garnett@cranfield.ac.uk [Institute for Environment, Health, Risks and Futures, School of Environment, Energy and Agri-food, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Cooper, Tim, E-mail: t.h.cooper@ntu.ac.uk [School of Architecture Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  8. Key Performance Indicators for Maintenance Management Effectiveness of Public Hospital Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Omar Mardhiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of management in maintenance aspect holds the key element in influencing the performance of overall maintenance management. Similarly, public hospital building needs an effective maintenance management as this type of building in nature is one of the most complex issues in the field of maintenance. Improper building maintenance management adopted by the organization significantly will interrupt the overall operation of the building. Therefore, this paper is aim to identifying the key performance indicator (KPI of effectiveness of maintenance management for the public hospital building. A total of 32 set of questionnaires were distributed to the maintenance manager for each hospital in the northern region of peninsular Malaysia by using self-administration strategy. The survey answer was analyzed by performing descriptive analysis in SPSS. Overall, the result of descriptive analysis shows that all the ten factors of effectiveness of maintenance management are accepted as KPI since the mean value is at least 3.93 which classified as important and significant. The most significant factor of effectiveness of maintenance management is task planning and scheduling with the mean score of 4.35. While less significant factor is identify as maintenance approach with the value of mean score is 3.93. The both results indicates that the management need to have well-structured planning for the maintenance works and also need to embrace the exact strategy of maintenance approach in order to achieved better overall performance of maintenance management. This study may draw a standard practice for the government in assessing the performance of public facilities in terms of maintenance management.

  9. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on Public Speaking Anxiety of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Aslani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public speaking anxiety is a prominent problem in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on public speaking anxiety of college students. Materials and Methods: The design of research was quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. The sample consistent of 30 students with speech anxiety that selected base on available sampling and assigned randomly in experimental (N=15 and control (N=15 groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 7 sessions. In order to collect the data, Paul’s personal report of confidence as a speaker, S-R inventory of anxiousness was used. To analyze the data, SPSS-19 software and covariance analysis were used. Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing reducing public speaking anxiety. The one-way analysis of covariance for each variable shows there are significant differences in confidence of speaker (p=0.001 and physiological symptoms of speech anxiety (p=0.001 at the two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective on reducing physiological symptoms of speech anxiety and increasing the speaker’s confidence.

  10. Humanizing HIV/AIDS and its (re)stigmatizing effects: HIV public 'positive' speaking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Sarangi, Srikant

    2009-01-01

    Social stigma has been inextricably linked with HIV and AIDS since the epidemic erupted in the early 1980s. The stigma that has built up around HIV and AIDS is generally regarded as having a negative impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive people and on general prevention efforts. Current attempts to combat HIV-related stigma focus on increasing the acceptance of HIV among the stigmatizing public and stigmatized individuals alike. In this, the global HIV-positive community is being increasingly called upon to ;humanize' the virus, not least through public displays of HIV 'positive' health and public ;positive' speaking. This article critically explores the constitutive effects and inherent power relations of HIV Positive Speakers' Bureaus (PSBs) as a platform for such a display. Adopting a post-structuralist discourse analytic approach, we explore accounts of positive-speaking and HIV health from HIV-related non-government organizations in India and in PSB training manuals. In particular, we highlight ways in which positive-speaking in India can be seen to have significant (re)stigmatizing effects by way of ambivalent and hyper-real configurations of HIV 'positive' identity and life.

  11. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.

  12. Instrumentalities for the Effectiveness of Measures of Public Accountability in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agu Sylvia U

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the various measures put in place by government for the promotion of public accountability in Africa using Nigeria as a case study was examined using a 12-item questionnaire. The aim was to find the importance of these measures in the promotion of public accountability in Nigeria. A total of 240 respondents, comprising 140 males (65.6% and 100 females (34.4%, answered the questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 24.89 years. The result disclosed that these measures were partially implemented in the discharge of duties and this led to the achievement of very limited successes. The chi-square was also used to test the relationship between implementation of these measures and effectiveness of public accountability. The result revealed a significant relationship. Suggestions were therefore made on how to improve the use of these measures which included recognition of the importance of these measures, adequate monitoring, removal of the immunity clause, strict adherence to sanctions irrespective of whoever is involved, and compulsory accountability by leaders.

  13. Public Relations: The Route to Success and Influence. Public Relations for Your Library: A Tool for Effective Communications; Tooting Your Own Horn: Web-Based Public Relations for the School Media Specialist; Bookmarks as a Teaching Tool; Customers and Culture: The Who and What of Library Public Relations Efforts; Strategies for Successful Job Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Linda; Silverstein, Roberta; Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann; Hegel, Claudette; Miller, Donna; Moyer, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This special section includes five articles that discuss public relations strategies for school librarians. Highlights include effective communication, including measuring and evaluating the success of public relations efforts; Web-based public relations; giving bookmarks to students; customers and cultural contexts; and successful job…

  14. Public's Cognitive and Emotional Responses to Nuclear Messages: Implications for Effective Nuclear Communication Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Jung

    2017-01-01

    The public debate over the use of nuclear energy is not limited to the area of technology, and has become subject to the public's subjective perceptions and emotions regarding the issue. This study empirically demonstrated the advantage of loss framing in improving public's favorable responses toward nuclear energy messages. Such framing effect was found to be moderated by individuals' daily use of online news. The findings of this study suggest that public's cognitive and emotional responses toward nuclear messages should be carefully considered when planning effective nuclear communication program.

  15. Combined evaluation of rest-redistribution thallium-201 tomography and low-dose dobutamine echocardiography enhances the identification of viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, L.; Cuocolo, A.; Salvatore, M.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Prastaro, M.; Vezzuto, P.; Crisci, T.; Dellegrottaglie, S.; Piscione, F.; Chiariello, M.; Mainenti, P.P.; Varrone, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether combined evaluation by discriminant analysis of rest-redistribution thallium-201 tomography and low-dose dobutamine echocardiography enhances the accuracy in identifying viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Rest-redistribution 201 Tl has high sensitivity but low specificity in identifying viable myocardium, while the opposite is true for low-dose dobutamine echocardiography. Forty-six patients underwent low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and rest-redistribution 201 Tl tomography on the same day. Rest echocardiography was repeated at least 30 days (mean 40±20) after myocardial revascularization. Discriminant analysis was applied to the results of 201 Tl tomography and dobutamine echocardiography to classify a/dyskinetic segments as viable or non-viable. In 92 a/dyskinetic segments that were revascularized, rest-redistribution 201 Tl tomography yielded an accuracy of 75%, while the accuracy of dobutamine echocardiography was 70% (P 201 Tl imaging are useful and complementary techniques for identifying viable myocardium in patients with chronic coronary artery disease. Combined evaluation by discriminant analysis significantly improves accuracy, although the cost-effectiveness of such an approach remains to be determined. (orig.)

  16. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man-made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  17. Public sector effects and social impact assessment of nuclear generating facilities: Information for community mitigation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1984-01-01

    One of the major issues in community impact management is the gap between revenues generated by energy projects and expenditures for public facilities and services because of project-induced growth. Of issue is the experience of communities experiencing rapid growth where project revenues are not generated until operations commence and yet, considerable investments are needed to accommodate growth during the construction phase. Such revenue imbalances have resulted in communities demanding ''up-front'' capital investments or revenue prior to and during construction. However, with the construction and operation of nuclear facilities, the few available studies have found substantial revenue gains allocated to local jurisdiction and little adverse expenditure effects. The analyses of twelve nuclear stations found that the demand for new and expanded public facilities and the social services attributable to the plants were generally small, that adverse impacts were controllable and mitigatable, and that utility revenue payments varied substantially amount the host areas

  18. Exploring viable vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric NMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuria, Jyotiranjan [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Chattopadhyay, Utpal [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Datta, AseshKrishna [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dey, Abhishek [Maulana Azad College, Government of West Bengal, 8 Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road, Kolkata 700013 (India)

    2017-04-05

    We explore the vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) and their stability by going beyond the simplistic paradigm that works with a tree-level neutral scalar potential and adheres to some specific flat directions in the field space. We work in the so-called phenomenological NMSSM (pNMSSM) scenario. Also, for our purpose, we adhere to a reasonably ‘natural’ setup by requiring |μ{sub eff}| not too large. Key effects are demonstrated by first studying the profiles of this potential under various circumstances of physical interest via a semi-analytical approach. The results thereof are compared to the ones obtained from a dedicated package like Vevacious which further incorporates the thermal effects to the potential. Regions of the pNMSSM parameter space that render the desired symmetry breaking (DSB) vacuum absolutely stable, long- or short-lived (in relation to the age of the Universe) under quantum/thermal tunneling are delineated. Regions that result in the appearance of color and charge breaking (CCB) minima are also presented. It is demonstrated that light singlet scalars along with a light LSP (lightest supersymmetric particle) having an appreciable singlino admixture are compatible with a viable DSB vacuum. Their implications for collider experiments are commented upon.

  19. Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 μSv/y, as compared to 305 μSv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

  20. Emergency contraception. Widely available and effective but disappointing as a public health intervention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) prevents pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. Use of EC has increased markedly in countries where a product is available over the counter, yet barriers to availability and use remain. Although effective in clinical trials, it has not yet been possible to show a public health benefit of EC in terms of reduction of unintended pregnancy rates. Selective progesterone receptor modulators developed as emergency contraceptives offer better effectiveness than levonorgestrel, but still EC is less effective than use of ongoing regular contraception. Methods which inhibit ovulation whenever they are taken or which act after ovulation to prevent implantation and strategies to increase the uptake of effective ongoing contraception after EC use would prevent more pregnancies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretu, Ileana; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Ionila, Maria; Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NO x and CO 2 , and about 90% from SO 2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy

  2. Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Lewis, Earl J; Glass, Gregory; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Curriero, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of increasing reports worldwide on Cryptosporidium contamination of oysters remains unknown in relation to foodborne cryptosporidiosis. Thirty market-size oysters (Crassostrea virginica), collected from each of 53 commercial harvesting sites in Chesapeake Bay, MD, were quantitatively tested in groups of six for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). After IFA analysis, the samples were retrospectively retested for viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and IFA. The mean cumulative numbers of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in six oysters (overall, 42.1+/-4.1) were significantly higher than in the numbers of viable C. parvum oocysts (overall, 28.0+/-2.9). Of 265 oyster groups, 221 (83.4%) contained viable C. parvum oocysts, and overall, from 10-32% (mean, 23%) of the total viable oocysts were identified in the hemolymph as distinct from gill washings. The amount of viable C. parvum oocysts was not related to oyster size or to the level of fecal coliforms at the sampling site. This study demonstrated that, although oysters are frequently contaminated with oocysts, the levels of viable oocysts may be too low to cause infection in healthy individuals. FISH assay for identification can be retrospectively applied to properly stored samples.

  3. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Léa; Peuchet, Sébastien; Servais, Pierre; Henry, Annabelle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Baudart, Julia

    2017-09-27

    A cellular approach combining Direct Viable Counting and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using a one-step multiple-probe technique and Solid Phase Cytometry (DVC-FISH-SPC) was developed to monitor total viable vibrios and cover the detection of a large diversity of vibrios. FISH combined three probes in the same assay and targeted sequences located at different positions on the 16S rRNA of Vibrio and Aliivibrio members. We performed a 10-month in situ study to investigate the weekly dynamics of viable vibrios relative to culturable counts at two northwestern Mediterranean coastal sites, and identified the key physicochemical factors for their occurrence in water using a multivariate analysis. Total viable and culturable cell counts showed the same temporal pattern during the warmer season, whereas the ratios between both methods were inverted during the colder seasons (<15°C), indicating that some of the vibrio community had entered into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. We confirmed that Seawater Surface Temperature explained 51-62% of the total variance in culturable counts, and also showed that the occurrence of viable vibrios is controlled by two variables, pheopigment (15%) and phosphate (12%) concentrations, suggesting that other unidentified factors play a role in maintaining viability.

  4. [Effectiveness assessment of public clinical laboratories: the case of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Leyla Gomes; Vargens, José Muniz da Costa; Sancho, Rafael Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The organization of public clinical laboratories is experiencing changes without, however, an organizational assessment of its effectiveness. The study aimed to determine a parameter of effectiveness for public clinical laboratories of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, and set cut-off points for the sections of these laboratories. In order to do so, the total production and number of hours worked during a period of 7 months in the year 2008 were consolidated. Due to the entrance of the workers in the mode of production in the laboratories network, it could be observed a variability regarding the performance of these workers. The effectiveness parameter of the network was established in 29.90 tests per hour. As a consequence of this first analysis, the cut-off points are: 15.50 for the hematology section; 67.29 for chemistry; 6.45 for parasitology; 11.35 for urinalysis; 4.94 for microbiology and 19.03 for immunology. From these results, it was concluded that the working process in laboratories can generate a decrease in effectiveness.

  5. Green perspectives for public health: a narrative review on the physiological effects of experiencing outdoor nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Schönbauer, Regina; Cervinka, Renate

    2014-05-19

    Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological stress reactions, was

  6. Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological

  7. Making accessibility analyses accessible: A tool to facilitate the public review of the effects of regional transportation plans on accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Aaron; Robinson, Glenn; Brendan Nee, Brendan Nee

    2013-01-01

    The regional transportation planning process in the United States has not been easily opened to public oversight even after strengthened requirements for public participation and civil rights considerations. In the effort to improve the public review of regional transportation plans, this paper describes the construction of a proof-of concept web-based tool designed to analyze the effects of regional transportation plans on accessibility to jobs and other essential destinations. The tool allo...

