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Sample records for viable effective public

  1. Effect of myocardial revascularisation on left ventricular systolic function in patients with and without viable myocardium: should non-viable segments be revascularised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipac, Alja Vlahovic; Stankovic, Ivan; Vidakovic, Radosav; Putnikovic, Biljana; Ilic, Ivan; Milicic, Biljana; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of surgical revascularisation on left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with viable and non-viable dysfunctional LV segments determined by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Prospective observational cohort study. Single tertiary care centre. Consecutive patients referred to surgical revascularisation (n=115). DSE and surgical revascularisation. Functional recovery defined as increase in ejection fraction ≥ 5% 1 year after revascularisation in patients with and without viable myocardium (viability defined as improvement of contractility in ≥ 4 LV segments on DSE). The mean age, ejection fraction and wall motion score index (WMSi) of patients were 59 ± 9 years, 44 ± 9% and 1.82 ± 0.31, respectively. There was no difference between DSE positive and DSE negative patients for any of those parameters at baseline study (p>0.05 for all). After 12 months, the ejection fraction increased 11 ± 1% in patients with viable myocardium vs 7 ± 1% in patients without viable myocardium (p=0.002). Moreover, in patients with viable myocardium, the greatest increase of ejection fraction occurred 1 month after surgery (9 ± 1%), whereas in those patients with negative DSE the ejection fraction increased more gradually (2±1% after 1 month, p=0.002 between groups for 1 month vs preoperative value), but still improved after 12 months follow-up (pmyocardial revascularisation. Functional recovery continuously occurs throughout the first year after surgical treatment.

  2. Municipal Bonds. A Viable Funding Option For Oradea Local Public Administration (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Bunescu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy government resources are often insufficient to cover all the public budget needs. Public capital collecting process presents a particular interest considering the need of getting them with lower costs. The options for collecting public resources are characterized by diversity and complexity. One of them is based on municipal bonds funds. This paper explores the potential of public bonds issued at a local level in raising capital for infrastructure investments in Romanian public administration. This paper is not meant to be an empirical study at national level because sub-sovereign bonds market in Romania is not very developed. This paper is limited to a case study of public financing methods for a Romanian local public administration. Local authorities from Oradea have no other possibility without one of borrowing to achieve the objectives proposed. Thus, it resorted to a set of internal and external loans. Our study contents a comparative cost analysis of public financing by loans. The analysis lead to the result that the cheapest source of financing is the loan offered by the European Investment Bank, followed by municipal bonds issuing.

  3. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effective and viable mind-body stress reduction in the workplace: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Bobinet, Kyra J; McCabe, Kelley; Mackenzie, Elizabeth R; Fekete, Erin; Kusnick, Catherine A; Baime, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Highly stressed employees are subject to greater health risks, increased cost, and productivity losses than those with normal stress levels. To address this issue in an evidence-based manner, worksite stress management programs must be able to engage individuals as well as capture data on stress, health indices, work productivity, and health care costs. In this randomized controlled pilot, our primary objective was to evaluate the viability and proof of concept for two mind-body workplace stress reduction programs (one therapeutic yoga-based and the other mindfulness-based), in order to set the stage for larger cost-effectiveness trials. A second objective was to evaluate 2 delivery venues of the mindfulness-based intervention (online vs. in-person). Intention-to-treat principles and 2 (pre and post) × 3 (group) repeated-measures analysis of covariance procedures examined group differences over time on perceived stress and secondary measures to clarify which variables to include in future studies: sleep quality, mood, pain levels, work productivity, mindfulness, blood pressure, breathing rate, and heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic balance). Two hundred and thirty-nine employee volunteers were randomized into a therapeutic yoga worksite stress reduction program, 1 of 2 mindfulness-based programs, or a control group that participated only in assessment. Compared with the control group, the mind-body interventions showed significantly greater improvements on perceived stress, sleep quality, and the heart rhythm coherence ratio of heart rate variability. The two delivery venues for the mindfulness program produced basically equivalent results. Both the mindfulness-based and therapeutic yoga programs may provide viable and effective interventions to target high stress levels, sleep quality, and autonomic balance in employees. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Is MOKE a Viable Method for Probing Spin Hall Effect in Metals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yudan; Wang, Hua; Li, Jie; Tian, Chuanshan; Wu, Ruqian; Jin, Xiaofeng; Shen, Y. R.

    In a recent publication, van`t Erve et al. reported observation of the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) from the spin Hall effect (SHE) in beta-tungsten (β-W) and platinum (Pt) films. This is most interesting, as it would provide an alternative means to probe SHE in metals. However, despite repeated attempts on different samples, we were unable to find a true SHE-induced MOKE signal from β-W and Pt. Both our theoretical estimate and experimental results indicate that the MOKE signal from SHE in metals ought to be very weak, below the detection limit of currently available MOKE setups. The false MOKE signal observed by van't Erve et al. likely came from the unbalanced ac heating effect.

  6. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  7. Effect of triple viable bifidobacterium combined with mosapride on hemorheology and serum gastrointestinal hormone levels in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Bin Ding

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of triple viable bifidobacterium combined with mosapride on hemorheology and serum gastrointestinal hormone levels in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. Methods: A total of 127 patients with FD were randomly divided into the observation group (67cases and the control group (62 cases. The control group was given mosapride, the observation group was given triple viable bifidobacterium on the base of the control group. For 2 months, to observe the efficacy and changes of hemorheology [the whole blood viscosity (high and low shear, plasma viscosity] and serum gastrointestinal hormone levels (MTL, NPY, VIP. Results: After treatment, the observation group of the whole blood viscosity (high and low shear, plasma viscosity were decreased significantly (P0.05. There was significantly difference between the two groups (P<0.05; After treatment, serum MTL, NPY were increased and VIP was increased in both groups (P<0.05, and all indexes of the observation group were improved more significant than those of the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Efficacy of triple viable bifidobacterium combined with mosapride is more better than single mosapride in the treatment of FD. It may be related to its effects on hemorheology and gastrointestinal hormone.

  8. Optimization of coupled plasmonic effects for viable phosphorescence of metal-free purely organic phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Jung, Jaehun; Chung, Kyungwha; Lim, Ju Won; You, Youngmin; Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Dong Ha

    2017-10-01

    Metal-free purely organic phosphorescent molecules are attractive alternatives to organometallic and inorganic counterparts because of their low cost and readily tunable optical properties through a wide chemical design window. However, their weak phosphorescent intensity due to inefficient spin-orbit coupling and, consequently, prevailing non-radiative decay processes limit their practical applicability. Here, we systematically studied phosphorescence emission enhancement of a purely organic phosphor system via plasmon resonance energy transfer. By precisely tuning the distance between purely organic phosphor crystals and plasmonic nanostructures using layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte multilayers as a dielectric spacer, maximum 2.8 and 2.5 times enhancement in photoluminescence intensity was observed when the phosphor crystals were coupled with ˜55 nm AuNPs and ˜7 nm AgNPs, respectively, at the distance of 9.6 nm. When the distance is within the range of 3 nm, a dramatic decrease in phosphorescence intensity was observed, while at a larger distance, the plasmonic effect diminished rapidly. The distance-dependent plasmon-induced phosphorescence enhancement mechanism was further investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Our results reveal the correlation between the amplification efficiency and plasmonic band, spatial factor, and spectral characteristics of the purely organic phosphor, which may provide an insightful picture to extend the utility of organic phosphors by using surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement scheme.

  9. Novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen; Ragsdale, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Suranyi, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market.

  10. Effective Public Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that public management differs from private management not just in degree but in quality, so that American business is an inappropriate analogy for evaluating public management. In particular, "purpose,""organization," and "people" have different meaning and significance in public agencies and private businesses. (JG)

  11. Viable cell yield from active dry yeast products and effects of storage temperature and diluent on yeast cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M L; Bradford, B J

    2011-01-01

    Active dry yeast (ADY) products are commonly fed in the dairy industry, but research regarding quality control for such products is limited. The objectives of this study were to determine yeast viability in field samples relative to manufacturers' guarantees (experiment 1), measure the effects of high-temperature storage on yeast viability (experiment 1), and determine the effect of vitamin-trace mineral (VTM) premix on yeast viability (experiment 2). Commercially available ADY products were acquired in triplicate through normal distribution channels and stored at 4°C upon receipt. Initial samples were evaluated for colony-forming units and compared with product label guarantees. Only 1 of the 6 products sampled in experiment 1 met product guarantees for all 3 samples. To determine effects of storage temperature and duration on viability, ADY samples were stored in an incubator at 40°C with ambient humidity for 1, 2, and 3 mo. High-temperature storage significantly decreased viability over the 3-mo period; approximately 90% of viable cells were lost each month. Three of the 5 products sampled in experiment 2 met product guarantees. Fresh samples of 4 of these 5 ADY products were mixed in duplicate with ground corn (GC) or a VTM premix to achieve a target concentration of 2.2×10(8) cfu/g. For each product, GC and VTM samples were stored at ambient temperature (22°C) and at an elevated temperature (40°C) for 2 wk. No differences in viable yeast count were observed between GC and VTM samples immediately after mixing or after storage at ambient temperature. Yeast viability in GC and VTM samples decreased during storage at an elevated temperature. There also was a significant interaction of diluent and storage temperature; VTM samples had higher cell viability than GC samples when subjected to high-temperature storage. Results suggest that (1) ADY products failed to consistently meet product guarantees; (2) viability of ADY products was greatly diminished during

  12. The effect of formulation on the penetration of coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles into the viable epidermis of human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Silva, Vânia R; Le Lamer, Marina; Sanchez, Washington Y; Liu, David C; Sanchez, Washington H; Morrow, Isabel; Martin, Darren; Silva, Heron D T; Prow, Tarl W; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S

    2013-06-01

    The use of nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) in sunscreens and other cosmetic products has raised public health concerns. The two key issues are the extent of exposure to ZnO-NP and the likely hazard after the application of ZnO-NP in sunscreen and cosmetic products to humans in vivo. Our aims were to assess exposure by the extent of ZnO-NP penetration into the viable epidermis and hazard by changes in the viable epidermal redox state for a number of topical products. Of particular interest is the role of the particle coating, formulation used, and the presence of any enhancers. Multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (MPT-FLIM) was used to simultaneously observe ZnO-NP penetration and potential metabolic changes within the viable epidermis of human volunteers after topical application of various ZnO-NP products. Coated and uncoated ZnO-NP remained in the superficial layers of the SC and in the skin furrows. We observed limited penetration of coated ZnO-NP dispersed in a water-in-oil emulsion formulation, which was predominantly localized adjacent to the skin furrow. However, the presence of ZnO-NP in the viable epidermis did not alter the metabolic state or morphology of the cells. In summary, our data suggest that some limited penetration of coated and uncoated ZnO-NP may occur into viable stratum granulosum epidermis adjacent to furrows, but that the extent is not sufficient to affect the redox state of those viable cells. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of orally administered viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS on mouse lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjavainen, P V; ElNezami, H S; Salminen, S J; Ahokas, J T; Wright, P F

    1999-11-01

    Immunomodulation by probiotics is a subject of growing interest, but the knowledge of dose response and time profile relationships is minimal. In this study we examined the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS (PJS) on the proliferative activity of murine lymphocytes ex vivo. Dose dependency was assessed by treating animals perorally with a low or a high dose (i.e., 10(9) or 10(12) viable bacteria/kg of body weight) for 7 days. The lower dose levels of each strain appeared to enhance T-cell proliferation at the optimal concanavalin A (ConA) concentration (by 69 to 84%) and B-cell proliferation at the optimal and supraoptimal concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (by 57 to 82%). B-cell proliferation was also enhanced by the high LGG dose (by 32 to 39%) but was accompanied by a marginal decrease in T-cell proliferation (by 8%) at the optimal ConA concentration. The time profiles of the immune responses were assessed after daily treatment with the higher dose for 3, 7, and 14 days. A significant decrease in basal lymphoproliferation (by 32 to 42%) was observed with PJS treatment after the 3- and 7-day periods; however, this activity returned to control levels after 14 days of treatment, which also resulted in significantly enhanced T-cell proliferation at optimal and supraoptimal ConA concentrations (by 24 to 80%). The 14-day LGG treatment also enhanced the latter activity (by 119%). In conclusion, LGG and PJS have specific dose- and duration-dependent immunomodulatory effects on the proliferative activity of B and T lymphocytes and may also reduce lymphocyte sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of lectin mitogens.

  14. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the ma...

  15. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  16. Two-Stage Precision-Effect Estimation and Heckman Meta-Regression for Publication Selection Bias

    OpenAIRE

    T.D. Stanley

    2006-01-01

    This study offers a simple meta-regression method for estimating genuine empirical effects in research literatures tainted by publication selection. Two-stage precision-effect (PETS) corrects for the misspecification of conventional meta-regression models and provides a viable strategy for estimating empirical economic effects.

  17. Dimensions of Public Library Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Thomas; Van House, Nancy A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a national survey in which 7 public library constituent groups rated the degree to which 61 indicators helped describe a library. Dimensions of effectiveness were then developed through factor analysis on the indicator choices. A full list of indicators, a list of collapsed indicators, and the results of the factor analysis are appended.…

  18. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the mainstream biofuels narrative. The EROI (Energy Return on Investment of biofuels reaches a few units, while the EROI of fossil fuels is 20–30 or higher and has a power density (W/m2 thousands of times higher than the best biofuels, such as sugarcane in Brazil. When metabolic approaches are used it becomes clear that biomass cannot represent an energy carrier able to meet the metabolism of industrialized societies. For our industrial society to rely on “sustainable biofuels” for an important fraction of its energy, most of the agricultural and non-agricultural land would need to be used for crops, and at the same time a radical cut to our pattern of energy consumption would need to be implemented, whilst also achieving a significant population reduction.

  19. Effects of the oral administration of viable and heat-killed Streptococcus bovis HC5 cells to pre-sensitized BALB/c mice.

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    Aline D Paiva

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides have been suggested as an alternative to classical antibiotics in livestock production and bacteriocin-producing bacteria could be added to animal feeds to deliver bacteriocins in the gastrointestinal (GI tract of ruminant and monogastric animals. In this study, viable (V and heat-killed (HK Streptococcus bovis HC5 cells were orally administered to pre-sensitized mice in order to assess the effects of a bacteriocin-producing bacteria on histological parameters and the immune response of the GI tract of monogastric animals. The administration of V and HK S. bovis HC5 cells during 58 days to BALB/c mice did not affect weight gain, but an increase in gut permeability was detected in animals receiving the HK cells. Viable and heat killed cells caused similar morphological alterations in the GI tract of the animals, but the most prominent effects were detected in the small intestine. The oral administration of S. bovis HC5 also influenced cytokine production in the small intestine, and the immune-mediated activity differed between V and HK cells. The relative expression of IL-12 and INF-γ was significantly higher in the small intestine of mice treated with V cells, while an increase in IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α expression was only detected in mice treated with HK cells. Considering that even under a condition of severe challenge (pre-sensitization followed by daily exposure to the same bacterial immunogen the general health of the animals was maintained, it appears that oral administration of S. bovis HC5 cells could be a useful route to deliver bacteriocin in the GI tract of livestock animals.

  20. Effect of bifidobacterium triple viable powder adjuvant therapy on the inflammatory factors and t lymphocytes subsets in patients with ulcerative colitis

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    Xue-Jun Tang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate effect of bifidobacterium triple viable powder on inflammatory factors and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with ulcerative colitis. Method: 80 patients with ulcerative colitis were selected and divided into observation group and control group, 40 cases in each group. The control group was given dietary guide, mesalazine, vitamin C and other comprehensive treatment; The observation group was given bifidobacterium triple viable powder adjuvant therapy on the basis of conventional treatment. The level of IL-6, CRP, TNF-α and T lymphocyte subsets in the two groups was compared before treatment (T0, after treatment for 1 month (T1, after treatment for 3 months (T2. Results: (1 The levels of IL-6, CRP and TNF-α at T1 serum were lower than those in T0 in both groups, the levels of serum IL-6, CRP and TNF-α at T2 were lower than those of T0 and T1, these three levels in different time points were statistical significant difference; The levels of serum IL-6, CRP and TNF-α in observation group at T1 and T2 were significantly lower than those in control group, there was significant difference in both groups; (2The levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/ CD8+ at T1 were higher than T0 in two groups, The levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ at T2 were superior than at T0 and T1. The level of CD8+ at T1 was below at T0, The level of CD8+ at T2 was inferior than those in T0 and T1, The levels of CD3+,CD4+,CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ at different time points were significant difference. The levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+ /CD8+ in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group T1 and T2, CD8+ level was significantly lower than that in the control group at T1 and T2, difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Bifidobacterium triple viable powder adjuvant treatment ulcerative colitis was good for inhibiting body inflammatory response and improve immune function.

  1. Immunomodulatory effect of non-viable components of probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus on holoxenic mice

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    L. M. Ditu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Competition of probiotic bacteria with other species from the intestinal microbiota involves different mechanisms that occur regardless of probiotics’ viability. The objective of this paper was to assess the cytokine serum levels in holoxenic mice after oral administration of non-viable components (NVC of Enterococcus faecium probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in comparison to NVC of unstimulated E. faecium probiotic culture. Methods: Probiotic E. faecium CMGb 16 culture, grown in the presence of heat-inactivated cultures of E. coli and B. cereus CMGB 102, was subsequently separated into supernatant (SN and heat-inactivated cellular sediment (CS fractions by centrifugation. Each NVC was orally administered to holoxenic mice (balb C mouse strain, in three doses, given at 24 hours. Blood samples were collected from the retinal artery, at 7, 14, and 21 days after the first administration of the NVC. The serum concentrations of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α interleukins were assessed by ELISA method. Results: After the oral administration of SN component obtained from the probiotic culture stimulated with heat-inactivated cultures of B. cereus CMGB 102 and E. coli O28, the serum concentrations of IL-12 were maintained higher in the samples collected at 7 and 14 days post-administration. No specific TNF-α profile could be established, depending on stimulated or non-stimulated probiotic culture, NVC fraction, or harvesting time. Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate that non-viable fractions of probiotic bacteria, stimulated by other bacterial species, could induce immunostimulatory effects mediated by cytokines and act, therefore, as immunological adjuvants.

  2. Effects of water-filtered infrared-A and of heat on cell death, inflammation, antioxidative potential and of free radical formation in viable skin--first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazena, Helmut; Pittermann, Wolfgang; Müller, Werner; Jung, Katinka; Kelleher, Debra K; Herrling, Thomas; Meffert, Peter; Uebelhack, Ralf; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2014-09-05

    The effects of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) and of convective heat on viability, inflammation, inducible free radicals and antioxidative power were investigated in natural and viable skin using the ex vivo Bovine Udder System (BUS) model. Therefore, skin samples from differently treated parts of the udder of a healthy cow were analyzed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) measurement and by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Neither cell viability, the inflammation status, the radical status or the antioxidative defence systems of the skin were significantly affected by wIRA applied within 30 min by using an irradiance of 1900 W m(-2) which is of relevance for clinical use, but which exceeded the maximum solar IR-A irradiance at the Earth's surface more than 5 times and which resulted in a skin surface temperature of about 45 °C without cooling and of about 37 °C with convective cooling by air ventilation. No significant effects on viability and on inflammation were detected when convective heat was applied alone under equivalent conditions in terms of the resulting skin surface temperatures and exposure time. As compared with untreated skin, free radical formation was almost doubled, whereas the antioxidative power was reduced to about 50% after convective heating to about 45 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

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    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  4. Formation of manganese phosphate and manganese carbonate during long-term sorption of Mn2+ by viable Shewanella putrefaciens: effects of contact time and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chubar, N.; Avramut, C.; Visser, T.

    The influence of temperature (5, 10, 22 and 30 C) on the long-term (30 days) sorption of Mn2+ by viable Shewanella putrefaciens was studied by FTIR and EXAFS. The additional Mn-removal capacity of these bacteria was found to result from the surface precipitation of Mn-containing inorganic phases.

  5. [Research Networks in Public Health: Requirements for Sustainability and Effectiveness - a Sociological Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Holger; Ohlmeier, Silke

    2017-11-01

    The Public Health White Paper draws up a vision of public health as a living, decentralized network that can help improve the health of the population in a sustained fashion. However, the central question remains open as to which prerequisites public health networks should fulfill in order to be effective in the long term. The aim of this paper is to provide a sociological view of the issue and offer some discussion ideas. Parsons' structural functionalism leads to the thesis that science networks in public health require structures that ensure that the 4 basic functions of viable social networks - (1) adaptation, (2) goal attainment, (3) integration and (4) latent pattern maintenance - are fulfilled. On this theoretical basis, suggestions are made to establish functional formal structures in public health networks. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Measuring effects of public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Underway for quite some time now has been the discussion on using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. However - with some exceptions this has been mainly a conceptual discussion vastly surpassed a corresponding development of appropriate monitoring tools. Also, even if both...... qualitative and quantitative studies have been made, they tend to lack connection to the underlying mechanisms envisaged in the conceptual and/or case based literature. A challenge in this endeavour prevails in the nature of how public procurement of innovation works. Some of the effects rendered may...... about the usefulness of public procurement of innovation are at all realistic and feasible in practice. After reviewing different currently available means to measure both public procurement of innovation measures, as well as public procurement of innovation, the paper outlines a case-based approach...

  7. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  8. The Public Library Effectiveness Study: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Thomas; Van House, Nancy A.

    This study investigated the construct of effectiveness as it applies to public libraries and developed a methodology that can be transferred to other types of libraries and organizations. The research team began by compiling a list of indicators that are commonly used to gauge library effectiveness within the areas of: (1) services access; (2)…

  9. Message Effects of Public Service Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    Public service advertisements, disseminated via the mass media, have been credited with "positive attitudinal effects" in past research, but only certain kinds of such advertisements are really effective. Of the types of appeals used in television commercials--informative, emotional, "establishment" (or status quo), and…

  10. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  11. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  12. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  13. Effects of participating in public conversation groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Adolfo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the effects of the participation of health, education and religious professionals in public conversation groups with LGBT people. Participants were interviewed some weeks after the groups for feedback. Professionals declared that this dialogic method (known as Public Conversations Project allowed a qualification of their practices, awareness about the challenges of talking about gender and sexual diversity at their professional’s contexts, and a broader contact with narratives of violence and discrimination against LGBT people. The structure of dialogue allowed participants to talk and listen in a less evaluative context. Differences in the effects produced by each group are discussed in relation to the differences in the group composition and to the specificities of the health, educational and religious contexts.

  14. Long-term effects of antibiotics on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand, nitrification, and viable bacteria in laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susan; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are contaminants of the environment because of their widespread use and incomplete removal by microorganisms during wastewater treatment. The influence of a mixture of ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GM), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)/trimethoprim (TMP), and vancomycin (VA), up to a final concentration of 40 mg/L, on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrification, and survival of bacteria, as well as the elimination of the antibiotics, was assessed in a long-term study in laboratory treatment plants (LTPs). In the presence of 30 mg/L antibiotics, nitrification of artificial sewage by activated sludge ended at nitrite. Nitrate formation was almost completely inhibited. No nitrification at all was possible in the presence of 40 mg/L antibiotics. The nitrifiers were more sensitive to antibiotics than heterotrophic bacteria. COD elimination in antibiotic-stressed LTPs was not influenced by ≤20 mg/L antibiotics. Addition of 30 mg/L antibiotic mixture decreased COD removal efficiency for a period, but the LTPs recovered. Similar results were obtained with 40 mg/L antibiotic mixture. The total viable count of bacteria was not affected negatively by the antibiotics. It ranged from 2.2 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) compared with the control at 1.4 × 10(6)-6.3 × 10(6) CFU/mL. Elimination of the four antibiotics during phases of 2.4-30 mg/L from the liquid was high for GM (70-90 %), much lower for VA, TMP, and CIP (0-50 %), and highly fluctuating for SMZ (0-95 %). The antibiotics were mainly adsorbed to the sludge and not biodegraded.

  15. Enzymatic isolation of viable human odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffaro, H M; Pääkkönen, V; Tjäderhane, L

    2016-05-01

    To improve an enzymatic method previously used for isolation of rat odontoblasts to isolate viable mature human odontoblasts. Collagenase I, collagenase I/hyaluronidase mixture and hyaluronidase were used to extract mature human odontoblasts from the pulp chamber. Detachment of odontoblasts from dentine was determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and to analyse the significance of differences in tubular diameter, and the t-test was used. MTT-reaction was used to analyse cell viability, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney post hoc tests were used to analyse the data. Immunofluorescent staining of dentine sialoprotein (DSP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were used to confirm the odontoblastic nature of the cells. MTT-reaction and FESEM demonstrated collagenase I/hyaluronidase resulted in more effective detachment and higher viability than collagenase I alone. Hyaluronidase alone was not able to detach odontoblasts. Immunofluorescence revealed the typical odontoblastic-morphology with one process, and DSP, AQP4 and MMP-20 were detected. Quantitative PCR of DSPP confirmed that the isolated cells expressed this odontoblast-specific gene. The isolation of viable human odontoblasts was successful. The cells demonstrated morphology typical for odontoblasts and expressed characteristic odontoblast-type genes and proteins. This method will enable new approaches, such as apoptosis analysis, for studies using fully differentiated odontoblasts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Use of Public Library Roles for Effectiveness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van House, Nancy A.; Childers, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of public library roles examines roles from the Public Library Association's planning and measurement tools for their usefulness in evaluating public library effectiveness, based on data from the Public Library Effectiveness Study. Indicators of library effectiveness are discussed, and a cluster analysis of libraries with similar role…

  17. Predictive models for the effect of storage temperature on Vibrio parahaemolyticus viability and counts of total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Tamplin, Mark L

    2011-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an indigenous bacterium of marine environments. It accumulates in oysters and may reach levels that cause human illness when postharvest temperatures are not properly controlled and oysters are consumed raw or undercooked. Predictive models were produced by injecting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains, measuring viability rates at storage temperatures from 3.6 to 30.4°C, and fitting the data to a model to obtain parameter estimates. The models were evaluated with Pacific and Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) containing natural populations of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus viability was measured by direct plating samples on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar for injected oysters and by most probable number (MPN)-PCR for oysters containing natural populations. In parallel, total viable bacterial counts (TVC) were measured by direct plating on marine agar. Growth/inactivation rates for V. parahaemolyticus were -0.006, -0.004, -0.005, -0.003, 0.030, 0.075, 0.095, and 0.282 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.6, 12.6, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. The growth rates for TVC were 0.015, 0.023, 0.016, 0.048, 0.055, 0.071, 0.133, and 0.135 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.3, 14.9, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. Square root and Arrhenius-type secondary models were generated for V. parahaemolyticus growth and inactivation kinetic data, respectively. A square root model was produced for TVC growth. Evaluation studies showed that predictive growth for V. parahaemolyticus and TVC were "fail safe." The models can assist oyster companies and regulators in implementing management strategies to minimize V. parahaemolyticus risk and enhancing product quality in supply chains.

  18. Removing hydrocarbons from soil more cost effectively than other conventional thermal technologies is now further enhanced when you can create viable recycling alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, B.B.F.; Harper, C.H. [CHH Consulting, Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The need for quick and accurate land remediation technology has become an important issue, as regulations and public opinion have placed pressure on industry leaders to find environmentally benign and less invasive solutions for handling and processing hazardous waste streams. This paper described the merging of two distinct and proven technologies used to remove and recover valuable liquids from the soil. The remaining soil can then be made into an environmentally friendly construction product. The technologies included the Earth Brick Press Model TB250 developed by Earth Brick International and the KAB-1000 PTDU thermal desorption unit developed by Terra-Tech Remediation. The thermal desorption process puts heated air into soil faster than conventional thermal treatment methods. A water wash process affects the chemistry of the remaining liquids and enhances the ability to reuse and recycle them. The Earth Brick Press takes the soils and additives and creates benign bricks. The blending of these two technologies has the potential to address cost, speed and future liability issues. The paper provided information on the project permits and licensing; product registration; and operational issues such as characteristics of the target soil; course versus fine soils; moisture levels; distribution of hydrocarbon content; and co-contaminant levels. The paper also discussed the technical support team, including inventors and partners; consultants and business development team; and third party consultants. It was concluded that the economic benefits of blending the two technologies may be enhanced by the benefit of positive public perceptions and the ability to give back to society. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Effective public security features for embossed holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharovas, Stanislovas; Bakanas, Ramūnas; Bulanovs, Andrejs; Varadarajan, Vadivelan

    2017-03-01

    New combined embossed hologram originating technique was developed by the international team of holography experts. The technique merges deep 3D holographic images with commonly used hologram security features. Deep 3D images were first recorded on photoresist with Geola's holographic printer containing their proprietary pulsed laser. Optical security features were then overexposed onto the photoresist plates containing latent images of deep 3D scenes. The photoresist plates with several exposures (containing optical security features and deep 3D images) were developed. Embossed holograms, containing such effective public security features as full colour 3D images, guilloches, rainbow patterns were manufactured. Manufactured embossed holograms also contained such optical security features as microtext and laser readable hidden image.

  20. Effect of Managers on Public Service Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Falk

    Management, Teaching, and Student Performance” supported by the Danish Strategic Research Council (now Innovation Fund Denmark) and headed by professor Søren Winter. The dissertation explores the effects of managers on public service performance. By combining theoretical insights and research designs from...... countries spending most on education (OECD 2014a), while still performing at the OECD average in PISA tests and on equity measures (OECD 2014b). Studying ways of improving school performance is therefore important in its own right. Another advantage of using Danish schools as the setting...... for the dissertation is access to high-quality panel data on schools and students via the Danish administrative data archives. Specifically, this dissertation utilizes a never before used option of merging panel data on Danish school principals with data on students and schools. In addition to this report...

  1. Dimensions of Public Library Effectiveness II: Library Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van House, Nancy A.; Childers, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Public Library Effectiveness Study (PLES), which was designed to apply models and methods of organizational effectiveness research to public libraries. Indicators of public library effectiveness are described, factor analysis results are presented, implications for evaluating library performance are discussed, and further research is…

  2. Effects of infant formula containing a mixture of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides or viable Bifidobacterium animalis on the intestinal microflora during the first 4 months of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.M.; Alles, M.S.; Knol, J.; Kok, F.J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Bindels, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Adding prebiotics or probiotics to infant formula to improve the intestinal flora of formula-fed infants is considered to be a major innovation. Several companies have brought relevant formulations onto the market. However, comparative data on the effects of pre- and probiotics on the intestinal

  3. É economicamente viável regionalizar a atuação de um hospital público de médio porte? Is it economically viable to regionalize the performance of a public hospital of medium size?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência dos serviços públicos de saúde é uma necessidade administrativa crescente, especialmente nos hospitais do SUS. Essas organizações são complexas em virtude da multiplicidade de serviços prestados e dos altos custos envolvidos. Nessa linha, este artigo avalia um hospital do Estado de Mato Grosso, através do método de "análise de custo-volume-superávit". Os resultados demonstram, entre outros, que a redução da capacidade ociosa, a partir do aumento do número de pacientes de outros municípios, produziria um aumento de receita em virtude das economias de escala, dotando o processo de descentralização do SUS (microrregionalização de eficiência sistêmica.The efficiency of public health is a growing management need, especially in public hospitals. These organizations are complex because of the multiplicity of services and the high costs involved. So this paper evaluates a hospital in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, by the method of "cost-volume-surplus". The results show among other things, that the reduction of excess capacity from the increased number of patients from other cities would produce an increase in revenues due to economies of scale, providing the process of decentralization of SUS (micro-regionalization with systemic efficiency.

  4. Bimetric gravity is cosmologically viable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Akrami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bimetric theory describes gravitational interactions in the presence of an extra spin-2 field. Previous work has suggested that its cosmological solutions are generically plagued by instabilities. We show that by taking the Planck mass for the second metric, Mf, to be small, these instabilities can be pushed back to unobservably early times. In this limit, the theory approaches general relativity with an effective cosmological constant which is, remarkably, determined by the spin-2 interaction scale. This provides a late-time expansion history which is extremely close to ΛCDM, but with a technically-natural value for the cosmological constant. We find Mf should be no larger than the electroweak scale in order for cosmological perturbations to be stable by big-bang nucleosynthesis. We further show that in this limit the helicity-0 mode is no longer strongly-coupled at low energy scales.

  5. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-10-17

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  6. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2014-10-01

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  7. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  8. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  9. The compounding effects of high pollen limitation, selfing rates and inbreeding depression leave a New Zealand tree with few viable offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, Megan L; Tate, Jennifer A; Anderson, Sandra H; Kelly, Dave; Ladley, Jenny J; Merrett, Merilyn F; Peterson, Paul G; Robertson, Alastair W

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between species are especially sensitive to environmental changes. The interaction between plants and pollinators is of particular interest given the potential current global decline in pollinators. Reduced pollinator services can be compensated for in some plant species by self-pollination. However, if inbreeding depression is high, selfed progeny could die prior to reaching adulthood, leading to cryptic recruitment failure. To examine this scenario, pollinator abundance, pollen limitation, selfing rates and inbreeding depression were examined in 12 populations of varying disturbance levels in Sophora microphylla (Fabaceae), an endemic New Zealand tree species. High pollen limitation was found in all populations (average of 58 % reduction in seed production, nine populations), together with high selfing rates (61 % of offspring selfed, six populations) and high inbreeding depression (selfed offspring 86 % less fit, six populations). Pollen limitation was associated with lower visitation rates by the two endemic bird pollinators. The results suggest that for these populations, over half of the seeds produced are genetically doomed. This reduction in the fitness of progeny due to reduced pollinator service is probably important to population dynamics of other New Zealand species. More broadly, the results suggest that measures of seed production or seedling densities may be a gross overestimate of the effective offspring production. This could lead to cryptic recruitment failure, i.e. a decline in successful reproduction despite high progeny production. Given the global extent of pollinator declines, cryptic recruitment failure may be widespread. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effective public health management: The Nigerian experience | Abe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public health management in Nigeria is the process of mobilizing and deploying resources for the provision of effective public health services. To ensure an effective public health, population based strategies would need to be put in place and this would require proper management to yield desired results. This paper ...

  11. Policy alienation of public professionals: the effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, many public professionals face identification problems towards public policies they have to implement; that is, they experience policy alienation. We conceptualize policy alienation, starting from the sociological concept of alienation and showing how this can be used in the

  12. Viable business models for public utilities; Zukunftsfaehige Geschaeftsmodelle fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Weiss, Claudia [Buelow und Consorten GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Small suppliers are faced with mounting pressures from an increasingly complex regulatory regime and a market that rewards size. Many have been able to adapt to the new framework conditions by successively optimizing existing activities. However, when change takes hold of all stages of the value chain it is no longer enough to merely modify one's previous strategies. It rather becomes necessary to review one's business model for its sustainability, take stock of the company's competencies and set priorities along the value chain. This is where a network-oriented focussing strategy can assist in ensuring efficient delivery of services in core areas while enabling the company to present itself on the market with a full range of services.

  13. Using Generic Examples to Make Viable Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Ely, Rob; Yopp, David

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen an increased call to train students to craft mathematical arguments. The third of the Common Core's (CCSS) Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP 3) (CCSSI 2010) calls for all mathematically proficient students to "construct viable arguments" to support the truth of their ideas and to "critique…

  14. Effect Of Educational Services On The Quality Of Public Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... effect on the status and quality of public primary school products. This paper examines the effect of educational services on the quality of public primary school in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area in Rivers State,. Keywords: primary education, challenges. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol.

  15. Assessing the Effect of China's National Publicity Films from the Perspective of Public Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article empirically assessed the effect of China’s national publicity film launched in Times Square in Manhattan, New York. To this end, the author gave a set of general criteria and indicators to measure the effect of national publicity films. Whether the publicity film was effective depends on whether American people’s image perceptions of China were improved after it was launched. Quantitative indicators are: the number of reports in the target country and the predispositions of the reports; the target country people’s participation and their predispositions; and the real behavior of the target country people. The analysis revealed that the 2011 national publicity film did not achieve the anticipated effect. The number of U.S. mainstream media reports was less than expected and their evaluations were quite negative; the participation of American people was low and the extent of the favorability both of the publicity film and China was not high; and the launch of the publicity film did not trigger a travel boom to China. Accordingly, this article suggested that the future implementation of China’s national publicity films focuses on two aspects: first, pay attention to cultural differences and enhance the comprehensibility of the discourse; second, practice what it preaches and strengthen the credibility of the discourse.

  16. The viable but non-culturable state in pathogenic Escherichia coli: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Pienaar

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: This review discusses various general aspects of the VBNC state, the mechanisms and possible public health impact of indicator and pathogenic E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Method: A literature review was conducted to ascertain the possibleimpact of E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Results: Escherichia coli enter into the VBNC state by means of several induction mechanisms. Various authors have found that E. coli can be resuscitated post-VBNC. Certain strains of pathogenic E. coli are still able to produce toxins in the VBNC state, whilst others are avirulent during the VBNC state but are able to regain virulence after resuscitation. Conclusion: Pathogenic and indicator E. coli entering into the VBNC state could have an adverse effect on public health if conventional detection methods are used, where the number of viable cells could be underestimated and the VBNC cells still produce toxins or could, at anytime, be resuscitated and become virulent again.

  17. Effectively selling astronomy to the public -- fusing lessons learned from education, entertainment, advertising and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Arthur; Day, Jacque

    2010-03-01

    A great celestial story is only as effective as the teller of the tale. With passion and knowledge at the helm, we must search for ways to pass on enthusiasm to others while conveying sound science. Based on our experiences, we present an integrated approach -- one that borrows elements from education, entertainment, advertising, and public relations -- to choose an event, hook and keep the public's attention while making them want more, and provide some tips for increasing media presence.

  18. Effect of Ethics and Integrity on Good Public Procurement System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at exposing the effect of ethics and integrity on good public procurement system in Nigeria. Data for the study were collected through a structured questionnaire administered on eighty-two (82) officers of the Bureau for Public Procurement in Abuja, Nigeria. The data generated were analysed with the ...

  19. Effect of the depreciation of public goods in spatial public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-Mei; Zhuang, Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-02-01

    In this work, the depreciation effect of public goods is considered in the public goods games, which is realized by rescaling the multiplication factor r of each group as r‧=r( (β≥0). It is assumed that each individual enjoys the full profit r of the public goods if all the players of this group are cooperators. Otherwise, the value of public goods is reduced to r‧. It is found that compared with the original version (β=0), the emergence of cooperation is remarkably promoted for β>0, and there exist intermediate values of β inducing the best cooperation. Particularly, there exists a range of β inducing the highest cooperative level, and this range of β broadens as r increases. It is further presented that the variation of cooperator density with noise has close relations with the values of β and r, and cooperation at an intermediate value of β=1.0 is most tolerant to noise.

  20. Publication patterns of comparative effectiveness research in spine neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Tsai, Chia-Lin; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Ma, Hsin-I

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate publication patterns for comparative effectiveness research (CER) on spine neurosurgery. The authors searched the PubMed database for the period 1980-2012 using the key words "cost analysis," "utility analysis," "cost-utility," "outcomes research," "practical clinical research," "comparator trial," and "comparative effectiveness research," linked with "effectiveness" and "spine neurosurgery." From 1980 through April 9, 2012, neurosurgery CER publications accounted for 1.38% of worldwide CER publications (8657 of 626,330 articles). Spine neurosurgery CER accounted for only 0.02%, with 132 articles. The journal with the greatest number of publications on spine neurosurgery CER was Spine, followed by the Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. The average annual publication rate for spine neurosurgery CER during this period was 4 articles (132 articles in 33 years), with 68 (51.52%) of the 132 articles being published within the past 5 years and a rising trend beginning in 2008. The top 3 contributing countries were the US, Turkey, and Japan, with 68, 8, and 7 articles, respectively. Only 8 regular articles (6.06%) focused on cost analysis. There is a paucity of publications using CER methodology in spine neurosurgery. Few articles address the issue of cost analysis. The promotion of continuing medical education in CER methodology is warranted. Further investigations to address cost analysis in comparative effectiveness studies of spine neurosurgery are crucial to expand the application of CER in public health.

