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Sample records for viable bacterial counts

  1. Total viable bacterial count using a real time all-fibre spectroscopic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolny, E; Swift, S; Vanholsbeeck, F

    2013-07-21

    Rapid, accurate and sensitive enumeration of bacterial populations in the natural environment is an essential task for many research fields. Widely used standard methods for counting bacteria such as heterotrophic plate count require 1 to 8 days of incubation time for limited accuracy, while more accurate and rapid techniques are often expensive and may require bulky equipment. In the present study, we have developed a computerized optical prototype for bacterial detection. The goal of this research was to estimate the potential of this optical system for Total Viable Bacterial Count in water. For this purpose, we tested water batches with different microbiological content. Bacterial detection was based on fluorescence enhanced by nucleic acid staining. High sensitivity was achieved by a stable diode pumped solid state laser, sensitive CCD spectrometer and in situ excitation and signal collection. The results have shown that the bacterial count from different water origins using our optical setup along with multivariate analysis presents a higher accuracy and a shorter detection time compared to standard methods. For example, in a case where the fluorescence signal is calibrated to the water batch regression line, the relative standard deviation of the optical system enumeration varies between 21 and 36%, while that of the heterotropic plate count counterpart varies between 41 and 59%. In summary, we conclude that the all-fibre optical system may offer the following advantages over conventional methods: near real time examinations, portability, sensitivity, accuracy and ability to detect 10(2) to 10(8) CFU per ml bacterial concentrations.

  2. Preliminary stochastic model for managing Vibrio parahaemolyticus and total viable bacterial counts in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Estrada-Flores, Silvia; Tamplin, Mark L

    2013-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus can accumulate and grow in oysters stored without refrigeration, representing a potential food safety risk. High temperatures during oyster storage can lead to an increase in total viable bacteria counts, decreasing product shelf life. Therefore, a predictive tool that allows the estimation of both V. parahaemolyticus populations and total viable bacteria counts in parallel is needed. A stochastic model was developed to quantitatively assess the populations of V. parahaemolyticus and total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters for six different supply chain scenarios. The stochastic model encompassed operations from oyster farms through consumers and was built using risk analysis software. Probabilistic distributions and predictions for the percentage of Pacific oysters containing V. parahaemolyticus and high levels of viable bacteria at the point of consumption were generated for each simulated scenario. This tool can provide valuable information about V. parahaemolyticus exposure and potential control measures and can help oyster companies and regulatory agencies evaluate the impact of product quality and safety during cold chain management. If coupled with suitable monitoring systems, such models could enable preemptive action to be taken to counteract unfavorable supply chain conditions.

  3. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  4. Efficacy of preprocedural mouth rinse containing chlorine dioxide in reduction of viable bacterial count in dental aerosols during ultrasonic scaling: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk to dentists, dental assistants, and patients of infectious diseases through aerosols has long been recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of commercially available preprocedural mouthrinses containing 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate, chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 mouthwash, and water in reducing the levels of viable bacteria in aerosols. Materials and Methods: This single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-group parallel-designed study was conducted over a period of 4 months. One hundred twenty patients with chronic periodontitis were divided randomly into three groups (A, B, and C of 40 patients each to receive the ClO 2 mouthwash, water, and 0.2% CHX gluconate respectively as preprocedural rinse. The aerosol produced by the ultrasonic unit was collected at five standardized locations with respect to the reference point, i.e., the mouth of the patient. The blood agar plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h, and the total number of colony-forming units (CFUs was counted and statistically analyzed. Results: The results showed that CFUs in groups A and C were significantly reduced compared to group B, and P 0.05. The numbers of CFUs were the highest at the patient′s chest area and lowest at the patient′s front i.e., the 6 o′clock position. Conclusion: This study proves that a regular preprocedural mouthrinse could significantly eliminate the majority of aerosols generated by the use of an ultrasonic unit, and that ClO 2 mouthrinse was found to be statistically equally effective in reducing the aerosol contamination to 0.2% CHX gluconate.

  5. Changes in total viable count and TVB-N content in marinated chicken breast fillets during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, T.; Ćirić, J.; Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Lakićević, B.; Đorđević, V.; Janković, V.

    2017-09-01

    Marination is a popular technique for enhancing meat properties. Depending on the marinade type and ingredients added, marination can improve sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of meat products. In this study, the total viable count and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in marinated chicken breast fillets were investigated. The possible correlation between bacterial growth and formation of TVB-N was also tested. Chicken breast fillets were immersed in a solution of table salt (as a control) orthree different marinades,which consisted of table salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and/or sodium citrate, and stored in air for nine days at 4±1°C. Analyses of the total viable count and TVB-N were performed on days0, 3, 6 and 9 day of storage. The total viable count gradually increased in all examined groups, and statistically significant differences (pmultiple linear regression, a positive correlation between total viable count and formation of TVB-N in chicken marinated with sodium citrate was established (p<0.05), while the intensity of TVB-N formation was lowest in chicken marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate.

  6. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kenkre, V.D.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Direct viable counts (DVC) of bacteria were quantified from polluted and relatively less/non-polluted coastal locations during different seasons to assess whether they can be routinely monitored for an understanding of environmental stress(es...

  7. Molecular approaches for viable bacterial population and transcriptional analyses in a rodent model of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M I; Scott-Anne, K M; Gregoire, S; Rosalen, P L; Koo, H

    2012-10-01

    Culturing methods are the primary approach for microbiological analysis of plaque biofilms in rodent models of dental caries. In this study, we developed strategies for the isolation of DNA and RNA from plaque biofilms formed in vivo to analyse the viable bacterial population and gene expression. Plaque biofilm samples from rats were treated with propidium monoazide to isolate DNA from viable cells, and the purified DNA was used to quantify total bacteria and the Streptococcus mutans population via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and specific primers; the same samples were also analysed by counting colony-forming units (CFU). In parallel, RNA was isolated from plaque-biofilm samples (from the same animals) and used for transcriptional analyses via reverse transcription-qPCR. The viable populations of both S. mutans and total bacteria assessed by qPCR were positively correlated with the CFU data (P  0.8). However, the qPCR data showed higher bacterial cell counts, particularly for total bacteria (vs. CFU). Moreover, S. mutans proportion in the plaque biofilm determined by qPCR analysis showed strong correlation with incidence of smooth-surface caries (P = 0.0022, r = 0.71). The purified RNAs presented high RNA integrity numbers (> 7), which allowed measurement of the expression of genes that are critical for S. mutans virulence (e.g. gtfB and gtfC). Our data show that the viable microbial population and the gene expression can be analysed simultaneously, providing a global assessment of the infectious aspect of dental caries. Our approach could enhance the value of the current rodent model in further understanding the pathophysiology of this disease and facilitating the exploration of novel anti-caries therapies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  9. A direct viable count method for the enumeration of attached bacteria and assessment of biofilm disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. P.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the adaptation of an in situ direct viable count (in situ DVC) method in biofilm disinfection studies. The results obtained with this technique were compared to two other enumeration methods, the plate count (PC) and conventional direct viable count (c-DVC). An environmental isolate (Klebsiella pneumoniae Kp1) was used to form biofilms on stainless steel coupons in a stirred batch reactor. The in situ DVC method was applied to directly assess the viability of bacteria in biofilms without disturbing the integrity of the interfacial community. As additional advantages, the results were observed after 4 h instead of the 24 h incubation time required for colony formation and total cell numbers that remained on the substratum were enumerated. Chlorine and monochloramine were used to determine the susceptibilities of attached and planktonic bacteria to disinfection treatment using this novel analytical approach. The planktonic cells in the reactor showed no significant change in susceptibility to disinfectants during the period of biofilm formation. In addition, the attached cells did not reveal any more resistance to disinfection than planktonic cells. The disinfection studies of young biofilms indicated that 0.25 mg/l free chlorine (at pH 7.2) and 1 mg/l monochloramine (at pH 9.0) have comparable disinfection efficiencies at 25 degrees C. Although being a weaker disinfectant, monochloramine was more effective in removing attached bacteria from the substratum than free chlorine. The in situ DVC method always showed at least one log higher viable cell densities than the PC method, suggesting that the in situ DVC method is more efficient in the enumeration of biofilm bacteria. The results also indicated that the in situ DVC method can provide more accurate information regarding the cell numbers and viability of bacteria within biofilms following disinfection.