  8. On-Farm, Almond Orchard Flooding as a Viable Aquifer Recharge Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, C.; Nico, P. S.; Wu, Y.; Newman, G. A.; Conrad, M. E.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, California legislators passed the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA), which requires groundwater sustainability agencies (areas) to identify/prioritize water basins, develop current and projected water use/needs, develop a groundwater management plan, develop fees, etc. One of the challenges for implementing SGMA is the lack of data that can support alternative groundwater recharge methods such as on-farm flooding. Prior to anthropogenic river control, river floodplains captured excess water during overbank flow in the rainy season in the CA central valley. Today levees and canals strategically route rainy season high flows to the delta/ocean when irrigation water is not needed. Utilizing farmland once again as infiltration basins for groundwater banking and aquifer recharge could be a viable answer to California's depleted central valley aquifers. Prior to 2017, U.C. Davis had partnered with the Almond Board of California (ABC) and local growers to study the efficacy of agricultural flooding and the effects on annual almond crops (. LBNL joined this team to help understand the conveyance of recharge water, using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), into the subsurface (i.e. localized fast paths, depth of infiltration, etc.) during flooding events. The fate of the recharge water is what is significant to understanding the viability of on-farm flooding as an aquifer recharge option. In this study two orchards (in Delhi and Modesto, CA), each approximately 2 acres, were flooded during the almond tree dormant period (January), to recharge 2 acre/ft of water into the local aquifers. ERT was used to characterize (soil structure) and monitor water infiltration over a single flooding event to investigate the fate of applied water. Data were collected every hour prior to flooding (baseline), during, and after all flood water had infiltrated (about 5 days total). Our time-lapse ERT results show a heterogeneous soil structure that leads to non

  9. New perspectives on the "silo effect": initial comparisons of network structures across public health collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-04-01

    We explored to what extent "silos" (preferential partnering) persist in interorganizational boundaries despite advances in working across boundaries. We focused on organizational homophily and resulting silo effects within networks that might both facilitate and impede success in public health collaboratives (PHCs). We analyzed data from 162 PHCs with a series of exponential random graph models to determine the influence of uniform and differential homophily among organizations and to identify the propensity for partnerships with similar organizations. The results demonstrated a low presence (8%) of uniform homophily among networks, whereas a greater number (30%) of PHCs contained varying levels of differential homophily by 1 or more types of organization. We noted that the higher frequency among law enforcement, nonprofits, and public health organizations demonstrated a partner preference with similar organizations. Although we identified only a modest occurrence of partner preference in PHCs, overall success in efforts to work across boundaries might be problematic when public health members (often leaders of PHCs) exhibit the tendency to form silos.

  10. How does the regulator effectively involve the public in its activities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Degueldre, D.

    2006-01-01

    As a variety of viewpoints and subjects were given in the different representations. The following is a summary: - Regulator commitments regarding public participation and experience gained in terms of effectiveness, visibility and credibility. The way the public hearings/meetings are organised and how they are used in the regulatory process. - How public participation is expected to be in the frame of the new proposed site selection procedure for radioactive waste disposal facility. This new process expects stakeholder involvement from the very beginning, even during the development of the site selection procedure itself, consisting of steps very precisely structured. - Regulator experience on responding to sensitive or 'high emotional' situations reminding the three main key-principles: (1) preparation to have an opportunity to have success; (2) always being honest, even during an 'emergency'; (3) start by understanding correctly the issue. - On how to speak about radioactivity to school children in the frame of an issue of a specific newspaper dedicated for children (8-12 years). Additional local actions in schools were also mentioned. (author)

  11. Estimating the fiscal effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos eSouliotis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece’s organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country’s economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, near half of the gains from the measure’s application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government’s revenue, i.e. losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers’ high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure’s inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy’s deprivation of useful resources.

  12. Estimating the Fiscal Effects of Public Pharmaceutical Expenditure Reduction in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Frangos, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece's organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country's economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources, such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, nearly half of the gains from the measure's application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government's revenue, i.e., losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers' high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure's inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy's deprivation of useful resources.

  13. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    challenges and propose an economically, politically, and legally viable ADR option. Much like waste management on Earth, cleaning up space junk will likely lie somewhere between a public good and a private sector service. An international, cooperative, public-private partnership concept can address many of these issues and be economically sustainable, while also driving the creation of a proper set of regulations, standards and best practices.

  14. Public attitudes toward biofuels. Effects of knowledge, political partisanship, and media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale investments and government mandates to expand biofuels development and infrastructure in the United States, little is known about how the public conceives of this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on citizen knowledge and the motivated processing of media information. Specifically, we explore the direct effects of biofuels knowledge and the moderating effect of partisanship on the relationship between media use and benefit vs. risk perceptions in the following four domains: environmental impacts, economic consequences, ethical/social implications, and political ramifications. Our results suggest that more knowledgeable respondents see fewer benefits of biofuels relative to risks, and that Democrats and Republicans are affected differently by media use when forming opinions about biofuels. Among Democrats, greater attention to political media content leads to a more favorable outlook toward the technology across several domains of interest, while among Republicans, an increase in attention to political content has the opposite effect. Possible reasons for these results, as well as implications of the findings at the intersection of politics and the life sciences, are discussed.

  15. An extended cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenia treatment in India under universal public finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykar, Neha; Nigam, Aditi; Chisholm, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a priority condition in mental health policy and service development because of its early onset, severity and consequences for affected individuals and households. This paper reports on an 'extended' cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) for schizophrenia treatment in India, which seeks to evaluate through a modeling approach not only the costs and health effects of intervention but also the consequences of a policy of universal public finance (UPF) on health and financial outcomes across income quintiles. Using plausible values for input parameters, we conclude that health gains from UPF are concentrated among the poorest, whereas the non-health gains in the form of out-of-pocket private expenditures averted due to UPF are concentrated among the richest income quintiles. Value of insurance is the highest for the poorest quintile and declines with income. Universal public finance can play a crucial role in ameliorating the adverse economic and social consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment in resource-constrained settings where health insurance coverage is generally poor. This paper shows the potential distributional and financial risk protection effects of treating schizophrenia.

  16. Effect of heterogeneous investments on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keke; Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the emergence of cooperation in spatial public goods game remains a grand challenge across disciplines. In most previous studies, it is assumed that the investments of all the cooperators are identical, and often equal to 1. However, it is worth mentioning that players are diverse and heterogeneous when choosing actions in the rapidly developing modern society and researchers have shown more interest to the heterogeneity of players recently. For modeling the heterogeneous players without loss of generality, it is assumed in this work that the investment of a cooperator is a random variable with uniform distribution, the mean value of which is equal to 1. The results of extensive numerical simulations convincingly indicate that heterogeneous investments can promote cooperation. Specifically, a large value of the variance of the random variable can decrease the two critical values for the result of behavioral evolution effectively. Moreover, the larger the variance is, the better the promotion effect will be. In addition, this article has discussed the impact of heterogeneous investments when the coevolution of both strategy and investment is taken into account. Comparing the promotion effect of coevolution of strategy and investment with that of strategy imitation only, we can conclude that the coevolution of strategy and investment decreases the asymptotic fraction of cooperators by weakening the heterogeneity of investments, which further demonstrates that heterogeneous investments can promote cooperation in spatial public goods game.

  17. Expression of proposed implantation marker genes CDX2 and HOXB7 in the blastocyst does not distinguish viable from non-viable human embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2012-01-01

    expression differs between viable and non-viable embryos in both human and non-humans, suggesting transcriptome analysis of trophectoderm (TE) as a novel method of improving embryo selection. Potential candidate marker genes have been identified with array studies on animal blastocysts. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the expression of selected genes in human blastocysts in relation to the outcome of implantation. Materials and methods: Embryos from 10 oatients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were included in the project. A single blastocyst was chosen for biopsy on the morning of day 5 after oocyte...... of 15 key genes associated with developmental competence in animals were evaluated in high quality human embryos with monogenic or chromosomal disorders from a pre-implantation genetic disorder program. Triplicate cDNA amplifications for quantitative (q) RT-PCR were performed using pre-designed gene...

  18. Public Perceptions of GPS Monitoring for Convicted Sex Offenders: Opinions on Effectiveness of Electronic Monitoring to Reduce Sexual Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kristen M; Mancini, Christina

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, electronic monitoring (EM) and global positioning systems (GPS) are new applications that are used to extensively monitor and track convicted sex offenders. What is unclear though are public perceptions of this strategy. This research examines public perceptions of a national sample of Americans on the use of GPS/EM with convicted sex offenders as a method to reduce their sexual recidivism. Using a multinomial regression model, we analyze the effects of sex offender myths and parental status on public perceptions that sex offender GPS/EM is very effective in reducing sexual recidivism. Findings suggest that public perceptions of effectiveness are partially driven by myths and also that parents are unsure of this strategy. The analysis contributes to the growing body of knowledge on public perceptions of GPS/EM to manage sex offenders in communities. Implications of the study and areas for future research are discussed in light of the findings.

  19. Passive superconductor: A viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-02-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Passive superconductor a viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Clinically viable magnetic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles for MRI-based cell tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Dorit; Nkansah, Michael K.; Bennewitz, Margaret F.; Tang, Kevin S.; Markakis, Eleni A.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To design, fabricate, characterize and in vivo assay clinically viable magnetic particles for MRI-based cell tracking. Methods PLGA encapsulated magnetic nano- and microparticles were fabricated. Multiple biologically relevant experiments were performed to assess cell viability, cellular performance and stem cell differentiation. In vivo MRI experiments were performed to separately test cell transplantation and cell migration paradigms, as well as in vivo biodegradation. Results Highly magnetic nano- (~100 nm) and microparticles (~1–2 μm) were fabricated. Magnetic cell labeling in culture occurred rapidly achieving 3–50 pg Fe/cell at 3 hrs for different particles types, and >100 pg Fe/cell after 10 hours, without the requirement of a transfection agent, and with no effect on cell viability. The capability of magnetically labeled mesenchymal or neural stem cells to differentiate down multiple lineages, or for magnetically labeled immune cells to release cytokines following stimulation, was uncompromised. An in vivo biodegradation study revealed that NPs degraded ~80% over the course of 12 weeks. MRI detected as few as 10 magnetically labeled cells, transplanted into the brains of rats. Also, these particles enabled the in vivo monitoring of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration in rat brains over 2 weeks. Conclusion The robust MRI properties and benign safety profile of these particles make them promising candidates for clinical translation for MRI-based cell tracking. PMID:23568825

  2. Effective Two-way Communication of Environmental Hazards: Understanding Public Perception in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an

  3. How much of the income inequality effect can be explained by public policy? Evidence from oral health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the association between income inequality, a public policy scale and to oral health. Analysis, using the Brazilian oral health survey in 2002-2003, included 23,573 15-19-year-old subjects clustered in 330 municipalities. Missing and decayed teeth and malocclusion assessments were the outcomes. Gini coefficient and a novel Scale of Municipal Public Policies were the main exposure variables. Individual level covariates were used as controls in multilevel regressions. An increase from the lowest to the highest Gini value in Brazil was associated with an increase in the number of missing (rate ratio, RR=2.11 confidence interval 95% 1.18-3.77) and decayed teeth (RR=2.92 CI 95% 1.83-4.65). After adjustment for public policies and water fluoridation, the Gini effect was non-significant and public policies explained most of the variation in missing and decayed teeth. The public policy scale remained significant after adjustment with a rate ratio of 0.64 for missing and 0.72 for decayed teeth. Neither Gini nor public policies were significantly related to malocclusion. The public policy effect on missing and decayed teeth was stronger among those with higher education and income. Income inequality effect was explained mainly by public policies, which had an independent effect that was greater among the better-off. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Instruction Expenditures towards High School Completion among Oahu's Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Larson S. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The following study attempted to ascertain the instructional cost-effectiveness of public high school teachers towards high school completion through a financially based econometric analysis. Essentially, public high school instruction expenditures and completer data were collected from 2000 to 2007 and bivariate interaction analyzed through a…

  5. Review of "The Effect of Special Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, John T.

    2008-01-01

    A new report published by the Manhattan Institute for Education Policy, "The Effect of Special Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program," attempts to examine the complex issue of how competition introduced through school vouchers affects student outcomes in public schools. The…

  6. Sensitive and Specific Biomimetic Lipid Coated Microfluidics to Isolate Viable Circulating Tumor Cells and Microemboli for Cancer Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yang Chen

    Full Text Available Here we presented a simple and effective membrane mimetic microfluidic device with antibody conjugated supported lipid bilayer (SLB "smart coating" to capture viable circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM directly from whole blood of all stage clinical cancer patients. The non-covalently bound SLB was able to promote dynamic clustering of lipid-tethered antibodies to CTC antigens and minimized non-specific blood cells retention through its non-fouling nature. A gentle flow further flushed away loosely-bound blood cells to achieve high purity of CTCs, and a stream of air foam injected disintegrate the SLB assemblies to release intact and viable CTCs from the chip. Human blood spiked cancer cell line test showed the ~95% overall efficiency to recover both CTCs and CTMs. Live/dead assay showed that at least 86% of recovered cells maintain viability. By using 2 mL of peripheral blood, the CTCs and CTMs counts of 63 healthy and colorectal cancer donors were positively correlated with the cancer progression. In summary, a simple and effective strategy utilizing biomimetic principle was developed to retrieve viable CTCs for enumeration, molecular analysis, as well as ex vivo culture over weeks. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity, it is the first time to show the high detection rates and quantity of CTCs in non-metastatic cancer patients. This work offers the values in both early cancer detection and prognosis of CTC and provides an accurate non-invasive strategy for routine clinical investigation on CTCs.