  1. Air-spore in Cartagena, Spain: viable and non-viable sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Vergara, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jose; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In the presented study the airborne fungal spores of the semiarid city of Cartagena, Spain, are identified and quantified by means of viable or non-viable sampling methods. Airborne fungal samples were collected simultaneously using a filtration method and a pollen and particle sampler based on the Hirst methodology. This information is very useful for elucidating geographical patterns of hay fever and asthma. The qualitative results showed that when the non-viable methodology was employed, Cladosporium, Ustilago, and Alternaria were the most abundant spores identified in the atmosphere of Cartagena, while the viable methodology showed that the most abundant taxa were: Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. The quantitative results of airborne fungal spores identified by the Hirst-type air sampler (non-viable method), showed that Deuteromycetes represented 74% of total annual spore counts, Cladosporium being the major component of the fungal spectrum (62.2%), followed by Alternaria (5.3%), and Stemphylium (1.3%). The Basidiomycetes group represented 18.9% of total annual spore counts, Ustilago (7.1%) being the most representative taxon of this group and the second most abundant spore type. Ascomycetes accounted for 6.9%, Nectria (2.3%) being the principal taxon. Oomycetes (0.2%) and Zygomycestes and Myxomycestes (0.06%) were scarce. The prevailing species define our bioaerosol as typical of dry air. The viable methodology was better at identifying small hyaline spores and allowed for the discrimination of the genus of some spore types. However, non-viable methods revealed the richness of fungal types present in the bioaerosol. Thus, the use of both methodologies provides a more comprehensive characterization of the spore profile.

  2. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión...

  3. Effect of Anti-Smoking Legislation in Public Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nagesh; Oza, Swapnil; Reddy, Jaddu Jyothirmai; Mitra, Ruchi; Rahul, Patel; Singh, Sopan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anti-smoking legislation in public places and public support for smoking ban. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in public places such as market, bus/railway station, workplaces and hospitals in Udaipur, India. Informed consent was obtained. The questionnaire comprised of details about their agreement with the current anti-smoking legislation and their views on the support for smoking ban in public places. The study was conducted among 314 individuals of whom 255 (81.2%) supported the general ban on smoking in public places. Non-smokers (54.4%) agreed more than smokers that the introduction of legislation would create healthier environment (P places (P places in Udaipur is high. But there is a lack of enforcing mechanism in support of the legislation and hence complete smoking ban along with strong enforcement may provide better results.

  4. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. The role of public health surveillance: information for effective action in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterhall, S F; Pappaioanou, M; Thacker, S B; Eaker, E; Churchill, R E

    1992-12-01

    Public health surveillance can provide the quantitative information needed for setting priorities and establishing rational health policy. Although there are many examples of the effective use of such information, the full potential for surveillance has not yet been realized. To a large degree, failure to achieve this potential has resulted from limited perspectives regarding the role and conduct of surveillance. Both practitioners (those who conduct surveillance) and users (those who apply surveillance data in a real-world setting) have fallen victim to such myopia. Public health surveillance must be advocated as an essential part of the global health agenda if we are to achieve international goals for improving health status. As we improve our appreciation of the variety of uses for public health surveillance data, we need to understand more fully the determinants of the decision-making process. Effective dissemination of information and effective communication are as important as data collection and analysis. No longer do we have--or should we have--the luxury of collecting information for its own sake. The information collected must have a demonstrated utility. Developing and training personnel to have expertise in public health surveillance will necessarily incur opportunity costs. Bridging gaps in data methodology and coverage will force us to weigh alternatives and to compromise. We hope that the International Symposium on Public Health Surveillance will accomplish several goals. First, we wish to foster international understanding of the definition, role, and importance of surveillance in reducing morbidity and mortality, in improving quality of life, and in setting effective health priorities. Second, we hope that this symposium will serve as a springboard for identifying issues and topics that can be addressed in greater depth at future international meetings. Finally, we see the symposium as an essential step in developing a firm commitment on the part

  6. Flypaper Effects Anomaly Of West Papua Capital Public Expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Marthen Anthon Pentury

    2011-01-01

    In fiscal decentralization, local governments should be able to provide public service facilities for all communities. This study aims to determine the existence of flypaper effect in the total capital public expenditure and capital expenditure on education, health and infrastructure in districts in West Papua, 2003-2006. Tools of analysis used is panel data regression. The General Allocation Fund (DAU), the Special Allocation Fund (DAK) and the Special Autonomy Fund (DOK) partially and simul...

  7. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  8. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  9. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  10. Homeschooling in America a Viable Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Bobby K.

    2011-01-01

    Since prayer was banned from the public school systems in 1962 and all religious references have been censored, the American Public School System has become completely secular in nature. Children today face a great deal of peer pressure especially when bad behavior is constantly glamorized in both the media and the press. Because of the lack of…

  11. Systematic reviews of effectiveness of Public Health practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Faggiano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Public Health is the main discipline involved in the prevention of avoidable deaths. To implement interventions aimed at eliminating causes of death, and to take decisions based on evidence of effectiveness, research summaries are needed.

    Methods: To discuss the critical points for synthesizing the evidence on the effectiveness of public health interventions, the inconsistencies between the results produced by different epidemiological study designs and the methodological issues related to the quality of the summaries are underlined.

    Results: The Randomized Controlled Trial is recognized as the best study design for the assessment of the effectiveness of clinical practices; however, the integration of the results from non-randomized and randomized interventions has been suggested recently. In particular this involves Public Health, where the randomization of individuals is often impossible, and interventions are administered at different levels (individual, group, population.

    Conclusions: Systematic reviews are not common in Public Health. Methodological tools to write rigorous summaries of the evidence from public health interventions, taking into account all possible biases, appear to be a priority.

  12. Comprehensive effective and efficient global public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNabb Scott JN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a crossroads, global public health surveillance exists in a fragmented state. Slow to detect, register, confirm, and analyze cases of public health significance, provide feedback, and communicate timely and useful information to stakeholders, global surveillance is neither maximally effective nor optimally efficient. Stakeholders lack a globa surveillance consensus policy and strategy; officials face inadequate training and scarce resources. Three movements now set the stage for transformation of surveillance: 1 adoption by Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]; 2 maturation of information sciences and the penetration of information technologies to distal parts of the globe; and 3 consensus that the security and public health communities have overlapping interests and a mutual benefit in supporting public health functions. For these to enhance surveillance competencies, eight prerequisites should be in place: politics, policies, priorities, perspectives, procedures, practices, preparation, and payers. To achieve comprehensive, global surveillance, disparities in technical, logistic, governance, and financial capacities must be addressed. Challenges to closing these gaps include the lack of trust and transparency; perceived benefit at various levels; global governance to address data power and control; and specified financial support from globa partners. We propose an end-state perspective for comprehensive, effective and efficient global, multiple-hazard public health surveillance and describe a way forward to achieve it. This end-state is universal, global access to interoperable public health information when it’s needed, where it’s needed. This vision mitigates the tension between two fundamental human rights: first, the right to privacy, confidentiality, and security of personal health information combined with the right of sovereign, national entities

  13. Physical education teacher effectiveness in a public health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L; Lounsbery, Monica A F

    2013-12-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school effectiveness studies has been student engagement. Thus, in PE, it is important to assess the teaching and learning processes related to expected outcomes, including what students and teachers do and how lessons are delivered. Within a public health context, it is then important to assess how teachers provide students with ample health-enhancing physical activity to help them become physically fit and to learn generalizable movement and behavioral skills designed to promote physical activity and fitness outside of class time. In this article, we emphasize that the future of PE in our nation's schools will depend on the ability of schools to provide programs that are perceived to be of importance to the public; moreover, we believe that the future of PE rests on the effectiveness of PE teachers to operate within a public health context. In addition, we also provide a summary of teacher effectiveness research within a public health context and offer visions for the future assessment and evaluation of PE teacher effectiveness that move beyond the PE lesson to include components of the comprehensive school physical activity model.

  14. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  15. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  16. Public Health Effects of Medical Marijuana Legalization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan M; Mendelson, Bruce; Berkes, Jay J; Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F; Booth, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    The public health consequences of the legalization of marijuana, whether for medical or recreational purposes, are little understood. Despite this, numerous states are considering medical or recreational legalization. In the context of abrupt changes in marijuana policy in 2009 in Colorado, the authors sought to investigate corresponding changes in marijuana-related public health indicators. This observational, ecologic study used an interrupted time-series analysis to identify changes in public health indicators potentially related to broad policy changes that occurred in 2009. This was records-based research from the state of Colorado and Denver metropolitan area. Data were collected to examine frequency and trends of marijuana-related outcomes in hospital discharges and poison center calls between time periods before and after 2009 and adjusted for population. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Hospital discharges coded as marijuana-dependent increased 1% per month (95% CI=0.8, 1.1, pmarijuana (pmarijuana registrant applications. The abrupt nature of these changes suggests public health effects related to broad policy changes associated with marijuana. This report may be used to assist in policy decisions regarding the short-term public health effects of marijuana legalization. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of infrastructure asset management: challenges for public agencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraven, Daan; Hartmann, Andreas; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to better understand the decisions in infrastructure asset management at public agencies and the challenges of these agencies to improve the effectiveness of their decision making. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review on asset management at

  18. Assessing the full effects of public investment in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, J.; Koopmans, C.; Hof, B.; Knee, P.; Lieshout, R.; Simmonds, P.; Wokke, F.

    2014-01-01

    Many space-related impact studies have been carried out in the past, but there is no conclusive, comprehensive evaluation of the economic and social effects of public investments in space. Such evaluations are not easy to perform, for several reasons: the space sector is not a recognised category in

  19. The Effects of Public Relations Messages about Corporate Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Byron; Ferguson-Dethorne, Mary Ann

    To determine whether public relations messages generated from three different corporate social responsibility philosophies would have different effects on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a corporation, 147 college students participated in an experiment. The three social responsibility philosophies were defined as: a "profit" concept,…

  20. Perceived public health effects of occupational and residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of environmental contamination can occur from e-waste processing, putting workers and residents in surrounding areas at risk as they are likely to be exposed to complex mixtures of unknown toxicity. This study was aimed at assessing the perceived public health effects of occupational and residential exposures ...

  1. Job Performance Effectiveness: A Comparison of Teachers in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of school type and the job performance of secondary schools teachers in Cross River State of Nigeria. The expo fact design was adopted for the study, through a survey data collected from a total of 720 secondary school teachers (440 from the public and 280 from the private) ...

  2. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  3. Is Greenberg's "Macro-Carib" viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg's primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib 'etymologies' and another 64 Amerind 'etymologies'. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg's Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg's morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg's 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable

  4. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  5. The viable but non-culturable state in pathogenic Escherichia coli: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Pienaar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The persistence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria are dependent on the ability of the species to survive in adverse conditions. During the infectious process, the organism may need to pass through certain hostile anatomical sites, such as the stomach. Under various environmental stresses, many bacteria enter into the viable but non-culturable (VBNC state, where they are ‘alive’ or metabolically active, but will not grow on conventional media. Escherichia coli bacteria encounter several diverse stress factors during their growth, survival and infection and thus may enter into the VBNC state.Objectives: This review discusses various general aspects of the VBNC state, the mechanisms and possible public health impact of indicator and pathogenic E. coli entering into the VBNC state.Method: A literature review was conducted to ascertain the possibleimpact of E. coli entering into the VBNC state.Results: Escherichia coli enter into the VBNC state by means of several induction mechanisms. Various authors have found that E. coli can be resuscitated post-VBNC. Certain strains of pathogenic E. coli are still able to produce toxins in the VBNC state, whilst others are avirulent during the VBNC state but are able to regain virulence after resuscitation.Conclusion: Pathogenic and indicator E. coli entering into the VBNC state could have an adverse effect on public health if conventional detection methods are used, where the number of viable cells could be underestimated and the VBNC cells still produce toxins or could, at anytime, be resuscitated and become virulent again.

  6. Private versus Public Feedback - The Incentive Effects of Symbolic Awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele

    subjects' performance compared to the control treatment. Also high ability and a positive interim feedback increase performance. Competitive preferences matter only in the less prestigious task. Subjects' gender and overconfidence can in neither of the tasks explain performance. In a supplementary field......We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances...

  7. Branding your medical practice with effective public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Whether you think of it as your image, your standing in the community, or your reputation, your medical practice is also a brand. While many organizations, companies, products, and services are known for specific attributes that make them stand out from competitors, most use a combination of marketing disciplines to communicate who and what they are to their customers, consumers, and patients. Public relations is often considered the most powerful, cost-effective, and efficacious of the marketing disciplines, surpassing advertising, promotion, and direct mail in molding and developing brands. Your practice can benefit from a well-crafted branding public relations program.

  8. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  9. FLYPAPER EFFECTS ANOMALY OF WEST PAPUA CAPITAL PUBLIC EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen Anthon Pentury

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In fiscal decentralization, local governments should be able to provide public service facilities for all communities. This study aims to determine the existence of flypaper effect in the total capital public expenditure and capital expenditure on education, health and infrastructure in districts in West Papua, 2003-2006. Tools of analysis used is panel data regression. The General Allocation Fund (DAU, the Special Allocation Fund (DAK and the Special Autonomy Fund (DOK partially and simultaneously have positive impact on total capital spending and capital expenditure in education, health, and infrastructure. It is also indicated the anomaly of flypaper effect in DAU, DAK, and DOK.Keywords: Flypaper effect, anomaly, fiscal decentralization, capital expendituresJEL classification numbers: H50, H75

  10. Effects of poor sanitation on public health: Case of Yopougon town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of poor environmental hygiene on population health were studied in the precarious living quarters of Doukoure, the village of Niangon-adjame and the viable living quarters of millionaire's in Yopougon town. This study included sanitation, water sources, as well as, population health. It appears that excreta ...

  11. Substitution Effect of Public Support Programs at Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria SZITÁSIOVÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the principle of addi-tionality in public support programs at local level. In the evaluation of public support policies a key question is whether the policy has made a differ-ence over what would have otherwise occurred. This could be measured by different ways as out-put, behavioral or input additionality. In this paper we analyze the impact of public support programs on input additionality as the extent to which the subsidy is refected in increased expenditures by supported subjects through the measurement of substitution effect. We studied public investment subsidies in the case of education support in Slo-vakia. We identifed the substitution effect in 10% of the analyzed municipalities. There are several differences in outcomes.An important factor is the size of the city as larger municipalities reduce their other activities when obtaining the support. We also showed that less developed regions have a lower tendency to misuse the support programs. The more de-veloped regions and cities reduce their own spending on a given priority when obtaining the support.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of a national public access defibrillation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patrick S; Teljeur, Conor; Masterson, Siobhán; O'Neill, Michelle; Harrington, Patricia; Ryan, Máirín

    2015-06-01

    Proposed Irish legislation aimed at increasing survival from out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest (OHCA) mandates the provision of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in a comprehensive range of publicly accessible premises in urban and rural areas. This study estimated the clinical and cost effectiveness of the legislation, compared with alternative programme configurations involving more targeted AED placement. We used a cost-utility analysis to estimate the costs and consequences of public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes from a societal perspective, based on AED deployment by building type. Comparator programmes ranged from those that only included building types with the highest incidence of OHCA, to the comprehensive programme outline in the proposed legislation. Data on OHCA incidence and outcomes were obtained from the Irish Out-of-Hospital-Cardiac-Arrest Register (OHCAR). Costs were obtained from the Irish health service, device suppliers and training providers. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the most comprehensive PAD scheme was €928,450/QALY. The ICER for the most scaled-back programme involving AED placement in transport stations, medical practices, entertainment venues, schools (excluding primary) and fitness facilities was €95,640/QALY. A 40% increase in AED utilisation when OHCAs occur in a public area could potentially render this programme cost effective. National PAD programmes involving widespread deployment of static AEDs are unlikely to be cost-effective. To improve cost-effectiveness any prospective programmes should target locations with the highest incidence of OHCA and be supported by efforts to increase AED utilisation, such as improving public awareness, increasing CPR and AED training, and establishing an EMS-linked AED register. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Public music concerts in a psychiatric hospital: effects on public opinion and as therapy for patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaka, Y; Yokota, O; Tanioka, T; Nagata, K; Yasuoka, K; Toda, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the effects of music therapy concerts, which were held 60 times over a four year period, 1992 to 1996, in Geiyo Psychiatric Hospital, Kochi Prefecture and found that; 1) Musicians who performed at the concerts were not only from Kochi prefecture but also from other prefectures (10 times) and from four foreign countries (7 times). 2) Live concerts in a small hall had a positive influence on patients and drew the patient's attention and interest away from their hallucinations and delusions to the real world. Moreover, the concerts provided the patients with chances to acquire social graces such as being well-groomed. 3) Explanations by the musicians, interviews with the musicians and the seasonal choruses accompanied by the musicians were helpful to give the patients motives for recovering communication skills and to interact with society. 4) Inquiries to the patients about the concerts indicated discrepancies between the poor observed estimations during the concerts (83.3%) and the good subjective impressions expressed by the patients (82.0%), suggesting that the patients were not good at expressing their internal emotions through facial expressions or attitudes. 5) Many citizens including children came to the concerts and/or gave aid to the hospital because the concerts were open to the public and we suggest that this contributed to improving the general publics' image of psychiatric hospitals. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of people in a control group had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals in Japan, but only 32% of the members of the general public who attended our concerts had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals. In addition, the revolving ratio of the hospital beds rose from 0.4 to 1.2 over the four years, which also suggests a beneficial effect on the patients.

  14. PUBLIC TO PRIVATE MANAGEMENT BUY-OUTS: Causes and Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Youhan

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study of 25 hand collected firms that went from being publicly traded corporations to private companies between 1997 and 2005. Data is derived from Sudarsanam et al. (2008, working paper) study titled, Going Private Buyouts and Private Equity: Bankruptcy Avoidance, Shareholder Gains and Turnaround. The research seeks to apply a traditionally lacking approach to the cause and effect study of management buy-outs. It is envisaged that significant insight has been...

  15. Competitive effects of scope of practice restrictions: Public health or public harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Sara; Adams, E Kathleen; Lewitt, Mary Jane; Dunlop, Anne L

    2017-09-01

    The demand for healthcare professionals is predicted to grow significantly over the next decade. Securing an adequate workforce is of primary importance to ensure the health and wellbeing of the population in an efficient manner. Occupational licensing laws and related restrictions on scope of practice (SOP) are features of the market for healthcare professionals and are also controversial. At issue is a balance between protecting the public health and removing anticompetitive barriers to entry and practice. In this paper, we examine the case of SOP restrictions for certified nurse midwives (CNMs) and evaluate the effects of changes in states' SOP laws on markets for CNMs and on maternal and infant outcomes. We find that SOP laws are neither helpful nor harmful in regards to health outcomes but states that have no SOP-based barriers have lower rates of induced labor and Cesarean section births. We discuss the implications for state policy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  17. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  18. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    -viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...... of viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the PCA of each cultivar and the pooled samples. However, the PCA did not exhibit a pattern of separation among the early, normal and late germinated tomato seeds. The NIR spectral regions of 1160–1170, 1383–1397, 1647–1666, 1860–1884 and 1915–1940 nm were...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable...

  19. In the Name of Effective Consumer Protection and Public Policy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2016-01-01

    I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps that i...... that the CJEU is open to the idea of regarding consumer protection provisions as (EU) public policy rules which seems to challenge the traditional principle of equivalence. Based on the findings, the author elaborates on the concept of an European public policy doctrine.......I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps...... that include the specific ideas behind consumer protection provisions as well as the interaction between the principle of effectiveness and principle of equivalence. It is found that the principle of effectiveness is stretched very long and is often not set aside by the “rule of reason”. It is also found...

  20. Strategy Implementation Style and Public Service Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Andrews

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Strategic decision-making theories suggest that organizations that combine rational and incremental strategy implementation styles are likely to perform better than those that emphasize a single style. To assess whether these arguments apply to the public sector; we explore the strategy implementation style and perceived service effectiveness, efficiency and equity of Turkish municipal government departments. Using fuzzy cluster analysis, we identify four distinctive though inter-related styles of strategy implementation in our sample organizations: logical-incremental; mostly rational; mostly incremental; and no clear approach. A logical-incremental and mostly rational style of implementation are associated with better effectiveness, efficiency and equity; with the absence of an implementation style associated with worse performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  3. Is telomerase a viable target in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseman, C.M.; Wright, W.E.; Shay, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The ideal cancer treatment would specifically target cancer cells yet have minimal or no adverse effects on normal somatic cells. Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that maintains the ends of human chromosome, is an attractive cancer therapeutic target for exactly this reason [1]. Telomerase is expressed in more than 85% of cancer cells, making it a nearly universal cancer marker, while the majority of normal somatic cells are telomerase negative. Telomerase activity confers limitless replicative potential to cancer cells, a hallmark of cancer which must be attained for the continued growth that characterizes almost all advanced neoplasms [2]. In this review we will summarize the role of telomeres and telomerase in cancer cells, and how properties of telomerase are being exploited to create targeted cancer therapies including telomerase inhibitors, telomerase-targeted immunotherapies and telomerase-driven virotherapies. A frank and balanced assessment of the current state of telomerase inhibitors with caveats and potential limitations will be included. PMID:21802433

  4. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  5. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu

    2018-02-15

    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  6. Effects of gabapentin on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Paris, Fernanda; Sant'Anna, Marcia K; Vianna, Monica R M; Barichello, Tatiana; Busnello, Joao V; Kapczinski, Flavio; Quevedo, Joao; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2003-06-01

    The effects of gabapentin, 400 mg and 800 mg, on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking (SPS) were investigated. Thirty-two normal male volunteers (aged 17-30 years) had their anxiety and mood evaluated by self-scales [Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) and Profile of Mood State (POMS)] during the SPS procedure. Physiological measures (heart rate and blood pressure) were taken. Treatment with gabapentin at 800 mg attenuated the anxiety of subjects that had a decrease on the VAMS item calm-excite. In addition, volunteers that received gabapentin at 400 mg and 800 mg showed a decrease in the hostility score in POMS. Our results suggest, in agreement with other studies, an anxiolytic potential to gabapentin.

  7. The Effect of a High School Speech Course on Public Speaking Anxiety for Students in a College-Level Public Speaking Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen Hill

    2012-01-01

    Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…

  8. What Constrains Effective Public Financial Management in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the management of the area of public finance is highly legislated, the waste with which these resources slip through the public coffers remains a paradox. The purpose of this article is to examine the five self-reinforcing variables that are mostly fingered for this dilemma. These are: (1) public finance as a political ...

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of public meetings and workshops: A new approach for improving DOE public involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, C.; Williams, G.; Goldberg, M.

    1993-07-01

    Although public participation in the environmental cleanup process has been ongoing in the US Department of Energy (DOE) for some time, little if any evaluation of these efforts to include the public has taken place. This report contains the results of an evaluation of six regional workshops and meetings. These meetings and workshops focused on the implementation plan for the programmatic environmental impact statement on DOE`s environmental cleanup efforts. The formats of the workshops and meetings differed from typical public meetings by offering more opportunity for interaction between agency personnel and the public, using impartial facilitators, and including more elaborate promotional strategies than notification in the Federal Register. Questionnaires and focus groups were used to solicit participants` perspectives on the meetings.

  10. Combining ethidium monoazide treatment with real-time PCR selectively quantifies viable Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Vercammen, Francis; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Detection of the lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis relies on PCR-based techniques. Although highly accurate and sensitive, these methods fail to distinguish between viable and dead cells. In this study a novel approach combining the DNA intercalating dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) and real-time PCR is presented that allows quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis cells without the need for culturing. The developed method is able to suppress real-time PCR signals of heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores by 99.9 % and is able to discriminate viable from heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores in mixed samples. Furthermore, the novel approach was applied to assess the antifungal activity of the veterinary antiseptic F10(®) Antiseptic Solution. This disinfectant killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores effectively within 1 min at concentrations as low as 1:6400. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Effective Corporate Governance Structure in Improving Investors' Confidence in the Public Financial Information

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Alnaser; Osama Samih Shaban; Ziad Al-Zubi

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of corporate governance is to create a balance of power-sharing among shareholders, directors, and management to enhance shareholder value and protect the interests of other stakeholders. Effective corporate governance structure improves investor confidence, it ensures corporate accountability, enhances the reliability and quality of public financial information, and enhances the integrity and efficiency of the capital market. The study has covered 10 public companies in Jord...

  12. Case-based anatomy teaching: a viable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseonu, Onyedikachi; Carachi, Robert; Brindley, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a decline in the amount of time available for anatomy teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum, and new methods of anatomy teaching have been adopted for pragmatic reasons, with little evidence base to support their proposed educational benefits. This study seeks to establish the effect of a case-based teaching method on students' confidence in anatomy. Forty-three student volunteers in the clinical phase of the Glasgow medical course were given weekly anatomy teaching sessions based on clinical case presentations over 4 weeks. The students were given an anatomy test, and were asked to rate their confidence in their anatomy knowledge before and after the teaching sessions. There was a two-point increase in students' self-rated confidence, and a 10.9 per cent increase in average test score after the case-based anatomy teaching sessions. Both of these increases were statistically significant (p teaching was also highly rated by students, which may make it a viable option for the teaching of anatomy in the modern medical curriculum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  14. The Pill Not Taken: Revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2014-01-01

    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to…

  15. The effectiveness of the Expanded Public Works Programme on job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The EPWP has three objectives: providing employment to the unemployed, building the skills base of the unskilled, and building public infrastructure in the form of roads, schools and other amenities. In multifaceted ... of the situation. Key words: Public Works Programmes, job creation, poverty relief, local governance ...

  16. Comparing New School Effects in Charter and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school…

  17. The Quest for Public Accountability and Effectiveness of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argues that public accountability is an essential attribute for the functioning of democracy in any country. It is for this purpose that agencies of accountability (oversight institutions) like the Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance in Tanzania are established to promote public accountability. However ...

  18. Comparative Job Performance Effectiveness of Teachers in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at determining the relative job performance of secondary school teachers in public and private schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The ex post facto design was used in a survey of 720 secondary school teachers (440 from the public and 280 from the private). Results indicated that teachers in ...

  19. ["Debris" public policies and exclusion. Their effects on subjective constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugino, Aída

    2013-01-01

    The following paper formulates a critical and conceptual analysis based on a territorial experience. It is enshrined in the field of mental health, understood as the collection of practices and problems aiming at addressing subjectivity, that is, they are inseparable from social and health practices. Some of the causes and effects of exclusion in subjective constitution become problems when institutional, group, community and individual interventions -always of a singular nature- take place. The existing relationship between public policies and population appears in the very core of an intervention or consultation; we, as professionals, are a part of it. People living in conditions of poverty often feel alien to traditional healthcare settings and they end up excluding such facilities from their resources. We will work on childhood and adolescence, as they are constituent stages in history, and the ways in which such history develops in situations with social exclusion. Some of such ways are paco (cocaine paste), violence, conflict with the law or ignorance of it. These are singular ways, but they involve a common and recurring mark related to rejection, neglect and subjective de-structuring. This is what I will refer to as debris hereafter. Lastly, the reconstruction of a Social Other and an approach based on the bond will be emphasized. This will also allow for a social bond, and the building of a care mechanism, which through transference may accommodate an individual who could make certain requests.

  20. EFFECTS OF INTEGRATED FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ON PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC SECTOR IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Oyinlola, Olabisi Michael; Folajin, Oyetayo Oyewale; Balogun, Jimoh Oladosu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of Integrated Financial Management Information System (IFMIS) on performance of public sector in Nigeria. Public finance management has come under immense scrutiny by donor community as well as general public in a call for enhanced accountability of the government expenditures for an improved public service delivery. To analyse the effectiveness of identified factors on the use of the system, descriptive and inferential statistics were...

  1. Walking with Music Is a Safe and Viable Tool for Gait Training in Parkinson's Disease: The Effect of a 13-Week Feasibility Study on Single and Dual Task Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Natalie; Doan, Jon B.; Turnbull, George; Suchowersky, Oksana; Bonfield, Stephan; Hu, Bin; Brown, Lesley A.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the viability and efficacy of integrating cadence-matched, salient music into a walking intervention for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-two people with PD were randomised to a control (CTRL, n = 11) or experimental (MUSIC, n = 11) group. MUSIC subjects walked with an individualised music playlist three times a week for the intervention period. Playlists were designed to meet subject's musical preferences. In addition, the tempo of the music closely matched (±10–15 bpm) the subject's preferred cadence. CTRL subjects continued with their regular activities during the intervention. The effects of training accompanied by “walking songs” were evaluated using objective measures of gait score. The MUSIC group improved gait velocity, stride time, cadence, and motor symptom severity following the intervention. This is the first study to demonstrate that music listening can be safely implemented amongst PD patients during home exercise. PMID:20976086

  2. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-16

    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS g.kg(-1), respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  3. PUBLICITY OF PLANNING DOCUMENTATION AS A PREREQUISITE FOR EFFECTIVE PUBLIC CONTROL OF URBAN SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medynska N.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, government transparency is one of the fundamental principles of functioning of the rule of law, in which participation of the public in the formulation and implementation of public policy and its impact on all stages of decision-making and public access to the full objective and reliable information held by authorities should be provided. The interaction with the public is a key in the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union, which is prepared to the signing and implementation. Ukraine moves to decentralization, and the main problem is to optimize the structure of administrative units, which are characterized by high fragmentation, especially in rural areas. Most rural councils are unable to provide even basic services to the local population at the district level. This leads to a decrease in financial resources of village councils. Decentralization of authority will enable administrative-territorial units to become more self-sufficient, provide fiscal autonomy, the distribution of income and expenditure, a clear division of authorities’ competences. This particularly touches rural areas that are now largely depressed administrative entities. Local interests may be assessed much better by local authority than central. The order of publication of regulatory and urban acts is arranged by applicable law quite well and logically. Therefore, it can be similarly applied to all other legal acts. As every planning document, the community territory plan is approved by the local government, but should be developed by a certified institution, organization. This plan should provide answers to the question: what is the situation now; the current and future land-use, what are the prospects of development of the community in land management. Community management has the right and even the duty to decide on changes in the plan. Because in this plan will be shown in reality how and which way you can change the intended land

  4. Mastering public health: essential skills for effective practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levy, Barry S; Gaufin, Joyce R

    2012-01-01

    .... Designed for new and seasoned public health workers alike, this user-friendly guide focuses on the day-to-day practical skills and competencies that are often not taught in educational or training programs...

  5. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AS EFFECTIVE MECHANISM OF SPORTS INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Moskvin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the current state of sports infrastructure in Russia and also explores the experience of using public-private partnership at Olympic facilities construction in Sochi.

  6. Effective Practices for Evaluating Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Stephanie Baird Wilkerson, PhD Carol Haden EdD Magnolia Consulting,LLC Education and public outreach (EPO) program developers and providers seeking insights regarding effective practices for evaluating EPO activities programs benefit from understanding why evaluation is critical to the success of EPO activities and programs, what data collection methods are appropriate, and how to effectively communicate and report findings. Based on our extensive experience evaluating EPO programs, we will share lessons learned and examples of how these practices play out in actual evaluation studies. EPO program developers, providers, and evaluators must consider several factors that influence which evaluation designs and data collection methods will be most appropriate, given the nature of EPO programs. Effective evaluation practices of EPO programs take into account a program's phase of development, duration, and budget as well as a program's intended outcomes. EPO programs that are just beginning development will have different evaluation needs and priorities than will well-established programs. Effective evaluation practices consider the 'life' of a program with an evaluation design that supports a program's growth through various phases including development, revision and refinement, and completion. It would be premature and inappropriate to expect the attainment of longer-term outcomes of activities during program development phases or early stages of implementation. During program development, EPO providers should clearly define program outcomes that are feasible and appropriate given a program's scope and expected reach. In many respects, this directly relates to the amount of time, or duration, intended audiences participate in EPO programs. As program duration increases so does the likelihood that the program can achieve longer-term outcomes. When choosing which outcomes are reasonable to impact and measure, program duration should be considered. Effective evaluation

  7. The Mediating Effect of Social Capital on the Relationship Between Public Health Managers' Transformational Leadership and Public Health Nurses' Organizational Empowerment in Korea Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Soo Young

    2017-12-01

    This study was to verify the effect of public health nurse's (PHN's) social capital on the relationship between public health manager's (PHM's) transformational leadership and PHN's organizational empowerment in Korea public health. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 303 PHNs from public health centers in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do cities in South Korea. Data were collected from February 29, 2016 to April 8, 2016, using structured questionnaires which included general characteristics, transformational leadership, organizational empowerment, and social capital. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlations, and structural equation model. PHM's transformational leadership has a positive effect on PHN's social capital and PHN's organizational empowerment. Social capital had a mediating effect between transformational leadership and organizational empowerment in PHNs. This study suggests that PHM's transformational leadership is a contributing factor to improve PHN's organizational empowerment, and transformational leadership can lead to improve PHN's organizational empowerment through PHN's social capital. So, an intervention program to promote organizational empowerment should include strategies to enhance PHM's transformational leadership as well as to improve PHN's social capital. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  9. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for polymerase chain ...

  10. Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local governments are principally established for development at the grassroots and they must be structured in a manner that makes them viable and capable of achieving this purpose. The objective of this comment is to appraise the current local government structure under the Nigerian constitutional framework with a view ...

  11. Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic Trypanosoma vivax in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic. Trypanosoma vivax in vitro and in vivo. O. A. Idowu, A. B. Idowu, C. F. Mafiana and S. O. Sam-Wobo*. Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Accepted 13 April, 2006. Trypanosoma vivax was ...

  12. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for ...

  13. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  14. 77 FR 40032 - Maine Public Service Company; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Maine Public Service Company; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund... determine the justness and reasonableness of the proposed formula rate by Maine Public Service Company. Maine Public Service Company, 139 FERC ] 61,262 (2012). The refund effective date in Docket No. EL12-76...

  15. A psychological effect of having a potentially viable sequestration strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2006-07-13

    Purposeful carbon sequestration by direct injection into the deep ocean can store carbon for centuries. Even after injected carbon begins to leak back out to the atmosphere, much of the injected carbon will remain sequestered because of the acid neutralizing capacity of seawater. The slow leakage that occurs centuries into the future can give a false sense of security that the carbon and climate problem is under control. If this were to cause policy makers to become less vigilant about reducing the total emissions of anthropogenic carbon, our descendants would be penalized with having much higher carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere when leakage begins. This "carelessness feedback" would apply to other forms of sequestration that are not permanent. To avoid falling into this trap requires generations of policy makers to be aware of the feedback and committed to intergenerational equity.

  16. A psychological effect of having a potentially viable sequestration strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Katsumi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purposeful carbon sequestration by direct injection into the deep ocean can store carbon for centuries. Even after injected carbon begins to leak back out to the atmosphere, much of the injected carbon will remain sequestered because of the acid neutralizing capacity of seawater. The slow leakage that occurs centuries into the future can give a false sense of security that the carbon and climate problem is under control. If this were to cause policy makers to become less vigilant about reducing the total emissions of anthropogenic carbon, our descendants would be penalized with having much higher carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere when leakage begins. This "carelessness feedback" would apply to other forms of sequestration that are not permanent. To avoid falling into this trap requires generations of policy makers to be aware of the feedback and committed to intergenerational equity.

  17. A psychological effect of having a potentially viable sequestration strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Purposeful carbon sequestration by direct injection into the deep ocean can store carbon for centuries. Even after injected carbon begins to leak back out to the atmosphere, much of the injected carbon will remain sequestered because of the acid neutralizing capacity of seawater. The slow leakage that occurs centuries into the future can give a false sense of security that the carbon and climate problem is under control. If this were to cause policy makers to become less vigilant abo...

  18. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Guleria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excellent alternative, has no learning curve and is ideally suited for donors in India who have a low BMI. The procedure is also relatively inexpensive. We are in need of a donor registry rather than reports from single institutions to fully evaluate the risks and benefits of both procedures.

  19. Fake Journals: Their Features and Some Viable Ways to Distinguishing Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmat Esfe, Mohammad; Wongwises, Somchai; Asadi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the fake journals and their advertisement and publication techniques. These types of journals mostly start and continue their activities by using the name of some indexed journals and establishing fake websites. The fake journals and publishers, while asking...... the authors for a significant amount of money for publishing their papers, have no peer-review process, publish the papers without any revision on the fake sites, and put the scientific reputation and prestige of the researchers in jeopardy. In the rest of the paper, we present some viable techniques in order...

  20. The Effect of Leadership in a Public Bad Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moxnes, E.; van der Heijden, E.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    With regard to global or regional environmental problems, do countries that take unilateral actions inspire other countries to curtail emissions?In this paper this possibility is investigated by the use of a novel design of a laboratory public bad experiment with a leader.Twelve groups of five

  1. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... 6Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. 7Malaysia ... Malaysian public towards genetically modified (GM) insulin across several background variables such as religion, race .... politicians, religious experts, university students and the general.

  2. The Effect of Outsourcing on the Performance of Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Lonny J.

    2009-01-01

    Public education in the 21st century is faced with many difficult challenges. The first and probably most common issue is related to finance. As the economy continues to worsen, school districts are forced to find new revenue streams while at the same time reducing expenditures. In the current economic climate, it is becoming more difficult for…

  3. Effect of demographic variables on public attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the attitude of the Malaysian public towards genetically modified (GM) insulin across several background variables such as religion, race, education level and age. A survey was carried out on 1017 respondents stratified according to various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley ...

  4. When is public enforcement of insider trading regulations effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate when public enforcement of insider trading regulations reduces the amount of insider trading. We model a game between a potentially self-interested regulator enforcing insider trading laws and a trader who may be trading on inside information. We show that equilibrium

  5. BECOMING AN EFFECTIVE PUBLIC MANAGER IN THE GLOBAL WORLD: DISTRICT GOVERNORS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMET KÖSECİK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift from the traditional model of public administration to new public management since the mid-1980s in the western countries, coupled with the opportunities and challenges of the globalisation for the governments, puts public servants at the crossroads requiring them to adapt to new principles of public sector management. Public servants particularly in high-profile public offices now need to adjust themselves to a new style of public manager’ characteristic. This study seek to examine the extent to which characteristics of public managers in the new form of public management exist in the case of selected district governors and to explore how general source of constraints within the Turkish public administrative system are perceived by district governors as significant obstacles to be effective and efficient public managers. The findings of the research shows that district governors in general are considerably good at managing internal components and external constituencies of the organization for which they are responsible. However, they need to develop their personal capital in certain aspects. Respondent district governors complaint that certain source of constraints in Turkish administrative system exist as significant obstacles to be effective and efficient public managers.

  6. Factors Of Effective Inter-Organizational Collaboration: A Framework For Public Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara KOŻUCH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to identify factors driving effective inter-organizational collaboration, investigate the impact of these factors on efforts launched in public management and systematize them. To accomplish the aim of the paper, a systematic literature review and a hermeneutic process based on a focus group with scholars were used. The studies conducted enabled recognition of key publications analyzing drivers behind effective inter-organizational collaboration, to formulate the typology of these drivers as well as to divide them into those with strong, medium or weak infl uence on collaborative public management. It was stated that all drivers identifi ed affect the effectiveness of inter-organizational collaboration in the public sector, though by varying degrees. These factors are mutually complementary, and thus bolstering or mitigating their effects on effective collaboration. They jointly determine the effectiveness of inter-organizational collaboration in public management.