  10. Nondestructive detection of total viable count changes of chilled pork in high oxygen storage condition based on hyperspectral technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    The plate count method is commonly used to detect the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in pork, which is timeconsuming and destructive. It has also been used to study the changes of the TVC in pork under different storage conditions. In recent years, many scholars have explored the non-destructive methods on detecting TVC by using visible near infrared (VIS/NIR) technology and hyperspectral technology. The TVC in chilled pork was monitored under high oxygen condition in this study by using hyperspectral technology in order to evaluate the changes of total bacterial count during storage, and then evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the storage condition. The VIS/NIR hyperspectral images of samples stored in high oxygen condition was acquired by a hyperspectral system in range of 400 1100nm. The actual reference value of total bacteria was measured by standard plate count method, and the results were obtained in 48 hours. The reflection spectra of the samples are extracted and used for the establishment of prediction model for TVC. The spectral preprocessing methods of standard normal variate transformation (SNV), multiple scatter correction (MSC) and derivation was conducted to the original reflectance spectra of samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) of TVC was performed and optimized to be the prediction model. The results show that the near infrared hyperspectral technology based on 400-1100nm combined with PLSR model can describe the growth pattern of the total bacteria count of the chilled pork under the condition of high oxygen very vividly and rapidly. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the nondestructive method of TVC based on NIR hyperspectral has great potential in monitoring of edible safety in processing and storage of meat.

  11. ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-Lei; Miao, Su-Na; Deng, Shao-Ya; Zou, Min-Juan; Zhong, Fo-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Biao; Pan, Si-Yi; Wang, Qing-Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence rapid determination method may be useful for enumerating the total viable count (TVC) in soy sauce, as it has been previously used in food and beverages for sanitation with good precision. However, many factors interfere with the correlation between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence. This study investigated these interfering factors, including ingredients of soy sauce and bacteria at different physiological stages. Using the ATP bioluminescence method, TVC was obtained within 4 h, compared to 48 h required for the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method. Our results also indicated a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.90) between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence after filtration and resuscitation with special medium. The limit of quantification of the novel detection method is 100 CFU/mL; there is a good linear correlation between the bioluminescence intensity and TVC in soy sauce in the range 1 × 10(2) -3 × 10(4) CFU/mL and even wider. The method employed a luminescence recorder (Tristar LB-941) and 96-well plates and could analyse 50-100 samples simultaneously at low cost. In this study, we evaluated and eliminated the interfering factors and made the ATP bioluminescence rapid method available for enumerating TVC in soy sauce. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

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    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  13. Designing primers and evaluation of the efficiency of propidium monoazide – Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for counting the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hsien Lai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of using propidium monoazide (PMA real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR to count the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius in probiotic products. Based on the internal transcription spacer and 23S rRNA genes, two primer sets specific for these two Lactobacillus species were designed. For a probiotic product, the total deMan Rogosa Sharpe plate count was 8.65±0.69 log CFU/g, while for qPCR, the cell counts of L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 8.39±0.14 log CFU/g and 8.57±0.24 log CFU/g, respectively. Under the same conditions, for its heat-killed product, qPCR counts for L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 6.70±0.16 log cells/g and 7.67±0.20 log cells/g, while PMA-qPCR counts were 5.33±0.18 log cells/g and 5.05±0.23 log cells/g, respectively. For cell dilutions with a viable cell count of 8.5 log CFU/mL for L. gasseri and L. salivarius, after heat killing, the PMA-qPCR count for both Lactobacillus species was near 5.5 log cells/mL. When the PMA-qPCR counts of these cell dilutions were compared before and after heat killing, although some DNA might be lost during the heat killing, significant qPCR signals from dead cells, i.e., about 4–5 log cells/mL, could not be reduced by PMA treatment. Increasing PMA concentrations from 100 μM to 200 μM or light exposure time from 5 minutes to 15 minutes had no or, if any, only minor effect on the reduction of qPCR signals from their dead cells. Thus, to differentiate viable lactic acid bacterial cells from dead cells using the PMA-qPCR method, the efficiency of PMA to reduce the qPCR signals from dead cells should be notable.

  14. Designing primers and evaluation of the efficiency of propidium monoazide - Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for counting the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chieh-Hsien; Wu, Sih-Rong; Pang, Jen-Chieh; Ramireddy, Latha; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Ku; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of using propidium monoazide (PMA) real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to count the viable cells of Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius in probiotic products. Based on the internal transcription spacer and 23S rRNA genes, two primer sets specific for these two Lactobacillus species were designed. For a probiotic product, the total deMan Rogosa Sharpe plate count was 8.65±0.69 log CFU/g, while for qPCR, the cell counts of L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 8.39±0.14 log CFU/g and 8.57±0.24 log CFU/g, respectively. Under the same conditions, for its heat-killed product, qPCR counts for L. gasseri and L. salivarius were 6.70±0.16 log cells/g and 7.67±0.20 log cells/g, while PMA-qPCR counts were 5.33±0.18 log cells/g and 5.05±0.23 log cells/g, respectively. For cell dilutions with a viable cell count of 8.5 log CFU/mL for L. gasseri and L. salivarius, after heat killing, the PMA-qPCR count for both Lactobacillus species was near 5.5 log cells/mL. When the PMA-qPCR counts of these cell dilutions were compared before and after heat killing, although some DNA might be lost during the heat killing, significant qPCR signals from dead cells, i.e., about 4-5 log cells/mL, could not be reduced by PMA treatment. Increasing PMA concentrations from 100 μM to 200 μM or light exposure time from 5 minutes to 15 minutes had no or, if any, only minor effect on the reduction of qPCR signals from their dead cells. Thus, to differentiate viable lactic acid bacterial cells from dead cells using the PMA-qPCR method, the efficiency of PMA to reduce the qPCR signals from dead cells should be notable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the

  16. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

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    Angelovski Ljupco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

  18. The molecularly crowded cytoplasm of bacterialcCells : Dividing cells contrasted with viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacterial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trevors, J. T.; van Elsas, J. D.; Bej, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    In this perspective, we discuss the cytoplasm in actively growing bacterial cells contrasted with viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. Actively growing bacterial cells contain a more molecularly crowded and organized cytoplasm, and are capable of completing their cell cycle resulting in cell

  19. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Van Nevel, S.

    2017-02-08

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  20. Escherichia coli detection using mTEC agar and fluorescent antibody direct viable counting on coastal recreational water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A M; Rebarchik, D M; Flowers, A R; Williams, J L; Grimes, D J

    2009-10-01

    Escherichia coli is the faecal indicator species recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for monitoring fresh recreational water. Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) E. coli are living cells that are dormant and not culturable using standard microbiological cultivation methods. This study reports a comparison between the mTEC culture method recommended by USEPA for E. coli enumeration and a fluorescent antibody-direct viable count (FA-DVC) method to visualize living E. coli cells with a microscope. Escherichia coli, faecal coliforms and Enterococcus were detected using standard methods recommended by the USEPA. VBNC E. coli was visualized with FA-DVC. Results were analysed with standard statistical methods (Pearson correlation; paired-sample t-test). Significantly higher numbers of E. coli were detected using the FA-DVC method than using the mTEC method. Escherichia coli results were also compared with faecal coliform (mFC broth) and Enterococcus (mEI agar) counts in the same samples. The results of this comparative study demonstrate that E. coli can be present in higher numbers than what are detected with standard culture methods. This study re-emphasizes the need for a rapid, accurate and precise method for detecting health risks to humans who use recreational waters.

  1. The effect of nail characteristics on surface bacterial counts of surgical personnel before and after scrubbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jade M; Owen, Tina J; Martinez, Steven A; Jones, Lisa P; Davis, Margaret A

    2017-10-01

    To determine the influence of nail characteristics on bacterial counts on the fingers of surgery personnel. Randomized nonblinded controlled crossover study design. Veterinary students, small animal surgery technicians, small animal surgery interns/residents, and small animal surgery faculty in a veterinary teaching hospital (n = 21). Subjects were randomized into one of 2 groups; group 1 wore nail polish (P) for 1 week and group 2 (control) had nonpolished (NP) fingernails. Each subject changed groups the following week. Fingernail lengths were measured each day and fingernail samples were collected before and after presurgical scrub and after surgery. Total bacterial counts (TBC) and suspected staphylococci were counted on blood agar media and mannitol salt agar. The association between bacterial counts and nail biting, position of the volunteer, duration of the surgery, whether the nail polish was chipped, duration of nail polish application, type of surgery, and handedness was tested. Log-transformed CFU counts were compared with a Student's t test and presence or absence of bacteria were compared using Fisher's exact test. TBC, quantities of staphylococci, other gram-positive organisms, and gram-negative bacilli did not differ between P and NP personnel. The only variable associated with higher bacterial counts consisted of nail lengths greater than 2 mm. Nail polish did not influence bacterial counts and types of isolates, but nail length is a risk factor for increased bacterial counts. Based on our results, we recommend that nail length be kept under 2 mm. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  2. Correlations between cyanobacterial density and bacterial transformation to the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state in four freshwater water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huirong; Shen, Ju; Pan, Gaoshan; Liu, Jing; Li, Jiancheng; Hu, Zhangli

    2015-10-01

    Nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton density and community composition, and the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of heterotrophic bacteria were investigated in three connected reservoirs and a small isolated lake in South China to study the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors and the VBNC state in bacteria. Nutrient concentrations in the reservoirs increased in the direction of water flow, whereas Wenshan Lake was more eutrophic. Cyanobacterial blooms occurred in all four water bodies, with differing seasonal trends and dominant species. In Xili and Tiegang Reservoirs, the VBNC ratio (percent of VBNC state bacteria over total viable bacteria) was high for most of the year and negatively correlated with cyanobacterial density. Laboratory co-culture experiments were performed with four heterotrophic bacterial species isolated from Wenshan Lake (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella peneumoniae, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus) and the dominant cyanobacterial species (Microcystis aeruginosa). For the first three bacterial species, the presence of M. aeruginosa induced the VBNC state and the VBNC ratio was positively correlated with M. aeruginosa density. However, B. cereus inhibited M. aeruginosa growth. These results demonstrate that cyanobacteria could potentially regulate the transformation to the VBNC state of waterborne bacteria, and suggest a role for bacteria in cyanobacterial bloom initiation and termination.