  7. Public effective doses from environmental natural gamma exposures indoors and outdoors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Roositalab, Jalil; Mohammadi, Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    The effective doses of public in Iran due to external gamma exposures from terrestrial radionuclides and from cosmic radiation indoors and outdoors of normal natural background radiation areas were determined by measurements and by calculations. For direct measurements, three measurement methods were used including a NaI(TI) scintillation survey meter for preliminary screening, a pressurised ionising chamber for more precise measurements and early warning measurement equipment systems. Measurements were carried out in a large number of locations indoors and outdoors ∼1000 houses selected randomly in 36 large cities of Iran. The external gamma doses of public from living indoors and outdoors were also calculated based on the radioactivity measurements of samples taken from soil and building materials by gamma spectrometry using a high-resolution HPGe system. The national mean background gamma dose rates in air indoors and outdoors based on measurements are 126.9±24.3 and 111.7±17.72 nGy h -1 , respectively. When the contribution from cosmic rays was excluded, the values indoors and outdoors are 109.2±20.2 and 70.2±20.59.4 nGy h -1 , respectively. The dose rates determined for indoors and outdoors by calculations are 101.5±9.2 and 72.2±9.4 nGy h -1 , respectively, which are in good agreement with directly measured dose rates within statistical variations. By considering a population-weighted mean for terrestrial radiation, the ratio of indoor to outdoor dose rates is 1.55. The mean annual effective dose of each individual member of the public from terrestrial radionuclides and cosmic radiation, indoors and outdoors, is 0.86±0.16 mSv y -1 by measurements and 0.8±0.2 mSv y -1 by calculations. The results of this national survey of public annual effective doses from national natural background external gamma radiation determined by measurements and calculations indoors and outdoors of 1000 houses in 36 cities of Iran are presented and discussed. (authors)

  8. Effects of seasonal operation on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M; Jurgens, Bryant C

    2014-09-01

    Seasonal variability in groundwater pumping is common in many places, but resulting effects of seasonal pumping stress on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells are not thoroughly understood. Analysis of historical water-quality samples from public-supply wells completed in deep basin-fill aquifers in Modesto, California (134 wells) and Albuquerque, New Mexico (95 wells) indicates that several wells have seasonal variability in concentrations of contaminants of concern. In Modesto, supply wells are more likely to produce younger groundwater with higher nitrate and uranium concentrations during the summer (high) pumping season than during the winter (low) pumping season. In Albuquerque, supply wells are more likely to produce older groundwater with higher arsenic concentrations during the winter pumping season than during the summer pumping season. Seasonal variability in contaminant concentrations in Modesto is influenced primarily by effects of summer pumping on vertical hydraulic gradients that drive migration of shallow groundwater through the aquifer to supply wells. Variability in Albuquerque is influenced primarily by the period of time that a supply well is idle, allowing its wellbore to act as a conduit for vertical groundwater flow and contaminant migration. However, both processes are observed in each study area. Similar findings would appear to be likely in other alluvial basins with stratified water quality and substantial vertical head gradients. Results suggest that even in aquifers dominated by old groundwater, changes to seasonal pumping patterns and/or to depth of well completion can help reduce vulnerability to selected contaminants of either natural or anthropogenic origin. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Groundwater published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of National Ground Water Association.

  9. Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Murphy, Shane; Anderson, Benjamin; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Glass, Roger; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-10-01

    An estimated 4% of global child deaths (approximately 300,000 deaths) were attributed to rotavirus in 2010. About a third of these deaths occurred in India and Ethiopia. Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in these two countries could substantially decrease child mortality and also reduce rotavirus-related hospitalizations, prevent health-related impoverishment and bring significant cost savings to households. We use a methodology of 'extended cost-effectiveness analysis' (ECEA) to evaluate a hypothetical publicly financed program for rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia. We measure program impact along four dimensions: 1) rotavirus deaths averted; 2) household expenditures averted; 3) financial risk protection afforded; 4) distributional consequences across the wealth strata of the country populations. In India and Ethiopia, the program would lead to a substantial decrease in rotavirus deaths, mainly among the poorer; it would reduce household expenditures across all income groups and it would effectively provide financial risk protection, mostly concentrated among the poorest. Potential indirect benefits of vaccination (herd immunity) would increase program benefits among all income groups, whereas potentially decreased vaccine efficacy among poorer households would reduce the equity benefits of the program. Our approach incorporates financial risk protection and distributional consequences into the systematic economic evaluation of vaccine policy, illustrated here with the case study of public finance for rotavirus vaccination. This enables selection of vaccine packages based on the quantitative inclusion of information on equity and on how much financial risk protection is being bought per dollar expenditure on vaccine policy, in addition to how much health is being bought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  11. Investigation of Removal Capacities of Biofilters for Airborne Viable Micro-Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soret, Rémi; Fanlo, Jean-Louis; Malhautier, Luc; Geiger, Philippe; Bayle, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    New emerging issues appears regarding the possible aerosolization of micro-organisms from biofilters to the ambient air. Traditional bioaerosol sampling and cultural methods used in literature offer relative efficiencies. In this study, a new method revolving around a particle counter capable of detecting total and viable particles in real time was used. This counter (BioTrak 9510-BD) uses laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology to determine the biological nature of the particle. The concentration of viable particles was measured on two semi-industrial pilot scale biofilters in order to estimate the Removal Efficiency in viable particles (REvp) in stable conditions and to examine the influence of pollutant feeding and relative humidification of the gaseous effluent on the REvp. The REvp of biofilters reached near 80% and highlighted both the stability of that removal and the statistical equivalence between two identical biofilters. Pollutant deprivation periods of 12 h, 48 h and 30 days were shown to have no influence on the biofilters’ removal capacity, demonstrating the robustness and adaptation capacities of the flora. In contrast, a 90-day famine period turned the biofilters into emitters of viable particles. Finally, the humidification of the effluent was shown to negatively influence the removal capacity for viable particles, as drying off the air was shown to increase the REvp from 60 to 85%. PMID:29562709

  12. Effectiveness of Collaborative Care for Depression in Public-Sector Primary Care Clinics Serving Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, Isabel T; Dwight-Johnson, Megan; Green, Jennifer M; Tang, Lingqi; Zhang, Lily; Duan, Naihua; Miranda, Jeanne

    2017-04-01

    Quality improvement interventions for depression care have been shown to be effective for improving quality of care and depression outcomes in settings with primarily insured patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a collaborative care intervention for depression that was tailored for low-income Latino patients seen in public-sector clinics. A total of 400 depressed patients from three public-sector primary care clinics were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a tailored collaborative care intervention versus enhanced usual care. Social workers without previous mental health experience served as depression care specialists for the intervention patients (N=196). Depending on patient preference, they delivered a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention or facilitated antidepressant medication given by primary care providers or both. In enhanced usual care, patients (N=204) received a pamphlet about depression, a letter for their primary care provider stating that they had a positive depression screen, and a list of local mental health resources. Intent-to-treat analyses examined clinical and process-of-care outcomes at 16 weeks. Compared with patients in the enhanced usual care group, patients in the intervention group had significantly improved depression, quality of life, and satisfaction outcomes (ppublic-sector clinics. Social workers without prior mental health experience can effectively provide CBT and manage depression care.

  13. THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF CUSTOMER FOCUS ON PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulnaidi Yaacob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated within the literature that the practice of customer focus is significantly associated with customer satisfaction. However, the possibility that the construct of customer focus may affect other relevant measures remains underexplored. As such, this paper discusses the effect that customer focus has on organizational performance, operating upon the premise that customer satisfaction is an end result of other relevant performance measures such as employee satisfaction, innovation, and cost benefits. Data were collected from 205 managers within the public service sector, all of whom were directly involved with the process of customer focus. The results of this study revealed that customer focus is a significant predictor of employee satisfaction, innovation, and customer satisfaction. The structural model developed also indicated that there is an indirect relationship between customer focus and customer satisfaction, as determined by employee satisfaction. In addition, the effect of customer focus on innovation is mediated by employee satisfaction. Therefore, this model implies that the practice of customer focus may enable public firms to increase their levels of performance.

  14. Assessment of public awareness of the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temaugee, S.T.; Daniel, T.A.; Oladejo, K.O.; Daniel, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the level of public awareness of detrimental effects of ionizing radiation in Nigeria, a case study of Federal College of Education Kontagora Niger State. A total of thirty-five (35) lecturers and seventy-five (75) students were randomly selected from the five schools in the College. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire. Data obtained from the questionnaire was analysed using simple percentages. The result of the study revealed that 10 (28.6%) out of 35 lecturers and 32 (42.7%) out of 75 students of the sampled population were totally unaware of ionization radiation and its health detriments. Moreover, the remaining percentage of both lecturers and students had limited knowledge about ionizing radiation and its detrimental effects to humans. The research also shows that a significant percentage of both lecturers and students claimed that the topic 'Ionizing radiations and their health detriments' is not relevant to their field of academic inclination. Based on the findings of the research, it was therefore recommended that the government, Nigeria Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NNRA), physicists and concerned individuals should enlighten the general public on ionizing radiations, its health detriment and safety measures through seminars and the mass media.

  15. The public committed effective dose caused by consumption of foods and foodstuffs in Ninh Thuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Le Nhu Sieu; Truong Y; Nguyen Van Phuc; Nguyen Thi Linh; Nguyen Dinh Tung

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data set about radionuclides concentration in foods and foodstuffs obtained from the implementation of the National Projects on “Investigation on radionuclides and toxic elements concentration in the main kinds of foods and foodstuffs of Vietnam” and “Assessment of Marine Environmental Radioactivity Status for two selected sites of Nuclear Power Plant in the near future at Ninh Thuan Province”, a calculation software of the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP), the public committed effective doses (for adult only) caused by consumption of main foods & foodstuffs in the studied experimental region were estimated. In general, the committed effective doses for adult public caused by the daily intake of radionuclides of U, 232 Th, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu are: 7.9x10 -5 , 4.1x10 -6 , 1.1x10 -2 , 1.7x10 -1 , 1.4x10 -3 , 1.2x10 -1 , 2.32x10 -4 , 1.9x10 -4 , 2.7x10 -9 (mSv/year), respectively, and the contribution of U, Th series, 40 K and artificial radionuclides are 61.3%, 38.6% and 0.1%, respectively. (author)

  16. Alternative Dispute Resolution : A Viable Method for Settling Government Contract Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Estoppel : Using Preclusion to Shape Procedural Choices," 63 Tulane Law Review 20, 1988. Murray, "Lawyers and Alternative Dispute Resolution Success," 14...1988. Shell, "Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel Effects of Commercial Arbitration," 35 UCLA Law Review 623, 1988. Shell, "The Role of Public Law in

  17. Present-value analysis: A systems approach to public decisionmaking for cost effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, T. T.

    1971-01-01

    Decision makers within Governmental agencies and Congress must evaluate competing (and sometimes conflicting) proposals which seek funding and implementation. Present value analysis can be an effective decision making tool by enabling the formal evaluation of the effects of competing proposals on efficient national resource utilization. A project's costs are not only its direct disbursements, but its social costs as well. How much does it cost to have those funds diverted from their use and economic benefit by the private sector to the public project? Comparisons of competing projects' social costs allow decision makers to expand their decision bases by quantifying the projects' impacts upon the economy and the efficient utilization of the country's limited national resources. A conceptual model is established for the choosing of the appropriate discount rate to be used in evaluation decisions through the technique.

  18. p-Curve and Effect Size: Correcting for Publication Bias Using Only Significant Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsohn, Uri; Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph P

    2014-11-01

    Journals tend to publish only statistically significant evidence, creating a scientific record that markedly overstates the size of effects. We provide a new tool that corrects for this bias without requiring access to nonsignificant results. It capitalizes on the fact that the distribution of significant p values, p-curve, is a function of the true underlying effect. Researchers armed only with sample sizes and test results of the published findings can correct for publication bias. We validate the technique with simulations and by reanalyzing data from the Many-Labs Replication project. We demonstrate that p-curve can arrive at conclusions opposite that of existing tools by reanalyzing the meta-analysis of the "choice overload" literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialist...

  20. Public management and network specificity: Effects of colleges’ ties with professional organizations on graduates’ labour market success and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Agnes; Torenvlied, René

    2013-01-01

    Research on managerial networking in the public sector reports positive effects of network activity on performance. However, little is known about which network relations influence different aspects of performance. We argue that for specific organizational goals, organizations should direct their

  1. Constrained by Red Tape : How Managerial Networking Moderates the Effects of Red Tape on Public Service Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Petra; Torenvlied, René; Akkerman, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    Extant public management studies examining the management of environmental challenges predominantly concentrate on the management of the erratic dimension of environmental challenges, that is, shocks. Whereas there is strong evidence that environmental shocks can be effectively managed, much less is

  2. Effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs: combining elements of clinical effectiveness and implementation research to enhance public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Geoffrey M; Bauer, Mark; Mittman, Brian; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Stetler, Cheryl

    2012-03-01

    This study proposes methods for blending design components of clinical effectiveness and implementation research. Such blending can provide benefits over pursuing these lines of research independently; for example, more rapid translational gains, more effective implementation strategies, and more useful information for decision makers. This study proposes a "hybrid effectiveness-implementation" typology, describes a rationale for their use, outlines the design decisions that must be faced, and provides several real-world examples. An effectiveness-implementation hybrid design is one that takes a dual focus a priori in assessing clinical effectiveness and implementation. We propose 3 hybrid types: (1) testing effects of a clinical intervention on relevant outcomes while observing and gathering information on implementation; (2) dual testing of clinical and implementation interventions/strategies; and (3) testing of an implementation strategy while observing and gathering information on the clinical intervention's impact on relevant outcomes. The hybrid typology proposed herein must be considered a construct still in evolution. Although traditional clinical effectiveness and implementation trials are likely to remain the most common approach to moving a clinical intervention through from efficacy research to public health impact, judicious use of the proposed hybrid designs could speed the translation of research findings into routine practice.

  3. Factors of School Effectiveness and Performance of Selected Public and Private Elementary Schools: Implications on Educational Planning in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert C. Magulod Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What defines effective school is the necessity of the school community to tailor interventions to improve quality of education. This study determined the factors of school effectiveness and level of school performance of private and public elementary schools in the Second Congressional District of Cagayan Province, Philippines. The study made use of mixed-method research. For quantitative, the descriptive correlational method was used to identify the relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. Factorial analysis was also used to identify the principal components of school effectiveness of private and public elementary schools. The participants of the study were the 182 public and private elementary school principals and teachers from the 20 sampled schools. School effectiveness was measured using the seven correlates of effective schools. On the other hand, the level of school performance was gauged through the National Achievement Test (NAT results for the past three years. The qualitative part of the study focused on the school effectiveness practices and NAT practices of selected private and public elementary schools. The findings of the study revealed that the level of school effectiveness of both private and public elementary schools was excellent. However, test of difference showed that public schools exhibited stronger home-school relations than the private schools. In terms of the level of school performance, public schools perform better than the private schools for the past three years. Significantly, there exists a strong positive relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. The factorial analysis revealed that among all the correlates of school effectiveness, school leadership competency and professional collaboration influenced the performance of both schools. Recommendations of the study can help the government and school officials to plan appropriate strategies in improving the quality of

  4. The Effects of Tight Budgetary Control on Managerial Bahaviour in the Swedish Public Sector : Emphasizing Motivation, Commitment, Satisfaction and Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hemsing, Malte; Baker, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis study is about the effects of tight budgetary control on managerial behaviour in the Swedish public sector. Managerial behaviour represents the four variables; motivation, organizational commitment, stress, and satisfaction. As previous research mostly investigated the effects of tight budgetary control on organizational performance in the private sector, this study can be seen as one of the first that focus on managerial behaviour and is based on the public sector. For the data c...