  7. Removal of viable bacteria and endotoxins by Electro Deionization (EDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Norimitsu; Otomo, Teruo; Watabe, Tomoichi; Ase, Tomonobu; Takemura, Takuto; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    Viable bacteria and endotoxins in water sometimes cause problems for human health. Endotoxins are major components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharides). In medical procedures, especially haemodialysis (HD) and related therapies (haemodiafiltration (HDF), haemofiltration (HF)), endotoxins in the water for haemodialysis can permeate through the haemodialysis membrane and cause microinflammation or various haemodialysis-related illnesses. To decrease such a biological risk, RO and UF membranes are generally used. Also, hot water disinfection or the chemical disinfection is regularly executed to kill bacteria which produce endotoxins. However, simple treatment methods and equipment may be able to decrease the biological risk more efficiently. In our experiments, we confirmed that viable bacteria and endotoxins were removed by Electro Deionization (EDI) technology and also clarified the desorption mechanisms.

  8. The effectiveness of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Novljan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes methods of performance measuring in Slovenian public libraries, and calls attention to the problems attached to it. The argued presumption is that the performance measuring carried out on the state level, is not always a sufficient and adequate foundation for plarming of the developmenl and functioning of an individual library which has to cater for the needs and wishes of the population in a certain area.

  9. Publication planning: an effective corporate strategy to influence health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies integrate scientific publications into the communication strategies they employ to influence the practices of health professionals. In their"publication plan", pharmaceutical companies, or the communication agencies they hire, develop key messages to promote their drugs and then plan in advance how, when and where to disseminate them in medical journals or at conferences. Although their true intent is promotional, these messages must appear to be purely scientific, and are therefore disseminated as research articles, review articles, editorials, commentaries. Publication planning involves the use of "ghost" authors who work directly for pharmaceutical companies, but whose contribution is rarely acknowledged in the final published article. Key opinion leaders are recruited as the honorary authors of these articles, to which they have made little, if any, contribution. The criteria for authorship set by journals that publish primary research articles do not provide adequate protection against the practice of ghost and honorary authorship. Certain journals publishing primary research derive a large proportion of their revenue from selling reprints used by pharmaceutical companies to promote their drugs, especially by their sales representatives.

  10. The Effect of Gender in the Publication Patterns in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević-Brandt, Helena; Santamaría, Lucía; Tullney, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of women graduating in mathematics, a systemic gender imbalance persists and is signified by a pronounced gender gap in the distribution of active researchers and professors. Especially at the level of university faculty, women mathematicians continue being drastically underrepresented, decades after the first affirmative action measures have been put into place. A solid publication record is of paramount importance for securing permanent positions. Thus, the question arises whether the publication patterns of men and women mathematicians differ in a significant way. Making use of the zbMATH database, one of the most comprehensive metadata sources on mathematical publications, we analyze the scholarly output of ∼150,000 mathematicians from the past four decades whose gender we algorithmically inferred. We focus on development over time, collaboration through coautorships, presumed journal quality and distribution of research topics-factors known to have a strong impact on job perspectives. We report significant differences between genders which may put women at a disadvantage when pursuing an academic career in mathematics.

  11. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  12. Academic Pediatric Dentistry is a Rewarding, Financially Viable Career Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L

    2017-09-15

    Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.

  13. How Can We Prevent Violence Becoming a Viable Political Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Justino

    2009-01-01

    A basic issue that conflict analysis investigates is how non-peaceful ways of living and governing become viable political strategies. Macro-level studies provide some important insights but micro-level analysis is vital to understand the mechanisms that make violence possible. This briefing outlines some preliminary findings in this respect from MICROCON, a major research programme analysing violent conflict at the micro level. It also discusses their implications for policies aimed at preve...

  14. The operations and effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection services in Kampala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.; Mol, A.P.J.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container

  15. Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R

    2003-11-10

    As clusters are widely accepted as cost-effective infrastructures for many scientific and commercial applications, improving the deliverable performance and reducing the energy consumption of such systems has become a pressing issue. In this paper, we exploit the feasibility of achieving these objectives through efficiently scheduling the communicating processes of parallel applications. In this context, we conduct an in-depth evaluation of a broad spectrum of scheduling alternatives for clusters. These include the widely used batch scheduling, local scheduling, gang scheduling, all prior communication-driven coscheduling algorithms, and a newly proposed HYBRID coscheduling algorithm. In order to provide ease of implementation and portability across many cluster platforms, we propose a generic framework for deploying any coscheduling algorithm. We have implemented four prior coscheduling algorithms (Dynamic Coscheduling (DCS), Spin Block (SB), Periodic Boost (PB), and Co-ordinated Coscheduling (CC)) and the HYBRID coscheduling using this framework on a 16-node, Myrinet connected Linux cluster that uses GM as the communication layer. In addition, we use PBS as the batch scheduler and a previously proposed gang scheduler (SCore) to analyze all classes of scheduling techniques. Performance and energy measurements using several NAS and LLNL benchmarks on the Linux cluster provide several interesting conclusions. First, although batch scheduling is currently used in most clusters, all blocking-based coscheduling techniques such as SB, CC and HYBRID and the gang scheduling can provide much better performance even in a dedicated cluster platform. Under high system load, these coscheduling schemes can provide orders of magnitude reduction in average response time and much better performance-energy behavior compared to the PBS scheme. Second, in contrast to some of the prior studies, we observe that blocking-based schemes like SB and HYBRID can provide better performance

  16. The effect of terrorism on public confidence : an exploratory study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M. S.; Baldwin, T. E.; Samsa, M. E.; Ramaprasad, A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-10-31

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the metrics it uses to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, several factors--including a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, by type of terrorist event, and as a function of time--are critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data were collected from the groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery bombing, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions that resulted in identity theft and financial losses. Our findings include the following: (a) the subjects can be classified into at least three distinct groups on the basis of their baseline outlook--optimistic, pessimistic, and unaffected; (b) the subjects make discriminations in their interpretations of an event on the basis of the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) the recovery of confidence after a terrorist event has an incubation period and typically does not return to its initial level in the long-term; (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence differ between the optimists and the pessimists; and (e) individuals are able to associate a monetary value with a loss or gain in confidence, and the value associated with a loss is greater than the value associated with a gain. These findings illustrate the importance the public places in their confidence in government

  17. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

  18. A rapid biosensor for viable B. anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumner, Antje J; Leonard, Barbara; McElwee, John; Montagna, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    A simple membrane-strip-based biosensor assay has been combined with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction for rapid (4 h) detection of a small number (ten) of viable B. anthracis spores. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from one of the anthrax toxin genes, the protective antigen ( pag), encoded on the toxin plasmid, pXO1, and thus provides high specificity toward B. anthracis. Previously, the anthrax toxins activator ( atxA) mRNA had been used in our laboratory for the development of a biosensor for the detection of a single B. anthracis spore within 12 h. Changing the target sequence to the pag mRNA provided the ability to shorten the overall assay time significantly. The vaccine strain of B. anthracis (Sterne strain) was used in all experiments. A 500-microL sample containing as few as ten spores was mixed with 500 microL growth medium and incubated for 30 min for spore germination and mRNA production. Thus, only spores that are viable were detected. Subsequently, RNA was extracted from lysed cells, selectively amplified using NASBA, and rapidly identified by the biosensor. While the biosensor assay requires only 15 min assay time, the overall process takes 4 h for detection of ten viable B. anthracis spores, and is shortened significantly if more spores are present. The biosensor is based on an oligonucleotide sandwich-hybridization assay format. It uses a membrane flow-through system with an immobilized DNA probe that hybridizes with the target sequence. Signal amplification is provided when the target sequence hybridizes to a second DNA probe that has been coupled to liposomes encapsulating the dye sulforhodamine B. The amount of liposomes captured in the detection zone can be read visually or quantified with a hand-held reflectometer. The biosensor can detect as little as 1 fmol target mRNA (1 nmol L(-1)). Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with 11 organisms tested, among them closely

  19. Effect of homosexuality upon public health and social order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K; Proctor, K

    1989-06-01

    Are homosexuals "not dangers to society" and is homosexuality "compatible with full health"? To answer these questions 4,340 adult respondents drawn via area probability sampling from 5 metropolitan areas of the USA self-administered an extensive sexuality/public order questionnaire of over 500 items. Bisexuals and homosexuals (about 4% of the sample) as compared to heterosexuals: (1) more frequently exposed themselves to biological hazards (e.g., sadomasochism, fisting, bestiality, ingestion of feces); (2) exposed themselves sexually to more different bodies (e.g., more frequently admitted to participating in orgies, reported considerably larger numbers of sexual partners); (3) more frequently reported participating in socially disruptive sex (e.g., deliberate infection of others, cheating in marriage, making obscene phone calls); and (4) more frequently reported engaging in socially disruptive activities (e.g., criminality, shoplifting, tax cheating). From the standpoints of individual health, public health and social order, participating in homosexual activity could be viewed as dangerous to society and incompatible with full health.

  20. An investigation into the effectiveness of public entities’ procurement practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitswadi Mofokeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of services through the procurement of goods and services requires proper strategic leadership and management processes. Inappropriate planning, under-spending of budgets and ineffective procurement form part of the root causes of poor service delivery, as this restricts the movement of resources to the right places. This study identified the leading procurement practices as: procurement strategy and leadership, the procurement process, human resource management, procurement information systems, supplier management and procurement performance management. These practices were then tested in public entities, mainly in Gauteng Province, South Africa, to determine the extent to which they are applied. The study found that there is a major divide between the perception of the level of application of the leading practices and actual implementation. Processes, skills, performance management, information technology (IT systems and supplier management are applied inadequately or inappropriately. Most entities thus show a poor understanding of customer needs and there seems to be a general lack of customer focus. The study highlighted the best practice areas in which public entities are able to focus their efforts to better achieve excellent customer service and thus service delivery.

  1. Effects of Persuasive Appeals in Public Service Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jerry R.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that of four message types perceived on the basis of persuasive appeal--emotional, logical, source-attribute, and fear--emotional appeal is the most effective and source-attribute the least effective method of advertising. (RB)

  2. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG, progesterone (P4 and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20 was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013, as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant. Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071, but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure

  3. The Effect of Public Education on the Long-Run Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Furumatsu, Noriko

    1999-01-01

    We consider public education provided obligatorily and equally for all individuals. It is usually said that compulsory public education ensures an equal opportunity of education for all individuals and contributes to human capital formation. We will discuss how the introduction of public education affects human capital accumulation and income distribution among heterogeneous individuals in an overlapping generation model. Particularly, we discuss those effects on the long-run equilibrium of i...

  4. The effective use of fluorides in public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    , systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on......: recent water fluoridation schemes in California, USA; salt fluoridation in Jamaica; milk fluoridation in Chile; and the development of "affordable" fluoride toothpastes in Indonesia. Common themes are the concern to reduce demands for compliance with fluoride regimes that rely upon action by individuals...... and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher...

  5. Synergy effects between MINUSTAH and public security in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Harig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the complex relationship between UN Peace Operations and public security in Brazil. It shows that there are obvious similarities at an operational level between military actions in MINUSTAH and Rio´s Pacification, which arguably result in reciprocal learning processes among troops. With the establishment of dedicated training centres and a considerable amount of practical experience in missions that differ significantly from combat-orientated warfare, soldiers are becoming increasingly familiar with police tasks. Considering the extension of the legal framework for allowing domestic military actions, I argue that this “police-ization of the military” (Dunlap, 1999, p. 222 is probably more significant for internal “Guaranteeing Law and Order” (GLO missions than for further Brazilian participations in Peace Operations.

  6. Cutting-edge technology for public health workforce training in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Nash, Michelle C; Salemi, Jason L; Mbah, Alfred K; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2013-06-01

    A critical mass of public health practitioners with expertise in analytic techniques and best practices in comparative effectiveness research is needed to fuel informed decisions and improve the quality of health care. The purpose of this case study is to describe the development and formative evaluation of a technology-enhanced comparative effectiveness research learning curriculum and to assess its potential utility to improve core comparative effectiveness research competencies among the public health workforce. Selected public health experts formed a multidisciplinary research collaborative and participated in the development and evaluation of a blended 15-week comprehensive e-comparative effectiveness research training program, which incorporated an array of health informatics technologies. Results indicate that research-based organizations can use a systematic, flexible, and rapid means of instructing their workforce using technology-enhanced authoring tools, learning management systems, survey research software, online communities of practice, and mobile communication for effective and creative comparative effectiveness research training of the public health workforce.

  7. Inkjet printing of viable human dental follicle stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau Robert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing technology has the potential to be used for seeding of viable cells for tissue engineering approaches. For this reason, a piezoelectrically actuated, drop-on-demand inkjet printing system was applied to deliver viable human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSC of sizes of about 15 μm up to 20 μm in diameter. The purpose of these investigations was to verify the stability of the printing process and to evaluate cell viability post printing. Using a Nanoplotter 2.1 (Gesim, Germany equipped with the piezoelectric printhead NanoTip HV (Gesim, Germany, a concentration of 6.6 ×106 cells ml−1 in DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS could be dispensed. The piezoelectric printhead has a nominal droplet volume of ~ 400 pl and was set to a voltage of 75 V and a pulse of 50 μs while dosing 50 000 droplets over a time of 100 seconds. The volume and trajectory of the droplet were checked by a stroboscope test right before and after the printing process. It was found that the droplet volume decreases significantly by 35% during printing process, while the trajectory of the droplets remains stable with only an insignificant number of degrees deviation from the vertical line. It is highly probable that some cell sedimentations or agglomerations affect the printing performance. The cell viability post printing was assessed by using the Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The printing process was found to have no significant influence on cell survival. In conclusion, drop-on-demand inkjet printing can be a potent tool for the seeding of viable cells.

  8. The Effect of Public Support on College Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates the extent that state financial support for higher education raises college attainment. Despite its manifest importance for policy, this is the first study to estimate this effect directly. Many studies have estimated the effect of college price on attendance, but state support for higher education and college price do not…

  9. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on earnings and commuting behaviour is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail...... and Metro system due to the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to the city centre of Copenhagen. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen metropolitan area....

  10. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of accessibility to urban jobs via a public transport system on individual earnings and commuting behaviour. The effect of improved public transport based accessibility on these outcomes is determined by exploiting the exogenous variation in access to a public rail...... and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...... with a change in commuting patterns as the improved access to public transport facilitates a shift from employment within the township to better paid jobs in the city centre, as well as in other suburbs of the Copenhagen Metropolitan area...

  11. Investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for vulnerabilities to corruption in the chinese public construction sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries.

  12. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  13. An immunomagnetic separation-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IMS-RT-PCR) test for sensitive and rapid detection of viable waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallier-Soulier, Sylvie; Guillot, Emmanuelle

    2003-07-01

    The public health problem posed by the waterborne parasite Cryptosporidium parvum incited the water supply industry to develop very accurate analytical tools able to assess the presence of viable oocysts in drinking water. In this study, we report the development of a viability assay for C. parvum oocysts based on immunomagnetic separation and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IMS-RT-PCR). The detection limit of the IMS-RT-PCR assay, which targets the hsp70 heat shock-induced mRNA, was in the range of ten viable oocysts per 100-l tap water samples. Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to heating, freezing and three chemical disinfection treatments namely, chlorination, chlorine dioxide treatment and ozonation under conventional doses used in water treatment plants, then detected by IMS-PCR and IMS-RT-PCR. The results obtained by IMS-PCR showed that none of the treatments had an effect on oocyst detection. The inactivation of oocysts by boiling resulted in no RT-PCR signal. Chlorine as well as chlorine dioxide did not influence oocyst viability as determined by IMS-RT-PCR. Ozone more effectively inactivated oocysts. The IMS-RT-PCR assay in conjunction with IMS-PCR marks the development of a combined detection and viability test which can be used for drinking water quality control as well as for reliable evaluation of treatment efficiency.

  14. Towards Improved Teaching Effectiveness in Nigerian Public Universities: Instrument Design and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibong, Ijeoma Aniedi; Nja, Mbe Egom

    2011-01-01

    This research is conducted to examine what is currently evaluated with respect to teaching in Nigerian public universities and to produce instruments that would be useful for examining the course and teaching effectiveness of course lecturers. Telephone interview of ten (10) professors in ten public Nigerian Universities is used to elicit…

  15. Risk-based estimate of effect of foodborne diseases on public health, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Reij, M.W.; Havelaar, A.H.; Zwietering, M.H.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The public health effects of illness caused by foodborne pathogens in Greece during 1996–2006 was quantified by using publicly available surveillance data, hospital statistics, and literature. Results were expressed as the incidence of different disease outcomes and as disability-adjusted life years

  16. The effect of contract renewal and competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies and ridership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouwen, A.; van Ommeren, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to estimate the effect of contract renewal as well as competitive tendering on public transport costs, subsidies, and ridership. More specifically, we examine to what extent (multiple) contract renewals and introduction of competitive tendering for long-term public transport

  17. Knowledge Sharing in Public Sector Organizations: The Effect of Organizational Characteristics on Interdepartmental Knowledge Sharing.

    OpenAIRE

    A. WILLEM; M. BUELENS

    2005-01-01

    Public sector organizations are mainly knowledge-intensive organizations and to exploit their knowledge, effective knowledge sharing among the different departments is required. We focus on specific characteristics of public sector organizations that increase or limit interdepartmental knowledge sharing. Three types of organization-specific coordination mechanisms directly influence knowledge sharing between units. Organizations are also characterized by members’ social identification and tru...

  18. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f( R) gravity with producing Λ CDM background expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Liu, Molin; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang

    2016-12-01

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H0 (or σ 8) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in Λ CDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f( R) gravity producing Λ CDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f( R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σ m_ν case, m_{ν , sterile}^effcase. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f_{R0}× 10^{-6}> -1.89 and f_{R0}× 10^{-6}> -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H_0 gets slightly weaker in the viable f( R) model than that in the base Λ CDM model.

  19. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  20. Changing public attitudes towards corporal punishment: the effects of statutory reform in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J V

    2000-08-01

    One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation which changed public opinion. The aim of this brief article is to review the public opinion findings in Sweden in order to evaluate in greater detail the impact of changing the law. A search was conducted to generate all published and publicly-available quantitative surveys of the public in Sweden and elsewhere. The results of time-series analysis of the data are clear. The 1979 legal reform in Sweden did not reduce the level of public support for parental use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children. Support for physical punishment began declining years before the reform was passed and the decline was in no way accelerated by the law reform. Changes in public opinion may have generated the legal reform, but the reverse is not true. Data from other jurisdictions also support the view that there is no relationship between the status of the law and the nature of public views with regard to corporal punishment. This result is consistent with analyses of the effects of legal reforms in other areas. The Swedish ban on corporal punishment did not affect public attitudes. Changing public views requires other initiatives.

  1. Vocational Study and Public Service Motivation: Disentangling the Socializing Effects of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    vocational studies and at different stages (years) of their educational programs, this article investigates the socializing effects of higher education into different levels of public service motivation. The analysis demonstrates that students’ levels of public service motivation at different stages...... of their educational programs depends on the field of study: The level of public service motivation among students in vocational studies aimed at jobs with core public service delivery stays the same during education, whereas the level of public service motivation among students in other fields increases substantively...... with the length of their studies. This reveals that the association between education and public service motivation is perhaps not as uniform as previous studies have assumed....

  2. The Effect of Publicized Quality Information on Home Health Agency Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeah Kyoungrae; Wu, Bingxiao; Kim, Hyunjee; Polsky, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examine consumers’ use of publicized quality information in Medicare home health care markets, where consumer cost sharing and travel costs are absent. We report two findings. First, agencies with high quality scores are more likely to be preferred by consumers after the introduction of a public reporting program than before. Second, consumers’ use of publicized quality information differs by patient group. Community-based patients have slightly larger responses to public reporting than hospital-discharged patients. Patients with functional limitations at the start of their care, at least among hospital-discharged patients, have a larger response to the reported functional outcome measure than those without functional limitations. In all cases of significant marginal effects, magnitudes are small. We conclude that the current public reporting approach is unlikely to have critical impacts on home health agency choice. Identifying and releasing quality information that is meaningful to consumers may help increase consumers’ use of public reports. PMID:26719047

  3. Ironic Effects of the Destructive Tsunami on Public Risk Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Nakayachi, K.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused more than 20,000 casualties, with most of the dead and missing in an enormous tsunami. Survivors had simply evacuated to higher ground within approximately 30 minutes of its arrival. This reflects the importance of public perception of tsunami risks represented by its heights. Our question is how the devastating tsunami affected people in the western Japan where a great earthquake is anticipated in near future. Existing risk analysis researches show that the experience of natural disasters increases risk perception, even with indirect experiences such as seeing photographs of disaster scenes or thinking about a major natural calamity. No doubt, we can assume that the devastating tsunami would have led people to have a greater sense of associated risks. Our result, however, shows that the destructive tsunami of Tohoku earthquake lowered the risk assessment of tsunami heights. One possible explanation to this paradoxical result is the anchoring heuristic. It defines that laypersons are highly inclined to judge based on the numbers first presented to them. Media's repeating report of record-breaking tsunamis of 30 m or more anchored people to elevate the height to evacuate. The results of our survey pose a significant problem for disaster prevention. The survey area is at high risk of giant earthquake, and according to our results, more than 50% of the people surveyed no longer sensed the danger of a 1-m-high tsunami, whereas about 70% had perceived its peril before the Tohoku earthquake. This is also of great importance in Indonesia or Chile where huge earthquakes had occurred recently. We scientists need to face up to the fact that improvement of quick calculation of tsunami heights is not sufficient at all to mitigate the tsunami disasters, but reorient how we should inform laypersons to evacuate at the emergency situation.

  4. Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of physical activity are well documented, and the important role that schools and physical education (PE) can play in reducing sedentary behavior and contributing to population health has been identified. Although effective teaching is ultimately judged by student achievement, a major component of teacher and school…

  5. Estimating the Fiscal Effects of Public Pharmaceutical Expenditure Reduction in Greece

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Frangos, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    ... branch to the country's economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources, such as taxes...

  6. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    ... with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects...

  7. The calming effect of a new wearable device during the anticipation of public speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruben T Azevedo; Nell Bennett; Andreas Bilicki; Jack Hooper; Fotini Markopoulou; Manos Tsakiris

    2017-01-01

    .... We tested whether the use of doppel would have a calming effect on physiological arousal and subjective reports of state anxiety during the anticipation of public speech, a validated experimental...

  8. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M.; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  9. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines : comparison with effective public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-01-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of

  10. A concise guide to effective management of the public works equipment fleet

    OpenAIRE

    De Armas, Vicente.

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form the principles and fundamentals of managing the public works equipment fleet, providing a basis from which to develop an effective fleet management program. The report begins with a review of today's trends in fleet management, including, organization, privatization, effects of environmental regulations and a discussion on info...

  11. Communicating climate change: Improving the effectiveness of public campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Hidalgo Villodres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on climate change highlights the need to develop more effective campaigns to increase citizens’ awareness of this issue, increase their willingness to accept the measures necessary to halt this phenomenon and change their behaviour. This paper describes a study which analyzed the effectiveness of an advertising message that combined informative and motivational variables on pro-environmental attitudes and intended behaviour. The study sample consisted of 180 university students, divided into two equivalent groups. The results supported the initial hypothesis,the participants in the group that received specific behaviour guidelines (to increase perceived control together with information on economic savings (motivational variable displayed more changes in self-efficacy, pro-environmental attitudes and intention of behaviour than the group that did not receive this information.

  12. High-Throughput Sequencing of Viable Microbial Communities in Raw Pork Subjected to a Fast Cooling Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Che, You; Qi, Yan; Liang, Peixin; Song, Cunjiang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the fast cooling process on the microbiological community in chilled fresh pork during storage. We established a culture-independent method to study viable microbes in raw pork. Tray-packaged fresh pork and chilled fresh pork were completely spoiled after 18 and 49 d in aseptic bags at 4 °C, respectively. 16S/18S ribosomal RNAs were reverse transcribed to cDNA to characterize the activity of viable bacteria/fungi in the 2 types of pork. Both cDNA and total DNA were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing, which revealed that viable Bacteroides sp. were the most active genus in rotten pork, although viable Myroides sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were also active. Moreover, viable fungi were only detected in chilled fresh pork. The sequencing results revealed that the fast cooling process could suppress the growth of microbes present initially in the raw meat to extend its shelf life. Our results also suggested that fungi associated with pork spoilage could not grow well in aseptic tray-packaged conditions. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Strengthening Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Public Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B; Sinha, Anushua

    2016-05-01

    Although the U.S. spends more on medical care than any country in the world, Americans live shorter lives than the citizens of other high-income countries. Many important opportunities to improve this record lie outside the health sector and involve improving the conditions in which Americans live and work: safe design and maintenance of roads, bridges, train tracks, and airports; control of environmental pollutants; occupational safety; healthy buildings; a safe and healthy food supply; safe manufacture of consumer products; a healthy social environment; and others. Faced with the overwhelming array of possibilities, U.S. decision makers need help identifying those that can contribute the most to health. Cost-effectiveness analysis is designed to serve that purpose, but has mainly been used to assess interventions within the health sector. This paper briefly reviews the objective of cost-effectiveness analysis and its methodologic evolution and discusses the issues that arise when it is used to evaluate interventions that fall outside the health sector under three headings: structuring the analysis, quantifying/measuring benefits and costs, and valuing benefits and costs. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Mediating Effect of Social Capital on the Relationship Between Public Health Managers' Transformational Leadership and Public Health Nurses' Organizational Empowerment in Korea Public Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soo Young Jun

    2017-01-01

    ...) transformational leadership and PHN's organizational empowerment in Korea public health.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 303 PHNs from public health centers in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do cities in South Korea...

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Co-Production Initiatives in Public Service Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine; Mortensen, Nanna Møller

    2017-01-01

    A change from New Public Management to New Public Governance (NPG) does not occur overnight. This forces public service organizations to develop new hybrid organizational forms as strategic response to the current situation. In NPG the basic assumption is that coproduction will result in increased...... efficiency and effectiveness for public service organizations as a new organizational recipe. However, a recent review determines that only few empirical studies document these claimed effects. To enable the creation of more empirical evidence that establish the effects of co-production, the purpose of our...... if and how the new organizational recipe ‘co-production’ is delivering what we are told – and what we hope for....

  16. Migration selectivity and the effects of public programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, M R; Wolpin, K I

    1988-12-01

    "A model of the spatial distribution of mobile heterogeneous agents is formulated to assess how a price change or program subsidy that is location-specific affects the composition of local residents via selective migration and thus biases evaluations of the effectiveness of the program based on its local consequences. Longitudinal data from Colombia are used to test the implications of migration selectivity. The findings confirm the existence of selective migration, suggesting that local subsidies to human capital attract high-income but, within income groups, low-fertility households and those with low human capital endowments. These migration patterns are shown to be consistent with the dominance of endowment over tastes heterogeneity in the population under plausible behavioral assumptions." excerpt

  17. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G. [Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  18. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  19. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  20. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with dopaminergic agonist (cabergoline. A second ultrasound scan revealed the presence of two gestational vesicles in the right uterine horn that were successfully carried to term. Unusually, while pyometra persisted in the left uterine horn, two viable puppies were delivered by caesarean section from the right uterine horn.

  1. The pill not taken: revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L; Lounsbery, Monica A F

    2014-09-01

    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to promote and provide physical activity. They have strongly recommended PE because: (a) It is part of the formalized school curriculum and an essential access point to provide and promote physical activity for nearly all children, and (b) it is the only venue where the least active children experience physical activity at higher intensities. Within the current marginalized status of PE, public health is an ally. Hence, we took a broad public health position, indicated that teacher effectiveness is tied closely to PE program effectiveness, identified physical activity and its assessment as important parts of PE, offered a vision of teacher effectiveness that goes beyond the PE lesson to include components of the comprehensive school physical activity model, and emphasized the need for the collection of data to support PE and physical activity programs. We have read the written reviews and listened to dialogue about our article. In this follow-up article, we address the major comments using 4 themes: prioritizing public health over other PE emphases, PE having a muddled mission, concerns about physical activity, and extending the roles and skills of physical educators.

  2. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  3. Environmental assessment and viable interdependence: the Great Whale River case in northern Quebec (First Nations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulvihill, P. R.

    1997-12-31

    This study is based on the belief that environmental assessment (EA) can be supportive of viable interdependence between regions and cultures. The central focus is on the scoping stage of the EA conducted for the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric project in northern Quebec. The evaluative framework consists of 16 criteria divided into three interrelated categories, i.e. substantive, general process-oriented and specific process-oriented. The specific process-oriented criteria constitute the primary analytical focus and are the subject of five separate sub-analysis, which reveal various strengths and weaknesses in the performance of the case study. It was concluded that environmental assessment in an intercultural setting is largely within the control of EA panels and the key shortcoming of the process, namely the lack of dialogue between the proponents and the intervenors, could be addressed by making public hearings more dynamic and interactive.

  4. Facilitating effective health promotion practice in a public health unit: lessons from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentson-Shaw, Jessica; Price, Kerry

    2007-02-01

    Health promotion is a core function of public health services and improving the effectiveness of health promotion services is an essential part of public health service development. This report describes the rationale, the process and the outcomes of a realignment designed to improve the effectiveness of health promotion activities in a public health unit (PHU) in New Zealand. A practice environment analysis revealed several factors that were hindering the effectiveness of the health promotion unit's (HPU) activities. Two primary change mechanisms were implemented. The first was an outcomes-focused model of planning and service delivery (to support evidenced-based practice), the second was the reorganisation of the HPU from a topics-based structure to an integrated one based on a multi-risk factor paradigm of population health. During the realignment barriers were encountered on multiple levels. At the individual level, unfavourable attitudes to changes occurred because of a lack of information and knowledge about the benefits of evidence and research. At higher levels, barriers included resourcing concerns, a lack of organisational commitment and understanding, and tensions between the political need for expedient change and research and development need for timely consideration of the impact of different models of practice. This realignment took place within the context of a changing public health environment, which is significantly altering the delivery of public health and health promotion. Realignments designed to facilitate more effective health promotion and public health practice will continue, but need to do so in the light of others' experience and debate.

  5. Information Warfare: using the viable system model as a framework to attack organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Hutchinson

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is the glue in any organization. It is needed for policy, decision-making, control, and co-ordination. If an organisation's information systems are disrupted or destroyed, then damage to the whole inevitably follows. This paper uses a proven systemic, analytic framework the Viable System Model (VSM - in a functionalist mode, to analyse the vulnerabilities of an organisation's information resources to this form of aggression. It examines the tactics available, and where they can be used to effectively attack an organisation.

  6. Measuring the effects of reducing subsidies for private insurance on public expenditure for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Terence Chai

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of reducing subsidies for private health insurance on public sector expenditure for hospital care. An econometric framework using simultaneous equation models is developed to analyse the interrelated decisions on the intensity and type of health care use and private insurance. The framework is applied to the context of the mixed public-private system in Australia. The simulation projections show that reducing premium subsidies is expected to generate net cost savings. This arises because the cost savings achieved from reducing subsidies are larger than the potential increase in public expenditure on hospital care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. More Than One Way to Catch a Fish: Effective Translation of Ocean Science for the Public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meeson, B. W; McDonnell, J; Kohut, J; Litchenwahler, S; Helling, H

    2006-01-01

    .... Surprisingly little is known about effective translation of complex scientific and technical information into information that is easy to understand, easy to use, and of interest to the public and educators. Information translation is one way to make science and technical information more accessible to the public and thereby, improve scientific literacy of many Americans. We present three information translation models that promote scientific and technical literacy.

  8. Microfiltration of enzyme treated egg whites for accelerated detection of viable Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Seockmo; Ximenes, Eduardo; Kreke, Thomas; Foster, Kirk; Deering, Amanda J; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    We report detection of egg white within 7 h by concentrating the bacteria using microfiltration through 0.2-μm cutoff polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes. A combination of enzyme treatment, controlled cross-flow on both sides of the hollow fibers, and media selection were key to controlling membrane fouling so that rapid concentration and the subsequent detection of low numbers of microbial cells were achieved. We leveraged the protective effect of egg white proteins and peptone so that the proteolytic enzymes did not attack the living cells while hydrolyzing the egg white proteins responsible for fouling. The molecular weight of egg white proteins was reduced from about 70 kDa to 15 kDa during hydrolysis. This enabled a 50-fold concentration of the cells when a volume of 525 mL of peptone and egg white, containing 13 CFU of Salmonella, was decreased to a 10 mL volume in 50 min. A 10-min microcentrifugation step further concentrated the viable Salmonella cells by 10×. The final cell recovery exceeded 100%, indicating that microbial growth occurred during the 3-h processing time. The experiments leading to rapid concentration, recovery, and detection provided further insights on the nature of membrane fouling enabling fouling effects to be mitigated. Unlike most membrane processes where protein recovery is the goal, recovery of viable microorganisms for pathogen detection is the key measure of success, with modification of cell-free proteins being both acceptable and required to achieve rapid microfiltration of viable microorganisms. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1464-1471, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Promoting public transport as a subscription service: Effects of a free month travel card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers, book clubs, telephone services and many other subscription services are often marketed to new customers by means of a free or substantially discounted trial period. This article evaluates this method as a means to promote commuting by public transport in a field experiment and based...... that had an effect was the free month travel card, which led to a significant increase in commuting by public transport.As expected, the effect was mediated through a change in behavioural intentions rather than a change in perceived constraints. As expected, the effect became weaker when the promotion...

  10. Detrimental Effects of Performance-Related Pay in the Public Sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Performance-related pay has been a key ingredient in New Public Management reforms. Nevertheless, the research presented here indicates some adverse effects of such incentives. These incentives may impair an initial motivation to work and change the norms that guide behavior. An issue which...... in particular has been given insufficient attention is fairness. Findings drawn from experimental economics supported by field studies demonstrate that perceived unfairness may have important negative effects on performance. The implication of a broader perspective in the analysis of performance-related pay...... in the public sector is that such a pay system, contrary to its aim, may have detrimental effects on performance....

  11. Removal of viable bioaerosol particles with a low-efficiency HVAC filter enhanced by continuous emission of unipolar air ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Agranovski, I; Pyankov, O; Grinshpun, S

    2008-04-01

    Continuous emission of unipolar ions has been shown to improve the performance of respirators and stationary filters challenged with non-biological particles. In this study, we investigated the ion-induced enhancement effect while challenging a low-efficiency heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) filter with viable bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and viruses. The aerosol concentration was measured in real time. Samples were also collected with a bioaerosol sampler for viable microbial analysis. The removal efficiency of the filter was determined, respectively, with and without an ion emitter. The ionization was found to significantly enhance the filter efficiency in removing viable biological particles from the airflow. For example, when challenged with viable bacteria, the filter efficiency increased as much as four- to fivefold. For viable fungal spores, the ion-induced enhancement improved the efficiency by a factor of approximately 2. When testing with virus-carrying liquid droplets, the original removal efficiency provided by the filter was rather low: 9.09 +/- 4.84%. While the ion emission increased collection about fourfold, the efficiency did not reach 75-100% observed with bacteria and fungi. These findings, together with our previously published results for non-biological particles, demonstrate the feasibility of a new approach for reducing aerosol particles in HVAC systems used for indoor air quality control. Recirculated air in HVAC systems used for indoor air quality control in buildings often contains considerable number of viable bioaerosol particles because of limited efficiency of the filters installed in these systems. In the present study, we investigated - using aerosolized bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and virus-carrying particles - a novel idea of enhancing the performance of a low-efficiency HVAC filter utilizing continuous emission of unipolar ions in the filter vicinity. The findings described in

  12. Initiation of effective postpartum contraceptive use in public hospitals in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, Edgar; Orozco, Maria Del Rosario; Palma, Silvia; Flores, Roberto

    2011-02-01

    Low frequency of effective contraceptive use remains a challenging problem. This article examines the frequency of effective postpartum contraception and the methods used before discharge in public hospitals in Guatemala. It also discusses the need to implement best practices in providing family-planning and contraceptive services. In March 2006, a surveillance system was implemented to collect data on the initiation of effective contraceptive methods. Postpartum women were monitored in 34 public hospitals. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed, and a chi-square test for linear trends was used to compare female surgical sterilization rates after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. Between 1 March 2006 and 31 December 2008, of the 218 656 women who had a postpartum event, 31% received an effective contraceptive method before hospital discharge. The frequency of initiation of effective postpartum methods varied across hospitals. Hospital results were consistent with national data on women of reproductive age. Among women who underwent surgical sterilization, differences between those who had delivered vaginally and those who had a cesarean section were statistically significant. The overall frequency of initiation of effective postpartum contraceptive use is low in public hospitals in Guatemala. It is higher, however, in hospitals at lower health care levels with strong community ties. Routine data collection revealed specific areas for improvement, particularly the need to enhance health providers' knowledge of medical eligibility criteria for effective contraceptive use postpartum. The priority is to promote the provision of high-quality family-planning and contraceptive services in Guatemala's public health system.

  13. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  14. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  15. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  16. Is Greenberg’s “Macro-Carib” viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg’s primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib ‘etymologies’ and another 64 Amerind ‘etymologies’. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg’s Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg’s morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg’s 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable.

  17. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  18. SMA actuators: a viable practical technology (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Hodgson, Darel E.

    2015-04-01

    Diverse products either based solely on or incorporating Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have and are being made in a wide range of industries, and IP is being captured. Why then compared to SE (superelastic) Nitinol, and especially conventional technology, do so few ideas reach production? This presentation delves deeply into this topic in reaching the final assessment that SMA actuators are indeed now a viable practical technology. The presentation begins with an introduction to and description of the fundamental basis of SMA actuator technology. Examples of multiple commercially available geometric forms of SMA actuators are given and the functionalities that they provide are described. This is followed by examples of multiple commercial products incorporating such SMA actuators. Given that there are literally millions of commercial products incorporating conventional actuator technologies, indications are given as to why there are their less than 1000 that utilize SMA. Experience based challenges to the commercial use of SMA actuators are described. Besides having to compete with existing non-SMA technology which is quite mature additional challenges that are unique to SM actuators are indicated these including a wider than expected set of technical engineering problems and challenges and that a broader scope of dynamics is required.

  19. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4 Graders: Evidence from TIMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

  20. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  1. A direct viable count method for the enumeration of attached bacteria and assessment of biofilm disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. P.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the adaptation of an in situ direct viable count (in situ DVC) method in biofilm disinfection studies. The results obtained with this technique were compared to two other enumeration methods, the plate count (PC) and conventional direct viable count (c-DVC). An environmental isolate (Klebsiella pneumoniae Kp1) was used to form biofilms on stainless steel coupons in a stirred batch reactor. The in situ DVC method was applied to directly assess the viability of bacteria in biofilms without disturbing the integrity of the interfacial community. As additional advantages, the results were observed after 4 h instead of the 24 h incubation time required for colony formation and total cell numbers that remained on the substratum were enumerated. Chlorine and monochloramine were used to determine the susceptibilities of attached and planktonic bacteria to disinfection treatment using this novel analytical approach. The planktonic cells in the reactor showed no significant change in susceptibility to disinfectants during the period of biofilm formation. In addition, the attached cells did not reveal any more resistance to disinfection than planktonic cells. The disinfection studies of young biofilms indicated that 0.25 mg/l free chlorine (at pH 7.2) and 1 mg/l monochloramine (at pH 9.0) have comparable disinfection efficiencies at 25 degrees C. Although being a weaker disinfectant, monochloramine was more effective in removing attached bacteria from the substratum than free chlorine. The in situ DVC method always showed at least one log higher viable cell densities than the PC method, suggesting that the in situ DVC method is more efficient in the enumeration of biofilm bacteria. The results also indicated that the in situ DVC method can provide more accurate information regarding the cell numbers and viability of bacteria within biofilms following disinfection.

  2. Overview of the Main Theories on the Economic Effects of Public Indebtedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bilan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly reviews the main theories formulated over time on the economic effects of public indebtedness, with the aim to highlight their common and divergent points, the arguments they rely upon, as well as their relevance, given the current economic environment. Three major views are considered, namely the classical one, the Keynesian one and the view of neoliberal economists (monetarist economists and representatives of the school of rational expectations. The comparative approach of the different views allowed us to shape some criteria of decision which may prove useful for public policymakers in formulating public debt policies conducive to economic growth: public indebtedness should not become common practice but be reserved for those situations in which the economy is confronted with unusual phenomena, such as economic downturns; borrowed resources should be used especially on those destinations which create added value in the economy, such as public investment; public debt should not accumulate at a fast pace and should be kept within reasonable limits, to avoid possible side effects on economic growth.