  3. Drug-induced hypochlorhydria causes high duodenal bacterial counts in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S P; Gainsborough, N; Dowling, R H

    1998-01-01

    Small bowel bacterial overgrowth secondary to drug-induced hypochlorhydria may be of particular importance in the elderly, in whom anti-ulcer drugs are commonly prescribed and the consequences of malabsorption may be severe. Duodenal aspirates were obtained from elderly individuals before (n = 24) and during a 2-month treatment course with either omeprazole (20 mg daily; n = 8) or ranitidine (300 mg b.d.; n = 6), and from six patients with small bowel bacterial overgrowth who had diarrhoea and malabsorption. Before treatment, duodenal bacterial counts were normal ( 10(5) cfu/mL. All remained asymptomatic and had normal lactulose breath H2 profiles during treatment. Drug-induced hypochlorhydria causes high duodenal bacterial counts in the elderly but, in the short term, this bacterial overgrowth is not associated with malabsorption.

  4. Predictive models for the effect of storage temperature on Vibrio parahaemolyticus viability and counts of total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Tamplin, Mark L

    2011-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an indigenous bacterium of marine environments. It accumulates in oysters and may reach levels that cause human illness when postharvest temperatures are not properly controlled and oysters are consumed raw or undercooked. Predictive models were produced by injecting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains, measuring viability rates at storage temperatures from 3.6 to 30.4°C, and fitting the data to a model to obtain parameter estimates. The models were evaluated with Pacific and Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) containing natural populations of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus viability was measured by direct plating samples on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar for injected oysters and by most probable number (MPN)-PCR for oysters containing natural populations. In parallel, total viable bacterial counts (TVC) were measured by direct plating on marine agar. Growth/inactivation rates for V. parahaemolyticus were -0.006, -0.004, -0.005, -0.003, 0.030, 0.075, 0.095, and 0.282 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.6, 12.6, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. The growth rates for TVC were 0.015, 0.023, 0.016, 0.048, 0.055, 0.071, 0.133, and 0.135 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.3, 14.9, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. Square root and Arrhenius-type secondary models were generated for V. parahaemolyticus growth and inactivation kinetic data, respectively. A square root model was produced for TVC growth. Evaluation studies showed that predictive growth for V. parahaemolyticus and TVC were "fail safe." The models can assist oyster companies and regulators in implementing management strategies to minimize V. parahaemolyticus risk and enhancing product quality in supply chains.

  5. Validation parameters of instrumental method for determination of total bacterial count in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of flow citometry as rapid, instrumental and routine microbiological method is used for determination of total bacterial count in milk. The results of flow citometry are expressed as individual bacterial cells count. Problems regarding the interpretation of the results of total bacterial count can be avoided by transformation of the results of flow citometry method onto the scale of reference method (HRN ISO 6610:2001.. The method of flow citometry, like any analitycal method, according to the HRN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 standard, requires validation and verification. This paper describes parameters of validation: accuracy, precision, specificity, range, robustness and measuring uncertainty for the method of flow citometry.

  6. M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coccollone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

  7. Response of Listeria monocytogenes to disinfection stress at the single-cell and population levels as monitored by intracellular pH measurements and viable-cell counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    .05). The protective effect of NaCl was reflected by viable-cell counts at a higher concentration of Incimaxx (0.0031%), where the salt-grown population survived better than the population grown without NaCl (P ... that a population of L. monocytogenes cells, whether planktonic or attached, is homogenous with respect to sensitivity to an acidic disinfectant studied on the single-cell level. Hence a major subpopulation more tolerant to disinfectants, and hence more persistent, does not appear to be present....

  8. Potential Effect of 2% Chlorhexidine Gel in the Implant Screw Hole on Bacterial Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Khudair Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial penetration inside the implant’s internal hole creates a bacterial reservoir that is related with an area of inflamed connective tissue opposite the fixture-abutment junction and this can affect with the health of the peri-implant tissue. Chlorhexidine (CHX has been used to prevent internal implant contamination as a 0.2% solution, a varnish or gel. Aim: To evaluate the aerobic/anaerobic bacterial count-reduction potential of 2% CHX gel placed, at the time of surgery, in the implant screw hole over a period of minimum 90 d, and to monitor the periodontal health status of all patients, throughout the study. Material and methods: Ten partially edentulous patients received 30 DI and these implants were randomly allocated in to: Group I (test 15 implants applied by flap or flapless surgery with 2% CHX gel application. Group II (control 15 implants applied by flap or flapless surgery without CHX gel application. All patients were examined clinically to determine their oral health status by examination of their plaque index, PLI, Gingival index GI, Bleeding on probing, BOP, and probing pocket depth, PPD, every two weeks throughout the study. Three months later, the plaque sample was collected from the internal hole of fixture and was sent for bacteriological examination. Results: The present study shows highly significant reduction of aerobic count of bacteria from 52.1% to 100%. Also, anaerobic bacterial count was reduced from 64.6% to 100% for group that received 2% CHX gel in screw hole of implants at time of surgery. When compared, the count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (CFU between test and control group, a significant reduction was found. Conclusion: The use of 2% CHX gel at the time of placement can significantly reduce bacterial counts in the implant screw hole, and this effect can be maintained for 90 d or longer.

  9. Association of Healthy Eating, Juice Consumption, and Bacterial Counts with Early Childhood Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelAziz, Wafaa E; Dowidar, Karin M L; El Tantawi, Maha M A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of healthy diet, snacking, and bacterial count with early childhood caries in a group of preschool children in Alexandria, Egypt. Sixty preschoolers were divided into three groups: (1) caries-free children; (2) children with early childhood caries (ECC); and (3) children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). Saliva was cultured to determine bacterial counts. A questionnaire collected information about background, oral health practices, and snacking habits. A 24-hour food recall form assessed dietary intake and was analyzed using the Health Eating Index 2005. Compared to caries-free children, children with ECC and S-ECC had significantly lower odds of drinking juices (odds ratio equals 0.10 and 0.02). Caries-free children had significantly higher Healthy Eating Index values than children with ECC and S-ECC (P=0.003 and Pchildren with ECC and S-ECC (Pearly childhood caries and severe early childhood caries among preschoolers. Snacking on sweets was associated with more S-ECC. Healthy eating, brushing, and bacterial counts were not significantly associated with ECC or S-ECC in multivariate regression.

  10. Bacterial Count of Pasteurized Milk Packed by Plastic Distributed in Malang Municipality

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    Rini Mastuti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigated the number of bacteria in pasteurized milk packed by plastic and distributed in Malang Municipality. The results were compared with the standards, then. The material consisted of six different products obtained from six milk pasteurized agents. A survey research was carried out, and sampling of pasteurized milk was taken by simple random sampling and the agent was taken as total sampling. The number and type of bacteria were determined in the laboratory. TPC method was used to test the number of bacteria, MPN method on coliform bacteria, Gram colouring on bacterial identification, and TPC method on the number of bacteria in plastic packaging. Data were descriptively analysed. Compared with standard of pasteurized milk quality according to the standard regulated by government. The results showed the pasteurized milk packed by plastic distributed in Malang Municipality was unsuitable according to the standards with bacterial content and still found the coliform bacteria. It is recommended the need of agency which enable to control and testing for the products in Malang Municipality to keep quality and safety for the consument.   Keywords : bacterial count, pasteurized milk, plastic packaging.

  11. Using flow cytometry for counting natural planktonic bacteria and understanding the structure of planktonic bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Gasol

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is rapidly becoming a routine methodology in aquatic microbial ecology. The combination of simple to use bench-top flow cytometers and highly fluorescent nucleic acid stains allows fast and easy determination of microbe abundance in the plankton of lakes and oceans. The different dyes and protocols used to stain and count planktonic bacteria as well as the equipment in use are reviewed, with special attention to some of the problems encountered in daily routine practice such as fixation, staining and absolute counting. One of the main advantages of flow cytometry over epifluorescence microscopy is the ability to obtain cell-specific measurements in large numbers of cells with limited effort. We discuss how this characteristic has been used for differentiating photosynthetic from non-photosynthetic prokaryotes, for measuring bacterial cell size and nucleic acid content, and for estimating the relative activity and physiological state of each cell. We also describe how some of the flow cytometrically obtained data can be used to characterize the role of microbes on carbon cycling in the aquatic environment and we prospect the likely avenues of progress in the study of planktonic prokaryotes through the use of flow cytometry.