  5. Mediation misgivings: ambiguous clinical and public health interpretations of natural direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Kaufman, Jay S; MacLehose, Richard F

    2014-10-01

    Recent methodological innovation is giving rise to an increasing number of applied papers in medical and epidemiological journals in which natural direct and indirect effects are estimated. However, there is a longstanding debate on whether such effects are relevant targets of inference in population health. In light of the repeated calls for a more pragmatic and consequential epidemiology, we review three issues often raised in this debate: (i) the use of composite cross-world counterfactuals and the need for cross-world independence assumptions; (ii) interventional vs non-interventional identifiability; and (iii) the interpretational ambiguity of natural direct and indirect effect estimates. We use potential outcomes notation and directed acyclic graphs to explain 'cross-world' assumptions, illustrate implications of this assumption via regression models and discuss ensuing issues of interpretation. We argue that the debate on the relevance of natural direct and indirect effects rests on whether one takes as a target of inference the mathematical object per se, or the change in the world that the mathematical object represents. We further note that public health questions may be better served by estimating controlled direct effects. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of insulin analogs from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurílio de Souza Cazarim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Human insulin is provided by the Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS for the treatment of diabetes, however, legal proceedings to acquire insulin analogs have burdened the BPHS health system. The aim of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare insulin analogs and human insulins. This is a pharmacoeconomic study of cost-effectiveness. The direct medical cost related to insulin extracted from the Ministry of Health drug price list was considered. The clinical results, i.e. reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, were extracted by meta-analysis. Different scenarios were structured to measure the uncertainties regarding the costs and reduction in HbA1c. Decision tree was developed for sensitivity of Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER. A total of fifteen scenarios were structured. Given the best-case scenario for the insulin analogs, the insulins aspart, lispro, glargine and detemir showed an ICER of R$ 1,768.59; R$ 3,308.54; R$ 11,718.75 and R$ 2,685.22, respectively. In all scenarios in which the minimum effectiveness was proposed, lispro, glargine and detemir were dominant strategies. Sensitivity analysis showed that the aspart had R$ 3,066.98 [95 % CI: 2339.22; 4418.53] and detemir had R$ 6,163.97 [95% CI: 3919.29; 11401.57] for incremental costs. We concluded there was evidence that the insulin aspart is the most cost-effective.

  7. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  8. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of viable Mycobacterium leprae with Type 1 reaction in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Mrudula Prakash; Dighe, Anju Rajaram; Natrajan, Mohan; Shetty, Vanaja Prabhakaran

    2016-03-01

    The working hypothesis is that, viable Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) play a crucial role in the precipitation of Type 1 reaction (T1R) in leprosy. A total of 165 new multibacillary patients were studied. To demonstrate presence of viable M. leprae in reactional lesion (T1R+), three tests were used concurrently viz. growth in the mouse foot pad (MFP), immunohistochemical detection of M. leprae secretory protein Ag85, and 16s rRNA--using in situ RT-PCR. Mirror biopsies and non reactional lesions served as controls (T1R-). A significantly higher proportion of lesion biopsy homogenates obtained at onset, from T1R(+) cases have shown unequivocal growth in MFP, proving the presence of viable bacteria, as compared to T1R(-) (P leprae is a component/prerequisite and the secretory protein Ag 85, might be the trigger for precipitation of T1R.

  10. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f(R) gravity with producing ΛCDM background expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Liu, Molin [Xinyang Normal University, Department of Physics, Xinyang (China)

    2016-12-15

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H{sub 0} (or σ{sub 8}) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in ΛCDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f(R) gravity producing ΛCDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f(R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σm{sub ν} < 0.202 eV for the active-neutrino case, m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.757 eV with N{sub eff} < 3.22 for the sterile neutrino case. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -1.89 and f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H{sub 0} gets slightly weaker in the viable f(R) model than that in the base ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  11. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Sherman, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation's pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE) for the decade 2003-2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%), greenhouse gas emissions (10%), smog formation (10%) criteria air pollutants (9%), stratospheric ozone depletion (1%), and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1-2%). The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors) and demand side (NHE categories), as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000-98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety.

  12. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Eckelman

    Full Text Available The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation's pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE for the decade 2003-2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%, greenhouse gas emissions (10%, smog formation (10% criteria air pollutants (9%, stratospheric ozone depletion (1%, and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1-2%. The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors and demand side (NHE categories, as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000-98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety.

  13. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsinchun [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States); Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan, E-mail: jiangs@email.arizona.edu; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States)

    2013-09-15

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  14. The effect of continuing professional development on public complaints: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenghofer, Elizabeth F; Campbell, Craig; Marlow, Bernard; Kam, Sophia M; Carter, Lorraine; McCauley, William

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between participation in different types of continuing professional development (CPD), and incidences and types of public complaint against physicians. Cases included physicians against whom complaints were made by members of the public to the medical regulatory body in Ontario, Canada, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO), during 2008 and 2009. The control cohort included physicians against whom no complaints were documented during the same period. We focused on complaints related to physician communication, quality of care and professionalism. The CPD data included all Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) and College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) CPD programme activities reported by the case and control physicians. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine if the independent variable, reported participation in CPD, was associated with the dependent variable, the complaints-related status of the physician in the year following reported CPD activities. A total of 2792 physicians were included in the study. There was a significant relationship between participation in CPD, type of CPD and type of complaint received. Analysis indicated that physicians who reported overall participation in CPD activities were significantly less likely (odds ratio 0.604; p = 0.028) to receive quality of care-related complaints than those who did not report participating in CPD. Additionally, participation in group-based CPD was less likely (OR 0.681; p = 0.041) to result in quality of care-related complaints. The findings demonstrate a positive relationship between participation in the national CPD programmes of the CFPC and RCPSC, and lower numbers of public complaints received by the CPSO. As certification bodies and regulators alike are increasingly mandating CPD, they are encouraged to continually evaluate the effectiveness of their programmes to maximise

  15. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991–2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991–2000, 2001–2010, and 2011–2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields

  16. What is a mental illness? Public views and their effects on attitudes and disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-07-01

    'Mental illness' is a common label. However, the general public may or may not consider various conditions, ranging from major psychiatric disorders to stress, as mental illnesses. It is unclear how such public views affect attitudes towards people with mental illness and reactions to one's own potential mental illness, e.g. in terms of help-seeking or disclosure. In representative English population surveys the classification of six conditions (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, drug addiction, stress, grief) as a mental illness was assessed as well as attitudes towards, and contact with, people with mental illness, intentions to disclose a mental illness and to seek treatment. A factor analysis of how strongly respondents perceived the six conditions as a mental illness yielded two factors: (i) major psychiatric disorders and (ii) stress- and behaviour-related conditions including drug addiction. In regression analyses, higher scores on the first, but not the second, factor predicted less perceived responsibility of people with mental illness for their actions, and more support for a neurobiological illness model and help-seeking. Classifying stress-related/behaviour-related conditions as mental illnesses, as well as not referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses, was associated with more negative attitudes and increased social distance, but also with stronger intentions to disclose a mental illness to an employer. Negative attitudes and social distance were also related to ethnic minority status and lower social grade. Referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses may reflect higher mental health literacy, better attitudes towards people with mental illness and help-seeking. A broader concept of mental illness could, although increasing negative attitudes, facilitate disclosure in the workplace. Public views on what is a mental illness may have context-dependent effects and should be taken into account in anti

  17. Effectiveness of Home Visits in Pregnancy as a Public Health Measure to Improve Birth Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Ichikawa

    Full Text Available Birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW, and small for gestational age (SGA, are crucial indicators of child development and health.To evaluate whether home visits from public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women prevent adverse birth outcomes.In this quasi-experimental cohort study in Kyoto city, Japan, high-risk pregnant women were defined as teenage girls (range 14-19 years old, women with a twin pregnancy, women who registered their pregnancy late, had a physical or mental illness, were of single marital status, non-Japanese women who were not fluent in Japanese, or elderly primiparas. We collected data from all high-risk pregnant women at pregnancy registration interviews held at a public health centers between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, as well as birth outcomes when delivered from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (N = 964, which is a record of prenatal check-ups, delivery, child development and vaccinations. Of these women, 622 women were selected based on the home-visit program propensity score-matched sample (pair of N = 311 and included in the analysis. Data were analyzed between January and June 2014.In the propensity score-matched sample, women who received the home-visit program had lower odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.98 and showed a 0.55-week difference in gestational age (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92 compared to the matched controlled sample. Although the program did not prevent LBW and SGA, children born to mothers who received the program showed an increase in birth weight by 107.8 g (95% CI: 27.0 to 188.5.Home visits by public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women in Japan might be effective in preventing preterm birth, but not SGA.

  18. The effect of taxation on tobacco consumption and public revenues in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Nakkash, Rima; Alaouie, Hala

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco consumption rates in Lebanon are among the highest worldwide. The country ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005. A law was passed in 2011 which regulates smoking in closed public spaces, bans advertising, and stipulates larger warnings. Despite international evidence confirming that increasing taxation on tobacco products lowers tobacco consumption, no such policy has yet been adopted: a cigarette pack costs on average US$1.50. To date no studies in Lebanon have addressed the welfare and public finance effects of increasing taxes on tobacco products. Using the 2005 national survey of household living conditions, we estimate an almost ideal demand system to generate price elasticities of demand for tobacco. Using estimated elasticities and a conservative scenario for expected smuggling, we simulate the consumption and tax revenue effects of a change in the price of tobacco under various tax schemes. Increasing taxes on all tobacco products so as to double the price of imported cigarettes would lower their consumption by 7% and consumption of domestically produced cigarettes by over 90%. Young adults (ages 15-30) are more sensitive: consumption would drop by 9% for imported cigarettes and by 100% for domestic cigarettes. Government revenues would increase by approximately 52%. The estimated elasticities indicate that an increase in taxes on all tobacco products would lead to a reduction in consumption and an increase in government revenue. Evidence from Lebanon on the effectiveness of increased taxation may help initiate national debate on the need to raise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. The effect of different public health interventions on longevity, morbidity, and years of healthy life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Liming

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing cost-effective strategies for improving the health of the public is difficult because the relative effects of different types of interventions are not well understood. The benefits of one-shot interventions may be different from the benefits of interventions that permanently change the probability of getting sick, recovering, or dying. Here, we compare the benefits of such types of public health interventions. Methods We used multi-state life table methods to estimate the impact of five types of interventions on mortality, morbidity (years of life in fair or poor health, and years of healthy life (years in excellent, very good, or good health. Results A one-shot intervention that makes all the sick persons healthy at baseline would increase life expectancy by 3 months and increase years of healthy life by 6 months, in a cohort beginning at age 65. An equivalent amount of improvement can be obtained from an intervention that either decreases the probability of getting sick each year by 12%, increases the probability of a sick person recovering by 16%, decreases the probability that a sick person dies by 15%, or decreases the probability that a healthy person dies by 14%. Interventions aimed at keeping persons healthy increased longevity and years of healthy life, while decreasing morbidity and medical expenditures. Interventions focused on preventing mortality had a greater effect on longevity, but had higher future morbidity and medical expenditures. Results differed for older and younger cohorts and depended on the value to society of an additional year of sick life. Conclusion Interventions that promote health and prevent disease performed well, but other types of intervention were sometimes better. The value to society of interventions that increase longevity but also increase morbidity needs further research. More comprehensive screening and treatment of new Medicare enrollees might improve their health and

  20. El modelo de sistema viable: un instrumento para la organización efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlando Sánchez Rueda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este ensayo se presenta una interpretación teórica del denominado Modelo de Sistema Viable (MSV, de Stafford Beer y su Potencial Aplicación en Tareas de Diagnóstico  y diseño empresarial, al igual que para Mejorar las capacidades Organizacionales de Auto- Regulación  y Auto- Organización. Se explica como el Modelo del Sistema Viable permite conocer e interpretar  los mecanismos de estabilidad y adaptabilidad de las organizaciones, pilares para el crecimiento de una verdadera organización Efectiva.

  1. Anxiolytic-like effect of oxytocin in the simulated public speaking test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Danielle C G; Zuardi, Antonio W; Graeff, Frederico G; Queiroz, Regina H C; Crippa, José A S

    2012-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is known to be involved in anxiety, as well as cardiovascular and hormonal regulation. The objective of this study was to assess the acute effect of intranasally administered OT on subjective states, as well as cardiovascular and endocrine parameters, in healthy volunteers (n = 14) performing a simulated public speaking test. OT or placebo was administered intranasally 50 min before the test. Assessments were made across time during the experimental session: (1) baseline (-30 min); (2) pre-test (-15 min); (3) anticipation of the speech (50 min); (4) during the speech (1:03 h), post-test time 1 (1:26 h), and post-test time 2 (1:46 h). Subjective states were evaluated by self-assessment scales. Cortisol serum and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Additionally, heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance, and the number of spontaneous fluctuations in skin conductance were measured. Compared with placebo, OT reduced the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety index during the pre-test phase only, while increasing sedation at the pre-test, anticipation, and speech phases. OT also lowered the skin conductance level at the pre-test, anticipation, speech, and post-test 2 phases. Other parameters evaluated were not significantly affected by OT. The present results show that OT reduces anticipatory anxiety, but does not affect public speaking fear, suggesting that this hormone has anxiolytic properties.