  3. EFFECT OF TURKISH PUBLIC DIPLOMACY ACTIVITIES ON RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND GEORGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Celik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the impact power of Turkish public diplomacy performed towards Georgia to empower the relation between both countries. Within the scope of this article, after public diplomacy term was discussed in many aspects, some of the important activities of the actors of Turkish public diplomacy have also been mentioned. When these activities are examined, it has been observed that non-governmental organizations failed to show the desired level of asset compared to government agencies in Georgia. Besides, when Turkish public diplomacy activities are examined as a whole, it has been remarked that these activities play an effective role to gain the sympathy of the Georgian. However, it has been concluded that the impacts of these activities on Turkey- Georgia relations are limited especially due to the Russian influence on relations with each of these two countries.

  4. Shifting the Culture Around Public Health Advocacy: Training Future Public Health Professionals to Be Effective Agents of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenner, Sarah R; Lang, Cathy M; Prelip, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    There is a critical need to build the capacity of our current and future public health workforce and the communities we serve to engage in public health advocacy. Advocacy should be an integral piece of our intervention strategies and public health discourse. Incorporating public health advocacy into public health training, practice, and research serves as a long-term investment for the public's health. Advocacy can achieve systemic change by addressing the social determinants of health. We developed an advocacy training program that embeds students in community-based organizations (CBOs) for 9 months, providing students with experiential education through the application of advocacy skills and CBOs with opportunities to expand and broaden their advocacy efforts. We have three priority populations: graduate students, CBOs serving Los Angeles County, and the broader Los Angeles County community, focusing on vulnerable populations. Our multifaceted approach addresses the necessity of public health advocacy among the health professions. Through changing how we train students and how communities and universities collaborate, we can strengthen the public health workforce and build healthier communities.

  5. Public Spending and Private Investment: Test of Crowding-out Effects through Re-sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan, Hassan B.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to test and evaluate the crowding-out effect of the investment expenditure in public sector on the investment effort by private sector by using data from Moroccan Economy. After the theoretical background of crowding-out effects in many domains of investment, we introduce the interests variables which express the budget policy of a government and monetary policy of the central bank, and shows the global effective demand addressed to economy. This requires the i...

  6. Private vs Public Voucher Schools in Chile: New Evidence on Efficiency and Peer Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Sapelli; Bernardita Vial

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the treatment effect associated with attending a private instead of a public voucher school in the Chilean voucher system. We find a large and significant positive treatment effect. We analyze the influence of peer effects on our result by estimating new treatment parameters that control for peer group characteristics. When we do so, we still find a positive treatment parameter that is large in magnitude and statistically significant. Hence we conclude that the positive treatment ...

  7. The Potential Return on Public Investment in Detecting Adverse Drug Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, Krista F; Desai, Rishi J; Park, Moa; Gagne, Joshua J; Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-06-01

    Many countries lack fully functional pharmacovigilance programs, and public budgets allocated to pharmacovigilance in industrialized countries remain low due to resource constraints and competing priorities. Using 3 case examples, we sought to estimate the public health and economic benefits resulting from public investment in active pharmacovigilance programs to detect adverse drug effects. We assessed 3 examples in which early signals of safety hazards were not adequately recognized, resulting in continued exposure of a large number of patients to these drugs when safer and effective alternative treatments were available. The drug examples studied were rofecoxib, cerivastatin, and troglitazone. Using an individual patient simulation model and the health care system perspective, we estimated the potential costs that could have been averted by early systematic detection of safety hazards through the implementation of active surveillance programs. We found that earlier drug withdrawal made possible by active safety surveillance would most likely have resulted in savings in direct medical costs of $773-$884 million for rofecoxib, $3-$10 million for cerivastatin, and $38-$63 million for troglitazone in the United States through the prevention of adverse events. By contrast, the yearly public investment in Food and Drug Administration initiated population-based pharmacovigilance activities in the United States is about $42.5 million at present. These examples illustrate a critical and economically justifiable role for active adverse effect surveillance in protecting the health of the public.

  8. [A comparative study on Koii (public doctor) system and its effect on public health in colonial Taiwan and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Myungki

    2014-08-01

    manpower shortage, thus shifting their duties like vaccination onto police officers who was inevitably inferior to doctors in medical terms, whereas vaccination was led by Koiis in Taiwan, with the help of police officers and traditional doctors. The difference between Korea and Taiwan in terms of Koii system and its effect implies that public health network in colonial Taiwan was better organized and more stable than that in colonial Korea, and therefore we should be careful about applying the concept of disciplinary power or modernization theory to colonial medical history of Korea.

  9. Are Charter Schools Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Lawrence F.; Holifield, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Within the context of continual dissatisfaction with American public schools, charter school proponents view charter schools as a viable reform mechanism. Here, Garrison and Holifield compare the perceptions of charter school principals regarding the extent to which the effective school correlates have been implemented in their respective schools…

  10. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Suescún

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La acupuntura es una antigua técnica terapéutica desarrollada en China, que ha evidenciado ser efectiva en síntomas como las náuseas, vómito y dolor dentario. A pesar del sustento fisiológico que posibilitaría un uso efectivo en otras patologías, incluyendo el campo de las adicciones, los estudios son contradictorios, posiblemente por la diferencias de visión entre la medicina oriental y la occidental. El consumo de psicoactivos es un problema de salud pública en Colombia y en el mundo que genera grandes costos tangibles e intangibles, los cuales, en países desarrollados, puede llegar hasta el 1,6 % del PIB. En contraste, el beneficio económico del tratamiento de las adicciones, según las Naciones Unidas Contra la Droga y el Delito (UNODC, está entre 1:3 a 1:13; por lo tanto, cualquier esfuerzo que se realice en favor de los consumidores es una ganancia. Con base en estos datos, los organismos internacionales han generado políticas que ayudan a aminorar estos efectos. Colombia, como integrante de estos organismos, ha realizado varios compromisos para llevar a cabo dichas metas. Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  11. Publication bias & small-study effects in pediatric dentistry meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Dimitraki, Dionysia; Coolidge, Trilby; Kotsanos, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the presence and extent of publication bias and small-study effects in meta-analyses (MAs) investigating pediatric dentistry-related subjects. Following a literature search, 46 MAs including 882 studies were analyzed qualitatively. Of these, 39 provided enough data to be re-analyzed. Publication bias was assessed with the following methods: contour-enhanced funnel plots, Begg and Mazumdar's rank correlation and Egger's linear regression tests, Rosenthal's failsafe N, and Duval and Tweedie's "trim and fill" procedure. Only a few MAs adequately assessed the existence and effect of publication bias. Inspection of the funnel plots indicated asymmetry, which was confirmed by Begg-Mazumdar's test in 18% and by Egger's test in 33% of the MAs. According to Rosenthal's criterion, 80% of the MAs were robust, while adjusted effects with unpublished studies differed from little to great from the unadjusted ones. Pooling of the Egger's intercepts indicated that evidence of asymmetry was found in the pediatric dental literature, which was accentuated in dental journals and in diagnostic MAs. Since indications of small-study effects and publication bias in pediatric dentistry were found, the influence of small or missing trials on estimated treatment effects should be routinely assessed in future MAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of public health messaging and communication channels during smoke events: A rapid systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jennifer A; Peters, Micah D J; Ramsey, Imogen; Sharplin, Greg; Corsini, Nadia; Eckert, Marion

    2017-05-15

    Exposure to smoke emitted from wildfire and planned burns (i.e., smoke events) has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes, including respiratory symptoms and conditions. This rapid review investigates recent evidence (post-2009) regarding the effectiveness of public health messaging during smoke events. The objectives were to determine the effectiveness of various communication channels used and public health messages disseminated during smoke events, for general and at-risk populations. A search of 12 databases and grey literature yielded 1775 unique articles, of which 10 were included in this review. Principal results were: 1) Smoke-related public health messages are communicated via a variety of channels, but limited evidence is available regarding their effectiveness for the general public or at-risk groups. 2) Messages that use simple language are more commonly recalled, understood, and complied with. Compliance differs according to socio-demographic characteristics. 3) At-risk groups may be advised to stay indoors before the general population, in order to protect the most vulnerable people in a community. The research included in this review was observational and predominantly descriptive, and is therefore unable to sufficiently answer questions regarding effectiveness. Experimental research, as well as evaluations, are required to examine the effectiveness of modern communication channels, channels to reach at-risk groups, and the 'stay indoors' message. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma E; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-10-01

    Public attitudes about drug addiction and mental illness were compared. A Web-based national survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support in regard to drug addiction and mental illness. Respondents held significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices against persons with drug addiction, more skeptical about the effectiveness of treatments, and more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping them. Drug addiction is often treated as a subcategory of mental illness, and insurance plans group them together under the rubric of "behavioral health." Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches to reducing stigma and advancing public policy.

  14. Between the effectivity and affectivity: new teachers in times of new public management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andres Soto Lagos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Educational Public Policy in the current neoliberal context hold their proposals under the New Public Management (NPM. These devices promote a professionalization of the teaching role, positioning them as responsible for changes in education in the country. This research focuses on the discourse analysis of twelve official documents of the Ministry of Education of Chile, which under the logic of NPM promote emotions and effectiveness to interpellate teachers and invite them to work in adverse conditions. The results shows two interpellations to teachers in the country, one that relates to the effectiveness, based on competition, and other centered in affections, both challenging teachers individually and emotional. It is discussed relative to the direction of public policy devices that are supported from the NPM.

  15. A call to action: training public health students to be effective agents for social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Hilary; Heymann, S Jody

    2015-03-01

    In the 21st century, we face enormous public health challenges that differ fundamentally from those of the last century, because these challenges involve widespread societal change and complexity. To address these challenges, public health professionals need to be able to place their work in a larger social context, understand local and global perspectives on a deeper level, and effectively engage a wide variety of stakeholders. To confer these skills, we need to change the way we train our students. We present two examples of low-cost innovative approaches to teaching public health that promote active engagement with individuals across a wide range of backgrounds and fields and that train students to be effective agents for change.

  16. Placebo effect was influenced by publication year in three-armed acupuncture trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We, Seo Ryang; Koog, Yun Hyung; Park, Min Sun; Min, Byung-Il

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the placebo effect and the trial or patient characteristics. We identified randomized clinical trials with acupuncture, sham and no-treatment groups in which no-treatment or conventional therapy was applied to the no-treatment group. Thirty-one trials in which no treatment was applied in the no-treatment group were categorised as 'strict' trials. Thirty-nine trials in which no-treatment or conventional therapy was applied to the no-treatment group were categorised as 'less strict' trials. We calculated the treatment effect, defined as the difference in the effect size between the acupuncture and no-treatment groups, and the placebo effect, defined as the difference in the effect size between the sham and no-treatment groups. Then, a random effect meta-regression analysis was performed on the two effects with respect to trial or patient characteristics. The treatment effect was not found to be associated with any factors in both the strict and less strict trials. However, the placebo effect was found to be associated with the publication year in both the strict and less strict trials (P=0.009 and 0.005, respectively). The placebo effect increased by 0.05 in effect size per year in trials that were published more recently. While the treatment effect was not influenced by any trial or patient characteristics, the placebo effect was associated with the publication year. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Walk the Talk? The Effect of Voting and Excludability in Public Goods Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Czap

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of voting and excludability on individual contributions to group projects. We conducted two experiments on excludable and nonexcludable public goods, which provided several important results. First, contrary to our expectations, subjects are generally contributing more to the non-excludable compared to the excludable public good. Second, participating in a vote to choose a public project per se makes no difference in contributions. However, if the project that the individual voted for also gets selected by the group, they contribute significantly more to that project. Third, empathy and locus of control are important driving forces of participation in common projects. Our results have implications on the procedural design of obtaining funding for public projects. First, the public should get involved and have a say in the determination of which project should be realized. Second, it might well pay off to attempt to develop a consensus among the population and obtain near unanimous votes, because in our experiment, subjects discriminate between the project they voted for and the project chosen by the majority. Third, the policy proposers should stress the other-regarding interest of the public good rather than just pecuniary incentives.

  18. Lobbying and Social Participation – Key Features for an Effective Public Administration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria IRIMIEȘ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying is one of the main structural elements of democratic governance and sustainable development and is essential to achieving competitive and effi cient administrative and decisional processes in local governance. Successfully implementing lobbying regulations and techniques is of extreme importance for any public system, where social participation in the decision-making process can strongly contribute to social, political and economic / fi nancial effi - ciency. Over the last 15 years, several legislative initiatives have tried to design a coherent framework for lobby, but they are still unapplied either due to insuffi cient public understanding of the concept, or due to more or less justifi ed uncertainties and fears. The necessity of regulating lobbying in Romania is placed in a context where an important number of anticorruption international and domestic recommendations and state reliability statistics, added to a certain lack of effectiveness in time and public money management, show that the public administration system needs to be reformed. And lobbying is, as the following article shows, a must for any public reform of public administration in Romania. The case of multilingual entrance signs / labels in Cluj-Napoca is an unquestionable and unbeatable example that the simple existence of legal frameworks of lobbying could turn into real time, energy and money savers.

  19. Correcting for day of the week and public holiday effects: improving a national daily syndromic surveillance service for detecting public health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Jeffery, Elizabeth; Morbey, Roger; House, Thomas; Elliot, Alex J; Harcourt, Sally; Smith, Gillian E

    2017-05-19

    As service provision and patient behaviour varies by day, healthcare data used for public health surveillance can exhibit large day of the week effects. These regular effects are further complicated by the impact of public holidays. Real-time syndromic surveillance requires the daily analysis of a range of healthcare data sources, including family doctor consultations (called general practitioners, or GPs, in the UK). Failure to adjust for such reporting biases during analysis of syndromic GP surveillance data could lead to misinterpretations including false alarms or delays in the detection of outbreaks. The simplest smoothing method to remove a day of the week effect from daily time series data is a 7-day moving average. Public Health England developed the working day moving average in an attempt also to remove public holiday effects from daily GP data. However, neither of these methods adequately account for the combination of day of the week and public holiday effects. The extended working day moving average was developed. This is a further data-driven method for adding a smooth trend curve to a time series graph of daily healthcare data, that aims to take both public holiday and day of the week effects into account. It is based on the assumption that the number of people seeking healthcare services is a combination of illness levels/severity and the ability or desire of patients to seek healthcare each day. The extended working day moving average was compared to the seven-day and working day moving averages through application to data from two syndromic indicators from the GP in-hours syndromic surveillance system managed by Public Health England. The extended working day moving average successfully smoothed the syndromic healthcare data by taking into account the combined day of the week and public holiday effects. In comparison, the seven-day and working day moving averages were unable to account for all these effects, which led to misleading smoothing

  20. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. in a Biorefinery Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johansson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals.

  1. Economically viable components from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Hovmalm, Helena Persson

    2015-04-22

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals.

  2. Social Enterprise in Higher Education: A Viable Venture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Richard A.; Sliva, Shannon M.

    2016-01-01

    Social enterprise is a burgeoning, although nebulously defined, strategy for linking market-based revenues with social good in nonprofit, for-profit, and public organizations. This article offers a unifying definition of social enterprise, tracks its development throughout traditional sectors, and takes a first step in extending the concepts of…

  3. Can Cutbacks Leave School Programs Viable? ERIC Digest, Number 106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, James

    Most public schools, out of financial necessity, have had to reduce costs while maintaining facilities and essential programs and remaining accountable for student outcomes. School downsizing can mean making painful decisions about program elimination and staff layoffs. This digest offers suggestions for using downsizing to some…

  4. Designing Viable Republican Constitutions for Modern African States

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-04-09

    Apr 9, 2008 ... canism was an auspicious component of the rhetoric of anti-colonial liberation struggles in Africa, the reality in ..... As Alao puts it, on one hand, 'the opinion of the chiefs were heavily relied upon by the .... this role, traditional rulers can mobilise resources for public purposes, such as education, health, sport, ...

  5. Stigma, Discrimination, Treatment Effectiveness and Policy Support: Comparing Public Views about Drug Addiction with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Pescosolido, Bernice; Goldman, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compares current public attitudes about drug addiction with attitudes about mental illness. Methods A web-based national public opinion survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support. Results Respondents hold significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction compared to those with mental illness. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them on a job. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices, more skeptical about the effectiveness of available treatments, and more likely to oppose public policies aimed at helping persons with drug addiction. Conclusions Drug addiction is often treated as a sub-category of mental illness, and health insurance benefits group these conditions together under the rubric of behavioral health. Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches for advancing stigma reduction and public policy. PMID:25270497

  6. Blended learning is an effective strategy for acquiring competence in public health biostatistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Natasa; Masic, Srdjan; Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Trajkovic, Goran; Marinkovic, Jelena; Milin-Lazovic, Jelena; Bukumiric, Zoran; Savic, Marko; Cirkovic, Andja; Gajic, Milan; Stanisavljevic, Dejana

    2017-10-03

    We sought to determine whether blended learning is an effective strategy for acquiring competence in public health biostatistics. The trial was conducted with 69 Masters' students of public health attending the School of Public Health at University of Belgrade. Students were exposed to the traditional and blended learning styles. Blended learning included a combination of face-to-face and distance learning methodologies integrated into a single course. Curriculum development was guided by competencies as suggested by the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER). Teaching methods were compared according to the final competence score. Forty-four students were enrolled in the traditional method of education delivery, and 25 to the blended learning format. Mean exam scores for the blended learning group were higher than for the on-site group for both the final statistics score (89.65 ± 6.93 vs. 78.21 ± 13.26; p  0.8). A blended learning approach is an attractive and effective way of acquiring biostatistics competence for Masters of Public Health (MPH) graduate students.

  7. The effects of judicial transparency on public trust : Evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Klijn, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Trust in judges is needed for voluntary acceptance of judicial decisions, and judicial transparency is thought to strengthen trust. It exposes the public to symbols that embrace a 'myth of legality' which is expected to have a positive effect on trust. We assess a specific understanding of

  8. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  9. Evaluating the Effect of a Television Public Service Announcement about Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Secco, Mary; Yake, Laura; Speechley, Kathy N.

    2010-01-01

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial advertisements aiming to improve knowledge, attitudes and/or behavior. No evaluations of epilepsy PSAs exist. This study sought to evaluate a televised PSA showing first aid for a seizure. A multilevel regression analysis was used to determine the effect of the PSA on epilepsy knowledge and…

  10. Administrative Support and Its Mediating Effect on US Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Benjamin R.; Chang, Mido; Kim, Sunha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of administrative support on teachers' job satisfaction and intent to stay in teaching. The study employed a path analysis to the data of regular, full-time, public school teachers from the Schools and Staffing Survey teacher questionnaire. Administrative support was the most significant predictor of teachers' job…

  11. Data from a pre-publication independent replication initiative examining ten moral judgement effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, W.; Schweinsberg, M.; Jordan, J.; Kennedy, D.M.; Qureshi, I.; Sommer, S.A.; Thornley, N.; Madan, N.; Vianello, M.; Awtrey, E.; Zhu, L.L.; Diermeier, D.; Heinze, J.E.; Srinivasan, M.; Tannenbaum, D.; Bivolaru, E.; Dana, J.; Davis-Stober, C.P.; du Plessis, C.; Gronau, Q.F.; Hafenbrack, A.C.; Liao, E.Y.; Ly, A.; Marsman, M.; Murase, T.; Schaerer, M.; Tworek, C.M.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Wong, L.; Anderson, T.; Bauman, C.W.; Bedwell, W.L.; Brescoll, V.; Canavan, A.; Chandler, J.J.; Cheries, E.; Cheryan, S.; Cheung, F.; Cimpian, A.; Clark, M.A.; Cordon, D.; Cushman, F.; Ditto, P.H.; Amell, A.; Frick, S.E.; Gamez-Djokic, M.; Hofstein Grady, R.; Graham, J.; Gu, J.; Hahn, A.; Hanson, B.E.; Hartwich, N.J.; Hein, K.; Inbar, Y.; Jiang, L.; Kellogg, T.; Legate, N.; Luoma, T.P.; Maibeucher, H.; Meindl, P.; Miles, J.; Mislin, A.; Molden, D.C.; Motyl, M.; Newman, G.; Ngo, H.H.; Packham, H.; Ramsay, P.S.; Ray, J.L.; Sackett, A.M.; Sellier, A.-L.; Sokolova, T.; Sowden, W.; Storage, D.; Sun, X.; Van Bavel, J.J.; Washburn, A.N.; Wei, C.; Wetter, E.; Wilson, C.T.; Darroux, S.-C.; Uhlmann, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    We present the data from a crowdsourced project seeking to replicate findings in independent laboratories before (rather than after) they are published. In this Pre-Publication Independent Replication (PPIR) initiative, 25 research groups attempted to replicate 10 moral judgment effects from a

  12. Modeling health and mortality dynamics, and their effects on public finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The primary motivation of this dissertation is to provide insights into the future developments of mortality and population health, and the associated effects on public finance in the United States. The U.S. has experienced increases in life expectancy and the accompanying population ageing over the

  13. Be Aware to Care: Public Self-Awareness Leads to a Reversal of the Bystander Effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, M.; van Prooijen, J.W.; Elffers, H.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The classic bystander effect stipulates that people help others more when they are alone than when other bystanders are present. We reason that, sometimes, the presence of bystanders can increase helping, notably in situations where public self-awareness is increased through the use of

  14. The use of performance measurement systems in the public sector: effects on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the use of performance measurement systems in the public sector. We hypothesize that the way in which these systems are being used affects organizational performance, and that these performance effects depend on contractibility. Contractibility encompasses clarity of goals, the ability to

  15. The use of performance measurement systems in the public sector : Effects on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speklé, R.F.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the use of performance measurement systems in the public sector. We hypothesize that the way in which these systems are being used affects organizational performance, and that these performance effects depend on contractibility. Contractibility encompasses clarity of goals, the ability to

  16. The effects of public service motivation on collaborative behavior : Evidence from three experimental games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteve, M.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Boyne, G.

    Although research on the antecedents of collaboration is vast, no study has examined the effects of public service motivation (PSM). The current study relates PSM to decisions on whether or not to collaborate, while controlling for the Big Six personality traits. Empirical evidence is gathered by

  17. Geophysical Investigation of Effect of Aba-Eku Public Refuse Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical method was used to investigate the effect of Aba-Eku (N 070 19.551' E 0030 59.027') public refuse dump site in Ibadan on groundwater quality. Four vertical electrical sounding (VES) data from the vicinity of the dump site and one VES from the control point were acquired using Schlumberger electrode ...

  18. Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

  19. The Social Effects of Advertising as Perceived by Advertising Executives, Businessmen, and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…

  20. Enriching the Public History Dialogue: Effective Museum Education Programs for Audiences with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Mary Kate

    2013-01-01

    Effective public history dialogue depends on all voices having adequate access to interpretation and experience set in historical and/or cultural environments. The dissertation explores programming developed specifically for secondary education students who have intellectual disabilities and other related cognitive and developmental disabilities.…

  1. School Violence and Its Effect on the Constitutionality of Public School Uniform Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    The Arizona Court of Appeals, in the first court decision regarding public school uniform policies, held that mandatory school uniforms do not violate students' First Amendment rights. Discusses the Arizona decision and its effect on the structuring of school uniform policies and their potential successful institution at the high school level. (31…

  2. How Effective Are Public Health Education Programs, Unfettered Farm Markets and Single Sex Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jonathan Franklin

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation examines the effectiveness of three policy choices in meeting socio-economic goals. The first analyzes the impact of public health education and poverty relief on child mortality in the early twentieth century, when infant and child mortality rates in the United States were startlingly high. During the 1920s, the rates dropped…

  3. The Media and Public Agendas. Testing for Media Effects in Argentina During 2003-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Sebastián Freille; Patricio O’Gorman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the presence of agenda-setting effects by the print media in Argentina from June 2003 to December 2008. Using previously unavailable monthly data on newspapers mentions we test two hypotheses about the relationship between the different agendas. We find support for the hypothesis that there were media effects during our period of analysis. More specifically, we find that the total number of newspaper mentions of the President positively influenced public confidence in...

  4. The media and public agendas: testing for media effects in Argentina during the Kirchner administration

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Sebastián Freille; Patricio O'Gorman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine the presence of agenda-setting effects by the print media in Argentina during 2003 and 2008. Using previously unavailable monthly data on newspapers mentions we test two hypotheses about the relationship between the different agendas. We find support for the hypothesis that there were media effects during our period of analyisis. More specifically, we find that the total number of newspaper mentions of the President positively influenced public confidence in the gover...

  5. 76 FR 2705 - Notice of Realty Action; Modification of the Segregative Effect of Recreation and Public Purposes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... public land laws. Authority: 43 CFR 2741.5. Donald A. Simpson, State Director. BILLING CODE 4310-22-P ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Modification of the Segregative Effect of Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classifications of Public Lands in Natrona County, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  6. Dealing with deviants: The effectiveness of rejection, denial and apologies on protecting the public image of a group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.; van den Bosch, M.; Castano, E.; Hopman, P.

    2010-01-01

    Public transgressions by group members threaten the public image of a group when outside observers perceive them as representative of the group in general. In three studies, we tested the effectiveness of rejection of a deviant group member who made a racist comment in public, and compared this to

  7. Dealing with deviants: The effectiveness of rejection, denial, and apologies on protecting the public image of a group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esther van Leeuwen; Emanuele Castano; Marieke Moerman-van den Bosch; Petra Hopman

    2009-01-01

    Public transgressions by group members threaten the public image of a group when outside observers perceive them as representative of the group in general. In three studies, we tested the effectiveness of rejection of a deviant group member who made a racist comment in public, and compared this to

  8. Use of sodium lauroyl sarcosinate (sarkosyl) in viable real-time PCR for enumeration of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Gill, Colin O; Yang, Xianqin

    2014-03-01

    The cell membranes of inactivated Escherichia coli are not always permeable to propidium monoazide (PMA). This limits the use of PMA real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR) for quantification of DNA from only viable cells for enumeration of E. coli. The aim of this study was to develop PMA-qPCR procedures for E. coli with improved selectivity for viable cells. E. coli inactivated by incubation at 52°C were treated with 12 detergents before PMA treatment, and DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Treatment with each of the 12 detergents and PMA increased the cycle threshold (Ct) values for heat inactivated E. coli suspensions. The greatest increase, of 10.68 Ct was obtained with sarkosyl. Treatment with sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) increased the Ct value by 8.99 Ct. Treatment with sarkosyl or NaDC of 16 heat treated 5-strain cocktails of verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) increased the mean Ct values by 8.15 or 6.82 Ct, respectively. Those mean values were significantly (pnumbers of viable E. coli were 2.24 and 2.47, respectively, with regression coefficient values ≥0.85. The findings show that sarkosyl was more effective than NaDC for dissipation of PMA-barrier properties of membranes of inactivated E. coli cells. Viable E. coli in mixtures of viable E. coli and E. coli inactivated by heat, lactic acid or peroxyacetic acid could be reliably enumerated by sarkosyl PMA-qPCR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Angelina effect revisited: Exploring a media-related impact on public awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebo, Patricia Beatrice; Quehenberger, Franz; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Lumenta, David Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    In 2013, Angelina Jolie's double mastectomy and publication of her personal treatment choice for BRCA1 positivity generated considerable media attention. To the authors' knowledge, the current study is the first prospective survey conducted among the general public to measure a quantifiable media-related effect on public awareness. The authors analyzed the changes in the general public's awareness of reconstructive options in breast cancer among 2 female population-matched cohorts aged 18 to 65 years (1000 participants in each cohort) before (March 2013; poll 1) and after (June 2013; poll 2) the announcement of Ms. Jolie's mastectomy in May 2013. There was an observed increase in public awareness: significantly more women from poll 2 were aware of reconstructive breast surgery being possible after breast cancer-related mastectomy, notably with regard to autologous tissue and single-stage reconstructions. Approximately 20% of the women in poll 2 (205 women) indicated that media coverage regarding Ms. Jolie affected their interest in breast cancer. A question that was exclusive to poll 2 revealed a preference for autologous (66.2%) versus implant-based (8.2%) reconstructions, with the remainder indicating no preference (25.6%). None of the stratification variables were found to be associated with the above findings. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first prospective study to demonstrate a statistically significant impact of a celebrity announcement on public awareness regarding breast cancer treatment. The results underscore the importance of a media-related impact for professionals in the health care sector, which can serve as a tipping point for raising awareness and improving knowledge concerning a specific disease among the general public. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  10. Technological innovation and its effect on public health in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill PS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preetinder Singh GillCollege of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USABackground: Good public health ensures an efficient work force. Organizations can ensure a prominent position on the global stage by staying on the leading edge of technological development. Public health and technological innovation are vital elements of prosperous economies. It is important to understand how these elements affect each other. This research study explored and described the relationship between these two critical elements/constructs.Methods: Indicators representing technological innovation and public health were identified. Indicator data from 2000 to 2009 were collected from various US federal government sources, for the four US Census regions. The four US Census regions were then compared in terms of these indicators. Canonical correlation equations were formulated to identify combinations of the indicators that are strongly related to each other. Additionally, the cause–effect relationship between public health and technological innovation was described using the structural equation modeling technique.Results: The four US Census regions ranked differently in terms of both type of indicators in a statistically significant manner. The canonical correlation analysis showed that the first set of canonical variables had a fairly strong relationship, with a magnitude > 0.65 at the 95% confidence interval, for all census regions. Structural equation modeling analysis provided β < −0.69 and Student’s t statistic > 12.98, for all census regions. The threshold Student’s t statistic was 1.98. Hence, it was found that the β values were significant at the 95% confidence interval, for all census regions.Discussion: The results of the study showed that better technological innovation indicator scores were associated with better public health indicator scores. Furthermore, the study provided preliminary evidence that technological innovation

  11. Examination of the effects of public spending and trade policy on real exchange rate in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang ACHAMOH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study adopts the inter-temporal model of Rodríguez (1989 and Edward (1989 extended in Elbadawi and Soto (1997 to empirically examine the effect of public expenditure and trade openness on the real exchange rate using Cameroon data from 1977 to 2010. After exploring some issues on exchange rate and reviewing the relevant literature, the study employs residual based-cointegration technique. All the variables were stationary at level form or first differences. Public spending significantly appreciates the real exchange likewise the trade openness variable in the longrun. The results of the study suggests that appreciation of real exchange rate could be prevented by contracting public spending or adopting restrictive trade measures especially in the long run.

  12. Effects of Alternative Framing on the Publics Perceived Importance of Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Sorensen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication of science to the general public is important for numerous reasons, including support for policy, funding, informed public decision making, among others. Prior research has found that scientists participating in public policy and public communication must frame their communication efforts in order to connect with audiences. A frame is the mechanism that individuals use to understand and interpret the world around them. Framing can encourage specific interpretations and reference points for a particular issue or event; especially when meaning is negotiated between the media and public audiences. In this study, we looked at the effect of framing within an environmental conservation context. To do this we had survey respondents rank common issues, among them being environmental conservation, from most important to least important for the government to address. We framed environmental conservation using three synonymous terms (environmental security, ecosystem services, and environmental quality to assess whether there was an effect on rankings dependent on how we framed environmental conservation. We also investigated the effect of individuals’ personality characteristics (identity frame on those environmental conservation rankings. We found that individuals who self-identified as environmentalist were positively associated with ranking highly (most important environmental conservation when it was framed as either environmental quality or ecosystem services, but not when it was framed as environmental security. Conversely, those individuals who did not rank themselves highly as self-identified environmentalists were positively associated with environmental conservation when it was framed as environmental security. This research suggests that framing audience specific messages can engender audience support in hot-button issues such as environmental conservation and climate change.

  13. Economic evaluation of the air pollution effect on public health in China's 74 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Pan, Dongyan; Yu, Chen; Si, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Air deterioration caused by pollution has harmed public health. The existing studies on the economic loss caused by a variety of air pollutants in multiple cities are lacking. To understand the effect of different pollutants on public health and to provide the basis of the environmental governance for governments, based on the dose-response relation and the willingness to pay, this paper used the latest available data of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from January 2015 to June 2015 in 74 cities by establishing the lowest and the highest limit scenarios. The results show that (1) in the lowest and highest limit scenario, the health-related economic loss caused by PM10 and SO2 represented 1.63 and 2.32 % of the GDP, respectively; (2) For a single city, in the lowest and the highest limit scenarios, the highest economic loss of the public health effect caused by PM10 and SO2 was observed in Chongqing; the highest economic loss of the public health effect per capita occurred in Hebei Baoding. The highest proportion of the health-related economic loss accounting for GDP was found in Hebei Xingtai. The main reason is that the terrain conditions are not conducive to the spread of air pollutants in Chongqing, Baoding and Xingtai, and the three cities are typical heavy industrial cities that are based on coal resources. Therefore, this paper proposes to improve the energy structure, use the advanced production process, reasonably control the urban population growth, and adopt the emissions trading system in order to reduce the economic loss caused by the effects of air pollution on public health.

  14. Policy Effects on the Quality of Public Health Care: Evaluating Portuguese Public Hospitals’ Quality through Customers’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Jaime R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, public health care administration issues are reviewed and public hospital patients’ views on quality of health care are empirically tested. The purpose is to support the recommendation of new public policies that lead to better performance, if necessary. Hospital patients’ views on service quality were assessed through a questionnaire to estimate a global customer satisfaction measure. We argue that customer satisfaction should be measured through multiple indicators, as a latent variable. Thus, we considered the latent segment models (LSM approach to assess customer service satisfaction. We found a twosegment latent structure: segment 1, the satisfied, with 48 percent of patients, mostly male and middle-aged patients; and segment 2, the unsatisfied, with 52 percent of patients, mostly female and youngest/oldest patients.

  15. The Beagle 2 Effect - public response to the UK Mars lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    As a prerequisite for understanding science, the target audience must first be aware of an issue and then continue to maintain interest. We discuss the impact of the Beagle 2 mission to Mars on raising awareness amongst the general public as the first step to increasing understanding of the scientific and technological challenges and solutions such a mission addresses. The massive amount of public interest created is now being ttributed to the so-called "Beagle 2 Effect". We consider the reasons why the public, particularly, but not exclusively, in the UK took Beagle 2 to heart. Initially our strategy, as part of the PR plan for Beagle 2, was to collate media coverage for various stages and discrete campaigns in particular to use press cuttings to determine the level of recognition of Beagle 2 as a brand. At the start of the project this information was to support sponsorship bids, latterly the intrinsic value of media, and hence public, awareness was recognised by the major partners in the project. Much of the subsequent public awareness resulted from the comprehensive coverage in all branches of the media. A second opportunity to evaluate the response to the mission was presented to us as it became increasingly clear that Beagle 2 was able to engage an audience much wider than that typically interested in space, or science in general. We highlighted how far mention of Beagle 2 has spread. Additionally numerous unsolicited letters have been received from the public and these have been collated to indicate the factors which appear to have contributed to the widespread interest in Beagle 2. It is not clear whether the "Beagle 2 Effect" can, or will, be transferred to subsequent space missions.

  16. Effects of Public Relations Activities on Customer Satisfaction in the University Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gedikçi, Öndoğan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Like all organizations in the process of globalization, university libraries also have focused on their customers much more in order to continue their existence and they have diversified their services in order to increase customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction emerges as a result of integration of many interdependent components. In this study, public relations works, the most important factor affecting the customer satisfaction, are handled and it is tried to determine the effect of public relations works conducted at Selcuk University Central Library on the customer satisfaction. In the study used descriptive methods, data were obtained from all customer groups who came to the Central Library through questionnaire. It was come out that all customer groups who came to the Central Library were satisfied with public relations works related to the library's physical elements and service elements, but they were not content with public relations works conducted out of the organization in order to improve the customer relations. In consequence of the research, it was observed that the variable that customers gives more importance is the physical elements variable ( =3,86. The most intense relationship between variables is between service element with the physical elements (r=0,667, p<0,01 and public relations elements (r=0,642, p<0,0.

  17. Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2017-05-11

    Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.

  18. The public wants information, not board mandates, from comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alan S; Patashnik, Eric M; Doherty, David; Dowling, Conor

    2010-10-01

    We conducted two national surveys of public opinion about comparative effectiveness research and the integration of findings from the research into clinical practice. The first survey found broad support for using research results to provide information, but less support for using them to allocate government resources or mandate treatment decisions. In addition, the public is willing to consider the use of financial incentives to encourage patients to choose cheaper treatments, if research demonstrates that they work as well as more expensive ones. The second survey found that support for comparative effectiveness research dropped in response to general debates about its consequences but that arguments against the research could be effectively countered by specific, targeted rebuttals.

  19. The positive and negative health effects of alcohol- and the public health implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the negative and the positive effects of alcohol on health are reviewed. It is first of all established facts that a high alcohol intake implies an increased risk of a large number of health outcomes, such as dementia, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis, upper digestive...... tract cancer and alcohol dependency. Second, it is justified that alcohol has beneficial effects for some individuals, especially with regard to prevention of thrombosis of the heart. The public health relevance of these results is considered. The sensible drinking limits, used in both the UK...... and Denmark, of a maximum of 21 drinks per week for men and 14 drinks per week for women seem valid. A broader public health message of the beneficial effects of alcohol does not seem to be of interest in Western societies, where only a very small fraction of the population are non drinkers and may have very...

  20. Factors affecting the numbers of expected viable lactic acid bacteria in inoculant applicator tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, M C; Kung, L

    2016-11-01

    The application of correct numbers of viable microorganisms to forages at the time of ensiling is one of the most important factors affecting the probability of a beneficial effect from an inoculant. The objective of this study was to determine relationships between numbers of expected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from silage inoculants in application tanks and various factors that might affect their viability. The pH and temperature of inoculant-water mixes were measured in applicator tanks (n=53) on farms in Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, and California during the corn harvest season of 2012. Samples were collected on-farm and plated on de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar to enumerate LAB and establish the number of viable LAB (cfu/mL). Expected numbers of LAB were calculated from the minimum label guarantees for viable bacteria and mixing rates with water. In addition, the pH of the inoculant-water mixes at sampling, the ambient temperature at sampling, and the length of time that the samples had been in the tank were measured and obtained. The log difference between the measured and expected numbers of LAB was calculated and expressed as ΔM - E in log scale. Ambient temperature at sampling had no relationship with time in the tank or ΔM - E. Most (83%) of the inoculants had been mixed with water in the applicator tanks for <10h. For these samples, a negative linear correlation (R2=0.36) existed between time that the inoculant-water mixes were in the applicators tanks and ΔM - E. The pH of the inoculant-water mixes was also negatively correlated (R2=0.28) with time in the applicator tank, but pH was not related to ΔM - E. The temperatures of the inoculant-water mixtures were negatively correlated with ΔM - E (R2=0.39). Seven of 8 samples whose ΔM - E were at least -0.95 or more lower than expected (equivalent of about 1 or more log concentration less than expected) had water temperatures above 35°C. These data support our previous laboratory findings and

  1. The effects of media on the level of accountability of public organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Matani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of democratic political systems is the accountability against their own performances. Media, one of the powerful elements of civil society and effectual on public thought, plays an important role in making the government responsive. To achieve this goal, the present study tries to investigate the effect of media on the improvement of the accountability level of the government agencies. The statistical society of this research includes all male students of Azad Ghaemshahr University where 320 students were selected through purposive sampling method based on Kerjesy and Morgan table. Applied research method is used in this survey. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect the required data. In order to validate the instrument, appropriate questions related to each variable were extracted from valid sources and finally approved by authorities. In order to calculate the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 89. Since the distribution of the data was normal, parametric statistical tests were used to testify the hypotheses. The findings of the study show that the media could be effective in terms of making public organizations responsive, through leading and training the public, unifying demands, and monitoring and broadcasting. However, the findings reveal that if the media were free and independent, they would better perform their responsibilities. Finally, the study at hand concludes that in comparison to other media, television is much more powerful in terms of pushing the public sector to be responsive.