  12. Relationships between infection with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, intramammary bacterial infection and somatic cell counts in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C; Marco, J C

    2001-06-09

    Somatic cell counts, the bacteriological condition of the milk and antibodies against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) were measured monthly throughout lactation in 121 lactating goats of the Murcia-Granada breed in four commercial dairy goat herds. The prevalence of bacterial intramammary infection was 5.6 per cent and the prevalence of CAEV infection was 20.6 per cent. An analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of herd, intramammary infection and the interaction between intramammary infection and CAEV on the somatic cell count. In udder halves free of intramammary infection, the somatic cell counts were significantly lower in seronegative goats than in seropositive goats (Peffect was not present in the seropositive animals.

  13. A simple method to assess bacterial attachment to surfaces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sonak, S.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The crystal violet microplate adhension assay was modified to evaluate bacterial adhesion to metal and non-metal surfaces. Both viable cell count and the absorbance of the crystal violet stained cells attached to aluminium increased over the period...

  14. Reduction effect of bacterial counts by preoperative saline lavage of the stomach in performing laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Tsushimi, Takaaki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Morishita, Asahiro; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-11-14

    To investigate the effects of gastric lavage with 2000 mL of saline in laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery. Twenty two patients who were diagnosed with a gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor were enrolled. In former term, irrigations of the stomach were conducted whenever it was necessary, not systematically (Non systemic lavage group). In latter term, the stomach was thoroughly cleaned with 2000 mL of saline using an endoscope with a water jet, and Duodenal balloon occlusion was conducted to prevent refluxed bile and pancreatic juice (Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group). The gastric wall was sprayed with 20 mL of distilled water, and 20 mL of gastric juice was collected in a sterile tube and submitted for culture. 20 mL of ascites was also collected from the laparoscopic ports and submitted for culture. We compared WBC, CRP, BT between two groups, and verify the reduction effect of bacterial counts in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group. WBC count before, 1 d after, and 3 d after laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) were 5060 (95%CI: 4250-9640), 12140 (6050-14110), and 6910 (5320-12520) in Non systemic lavage group, 4400 (3660-7620), 8910 (6480-10980), and 5950 (4840-7860) in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group. Significant differences between two groups at the day after LECS (P = 0.029) and the 3 d after LECS (P = 0.042). CRP levels in Non systemic lavage group and in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group were significantly different at the day after LECS (P = 0.005) and the 3 d after LECS (P = 0.028). BTs (°C) in Non systemic lavage group and in Systemic lavage+balloon occlusion group were also significantly different at the day after LECS (P = 0.004) and the 3 d after LECS (P = 0.006). In a logarithmic comparison, bacterial load before gastric lavage, after lavage, and ascites culture were 6.08 (95%CI: 4.04-6.97), 0.48 (0-0.85), and 0.21 (0-0.56). The bacterial counts before and after gastric lavage were

  15. Effects of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on Bacterial Counts and Oxidative Properties in Chicken and Duck Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin, Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of gaseous ozone exposure on the bacterial counts and oxidative properties were evaluated in duck and chicken breast fillets, which were stored under a continuous flux of gaseous ozone (10×10(-6) kg O3/m(3)/h) at 4±1℃ for 4 d. The ozone generator was set to on for 15 min and off for 105 min, and this cyclic timer was set during storage. Ozone effectively reduced the growth of coliform, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in both chicken and duck breast. However, lipid oxidation occurred faster in duck breast than chicken breast with higher degree of discoloration, TBARS value, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activity decline rates. It is concluded that ozone effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in both chicken and duck breast with less effects on oxidative deterioration in chicken breast.

  16. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly PT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC, which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production.

  17. Risk factors for bulk milk somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts in smallholder dairy farms in the 10th region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, G; Green, L E; Guzmán, D; Esparza, H; Tadich, N

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the principal management factors that influenced bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) of smallholder dairy farms in the 10th region of Chile. One hundred and fifty smallholder milk producers were selected randomly from 42 milk collection centres (MCCs). In April and May of 2002, all farms were visited and a detailed interview questionnaire on dairy-cow management related to milk quality was conducted. In addition, the BMSCC and TBC results from the previous 2 months' fortnightly tests were obtained from the MCCs. The mean BMSCC and TBC were used as the dependent variables in the analyses and were normalised by a natural-logarithm transformation (LN). All independent management variables were categorised into binary outcomes and present (=1) was compared with absent (=0). Biserial correlations were calculated between the LNBMSCC or LNTBC and the management factors of the smallholder farms. Management factors with correlations with P0.05) factors. A random MCC effect was included in the models to investigate the importance of clustering of herds within MCC. In the null model for mean LNTBC, the random effect of MCCs was highly significant. It was explained by: milk collected once a day or less compared with collection twice a day, not cleaning the bucket after milking mastitic cows versus cleaning the bucket and cooling milk in a vat of water versus not cooling milk or using ice or a bulk tank to cool milk. Other factors that increased the LNTBC were a waiting yard with a soil or gravel floor versus concrete, use of plastic buckets for milking instead of metal, not feeding California mastitis test (CMT)-positive milk to calves and cows of dual-purpose breed. The final model explained 35% of the variance. The model predicted that a herd that complied with all the management practices had a mean predicted TBC of 105 colony forming units (cfu)/ml, whereas a herd that did not comply with any of these management factors had

  18. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hegnhøj, J

    1991-01-01

    During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured....... Bacterial growth was found in five patients with chronic liver disease, who were diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), since no intra-abdominal focus could be demonstrated. Thus, the incidence of SBP in this material was 7.7% (95% confidence limits: 2.5-17%). SBP was caused...

  19. Accuracy of cerebrospinal leucocyte count, protein and culture for the diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis: a comparative study using Bayesian latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Mare, Trevor; Hwaiwhanje, Ilomo; Siba, Peter; Davis, Timothy M E

    2014-12-01

    To examine the utility of laboratory methods other than bacterial culture in diagnosing acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). Bayesian latent class analysis was used to estimate diagnostic precision of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, leucocyte counts and protein concentrations for ABM in Melanesian children. With a cut-off of ≥20 leucocytes/mm(3) , the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ROC) was >97.5% for leucocyte counts. A lower (93%) AUC ROC was observed for CSF protein concentrations ≥1 g/l. CSF culture had poor sensitivity and high specificity. Leucocyte counts provide sufficient diagnostic precision to aid clinical decision-making in ABM. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of four irrigation solutions on the intraocular pressure and total bacterial count of the normal eye in dogs

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    Mohammed Ahmed Hamdy Abdelhakiem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous agents that have been used for irrigation of the ocular tissue from attached foreign bodies, inflammatory exudate and microorganisms. For evaluation of four agents of these irrigation solutions, sixteen clinically healthy dogs of both sexes were used in this study. The dogs were allocated into four equal groups. The right eye of dogs for each group was irrigated 3 times daily for three successive days. The groups were irrigated as following: The first group: ringer’s lactate, the second group: normal saline 0.9%, the third group: boric acid 2% and sodium bicarbonate 1% was used for the fourth group. The left eye was considered control one. The results revealed that the four solutions did not cause any obvious alteration of the eyes and change the intraocular pressure (IOP. According to their effects on the total bacterial count, the four irrigation solutions had not any significant effect. It could be concluded that all of these agents may be used for irrigation of the intact eye and removal of the attached exudate and foreign bodies.

  1. Solubilization and bio-conjugation of quantum dots and bacterial toxicity assays by growth curve and plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonhyang; Chibli, Hicham; Nadeau, Jay

    2012-07-11

    previous study, we showed that coupling of antibiotics to CdTe can increase toxicity to bacteria but decrease toxicity to mammalian cells, due to decreased production of reactive oxygen species from the conjugates. Although it is unlikely that cadmium-containing compounds will be approved for use in humans, such preparations could be used for disinfection of surfaces or sterilization of water. In this protocol, we give a straightforward approach to solubilizing CdTe QDs with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The QDs are ready to use within an hour. We then demonstrate coupling to an antimicrobial agent. The second part of the protocol demonstrates a 96-well bacterial inhibition assay using the conjugated and unconjugated QDs. The optical density is read over many hours, permitting the effects of QD addition and light exposure to be evaluated immediately as well as after a recovery period. We also illustrate a colony count for quantifying bacterial survival.