  2. Effects of messages from a media campaign to increase public awareness of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  3. Life satisfaction across nations: the effects of women's political status and public priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Richard; Bell, Shannon Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Feminist scholars suggest that improving the quality of life of individuals living in nations around the world may be more readily achieved by increasing women's political power and by reorienting public-policy priorities, than by focusing primarily on economic growth. These considerations raise the question of which characteristics of societies are associated with the quality of life of the people in those societies. Here, we address this issue empirically by statistically analyzing cross-national data. We assess the effects of gender equality in the political sphere, as well as a variety of other factors, on the subjective well-being of nations, as indicated by average self-reported levels of life satisfaction. We find that people report the highest levels of life satisfaction in nations where women have greater political representation, where military spending is low, and where health care spending is high, controlling for a variety of other factors. GDP per capita, urbanization, and natural resource exploitation are not clearly associated with life satisfaction. These findings suggest that nations may be able to improve the subjective quality of life of people without increasing material wealth or natural resource consumption by increasing gender equality in politics and changing public spending priorities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of heterogeneous defectors on the evolution of public cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Hu, Xuezhi; Wang, Yongjie; Wang, Le

    2018-06-01

    In recent years,more and more private capital join the construction of cultural facilities and the organization of cultural activities in China. Actually, the organization of cultural activities by crowd-funding mechanism is a kind of multi-player game. Not all players who donate different amount of money are real cooperators. In fact, some cunning defectors may donate a little money to avoid the gossip and punishment. This part of people are very tricky. They could be seen as heterogeneous defectors. The role of heterogeneous defectors is investigated in cooperative behaviors of complex social network. Numerical results show that heterogeneous defectors could be a buffer for maintaining the public pool when synergy factor is low in public goods game (PGG). It is relatively easy to be cooperators for heterogeneous defectors when synergy factor is high in PGG. To better improve cooperation, punishment towards heterogeneous defectors and complete defectors is introduced. We are glad to find that when the defectors' loss is equal to or larger than the altruistic cooperators' punishment cost, the mechanism could make great effect. In addition, the role of heterogeneous defectors depends on the relationship between the punishment cost and the defectors' loss.

  5. The Effect of Information Provision on Public Consensus about Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryugina, Tatyana; Shurchkov, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Despite over 20 years of research and scientific consensus on the topic, climate change continues to be a politically polarizing issue. We conducted a survey experiment to test whether providing the public with information on the exact extent of scientific agreement about the occurrence and causes of climate change affects respondents' own beliefs and bridges the divide between conservatives and liberals. First, we show that the public significantly underestimated the extent of the scientific consensus. We then find that those given concrete information about scientists' views were more likely to report believing that climate change was already underway and that it was caused by humans. However, their beliefs about the necessity of making policy decisions and their willingness to donate money to combat climate change were not affected. Information provision affected liberals, moderates, and conservatives similarly, implying that the gap in beliefs between liberals and conservatives is not likely to be bridged by information treatments similar to the one we study. Finally, we conducted a 6-month follow-up with respondents to see if the treatment effect persisted; the results were statistically inconclusive.

  6. Differential effects of public and private funding in the medical device industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunsung D; Ku, David N

    2018-02-01

    Funding for scientific advancement comes from two dominant sources: public funds used to generate knowledge, and private sector funds in the pursuit of commercial products. It is unclear how to compare the outputs of these two financial mechanisms because both sectors are motivated by common goods but are also governed by divergent forces. Employment within a geographic region may be a metric of mutual value that can be applied equally to assess the societal impacts of two financing sources. Areas covered: The authors focused on the medical device industry, which is a robust sector of growth for the U.S. economy. The U.S. NIH and venture capital community are representatives of public and private capital, respectively. Using a longitudinal employment dataset of 247 distinct locations, the authors found that NIH funding tends to create more jobs directly compared to venture capital funding. Moreover, the indirect effect of governmental funding is initially smaller than that of venture capital funding for the first two years, but eventually surpasses that of venture capital funding. Expert commentary: These findings imply that policy decisions regarding financial allocations in the medical device industry should consider the appropriate typology of financial capital and its consequences.

  7. The Effect of Information Provision on Public Consensus about Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Deryugina

    Full Text Available Despite over 20 years of research and scientific consensus on the topic, climate change continues to be a politically polarizing issue. We conducted a survey experiment to test whether providing the public with information on the exact extent of scientific agreement about the occurrence and causes of climate change affects respondents' own beliefs and bridges the divide between conservatives and liberals. First, we show that the public significantly underestimated the extent of the scientific consensus. We then find that those given concrete information about scientists' views were more likely to report believing that climate change was already underway and that it was caused by humans. However, their beliefs about the necessity of making policy decisions and their willingness to donate money to combat climate change were not affected. Information provision affected liberals, moderates, and conservatives similarly, implying that the gap in beliefs between liberals and conservatives is not likely to be bridged by information treatments similar to the one we study. Finally, we conducted a 6-month follow-up with respondents to see if the treatment effect persisted; the results were statistically inconclusive.

  8. The appeasement effect of a United Nations climate summit on the German public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Michael; de Silva-Schmidt, Fenja; Hoppe, Imke; Arlt, Dorothee; Schmitt, Josephine B.

    2017-11-01

    The annual UN climate summits receive intense global media coverage, and as such could engage local publics around the world, stimulate debate and knowledge about climate politics, and, ultimately, mobilize people to combat climate change. Here we show that, in contrast to these hopes, although the German public were exposed to news about the 2015 Paris summit, they did not engage with it in a more active way. Comparing knowledge and attitudes before, during and after the summit using a three-wave online panel survey (quota sample, N = 1,121), we find that respondents learnt a few basic facts about the conference but they continue to lack basic background knowledge about climate policy. Trust in global climate policy increased a little, but citizens were less inclined to support a leading role for Germany in climate politics. Moreover, they were not more likely to engage personally in climate protection. These results suggest that this global media event had a modest appeasing rather than mobilizing effect.

  9. The effect of wealth-based anti-expectation behaviors on public cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Chen, Tong; You, Xinshang; Wang, Yongjie

    2018-03-01

    Wealth difference is a common sense in our society. It is unreasonable to assume people have the same capability to donate money to the common pool in public goods game (PGG). Individuals have behavioral expectation towards their neighbors. In this paper, we introduce wealth-based anti-expectation mechanism to explore cooperation. Through numerical simulation results, we are glad to find that the anti-expectation mechanism could stimulate cooperation when the positive effects are equal to or larger than the negative effects from anti-expectation behaviors. Based on this mechanism, we propose propagation mechanism which aims to propagate the positive effects from the poor to inspire more people to choose cooperative strategies. When individuals are tolerant towards defectors, The fraction of cooperators increases with the increment of propagation distance. Enlarging the distance is not wise when individuals are harsh towards defectors. Additionally, we find that the more tolerant towards defectors we are, the higher the cooperation rate is in general. Therefore in PGG, we could consider one's anti-expectation towards others' behaviors and improve cooperation by propagating the poor's anti-expectation effects.

  10. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  11. Adapting to climate change on Western public lands: addressing the ecological effects of domestic, wild, and feral ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschta, Robert L; Donahue, Debra L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Rhodes, Jonathan J; Karr, James R; O'Brien, Mary H; Fleischner, Thomas L; Deacon Williams, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production-the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands-can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates.

  12. How much carbon offsetting and where? Implications of efficiency, effectiveness, and ethicality considerations for public opinion formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Brilé; Bernauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental policy design choice in government-led climate change mitigation is: what role should flexibility mechanisms like carbon offsetting play in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Since public opinion affects the policy choices of government, we investigate how arguments regarding carbon offsetting's economic efficiency, effectiveness, and ethicality, which have been key points in the public debate, impact the public's preferences. We fielded an online framing experiment in the United States (N=995) to empirically identify how arguments for and against carbon offsetting influence public preferences for the inclusion of offsetting in national GHG mitigation policy. We find that the public's support for international offsetting increases and support for reductions at their source (i.e. within firms' own operations) diminishes when considerations of economic efficiency gains are at the forefront. Support for offsetting declines when individuals are confronted with arguments concerning its effectiveness and ethicality, which suggests that future policies will require clear standards of additionality in order to address these concerns. Moreover, we find that how carbon offsetting is framed matters even amongst climate skeptics and support could potentially be enhanced via improved communication on efficiency gains. - Highlights: •We use a framing survey experiment to study public opinion on carbon offsetting. •Efficiency gains increase public support for international carbon offsetting. •Concerns about effectiveness/additionality and ethicality reduce support. •More information on efficiency gains and strengthening additionality could help increase support.

  13. Financing and cost-effectiveness analysis of public-private partnerships: provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaranayake Lilani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public-private partnerships (PPP could be effective in scaling up services. We estimated cost and cost-effectiveness of different PPP arrangements in the provision of tuberculosis (TB treatment, and the financing required for the different models from the perspective of the provincial TB programme, provider, and the patient. Methods Two different models of TB provider partnerships are evaluated, relative to sole public provision: public-private workplace (PWP and public-private non-government (PNP. Cost and effectiveness data were collected at six sites providing directly observed treatment (DOT. Effectiveness for a 12-month cohort of new sputum positive patients was measured using cure and treatment success rates. Provider and patient costs were estimated, and analysed according to sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness is estimated from the perspective of the provider, patient and society in terms of the cost per TB case cured and cost per case successfully treated. Results Cost per case cured was significantly lower in PNP (US $354–446, and comparable between PWP (US $788–979 and public sites (US $700–1000. PPP models could significantly reduce costs to the patient by 64–100%. Relative to pure public sector provision and financing, expansion of PPPs could reduce government financing required per TB patient treated from $609–690 to $130–139 in PNP and $36–46 in PWP. Conclusion There is a strong economic case for expanding PPP in TB treatment and potentially for other types of health services. Where PPPs are tailored to target groups and supported by the public sector, scaling up of effective services could occur at much lower cost than solely relying on public sector models.

  14. Rimonabant effects on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in healthy humans: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina H C; Chagas, Marcos H N; Linares, Ila M P; Arrais, Kátia C; de Oliveira, Danielle C G; Queiroz, Maria E; Nardi, Antonio E; Huestis, Marilyn A; Hallak, Jaime E C; Zuardi, Antonio W; Moreira, Fabrício A; Crippa, José A S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that rimonabant, a cannabinoid antagonist/inverse agonist, would increase anxiety in healthy subjects during a simulation of the public speaking test. Participants were randomly allocated to receive oral placebo or 90 mg rimonabant in a double-blind design. Subjective effects were measured by Visual Analogue Mood Scale. Physiological parameters, namely arterial blood pressure and heart rate, also were monitored. Twelve participants received oral placebo and 12 received 90 mg rimonabant. Rimonabant increased self-reported anxiety levels during the anticipatory speech and performance phase compared with placebo. Interestingly, rimonabant did not modulate anxiety prestress and was not associated with sedation, cognitive impairment, discomfort, or blood pressure changes. Cannabinoid-1 antagonism magnifies the responses to an anxiogenic stimulus without interfering with the prestress phase. These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system may work on-demand to counteract the consequences of anxiogenic stimuli in healthy humans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The effect of the 2007 crisis on mexico´s public finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Enrique Beltrán Noriega

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the last century and beginning of this, the effects on the global economy have been impacting the economic, political and financial situation of several nations, having a significant impact on the economies of Latin America, and among other aspects affecting trade, capital flows, foreign direct investment and remittances. This analysis identifies and analyzes the mechanisms that cause macroeconomic imbalances in economies with emphasis on Latin America, through literature review of classic and modern economic theories, and data collection of specialized institutions. The empirical results shows that the economy gets these results by some factors such as demographic structure, the aspect of taxation, energy dependence, the credit and public sector, and the impact of social system in the current account.

  16. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagioni, K [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  17. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioni, K.

    2005-01-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  18. Incentives for mitigation investment and more effective risk management: the need for public-private partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunreuther, H

    2001-09-14

    A key question facing both well-developed industrial countries and emerging economies is how to reduce future disaster losses while still providing financial protection to victims from these events. This paper proposes a strategy for the use of cost-effective risk mitigation measures coupled with insurance and/or new capital market instruments to achieve these objectives. The mix of these measures will depend on the governance structure and the institutional arrangements in the particular country. There will always be a need for a combination of policy tools and the interaction among key interested parties from both the private and public sectors in developing a disaster management strategy. Two examples, one from US and the other from Honduras, illustrate differences between strategies that countries can adopt.

  19. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  20. Improving the effectiveness of sickness benefit case management through a public-private partnership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Aust, Birgit; Høgelund, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether a multidimensional public-private partnership intervention, focussing on improving the quality and efficiency of sickness benefit case management, reduced the sickness benefit duration and the duration until self-support. Methods We used...... a difference-in-difference (DID) design with six intervention municipalities and 12 matched control municipalities in Denmark. The study sample comprised 282,103 sickness benefit spells exceeding four weeks. The intervention group with 110,291 spells received the intervention, and the control group with 171......,812 spells received ordinary sickness benefit case management. Using register data, we fitted Cox proportional hazard ratio models, estimating hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results We found no joint effect of the intervention on the sickness benefit duration (HR 1.02, CI 0...

  1. Explaining public unease about nuclear technology and some ways towards effective communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlek, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear industry suffers from public acceptance problems. But it does have high safety standards? Aren't its services useful to society? Do not nuclear accident rates compare favourably with those in road traffic or the building industry? Cannot radioactive waste be managed quite properly? And aren't there effective plans for the dismantling of outdated reactors? How could this public unwillingness be understood? And what should and could be done about it? This paper by a decision-psychologist is (mostly) about people's perception of risk, the acceptability of risky activities or situations, the need for public participation in decision making about technical projects, and the broad meaning of risk communication. Much of the relevant research was inspired by debates, both political and scientific, about the safety and the desirability of expanding the use of nuclear power. In The Netherlands this was highlighted during the Societal Discussion on future (nuclear) Energy Policy 1981-1983), but debates on the issue continued with some shift of emphasis in the direction of radioactive waste management. The newest item on the Dutch public agenda is the dismantling of outdated nuclear power stations ('better now, or after 40 years?'). For an impression of public concern during the 1980s, here is a short list of perceived risks - however small - of using nuclear technology. Direct risks are: diffusion of radioactive ore near uranium mines, accidents during uranium enrichment, releases of radioactive steam from reactors, leakage of cooling systems, production, transport, storage of radioactive waste, radioactive materials from dismantling of reactors, proliferation of materials for nuclear arms. Indirect risks are: underestimated costs of reactor construction, operation; centralisation of control over electricity production; excessive safety policies (high financial and societal costs); increasing incompetence of nonspecialists in electricity generation; costs of

  2. Effects of seasonal operation on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal variability in groundwater pumping is common in many places, but resulting effects of seasonal pumping stress on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells are not thoroughly understood. Analysis of historical water-quality samples from public-supply wells completed in deep basin-fill aquifers in Modesto, California (134 wells) and Albuquerque, New Mexico (95 wells) indicates that several wells have seasonal variability in concentrations of contaminants of concern. In Modesto, supply wells are more likely to produce younger groundwater with higher nitrate and uranium concentrations during the summer (high) pumping season than during the winter (low) pumping season. In Albuquerque, supply wells are more likely to produce older groundwater with higher arsenic concentrations during the winter pumping season than during the summer pumping season. Seasonal variability in contaminant concentrations in Modesto is influenced primarily by effects of summer pumping on vertical hydraulic gradients that drive migration of shallow groundwater through the aquifer to supply wells. Variability in Albuquerque is influenced primarily by the period of time that a supply well is idle, allowing its wellbore to act as a conduit for vertical groundwater flow and contaminant migration. However, both processes are observed in each study area. Similar findings would appear to be likely in other alluvial basins with stratified water quality and substantial vertical head gradients. Results suggest that even in aquifers dominated by old groundwater, changes to seasonal pumping patterns and/or to depth of well completion can help reduce vulnerability to selected contaminants of either natural or anthropogenic origin.