  2. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  3. FREE OPEN SOURCE AND SOFTWARE IN THE TEACHING OF CAT TOOLS: OMEGAT, A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Lúcio Caetano Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of Computer Aided Translation (CAT tools is essential to all courses aimed at preparing students for the effective exercise of this profession, in particular those students who will translate technical texts, especially in the field of localization. As an alternative to the paid commercial software which dominate the translation industry (such as SDL Trados Studio, Wordfast Pro and MemoQ, there are free proprietary softwares (such as Wordfast Anywhere and Google Translator Toolkit, and free open source ones (such as OmegaT and Anaphraseus. Starting from a description of CAT types and main functions, the purpose of this article is to point out, through an evaluative-comparative analysis based on a research and on a comparison between OmegaT, free proprietary softwares and others open source softwares, why and for which situations OmegaT is a viable alternative for the teaching of CAT tools in higher education.

  4. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  5. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Technological innovation and its effect on public health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Preetinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Good public health ensures an efficient work force. Organizations can ensure a prominent position on the global stage by staying on the leading edge of technological development. Public health and technological innovation are vital elements of prosperous economies. It is important to understand how these elements affect each other. This research study explored and described the relationship between these two critical elements/constructs. Indicators representing technological innovation and public health were identified. Indicator data from 2000 to 2009 were collected from various US federal government sources, for the four US Census regions. The four US Census regions were then compared in terms of these indicators. Canonical correlation equations were formulated to identify combinations of the indicators that are strongly related to each other. Additionally, the cause-effect relationship between public health and technological innovation was described using the structural equation modeling technique. The four US Census regions ranked differently in terms of both type of indicators in a statistically significant manner. The canonical correlation analysis showed that the first set of canonical variables had a fairly strong relationship, with a magnitude > 0.65 at the 95% confidence interval, for all census regions. Structural equation modeling analysis provided β 12.98, for all census regions. The threshold Student's t statistic was 1.98. Hence, it was found that the β values were significant at the 95% confidence interval, for all census regions. The results of the study showed that better technological innovation indicator scores were associated with better public health indicator scores. Furthermore, the study provided preliminary evidence that technological innovation shares causal relation with public health.

  7. Effects of Print Publication Lag in Dual Format Journals on Scientometric Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background Publication lag between manuscript submission and its final publication is considered as an important factor affecting the decision to submit, the timeliness of presented data, and the scientometric measures of the particular journal. Dual-format peer-reviewed journals (publishing both print and online editions of their content) adopted a broadly accepted strategy to shorten the publication lag: to publish the accepted manuscripts online ahead of their print editions, which may follow days, but also years later. Effects of this widespread habit on the immediacy index (average number of times an article is cited in the year it is published) calculation were never analyzed. Methodology/Principal Findings Scopus database (which contains nearly up-to-date documents in press, but does not reveal citations by these documents until they are finalized) was searched for the journals with the highest total counts of articles in press, or highest counts of articles in press appearing online in 2010–2011. Number of citations received by the articles in press available online was found to be nearly equal to citations received within the year when the document was assigned to a journal issue. Thus, online publication of in press articles affects severely the calculation of immediacy index of their source titles, and disadvantages online-only and print-only journals when evaluating them according to the immediacy index and probably also according to the impact factor and similar measures. Conclusions/Significance Caution should be taken when evaluating dual-format journals supporting long publication lag. Further research should answer the question, on whether the immediacy index should be replaced by an indicator based on the date of first publication (online or in print, whichever comes first) to eliminate the problems analyzed in this report. Information value of immediacy index is further questioned by very high ratio of authors’ self-citations among the

  8. The effects of public debt management on macroeconomic equilibrium: An analysis of the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Gomes da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the effects of public debt management on yield curve spreads in Brazil, in order to see possible impacts on the country's economic activity. State space models, together with Kalman Filter estimators, are used for the period ranging from June 2002 to February 2012. The results indicate that increases in the issuance of fixed rate linked bonds lead to increases on yield spreads and the longer the maturity, the longer the effect. The opposite occurs when there is an increased issuance of floating rate linked bonds. Therefore, a change in the structure of the Brazilian public debt is not neutral on the yield curve, with possible impacts on the country's macroeconomic balance.

  9. Gun violence and media effects: challenges for science and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Malte; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    In response to the Sandy Hook shooting in December 2012, the White House published an action plan to reduce gun violence that, among other things, calls for research into the relationship with violence in digital games or other media images. We acknowledge the administration's efforts to reduce violent crime in society and their obligation to dedicate resources to matters of public interest, such as media effects. However, research projects launched in the midst of a moral panic bear the risk of introducing bias and distracting from more important issues. Ideological rigidity has repeatedly shaped past research on media violence. Current initiatives could be an opportunity to restore credibility to the field and to engage in a responsible dialogue on media effects. In order to inform public policy, we need to close gaps, both in empirical research and the academic debate, while being alert for potential political and social influences.

  10. Publication Bias in Psychology: A Diagnosis Based on the Correlation between Effect Size and Sample Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühberger, Anton; Fritz, Astrid; Scherndl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias. Methods We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values. Results We found a negative correlation of r = −.45 [95% CI: −.53; −.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings. Conclusion The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology. PMID:25192357

  11. Publication bias in psychology: a diagnosis based on the correlation between effect size and sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühberger, Anton; Fritz, Astrid; Scherndl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The p value obtained from a significance test provides no information about the magnitude or importance of the underlying phenomenon. Therefore, additional reporting of effect size is often recommended. Effect sizes are theoretically independent from sample size. Yet this may not hold true empirically: non-independence could indicate publication bias. We investigate whether effect size is independent from sample size in psychological research. We randomly sampled 1,000 psychological articles from all areas of psychological research. We extracted p values, effect sizes, and sample sizes of all empirical papers, and calculated the correlation between effect size and sample size, and investigated the distribution of p values. We found a negative correlation of r = -.45 [95% CI: -.53; -.35] between effect size and sample size. In addition, we found an inordinately high number of p values just passing the boundary of significance. Additional data showed that neither implicit nor explicit power analysis could account for this pattern of findings. The negative correlation between effect size and samples size, and the biased distribution of p values indicate pervasive publication bias in the entire field of psychology.

  12. Effect of Credit Risk Management on Private and Public Sector Banks in India

    OpenAIRE

    Asha Singh

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of credit risk management on private and public sector banks in India. Credit risk occurs when customers default or fail to comply with their obligation to service debt, triggering a total or partial loss. The primary cause of credit risk is poor credit risk management. When banks manage their risk better, they will get advantage to increase their performance (return). For this purpose researcher has taken one dependent return on asset (ROA) and two independent ...

  13. The macroeconomic effects of the public sector deficit : the case of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ramangkura, Virabongse; Nidhiprabha, Bhanupongse

    1991-01-01

    In the past, the Thai government usually ran a budget deficit. In recent years, the deficit has become a surplus. A continued high growth rate in the last three years produced an unexpected rise in tax revenues, and the growth of public spending was effectively controlled. The government has adopted an early retirement plan for foreign debts and in fiscal 1991, for the first time in recent history, the government proposes to balance the budget. The central government's actual spending is usua...

  14. Coaching works! A qualitative study exploring the effects of coaching in a public sector organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Joseph; Snowden, Michael; Halsall, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Professional development has become an important tool in the development of individual working in a public sector organisation. A crucial part of professional development is mentoring and coaching employees. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of coaching in the workplace, specifically whether coaching or being a coach is related to job satisfaction and psychological empowerment and whether being in a culture of coaching is related to job satisfaction. The research was carrie...

  15. Servant Leadership and Follower Job Performance: The Mediating Effect of Public Service Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Gary; Newman, Alexander; Cooper, Brian; Eva, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    This article advances our understanding of the effects of servant leadership, an employee- and community-focused leadership style, on followers’ public service motivation (PSM) and job performance. Based on social learning theory, we argue that by emphasizing to their followers the importance of serving others both inside and outside the organization and by acting as role models by serving others themselves, servant leaders enhance job performance by engendering higher PSM in their followers....

  16. Toward More Efficient and Effective Public Social Spending in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Pablo A.; Almeida, Rita; Gindling, Thomas; Lao Pena, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Central America has come a long way both in terms of economic and political stability. Increasingly the region is focusing on implementing productivity-enhancing reforms as well as supporting reductions in poverty and inequality. This report analyzes recent trends in public social spending in Central America from 2007 to 2014, conducts international benchmarking, examines measures of the effectiveness and efficiency of social spending, and discusses the quality of selected institutions influe...

  17. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design

  18. Potential public health hazards, exposures and health effects from unconventional natural gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgate, John L; Goldstein, Bernard D; McKenzie, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in unconventional natural gas (UNG) development in the United States during the past decade has brought wells and related infrastructure closer to population centers. This review evaluates risks to public health from chemical and nonchemical stressors associated with UNG, describes likely exposure pathways and potential health effects, and identifies major uncertainties to address with future research. The most important occupational stressors include mortality, exposure to hazardous materials and increased risk of industrial accidents. For communities near development and production sites the major stressors are air pollutants, ground and surface water contamination, truck traffic and noise pollution, accidents and malfunctions, and psychosocial stress associated with community change. Despite broad public concern, no comprehensive population-based studies of the public health effects of UNG operations exist. Major uncertainties are the unknown frequency and duration of human exposure, future extent of development, potential emission control and mitigation strategies, and a paucity of baseline data to enable substantive before and after comparisons for affected populations and environmental media. Overall, the current literature suggests that research needs to address these uncertainties before we can reasonably quantify the likelihood of occurrence or magnitude of adverse health effects associated with UNG production in workers and communities.

  19. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Monica S; Swinburn, Tracy K; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda.

  20. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Nina N; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne; Lassen, Anne D

    2016-12-01

    To measure the effect of organic food conversion projects on the percentage of organic food used in Danish public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. The current longitudinal study was based on measurements of organic food percentages in Danish public kitchens before and after kitchen employees participated in conversion projects. Public kitchens participating in the nine organic food conversion projects under the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, initiated during autumn 2012 and spring 2013 and completed in summer 2015. A total of 622 public kitchens. The average (median) increase in organic food percentage from baseline to follow-up was 24 percentage points (Ppublic kitchen type, the increase remained significant for seven out of eight kitchens. Furthermore, the proportion of public kitchens eligible for the Organic Cuisine Label in either silver (60-90 % organic food procurement) or gold (90-100 % organic food procurement) level doubled from 31 % to 62 %, respectively, during the conversion period. Conversion project curriculum mostly included elements of 'theory', 'menu planning', 'network' and 'Organic Cuisine Label method' to ensure successful implementation. The study reports significant increases in the level of organic food procurement among public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Recommendations for future organic conversion projects include adding key curriculum components to the project's educational content and measuring changes in organic food percentage to increase the chances of successful implementation.

  1. Public health care funding modifies the effect of out-of-pocket spending on maternal, infant, and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K

    2017-03-01

    Increased out-of-pocket (OOP) health care spending has been associated with increased maternal, infant, and child mortality, but the effect of public health care spending on mortality has not been studied. I identified a statistically significant interaction between public health care expenditure and OOP health care spending for maternal, infant, and child mortality. Generally, increases in public expenditure coincide with decreased rates of mortality, regardless of OOP spending levels. Specifically, higher levels of public expenditure with moderate levels of OOP spending may result in the lowest mortality rates. Increased public health care spending may improve health outcomes better than efforts to reduce OOP expenditure alone.

  2. Doctor knows best: physician endorsements, public opinion, and the politics of comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alan S; Patashnik, Eric M; Doherty, David; Dowling, Conor M

    2014-02-01

    The Obama administration has made a major investment in comparative effectiveness research (CER) to learn what treatments work best for which patients. CER has the potential to reduce wasteful medical spending and improve patient outcomes, but the political sustainability of this initiative remains unclear because of concerns that it will threaten the doctor-patient relationship. An unresolved question is whether it is possible to boost public support for the use of CER as a cost-control strategy. We investigate one potential source of public support: Americans' trust in physicians as faithful agents of patient interests. We conducted two national surveys to explore the public's confidence in doctors compared to other groups. We find that doctors are viewed as harder workers, more trustworthy, and more caring than other professionals. Through survey experiments, we demonstrate that the support of doctors' groups for proposals to control costs and use CER have a greater influence on aggregate public opinion than do cues from political actors including congressional Democrats, Republicans, and a bipartisan commission. Our survey results suggest that the medical profession's stance will be an important factor in shaping the political viability of efforts to use CER as a tool for health care cost control.

  3. Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

    1991-04-01

    When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice.

  4. The effectiveness of the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 to increase the level of organic public procurement in Danish public kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Nørgaard; Tetens, Inge; Løje, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    To measure the effect of organic food conversion projects on the percentage of organic food used in Danish public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. The current longitudinal study was based on measurements of organic food percentages in Danish public kitchens before an...... projects include adding key curriculum components to the project’s educational content and measuring changes in organic food percentage to increase the chances of successful implementation.......To measure the effect of organic food conversion projects on the percentage of organic food used in Danish public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. The current longitudinal study was based on measurements of organic food percentages in Danish public kitchens before......’, ‘menu planning’, ‘network’ and ‘Organic Cuisine Label method’ to ensure successful implementation. The study reports significant increases in the level of organic food procurement among public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Recommendations for future organic conversion...

  5. Fern spore longevity in saline water: can sea bottom sediments maintain a viable spore bank?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Arjen de Groot

    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation's diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and--in sea bottoms--salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal.

  6. Fern spore longevity in saline water: can sea bottom sediments maintain a viable spore bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, G Arjen; During, Heinjo

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation's diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and--in sea bottoms--salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding) emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal.

  7. "Is political behavior a viable coping strategy to perceived organizational politics? Unveiling the underlying resource dynamics": Correction to Sun and Chen (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Reports an error in "Is Political Behavior a Viable Coping Strategy to Perceived Organizational Politics? Unveiling the Underlying Resource Dynamics" by Shuhua Sun and Huaizhong Chen (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, May 22, 2017, np). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-22542-001.) We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Role of Mitochondria from Mature Oocyte to Viable Blastocyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Chappel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oocyte requires a vast supply of energy after fertilization to support critical events such as spindle formation, chromatid separation, and cell division. Until blastocyst implantation, the developing zygote is dependent on the existing pool of mitochondria. That pool size within each cell decreases with each cell division. Mitochondria obtained from oocytes of women of advanced reproductive age harbor DNA deletions and nucleotide variations that impair function. The combination of lower number and increased frequency of mutations and deletions may result in inadequate mitochondrial activity necessary for continued embryo development and cause pregnancy failure. Previous reports suggested that mitochondrial activity within oocytes may be supplemented by donor cytoplasmic transfer at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Those reports showed success; however, safety concerns arose due to the potential of two distinct populations of mitochondrial genomes in the offspring. Mitochondrial augmentation of oocytes is now reconsidered in light of our current understanding of mitochondrial function and the publication of a number of animal studies. With a better understanding of the role of this organelle in oocytes immediately after fertilization, blastocyst and offspring, mitochondrial augmentation may be reconsidered as a method to improve oocyte quality.

  9. The role of public insight in urban planning process: Increasing efficiency and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović-Hristić Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Public interest (citizens, investors, interest groups, NGOs, media and similar in the urban planning process and proposed planning solutions, certainly is not negligible, however, according to the opinion of the professional public, it has often been wrongly directed and conducted. The legal basis, which in rudimentary outlines prescribes the procedure of the public insight/hearing, i.e. the presentation of the planning document, does not provide sufficient input, however, also does not prevent organization of more qualitative and productive communication with the interested individuals, not only at the very finalization of plan development, but also at the initial phases of the initiative for decision making or forming the conceptual solution. In order to better comprehend the real needs of the citizens, urban planners should much earlier than the public insight i.e. presentation of already formed solutions, get in touch with citizens, interview them, organize workshops, insights and meetings on specific topics, trying to explain the planning procedures, standards and norms, as well as to present all that which is required in order to raise the quality of life in the neighborhood and provide some level of public interest and good, and thus increase the value of real estate. On the other hand, the citizens knowing their living environment the best should participate more actively in its creation, by indicating to the problems and needs, reacting to certain topics and thus assisting the professionals in shaping and committing their planning solutions. To that respect this paper provides certain recommendations, based on international experience, by implementation of which the satisfactory level of democracy (more transparency, inclusivity and effectiveness of the procedure should be provided in Serbia as well.

  10. Effective dialogue: Enhanced public engagement as a legitimising tool for municipal waste management decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnett, Kenisha, E-mail: k.garnett@cranfield.ac.uk [Institute for Environment, Health, Risks and Futures, School of Environment, Energy and Agri-food, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Cooper, Tim, E-mail: t.h.cooper@ntu.ac.uk [School of Architecture Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A review of public engagement in waste management decision-making is undertaken. • Enhanced public engagement is explored as a means to legitimise waste decisions. • Analytical–deliberative processes are explored as a tool for effective dialogue. • Considerations for integrating public values with technical analysis are outlined. • Insights into the design of appropriate public engagement processes are provided. - Abstract: The complexity of municipal waste management decision-making has increased in recent years, accompanied by growing scrutiny from stakeholders, including local communities. This complexity reflects a socio-technical framing of the risks and social impacts associated with selecting technologies and sites for waste treatment and disposal facilities. Consequently there is growing pressure on local authorities for stakeholders (including communities) to be given an early opportunity to shape local waste policy in order to encourage swift planning, development and acceptance of the technologies needed to meet statutory targets to divert waste from landfill. This paper presents findings from a research project that explored the use of analytical–deliberative processes as a legitimising tool for waste management decision-making. Adopting a mixed methods approach, the study revealed that communicating the practical benefits of more inclusive forms of engagement is proving difficult even though planning and policy delays are hindering development and implementation of waste management infrastructure. Adopting analytical–deliberative processes at a more strategic level will require local authorities and practitioners to demonstrate how expert-citizen deliberations may foster progress in resolving controversial issues, through change in individuals, communities and institutions. The findings suggest that a significant shift in culture will be necessary for local authorities to realise the potential of more inclusive decision

  11. Key Performance Indicators for Maintenance Management Effectiveness of Public Hospital Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Omar Mardhiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness of management in maintenance aspect holds the key element in influencing the performance of overall maintenance management. Similarly, public hospital building needs an effective maintenance management as this type of building in nature is one of the most complex issues in the field of maintenance. Improper building maintenance management adopted by the organization significantly will interrupt the overall operation of the building. Therefore, this paper is aim to identifying the key performance indicator (KPI of effectiveness of maintenance management for the public hospital building. A total of 32 set of questionnaires were distributed to the maintenance manager for each hospital in the northern region of peninsular Malaysia by using self-administration strategy. The survey answer was analyzed by performing descriptive analysis in SPSS. Overall, the result of descriptive analysis shows that all the ten factors of effectiveness of maintenance management are accepted as KPI since the mean value is at least 3.93 which classified as important and significant. The most significant factor of effectiveness of maintenance management is task planning and scheduling with the mean score of 4.35. While less significant factor is identify as maintenance approach with the value of mean score is 3.93. The both results indicates that the management need to have well-structured planning for the maintenance works and also need to embrace the exact strategy of maintenance approach in order to achieved better overall performance of maintenance management. This study may draw a standard practice for the government in assessing the performance of public facilities in terms of maintenance management.

  12. Instrumentalities for the Effectiveness of Measures of Public Accountability in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agu Sylvia U

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the various measures put in place by government for the promotion of public accountability in Africa using Nigeria as a case study was examined using a 12-item questionnaire. The aim was to find the importance of these measures in the promotion of public accountability in Nigeria. A total of 240 respondents, comprising 140 males (65.6% and 100 females (34.4%, answered the questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 24.89 years. The result disclosed that these measures were partially implemented in the discharge of duties and this led to the achievement of very limited successes. The chi-square was also used to test the relationship between implementation of these measures and effectiveness of public accountability. The result revealed a significant relationship. Suggestions were therefore made on how to improve the use of these measures which included recognition of the importance of these measures, adequate monitoring, removal of the immunity clause, strict adherence to sanctions irrespective of whoever is involved, and compulsory accountability by leaders.

  13. Humanizing HIV/AIDS and its (re)stigmatizing effects: HIV public 'positive' speaking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Sarangi, Srikant

    2009-01-01

    Social stigma has been inextricably linked with HIV and AIDS since the epidemic erupted in the early 1980s. The stigma that has built up around HIV and AIDS is generally regarded as having a negative impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive people and on general prevention efforts. Current attempts to combat HIV-related stigma focus on increasing the acceptance of HIV among the stigmatizing public and stigmatized individuals alike. In this, the global HIV-positive community is being increasingly called upon to ;humanize' the virus, not least through public displays of HIV 'positive' health and public ;positive' speaking. This article critically explores the constitutive effects and inherent power relations of HIV Positive Speakers' Bureaus (PSBs) as a platform for such a display. Adopting a post-structuralist discourse analytic approach, we explore accounts of positive-speaking and HIV health from HIV-related non-government organizations in India and in PSB training manuals. In particular, we highlight ways in which positive-speaking in India can be seen to have significant (re)stigmatizing effects by way of ambivalent and hyper-real configurations of HIV 'positive' identity and life.

  14. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on Public Speaking Anxiety of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Aslani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public speaking anxiety is a prominent problem in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on public speaking anxiety of college students. Materials and Methods: The design of research was quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. The sample consistent of 30 students with speech anxiety that selected base on available sampling and assigned randomly in experimental (N=15 and control (N=15 groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 7 sessions. In order to collect the data, Paul’s personal report of confidence as a speaker, S-R inventory of anxiousness was used. To analyze the data, SPSS-19 software and covariance analysis were used. Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing reducing public speaking anxiety. The one-way analysis of covariance for each variable shows there are significant differences in confidence of speaker (p=0.001 and physiological symptoms of speech anxiety (p=0.001 at the two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective on reducing physiological symptoms of speech anxiety and increasing the speaker’s confidence.

  15. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.

  16. Financing strategies to improve essential public health equalization and its effects in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Sun, Li; Wen, Liankui; Zhang, Huyang; Li, Chenyang; Hanson, Kara; Fang, Hai

    2016-12-01

    In 2009, China launched a health reform to promote the equalization of national essential public health services package (NEPHSP). The present study aimed to describe the financing strategies and mechanisms to improve access to public health for all, identify the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches, and showed evidence on equity improvement among different regions. We reviewed the relevant literatures and identified 208 articles after screening and quality assessment and conducted six key informants' interviews. Secondary data on national and local government health expenditures, NEPHSP coverage and health indicators in 2003-2014 were collected, descriptive and equity analyses were used. Before 2009, the government subsidy to primary care institutions (PCIs) were mainly used for basic construction and a small part of personnel expenses. Since 2009, the new funds for NEPHSP have significantly expanded service coverage and population coverage. These funds have been allocated by central, provincial, municipal and county governments at different proportions in China's tax distribution system. Due to the fiscal transfer payment, the Central Government allocated more subsides to less-developed western regions and all the funds were managed in a specific account. Several types of payment methods have been adopted including capitation, pay for performance (P4P), pay for service items, global budget and public health voucher, to address issues from both the supply and demand sides. The equalization of NEPHSP did well through the establishment of health records, systematic care of children and maternal women, etc. Our data showed that the gap between the eastern, central and western regions narrowed. However the coverage for migrants was still low and performance was needed improving in effectiveness of managing patients with chronic diseases. The delivery of essential public health services was highly influenced by public fiscal policy, and the

  17. Effect of numbers vs pictures on perceived effectiveness of a public safety awareness advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniak, S; Lammers, H B

    1991-08-01

    In a 2 x 2 completely randomized factorial experiment, 24 women and 16 men rated the perceived effectiveness of an earthquake preparedness advertisement which contained either a picture or no picture of prior earthquake damage and contained either statistics or no statistics on likelihood of an earthquake. A main effect for superiority of the picture was found. The presence of statistics had no main or interactive effects on the perceived effectiveness of the advertisement.

  18. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera S. Karnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man-made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  19. Alternative Dispute Resilution Mechanisms in the Field of Public Procurement: Between Effectiveness and Constitutionalily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacian DRAGOŞ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the new developments in the public procurement system triggered by the empowerment of the National Council for Solving Administrative Disputes (an administrative body as the only first instance review body for remedies before the conclusion of public procurement contracts. The legislative development entails discussions regarding the constitutionality of the solution and also about the efficiency of subjecting complainants to an administrative body instead of courts. The conclusion of the study highlights the fact that the search for effectiveness in awarding contracts (mainly for the purpose of spending the structural funds is pushing the Government towards unconstitutional solutions like the one promoted recently, regardless of the constant probability of such provisions being ousted by the Constitutional Court on the basis of open access to justice principle enshrined in our Constitution

  20. The Effect of Pecha Kucha Presentations on Students’ English Public Speaking Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Coskun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the Pecha Kucha presentation format on English as foreign language learners’ public speaking anxiety. The participants were 49 students in the English Translation and Interpretation Department of a state university in Turkey. A pre- and post-test experimental research design was used in this study. Students were given a questionnaire as the pre-test prior to the preparation of their presentations and as the post-test immediately following the presentation in the classroom. According to the paired samples statistics, students’ English public speaking anxiety was reduced significantly as a result of their experience using the Pecha Kucha presentation format. It was concluded that this presentation format can be incorporated into the English as a Foreign Language classroom.

  1. The effectiveness of the implementation and automation of heat pump on public buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trusov Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to consideration of effectiveness of the implementation and automation of heat pump on public buildings, in particular, at public catering. This article shows the advantages of this equipment compared to other heating systems, as well as the future development of these systems in Russia. The article presents the analysis of prices for the cost of the heating period, analyze the operating parameters of the gas, electric boilers and heat pumps. Also, there is a heat pump automation scheme, which shows the functional relationship of the devices of automation, regulators and actuators, which are controlled heat pump. According to the calculations the authors come to the conclusion that the best is the heat pump.

  2. Poverty alleviation in Uganda: the case for a viable optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation is a long and painstaking process. It involves knowing what poverty is, its causes and means of alleviating it. Poverty is one of the scourges including disease and ignorance a combination of which deprives humanity of the basic needs for living. Among the strategies to alleviate poverty is effective ...

  3. Some Viable Techniques for Assessing and Counselling Cognitive Processing Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Abubakar Sadiq

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Processing weakness (CPW) is a psychological problem that impedes students' ability to learn effectively in a normal school setting. Such weakness may include; auditory, visual, conceptual, sequential, speed and attention processing. This paper therefore examines the basic assessment or diagnostic approaches such as Diagnosis by…

  4. Social Media in Diabetes Education: A Viable Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Julie; Cox, Jill N.; Corbin, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    As Extension educators are encouraged to implement more cost-effective and efficient means of programming, the use of Web-based social media has become a popular option. Penn State Extension implemented a social media awareness survey among participants in its community-based diabetes education program to determine familiarity with this medium,…

  5. Benefício da revascularização do miocárdio em pacientes com disfunção ventricular e músculo viável: remodelamento ventricular reverso e prognóstico The beneficial effect of revascularization on patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and viable myocardium: reverse remodeling and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Calado de Aguiar Ribeiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a importância da viabilidade do miocárdio e parâmetros clínicos na melhora da função ventricular, sintomas e prognóstico, como reversão do remodelamento. MÉTODO: Cento e quinze pacientes submetidos a revascularização do miocárdio com análise prévia da viabilidade do miocárdio com thallium-201. Fração de ejeção, volumes sistólicos e diastólicos do ventrículo esquerdo e classe funcional foram determinados, antes da cirurgia e a cada seis meses por 3 anos. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com > 4 segmentos viáveis demonstraram melhora da fração de ejeção de 34±6 para 44±4% (pOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the integration of both viability and clinical parameters on the improvement in systolic performance, symptoms and prognosis, with post-revascularization reverse remodeling. METHOD: One hundred and fifteen patients underwent thallium-201 imaging before myocardial revascularization. Left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-systolic volume index and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index were determined before and at each 6 months post-revascularization for 3 years. RESULTS: Patients with > 4 viable segments on thallium-201 imaging demonstrated an improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction from 34±6 to 44±4%, p<0.001, left ventricular end-systolic volume decreased from 78.3±11 to 57±17 mL/m², p<0.001; left end-diastolic volume decreased from 113±31 to 91±22 ml/m², p<0.001. Patients with < 4 viable segments failed to demonstrate an improvement of the left ventricle ejection fraction, 33.4±4 vs. 35.1±5% (p=0.19, and exhibited ongoing left ventricle end-systolic remodeling, 72±23 vs. 73±12 mL/m² (p= 0.81, and the left ventricle end-diastolic volume increased from 112±24 to 118±16 mL/m² (p=0.34, without improvement in NYHA class, and worse long-term prognosis (event; log rank test, p=0.0053. The multivariable analysis demonstrated clinical variables related to the unfavorable

  6. Efficacy evaluation of bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tablets-assisted blu-ray irradiation in treatment of neonatal jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun-Ying Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tabletsassisted blu-ray irradiation in treatment of neonatal jaundice. Methods: A total of 118 cases of children with neonatal jaundice were randomly divided into observation group (n=59 and control group (n=59, control group received blu-ray irradiation treatment alone, observation group received bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tablets-assisted blu-ray irradiation treatment and then levels of bilirubin-related indicators, nerve damage indexes and liver function indexes of two groups were compared. Results: 3 d after treatment, total serum bilirubin (TSB, direct bilirubin (DB and transcutaneous bilirubin (TCB levels of observation group were lower than those of control group and differences were statistically significant; 3 d after treatment, serum neuron specific enolase (NSE, amyloid β-protein (A β and astrocytederived protein (S100 β levels of observation group were lower than those of control group and differences were statistically significant; 3 d after treatment, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels of observation group were lower than those of control group and differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Bifidobacterium tetragenous viable bacteria tablets-assisted blu-ray irradiation has better effect in treatment of neonatal jaundice and has advantages in reducing bilirubin level, protecting nerve function and liver function and other aspects.

  7. The Effects of Making Performance Information Public: Evidence from Los Angeles Teachers and a Regression Discontinuity Design

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Leopold S. Bergman; Hill, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In theory, the publication of performance ratings may improve performance through reputation concerns and peer effects or impede performance by demoralizing employees. This paper uses school-district data and a regression discontinuity design to answer how consumers and employees respond to making performance information public. We find that high-performing students sorted into classrooms with highly-rated teachers as a result of publication. Teachers who were published do not perform better ...

  8. Propidium monoazide combined with real-time quantitative PCR to quantify viable Alternaria spp. contamination in tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Estiarte, Núria; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2013-08-01

    Alternaria is a common contaminating genus of fungi in fruits, grains, and vegetables that causes severe economic losses to farmers and the food industry. Furthermore, it is claimed that Alternaria spp. are able to produce phytotoxic metabolites, and mycotoxins that are unsafe for human and animal health. DNA amplification techniques are being increasingly applied to detect, identify, and quantify mycotoxigenic fungi in foodstuffs, but the inability of these methods to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells might lead to an overestimation of mycotoxin-producing living cells. A promising technique to overcome this problem is the pre-treatment of samples with nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA selectively penetrates cells with a damaged membrane inhibiting DNA amplification during qPCRs. In our study, a primer pair (Alt4-Alt5) to specifically amplify and quantify Alternaria spp. by qPCR was designed. Quantification data of qPCR achieved a detection limit of 10(2)conidia/g of tomato. Here, we have optimized for the first time a DNA amplification-based PMA sample pre-treatment protocol for detecting viable Alternaria spp. cells. Artificially inoculated tomato samples treated with 65μM of PMA, showed a reduction in the signal by almost 7cycles in qPCR between live and heat-killed Alternaria spp. conidia. The tomato matrix had a protective effect on the cells against PMA toxicity, reducing the efficiency to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells. The results reported here indicate that the PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantifying viable Alternaria cells, which could be useful for estimating potential risks of mycotoxin contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of Acute Seizures: Is Intranasal Midazolam a Viable Option?

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, Lesley K.; Eiland, Lea S.

    2013-01-01

    Seizures in the pediatric population commonly occur, and when proper rescue medication is not administered quickly, the risk of neurologic compromise emerges. For many years, rectal diazepam has been the standard of care, but recent interest in a more cost-effective, safe alternative has led to the investigation of intranasal midazolam for this indication. Although midazolam and diazepam are both members of the benzodiazepine class, the kinetic properties of these 2 anticonvulsants vary. This...

  10. Green Perspectives for Public Health: A Narrative Review on the Physiological Effects of Experiencing Outdoor Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural environments offer a high potential for human well-being, restoration and stress recovery in terms of allostatic load. A growing body of literature is investigating psychological and physiological health benefits of contact with Nature. So far, a synthesis of physiological health outcomes of direct outdoor nature experiences and its potential for improving Public Health is missing. We were interested in summarizing the outcomes of studies that investigated physiological outcomes of experiencing Nature measuring at least one physiological parameter during the last two decades. Studies on effects of indoor or simulated Nature exposure via videos or photos, animal contact, and wood as building material were excluded from further analysis. As an online literature research delivered heterogeneous data inappropriate for quantitative synthesis approaches, we descriptively summarized and narratively synthesized studies. The procedure started with 1,187 titles. Research articles in English language published in international peer-reviewed journals that investigated the effects of natural outdoor environments on humans by were included. We identified 17 relevant articles reporting on effects of Nature by measuring 20 different physiological parameters. We assigned these parameters to one of the four body systems brain activity, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and immune function. These studies reported mainly direct and positive effects, however, our analyses revealed heterogeneous outcomes regarding significance of results. Most of the studies were conducted in Japan, based on quite small samples, predominantly with male students as participants in a cross-sectional design. In general, our narrative review provided an ambiguous illustration of the effects outdoor nature exerted on physiological parameters. However, the majority of studies reported significant positive effects. A harmonizing effect of Nature, especially on physiological

  11. Effectiveness of public health practices against shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of educational materials on infant crying to change caregivers' knowledge and behaviours related to shaken baby syndrome or abusive head trauma (SBS/AHT) using selected samples in randomized controlled trials. This study investigated the impact of public health practices to prevent SBS/AHT in Japan through the use of educational materials. Cross-sectional study. The intervention was comprised of two parts: (1) the screening of an educational DVD at a prenatal class; and (2) the distribution of a public health pamphlet at a postnatal home visit. Expectant parents watched a DVD (The Period of PURPLE Crying) about the features of infant crying and recommended behaviours (walking away if frustrated in the event of unsoothable crying, sharing information on crying with other caregivers) at a preterm parenting class held at eight months' gestation. A postnatal home-visit service was implemented in which a maternity nurse distributed a pamphlet to explain information about infant crying. Before the four-month health check-up, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess exposure to these public health practices and outcome variables (i.e. infant crying knowledge, walk-away and information-sharing behaviours), and responses were collected at the four-month health check-up (n = 1316). The impacts of these interventions on outcome variables were analysed by comparing those exposed to both interventions, either intervention and neither intervention after adjusting for covariates. Crying and shaking knowledge were significantly higher among women exposed to the public health practices, with a dose-response relationship (both P caregivers was less likely among the intervention group. The impact of educational materials in public health practice on knowledge of crying and shaking, and walk-away behaviour in Japan had a dose-response relationship; however, an increase in sharing information with other

  12. Estimating the Fiscal Effects of Public Pharmaceutical Expenditure Reduction in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Papageorgiou, Manto; Politi, Anastasia; Frangos, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece's organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country's economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources, such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, nearly half of the gains from the measure's application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government's revenue, i.e., losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers' high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure's inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy's deprivation of useful resources.

  13. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Sarah; Unwin, Nigel; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-11-01

    Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a "policy effectiveness-feasibility loop" (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.

  14. Estimating the fiscal effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos eSouliotis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece’s organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the country’s economy. In the second part, we perform a quantitative analysis for the estimation of multiplier effects of public pharmaceutical expenditure reduction on main revenue sources such as taxes and social contributions. We also fit projection models with multipliers as regressands for the evaluation of the efficiency of the particular fiscal measure in the short run. According to the results, near half of the gains from the measure’s application is offset by financially equivalent decreases in the government’s revenue, i.e. losses in tax revenues and social security contributions alone, not considering any other direct or indirect costs. The findings of multipliers’ high value and increasing short-term trend imply the measure’s inefficiency henceforward and signal the risk of vicious circles that will provoke the economy’s deprivation of useful resources.

  15. Are public subsidies effective to reduce emergency care? Evidence from the PLASA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Thomas; Chauvin, Pauline; Sirven, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    Elderly people facing dependence are exposed to the financial risk of long lasting care expenditures. This risk is high for people facing cognitive, functional and behavioral problems. In the short-term, dependent elderly people face increased non-medical care expenditures. In the long-term, they face increased medical care expenditures, which are driven by emergency care events such as: emergency hospitalization, emergency medical visits, and emergency institutionalizations. In France, providing public financial assistance has been shown to improve dependent people's access to non-medical care services. However, the impact of public financial assistance on emergency care use has not been explored yet. Our study aims at determining whether financial assistance on non-medical care provision decreases the probability of emergency care rates using data of 1131 French patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, collected between 2003 and 2007. Using instrumental variables to deal with the presence of a potential endogeneity bias, we find that beneficiaries of long-term care subsidies have a significantly lower rate of emergency care than non-beneficiaries. Failing to control for endogeneity problems would lead to misestimate the impact of long-term care subsidies on emergency care rates. Finding that home care subsidies has a protective effect for emergency care confirmed the efficacy of this public policy tool. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cryotherapy: A viable tool to remove broncholiths under flexible bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sabrina N; Lala, Deepa; Rubio, Edmundo

    2016-12-01

    Broncholithiasis is the presence of calcific material within the tracheobronchial tree. Asymptomatic patients can be managed with observation only, whereas symptomatic disease requires surgery, rigid or flexible bronchoscopic removal. Recent reports have shown that flexible bronchoscopy can be a safe and effective option for removal of loose in addition to partially imbedded broncholiths. We present a case of a 65-yearold man with chronic cough that underwent successful cryotherapy assisted bronchoscopic removal of an imbedded broncholith. We will also review current literature regarding the management broncholithiasis.

  17. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The paper presents a brief review of palatogingival groove and highlights an easy and predictable alternative for its management.

  18. Access to care and utilization among children: estimating the effects of public and private coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Thomas M; Hudson, Julie L

    2006-05-01

    We examine the relationship between health insurance coverage and children's access to and utilization of medical care. Access measures we study are having a usual source of care (USC) and lacking a USC for financial or insurance reasons. We also examine indicators for ambulatory visits, well-child visits, dental visits, emergency room use, and inpatient hospital stays. We pool data from the first 7 years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 1996 to 2002. Pooling yields a large sample of children, enabling us to analyze access and utilization using simple descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis, and instrumental variables estimation (IV). IV estimation is of particular interest given the possibility of bias caused by confounding factors (such as child health or parent attitudes) and measurement error in insurance coverage. We also compare estimates from IV linear probability models to estimates from IV probit with residual inclusion. As previous studies have found, public and private coverage are both associated with large increases in access and utilization. Simple mean comparisons suggest that private coverage has a larger effect than does public coverage. Differences between public and private coverage are reduced (and often reversed) when we control for other characteristics of children and their families. IV coverage effect estimates from both linear probability and residual inclusion probit models are substantially greater than conventional estimates across a wide range of access and utilization measures. Despite concerns that conventional estimates overstate the impact of coverage on access and use, our results suggest that the reverse may be true. One explanation may be that conventional estimates are biased toward zero due to error in the reporting of insurance coverage. The magnitude of the coverage effects we find highlights the importance of reducing uninsurance among children.