  2. Anatomical characteristics of teats and premilking bacterial counts of teat skin swabs of primiparous cows exposed to different types of bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarín, J F; Baumberger, C; Ruegg, P L

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial populations of teat skin are associated with risk of intramammary infection and may be influenced by anatomical characteristics of teats. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations of selected anatomical characteristics of teats with bacterial counts of teat skin of cows exposed to different types of bedding. Primarily primiparous Holstein cows (n = 128) were randomly allocated to 4 pens within a single barn. Each pen contained 1 type of bedding [new sand (NES), recycled sand (RS), deep-bedded manure solids (DBMS), and shallow-bedded manure solids over foam core mattresses (SBMS)]. During a single farm visit udders (n = 112) were scored for hygiene and 1 front (n = 112) and 1 rear teat (n = 111) of each enrolled cow were scored for hyperkeratosis (HK). Teat length, teat barrel diameter, and teat apex diameter were measured and teat skin swabs were systematically collected for microbiological analysis. Linear type evaluation data for udders of each cow were retrieved for each cow. Teat position (front or rear) was associated with occurrence of clinical mastitis during the 12 mo before the farm visit and more cases occurred in front quarters. The proportion of udders that were classified as clean (score 1 or 2) was 68, 82, 54, and 95% for cows housed in pens containing NES, RS, SBMS, and DBMS, respectively. No association was found between HK score and teat position and no association was found between HK score and teat skin bacterial count. Bacterial counts of teat skin swabs from front teats of cows in pens containing RS and SBMS were significantly less than those of rear teats of cows in pens containing DBMS or NES. Teat skin bacterial counts were significantly greater for swabs obtained from teats of cows with udder hygiene scores of 3 and 4 as compared with swabs obtained from cows with cleaner udders. Of all udder conformation traits evaluated, only narrower rear teat placement was positively associated with bacterial counts on teat skin

  3. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals.

  4. Quantification of viable bacterial starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. and Tetragenococcus halophilus in fish sauce fermentation by real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Chen, Shu; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2016-08-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed for the quantification of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and Tetragenococcus halophilus MS33, which were added as starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. The PCR assays were coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment of samples to selectively quantify viable cells and integrated with exogenous recombinant Escherichia coli cells to control variabilities in analysis procedures. The qPCR methods showed species-specificity for both Virgibacillus halodenitrificans and T. halophilus as evaluated using 6 reference strains and 28 strains of bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation. The qPCR efficiencies were 101.1% for V. halodenitrificans and 90.2% for T. halophilus. The quantification limits of the assays were 10(3) CFU/mL and 10(2) CFU/mL in fish sauce samples with linear correlations over 4 Logs for V. halodenitrificans and T. halophilus, respectively. The matrix effect was not observed when evaluated using fish sauce samples fermented for 1-6 months. The developed PMA-qPCR methods were successfully applied to monitor changes of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and T. halophilus MS33 in a mackerel fish sauce fermentation model where culture-dependent techniques failed to quantify the starter cultures. The results demonstrated the usability of the methods as practical tools for monitoring the starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial growth in humic waters exposed to UV-radiation and simulated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corin, N.; Backlund, P.; Wiklund, T.

    1998-01-01

    assemblage and the number of viable bacteria war estimated 3 and 5 days after the inoculation using the plate count technique. The number of viable bacteria increased with the irradiation time indicating that the chemical changes of the humus macromolecules observed during irradiation resulted...... in an increased availability of the dissolved organic material as bacterial substrate. No inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth, due to the presence of toxic organic reaction products, was observed. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....

  6. Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahimu Mdala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (≥5 mm after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1 scaling+root planing (SRP; (2 periodontal surgery (SURG+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX+systemic metronidazole (MET; (3 SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET; (4 SURG; (5 AMOX+MET+TET; (6 AMOX+MET; (7 TET; and (8 SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB generalized estimating equation (NB GEE model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results: We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions: Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

  7. Bacterial counts on teat skin and in new sand, recycled sand, and recycled manure solids used as bedding in freestalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-08-01

    10(3) cfu/swab) and greatest for cows bedded with RS (5.1×10(4) cfu/swab) or SBMS (1.6×10(5) cfu/swab). The numbers of all types of measured bacteria (total gram-negative, coliforms, Klebsiella spp., SSLO) on postpreparation teat swabs were reduced by up to 2.6 logs from numbers of bacteria on prepreparation swabs, verifying effective preparation procedures. Significant correlations between bacterial counts of bedding samples and teat skin swabs were observed for several types of bacteria. As compared with other bedding types, the least amount of gram-negative bacteria were recovered from NES and may indicate that cows on NES have a reduced risk of exposure to pathogens that are typically a cause of clinical mastitis. In contrast, exposure to large numbers of SSLO was consistent across all bedding types and may indicate that risk of subclinical mastitis typically associated with streptococci is not as influenced by bedding type; however, significantly greater numbers of SSLO were found in SBMS than in other bedding types. These findings indicate that use of different bedding types results in exposure to different distributions of mastitis pathogens that may alter the proportion of etiologies of clinical mastitis, although the incidence rate of clinical mastitis did not differ among bedding types. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Residual structure of Streptococcus mutans biofilm following complete disinfection favors secondary bacterial adhesion and biofilm re-development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Ohsumi

    Full Text Available Chemical disinfection of oral biofilms often leaves biofilm structures intact. This study aimed to examine whether the residual structure promotes secondary bacterial adhesion. Streptococcus mutans biofilms generated on resin-composite disks in a rotating disc reactor were disinfected completely with 70% isopropyl alcohol, and were again cultured in the same reactor after resupplying with the same bacterial solution. Specimens were subjected to fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, viable cell counts and PCR-Invader assay in order to observe and quantify secondarily adhered cells. Fluorescence microscopic analysis, particularly after longitudinal cryosectioning, demonstrated stratified patterns of viable cells on the disinfected biofilm structure. Viable cell counts of test specimens were significantly higher than those of controls, and increased according to the amount of residual structure and culture period. Linear regression analysis exhibited a high correlation between viable and total cell counts. It was concluded that disinfected biofilm structures favored secondary bacterial adhesion.

  9. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  10. The effect of a polyhexamethylene biguanide mouthrinse compared with a triclosan rinse and a chlorhexidine rinse on bacterial counts and 4-day plaque re-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, A; Splieth, C H; Schmidt-Martens, G; Schwahn, Ch; Kocher, Th; Kramer, A; Rosin, M

    2005-05-01

    For various clinical applications, polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) has been used for many years as an antiseptic in medicine. Recently, a 0.04% and a 0.12% PHMB mouthwash were shown to inhibit plaque re-growth and to reduce oral bacterial counts. In this study, a 0.2% PHMB mouthrinse (A) was compared with a positive control 0.12% aqueous chlorhexidine solution (B), a commercially available 0.3% triclosan/2.0% polyvinyl methyl ether maleic acid copolymer mouthrinse (Colgate Total Plax) (C), and a negative control placebo rinse (10% ethanol, flavour) (D). The controlled clinical study was a double blind, randomized, four replicate cross - over design. Plaque re-growth was assessed with the Turesky et al. (1970) modification of the Quigley & Hein (1962) plaque index. The antibacterial effect was assessed by taking bacterial counts on the tooth surface (smears from the buccal surface of 16/26) and mucosa (smears from the buccal mucosa in opposite of area 16/26) after the professional prophylaxis and after the first rinse with the preparations on day 1 and prior to the clinical examination on day 5. Sixteen volunteers participated and, on day 1 of each study period were rendered plaque-free, ceased toothcleaning, and rinsed twice daily with the allocated mouthrinse. On day 5, plaque was scored and smears were collected according to the protocol. A 10-day wash-out period was carried out between each rinse evaluation. Data were analysed using ancova with Bonferroni HSD adjustment for multiple comparisons (colony forming units per sample) with a significance level alpha=0.05. The 0.2% PHMB mouthrinse (A) was significantly better at inhibiting plaque than the placebo (D), but significant less effective than the 0.12% aqueous chlorhexidine solution (B). There is no significant difference between A and the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% copolymer mouthrinse (C). Bacterial count reductions (tooth surface and mucosa) with PHMB (A) were significantly greater compared with

  11. Inconsistent correlation between aerobic bacterial surface and air counts in operating rooms with ultra clean laminar air flows: proposal of a new bacteriological standard for surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, B; Friberg, S; Burman, L G

    1999-08-01

    The relationship between surface contamination (cfus/m2/h) with particles carrying aerobic bacteria and corresponding air contamination rates (cfus/m3) was evaluated in operating rooms (OR) equipped with ultra clean vertical or horizontal laminar airflow (LAF). For the evaluation we collected data during strictly standardized sham operations using non-woven disposable or cotton clothing. Air contamination in the wound and instrument areas (Casella slit sampler) was related to the surface contamination rate (settle plates) in the same areas and in addition, on the patient chest. Typically, the mean surface counts were 20-70 cfus/m2/h and the air counts 1-2 cfus/m3 in disposable clothing experiments, whilst the use of cotton clothing resulted in higher counts of 100-200 cfus/m2/h (wound P > 0.05, patient P > 0.05, instruments P operations together, the surface and air contamination rates (surface/air ratio SAR) were highly correlated (P = 0.02-0.004) and the ratio varied between 18:1 and 50:1 with a mean for wound air of 36:1. Using only disposable clothing in the vertical LAF, the number of significant correlations was reduced. With cotton clothing experiments in vertical LAF and in the horizontal LAF using disposable clothing, no significant correlation between surface and air contamination was found. The wide variation of SAR values and the inconsistent relationship between surface and air counts indicates that measurement of OR air contamination represents an unhelpful method for assessment of surgical site contamination in LAF units. We propose instead that colony counts on sedimentation plates is a clinically more relevant indicator of bacterial OR contamination in LAF units. In addition to the current bacteriological standard for ultra clean OR air of (contamination rate of < 350 cfus/m2/h.