  3. [Marketing as a tool to increase the effectiveness of public health plans. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli-Palacio, Asunción; Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Porta, Miquel

    2008-04-01

    Recent years have seen a steady increase in social marketing applied to health with the aim of increasing public awareness and changing people's behavior. Programs or actions based on the principles of social marketing have been shown to be effective in improving public health. However, that is not the general rule in Spain, where health policies have been based on health plans directed more to economic efficiency than to citizens' needs. For a health marketing program to be effective, the following factors are necessary: 1) the program has a long-term temporal horizon for action; 2) the objectives are established in terms of behavioral changes; 3) market research is used as a source of information; 4) different actions are established according to the segments identified as targets; 5) the program is operationalized in the four variables of the marketing mix, namely, product, price, distribution and communication, and is not only based on advertising campaigns; 6) the core of the program is exchange, understood as the factors that motivate people to change in return for the promise of something beneficial to them; 7) the factors or forces that compete with the desired behavioral changes are neutralized, and 8) businesses' social responsibility is used as a mechanism to reinforce health improvement programs. The design of health marketing programs should include definition of strategic and operational actions aimed not only at potential adopters of the desired behavior but also at all agents who may help or hinder behavioral change (health professionals, the pharmaceutical industry, politicians, the advertising industry, and products and services with health-challenging objectives).

  4. Impact of endoscopic stent insertion on detection of viable circulating tumor cells from obstructive colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shinya; Tanemura, Masahiro; Sawada, Genta; Moon, Jeongho; Shimizu, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Toshiki; Kuwai, Toshio; Urata, Yasuo; Kuraoka, Kazuya; Hatanaka, Nobutaka; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Taniyama, Kiyomi

    2018-01-01

    The placement of a self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in obstructive colorectal cancer (OCRC) is acknowledged to be a safe and effective procedure for the relief of obstruction. However, there is concern that shear forces acting on the tumor during stent expansion may release cancer cells into the circulation, resulting in a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether colonic stent insertion increases viable circulating tumor cells (v-CTCs). A telomerase-specific replication-selective adenovirus-expressing GFP (TelomeScanF35) detection system was used to detect v-CTCs in 8 OCRC patients with a SEMS before and after stent insertion and after surgical resection. In 7 patients, a SEMS was inserted as a bridge to surgery (BTS), and in one patient, a SEMS was inserted for palliation. Surgical resection (R0) was performed in 7 patients. Four patients had no v-CTCs before SEMS placement, two of four measurable patients had an increased number of v-CTCs after SEMS placement (1-3 v-CTCs), and one of two patients with increased v-CTCs developed distant lymphatic metastasis despite curative resection. Four patients had v-CTCs (1-19 cells) before SEMS placement, and two of these four patients had an increase in the number of v-CTCs (20-21 cells) after SEMS placement, while one of the four patients died early with distant metastasis. The present study demonstrated that endoscopic stent insertion for OCRC may result in tumor cell dissemination into the peripheral circulation and may induce distant metastases.

  5. Koranic Education Centres: A viable educational alternative for the disadvantaged learner in Sahel Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah-Lalya, Ibrahima

    2015-08-01

    Within the international momentum for achieving Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), many African countries have made considerable progress during the last decade in terms of access to basic education. However, a significant number of children enrolled in the early grades of primary schools either repeat classes or drop out and never graduate. Moreover, there are currently about 30 million school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa who have never attended any form of schooling. In view of this situation, sub-Saharan African countries have been looking for alternative options to educate those who have not been accounted for in the formal school system. This note considers informal Koranic Education Centres (KECs) which are trying to fill the gap of schooling in the Sahel-Saharan strip. The author looks at the challenges this form of schooling faces and at how to meet them efficiently. He sounds out the possibility of using KECs to cater for those who have been left aside by formal schooling. Based on existing studies, data compiled by educational systems and a study conducted by the Working Group on Non-Formal Education (WGNFE) of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) in four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal) in 2013, the author of this research note came to the conclusion that a holistic approach, where the two systems (the Koranic and the formal) collaborate and support one another, could effectively contribute to alleviating the dropout predicament and to reducing the number of unschooled children. It could offer a second-chance opportunity to dropout and unschooled children in the Sahel and Saharan zone. However, before this can become a viable alternative, a number of major challenges need to be addressed. Through its WGNFE, ADEA intends to further investigate the holistic approach of combining formal "modern" and informal "Koranic" schooling to come up with tangible

  6. Portraying a Positive Image: A Guide to Effective Public Relations for Educational Office Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Boards Association, New Cumberland.

    Suggestions for improving communication and public relations are offered in this guidebook for school office personnel. Because of the high visibility and accessibility of their positions, such staff serve important public relations functions for the school. Chapter 1 examines the public relations role of school office personnel, and chapter 2…

  7. Reducing Student Apprehension of Public Speaking: Evaluating Effectiveness of Group Tutoring Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Misty L.; Johnson, Karen Gabrielle; Stewart, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that the fear of public speaking is an extraordinarily common phobia and that a significant portion of the population experiences some form of anxiety over public speaking. Although there is a great deal of research available on the etiology of public speaking anxiety, there is far less research available on interventional…

  8. Use and efficiency of public transport: the effects of price and service measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witbreuk, Marc; de Jong, L.; de Jong, Leo

    2001-01-01

    Like in many other countries in the Netherlands, , the government of the Nethertlands assigns public transport an important role in its transport policy. However, the costs of public transport do exceed the revenues of it. Price may be an important variable to both increase the use of public

  9. The effect of popular exemplars and expert account base-rate information on perceived public opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevere, J.; Walgrave, S.; de Swert, K.

    2012-01-01

    How people perceive public opinion is important because it affects their willingness to express themselves. This paper investigates whether two different portrayals of public opinion in the TV news affect people’s perception of public opinion. We use an experimental design in which roughly one

  10. Evaluating public relations effectiveness in a health care setting. The identification of communication assets and liabilities via a communication audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie K

    2005-01-01

    The practice of public relations has experienced tremendous growth and evolution over the past 25 years, especially in the area of medical public relations. The constant changes in health care delivery have often led to increased need for communication with important publics. At the same time, practitioners in all fields of public relations have explored methods of accurately measuring the effectiveness of public relations programs. One such method of evaluation is the communication audit. This paper includes a brief overview of the communication audit concept followed by a case study based on an audit conducted for a small, multicultural non-profit health-care agency. Steps taken to conduct the audit and the methodology used are discussed. An analysis of the data is used to address two research questions regarding the efficacy of the Center's mission and vision. Suggestions for future audits are provided.

  11. Effectiveness of a publicly-funded demonstration program to promote management of dryland salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M J; Measham, T G; Batchelor, G; George, R; Kingwell, R; Hosking, K

    2009-07-01

    Community and catchment-based approaches to salinity management continue to attract interest in Australia. In one such approach, Catchment Demonstration Initiative (CDI) projects were established by the Western Australian (WA) Government in 2000 for targeted investment in large-scale catchment-based demonstrations of integrated salinity management practices. The aim was to promote a process for technically-informed salinity management by landholders. This paper offers an evaluation of the effectiveness of one CDI project in the central wheatbelt of WA, covering issues including: its role in fostering adoption of salinity management options, the role of research and the technical requirements for design and implementation of on-ground works, the role of monitoring and evaluation, the identification and measurement of public and private benefits, comparison and identification of the place and value of plant-based and engineering-based options, reliance on social processes and impacts of constraints on capacity, management of governance and administration requirements and an appreciation of the value of group-based approaches. A number of factors may reduce the effectiveness of CDI-type approaches in facilitating landholder action to address salinity, many of these are socially-based. Such approaches can create considerable demands on landholders, can be expensive (because of the planning and accountability required) on the basis of dollars per hectare impacted, and can be difficult to garner ownership from all involved. An additional problem could be that few community groups would have the capacity to run such programs and disseminate the new knowledge so that the CDI-type projects can impact outside the focus catchment. In common with many publicly-funded approaches to salinity, we found that direct benefits on public assets are smaller than planned and that results from science-based requirements of monitoring and evaluation have long lead times, causing farmers

  12. In search of viable business models for development: sustainable energy in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van den Buuse, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Although the crucial role of business, and of business-based approaches, in development is increasingly emphasised by academics and practitioners, insight is lacking into the "whether and how" of viable business models, in environmental, social and economical terms. This article analyses

  13. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  14. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... characteristics of the parent strain or contamination by other microorganisms. (3) Each lot of spore preparation... production is a Bacillus thuringiensis strain which does not produce β-exotoxin under standard manufacturing...

  16. Economically viable biochemical processes for the advanced rural biorefinery and downstream recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural biorefineries offer an alternative to traditional ethanol production by providing the opportunity to produce fuel on site to reduce costs associated with biomass transportation thus making the fuel economically viable. Widespread installation of rural biorefineries could lead to increased upt...

  17. The ghost of extinction: Preservation values and minimum viable population in wildlife models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiswerth, M.E.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of a minimum viable population in bioeconomic modeling creates at least two complications that are not resolved by using a modified logistic growth function. The first complication can be dealt with by choosing a different depensational growth function. The second complication relates

  18. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  19. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, N; Ravel, J; Straube, W L; Hill, R T; Colwell, R R

    2002-01-01

    Physiological responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts, direct viable counts, actively respiring cell counts, nucleoid-containing cell counts, and total counts were determined. Vibrio harveyi incubated at 22 degrees C in nutrient-limited artificial seawater (ASW) became nonculturable after approximately 62 and 45 d in microcosms of 35 ppt and 10 ppt ASW, respectively. In contrast, V. fischeri became nonculturable at approximately 55 and 31 d in similar microcosms. Recovery of both culturability and luminescence of cells in the viable but nonculturable state was achieved by addition of nutrient broth or nutrient broth supplemented with a carbon source, including luminescence-stimulating compounds. Temperature upshift from 22 degrees C to 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C did not result in recovery from nonculturability. The study confirms entry of V. harveyi and V. fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state under low-nutrient conditions and demonstrates nutrient-dependent resuscitation from this state. This study confirms loss of luminescence of V. harveyi and V. fischeri on entry into the viable but nonculturable state and suggests that enumeration of luminescent cells in water samples may be a rapid method to deduce the nutrient status of a water sample.

  20. Inspiring the undergraduate soil students for a future effective public outreach role: Success strategies and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ismaily, Said; Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Kacimov, Anvar

    2015-04-01

    Undergraduates, majoring in soil sciences (SS), have a broad holistic role because SS integrates several intertwined geo-environmental/ecological and socio-economical aspects. Consequently, students have to learn how the information, advice, practices and expertise, pertinent to food security, water shortage, hydropedology, among others amalgamate through SS . Hence, university SS-programs should incorporate public outreach activities. We present experience at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Oman on how to develop an effective public outreach program that can be implemented by undergraduate students. Our strategy has three components : (i) offering a course Soil and Water Tour (SWAE 4110) of hydropedology nature that integrates field, laboratory-work, and presentation-extension activities; the course is research-oriented and designed to provide opportunities for students to practice their metacognitive abilities and critical thinking; the course is offered by the Department of Soils, Water & Agricultural Engineering (SWAE), (ii) Training and involving the undergraduates in planning and conducting enjoyable, interactive, and effective workshops for school pupils; a training workshop on "Soils" was conducted for pupils (a total 300 participants, grades 7-9) and teachers aiming to unveil the secrets and the role of soil in ecosystems; workshop was organized by the SWAE Students Society (iii) Guiding the undergraduates on the best practice for raising funds for their outreach activities (e.g. the undergraduates secured funds for the workshop on "Soils", which was sponsored by Muscat Municipality, a governmental agency, and several private companies such as HMR Consultants, Metal Engineering L.L.C and Bauer Nimr LLC); SS students were mentored in submission of research proposals to the national research agency (e.g. FURAP program of The Research Council, TRC, WWW.trc.gov.om). The three components were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively using fixed-response and

  1. Factors influencing the public intention to use renewable energy technologies in South Korea: Effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eunil; Ohm, Jay Y.