  19. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  20. Casing drilling TM : a viable technology for coal bed methane?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Muqeem, M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper highlighted the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling more than 30 wells using only casings as the drill stem, suggesting that such technology could be advantageous for Coal Bed Methane (CBM) exploration and development. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig that is ideal to meet the great demand for CBM development in Canada. The Casing Drilling TM system, when used in conjunction with the drilling rig, could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of CBM reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead and wire line retrieval can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or coal beds under balanced with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while finding gas at the same time. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling TM could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Development, dissemination, adherence, and effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Programs offered in a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Smoking Cessation Programs (SCP must comprise factors that increase the chances of successful treatment, such as choice of approach and modality based on scientific evidence; adaptation of the intervention to the characteristics of target patients; records of procedures and efficacy rates; and the use of both active and reactive strategies to recruit smokers. Given this, this study was designed with the aim of describing the implementation of a SCP in a public university that has adopted a 100% smoke-free campus policy, including the evaluation of publicity methods and their possible impact in adherence rates and program success. There were 128 smokers enrolled in nine program groups offered over two years: 97 (76% attended the first meeting and 69 (71% effectively completed the SCP. The groups that underwent follow-up assessment (n = 58 achieved abstinence rates of 27% and 32%, greater than expected for solely psychological treatment and similar to rates that combined cognitive-behavioral approach to pharmacology. The recruitment strategies that combined active strategies (personal contacts, personal invitations, individual interviews and reactive strategies (posters, corporate e-mail, newspapers were the most effective to attract and gain the adherence of smokers to the SCP, corroborating the literature. We conclude that 100% smoke-free environment campaigns are opportunities that favor the effectiveness of SCPs, which can be developed and implemented by any trained health professional.

  2. An extended cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenia treatment in India under universal public finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykar, Neha; Nigam, Aditi; Chisholm, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia remains a priority condition in mental health policy and service development because of its early onset, severity and consequences for affected individuals and households. This paper reports on an 'extended' cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) for schizophrenia treatment in India, which seeks to evaluate through a modeling approach not only the costs and health effects of intervention but also the consequences of a policy of universal public finance (UPF) on health and financial outcomes across income quintiles. Using plausible values for input parameters, we conclude that health gains from UPF are concentrated among the poorest, whereas the non-health gains in the form of out-of-pocket private expenditures averted due to UPF are concentrated among the richest income quintiles. Value of insurance is the highest for the poorest quintile and declines with income. Universal public finance can play a crucial role in ameliorating the adverse economic and social consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment in resource-constrained settings where health insurance coverage is generally poor. This paper shows the potential distributional and financial risk protection effects of treating schizophrenia.

  3. Public attitudes toward biofuels. Effects of knowledge, political partisanship, and media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R

    2012-01-01

    Despite large-scale investments and government mandates to expand biofuels development and infrastructure in the United States, little is known about how the public conceives of this alternative fuel technology. This study examines public opinion of biofuels by focusing on citizen knowledge and the motivated processing of media information. Specifically, we explore the direct effects of biofuels knowledge and the moderating effect of partisanship on the relationship between media use and benefit vs. risk perceptions in the following four domains: environmental impacts, economic consequences, ethical/social implications, and political ramifications. Our results suggest that more knowledgeable respondents see fewer benefits of biofuels relative to risks, and that Democrats and Republicans are affected differently by media use when forming opinions about biofuels. Among Democrats, greater attention to political media content leads to a more favorable outlook toward the technology across several domains of interest, while among Republicans, an increase in attention to political content has the opposite effect. Possible reasons for these results, as well as implications of the findings at the intersection of politics and the life sciences, are discussed.

  4. Building Effective Scientist-Educator Communities of Practice: NASA's Science Education and Public Outreach Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Peticolas, L. M.; Shipp, S. S.; Smith, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1993, NASA has embedded education and public outreach (EPO) in its Earth and space science missions and research programs on the principle that science education is most effective when educators and scientists work hand-in-hand. Four Science EPO Forums organize the respective NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics, Earth Science, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science EPO programs into a coordinated, efficient, and effective nationwide effort. The result is significant, evaluated EPO impacts that support NASA's policy of providing a direct return-on-investment for the American public, advance STEM education and literacy, and enable students and educators to participate in the practices of science and engineering as embodied in the 2013 Next Generation Science Standards. This presentation by the leads of the four NASA SMD Science EPO Forums provides big-picture perspectives on NASA's effort to incorporate authentic science into the nation's STEM education and scientific literacy, highlighting tools that were developed to foster a collaborative community and examples of program effectiveness and impact. The Forums are led by: Astrophysics - Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI); Earth Science - Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES); Heliophysics - University of California, Berkeley; and Planetary Science - Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI).

  5. Effective Two-way Communication of Environmental Hazards: Understanding Public Perception in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an

  6. Review of "The Effect of Special Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, John T.

    2008-01-01

    A new report published by the Manhattan Institute for Education Policy, "The Effect of Special Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program," attempts to examine the complex issue of how competition introduced through school vouchers affects student outcomes in public schools. The…

  7. Analyzing the Cost-Effectiveness of Instruction Expenditures towards High School Completion among Oahu's Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Larson S. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The following study attempted to ascertain the instructional cost-effectiveness of public high school teachers towards high school completion through a financially based econometric analysis. Essentially, public high school instruction expenditures and completer data were collected from 2000 to 2007 and bivariate interaction analyzed through a…

  8. Designing viable cropping options for salt-affected lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Meinke, Holger

    2017-04-01

    Salinity cost agricultural sector over 27Bln pa in lost opportunities and is an issue that crosses all spatial and temporal scales - from individual fields, farms, catchments, landscapes to national and global levels. Salinity manifests itself in many forms and often leads to further soil degradation such as erosion, nutrient and soil organic matter depletion, and a loss of (soil) biodiversity. Salinity may also cause major disturbance to ecosystems due to its impact on resources (e.g. pollution of aquifers). In extreme cases it can turn previously highly productive areas into wastelands. An increasing global population and unprecedented urban sprawls are now putting additional pressures on our soil and water resources, particularly in regions where urbanisation directly competes with agriculture for access to land and water. And although everyone agrees that avoiding soil salinity in the first instance would be the most effective way of combating it, reality is that the amount of saline land and water resources is rapidly increasing, and will continue to increase, especially in developing countries. Purposefully designing our cropping systems that can cope with various levels of salinity could be one answer to this increasing problem. In this work we review some of the key cropping options that can be deployed to either avoid, reduce or remediate salt-affected lands. We argue that for these measures to be most effective an ongoing science - policy - society dialogue is required to ensure that policy frameworks that govern land and water management are conducive to reducing salinity or even assist in restoring affected areas. We first consider several case studies highlighting the extent of the problem using ongoing salinity hotspots around the globe. We then look at halophytes as a possible biological tools to remediate already saline sols, and discuss prospects of mixed (halophytes and glycophytes) cropping solutions for various agricultural systems at different

  9. A push for public health: the effect of e-bikes on physical activity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Beate Sundfør

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is considered to have a positive effect on public health through increased physical activity. In Norway, the e-bike is seen as a way of getting more people to cycle. However, the motorized assistance of an e-bike potentially eliminates any physical activity associated with its use. It is possible that the assumed health effect of increased cycling is “erased” through a reduction in other physical activities (a substitution effect. In this paper we study the public health effects of e-bikes using a combined cross-sectional and quasi-experimental design. First, we explore the existence of potentially hedonistic values in relation to interest in acquiring an e-bike and, second, we conduct an intervention study of physical activity pre- and post-purchase. Methods A sample of 340 people responded to a questionnaire before buying an e-bike and follow-up 4 weeks later, when 45 had bought one. A further 28 (mainly physically inactive were recruited through a Norwegian NGO. For a comparison group, 1995 people were recruited through the Falck National Register of Bicycle Owners. All respondents were asked about the intensity of their cycling, (kilometres cycled in the previous week, walking and physical activity in addition to cycling as means of transport (days and hours. Results A structural equation model showed that hedonistic life values, and general physical activity, were predictive of interest in buying an e-bike. However people who already cycled a lot showed less interest. The trial showed that increased cycling – whether as a mean of transport or exercise –was related to higher levels of total physical activity in both groups compared to a comparison group (one-way ANOVA. Conclusions Our findings indicate that in the Norwegian cycle population there is no substantial substitution effect of physical activity with the introduction of an e-bike. The appeal of the e-bike is strongest among those with little

  10. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  11. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  12. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kenkre, V.D.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Direct viable counts (DVC) of bacteria were quantified from polluted and relatively less/non-polluted coastal locations during different seasons to assess whether they can be routinely monitored for an understanding of environmental stress(es...

  13. Changes in the relative population size of selected ruminal bacteria following an induced episode of acidosis in beef heifers receiving viable and non-viable active dried yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R; Vyas, D; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the changes in the relative population size (RPS) of select ruminal bacteria and rumen fermentation variables in beef heifers supplemented with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as viable active dried (ADY) or killed dried (KDY) yeast following an induced episode of ruminal acidosis. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers fed a diet consisting of 50% forage and 50% grain (dry matter basis) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three 28-day periods. Treatments were: (i) control (CTRL; no yeast); (ii) ADY (4 g day-1 providing 1010  CFU per g; AB Vista, UK); and (iii) KDY (4 g day-1 autoclaved ADY). The acidosis challenge was induced on day 22 and rumen samples were collected on day 15 (baseline; BASE), day 22 (challenge day; CHAL), and on day 29 (168th hour post acid challenge or recovery, REC) of each period. Over the study, duration of pH acidosis) was less for ADY and KDY than CTRL, with ADY less than KDY. No treatment effects were observed on relative abundance of ruminal bacteria, but the day effect was significant. The RPS of lactate producers and utilizers was greater while RPS of fibrolytic bacteria was lower during CHAL than BASE and REC. Yeast supplementation, irrespective of its viability, showed beneficial effects on ruminal pH variables in animals more susceptible to acidosis. Rumen microbial population was altered with the induction of severe acidosis. Most of the changes reverted back to baseline values during the recovery phase. Yeast supplementation reduced subacute rumen acidosis in the most susceptible cattle, but failed to attenuate severe acidosis induced by a grain challenge. The study provided valuable insight into the mechanism by which acidosis affects cattle performance. Individual animal variation in ruminal fermentation partly explained the variability in response to yeast supplementation in the study. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The

  14. Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Murphy, Shane; Anderson, Benjamin; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Glass, Roger; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-10-01

    An estimated 4% of global child deaths (approximately 300,000 deaths) were attributed to rotavirus in 2010. About a third of these deaths occurred in India and Ethiopia. Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in these two countries could substantially decrease child mortality and also reduce rotavirus-related hospitalizations, prevent health-related impoverishment and bring significant cost savings to households. We use a methodology of 'extended cost-effectiveness analysis' (ECEA) to evaluate a hypothetical publicly financed program for rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia. We measure program impact along four dimensions: 1) rotavirus deaths averted; 2) household expenditures averted; 3) financial risk protection afforded; 4) distributional consequences across the wealth strata of the country populations. In India and Ethiopia, the program would lead to a substantial decrease in rotavirus deaths, mainly among the poorer; it would reduce household expenditures across all income groups and it would effectively provide financial risk protection, mostly concentrated among the poorest. Potential indirect benefits of vaccination (herd immunity) would increase program benefits among all income groups, whereas potentially decreased vaccine efficacy among poorer households would reduce the equity benefits of the program. Our approach incorporates financial risk protection and distributional consequences into the systematic economic evaluation of vaccine policy, illustrated here with the case study of public finance for rotavirus vaccination. This enables selection of vaccine packages based on the quantitative inclusion of information on equity and on how much financial risk protection is being bought per dollar expenditure on vaccine policy, in addition to how much health is being bought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Control Measures and Health Effects of Air Pollution: A Survey among Public Transportation Commuters in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the control measures used by public transport commuters and their health (physical and psychological effects due to exposure to air pollution during their daily commute and during haze days. From June to October 2016, 800 public transport commuters in urban cities in the heart of Selangor, Malaysia were interviewed. Of these, 25.4% reported sometimes/often wearing surgical masks during their daily commute, while 92.1% reported such use during haze days. The total control measure score against air pollutants during the daily commute was low; on a control measure scale of 0–18, the median rating during the daily commute was 8 (interquartile range (IQR 6–10. During haze days, control measures improved slightly (median 14, IQR 12–16. Evidence of adverse health effects was present. During the daily commute under normal conditions, the three highest adverse health experiences were fatigue and weakness (35.5%, coughing (23.6%, and dizziness (18.2%. During haze days, the three highest adverse health experiences were headache (85%, coughing (84.8%, and breathing difficulties (84.5%. On a possible total adverse health (physical and psychological experience scale of 0–22, the median rating during the daily commute was 1 (IQR 0–3. The median rating during haze days was intensified (median 11, IQR 9–13. Public transportation commuters should be encouraged to enhance various control measures against particulate air pollutants during their daily commute, particularly during haze days, to minimize the adverse health risks associated with air pollutants.

  16. Viable but nonculturable state of foodborne pathogens in grapefruit juice: a study of laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolò, Marco Sebastiano; Gioffrè, Angela; Carnazza, Santina; Platania, Giuseppe; Silvestro, Isabella Di; Guglielmino, Salvatore Pietro Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Several foodborne human pathogens, when exposed to harsh conditions, enter viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state; however, still open is the question whether VBNC pathogens could be a risk for public health, because, potentially, they can resuscitate. Moreover, cultural methods for food safety control were not able to detect VBNC forms of foodborne bacteria. Particularly, it has not been established whether food chemophysical characteristics can induce VBNC state in contaminating pathogen bacterial populations, especially in food, such as salads and fresh fruit juices, not subjected to any decontamination treatment. In this preliminary study, we intentionally contaminated grapefruit juice to determine whether pathogen bacteria could enter VNBC state. In fact, grapefruit juice contains natural antimicrobial compounds, has an average pH of about 3 and low content in carbohydrates. Such characteristics make grapefruit juice a harsh environment for microbial survival. For this purpose, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, and Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, at two different inoculum sizes, have been used. Viability by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability kit and culturability by plate counts assay were monitored, whereas "resuscitation" of nonculturable populations was attempted by inoculation in nutrient-rich media. The data showed that L. monocytogenes lost both culturability and viability and did not resuscitate within 24 h independently on inoculum size, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was able to resuscitate after 24 h but did not after 48 h. Salmonella Typhimurium and S. flexneri, depending on inoculum size, lost culturability but maintained viability and were able to resuscitate; moreover, S. flexneri was still able to form colonies after 48 h at high inoculum size. In conclusion, entry into VBNC state differs on the species, depending, in turn, on inoculum size and time of incubation.

  17. Determining size and dispersion of minimum viable populations for land management planning and species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, John F.

    1984-03-01

    The concept of minimum populations of wildlife and plants has only recently been discussed in the literature. Population genetics has emerged as a basic underlying criterion for determining minimum population size. This paper presents a genetic framework and procedure for determining minimum viable population size and dispersion strategies in the context of multiple-use land management planning. A procedure is presented for determining minimum population size based on maintenance of genetic heterozygosity and reduction of inbreeding. A minimum effective population size ( N e ) of 50 breeding animals is taken from the literature as the minimum shortterm size to keep inbreeding below 1% per generation. Steps in the procedure adjust N e to account for variance in progeny number, unequal sex ratios, overlapping generations, population fluctuations, and period of habitat/population constraint. The result is an approximate census number that falls within a range of effective population size of 50 500 individuals. This population range defines the time range of short- to long-term population fitness and evolutionary potential. The length of the term is a relative function of the species generation time. Two population dispersion strategies are proposed: core population and dispersed population.

  18. Exploring viable vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric NMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuria, Jyotiranjan [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Chattopadhyay, Utpal [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Datta, AseshKrishna [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dey, Abhishek [Maulana Azad College, Government of West Bengal, 8 Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Road, Kolkata 700013 (India)

    2017-04-05

    We explore the vacua of the Z{sub 3}-symmetric Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) and their stability by going beyond the simplistic paradigm that works with a tree-level neutral scalar potential and adheres to some specific flat directions in the field space. We work in the so-called phenomenological NMSSM (pNMSSM) scenario. Also, for our purpose, we adhere to a reasonably ‘natural’ setup by requiring |μ{sub eff}| not too large. Key effects are demonstrated by first studying the profiles of this potential under various circumstances of physical interest via a semi-analytical approach. The results thereof are compared to the ones obtained from a dedicated package like Vevacious which further incorporates the thermal effects to the potential. Regions of the pNMSSM parameter space that render the desired symmetry breaking (DSB) vacuum absolutely stable, long- or short-lived (in relation to the age of the Universe) under quantum/thermal tunneling are delineated. Regions that result in the appearance of color and charge breaking (CCB) minima are also presented. It is demonstrated that light singlet scalars along with a light LSP (lightest supersymmetric particle) having an appreciable singlino admixture are compatible with a viable DSB vacuum. Their implications for collider experiments are commented upon.

  19. Enhanced inhibition of murine prostatic carcinoma growth by immunization with or administration of viable human umbilical vein endothelial cells and CRM197

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huiyong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination with xenogeneic and syngeneic endothelial cells is effective for inhibiting tumor growth. Nontoxic diphtheria toxin (CRM197, as an immunogen or as a specific inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, has shown promising antitumor activity. Therefore, immunization with or administration of viable human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs combined with CRM197 could have an enhanced antitumor effect. Six-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were vaccinated with viable HUVECs, 1 x 10(6 viable HUVECs combined with 100 μg CRM197, or 100 μg CRM197 alone by ip injections once a week for 4 consecutive weeks. RM-1 cells (5 x 10(5 were inoculated by sc injection as a preventive procedure. During the therapeutic procedure, 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were challenged with 1 x 10(5 RM-1 cells, then injected sc with 1 x 10(6 viable HUVECs, 1 x 10(6 viable HUVECs + 100 μg CRM197, and 100 μg CRM197 alone twice a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Tumor volume and life span were monitored. We also investigated the effects of immunization with HUVECs on the aortic arch wall and on wound healing. Vaccination with or administration of viable HUVECs+CRM197 enhanced the inhibition of RM-1 prostatic carcinoma by 24 and 29%, respectively, and prolonged the life span for 3 and 4 days, respectively, compared with those of only vaccination or administration with viable HUVECs of tumor-bearing C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, HUVEC immunization caused some damage to the aortic arch wall but did not have remarkable effects on the rate of wound healing; the wounds healed in approximately 13 days. Treatment with CRM197 in combination with viable HUVECs resulted in a marked enhancement of the antitumor effect in the preventive or therapeutic treatment for prostatic carcinoma in vivo, suggesting a novel combination for anti-cancer therapy.

  20. Effectiveness of Collaborative Care for Depression in Public-Sector Primary Care Clinics Serving Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, Isabel T; Dwight-Johnson, Megan; Green, Jennifer M; Tang, Lingqi; Zhang, Lily; Duan, Naihua; Miranda, Jeanne

    2017-04-01

    Quality improvement interventions for depression care have been shown to be effective for improving quality of care and depression outcomes in settings with primarily insured patients. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a collaborative care intervention for depression that was tailored for low-income Latino patients seen in public-sector clinics. A total of 400 depressed patients from three public-sector primary care clinics were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a tailored collaborative care intervention versus enhanced usual care. Social workers without previous mental health experience served as depression care specialists for the intervention patients (N=196). Depending on patient preference, they delivered a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention or facilitated antidepressant medication given by primary care providers or both. In enhanced usual care, patients (N=204) received a pamphlet about depression, a letter for their primary care provider stating that they had a positive depression screen, and a list of local mental health resources. Intent-to-treat analyses examined clinical and process-of-care outcomes at 16 weeks. Compared with patients in the enhanced usual care group, patients in the intervention group had significantly improved depression, quality of life, and satisfaction outcomes (pclinics. Social workers without prior mental health experience can effectively provide CBT and manage depression care.

  1. THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF CUSTOMER FOCUS ON PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulnaidi Yaacob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated within the literature that the practice of customer focus is significantly associated with customer satisfaction. However, the possibility that the construct of customer focus may affect other relevant measures remains underexplored. As such, this paper discusses the effect that customer focus has on organizational performance, operating upon the premise that customer satisfaction is an end result of other relevant performance measures such as employee satisfaction, innovation, and cost benefits. Data were collected from 205 managers within the public service sector, all of whom were directly involved with the process of customer focus. The results of this study revealed that customer focus is a significant predictor of employee satisfaction, innovation, and customer satisfaction. The structural model developed also indicated that there is an indirect relationship between customer focus and customer satisfaction, as determined by employee satisfaction. In addition, the effect of customer focus on innovation is mediated by employee satisfaction. Therefore, this model implies that the practice of customer focus may enable public firms to increase their levels of performance.

  2. Immunization of rodents against Hymenolepis infections using non-viable homologous oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Ito, Akira

    2004-12-01

    Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous non-viable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at -70 degrees C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  3. [Viable myocardium detecting by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Mu, Hu-Yati; He, Peng-Yi; Yang, Yu-Chun; Chou, Ping; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yan-Yi

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and practicability of detecting viable myocardium by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in 13 anesthetized swines via occluding the distal of left anterior descending coronary arteries by angioplasty balloon for 60-90 minutes. The viable myocardium detection by CARTO voltage mapping was made after reconstruction of the left ventricle using CARTO and the results were compared with TTC staining. The standard of CARTO voltage to detect viable myocardium was 0.5 - 1.5 mV while viable myocardium showed pink color by TTC staining. Eleven out of 13 swines survived the operation and 2 swines died of ventricular fibrillation at 45 and 65 minutes post ischemia. Left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and 176 segments from 11 swines were analyzed. Viable myocardium detected by CARTO voltage mapping was identical as identified by TTC staining (Kappa = 0.816, P < 0.001). Taken the TTC result as standard, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of CARTO voltage mapping are 71.8%, 96.5% and 90.9% respectively. CARTO voltage mapping could be used as a reliable tool to detect viable myocardium in this model.

  4. HRM in public administration (Case study: Effects of the Public Administration Reform in the Republic of Macedonia)

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Jadranka; Matlievska, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    HRM in PA is expected to put together individual performance and overall institutional capacity in particular administrative organizational setting. Both are interdependent and expected to be linked with administrative organizational structure and functional feedbacks, stipulated in code of conduct as a system of procedures. Following this premises, the research was focused on interdependence between administrative effectiveness and organizational preconditions, such as organizational culture...

  5. p-Curve and Effect Size: Correcting for Publication Bias Using Only Significant Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsohn, Uri; Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph P

    2014-11-01

    Journals tend to publish only statistically significant evidence, creating a scientific record that markedly overstates the size of effects. We provide a new tool that corrects for this bias without requiring access to nonsignificant results. It capitalizes on the fact that the distribution of significant p values, p-curve, is a function of the true underlying effect. Researchers armed only with sample sizes and test results of the published findings can correct for publication bias. We validate the technique with simulations and by reanalyzing data from the Many-Labs Replication project. We demonstrate that p-curve can arrive at conclusions opposite that of existing tools by reanalyzing the meta-analysis of the "choice overload" literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Data from a pre-publication independent replication initiative examining ten moral judgement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Warren; Schweinsberg, Martin; Jordan, Jennifer; Kennedy, Deanna M; Qureshi, Israr; Sommer, S Amy; Thornley, Nico; Madan, Nikhil; Vianello, Michelangelo; Awtrey, Eli; Zhu, Luke Lei; Diermeier, Daniel; Heinze, Justin E; Srinivasan, Malavika; Tannenbaum, David; Bivolaru, Eliza; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; du Plessis, Christilene; Gronau, Quentin F; Hafenbrack, Andrew C; Liao, Eko Yi; Ly, Alexander; Marsman, Maarten; Murase, Toshio; Schaerer, Michael; Tworek, Christina M; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Wong, Lynn; Anderson, Tabitha; Bauman, Christopher W; Bedwell, Wendy L; Brescoll, Victoria; Canavan, Andrew; Chandler, Jesse J; Cheries, Erik; Cheryan, Sapna; Cheung, Felix; Cimpian, Andrei; Clark, Mark A; Cordon, Diana; Cushman, Fiery; Ditto, Peter H; Amell, Alice; Frick, Sarah E; Gamez-Djokic, Monica; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Graham, Jesse; Gu, Jun; Hahn, Adam; Hanson, Brittany E; Hartwich, Nicole J; Hein, Kristie; Inbar, Yoel; Jiang, Lily; Kellogg, Tehlyr; Legate, Nicole; Luoma, Timo P; Maibeucher, Heidi; Meindl, Peter; Miles, Jennifer; Mislin, Alexandra; Molden, Daniel C; Motyl, Matt; Newman, George; Ngo, Hoai Huong; Packham, Harvey; Ramsay, P Scott; Ray, Jennifer L; Sackett, Aaron M; Sellier, Anne-Laure; Sokolova, Tatiana; Sowden, Walter; Storage, Daniel; Sun, Xiaomin; Van Bavel, Jay J; Washburn, Anthony N; Wei, Cong; Wetter, Erik; Wilson, Carlos T; Darroux, Sophie-Charlotte; Uhlmann, Eric Luis

    2016-10-11

    We present the data from a crowdsourced project seeking to replicate findings in independent laboratories before (rather than after) they are published. In this Pre-Publication Independent Replication (PPIR) initiative, 25 research groups attempted to replicate 10 moral judgment effects from a single laboratory's research pipeline of unpublished findings. The 10 effects were investigated using online/lab surveys containing psychological manipulations (vignettes) followed by questionnaires. Results revealed a mix of reliable, unreliable, and culturally moderated findings. Unlike any previous replication project, this dataset includes the data from not only the replications but also from the original studies, creating a unique corpus that researchers can use to better understand reproducibility and irreproducibility in science.

  7. Implications of public understanding of avian influenza for fostering effective risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Brenda L; Brand, Michael; Regens, James L; Boatright, Daniel T

    2008-10-01

    Avian influenza has three of the four properties necessary to cause a pandemic. However, are we as individuals and communities prepared for a pandemic flu in the United States? To help answer this question, 12 focus groups (N = 60) were conducted in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to determine the level of awareness of avian and pandemic flu for the county health department to develop effective communication messages. The overall findings indicate that the general Tulsa public lacks information about avian influenza or pandemics, does not believe a pandemic will occur, and believes if one does occur the government will take care of it. Finally, the groups agreed that education would be the key to preventing widespread panic if a pandemic occurred. Five themes emerged: confusion about terminology, seriousness of avian influenza, disaster fatigue, appropriate precautions, and credibility of health information. Each should be considered in developing effective risk communication messages.

  8. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialist...

  9. Constrained by Red Tape. How Managerial Networking Moderates the Effects of Red Tape on Public Service Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekerom, P. van den; Torenvlied, R.; Akkerman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Extant public management studies examining the management of environmental challenges predominantly concentrate on the management of the erratic dimension of environmental challenges, that is, shocks. Whereas there is strong evidence that environmental shocks can be effectively managed, much less is

  10. Constrained by Red Tape: How Managerial Networking Moderates the Effects of Red Tape on Public Service Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Petra; Torenvlied, René; Akkerman, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    Extant public management studies examining the management of environmental challenges predominantly concentrate on the management of the erratic dimension of environmental challenges, that is, shocks. Whereas there is strong evidence that environmental shocks can be effectively managed, much less is

  11. A study on the impact of non-operational mechanisms on the effectiveness of public information technology governance

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Leonel Cerqueira; Santos Jr, Carlos Denner dos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study proposes an analysis of non-operational mechanisms that can impact the effectiveness of information technology governance in the Brazilian public administration. A questionnaire was sent to information technology managers and experienced professionals in the area of information technology governance, who work in public organizations. Based on the collected data, we used the structural equations technique to verify the impact of the following mechanisms on the effectiveness...

  12. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of insulin analogs from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurílio de Souza Cazarim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Human insulin is provided by the Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS for the treatment of diabetes, however, legal proceedings to acquire insulin analogs have burdened the BPHS health system. The aim of this study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare insulin analogs and human insulins. This is a pharmacoeconomic study of cost-effectiveness. The direct medical cost related to insulin extracted from the Ministry of Health drug price list was considered. The clinical results, i.e. reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, were extracted by meta-analysis. Different scenarios were structured to measure the uncertainties regarding the costs and reduction in HbA1c. Decision tree was developed for sensitivity of Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER. A total of fifteen scenarios were structured. Given the best-case scenario for the insulin analogs, the insulins aspart, lispro, glargine and detemir showed an ICER of R$ 1,768.59; R$ 3,308.54; R$ 11,718.75 and R$ 2,685.22, respectively. In all scenarios in which the minimum effectiveness was proposed, lispro, glargine and detemir were dominant strategies. Sensitivity analysis showed that the aspart had R$ 3,066.98 [95 % CI: 2339.22; 4418.53] and detemir had R$ 6,163.97 [95% CI: 3919.29; 11401.57] for incremental costs. We concluded there was evidence that the insulin aspart is the most cost-effective.

  14. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    challenges and propose an economically, politically, and legally viable ADR option. Much like waste management on Earth, cleaning up space junk will likely lie somewhere between a public good and a private sector service. An international, cooperative, public-private partnership concept can address many of these issues and be economically sustainable, while also driving the creation of a proper set of regulations, standards and best practices.

  15. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the

  16. Assessing the Public Health Impact and Effectiveness of Interventions To Prevent Salmonella Contamination of Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongliu; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Sprouts have been a recurring public health challenge due to microbiological contamination, and Salmonella has been the major cause of sprout-associated outbreaks. Although seed treatment and microbiological testing have been applied as risk reduction measures during sprout production, the extent to which their effectiveness in reducing the public health risks associated with sprouts has not been well investigated. We conducted a quantitative risk assessment to measure the risk posed by Salmonella contamination in sprouts and to determine whether and how mitigation strategies can achieve a satisfactory risk reduction based on the assumption that the risk reduction achieved by a microbiological sampling and testing program at a given sensitivity is equivalent to that achieved by direct inactivation of pathogens. Our results indicated that if the sprouts were produced without any risk interventions, the health impact caused by sprouts contaminated with Salmonella would be very high, with a median annual estimated loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of 691,412. Seed treatment (with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite) or microbiological sampling and testing of spent irrigation water (SIW) alone could reduce the median annual impact to 734 or 4,856 DALYs, respectively. Combining seed treatment with testing of the SIW would further decrease the risk to 58 DALYs. This number could be dramatically lowered to 3.99 DALYs if sprouts were produced under conditions that included treating seeds with 20,000 ppm of calcium hypochlorite plus microbiological testing of seeds, SIW, and finished products. Our analysis shows that the public health impact due to Salmonella contamination in sprouts could be controlled if seeds are treated to reduce pathogens and microbiological sampling and testing is implemented. Future advances in intervention strategies would be important to improve sprout safety further.

  17. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Eckelman

    Full Text Available The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation's pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE for the decade 2003-2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%, greenhouse gas emissions (10%, smog formation (10% criteria air pollutants (9%, stratospheric ozone depletion (1%, and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1-2%. The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors and demand side (NHE categories, as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000-98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety.

  18. Effectiveness of Home Visits in Pregnancy as a Public Health Measure to Improve Birth Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Ichikawa

    Full Text Available Birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW, and small for gestational age (SGA, are crucial indicators of child development and health.To evaluate whether home visits from public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women prevent adverse birth outcomes.In this quasi-experimental cohort study in Kyoto city, Japan, high-risk pregnant women were defined as teenage girls (range 14-19 years old, women with a twin pregnancy, women who registered their pregnancy late, had a physical or mental illness, were of single marital status, non-Japanese women who were not fluent in Japanese, or elderly primiparas. We collected data from all high-risk pregnant women at pregnancy registration interviews held at a public health centers between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, as well as birth outcomes when delivered from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (N = 964, which is a record of prenatal check-ups, delivery, child development and vaccinations. Of these women, 622 women were selected based on the home-visit program propensity score-matched sample (pair of N = 311 and included in the analysis. Data were analyzed between January and June 2014.In the propensity score-matched sample, women who received the home-visit program had lower odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.98 and showed a 0.55-week difference in gestational age (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92 compared to the matched controlled sample. Although the program did not prevent LBW and SGA, children born to mothers who received the program showed an increase in birth weight by 107.8 g (95% CI: 27.0 to 188.5.Home visits by public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women in Japan might be effective in preventing preterm birth, but not SGA.

  19. Global nanotechnology development from 1991 to 2012: patents, scientific publications, and effect of NSF funding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsinchun [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States); Son, Jaebong; Jiang, Shan, E-mail: jiangs@email.arizona.edu; Larson, Catherine A.; Gao, Qiang [The University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems (United States)

    2013-09-15

    In a relatively short interval for an emerging technology, nanotechnology has made a significant economic impact in numerous sectors including semiconductor manufacturing, catalysts, medicine, agriculture, and energy production. A part of the United States (US) government investment in basic research has been realized in the last two decades through the National Science Foundation (NSF), beginning with the nanoparticle research initiative in 1991 and continuing with support from the National Nanotechnology Initiative after fiscal year 2001. This paper has two main goals: (a) present a longitudinal analysis of the global nanotechnology development as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patents and Web of Science (WoS) publications in nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) for the interval 1991-2012; and (b) identify the effect of basic research funded by NSF on both indicators. The interval has been separated into three parts for comparison purposes: 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011-2012. The global trends of patents and scientific publications are presented. Bibliometric analysis, topic analysis, and citation network analysis methods are used to rank countries, institutions, technology subfields, and inventors contributing to nanotechnology development. We then, examined how these entities were affected by NSF funding and how they evolved over the past two decades. Results show that dedicated NSF funding used to support nanotechnology R and D was followed by an increased number of relevant patents and scientific publications, a greater diversity of technology topics, and a significant increase of citations. The NSF played important roles in the inventor community and served as a major contributor to numerous nanotechnology subfields.

  20. The effect of taxation on tobacco consumption and public revenues in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Nakkash, Rima; Alaouie, Hala

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco consumption rates in Lebanon are among the highest worldwide. The country ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in 2005. A law was passed in 2011 which regulates smoking in closed public spaces, bans advertising, and stipulates larger warnings. Despite international evidence confirming that increasing taxation on tobacco products lowers tobacco consumption, no such policy has yet been adopted: a cigarette pack costs on average US$1.50. To date no studies in Lebanon have addressed the welfare and public finance effects of increasing taxes on tobacco products. Using the 2005 national survey of household living conditions, we estimate an almost ideal demand system to generate price elasticities of demand for tobacco. Using estimated elasticities and a conservative scenario for expected smuggling, we simulate the consumption and tax revenue effects of a change in the price of tobacco under various tax schemes. Increasing taxes on all tobacco products so as to double the price of imported cigarettes would lower their consumption by 7% and consumption of domestically produced cigarettes by over 90%. Young adults (ages 15-30) are more sensitive: consumption would drop by 9% for imported cigarettes and by 100% for domestic cigarettes. Government revenues would increase by approximately 52%. The estimated elasticities indicate that an increase in taxes on all tobacco products would lead to a reduction in consumption and an increase in government revenue. Evidence from Lebanon on the effectiveness of increased taxation may help initiate national debate on the need to raise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Effectiveness of public health and education programs for creating awareness of and managing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon White

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simon WhiteSchool of Pharmacy, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, UKAbstract: This paper reviews the effectiveness of public health and education programs for creating awareness of, preventing and managing cardiovascular disease (CVD, with a particular focus on their impact on people’s behavior. Evidence-based guidance recommends that such programs, eg, cardiac rehabilitation, should include risk assessment, modification of lifestyle risk factors and, where appropriate, medication. However, despite substantial evidence of cardiac rehabilitation being beneficial, a significant proportion of eligible patients fail to receive cardiac rehabilitation and numerous barriers to attendance remain, particularly because cardiac rehabilitation service provision continues to be patchy and of variable quality. Evidence suggests that educational programs to prevent CVD may achieve favorable reductions in mortality and overall CVD risk. However, whilst people tend to have significant knowledge of the modifiable risk factors for CVD, this does not necessarily lead to action to reduce risk, because lay epidemiology appears to play a significant role in sophisticated determinations of CVD causation, amongst other factors. Some people, but not all, make and maintain some lifestyle changes, but not necessarily all of the changes recommended, because they may only change aspects of lifestyle that are perceived to have been likely causes of their CVD. In addition, many people experience difficulty in making and maintaining lifestyle changes. There appears to be considerable disquiet among patients about taking medicines prescribed for CVD, particularly concerning side effects, which in some instances may affect medicine-taking. New developments and patient approaches recognize the wider societal issues that influence the lifestyle choices people make. Initiatives to increase attendance and widen access to cardiac rehabilitation have included home-based and

  2. Eradication of high viable loads of Listeria monocytogenes contaminating food-contact surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ede Candia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the efficacy of cold gaseous ozone treatments at low concentrations in the eradication of high Listeria monocytogenes viable cell loads from glass, polypropylene, stainless steel and expanded polystyrene food-contact surfaces. Using a step by step approach, involving the selection of the most resistant strain-surface combinations, 11 Listeria spp. strains resulted inactivated by a continuous ozone flow at 1.07 mg m-3 after 24 or 48 h of cold incubation, depending on both strain and surface evaluated. Increasing the inoculum level to 9 log CFU coupon-1, the best inactivation rate was obtained after 48h of treatment at 3.21 mg m-3 ozone concentration when cells were deposited onto stainless steel and expanded polystyrene coupons, resulted the most resistant food-contact surfaces in the previous assays.The addition of naturally microbiologically contaminated meat extract to a high load of L. monocytogenes LMG 23775 cells, the most resistant strain out of the 11 assayed Listeria spp. strains, led to its complete inactivation after four days of treatment.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the survival of L. monocytogenes and the effect of ozone treatment under cold storage conditions on expanded polystyrene, a commonly-used material in food packaging. These results could be useful for reducing pathogen cross-contamination phenomena during cold food storage.

  3. Survival of Erwinia amylovora in mature apple fruit calyces through the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, M; Biosca, E G; Wimalajeewa, S C; López, M M; Marco-Noales, E

    2009-07-01

    Survival of Erwinia amylovora, causal agent of fire blight in pome fruits and other rosaceous plants, was monitored inside mature apples calyces under some storage conditions utilized in fruit. Apple fruit calyces inoculated with two E. amylovora strains and their respective GFP-marked strains were maintained at 26 degrees and 5 degrees C, and the effect of copper treatment was assayed at 0.01 and 0.1 mmol l(-1) CuSO4. In nontreated apples at 26 degrees C, part of the population of E. amylovora survived in the 'viable but nonculturable' (VBNC) state, whereas at 5 degrees C the majority of the population retained culturability. In copper-treated apples, the whole population adopted the VBNC state irrespective of temperature. Regardless of temperature, copper and inoculum dose, VBNC cells recovered culturability and pathogenicity in King's B broth or by host plant passage. Erwinia amylovora survived for at least 35 days in mature apple calyces. Besides, the ability of the pathogen in the VBNC state to regain culturability and pathogenicity suggests that the apple fruit could be a potential carrier of E. amylovora contributing to the spreading of fire blight disease. The risk of E. amylovora dissemination through mature fruit transport, although low, has been demonstrated, and should be considered in pest risk assessments.