  12. Short communication: effect of storage and preservation on total bacterial counts determined by automated flow cytometry in bulk tank goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D; Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Morales, C T; Gonzalo, C

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of different storage conditions on total bacterial count (TBC) determinations made in goat bulk tank milk using an automated flow cytometry method. The storage conditions tested were storage temperature (refrigeration at 4 and 10 degrees C or freezing at -20 degrees C), the use of a preservative (no preservative, NP; azidiol, AZ; or bronopol, BR), and the age of the milk samples for each analytical condition (storage times at 4 degrees C: from 0 h to 5 d for NP; and from 0 h to 22 d for AZ and BR; storage times at 10 degrees C: from 24 h to 2 d for NP and from 24 h to 22 for AZ and BR; storage times at -20 degrees C: from 24 h to 22 d for NP, AZ, and BR). Significant effects on individual bacterial count (IBC) variation were shown by the bulk tank milk sample, preservative, storage temperature, interaction preservative x storage temperature, and milk age within the interaction preservative x storage temperature. In preserved samples, the highest IBC were obtained for AZ and the lowest counts were obtained in samples preserved with BR. Because of the variation in IBC recorded in BR-preserved samples, we recommend that BR should not be used for TBC determinations using the automated flow cytometry method. The NP samples stored at 4 and 10 degrees C showed significantly higher IBC at 24 h postcollection, also invalidating these analytical conditions for TBC analyses. The practical implications of our findings are that goat milk samples preserved with AZ and stored at 10 or 4 degrees C are appropriate for TBC by the BactoScan flow cytometry method for up to 24 h and 11 d postcollection, respectively.

  13. Effect of Arbutus pavarii, Salvia officinalis and Zizyphus Vulgaris on growth performance and intestinal bacterial count of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Asheg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of three native plants from El-Jabal al ELAkhdar, (Libya on performance and cecal coliform count of broiler chickens. A total of 1260 one-day-old male Cobb chickens were used in the experiment. The birds were assigned to 7 treatment groups (6 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments included basal diet with no additive (control, and 6 other dietary treatments (Arbutus pavarii, Salvia officinalis and Zizyphus Vulgaris each of which was added at the rate of 0.5 g and 1 g/kg of basal diet. Results explicitly revealed that all dietary treatments had a significant effect on body performance of broiler chickens compared to the control with the exception of the dietary treatment of S. officinalis at dosage of 0.5 g/kg that has expressed noticeable reduction in body weight. Coliform counts in the cecum of birds receiving 1% A. pavarii and 1% Z. Vulgaris were significantly lower (P ⩽ 0.05 than those of control group from early weeks of treatments, whereas all plant shows a significant lowering (P ⩽ 0.05 of cecal coliform count during the rest of experiment compared to control group. These results emphasize the potential biotic role of such plants together with the immune modulating effects on treated birds. However, further pharmacological and clinical work should be adopted in the future to present an obvious understandable theory behind the potential beneficial as well as side effects of such natural plants.

  14. Comparison of alcohol, povidone-iodine and octenidine dihydrochloride as skin disinfectants to reduce bacterial count prior to peripheral venous catheter insertions in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Rundjan

    2011-10-01

    Results Ninety subjects were divided into 3 groups of 30, each group using either 70% alcohol swabs, 10% povidone-iodine, or octenidine as skin antiseptic. Skin swabs were taken before and after antiseptic application and drying, as well as 5 minutes after application. The mean reductions in CFU/cm2 (% after antiseptic application (and fully dried were 97.54% for povidone-iodine, 97.52% for octenidine, and 89.07% for alcohol. There were no significant differences in mean CFU reductions among the three antiseptics groups (P=0.299. Furthermore, 5 minutes after application, there were still no significant differences in the three antiseptic groups (P=0.289. Conclusions Although octenidine showed a significant bacterial count reduction after application, it was not significantly different from those of alcohol or povidone-iodine. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:277-81].

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin, neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio, C-reactive protein, and lactate in patients with suspected bacterial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungström, Lars; Pernestig, Anna-Karin; Jacobsson, Gunnar; Andersson, Rune; Usener, Barbara; Tilevik, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Early recognition is a key factor to achieve improved outcomes for septic patients. Combinations of biomarkers, as opposed to single ones, may improve timely diagnosis and survival. We investigated the performance characteristics of sepsis biomarkers, alone and in combination, for diagnosis of verified bacterial sepsis using Sepsis-2 and Sepsis-3 criteria, respectively. Procalcitonin (PCT), neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate were determined in a total of 1,572 episodes of adult patients admitted to the emergency department on suspicion of sepsis. All sampling were performed prior to antibiotic administration. Discriminant analysis was used to construct two composite biomarkers consisting of linear combinations of the investigated biomarkers, one including three selected biomarkers (i.e., NLCR, CRP, and lactate), and another including all four (i.e., PCT, NLCR, CRP, and lactate). The diagnostic performances of the composite biomarkers as well as the individual biomarkers were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). For diagnosis of bacterial sepsis based on Sepsis-3 criteria, the AUC for PCT (0.68; 95% CI 0.65-0.71) was comparable to the AUCs for the both composite biomarkers. Using the Sepsis-2 criteria for bacterial sepsis diagnosis, the AUC for the NLCR (0.68; 95% CI 0.65-0.71) but not for the other single biomarkers, was equal to the AUCs for the both composite biomarkers. For diagnosis of severe bacterial sepsis or septic shock based on the Sepsis-2 criteria, the AUCs for both composite biomarkers were significantly greater than those of the single biomarkers (0.85; 95% CI 0.82-0.88 for the composite three-biomarker, and 0.86; 95% CI 0.83-0.89 for the composite four-biomarker). Combinations of biomarkers can improve the diagnosis of verified bacterial sepsis in the most critically ill patients, but in less severe septic conditions either the NLCR or PCT alone exhibit

  16. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  17. Live/Dead Bacterial Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    A method of measuring the fraction of bacterial spores in a sample that remain viable exploits DPA-triggered luminescence of Tb(3+) and is based partly on the same principles as those described earlier. Unlike prior methods for performing such live/dead assays of bacterial spores, this method does not involve counting colonies formed by cultivation (which can take days), or counting of spores under a microscope, and works whether or not bacterial spores are attached to other small particles (i.e., dust), and can be implemented on a time scale of about 20 minutes.

  18. Air-spore in Cartagena, Spain: viable and non-viable sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Vergara, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jose; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In the presented study the airborne fungal spores of the semiarid city of Cartagena, Spain, are identified and quantified by means of viable or non-viable sampling methods. Airborne fungal samples were collected simultaneously using a filtration method and a pollen and particle sampler based on the Hirst methodology. This information is very useful for elucidating geographical patterns of hay fever and asthma. The qualitative results showed that when the non-viable methodology was employed, Cladosporium, Ustilago, and Alternaria were the most abundant spores identified in the atmosphere of Cartagena, while the viable methodology showed that the most abundant taxa were: Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. The quantitative results of airborne fungal spores identified by the Hirst-type air sampler (non-viable method), showed that Deuteromycetes represented 74% of total annual spore counts, Cladosporium being the major component of the fungal spectrum (62.2%), followed by Alternaria (5.3%), and Stemphylium (1.3%). The Basidiomycetes group represented 18.9% of total annual spore counts, Ustilago (7.1%) being the most representative taxon of this group and the second most abundant spore type. Ascomycetes accounted for 6.9%, Nectria (2.3%) being the principal taxon. Oomycetes (0.2%) and Zygomycestes and Myxomycestes (0.06%) were scarce. The prevailing species define our bioaerosol as typical of dry air. The viable methodology was better at identifying small hyaline spores and allowed for the discrimination of the genus of some spore types. However, non-viable methods revealed the richness of fungal types present in the bioaerosol. Thus, the use of both methodologies provides a more comprehensive characterization of the spore profile.