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima accident has influenced public attitudes toward energy sources and technologies, including not only nuclear energy, but also other energy sources. Therefore, it is worth investigating how the accident influenced public perceptions of renewable energy and its technologies, between the time before the accident and after the accident. This study aims to explore the effects of the Fukushima accident on the public perceptions of renewable energy technologies in South Korea, the closest nation to Japan. This study found that there were notable differences of public perceptions, including public attitudes, perceived benefits, trust, intention to use, knowledge and risks between before and after the earthquake. In addition, the perceived cost of renewable energy technologies was the primary determinant of the intention to use the technologies before the accident, whereas public attitudes toward the technologies became the main antecedents of the intention after the accident. After the accident, we found that there is a multi-dimensional matrix of perceived trust-benefits (with risks)-attitude-intention to use, in explaining the public acceptance of renewable energy technologies. Moreover, we found significant roles of the perceived trust, benefits and risks in the research model. Based on the empirical findings, both implications and suggestions are presented. - highlights: • The factors influence public intention to employ renewable energy technologies. • Fukushima accident made significant differences of public perceptions. • Perceived benefits and risks are employed as key determinants of public attitude. • Perceived cost and attitude are found as antecedents of the intention to use. • Perceived trust is a notable motivation of public perceptions

  2. The effect of opinion leader on nuclear public opinion. Its visualization on a socio-psychological plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    2004-01-01

    Simulation was carried out on what influence an opinion leader (OPL) exerts on the nuclear public opinion, and visualization on a socio-psychological plane was made for the time-evolving feature of the public consciousness regarding nuclear energy. A multi-particle model was introduced in this simulation where the biased degree of information environment to negative or positive directions and the strength α of the mutual interaction of the OPL with the public were treated as parameters. Under the existence of an OPL, the public attitude was found to be subject to two attractors. The one is originated from a non-linear effect arising from the mutual interaction among the public in the information environment, and the other the OPL itself. In case of the OPL with a large α, he was found to be difficult to catch the public heart irrespective of the condition of social atmosphere. In case of a small α, on the other hand, the same thought as the OPL has can become a public consensus when the thought of OPL and the information environment coincide to each other in their biased directions, whereas, otherwise, the OPL has an effect to unify the anti-OPL consciousness into one large consensus with anti-OPL properties. Such behavioral features were visualized on a two-dimensional, socio-psychological plane. (author)

  3. ISSUES REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERNAL CONTROL/ MANAGERIAL AND COMBATING SOME NEGATIVE EFFECTS IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS' ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stegaroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the importance and impact of the management of internal control/ managerial in Romanian public institutions, as well as the consequences arising as a result of not implementing it. It also analyzed the legal framework governing the internal control/managerial and the main conclusions issued by the Romanian Court of Accounts on the status of its implementation in Romanian public institutions. At the same time, it is stressed the role of management carried out by heads of public institutions in terms of combating the negative effects that have a direct impact on their activity.

  4. Teaching Public Policy for the Arab World : final technical report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-02-11

    Feb 11, 2016 ... Teaching Public Policy for the Arab World .... integrating politics, policy, economics and other social science research perspectives, this ..... The primary, successful output of this overall project is the viable MA program.

  5. K-12 Schools: The Effect of Public School Choices on Marine Families’ Co-Location Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE K-12 SCHOOLS: THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC SCHOOL CHOICES ON MARINE FAMILIES’ CO...be educated ? One theory regarding decision-making in general is the rational choice theory . This approach to explaining the process of making...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. K-12 SCHOOLS

  6. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of internal audit : case study of internal audit in the public sector in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Rudhani, Leonora Haliti; Vokshi, Nexhmie Berisha; Hashani, Shqipdona

    2017-01-01

    Since audit has a great importance in preventing, consulting and finding cases of funds misuse, it was thought of analyzing the factors that contribute to increasing the efficiency of internal audit in the public sector which would help to set proper and more transparent governance of public financial resources. This study investigated the relationship between effectiveness and contributing factors. The data for the study were collected through an online questionnaire and direct hand-outs of ...

  7. Effects of heterogeneous wealth distribution on public cooperation with collective risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long

    2010-07-01

    The distribution of wealth among individuals in real society can be well described by the Pareto principle or “80-20 rule.” How does such heterogeneity in initial wealth distribution affect the emergence of public cooperation, when individuals, the rich and the poor, engage in a collective-risk enterprise, not to gain a profit but to avoid a potential loss? Here we address this issue by studying a simple but effective model based on threshold public goods games. We analyze the evolutionary dynamics for two distinct scenarios, respectively: one with fair sharers versus defectors and the other with altruists versus defectors. For both scenarios, particularly, we in detail study the dynamics of the population with dichotomic initial wealth—the rich versus the poor. Moreover, we demonstrate the possible steady compositions of the population and provide the conditions for stability of these steady states. We prove that in a population with heterogeneous wealth distribution, richer individuals are more likely to cooperate than poorer ones. Participants with lower initial wealth may choose to cooperate only if all players richer than them are cooperators. The emergence of pubic cooperation largely relies on rich individuals. Furthermore, whenever the wealth gap between the rich and the poor is sufficiently large, cooperation of a few rich individuals can substantially elevate the overall level of social cooperation, which is in line with the well-known Pareto principle. Our work may offer an insight into the emergence of cooperative behavior in real social situations where heterogeneous distribution of wealth among individual is omnipresent.

  8. Effects of heterogeneous wealth distribution on public cooperation with collective risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long

    2010-07-01

    The distribution of wealth among individuals in real society can be well described by the Pareto principle or "80-20 rule." How does such heterogeneity in initial wealth distribution affect the emergence of public cooperation, when individuals, the rich and the poor, engage in a collective-risk enterprise, not to gain a profit but to avoid a potential loss? Here we address this issue by studying a simple but effective model based on threshold public goods games. We analyze the evolutionary dynamics for two distinct scenarios, respectively: one with fair sharers versus defectors and the other with altruists versus defectors. For both scenarios, particularly, we in detail study the dynamics of the population with dichotomic initial wealth-the rich versus the poor. Moreover, we demonstrate the possible steady compositions of the population and provide the conditions for stability of these steady states. We prove that in a population with heterogeneous wealth distribution, richer individuals are more likely to cooperate than poorer ones. Participants with lower initial wealth may choose to cooperate only if all players richer than them are cooperators. The emergence of pubic cooperation largely relies on rich individuals. Furthermore, whenever the wealth gap between the rich and the poor is sufficiently large, cooperation of a few rich individuals can substantially elevate the overall level of social cooperation, which is in line with the well-known Pareto principle. Our work may offer an insight into the emergence of cooperative behavior in real social situations where heterogeneous distribution of wealth among individual is omnipresent.

  9. Global zero-carbon energy pathways using viable mixes of nuclear and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A proper mix of nuclear power and renewables achieves sustainable energy future. • A high nuclear share provides cost and land effectiveness compared to nuclear-free. • Only-renewable mix will increase negative economic and environmental impacts. • A deployment of advanced reactor technologies is essential to overcome limitations. - Abstract: What are the most viable global pathways for a major expansion of zero-carbon emissions electricity sources given the diversity of regional technical, socio-political and economic constraints? We modelled a range of zero-emissions energy scenarios across nations that were designed to meet projected final energy demand in 2060, and optimised to derive the best globally aggregated results in terms of minimising costs and land use (a surrogate for environmental impacts). We found that a delayed energy transition to a zero-emissions pathway will decrease investment costs (−$3,431 billion), but increase cumulative CO 2 emissions (additional 696 Gt). A renewable-only scenario would convert >7.4% of the global land area to energy production, whereas a maximum nuclear scenario would affect <0.4% of land area, including mining, spent-fuel storage, and buffer zones. Moreover, a nuclear-free pathway would involve up to a 50% greater cumulative capital investment compared to a high nuclear penetration scenario ($73.7 trillion). However, for some nations with a high current share of renewables and a low projected future energy demand (e.g., Norway), pursuit of a higher nuclear share is suboptimal. In terms of the time frame for replacement of fossil fuels, achieving a global nuclear share of about 50% by 2060 would be a technically and economically plausible target if progressing at a pace of the average historical growth of nuclear power penetration in France from 1970 to 1986 (0.28 MWh person −1 year -1 ). For effective climate-change mitigation, a high penetration of nuclear in association with a nationally

  10. MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS: AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON CRISIS RESPONSE STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Çelebi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of organization-public relations and crisis communication strategies on audience perception and attitudes during a crisis have been investigated experimentally. In the context of the research, a university in Turkey was selected as the organization and students were selected as stakeholders and Coombs' situational crisis communication theories have been tested on 97 students in an experimental manner. Students were divided into 8 groups according to different corporate reputation and relational satisfaction perceptions; a crisis situation was created and a different crisis communication strategy was applied to each group. According to the research results, no matter what the thoughts were before the crisis, crisis communication strategy doesn’t reduce the responsibility of the organization in crisis and it doesn’t affect the minds of the audience, but the perception of corporate reputation and sense of relational satisfaction affect the credibility and confidence of the organization's words and actions. Regardless of the corporate reputation and relational satisfaction, the strategy of denying the crisis gave the highest accusation score and the messages given to reduce the negative consequences of the crisis were found effective within each participant group. The reason for this is that participants weren’t concerned about the cause of the crisis; they were concerned only with the messages to reduce the harmful effects of the crisis. According to the research results, organizations should make an effort to minimize the negative effects of the crisis and attach importance to their corporate reputation and relational satisfaction in order to increase the credibility of these efforts.

  11. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialists in public institutions were focused on the use, the extent of this use, and the perceived value of various social media as sources contributing to agenda building (Cobb, Elder 1983. If journalists are regularly monitoring sites and forums for story ideas and information, it is necessary for PR professionals within each industry to carefully monitor the information placed there and perhaps engage content producers. In this paper, I conclude that social media is an alternative instrument to encourage a two-way communication channel between government and publics. In public relations, the emergence of social media challenges the traditional instruments of government public relations. Responding to the development of information and communication technology (ICT, social media is considered as an alternative communication channel of government public relations efforts.

  12. Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Candido dos Reis

    2015-07-01

    Interpretation: Crowdsourcing of the general public to classify cancer pathology data for research is viable, engages the public and provides accurate ER data. Crowdsourced classification of research data may offer a valid solution to problems of throughput requiring human input.

  13. The Effects of Symptom Recognition and Diagnostic Labels on Public Beliefs, Emotional Reactions, and Stigmas Associated with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina; Connolly, Theresa; Williams, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Labels are firmly rejected by the disability rights movement, yet the complex effects of labeling on lay beliefs are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of labeling on the general public's reactions to people with intellectual disabilities. A sample of 1,233 adult members of the UK general population were randomly presented with…

  14. Personality Variables as Predictors of Leadership Role Performance Effectiveness of Administrators of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…

  15. Effect of Non Financial Incentives on Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Public Secondary Schools--Survey of Kisii Sub County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Asiago Lenah; Okibo, Walter; Nyang'au, Andrew; Ondima, Cleophas

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction is a major challenge among employees in many organizations. The purpose of this research project is to assess the effect of non-financial incentives on job satisfaction of teachers in public secondary schools of Kisii Sub County in the Republic of Kenya. The specific objectives for the study include: to assess the effect of…

  16. The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions. NBER Working Paper No. 20178

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…

  17. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 07: The "laws" of effective public education about fire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, breakthrough research has identified factors that are most important for effectively communicating about wildland fire hazards. This fact sheet discusses seven "Laws" of effective public communication that should be considered in any state-of-the-art education campaign.

  18. The Effects of Employees’ Individual Characteristics on Job Satisfaction: A Public Bank Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Merve Özaydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The raising importance of rivalry between the employees in the relations of producti on nowadays, makes the adaptation between worker and work more substantial. The job satisfaction which expresses the employee’s contentment about his/her job becomes a target for the employee and also for the firm based on the provided material/ moral satiety. In the services sector which consists of human resources as itsmost leading and determinant input, building a relationship between the specialties of work and intelligence, skills and abilities of workers depending on job satisfaction is decisive for individual and organizational success also. In the banking sector which is a crucial member of services sector because of the dimensions of the usage of high technology, the need of quality services production and the competition, satisfaction of employees becomes significant. This study aims to investigate the effects of individual factors (age, gender, marital status, education level, operating status of branch/operating status of head office, title, service time, the existence or nonexistence of other bankers in the family, expectations for the future on job satisfaction. In the consequence of a field work about a public bank, it’s found out that the level of bank personnel’s job satisfaction is changed by the effect of individual factors.

  19. Long-term effects on nursing alumni: Assessing a course in public and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Sheri P; Lundberg, Karen; de la Cruz, Karen; Corbett, Cheryl; Heaston, Sondra; Reed, Shelly; Williams, Mary

    The impact of a cultural awareness course among nursing students may affect the particular person for years to come. Cultural awareness can be taught via many methods, often requiring study abroad and/or extreme investment of time, money and effort. There is little research on sustained effects on nursing alumni from such a course. The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to determine the long term outcomes of a cultural awareness course and 2) compare the long term effects between alumni who went abroad and those who chose to complete the course locally. One hundred and twenty-one nursing alumni completed the International Education Survey (IES) (Zorn, 1996) with additional open-ended questions. Quantitative and qualitative results concluded: 1) nursing alumni were influenced long term by a course dedicated to public and global health and 2) all alumni had statistically significant IES scores but alumni who studied abroad had the greatest increase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on a group of public employees subjected to work relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Matteo; Di Trani, Michela; Solano, Luigi

    2016-02-15

    Pennebaker's writing technique has yielded good results on health, psychological and performance dimensions. In spite of the positive outcomes, the technique has rarely been applied directly within the workplace and its effects on burnout have never been tested. 18 public employees subjected to work relocation were asked to write about their present work situation or another difficult event of their life (Writing Group), while another 17 were not assigned any writing task (Control Group). To assess whether there was an improvement in burnout, alexithymia and psychological well-being in the Writing Group compared with the baseline measurement and the Control Group. While the baseline levels in the Writing and Control Groups in the 3 dimensions considered were similar, scores in the Writing Group at both a second (1 month after the end of the procedure) and third measurement (7 months after the end) improved when compared with the baseline, whereas those in the Control Group worsened. Pennebaker's writing technique appears to promote adaptive coping strategies in stressful situations, and to increase occupational and psychological well-being as well as the ability to process emotions. It also appears to buffer the negative effects of work-related stress.

  1. Public budgets for energy RD&D and the effects on energy intensity and pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre, Daniel; Álvarez, Agustín; Cantos, José María

    2015-04-01

    This study, based on the N-shaped cubic model of the environmental Kuznets curve, analyzes the evolution of per capita greenhouse gas emissions (GHGpc) using not just economic growth but also public budgets dedicated to energy-oriented research development and demonstration (RD&D) and energy intensity. The empirical evidence, obtained from an econometric model of fixed effects for 28 OECD countries during 1994-2010, suggests that energy innovations help reduce GHGpc levels and mitigate the negative impact of energy intensity on environmental quality. When countries develop active energy RD&D policies, they can reduce both the rates of energy intensity and the level of GHGpc emissions. This paper incorporates a moderating variable to the econometric model that emphasizes the effect that GDP has on energy intensity. It also adds a variable that reflects the difference between countries that have made a greater economic effort in energy RD&D, which in turn corrects the GHG emissions resulting from the energy intensity of each country.