  4. Agouti regulation of intracellular calcium: Role in the insulin resistance of viable yellow mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemel, M.B.; Kim, J.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Woychik, R.P.; Michaud, E.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadwell, S.H.; Patel, I.R.; Wilkison, W.O. [Research Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-05-23

    Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse cause a syndrome of marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Although it is known that the agouti gene is expressed in an ectopic manner in these mutants, the precise mechanism by which the agouti gene product mediates these effects is unclear. Since intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is believed to play a role in mediating insulin action and dysregulation of Ca{sup 2+} flux is observed in diabetic animals and humans, we examined the status of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in mice carrying the dominant agouti allele, viable yellow (A{sup vy}). We show here that in mice carrying this mutation, the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is elevated in skeletal muscle, and the degree of elevation is closely correlated with the degree to which the mutant traits are expressed in individual animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that the agouti gene product is capable of inducing increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in cultured and freshly isolated skeletal muscle myocytes from wild-type mice. Based on these findings, we present a model in which we propose that the agouti polypeptide promotes insulin resistance in mutant animals through its ability to increase [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Low-dose dobutamine myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the identification of viable myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Renata Freire de [Instituto Hermes Pardini, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis. Div. of Nuclear Medicine; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio [Instituto do Coracao (InCor-HC/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Barroso, Adelanir Antonio, E-mail: renatafreire@yahoo.com.b [Nuclear Medcenter, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    Objective: to evaluate the increase in specificity of dual isotope myocardial perfusion gated SPECT ({sup 99m}Tcsestamibi/thallium-201), a highly sensitive method to detect viable myocardium, with addition of data on contractile reserve simultaneously acquired by low-dose dobutamine gated SPECT, similarly to echocardiography. Materials and methods: a total of 260 myocardial segments were assessed in 13 patients with myocardial infarction referred for investigation of myocardial viability before undergoing revascularization. Cellular integrity and contractile reserve were evaluated by dual isotope perfusion myocardial gated SPECT with thallium rest and redistribution images and post-stress {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi gated-SPECT images under basal conditions and with low-dose dobutamine. The improvement in the contractile performance detected by post-revascularization {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT was the parameter considered for determining myocardial viability. For the purpose of results analysis, the functional parameters of the myocardial segments were quantified at the different phases of the study and stratified according to their viability for a later post-revascularization functional comparison. Results: in the statistical analysis, systolic wall thickening demonstrated to be a relevant parameter in the evaluation of myocardial contractile reserve by this method, with a tendency of improvement in the specificity (84%), demonstrating higher values than those observed in the literature. Conclusion: this method tends to present an effective contribution in the assessment of myocardial viability. (author)

  6. Anxiolytic-like effect of oxytocin in the simulated public speaking test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Danielle C G; Zuardi, Antonio W; Graeff, Frederico G; Queiroz, Regina H C; Crippa, José A S

    2012-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is known to be involved in anxiety, as well as cardiovascular and hormonal regulation. The objective of this study was to assess the acute effect of intranasally administered OT on subjective states, as well as cardiovascular and endocrine parameters, in healthy volunteers (n = 14) performing a simulated public speaking test. OT or placebo was administered intranasally 50 min before the test. Assessments were made across time during the experimental session: (1) baseline (-30 min); (2) pre-test (-15 min); (3) anticipation of the speech (50 min); (4) during the speech (1:03 h), post-test time 1 (1:26 h), and post-test time 2 (1:46 h). Subjective states were evaluated by self-assessment scales. Cortisol serum and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Additionally, heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance, and the number of spontaneous fluctuations in skin conductance were measured. Compared with placebo, OT reduced the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety index during the pre-test phase only, while increasing sedation at the pre-test, anticipation, and speech phases. OT also lowered the skin conductance level at the pre-test, anticipation, speech, and post-test 2 phases. Other parameters evaluated were not significantly affected by OT. The present results show that OT reduces anticipatory anxiety, but does not affect public speaking fear, suggesting that this hormone has anxiolytic properties.

  7. The appeasement effect of a United Nations climate summit on the German public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Michael; de Silva-Schmidt, Fenja; Hoppe, Imke; Arlt, Dorothee; Schmitt, Josephine B.

    2017-11-01

    The annual UN climate summits receive intense global media coverage, and as such could engage local publics around the world, stimulate debate and knowledge about climate politics, and, ultimately, mobilize people to combat climate change. Here we show that, in contrast to these hopes, although the German public were exposed to news about the 2015 Paris summit, they did not engage with it in a more active way. Comparing knowledge and attitudes before, during and after the summit using a three-wave online panel survey (quota sample, N = 1,121), we find that respondents learnt a few basic facts about the conference but they continue to lack basic background knowledge about climate policy. Trust in global climate policy increased a little, but citizens were less inclined to support a leading role for Germany in climate politics. Moreover, they were not more likely to engage personally in climate protection. These results suggest that this global media event had a modest appeasing rather than mobilizing effect.

  8. Life satisfaction across nations: the effects of women's political status and public priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Richard; Bell, Shannon Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Feminist scholars suggest that improving the quality of life of individuals living in nations around the world may be more readily achieved by increasing women's political power and by reorienting public-policy priorities, than by focusing primarily on economic growth. These considerations raise the question of which characteristics of societies are associated with the quality of life of the people in those societies. Here, we address this issue empirically by statistically analyzing cross-national data. We assess the effects of gender equality in the political sphere, as well as a variety of other factors, on the subjective well-being of nations, as indicated by average self-reported levels of life satisfaction. We find that people report the highest levels of life satisfaction in nations where women have greater political representation, where military spending is low, and where health care spending is high, controlling for a variety of other factors. GDP per capita, urbanization, and natural resource exploitation are not clearly associated with life satisfaction. These findings suggest that nations may be able to improve the subjective quality of life of people without increasing material wealth or natural resource consumption by increasing gender equality in politics and changing public spending priorities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of messages from a media campaign to increase public awareness of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-02-01

    To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. A survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally representative sample (N = 1,677) was conducted. Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. It was examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: (1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; (2) responsibility for addressing obesity; (3) support for prevention policies, and (4) stigma toward obese children. Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Different impact of heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin on turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Araújo, Carlos; Lluch, Nuria; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Magadán, Susana

    2015-05-01

    In aquaculture, several criteria should be considered to select an appropriate probiotic, including the aquatic origin and safety of the strain and its ability to modulate the host immune response. The properties and effects of probiotics are strain-specific and some factors such as viability, dose and duration of diet supplementation may regulate their immunomodulatory activities. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of eight heat-inactivated and viable lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of aquatic origin belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Weissella on the viability and innate immune response of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) leucocytes. Head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with viable and heat-inactivated LAB at different concentrations. After incubation, the viability of leucocytes was evaluated using colorimetric assays (MTT and LDH) and flow cytometry (annexin V/propidium iodide). Heat-inactivated LAB showed no cytotoxic effect while viable LAB exerted variable influence on apoptosis of turbot phagocytes and lymphocytes. Leucocyte respiratory burst activity and phagocytosis were also differentially activated, as viable LAB stimulated leucocytes more efficiently than the heat-inactivated LAB. Our results suggest diverse strain-specific mechanisms of interaction between the evaluated LAB and turbot leucocytes. Furthermore, our work sets up in vitro systems to evaluate the effect of LAB as potential probiotics, which will be useful to develop efficient screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adapting to climate change on Western public lands: addressing the ecological effects of domestic, wild, and feral ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschta, Robert L; Donahue, Debra L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Rhodes, Jonathan J; Karr, James R; O'Brien, Mary H; Fleischner, Thomas L; Deacon Williams, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production-the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands-can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates.

  12. Adapting to Climate Change on Western Public Lands: Addressing the Ecological Effects of Domestic, Wild, and Feral Ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschta, Robert L.; Donahue, Debra L.; DellaSala, Dominick A.; Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Karr, James R.; O'Brien, Mary H.; Fleischner, Thomas L.; Deacon Williams, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    Climate change affects public land ecosystems and services throughout the American West and these effects are projected to intensify. Even if greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, adaptation strategies for public lands are needed to reduce anthropogenic stressors of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and to help native species and ecosystems survive in an altered environment. Historical and contemporary livestock production—the most widespread and long-running commercial use of public lands—can alter vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife species composition and abundances in ways that exacerbate the effects of climate change on these resources. Excess abundance of native ungulates (e.g., deer or elk) and feral horses and burros add to these impacts. Although many of these consequences have been studied for decades, the ongoing and impending effects of ungulates in a changing climate require new management strategies for limiting their threats to the long-term supply of ecosystem services on public lands. Removing or reducing livestock across large areas of public land would alleviate a widely recognized and long-term stressor and make these lands less susceptible to the effects of climate change. Where livestock use continues, or where significant densities of wild or feral ungulates occur, management should carefully document the ecological, social, and economic consequences (both costs and benefits) to better ensure management that minimizes ungulate impacts to plant and animal communities, soils, and water resources. Reestablishing apex predators in large, contiguous areas of public land may help mitigate any adverse ecological effects of wild ungulates.

  13. Financing and cost-effectiveness analysis of public-private partnerships: provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaranayake Lilani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public-private partnerships (PPP could be effective in scaling up services. We estimated cost and cost-effectiveness of different PPP arrangements in the provision of tuberculosis (TB treatment, and the financing required for the different models from the perspective of the provincial TB programme, provider, and the patient. Methods Two different models of TB provider partnerships are evaluated, relative to sole public provision: public-private workplace (PWP and public-private non-government (PNP. Cost and effectiveness data were collected at six sites providing directly observed treatment (DOT. Effectiveness for a 12-month cohort of new sputum positive patients was measured using cure and treatment success rates. Provider and patient costs were estimated, and analysed according to sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness is estimated from the perspective of the provider, patient and society in terms of the cost per TB case cured and cost per case successfully treated. Results Cost per case cured was significantly lower in PNP (US $354–446, and comparable between PWP (US $788–979 and public sites (US $700–1000. PPP models could significantly reduce costs to the patient by 64–100%. Relative to pure public sector provision and financing, expansion of PPPs could reduce government financing required per TB patient treated from $609–690 to $130–139 in PNP and $36–46 in PWP. Conclusion There is a strong economic case for expanding PPP in TB treatment and potentially for other types of health services. Where PPPs are tailored to target groups and supported by the public sector, scaling up of effective services could occur at much lower cost than solely relying on public sector models.

  14. Effect of publicly reporting performance data of medicine use on injection use: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Tang, Yuqing; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yin, Xi; Du, Xin; Zhang, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate use of prescribing pharmaceuticals, particularly injections, not only affects the quality of medical care, but also leads to an increase in medical expenses. Publicly reporting performance data of medical care is becoming a common health policy tool adopted to supervise medical quality. To our knowledge, few studies about public reporting applied to medicine use have been reported. This study intended to introduce public reporting in the field of medicine use, and evaluate the effect of publicly reporting performance data of medicine use on the use of injections. The research sites were 20 primary healthcare institutions in Q City, Hubei. By matching, the institutions were divided into the intervention group and control group. A quasi-experimental design was applied in this study. In the intervention group, the performance data of medicine use were publicly reported. The injection prescribing rates of the two groups before and after intervention were measured and compared. Difference-in-difference method and logistic regression were employed to estimate the effect of public reporting on injection use. Public reporting led to a reduction of approximately 4% in the injection prescribing rate four months after intervention (OR = 0.96; 95%CI: 0.94, 0.97). The intervention effect was inconsistent in each month after intervention, and it was most positive in the second month after intervention (OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.89, 0.92). In general, publicly reporting performance data of medicine use may have positive effects on injection use to some extent. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanism by which public reporting influences injection use. Comprehensive measures are also necessary to promote the rational use of injections.

  15. Effect of publicly reporting performance data of medicine use on injection use: a quasi-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inappropriate use of prescribing pharmaceuticals, particularly injections, not only affects the quality of medical care, but also leads to an increase in medical expenses. Publicly reporting performance data of medical care is becoming a common health policy tool adopted to supervise medical quality. To our knowledge, few studies about public reporting applied to medicine use have been reported. This study intended to introduce public reporting in the field of medicine use, and evaluate the effect of publicly reporting performance data of medicine use on the use of injections. METHODS: The research sites were 20 primary healthcare institutions in Q City, Hubei. By matching, the institutions were divided into the intervention group and control group. A quasi-experimental design was applied in this study. In the intervention group, the performance data of medicine use were publicly reported. The injection prescribing rates of the two groups before and after intervention were measured and compared. Difference-in-difference method and logistic regression were employed to estimate the effect of public reporting on injection use. RESULTS: Public reporting led to a reduction of approximately 4% in the injection prescribing rate four months after intervention (OR = 0.96; 95%CI: 0.94, 0.97. The intervention effect was inconsistent in each month after intervention, and it was most positive in the second month after intervention (OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.89, 0.92. CONCLUSIONS: In general, publicly reporting performance data of medicine use may have positive effects on injection use to some extent. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanism by which public reporting influences injection use. Comprehensive measures are also necessary to promote the rational use of injections.

  16. Rimonabant effects on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in healthy humans: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina H C; Chagas, Marcos H N; Linares, Ila M P; Arrais, Kátia C; de Oliveira, Danielle C G; Queiroz, Maria E; Nardi, Antonio E; Huestis, Marilyn A; Hallak, Jaime E C; Zuardi, Antonio W; Moreira, Fabrício A; Crippa, José A S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that rimonabant, a cannabinoid antagonist/inverse agonist, would increase anxiety in healthy subjects during a simulation of the public speaking test. Participants were randomly allocated to receive oral placebo or 90 mg rimonabant in a double-blind design. Subjective effects were measured by Visual Analogue Mood Scale. Physiological parameters, namely arterial blood pressure and heart rate, also were monitored. Twelve participants received oral placebo and 12 received 90 mg rimonabant. Rimonabant increased self-reported anxiety levels during the anticipatory speech and performance phase compared with placebo. Interestingly, rimonabant did not modulate anxiety prestress and was not associated with sedation, cognitive impairment, discomfort, or blood pressure changes. Cannabinoid-1 antagonism magnifies the responses to an anxiogenic stimulus without interfering with the prestress phase. These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system may work on-demand to counteract the consequences of anxiogenic stimuli in healthy humans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The effect of the 2007 crisis on mexico´s public finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Enrique Beltrán Noriega

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the last century and beginning of this, the effects on the global economy have been impacting the economic, political and financial situation of several nations, having a significant impact on the economies of Latin America, and among other aspects affecting trade, capital flows, foreign direct investment and remittances. This analysis identifies and analyzes the mechanisms that cause macroeconomic imbalances in economies with emphasis on Latin America, through literature review of classic and modern economic theories, and data collection of specialized institutions. The empirical results shows that the economy gets these results by some factors such as demographic structure, the aspect of taxation, energy dependence, the credit and public sector, and the impact of social system in the current account.

  18. The disclosure of celebrity HIV infection: its effects on public attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, S C; Hunter, T L

    1992-10-01

    Despite the magnitude of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, studies have shown low levels of public concern about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS. We investigated the effects of celebrity disclosure of HIV infection on the AIDS-related perceptions of urban men. Measures of AIDS-related perceptions were collected from 361 men waiting for mass transportation in downtown Chicago; 252 were assessed at three time points prior to and 109 were assessed at two time points after professional basketball star Earvin "Magic" Johnson's disclosure of his HIV infection. Significant increases in concern about AIDS, interest in AIDS information, and talking with friends about AIDS occurred after celebrity disclosure of HIV infection. Celebrity disclosure of HIV seropositivity demonstrated a marked change in AIDS-related perceptions among the men surveyed. Changes in awareness due to celebrity disclosure may lead to increased readiness to reduce risk and could be viewed as a window of opportunity for HIV prevention efforts.

  19. Sensitive and Specific Biomimetic Lipid Coated Microfluidics to Isolate Viable Circulating Tumor Cells and Microemboli for Cancer Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yang Chen

    Full Text Available Here we presented a simple and effective membrane mimetic microfluidic device with antibody conjugated supported lipid bilayer (SLB "smart coating" to capture viable circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM directly from whole blood of all stage clinical cancer patients. The non-covalently bound SLB was able to promote dynamic clustering of lipid-tethered antibodies to CTC antigens and minimized non-specific blood cells retention through its non-fouling nature. A gentle flow further flushed away loosely-bound blood cells to achieve high purity of CTCs, and a stream of air foam injected disintegrate the SLB assemblies to release intact and viable CTCs from the chip. Human blood spiked cancer cell line test showed the ~95% overall efficiency to recover both CTCs and CTMs. Live/dead assay showed that at least 86% of recovered cells maintain viability. By using 2 mL of peripheral blood, the CTCs and CTMs counts of 63 healthy and colorectal cancer donors were positively correlated with the cancer progression. In summary, a simple and effective strategy utilizing biomimetic principle was developed to retrieve viable CTCs for enumeration, molecular analysis, as well as ex vivo culture over weeks. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity, it is the first time to show the high detection rates and quantity of CTCs in non-metastatic cancer patients. This work offers the values in both early cancer detection and prognosis of CTC and provides an accurate non-invasive strategy for routine clinical investigation on CTCs.

  20. Evaluating public relations effectiveness in a health care setting. The identification of communication assets and liabilities via a communication audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie K

    2005-01-01

    The practice of public relations has experienced tremendous growth and evolution over the past 25 years, especially in the area of medical public relations. The constant changes in health care delivery have often led to increased need for communication with important publics. At the same time, practitioners in all fields of public relations have explored methods of accurately measuring the effectiveness of public relations programs. One such method of evaluation is the communication audit. This paper includes a brief overview of the communication audit concept followed by a case study based on an audit conducted for a small, multicultural non-profit health-care agency. Steps taken to conduct the audit and the methodology used are discussed. An analysis of the data is used to address two research questions regarding the efficacy of the Center's mission and vision. Suggestions for future audits are provided.

  1. [Marketing as a tool to increase the effectiveness of public health plans. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli-Palacio, Asunción; Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Porta, Miquel

    2008-04-01

    Recent years have seen a steady increase in social marketing applied to health with the aim of increasing public awareness and changing people's behavior. Programs or actions based on the principles of social marketing have been shown to be effective in improving public health. However, that is not the general rule in Spain, where health policies have been based on health plans directed more to economic efficiency than to citizens' needs. For a health marketing program to be effective, the following factors are necessary: 1) the program has a long-term temporal horizon for action; 2) the objectives are established in terms of behavioral changes; 3) market research is used as a source of information; 4) different actions are established according to the segments identified as targets; 5) the program is operationalized in the four variables of the marketing mix, namely, product, price, distribution and communication, and is not only based on advertising campaigns; 6) the core of the program is exchange, understood as the factors that motivate people to change in return for the promise of something beneficial to them; 7) the factors or forces that compete with the desired behavioral changes are neutralized, and 8) businesses' social responsibility is used as a mechanism to reinforce health improvement programs. The design of health marketing programs should include definition of strategic and operational actions aimed not only at potential adopters of the desired behavior but also at all agents who may help or hinder behavioral change (health professionals, the pharmaceutical industry, politicians, the advertising industry, and products and services with health-challenging objectives).

  2. Reducing Student Apprehension of Public Speaking: Evaluating Effectiveness of Group Tutoring Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Misty L.; Johnson, Karen Gabrielle; Stewart, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that the fear of public speaking is an extraordinarily common phobia and that a significant portion of the population experiences some form of anxiety over public speaking. Although there is a great deal of research available on the etiology of public speaking anxiety, there is far less research available on interventional…

  3. Portraying a Positive Image: A Guide to Effective Public Relations for Educational Office Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Boards Association, New Cumberland.

    Suggestions for improving communication and public relations are offered in this guidebook for school office personnel. Because of the high visibility and accessibility of their positions, such staff serve important public relations functions for the school. Chapter 1 examines the public relations role of school office personnel, and chapter 2…

  4. The effect of popular exemplars and expert account base-rate information on perceived public opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevere, J.; Walgrave, S.; de Swert, K.

    2012-01-01

    How people perceive public opinion is important because it affects their willingness to express themselves. This paper investigates whether two different portrayals of public opinion in the TV news affect people’s perception of public opinion. We use an experimental design in which roughly one

  5. Immunization of Rodents Against Hymenolepis Infections using Non-Viable Homologous Oncospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous nonviable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at −70°C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  6. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  7. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  8. Effects of tryptophan depletion on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Monteiro-dos-Santos

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence point to the participation of serotonin (5HT in anxiety. Its specific role, however, remains obscure. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of reducing 5HT-neurotransmission through an acute tryptophan depletion on anxiety induced by a simulated public speaking (SPS test. Two groups of 14-15 subjects were submitted to a 24-h diet with a low or normal content of tryptophan and received an amino acid mixture without (TRY- or with (TRY+ tryptophan under double-blind conditions. Five hours later they were submitted to the SPS test. The state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI and the visual analogue mood scale (VAMS were used to measure subjective anxiety. Both scales showed that SPS induced a significant increase in anxiety. Although no overall difference between groups was found, there was a trend (P = 0.078 to an interaction of group x gender x phases of the SPS, and a separate analysis of each gender showed an increase in anxiety measured by the STAI in females of the TRY- group. The results for the female TRY- group also suggested a greater arousing effect of the SPS test. In conclusion, the tryptophan depletion procedure employed in the present study did not induce a significant general change in subjective anxiety, but tended to induce anxiety in females. This suggests a greater sensitivity of the 5HT system to the effects of the procedure in this gender.

  9. Inspiring the undergraduate soil students for a future effective public outreach role: Success strategies and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ismaily, Said; Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Kacimov, Anvar

    2015-04-01

    Undergraduates, majoring in soil sciences (SS), have a broad holistic role because SS integrates several intertwined geo-environmental/ecological and socio-economical aspects. Consequently, students have to learn how the information, advice, practices and expertise, pertinent to food security, water shortage, hydropedology, among others amalgamate through SS . Hence, university SS-programs should incorporate public outreach activities. We present experience at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Oman on how to develop an effective public outreach program that can be implemented by undergraduate students. Our strategy has three components : (i) offering a course Soil and Water Tour (SWAE 4110) of hydropedology nature that integrates field, laboratory-work, and presentation-extension activities; the course is research-oriented and designed to provide opportunities for students to practice their metacognitive abilities and critical thinking; the course is offered by the Department of Soils, Water & Agricultural Engineering (SWAE), (ii) Training and involving the undergraduates in planning and conducting enjoyable, interactive, and effective workshops for school pupils; a training workshop on "Soils" was conducted for pupils (a total 300 participants, grades 7-9) and teachers aiming to unveil the secrets and the role of soil in ecosystems; workshop was organized by the SWAE Students Society (iii) Guiding the undergraduates on the best practice for raising funds for their outreach activities (e.g. the undergraduates secured funds for the workshop on "Soils", which was sponsored by Muscat Municipality, a governmental agency, and several private companies such as HMR Consultants, Metal Engineering L.L.C and Bauer Nimr LLC); SS students were mentored in submission of research proposals to the national research agency (e.g. FURAP program of The Research Council, TRC, WWW.trc.gov.om). The three components were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively using fixed-response and

  10. ISSUES REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERNAL CONTROL/ MANAGERIAL AND COMBATING SOME NEGATIVE EFFECTS IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS' ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stegaroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the importance and impact of the management of internal control/ managerial in Romanian public institutions, as well as the consequences arising as a result of not implementing it. It also analyzed the legal framework governing the internal control/managerial and the main conclusions issued by the Romanian Court of Accounts on the status of its implementation in Romanian public institutions. At the same time, it is stressed the role of management carried out by heads of public institutions in terms of combating the negative effects that have a direct impact on their activity.

  11. Improving the effectiveness of service delivery in the public healthcare sector: the case of ophthalmology services in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, Chee Yoong; Lim, Ka Keat; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Dahian, Kamilah Binti; Goh, Pik Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rising demand of ophthalmology care is increasingly straining Malaysia?s public healthcare sector due to its limited human and financial resources. Improving the effectiveness of ophthalmology service delivery can promote national policy goals of population health improvement and system sustainability. This study examined the performance variation of public ophthalmology service in Malaysia, estimated the potential output gain and investigated several factors that might explain the...

  12. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  14. Detection and quantification of viable Bacillus cereus group species in milk by propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Fernanda; Barth, Valdir C; Nasário, Jéssica S R; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2016-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes important spore-forming bacteria that present spoilage capability and may cause foodborne diseases. These microorganisms are traditionally evaluated in food using culturing methods, which can be laborious and time-consuming, and may also fail to detect bacteria in a viable but nonculturable state. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to analyze the contamination of UHT milk by B. cereus group species viable cells. Thirty micrograms per milliliter of PMA was shown to be the most effective concentration for reducing the PCR amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA from dead cells. The quantification limit of the PMA-qPCR assay was 7.5 × 10(2) cfu/mL of milk. One hundred thirty-five UHT milk samples were analyzed to evaluate the association of PMA to qPCR to selectively detect viable cells. The PMA-qPCR was able to detect B. cereus group species in 44 samples (32.6%), whereas qPCR without PMA detected 78 positive samples (57.8%). Therefore, the PMA probably inhibited the amplification of DNA from cells that were killed during UHT processing, which avoided an overestimation of bacterial cells when using qPCR and, thus, did not overvalue potential health risks. A culture-based method was also used to detect and quantify B. cereus sensu stricto in the same samples and showed positive results in 15 (11.1%) samples. The culture method and PMA-qPCR allowed the detection of B. cereus sensu stricto in quantities compatible with the infective dose required to cause foodborne disease in 3 samples, indicating that, depending on the storage conditions, even after UHT treatment, infective doses may be reached in ready-to-consume products. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f(R) gravity with producing ΛCDM background expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Liu, Molin [Xinyang Normal University, Department of Physics, Xinyang (China)

    2016-12-15

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H{sub 0} (or σ{sub 8}) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in ΛCDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f(R) gravity producing ΛCDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f(R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σm{sub ν} < 0.202 eV for the active-neutrino case, m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.757 eV with N{sub eff} < 3.22 for the sterile neutrino case. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -1.89 and f{sub R0} x 10{sup -6} > -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H{sub 0} gets slightly weaker in the viable f(R) model than that in the base ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  16. Optimizing Viable Leukocyte Sampling from the Female Genital Tract for Clinical Trials: An International Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Stephen C.; Martinson, Jeffrey A.; Plants, Jill; Brady, Kirsten E.; Gumbi, Pamela P.; Adams, Devin J.; Vojtech, Lucia; Galloway, Christine G.; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Gao, Dayong; Shu, Zhiquan; Nyanga, Billy; Izulla, Preston; Kimani, Joshua; Kimwaki, Steve; Bere, Alfred; Moodie, Zoe; Landay, Alan L.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Kaul, Rupert; Novak, Richard M.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hladik, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear. Methods and Findings We enrolled women from four sites in Africa and the US to compare three genital leukocyte sampling methods: cervicovaginal lavages (CVL), endocervical cytobrushes, and ectocervical biopsies. Absolute yields of mononuclear leukocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometric bead-based cell counting. Of the non-invasive sampling types, two combined sequential cytobrushes yielded significantly more viable mononuclear leukocytes than a CVL (pbiopsies. Sample yields were consistent between sites. In a subgroup analysis, we observed significant reproducibility between replicate same-day biopsies (r = 0.89, p = 0.0123). Visible red blood cells in cytobrushes increased leukocyte yields more than three-fold (p = 0.0078), but did not change their subpopulation profile, indicating that these leukocytes were still largely derived from the mucosa and not peripheral blood. We also confirmed that many CD4+ T cells in the female genital tract express the α4β7 integrin, an HIV envelope-binding mucosal homing receptor. Conclusions CVL sampling recovered the lowest number of viable mononuclear leukocytes. Two cervical cytobrushes yielded comparable total numbers of viable leukocytes to one biopsy, but cytobrushes and biopsies were biased toward macrophages and T lymphocytes, respectively. Our study also established the feasibility of obtaining consistent flow cytometric analyses of isolated genital cells from four study sites in the US and Africa. These data represent an important step towards implementing mucosal cell sampling in international clinical trials of HIV prevention. PMID:24454917

  17. Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Communication between Public Institutions and Journalists through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Păun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the challenges and opportunities of social media for public institutions and argues that the designing and implementing government public relations using social media involves more than merely having another communication channel for publics. I will explain the “social media”, the differences between social media and electronic-Public Relations - E-PR, and the communication between public institutions and journalists. The interviews with journalists or with PR specialists in public institutions were focused on the use, the extent of this use, and the perceived value of various social media as sources contributing to agenda building (Cobb, Elder 1983. If journalists are regularly monitoring sites and forums for story ideas and information, it is necessary for PR professionals within each industry to carefully monitor the information placed there and perhaps engage content producers. In this paper, I conclude that social media is an alternative instrument to encourage a two-way communication channel between government and publics. In public relations, the emergence of social media challenges the traditional instruments of government public relations. Responding to the development of information and communication technology (ICT, social media is considered as an alternative communication channel of government public relations efforts.

  18. The Effects of Symptom Recognition and Diagnostic Labels on Public Beliefs, Emotional Reactions, and Stigmas Associated with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scior, Katrina; Connolly, Theresa; Williams, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Labels are firmly rejected by the disability rights movement, yet the complex effects of labeling on lay beliefs are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of labeling on the general public's reactions to people with intellectual disabilities. A sample of 1,233 adult members of the UK general population were randomly presented with…

  19. Meta-Analysis of Self-Report Data on the Effectiveness of Public Speaking Anxiety Treatment Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes manuscripts that have studied the treatment of communication apprehension. Concludes that all forms of treatment (cognitive modification, systematic desensitization, and skills training) were effective in reducing public speaking anxiety and that the type of self-report scale did not affect the observed effect size. (MS)

  20. Personality Variables as Predictors of Leadership Role Performance Effectiveness of Administrators of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…

  1. Effect of Non Financial Incentives on Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Public Secondary Schools--Survey of Kisii Sub County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Asiago Lenah; Okibo, Walter; Nyang'au, Andrew; Ondima, Cleophas

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction is a major challenge among employees in many organizations. The purpose of this research project is to assess the effect of non-financial incentives on job satisfaction of teachers in public secondary schools of Kisii Sub County in the Republic of Kenya. The specific objectives for the study include: to assess the effect of…

  2. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 07: The "laws" of effective public education about fire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, breakthrough research has identified factors that are most important for effectively communicating about wildland fire hazards. This fact sheet discusses seven "Laws" of effective public communication that should be considered in any state-of-the-art education campaign.

  3. The Effect of Child Health Insurance Access on Schooling: Evidence from Public Insurance Expansions. NBER Working Paper No. 20178

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Sarah; Kleiner, Samuel; Lovenheim, Michael F.; Grossman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Public health insurance programs comprise a large share of federal and state government expenditure, and these programs are due to be expanded as part of the 2010 Affordable Care Act. Despite a large literature on the effects of these programs on health care utilization and health outcomes, little prior work has examined the long-term effects of…

  4. The effectiveness of a combination of police enforcement and public information for improving seat-belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gundy, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter presents a part of the results of a study carried out to evaluate the effects of a combined enforcement and publicity campaign conducted in the Dutch province of Friesland in 1984. Some evidence is presented to show that the effects of such a campaign are not only impressive in terms of

  5. El modelo de sistema viable: un instrumento para la organización efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlando Sánchez Rueda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este ensayo se presenta una interpretación teórica del denominado Modelo de Sistema Viable (MSV, de Stafford Beer y su Potencial Aplicación en Tareas de Diagnóstico  y diseño empresarial, al igual que para Mejorar las capacidades Organizacionales de Auto- Regulación  y Auto- Organización. Se explica como el Modelo del Sistema Viable permite conocer e interpretar  los mecanismos de estabilidad y adaptabilidad de las organizaciones, pilares para el crecimiento de una verdadera organización Efectiva.

  6. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on a group of public employees subjected to work relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Matteo; Di Trani, Michela; Solano, Luigi

    2016-02-15

    Pennebaker's writing technique has yielded good results on health, psychological and performance dimensions. In spite of the positive outcomes, the technique has rarely been applied directly within the workplace and its effects on burnout have never been tested. 18 public employees subjected to work relocation were asked to write about their present work situation or another difficult event of their life (Writing Group), while another 17 were not assigned any writing task (Control Group). To assess whether there was an improvement in burnout, alexithymia and psychological well-being in the Writing Group compared with the baseline measurement and the Control Group. While the baseline levels in the Writing and Control Groups in the 3 dimensions considered were similar, scores in the Writing Group at both a second (1 month after the end of the procedure) and third measurement (7 months after the end) improved when compared with the baseline, whereas those in the Control Group worsened. Pennebaker's writing technique appears to promote adaptive coping strategies in stressful situations, and to increase occupational and psychological well-being as well as the ability to process emotions. It also appears to buffer the negative effects of work-related stress.

  7. The Effects of Employees’ Individual Characteristics on Job Satisfaction: A Public Bank Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Merve Özaydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The raising importance of rivalry between the employees in the relations of producti on nowadays, makes the adaptation between worker and work more substantial. The job satisfaction which expresses the employee’s contentment about his/her job becomes a target for the employee and also for the firm based on the provided material/ moral satiety. In the services sector which consists of human resources as itsmost leading and determinant input, building a relationship between the specialties of work and intelligence, skills and abilities of workers depending on job satisfaction is decisive for individual and organizational success also. In the banking sector which is a crucial member of services sector because of the dimensions of the usage of high technology, the need of quality services production and the competition, satisfaction of employees becomes significant. This study aims to investigate the effects of individual factors (age, gender, marital status, education level, operating status of branch/operating status of head office, title, service time, the existence or nonexistence of other bankers in the family, expectations for the future on job satisfaction. In the consequence of a field work about a public bank, it’s found out that the level of bank personnel’s job satisfaction is changed by the effect of individual factors.

  8. Public budgets for energy RD&D and the effects on energy intensity and pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre, Daniel; Álvarez, Agustín; Cantos, José María

    2015-04-01

    This study, based on the N-shaped cubic model of the environmental Kuznets curve, analyzes the evolution of per capita greenhouse gas emissions (GHGpc) using not just economic growth but also public budgets dedicated to energy-oriented research development and demonstration (RD&D) and energy intensity. The empirical evidence, obtained from an econometric model of fixed effects for 28 OECD countries during 1994-2010, suggests that energy innovations help reduce GHGpc levels and mitigate the negative impact of energy intensity on environmental quality. When countries develop active energy RD&D policies, they can reduce both the rates of energy intensity and the level of GHGpc emissions. This paper incorporates a moderating variable to the econometric model that emphasizes the effect that GDP has on energy intensity. It also adds a variable that reflects the difference between countries that have made a greater economic effort in energy RD&D, which in turn corrects the GHG emissions resulting from the energy intensity of each country.

  9. Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Candido dos Reis

    2015-07-01

    Interpretation: Crowdsourcing of the general public to classify cancer pathology data for research is viable, engages the public and provides accurate ER data. Crowdsourced classification of research data may offer a valid solution to problems of throughput requiring human input.

  10. Successful management of human resources, a basis for an effective public administration in RM

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Jadranka; Stojanovski, Strasko; Matlievska, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The public sector should be focused on satisfying the needs of the citizens on efficient, transparent and responsible way. The civil society and the private sector should develop awareness and responsibility towards the public duties. The usage of the model on good governance represents the new characteristics of the values: beneficiary treatment, openness and transparency, the rule of law for greater efficiency in the public sector. The main direction in the process of reforms...

  11. Impact of earthquakes and their secondary environmental effects on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroulis, Spyridon; Mavrouli, Maria; Lekkas, Efthymios; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes are among the most impressive geological processes with destructive effects on humans, nature and infrastructures. Secondary earthquake environmental effects (EEE) are induced by the ground shaking and are classified into ground cracks, slope movements, dust clouds, liquefactions, hydrological anomalies, tsunamis, trees shaking and jumping stones. Infectious diseases (ID) emerging during the post-earthquake period are considered as secondary earthquake effects on public health. This study involved an extensive and systematic literature review of 121 research publications related to the public health impact of 28 earthquakes from 1980 to 2015 with moment magnitude (Mw) from 6.1 to 9.2 and their secondary EEE including landslides, liquefaction and tsunamis generated in various tectonic environments (extensional, transform, compressional) around the world (21 events in Asia, 5 in America and one each in Oceania and Europe). The inclusion criteria were the literature type comprising journal articles and official reports, the natural disaster type including earthquakes and their secondary EEE (landslides, liquefaction, tsunamis), the population type including humans and the outcome measures characterized by disease incidence increase. The potential post-earthquake ID are classified into 14 groups including respiratory (detected after 15 of 28 earthquakes, 53.57%), water-borne (15, 53.57%), skin (8, 28.57%), vector-borne (8, 28.57%) wound-related (6, 21.43%), blood-borne (4, 14.29%), pulmonary (4, 14.29%), fecal-oral (3, 10.71%), food-borne (3, 10.71%), fungal (3, 10.71%), parasitic (3, 10.71%), eye (1, 3.57%), mite-borne (1, 3.57%) and soil-borne (1, 3.57%) infections. Based on age and genre data available for 15 earthquakes, the most vulnerable population groups are males, young children (age ≤ 10 years) and adults (age ≥ 65 years). Cholera, pneumonia and tetanus are the deadliest post-earthquake ID. The risk factors leading not only to disease

  12. Technological Innovation and Beyond: Exploring Public Value of University Inventions Based on Contingent Effectiveness Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Evita; Li-Ying, Jason; Faria, Lourenco

    2017-01-01

    University inventions are traditionally seen as significant input into development of new technologies and innovations in the market as they generate growth and regional development. (REF) Yet, these inventions developed into new technologies can simultaneously create public values such as those...... of university inventions. We define four main values: technological, economic, social and environmental, and place the latter two under the concept of public value. The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of public value and incorporate it into technology transfer literature. We assign...... of university licensee companies reveals that university inventions that are accomplished technologically, often create added public value, social or environmental, or both....

  13. Effects of public health interventions on industrial emissions and ambient air in Cartagena, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, Lluís; Rodríguez, Miguel; Giménez, Joaquín; Jiménez, Enrique; Saez, Marc; Guillén, José-Jesús; Medrano, José; Martínez-Victoria, María-Aurelia; Ballester, Ferran; Moreno-Grau, Stella; Navarro, Carmen

    2009-03-01

    Ten years of public health interventions on industrial emissions to clean air were monitored for the Mediterranean city of Cartagena. During the 1960s, a number of large chemical and non-ferrous metallurgical factories were established that significantly deteriorated the city's air quality. By the 1970s, the average annual air concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) ranged from 200 to 300 microg/m3 (standard conditions units). In 1979, the Spanish government implemented an industrial intervention plan to improve the performance of factories and industrial air pollution surveillance. Unplanned urban development led to residential housing being located adjacent to three major factories. Factory A produced lead, factory B processed zinc from ore concentrates, and factory C produced sulfuric acid and phosphates. This, in combination with the particular abrupt topography and frequent atmospheric thermal inversions, resulted in the worsening of air quality and heightening concern for public health. In 1990, the City Council authorized the immediate intervention at these factories to reduce or shut down production if ambient levels of SO2 or total suspended particles (TSP) exceeded a time-emission threshold in pre-established meteorological contexts. The aim of this research was to assess the appropriateness and effectiveness of the intervention plan implemented from 1992 to 2001 to abate industrial air pollution. The maximum daily 1-h ambient air level of SO2, NO2, and TSP pollutants was selected from one of the three urban automatic stations, designed to monitor ambient air quality around industrial emissions sources. The day on which an intervention took place to reduce and/or interrupt industrial production by factory and pollutant was defined as a control day, and the day after an intervention as a post-control day. To assess the short-term intervention effect on air quality, an ecological time series design was applied, using regression analysis in generalized

  14. Leaders And Followers In The Effectiveness Of Public Safety Services In European States – A Spatial Frontier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żółtaszek Agata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public safety is an important factor in both public and private life. Simultaneously it is one of the most regionally diverse sectors, due to historical, cultural, social, legal, and financial differences.Therefore, it is very difficult to compare public safety policies and facilities directly. However, assessment and comparison are crucial factors for defining the best practices and implementing the “learning-from-the-best” policy, which is important in the process of regional development and globalization. Fortunately some quantitative methods, such as DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis enable this kind of research. DEA allows for analyzing relative effectiveness based on inputs and outputs, without incorporating procedural specifics of public safety. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to perform a regional analysis of the technical effectiveness of public safety systems in European states in 2003 and 2012 by utilizing an optimization method of DEA. Based on the results of this research countries are divided into two groups - effective and ineffective. Countries with effective systems are considered leaders. They present best practices which should be treated as benchmarks for the countries with ineffective systems, i.e. followers.