  19. Anti Bacterial Efficacy of Terminalia Chebula, Terminalia Bellirica, Embilica Officinalis and Triphala on Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count - A Linear Randomized Cross Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Smariti; Lakshminarayan, Nagesh; Gudli, Shanmukha; Kumar, Manish

    2017-02-01

    From the oral health perspective, it is well established that microorganisms have an important role in caries aetiology. From the dawn of civilization, herbal plants have served an array of roles. Triphala a tradtional herbal Ayurvedic formula consists of three native fruits of india including Terminalia Chebula (T. chebula), Terminalia Bellirica (T. bellirica) and Embilica Officinalis (E. officinalis). As per Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) Triphala is prepared by combining a 1:1:1 mixture of ground dry fruits called myrobalans. Till date, an inadequate number of clinical researches on herb based mouth rinses have been reported in Asia, especially in India and other Southeast Asian countries (where these products are most accepted and widely used). The present study was planned to assess the effectiveness of Triphala with its three constituents. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Triphala, T. chebula, T. bellirica and E. officinalis aqueous extract rinses separately on Streptococcusmutans count at various time intervals. This is a double-blind, linear cross over, within group experimental trial conducted among subjects visiting the Department of Public Health Dentistry aged 15 to 40 years. In this design, subjects received all of the treatments sequentially in time. The independent variables to be assessed in this study were all the four interventions of herbal preparations used and the dependent variable assessed is anti bacterial efficacy. Each subject receives two or more different treatments. All the subjects were exposed to all four interventions: 1) T. chebula; 2) T. bellirica; 3) E. officinalis; and 4) Triphala and were provided 15 ml of the freshly prepared 10% rinse. The subjects were instructed not to eat or drink between salivary samples collection. Post rinse unstimulated salivary samples were collected at five minutes and 60 minutes intervals. All the salivary samples were transferred immediately to microbiological

  20. Survival Strategy of Erwinia amylovora against Copper: Induction of the Viable-but-Nonculturable State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Marco-Noales, Ester; López, María M.; Biosca, Elena G.

    2006-01-01

    Copper compounds, widely used to control plant-pathogenic bacteria, have traditionally been employed against fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. However, recent studies have shown that some phytopathogenic bacteria enter into the viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) state in the presence of copper. To determine whether copper kills E. amylovora or induces the VBNC state, a mineral medium without copper or supplemented with 0.005, 0.01, or 0.05 mM Cu2+ was inoculated with 107 CFU/ml of this bacterium and monitored over 9 months. Total and viable cell counts were determined by epifluorescence microscopy using the LIVE/DEAD kit and by flow cytometry with 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride and SYTO 13. Culturable cells were counted on King's B nonselective solid medium. Changes in the bacterial morphology in the presence of copper were observed by scanning electron microscopy. E. amylovora entered into the VBNC state at all three copper concentrations assayed, much faster when the copper concentration increased. The addition of different agents which complex copper allowed the resuscitation (restoration of culturability) of copper-induced VBNC cells. Finally, copper-induced VBNC cells were virulent only for the first 5 days, while resuscitated cells always regained their pathogenicity on immature fruits over 9 months. These results have shown, for the first time, the induction of the VBNC state in E. amylovora as a survival strategy against copper. PMID:16672494

  1. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction as an alternative rapid method for enumeration of colony count in liveBrucellavaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Waleed S; Sayed, Mahmoud L; Samy, A A; Al-Sadek, Ghada Mohamed; El-Hamid, Gina Mohamed Mohamed Abd; Ali, Abdel Hakam M

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of global importance affecting a range of animal species and man worldwide. It has economic, public health, and bio-risk importance. Control and prevention of animal brucellosis mainly depend on accurate diagnostic tools and implementation of effective and safe animal vaccination program. There are three types of animal Brucella live vaccines - Brucella melitensis Rev-1 vaccine, Brucella abortus S19, and B . abortus RB51. Evaluation of these vaccines depends mainly on enumeration of Brucella viable count. At present, used colony count method is time consuming, costly and requires especial skills. Hence, the aim of this study is to use and standardize real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as an alternative, quantitative, sensitive, and rapid method to detect the colony count of Brucella in live Brucella vaccine. Four batches of different live Brucella vaccines were evaluated using of conventional bacterial count and RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) using BSCP31 gene specific primers and probe. Standard curve was generated from DNA template extracted from 10-fold serial dilution of living B. abortus RB51 vaccine to evaluate the sensitivity of RT-qPCR. Results revealed that three batches of living Brucella vaccines were acceptable for Brucella colony count when traditional bacterial enumeration method was used. Results of RT-qPCR were identical to that of conventional bacterial count. Results concluded that RT-qPCR was relatively sensitive compared to traditional bacterial colony count of these vaccines.

  2. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  3. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  4. Effect of Manuka honey gel on the transforming growth factor β1 and β3 concentrations, bacterial counts and histomorphology of contaminated full-thickness skin wounds in equine distal limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, A S; Dart, C M; Horadagoda, N; Perkins, N R; Jeffcott, L B; Little, C B; Dart, A J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of 66% Manuka honey gel on the concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β3, bacterial counts and histomorphology during healing of contaminated equine distal limb wounds. In this experimental study of 10 Standardbred horses, five full-thickness skin wounds (2 × 1.5 cm) were created on one metacarpus and six similar wounds were created on the contralateral metacarpus. Wounds were assigned to three groups: non-contaminated control wounds; contaminated control wounds; contaminated wounds treated daily with 1 mL Manuka honey gel topically for 10 days. For the contaminated wounds, faeces were applied for 24 h after wound creation. In five horses wounds were bandaged and in the other five horses wounds were left without a bandage. Biopsies were taken on days 1, 2, 7 and 10 after wounding to evaluate the effects of Manuka honey gel, wound contamination and bandaging on TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 concentrations, aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, and histomorphology. Manuka honey gel had no significant effect on TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 concentrations or wound bacterial counts. Manuka honey gel decreased wound inflammation (days 7, 10), increased angiogenesis (days 2, 7, 10), increased fibrosis and collagen organisation (day 7) and increased epithelial hyperplasia (days 7, 10). Treatment with Manuka honey gel resulted in a more organised granulation tissue bed early in wound repair, which may contribute to enhanced healing of equine distal limb wounds. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Counting cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two e...

  6. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  7. Tower counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  8. Reverse transcriptase real-time PCR for detection and quantification of viable Campylobacter jejuni directly from poultry faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Wolff, Anders; Madsen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    and quantification of viable Campylobacter jejuni directly from chicken faecal samples. The results of this method anda DNA-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method were compared with those of a bacterial culture method. Using bacterial culture andRT-qPCR methods, viable C. jejuni cells could be detected...

  9. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  10. Bacterial communities in fish sauce mash using culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Youhei; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Shozen, Kei-ichi; Funatsu, Yasuhiro; Takano, Takashi; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    In fish sauce production, microorganisms are associated with the fermentation process; however, the sequential changes in the bacterial communities have never been examined throughout the period of fermentation. In this study, we determined the bacterial floras in a fish sauce mash over 8 months, using three different culture media and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. During the first 4 weeks, viable counts of non-halophilic and halophilic bacteria decreased and were dominated by Staphylococcus species. Between 4 and 6 weeks, halophilic and highly halophilic bacterial counts markedly increased from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g, and the predominant species changed to Tetragenococcus halophilus. The occurrence of T. halophilus was associated with an increase of lactic acid and a reduction of pH values. In contrast, non-halophilic bacterial counts decreased to 10(6) cfu/g by 6 weeks with Bacillus subtilis as the dominant isolate. Clone library analysis revealed that the dominant bacterial group also changed from Staphylococcus spp. to T. halophilus, and the changes were consistent with those of the floras of halophilic and highly halophilic isolates. This is the first report describing a combination approach of culture and clone library methods for the analysis of bacterial communities in fish sauce mash.

  11. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  12. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction as an alternative rapid method for enumeration of colony count in live Brucella vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed S. Shell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of global importance affecting a range of animal species and man worldwide. It has economic, public health, and bio-risk importance. Control and prevention of animal brucellosis mainly depend on accurate diagnostic tools and implementation of effective and safe animal vaccination program. There are three types of animal Brucella live vaccines - Brucella melitensis Rev-1 vaccine, Brucella abortus S19, and B. abortus RB51. Evaluation of these vaccines depends mainly on enumeration of Brucella viable count. At present, used colony count method is time consuming, costly and requires especial skills. Hence, the aim of this study is to use and standardize real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR as an alternative, quantitative, sensitive, and rapid method to detect the colony count of Brucella in live Brucella vaccine. Materials and Methods: Four batches of different live Brucella vaccines were evaluated using of conventional bacterial count and RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR using BSCP31 gene specific primers and probe. Standard curve was generated from DNA template extracted from 10-fold serial dilution of living B. abortus RB51 vaccine to evaluate the sensitivity of RT-qPCR. Results: Results revealed that three batches of living Brucella vaccines were acceptable for Brucella colony count when traditional bacterial enumeration method was used. Results of RT-qPCR were identical to that of conventional bacterial count. Conclusion: Results concluded that RT-qPCR was relatively sensitive compared to traditional bacterial colony count of these vaccines.