  2. Impact of earthquakes and their secondary environmental effects on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroulis, Spyridon; Mavrouli, Maria; Lekkas, Efthymios; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes are among the most impressive geological processes with destructive effects on humans, nature and infrastructures. Secondary earthquake environmental effects (EEE) are induced by the ground shaking and are classified into ground cracks, slope movements, dust clouds, liquefactions, hydrological anomalies, tsunamis, trees shaking and jumping stones. Infectious diseases (ID) emerging during the post-earthquake period are considered as secondary earthquake effects on public health. This study involved an extensive and systematic literature review of 121 research publications related to the public health impact of 28 earthquakes from 1980 to 2015 with moment magnitude (Mw) from 6.1 to 9.2 and their secondary EEE including landslides, liquefaction and tsunamis generated in various tectonic environments (extensional, transform, compressional) around the world (21 events in Asia, 5 in America and one each in Oceania and Europe). The inclusion criteria were the literature type comprising journal articles and official reports, the natural disaster type including earthquakes and their secondary EEE (landslides, liquefaction, tsunamis), the population type including humans and the outcome measures characterized by disease incidence increase. The potential post-earthquake ID are classified into 14 groups including respiratory (detected after 15 of 28 earthquakes, 53.57%), water-borne (15, 53.57%), skin (8, 28.57%), vector-borne (8, 28.57%) wound-related (6, 21.43%), blood-borne (4, 14.29%), pulmonary (4, 14.29%), fecal-oral (3, 10.71%), food-borne (3, 10.71%), fungal (3, 10.71%), parasitic (3, 10.71%), eye (1, 3.57%), mite-borne (1, 3.57%) and soil-borne (1, 3.57%) infections. Based on age and genre data available for 15 earthquakes, the most vulnerable population groups are males, young children (age ≤ 10 years) and adults (age ≥ 65 years). Cholera, pneumonia and tetanus are the deadliest post-earthquake ID. The risk factors leading not only to disease

  3. Nanotechnology and the public: Effectively communicating nanoscale science and engineering concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellini, O. M.; Walejko, G. K.; Holladay, C. E.; Theim, T. J.; Zenner, G. M.; Crone, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers are faced with challenges when addressing the public on concepts and applications associated with nanotechnology. The goal of our work was to understand the public's knowledge of nanotechnology in order to identify appropriate starting points for dialog. Survey results showed that people lack true understanding of concepts associated with atoms and the size of the nanoscale regime. Such gaps in understanding lead to a disappointing lack of communication between researchers and the public concerning fundamental concepts in nanoscale science and engineering. Strategies are offered on how scientists should present their research when engaging the public on nanotechnology topics

  4. Mixed, private, and public educational financing regimes: economic growth and income inequality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trabelsi Salwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of mixed educational financing is rarely evoked in the literature, although the financial contribution of parents in the public educational system can be significant. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the mixed system and public and private ‘extreme’ systems in terms of economic growth and social disparity. For developing countries and for heterogeneous individuals, the mixed system is widely preferred. For homogeneous agents the public and private systems cannot lead to better economic performance than the mixed system. The public system always reduces social inequality, in contrast to the mixed and private systems, which generate the same level of inequality.

  5. Effects of public health interventions on industrial emissions and ambient air in Cartagena, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, Lluís; Rodríguez, Miguel; Giménez, Joaquín; Jiménez, Enrique; Saez, Marc; Guillén, José-Jesús; Medrano, José; Martínez-Victoria, María-Aurelia; Ballester, Ferran; Moreno-Grau, Stella; Navarro, Carmen

    2009-03-01

    Ten years of public health interventions on industrial emissions to clean air were monitored for the Mediterranean city of Cartagena. During the 1960s, a number of large chemical and non-ferrous metallurgical factories were established that significantly deteriorated the city's air quality. By the 1970s, the average annual air concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) ranged from 200 to 300 microg/m3 (standard conditions units). In 1979, the Spanish government implemented an industrial intervention plan to improve the performance of factories and industrial air pollution surveillance. Unplanned urban development led to residential housing being located adjacent to three major factories. Factory A produced lead, factory B processed zinc from ore concentrates, and factory C produced sulfuric acid and phosphates. This, in combination with the particular abrupt topography and frequent atmospheric thermal inversions, resulted in the worsening of air quality and heightening concern for public health. In 1990, the City Council authorized the immediate intervention at these factories to reduce or shut down production if ambient levels of SO2 or total suspended particles (TSP) exceeded a time-emission threshold in pre-established meteorological contexts. The aim of this research was to assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention plan implemented from 1992 to 2001 to abate industrial air pollution. The maximum daily 1-h ambient air level of SO2, NO2, and TSP pollutants was selected from one of the three urban automatic stations, designed to monitor ambient air quality around industrial emissions sources. The day on which an intervention took place to reduce and/or interrupt industrial production by factory and pollutant was defined as a control day, and the day after an intervention as a post-control day. To assess the short-term intervention effect on air quality, an ecological time series design was applied, using regression analysis in generalized

  6. Effectiveness of Closure of Public Places with Time Delay in Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhenggang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical basis for the evaluation of the effciency of quarantine measure is developed in a SIR model with time delay. In this model, the effectiveness of the closure of public places such as schools in disease control, modeled as a high degree node in a social network, is evaluated by considering the effect of the time delay in the identification of the infected. In the context of the SIR model, the relation between the number of infectious individuals who are identified with time delay and then quarantined and those who are not identified and continue spreading the virus are investigated numerically. The social network for the simulation is modeled by a scale free network. Closure measures are applied to those infected nodes with high degrees. The effectiveness of the measure can be controlled by the present value of the critical degree KC: only those nodes with degree higher than KC will be quarantined. The cost CQ incurred for the closure measure is assumed to be proportional to the total links rendered inactive as a result of the measure, and generally decreases with KC, while the medical cost CQ incurred for virus spreading increases with KC. The total social cost (CM + CQ will have a minimum at a critical KC, which depends on the ratio of medical cost coeffcient αM and closure cost coeffcient αQ. Our simulation results demonstrate a mathematical procedure to evaluate the effciency of quarantine measure. Although the numerical work is based on a scale free network, the procedure can be readily generalized and applied to a more realistic social network to determine the proper closure measure in future epidemics.

  7. Effectiveness of closure of public places with time delay in disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenggang; Szeto, Kwok Yip; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2008-08-25

    A theoretical basis for the evaluation of the effciency of quarantine measure is developed in a SIR model with time delay. In this model, the effectiveness of the closure of public places such as schools in disease control, modeled as a high degree node in a social network, is evaluated by considering the effect of the time delay in the identification of the infected. In the context of the SIR model, the relation between the number of infectious individuals who are identified with time delay and then quarantined and those who are not identified and continue spreading the virus are investigated numerically. The social network for the simulation is modeled by a scale free network. Closure measures are applied to those infected nodes with high degrees. The effectiveness of the measure can be controlled by the present value of the critical degree K(C): only those nodes with degree higher than K(C) will be quarantined. The cost C(Q) incurred for the closure measure is assumed to be proportional to the total links rendered inactive as a result of the measure, and generally decreases with K(C), while the medical cost C(Q) incurred for virus spreading increases with K(C). The total social cost (C(M) + C(Q)) will have a minimum at a critical K(*), which depends on the ratio of medical cost coeffcient alpha(M) and closure cost coeffcient alpha(Q). Our simulation results demonstrate a mathematical procedure to evaluate the effciency of quarantine measure. Although the numerical work is based on a scale free network, the procedure can be readily generalized and applied to a more realistic social network to determine the proper closure measure in future epidemics.

  8. Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect A publicidade contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete

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    Francisco Leite

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect — This paper shares with the reader some conceptual ideas of counterintuitive advertising, observing its possible effects on the reevaluation and deconstruction of beliefs and social stereotypes in the cognitive make-up of the viewer. The ironic rebound effect is singled out among the probable reflexes, according to the theory propounded by Daniel M. Wegner. This theory is applied taking as an example Fiat's commercial "The Driver", which was part of an advertising campaign in Brazil called "Review your concepts" to introduce its new Palio 2002 car model. The authors are currently engaged in a laboratory experiment to measure the above described theory in a consistent manner. O propósito deste artigo é compartilhar com o leitor algumas noções conceituais de publicidade contra-intuitiva e observar seus possíveis efeitos na reavaliação, desconstrução de crenças e estereótipos sociais, na estrutura cognitiva do indivíduo receptor. Destaca-se entre os reflexos provavelmente gerados o irônico efeito ricochete, segundo a teoria desenvolvida por Daniel M. Wegner. A aplicação para se discutir o cruzamento da narrativa contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete será, neste primeiro momento, pela exemplificação do filme Motorista, peça integrante da campanha publicitária da Fiat do Brasil "Reveja seus conceitos", para o lançamento do automóvel Palio 2002. Um experimento laboratorial está sendo desenvolvido pelos autores para se mensurar de maneira consistente a apresentação teórico-conceitual exposta.

  9. Leaders And Followers In The Effectiveness Of Public Safety Services In European States – A Spatial Frontier Approach

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    Żółtaszek Agata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public safety is an important factor in both public and private life. Simultaneously it is one of the most regionally diverse sectors, due to historical, cultural, social, legal, and financial differences.Therefore, it is very difficult to compare public safety policies and facilities directly. However, assessment and comparison are crucial factors for defining the best practices and implementing the “learning-from-the-best” policy, which is important in the process of regional development and globalization. Fortunately some quantitative methods, such as DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis enable this kind of research. DEA allows for analyzing relative effectiveness based on inputs and outputs, without incorporating procedural specifics of public safety. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to perform a regional analysis of the technical effectiveness of public safety systems in European states in 2003 and 2012 by utilizing an optimization method of DEA. Based on the results of this research countries are divided into two groups - effective and ineffective. Countries with effective systems are considered leaders. They present best practices which should be treated as benchmarks for the countries with ineffective systems, i.e. followers.

  10. Effects of Video Streaming Technology on Public Speaking Students' Communication Apprehension and Competence

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    Dupagne, Michel; Stacks, Don W.; Giroux, Valerie Manno

    2007-01-01

    This study examines whether video streaming can reduce trait and state communication apprehension, as well as improve communication competence, in public speaking classes. Video streaming technology has been touted as the next generation of video feedback for public speaking students because it is not limited by time or space and allows Internet…

  11. Crowded Out? The Effect of Nonresident Enrollment on Resident Access to Public Research Universities

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    Curs, Bradley R.; Jaquette, Ozan

    2017-01-01

    Public universities have pursued nonresident enrollment growth as a solution to the stagnation of state funding. Representatives of public universities often argue that nonresident tuition revenue is an important resource in efforts to finance access for resident students, whereas state policymakers are concerned that nonresident enrollment…

  12. 76 FR 30093 - Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... stakeholders, APHIS has developed a draft policy guideline (concept paper) concerning the wording of... interested individuals, that we will be holding a public meeting to discuss a draft guideline (concept paper... concept paper available for review and comment. DATES: The public meeting will be held on Thursday, June...

  13. The Effect of Economic Inflation on Local Public Library Support in Kentucky, 1967-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert C.

    This study was developed on the hypothesis that economic inflation reduced the purchasing power of local support for public libraries from 1967 through fiscal 1976. The total local support for public libraries in each county in each year of the study was adjusted from the reported nominal amount to the relative Consumer Price Index value of 1967…

  14. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement

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    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  15. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

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    Maha Bouzid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  16. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Hooper, Lee; Hunter, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  17. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

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    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  19. Effective Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Public Health Impacts of Heatwaves for Brookline, MA

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    Jalalzadeh Fard, B.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Studies on urban areas show a significant increase in frequency and intensity of heatwaves over the past decades, and predict the same trend for future. Since heatwaves have been responsible for a large number of life losses, urgent adaptation and mitigation strategies are required in the policy and decision making level for a sustainable urban planning. The Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory at Northeastern University, under the aegis of Thriving Earth Exchange of AGU, is working with the town of Brookline to understand the potential public health impacts of anticipated heatwaves. We consider the most important social and physical factors to obtain vulnerability and exposure parameters for each census block group of the town. Utilizing remote sensing data, we locate Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) during a recent heatwave event, as the hazard parameter. We then create priority risk map using the risk framework. Our analyses show spatial correlations between the UHIs and social factors such as poverty, and physical factors such as land cover variations. Furthermore, we investigate the future heatwave frequency and intensity increases by analyzing the climate models predictions. For future changes of UHIs, land cover changes are investigated using available predictive data. Also, socioeconomic predictions are carried out to complete the futuristic models of heatwave risks. Considering plausible scenarios for Brookline, we develop different risk maps based on the vulnerability, exposure and hazard parameters. Eventually, we suggest guidelines for Heatwave Action Plans for prioritizing effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in urban planning for the town of Brookline.

  20. Universal public finance of tuberculosis treatment in India: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-03-01

    Universal public finance (UPF)-government financing of an intervention irrespective of who is receiving it-for a health intervention entails consequences in multiple domains. First, UPF increases intervention uptake and hence the extent of consequent health gains. Second, UPF generates financial consequences including the crowding out of private expenditures. Finally, UPF provides insurance either by covering catastrophic expenditures, which would otherwise throw households into poverty or by preventing diseases that cause them. This paper develops a method-extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA)-for evaluating the consequences of UPF in each of these domains. It then illustrates ECEA with an evaluation of UPF for tuberculosis treatment in India. Using plausible values for key parameters, our base case ECEA concludes that the health gains and insurance value of UPF would accrue primarily to the poor. Reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures are more uniformly distributed across income quintiles. A variant on our base case suggests that lowering costs of borrowing for the poor could potentially achieve some of the health gains of UPF, but at the cost of leaving the poor more deeply in debt. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley Ltd.