  15. A strategy for studying the air pollution effects on climate and public health in Asia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T.; Goto, D.; Misawa, S.; Oikawa, E.; Hashimoto, M.; Uchida, J.; Dai, T.; Schutgens, N.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we like to discuss observational and modeling strategy for understanding the air pollution effects on climate and public health in Asia. Satellite remote sensing of aerosol signature and radiative forcing is important but still has a large uncertainties because of various bias in passive imaging and active sensing by, for example, MODIS and CALIPSO. We summarize the uncertainty in the total aerosol direct effect from satellite observation and modeling as about 4 Wm-2 (Schutgens et al., Remote Sens. 2012; Oikawa et al., JGR 2013). This situation suggests that important activities should be in development of good surface and satellite measurements of aerosols as well as establishing aerosol assimilation system. In this direction, we have developed a flexible aerosol assimilation system based on the NICAM non-hydrostatic finite grid atmospheric model (Tomita and Satoh, Fluid Dyn. Res. 2004) with flexible grid system and good mass conservation coupled with the SPRINTARS aerosol model (Takemura et al., JGR 2000). We like to present our assessment of aerosol fields in Asian continental scale as well as a mega-city basin scale around Tokyo. Health care effects are also evaluated to show that the mortality rate by air pollution will increase even with RCP4.5 scenario in which PM2.5 decreases in future (2030 horizon) in Tokyo mega-city region, because of the shifted age composition of population. We will extend our discussion to a strategy to utilize the next generation satellite systems, such as EarthCARE, Himawari-8 and 9, GCOM/C, and GOSAT-2 which are equipped with advanced functions of aerosol remote sensing.

  16. Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect A publicidade contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leite

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect — This paper shares with the reader some conceptual ideas of counterintuitive advertising, observing its possible effects on the reevaluation and deconstruction of beliefs and social stereotypes in the cognitive make-up of the viewer. The ironic rebound effect is singled out among the probable reflexes, according to the theory propounded by Daniel M. Wegner. This theory is applied taking as an example Fiat's commercial "The Driver", which was part of an advertising campaign in Brazil called "Review your concepts" to introduce its new Palio 2002 car model. The authors are currently engaged in a laboratory experiment to measure the above described theory in a consistent manner. O propósito deste artigo é compartilhar com o leitor algumas noções conceituais de publicidade contra-intuitiva e observar seus possíveis efeitos na reavaliação, desconstrução de crenças e estereótipos sociais, na estrutura cognitiva do indivíduo receptor. Destaca-se entre os reflexos provavelmente gerados o irônico efeito ricochete, segundo a teoria desenvolvida por Daniel M. Wegner. A aplicação para se discutir o cruzamento da narrativa contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete será, neste primeiro momento, pela exemplificação do filme Motorista, peça integrante da campanha publicitária da Fiat do Brasil "Reveja seus conceitos", para o lançamento do automóvel Palio 2002. Um experimento laboratorial está sendo desenvolvido pelos autores para se mensurar de maneira consistente a apresentação teórico-conceitual exposta.

  17. Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead During Renovation, Repair, and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead During Renovation, Repair, and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings” (Technical Approach Document). Also available for public review and comment are two supplementary documents: the detai...

  18. Viable short-term directed energy weapon naval solutions: a systems analysis of current prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ciullo, Dan; deLongpre, Jeff; Mcarthur, Sim; Nowakowski, Jake; Shene, Rich; Taylor, Earvin; White, Roosevelt; Cheng, Po-Yu; Heng, Yinghui; Wong, Chia Sern; Wong, Wai Keat; Phua, Yee Ling; Zlatsin, Philip; Choon, Junwei; Neo, Yong Shern

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With conventional weapons nearing their peak capability, the need to identify alternative war fighting solutions suggests a look at Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs). The goal is to change the means by which warfare is conducted to improve operational efficiencies and overall effectiveness. The Naval Postgraduate School Systems Engineering and Analysis (SEA-19B) Capstone project team examined how existing directed energy technologies can ...

  19. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.; Jager, V.C. de; Geene, R.T.; Alen-Boerrigter, I.J. van; Hazelwood, L.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Kleerebezem, M; Smid, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem.

  20. Induction of viable 2n pollen in sterile Oriental × Trumpet Lilium hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, J.R.; Arens, P.; Niu, L.X.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to induce viable 2n pollen from highly sterile diploid Oriental × Trumpet (OT) (Lilium), N2O was used to treat flower buds of four sterile diploid OT cultivars (‘Nymph’, ‘Gluhwein’, ‘Yelloween’, and ‘Shocking’) at different stages of meiosis. There was no pollen germination in

  1. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section 113.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... in live vaccine. Each serial and subserial of biological product except live vaccines shall be tested...

  2. Oligonucleotide microarrays for the detection and identification of viable beer spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D G; Sahm, K; Polen, T; Wendisch, V F; Antranikian, G

    2008-10-01

    The design and evaluation of an oligonucleotide microarray in order to detect and identify viable bacterial species that play a significant role in beer spoilage. These belong to the species of the genera Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. Oligonucleotide probes specific to beer spoilage bacteria were designed. In order to detect viable bacteria, the probes were designed to target the intergenic spacer regions (ISR) between 16S and 23S rRNA. Prior to hybridization the ISR were amplified by combining reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions using a designed consenus primer. The developed oligonucleotide microarrays allows the detection of viable beer spoilage bacteria. This method allows the detection and discrimination of single bacterial species in a sample containing complex microbial community. Furthermore, microarrays using oligonucleotide probes targeting the ISR allow the distinction between viable bacteria with the potential to grow and non growing bacteria. The results demonstrate the feasibility of oligonucleotide microarrays as a contamination control in food industry for the detection and identification of spoilage micro-organisms within a mixed population.

  3. Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J.; Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 × 103), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6 mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research.

  4. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  5. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  6. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

  8. Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable eutrophication ... Microcystis in local eutrophic waters is perceived as a primary major constraint in implementing 'classical' food-web manip- ulation. Intrinsic ... cially in 'shallow' lakes) to dismal failure (often in deep lakes) and a range of ...

  9. Connecting public administration and change management literature : The effects of policy alienation on resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The main goal of this article is to contribute to change management literature in the public sector. A recent literature review argues that there is a gap in the literature on change management specifically using the public administration perspective. We therefore analyze

  10. Effects of Video Streaming Technology on Public Speaking Students' Communication Apprehension and Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupagne, Michel; Stacks, Don W.; Giroux, Valerie Manno

    2007-01-01

    This study examines whether video streaming can reduce trait and state communication apprehension, as well as improve communication competence, in public speaking classes. Video streaming technology has been touted as the next generation of video feedback for public speaking students because it is not limited by time or space and allows Internet…

  11. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist public health pest control officials in meeting the certification required under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The four sections included describe: (1) Insects of public health significance in Michigan; (2) Other arthropods that affect man; (3) Swimmers' itch parasite and snail host; and (4)…

  12. Effective Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Public Health Impacts of Heatwaves for Brookline, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh Fard, B.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Studies on urban areas show a significant increase in frequency and intensity of heatwaves over the past decades, and predict the same trend for future. Since heatwaves have been responsible for a large number of life losses, urgent adaptation and mitigation strategies are required in the policy and decision making level for a sustainable urban planning. The Sustainability and Data Sciences Laboratory at Northeastern University, under the aegis of Thriving Earth Exchange of AGU, is working with the town of Brookline to understand the potential public health impacts of anticipated heatwaves. We consider the most important social and physical factors to obtain vulnerability and exposure parameters for each census block group of the town. Utilizing remote sensing data, we locate Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) during a recent heatwave event, as the hazard parameter. We then create priority risk map using the risk framework. Our analyses show spatial correlations between the UHIs and social factors such as poverty, and physical factors such as land cover variations. Furthermore, we investigate the future heatwave frequency and intensity increases by analyzing the climate models predictions. For future changes of UHIs, land cover changes are investigated using available predictive data. Also, socioeconomic predictions are carried out to complete the futuristic models of heatwave risks. Considering plausible scenarios for Brookline, we develop different risk maps based on the vulnerability, exposure and hazard parameters. Eventually, we suggest guidelines for Heatwave Action Plans for prioritizing effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in urban planning for the town of Brookline.

  13. Universal public finance of tuberculosis treatment in India: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-03-01

    Universal public finance (UPF)-government financing of an intervention irrespective of who is receiving it-for a health intervention entails consequences in multiple domains. First, UPF increases intervention uptake and hence the extent of consequent health gains. Second, UPF generates financial consequences including the crowding out of private expenditures. Finally, UPF provides insurance either by covering catastrophic expenditures, which would otherwise throw households into poverty or by preventing diseases that cause them. This paper develops a method-extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA)-for evaluating the consequences of UPF in each of these domains. It then illustrates ECEA with an evaluation of UPF for tuberculosis treatment in India. Using plausible values for key parameters, our base case ECEA concludes that the health gains and insurance value of UPF would accrue primarily to the poor. Reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures are more uniformly distributed across income quintiles. A variant on our base case suggests that lowering costs of borrowing for the poor could potentially achieve some of the health gains of UPF, but at the cost of leaving the poor more deeply in debt. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley Ltd.

  14. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of publications in proceedings on the measure of the core size of coauthors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miśkiewicz, Janusz

    2013-10-01

    Coauthors (CA) of a “lead investigator” (LI) can receive a rank (r) according to their “importance” in having published joint publications with the LI. It is commonly accepted, without any proof, that publications in peer review journals and for example conference proceedings do not have the same “value” in a CV, and the same applies to papers contributing to encyclopedia and book chapters. It is examined here whether the relationship between the number (J) of publications of some scientist with her/his coauthors, ranked according to their decreasing importance, i.e. J∝1/rα, as found by Ausloos (2013) [1], still holds if the overall publication list is broken into such specific types of publications. Several authors, with different careers, but mainly having worked in the field of statistical mechanics, are studied here to sort out answers to the questions. The exponent α turns out to be weakly scientist dependent, only if the maximum value of J and r is large and is ˜+1 then. The mA core value, i.e. the core number of CAs, for proceedings only is about half of the total one, i.e. when all publications are counted. Contributions to the numerical values from both encyclopedia and book chapters are marginal. The role of a time span on mA is also examined in two cases in relation to career activity considerations. It can be considered that the findings serve as a contrasting point of view on how to quantify an individual (publication) career as recently done by Petersen et al. (2010, 2012, 2011) [2-4], here emphasizing the collaboration size and evolution, rather than a citation count, moreover specifying the type of publication. Through the various mA’s one can distinguish different behavior patterns of a scientific publication with CAs.

  17. The HFEA public consultation process on hybrids and chimeras: informed, effective, and meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Françoise

    2009-03-01

    In September 2007, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) in the United Kingdom concluded that "there is no fundamental reason to prevent cytoplasmic hybrid research ... this area of research can, with caution and careful scrutiny, be permitted." Later, in January 2008, HFEA issued two research licenses to create humanesque cytoplasmic hybrid embryos from which stem cells could be derived. This article critically examines the public consultation process that preceded these decisions, concluding that the process was flawed and demonstrating how the HFEA documents summarizing the findings of the public consultation process misrepresent the public's contributions to this policymaking initiative.

  18. Effectiveness, sustainability and quality. Criticality of the building process in public works in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Maspoli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian case are outlined, compared to other European countries, in the 2000s, the limits of the policies for the architectural quality and, in parallel, the deficiencies of the technical regulations for public works contracts. Object of analysis and research are intervention strategies to improve the overall quality of the public sector, which concerns the procedures for project technical verification and validation, the development of tools for the implementation of the quality plan, the prospects for process innovation coherent the Regulation of the Public Contracts Code.

  19. Crime against woman and punishment goals: Social order and country moderate public protest effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhar Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indians and Americans read about a severe crime committed by a man against a woman in the presence of his group of friends. The social order and the resulting public protest against that crime were manipulated. Participants indicated punishment goals they pursued. As hypothesised, public protest amplified the pursuit of the goals of retribution for the offender and omission by the group when the social order was deteriorating. Moreover, public protest affected the pursuit of the deterrence and retribution goals by Indians as if they acted as pragmatic politicians, but not by Americans as if they acted as principled theologians.

  20. What's in a Name? Evaluating the Effects of the "Sex Offender" Label on Public Opinions and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J; Socia, Kelly M

    2016-10-01

    Particularly over the past two decades, the terms sex offender and juvenile sex offender (JSO) have attained increasingly common usage in media and public policy discourse. Although often applied as factual descriptors, the labels may evoke strong subconscious associations with a population commonly presumed to be compulsive, at high risk of re-offense, and resistant to rehabilitation. Such associations, in turn, may exert considerable impact on expressions of support for certain policies as well as public beliefs and opinions about adults and youth who have perpetrated sexual offenses. The current study systematically evaluated the impact of the "sex offender" and "JSO" labels through series of items administered to a nationally stratified and matched sample from across the United States. The study employed an experimental design, in which one group of participants (n = 498) ranked their levels of agreement with a series of statements utilizing these labels, and a control group (n = 502) responded to a matched set of statements substituting the labels with more neutral descriptive language. Findings support the hypothesis that use of the "sex offender" label strengthens public support for policies directed at those who have perpetrated sexual crimes, including public Internet disclosure, residency restrictions, and social networking bans. The "JSO" label is demonstrated to produce particularly robust effects, enhancing support for policies that subject youth to public Internet notification and affecting beliefs about youths' propensity to re-offend as adults. Implications for public policy, media communication, and research are explored and discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The effects of collaborative research-based programming on public health nurses and their practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Mina; Yamada, Yoko; Matsushita, Mitsuko; Umezu, Mika

    2016-04-01

    The study aim was to evaluate a collaborative research-based program for public health nurses. The program was initiated by a college of nursing to address public health issues. Participants were 33 public health nurses who completed a questionnaire survey; data for 25 respondents were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. To understand the experiences of nurses in depth, three group interviews were conducted with 14 nurses. Qualitative analysis revealed three major themes: (i) opportunities for learning from collaboration; (ii) developing competence of changes in practice; and (iii) openness to continuing practice improvement. Study participants reported practical changes and new openness to continued practice improvement. Thus, schools of nursing and public health nurses should welcome and invite opportunities to collaborate to address practice issues using research-based information. Because changing practice can only occur step by step, nursing educators and practitioners should cultivate an environment that expands professional development and addresses practice improvement. © 2016 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Effects of performance-based research funding on publication patterns in the social sciences and humanities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guns, R.; Engels, T.C.E.

    2016-07-01

    Publishing in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) and research evaluation practices are co-evolving. In this paper we present an analysis on how in Flanders the PRFS has shaped and influenced publication practices in the SSH. Our analysis is based on the VABB-SHW, a comprehensive database of research output in the SSH in Flanders. We find that a strong emphasis on WoS publications since 2003 has caused a growth in WoS publications, that is greater than what can be observed in other countries and other fields of science in Flanders. Other mechanisms appear to exist for book publications, which are not indexed in the WoS databases used for the PRFS. (Author)

  3. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: a bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette L; Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A

    2011-01-01

    .... In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009...

  4. Effect of a Publicly Accessible Disclosure System on Food Safety Inspection Scores in Retail and Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihee; Scharff, Robert L

    2017-07-01

    The increased frequency with which people are dining out coupled with an increase in the publicity of foodborne disease outbreaks has led the public to an increased awareness of food safety issues associated with food service establishments. To accommodate consumer needs, local health departments have increasingly publicized food establishments' health inspection scores. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the color-coded inspection score disclosure system in place since 2006 in Columbus, OH, by controlling for several confounding factors. This study incorporated cross-sectional time series data from food safety inspections performed from the Columbus Public Health Department. An ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the effect of the new inspection regime. The introduction of the new color-coded food safety inspection disclosure system increased inspection scores for all types of establishments and for most types of inspections, although significant differences were found in the degree of improvement. Overall, scores increased significantly by 1.14 points (of 100 possible). An exception to the positive results was found for inspections in response to foodborne disease complaints. Scores for these inspections declined significantly by 10.2 points. These results should be useful for both food safety researchers and public health decision makers.

  5. The Effect of a Poster, Display, and Recommended Listening List on the Circulation of Audiobooks in the Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucalaba, Linda

    Previous studies have found that the librarian's use of book displays and recommended lists are an effective means to increase circulation in the public library. Yet conflicting results were found when these merchandising techniques were used with collection materials in the nonprint format, specifically audiobooks and videos, instead of books.…

  6. The Competitive Effects of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on Public School Performance. Louisiana Scholarship Program Evaluation Report #4. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalite, Anna J.

    2016-01-01

    Given the significant growth rate and geographic expansion of private school choice programs over the past two decades, it is important to examine how traditional public schools respond to the sudden injection of competition for students and resources. This article uses: (1) a school fixed effects approach; and (2) a regression discontinuity…

  7. Implementation of Quality Assurance Standards and Principals' Administrative Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Edo and Delta States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, U.; Osagiobare, Emmanuel Osamiro

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated principals' implementation of quality assurance standards and administrative effectiveness in public secondary schools in Edo and Delta States. To guide the study, four research questions and hypotheses were raised. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study and the simple random sampling technique was used to…

  8. Rationality, Authority and Spindles: An Enquiry into Some Neglected Aspects of Organizational Effectiveness and a Partial Application to Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Derek J.

    Focusing on the problem of authority, an analysis of the theories of Max Weber, James D. Thompson, and Elliott Jaques forms the basis for this proposal for improved organizational effectiveness in public schools. Basic assumptions are that modern organizations are established and operated under rational principles and subject to rational analysis,…

  9. The Effects of Teaching Methods in Leadership Knowledge Retention: An Experimental Design of Lecture, Experiential, and Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer; McClure, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Finding an effective teaching methodology for leadership educators is daunting. In this experimental study undergraduate leadership students' retention of knowledge was tested after receiving leadership instruction via lecture, experiential learning, and public pedagogy. Results show lecture is an inferior method of teaching leadership while…

  10. Does Higher Education Service Quality Effect Student Satisfaction, Image and Loyalty? A Study of International Students in Malaysian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faizan; Zhou, Yuan; Hussain, Kashif; Nair, Pradeep Kumar; Ragavan, Neethiahnanthan Ari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Malaysian public universities' service quality on international student satisfaction, institutional image and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach: A total number of 400 questionnaires were distributed to international students, selected using convenience sampling technique, at…

  11. Effectively Educating PreK-3rd English Language Learners (ELLs) in Montgomery County Public Schools. A FCD Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Geoff; Brookover, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    Despite skyrocketing growth in its English Language Learner (ELL) population, Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) has been remarkably effective in improving outcomes for ELL students across the district. Achievement has increased, and gaps between ELL students and their native English-speaking peers have decreased. This success is intentional.…

  12. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Public Management Networks (PMNs): Evidence from the Case of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Girte Leah

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the performance outcomes of public management networks (PMNs) in the disaster management context. The effectiveness of three disaster response sub-networks in the area of evacuation were examined and compared using the case of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans, Louisiana in August 2005: Citizen Protection:…

  13. Turbulent Times at MoneyInc: Effects of Change in the New Zealand Public Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Ashwell

    2005-01-01

    The late 1980's saw the New Zealand Government implement a number of radical economic reforms. As part of these reforms, a number of formerly public organisations were transformed into profit-making enterprises. These reforms resulted in large scale redundancies in a number of industries. During this time Rob joined MoneyInc a former publicly owned and operated financial institution, undergoing restructuring to become a State Owned Enterprise. The branch where Rob was employed was suffering f...

  14. Estimating the Fiscal Effects of Public Pharmaceutical Expenditure Reduction in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakos eSouliotis; Manto ePapageorgiou; Anastasia ePoliti; Nikolaos eFrangos; Yiannis eTountas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of pharmaceutical spending reduction on public revenue, based on data from the national health accounts as well as on reports of Greece’s organizations. The methodology of the analysis is structured in two basic parts. The first part presents the urgency for rapid cutbacks on public pharmaceutical costs due to the financial crisis and provides a conceptual framework for the contribution of the Greek pharmaceutical branch to the countr...

  15. Attentional Control Buffers the Effect of Public Speaking Anxiety on Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H; Vasey, Michael W

    2012-09-01

    We explored dispositional differences in the ability to self-regulate attentional processes in the domain of public speaking. Participants first completed measures of speech anxiety and attentional control. In a second session, participants prepared and performed a short speech. Fear of public speaking negatively impacted performance only for those low in attentional control. Thus, attentional control appears to act as a buffer that facilitates successful self-regulation despite performance anxiety.

  16. Reviewing Efficiency and Effectiveness of Interurban Public Transport Services: A Practical Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Pensa, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and the analysis tool developed for a study, carried out in 2012, aimed at the reorganisation of the interurban public transport services of the Piedmont region of Italy. Reorganization was necessary as a result of the reduction in funds allocated to public transport. We needed to work on a large dataset spanning different types of data, such as service provision, ridership, economic data, and geographical information. The size of the task warranted the ef...

  17. The Effect of Legal Education on Economic Choices of Employees of the German Public Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-27

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE I Form Approved O MS No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1...code" 13 is largely defined by that legal document . 14 The German public administration is inseparably linked with politics, because it is active in all...calculation" 29 . Combined with the assumption of scarcity, the previous sug- gestion leads to the expectation that economically efficient choices

  18. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Public Investment in the Increase in Life Expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Nikolaevich Kabanov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century was marked by the emergence of national projects in our country, which exactly correspond to the private integral indicators used by the UN in calculating the index of human capital development since 1996. The national project “Health care” is aimed at increasing life expectancy, “Education” – expanding the population’s access to knowledge, “Doubling GDP” – raising people’s income. Attaching equal importance to each indicator, the author of the article set a task to consider the economic efficiency of budgetary funds allocated to improve the nation’s health. The author assumed a proportion as the main hypotheses about the nature of correlation between life expectancy (H and expenditures on health care (G; the calculated coefficients of correlation (Pearson, r of dependence H = f(G for all RF subjects for 2003–2013 (0.49 < r < or = 0.97 confirmed the existence of correlation. The author proposed to use the slope of the straight H = f(G to x-axis as a quantitative value, indicating the economic efficiency of the transformation of budget expenditures to the increase in life expectancy. This indicator means that the achieved increase in life expectancy (Y axis motion depending on changes in budget expenditures on health (axis motion. The proposed indicator to estimate the socio-economic effectiveness of state investments in domestic health care guarantees the most objective and clear assessment, conducted on the basis of standard methods of mathematical statistics, ensuring a high accuracy of the calculations. The rate of rise in life expectancy, depending on the volume of public investment in health care, can be used for the scientific justification, for example, of the degree of Federal budget participation in the regional programs to promote national health

  19. Critical reflections on evidence, ethics and effectiveness in the management of tuberculosis: public health and global perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Recent scholarly attention to public health ethics provides an opportunity to analyze several ethical issues raised by the global tuberculosis pandemic. Discussion Recently articulated frameworks for public health ethics emphasize the importance of effectiveness in the justification of public health action. This paper critically reviews the relationship between these frameworks and the published evidence of effectiveness of tuberculosis interventions, with a specific focus on the controversies engendered by the endorsement of programs of service delivery that emphasize direct observation of therapy. The role of global economic inequities in perpetuating the tuberculosis pandemic is also discussed. Summary Tuberculosis is a complex but well understood disease that raises important ethical challenges for emerging frameworks in public health ethics. The exact role of effectiveness as a criterion for judging the ethics of interventions needs greater discussion and analysis. Emerging frameworks are silent about the economic conditions contributing to the global burden of illness associated with tuberculosis and this requires remediation.

  20. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  2. Non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi induce inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Fevrier, Helene B; Philipp, Mario T

    2013-11-27

    In previous studies, exposure to live Borrelia burgdorferi was shown to induce inflammation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes. In this study we assessed the ability of non-viable bacteria (heat killed or sonicated) to induce inflammatory mediators and cell death. Both heat-killed and sonicated bacteria induced release of CCL2, IL-6, and CXCL8 from oligodendrocytes in a dose dependent manner. In addition, non-viable B. burgdorferi also induced cell death as evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and another cell viability assay. These results suggest that spirochetal residues left after bacterial demise, due to treatment or otherwise, may continue to be pathogenic to the central nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truernit Elisabeth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant cell death is a normal process during plant development. Mutant plants may exhibit misregulation of this process, which can lead to severe growth defects. Simple ways of visualising cell death in living plant tissues can aid the study of plant development and physiology. Results Spectral variants of the fluorescent SYTOX dyes were tested for their usefulness for the detection of non-viable cells within plant embryos and roots using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The dyes were selective for non-viable cells and showed very little background staining in living cells. Simultaneous detection of SYTOX dye and fluorescent protein (e.g. GFP fluorescence was possible. Conclusion The fluorescent SYTOX dyes are useful for an easy and quick first assay of plant cell viability in living plant samples using fluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy.

  4. Efeitos adversos a medicamentos em hospital público: estudo piloto Efectos adversos a medicamentos en hospital público: estudio piloto Adverse effects from drugs in a public hospital: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Rozenfeld

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados os resultados da implantação de estratégia de monitoramento de efeitos adversos aos medicamentos em hospital público no Rio de Janeiro, RJ, em 2007. Com base em análise retrospectiva de 32 prontuários foram encontrados efeitos adversos em 16%. Para identificá-los, foram precisos 38 critérios rastreadores, dos quais os principais foram: uso de antieméticos, interrupção abrupta de medicamentos e sedação excessiva. Apesar das dificuldades, sobretudo relacionadas ao acesso às informações e à qualidade dos registros, a aplicação dos critérios rastreadores parece ser viável. Para aprimorar a implantação do método, sugere-se informatizar a coleta de informações e buscar indicadores de ajuste de risco.Fueron analizados los resultados de la implantación de estrategia de monitoreo de efectos adversos a los medicamentos en hospital público en Rio de Janeiro, Sureste de Brasil, en 2007. Con base en análisis retrospectivo de 32 prontuarios fueron encontrados efectos adversos en 16%. Para identificarlos, fueron necesarios 38 criterios rastreadores, de los cuales los principales fueron: uso de antieméticos, interrupción abrupta de medicamentos y sedación excesiva. A pesar de las dificultades, sobre todo relacionadas con el acceso a las informaciones y a la calidad de los registros, la aplicación de los criterios rastreadores parece ser viable. Para perfeccionar la implantación del método, se sugiere informatizar la colecta de datos y buscar indicadores de ajuste del riesgo.The results from implementing a strategy for monitoring adverse effects from drugs in a public hospital in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2007, were analyzed. Based on retrospective analysis of 32 medical files, adverse effects were found in 16%. To identify these effects, 38 tracking criteria were needed. Among these, the main ones were the use of antiemetics, abrupt cessation of medication and over

  5. Effects of Publications in Proceedings on the Measure of the Core Size of Coauthors

    CERN Document Server

    Miśkiewicz, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Coauthors (CA) of a "lead investigator" (LI) can receive a rank (r) according to their "importance" in having published joint publications with the LI. It is commonly accepted, without any proof, that publications in peer review journals and e.g. conference proceedings do not have the same "value" in a CV. Same for papers contributed to encyclopedia and book chapters. It is here examined whether the relationship between the number (J) of publications of some scientist with her/his coauthors, ranked according to their decreasing importance, i.e. $ J \\propto 1/r^{\\alpha} $, as found by Ausloos, still holds if the overall publication list is broken into such specific types of publications. Several authors, with different careers, but mainly having worked in the field of statistical mechanics, are studied here to sort out answers to the questions. The exponent $\\alpha$ turns out to be weakly scientist dependent, only if the maximum value of J and r is large and is $\\sim +1$ then. The $m_A$ core value, i.e. the co...

  6. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Sozzi, Fabiola; Poldermans, Don; Bax, Jeroen; Elhendy, Abdou; Vourvouri, Eleni; Valkema, Roelf; Sutter, J.; Schinkel, Arend; Borghetti, A; Roelandt, Jos

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference.
PATIENTS—30 patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction (mean (SD) age, 60 (8) years; 22 men).
METHODS—Dobutamine stress echocardiography was carried out in all patients using both fundamental and second harmonic imaging. All patients underwent dual isotope simul...

  7. Molecular approaches for viable bacterial population and transcriptional analyses in a rodent model of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M I; Scott-Anne, K M; Gregoire, S; Rosalen, P L; Koo, H

    2012-10-01

    Culturing methods are the primary approach for microbiological analysis of plaque biofilms in rodent models of dental caries. In this study, we developed strategies for the isolation of DNA and RNA from plaque biofilms formed in vivo to analyse the viable bacterial population and gene expression. Plaque biofilm samples from rats were treated with propidium monoazide to isolate DNA from viable cells, and the purified DNA was used to quantify total bacteria and the Streptococcus mutans population via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and specific primers; the same samples were also analysed by counting colony-forming units (CFU). In parallel, RNA was isolated from plaque-biofilm samples (from the same animals) and used for transcriptional analyses via reverse transcription-qPCR. The viable populations of both S. mutans and total bacteria assessed by qPCR were positively correlated with the CFU data (P  0.8). However, the qPCR data showed higher bacterial cell counts, particularly for total bacteria (vs. CFU). Moreover, S. mutans proportion in the plaque biofilm determined by qPCR analysis showed strong correlation with incidence of smooth-surface caries (P = 0.0022, r = 0.71). The purified RNAs presented high RNA integrity numbers (> 7), which allowed measurement of the expression of genes that are critical for S. mutans virulence (e.g. gtfB and gtfC). Our data show that the viable microbial population and the gene expression can be analysed simultaneously, providing a global assessment of the infectious aspect of dental caries. Our approach could enhance the value of the current rodent model in further understanding the pathophysiology of this disease and facilitating the exploration of novel anti-caries therapies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salma

    Full Text Available The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null Δssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state.

  9. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  10. An advanced PCR method for the specific detection of viable total coliform bacteria in pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Takashi; Minami, Jun-ichi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-07-01

    Pasteurized milk is a complex food that contains various inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and may contain a large number of dead bacteria, depending on the milking conditions and environment. Ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA)-PCR is occasionally used to distinguish between viable and dead bacteria in foods other than pasteurized milk. EMA is a DNA-intercalating dye that selectively permeates the compromised cell membranes of dead bacteria and cleaves DNA. Usually, EMA-PCR techniques reduce the detection of dead bacteria by up to 3.5 logs compared with techniques that do not use EMA. However, this difference may still be insufficient to suppress the amplification of DNA from dead Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., total coliform bacteria) if they are present in pasteurized milk in large numbers. Thus, false positives may result. We developed a new method that uses real-time PCR targeting of a long DNA template (16S-23S rRNA gene, principally 2,451 bp) following EMA treatment to completely suppress the amplification of DNA of up to 7 logs (10(7) cells) of dead total coliforms. Furthermore, we found that a low dose of proteinase K (25 U/ml) removed PCR inhibitors and simultaneously increased the signal from viable coliform bacteria. In conclusion, our simple protocol specifically detects viable total coliforms in pasteurized milk at an initial count of ≥1 colony forming unit (CFU)/2.22 ml within 7.5 h of total testing time. This detection limit for viable cells complies with the requirements for the analysis of total coliforms in pasteurized milk set by the Japanese Sanitation Act (which specifies <1 CFU/2.22 ml).

  11. Concurrent detection of other respiratory viruses in children shedding viable human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, T B; Paula, F E; Iwamoto, M A; Proença-Modena, J L; Santos, A E; Camara, A A; Cervi, M C; Cintra, O A L; Arruda, E

    2013-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease. The majority of studies addressing the importance of virus co-infections to the HRSV-disease have been based on the detection of HRSV by RT-PCR, which may not distinguish current replication from prolonged shedding of remnant RNA from previous HRSV infections. To assess whether co-detections of other common respiratory viruses are associated with increased severity of HRSV illnesses from patients who were shedding viable-HRSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates from children younger than 5 years who sought medical care for respiratory infections in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil) were tested for HRSV by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture. All samples with viable-HRSV were tested further by PCR for other respiratory viruses. HRSV-disease severity was assessed by a clinical score scale. A total of 266 samples from 247 children were collected and 111 (42%) were HRSV-positive. HRSV was isolated from 70 (63%), and 52 (74%) of them were positive for at least one additional virus. HRSV-positive diseases were more severe than HRSV-negative ones, but there was no difference in disease severity between patients with viable-HRSV and those HRSV-positives by RT-PCR. Co-detection of other viruses did not correlate with increased disease severity. HRSV isolation in cell culture does not seem to be superior to RT-PCR to distinguish infections associated with HRSV replication in studies of clinical impact of HRSV. A high rate of co-detection of other respiratory viruses was found in samples with viable-HRSV, but this was not associated with more severe HRSV infection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Blogging as a viable research methodology for young people with arthritis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E

    2015-03-05

    The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of the participants. However, the data

  13. Optimization of Culture Medium Enhances Viable Biomass Production and Biocontrol Efficacy of the Antagonistic Yeast, Candida diversa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viable biomass production is a key determinant of suitability of antagonistic yeasts as potential biocontrol agents. This study investigated the effects of three metal ions (magnesium, ferrous, and zinc on biomass production and viability of the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa. Using response surface methodology to optimize medium components, a maximum biomass was obtained, when the collective Mg2+, Fe2+, and Zn2+ concentrations were adjusted in a minimal mineral (MM medium. Compared with the unmodified MM, and three ion-deficient MM media, yeast cells cultured in the three ion-modified MM medium exhibited a lower level of cellular oxidative damage, and a higher level of antioxidant enzyme activity. A biocontrol assay indicated that C. diversa grown in the ion-modified MM exhibited the greatest level of control of gray mold on apple fruit. These results provide new information on culture medium optimization to grow yeast antagonists in order to improve biomass production and biocontrol efficacy.

  14. Optimization of Culture Medium Enhances Viable Biomass Production and Biocontrol Efficacy of the Antagonistic Yeast, Candida diversa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Guangkun; Sui, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Viable biomass production is a key determinant of suitability of antagonistic yeasts as potential biocontrol agents. This study investigated the effects of three metal ions (magnesium, ferrous, and zinc) on biomass production and viability of the antagonistic yeast, Candida diversa. Using response surface methodology to optimize medium components, a maximum biomass was obtained, when the collective Mg(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+) concentrations were adjusted in a minimal mineral (MM) medium. Compared with the unmodified MM, and three ion-deficient MM media, yeast cells cultured in the three ion-modified MM medium exhibited a lower level of cellular oxidative damage, and a higher level of antioxidant enzyme activity. A biocontrol assay indicated that C. diversa grown in the ion-modified MM exhibited the greatest level of control of gray mold on apple fruit. These results provide new information on culture medium optimization to grow yeast antagonists in order to improve biomass production and biocontrol efficacy.

  15. [Medical opinion leaders conflict of interests: effects of disclosures on the trust of the public and general practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, R; Milhabet, I

    2011-08-01

    Key medical opinion leaders influence the behaviors of physicians and patients. By law, they have to disclose their interests with pharmaceutical companies when they communicate in the media. Up to now, it appears that no study has explored the effect of opinion leaders' disclosures despite their potential impact on public health and economy. The study objective was to assess the effects of opinion leaders' disclosures of interest on the public and general practitioners' trust in opinion leader by comparison with the overall medical community. In an experimental setting, three opinion leader profiles were built that differed only by the disclosure of their interests (hidden vs. weak vs. strong interests). One of the three profiles was randomly assigned to the subjects of two groups: 67 students and 60 general practitioners. According to an Anova analysis, the main effects and interactions of the disclosure of interests, of the message recipients, and of the assessed targets on the level of trust were measured. The results show that the average level of trust expressed by general practitioners was lower than that expressed by the general public. The level of trust in the opinion leader was lower than that of the overall medical community. The level of trust of exposed subjects fell much lower with stronger disclosed interests. While the general public did not distinguish trust between opinion leaders and the overall medical community, practitioners showed a significantly lower level of trust in opinion leaders with increasingly strong levels of disclosed interests. These study results refute the assertion that public trust would be reduced by the disclosure of interests. They reinforce the importance of the "who judges who" and "which kind of disclosure impacts who ?" effects and draw attention to further research on the role of social interactions in both mass and group communications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  17. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, F B; Poldermans, D; Bax, J J; Elhendy, A; Vourvouri, E C; Valkema, R; De Sutter, J; Schinkel, A F; Borghetti, A; Roelandt, J R

    2001-12-01

    To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. 30 patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction (mean (SD) age, 60 (8) years; 22 men). Dobutamine stress echocardiography was carried out in all patients using both fundamental and second harmonic imaging. All patients underwent dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA-SPECT) with (99m)technetium-tetrofosmin/(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose on a separate day. Myocardial viability was considered present by dobutamine stress echocardiography when segments with severe dysfunction showed a biphasic sustained improvement or an ischaemic response. Viability criteria on DISA-SPECT were normal or mildly reduced perfusion and metabolism, or perfusion/metabolism mismatch. Using fundamental imaging, 330 segments showed severe dysfunction at baseline; 144 (44%) were considered viable. The agreement between dobutamine stress echocardiography by fundamental imaging and DISA-SPECT was 78%, kappa = 0.56. Using second harmonic imaging, 288 segments showed severe dysfunction; 138 (48%) were viable. The agreement between dobutamine stress echocardiography and DISA-SPECT was significantly better when second harmonic imaging was used (89%, kappa = 0.77, p = 0.001 v fundamental imaging). Second harmonic imaging applied during dobutamine stress echocardiography increases the agreement with DISA-SPECT for detecting myocardial viability.

  18. Mice carrying a complete deletion of the talin2 coding sequence are viable and fertile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debrand, Emmanuel; Conti, Francesco J.; Bate, Neil; Spence, Lorraine; Mazzeo, Daniela; Pritchard, Catrin A.; Monkley, Susan J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Critchley, David R., E-mail: drc@le.ac.uk [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice lacking talin2 are viable and fertile with only a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Talin2 null fibroblasts show no major defects in proliferation, adhesion or migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maintaining a colony of talin2 null mice is difficult indicating an underlying defect. -- Abstract: Mice homozygous for several Tln2 gene targeted alleles are viable and fertile. Here we show that although the expression of talin2 protein is drastically reduced in muscle from these mice, other tissues continue to express talin2 albeit at reduced levels. We therefore generated a Tln2 allele lacking the entire coding sequence (Tln2{sup cd}). Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice were viable and fertile, and the genotypes of Tln2{sup cd/+} intercrosses were at the expected Mendelian ratio. Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice showed no major difference in body mass or the weight of the major organs compared to wild-type, although they displayed a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Moreover, Tln2{sup cd/cd} mouse embryo fibroblasts showed no obvious defects in cell adhesion, migration or proliferation. However, the number of Tln2{sup cd/cd} pups surviving to adulthood was variable suggesting that such mice have an underlying defect.

  19. Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry F. Bartlett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures.

  20. Desiccation induces viable but Non-Culturable cells in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriezen, Jan Ac; de Bruijn, Frans J; Nüsslein, Klaus R

    2012-01-20

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a microorganism commercially used in the production of e.g. Medicago sativa seed inocula. Many inocula are powder-based and production includes a drying step. Although S. meliloti survives drying well, the quality of the inocula is reduced during this process. In this study we determined survival during desiccation of the commercial strains 102F84 and 102F85 as well as the model strain USDA1021.The survival of S. meliloti 1021 was estimated during nine weeks at 22% relative humidity. We found that after an initial rapid decline of colony forming units, the decline slowed to a steady 10-fold reduction in colony forming units every 22 days. In spite of the reduction in colony forming units, the fraction of the population identified as viable (42-54%) based on the Baclight live/dead stain did not change significantly over time. This change in the ability of viable cells to form colonies shows (i) an underestimation of the survival of rhizobial cells using plating methods, and that (ii) in a part of the population desiccation induces a Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC)-like state, which has not been reported before. Resuscitation attempts did not lead to a higher recovery of colony forming units indicating the VBNC state is stable under the conditions tested. This observation has important consequences for the use of rhizobia. Finding methods to resuscitate this fraction may increase the quality of powder-based seed inocula.