  13. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  14. The Effect of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Faecal Bacterial Counts and Microbiota-Associated Characteristics in Celiac Disease Children Following a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Drabińska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is associated with intestinal microbiota alterations. The administration of prebiotics could be a promising method of restoring gut homeostasis in CD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged oligofructose-enriched inulin (Synergy 1 administration on the characteristics and metabolism of intestinal microbiota in CD children following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Thirty-four paediatric CD patients (mean age 10 years; 62% females on a GFD were randomized into two experimental groups receiving Synergy 1 (10 g/day or placebo (maltodextrin; 7 g/day for 3 months. The quantitative gut microbiota characteristics and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs concentration were analysed. In addition, side effects were monitored. Generally, the administration of Synergy 1 in a GFD did not cause any side effects. After the intervention period, Bifidobacterium count increased significantly (p < 0.05 in the Synergy 1 group. Moreover, an increase in faecal acetate and butyrate levels was observed in the prebiotic group. Consequently, total SCFA levels were 31% higher than at the baseline. The presented trial shows that Synergy 1 applied as a supplement of a GFD had a moderate effect on the qualitative characteristics of faecal microbiota, whereas it stimulated the bacterial metabolite production in CD children.

  15. Field determination of bacterial disappearance in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1970-01-01

    The article presents two approaches to field determination of disappearance of viable, fecal bacteria after discharge with sewage into a marine environment. The first approach is based on simultaneous sampling for bacterial counting and monitoring of dilution using a conservative tracer, which...... is released continuously with the sewage. The second approach uses an abrupt release of tracer for determination of both dilution and residence time in the sewage field. In both cases, the disappearance rate is best determined by comparison of fluxes of two bacteria and of tracer through cross......-sections of the field. The approaches are exemplified with two case reports, which show that the disappearance rate can be determined to less than 10 per cent inaccuracy....

  16. Viable but nonculturable state of foodborne pathogens in grapefruit juice: a study of laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolò, Marco Sebastiano; Gioffrè, Angela; Carnazza, Santina; Platania, Giuseppe; Silvestro, Isabella Di; Guglielmino, Salvatore Pietro Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Several foodborne human pathogens, when exposed to harsh conditions, enter viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state; however, still open is the question whether VBNC pathogens could be a risk for public health, because, potentially, they can resuscitate. Moreover, cultural methods for food safety control were not able to detect VBNC forms of foodborne bacteria. Particularly, it has not been established whether food chemophysical characteristics can induce VBNC state in contaminating pathogen bacterial populations, especially in food, such as salads and fresh fruit juices, not subjected to any decontamination treatment. In this preliminary study, we intentionally contaminated grapefruit juice to determine whether pathogen bacteria could enter VNBC state. In fact, grapefruit juice contains natural antimicrobial compounds, has an average pH of about 3 and low content in carbohydrates. Such characteristics make grapefruit juice a harsh environment for microbial survival. For this purpose, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, and Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, at two different inoculum sizes, have been used. Viability by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability kit and culturability by plate counts assay were monitored, whereas "resuscitation" of nonculturable populations was attempted by inoculation in nutrient-rich media. The data showed that L. monocytogenes lost both culturability and viability and did not resuscitate within 24 h independently on inoculum size, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was able to resuscitate after 24 h but did not after 48 h. Salmonella Typhimurium and S. flexneri, depending on inoculum size, lost culturability but maintained viability and were able to resuscitate; moreover, S. flexneri was still able to form colonies after 48 h at high inoculum size. In conclusion, entry into VBNC state differs on the species, depending, in turn, on inoculum size and time of incubation.

  17. First study on the formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable state and beer spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Peters, Brian M; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the spoilage capability of Lactobacillus lindneri during the induction and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. L. lindneri strain was identified by sequencing the PCR product (amplifying 16S rRNA gene) using ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer. During the VBNC state induction by low temperature storage and beer adaption, total, culturable, and viable cells were assessed by acridine orange direct counting, plate counting, and Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit, respectively. Organic acids and diacetyl concentration were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and head dpace gas chromatography, respectively. VBNC state of L. lindneri was successfully induced by both beer adaption and low temperature storage, and glycerol frozen stock was the optimal way to maintain the VBNC state. Addition of catalase was found to be an effective method for the resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri cells. Furthermore, spoilage capability remained similar during the induction and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri. This is the first report of induction by low temperature storage and resuscitation of VBNC L. lindneri strain, as well as the first identification of spoilage capability of VBNC and resuscitated L. lindneri cells. This study indicated that the potential colonization of L. lindneri strain in brewery environment, formation and resuscitation of VBNC state, as well as maintenance in beer spoilage capability, may be an important risk factor for brewery environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A survey on bacterial contamination of lavage water in electric warm-water lavage toilet seats and of the gluteal cleft after lavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Hideki; Yokoyama, Kumi; Takei, Yasushi; Tazume, Seiki; Tsukiji, Mami; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2014-06-01

    Electric warm-water lavage toilet seats are in wide use as an appliance beneficial for the maintenance of hygiene and the prophylaxis and improvement of conditions such as constipation and hemorrhoids. In this study, we surveyed the bacterial content in the lavage water of warm-water lavage toilet seats, and fecal bacterial contamination of the gluteal and genital regions due to droplet infection from post-defecation lavage, to examine the problems inherent to the use of such lavage units. The presence of viable bacteria in lavage water was confirmed in this survey. Viable bacterial counts in lavage water were 3-times higher in household units compared to units in public facilities, suggesting a correlation with the replenishment of lavage tank water with fresh water containing residual free chlorine.

  19. Smokeless tobacco products harbor diverse bacterial microbiota that differ across products and brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Eoghan M; Kulkarni, Prachi; Claye, Emma; Stanfill, Stephen; Tyx, Robert; Maddox, Cynthia; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Sapkota, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    Smokeless tobacco products contain numerous chemical compounds, including known human carcinogens. Other smokeless tobacco constituents, including bacteria, may also contribute to adverse health effects among smokeless tobacco users. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial constituents of smokeless tobacco. Our goal was to characterize the bacterial microbiota of different smokeless tobacco products and evaluate differences across product types and brands. DNA was extracted from 15 brands of smokeless tobacco products (including dry snuff, moist snuff, snus, and Swedish snus) and 6 handmade products (e.g., toombak) using an enzymatic and mechanical lysis approach. Bacterial community profiling was performed using PCR amplification of the V1-V2 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene, followed by 454 pyrosequencing of the resulting amplicons and sequence analysis using the QIIME package. Total viable counts were also determined to estimate the number of viable bacteria present in each product. Average total viable counts ranged from 0 to 9.35 × 107 CFU g-1. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed high bacterial diversity across the majority of products tested: dry snuff products where characterized by the highest diversity indices compared to other products. The most dominant bacterial phyla across all products were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Significant differences in both bacterial community composition and in silico predicted gene content were observed between smokeless tobacco product types and between brands of specific smokeless tobacco products. These data are useful in order to comprehensively address potential health risks associated with the use of smokeless tobacco products.

  20. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Bacterial adherence to polymethylmethacrylate posterior chamber intra ocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, S; Ram, J; Ray, P; Brar, G S; Gupta, A

    2001-03-01

    Bacterial adherence to intraocular lenses (IOLs) has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common organism isolated. We studied the in-vitro adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) IOLs and the effect of duration of exposure to adherence. Two groups of 10 IOLs each were incubated in Staphylococcus epidermidis suspension for 2 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. Adhesion of bacterial cells was determined by counting the number of viable bacteria attached to IOLs. The mean bacterial adherence with 2 minutes incubation was 12,889 +/- 7,150 bacteria/ IOL and with 20 minutes incubation was 84,226 +/- 35,024 bacteria/IOL (PPMMA IOLs in vitro and the degree of adherence is less for shorter duration of exposure. We conclude that viable bacteria irreversibly adherent to IOLs may play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative endophthalmitis. Shorter duration of operative manipulation and exposure to contaminating sources may decrease the chances of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  2. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  3. Effect of immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in HIV-positive people with CD4 cell counts of more than 500 cells per μL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Jemma L; Vjecha, Michael J; Phillips, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    -induced increases in CD4 cell count, but not by increases in neutrophil count. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health, Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, European AIDS Treatment...

  4. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of the dominant bacterial communities during storage of Norway lobster and Norway lobster tails (Nephrops norvegicus) based on 16S rDNA analysis by PCR-DGGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bekaert, K.; Devriese, L.; S. Maes; Robbens, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial quality of whole Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and Norway lobster tails to optimize handling conditions. This was done by assessing the total viable count (TVC) and characterizing the dominant microbiota. The cultivable microorganisms were quantified via classical microbiological plating methods. To characterize as many bacterial species present as possible, we performed advanced molecular identification techniques (PCR-DGGE). The ...

  6. Advantageous direct quantification of viable closely related probiotics in petit-suisse cheeses under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions by Propidium Monoazide--qPCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lissete Morales Villarreal

    Full Text Available Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1 and probiotic (F2 petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05 than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and

  7. Comparison of the cytotoxic effect of polystyrene latex nanoparticles on planktonic cells and bacterial biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Toshiyuki, E-mail: nomura@chemeng.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Fujisawa, Eri; Itoh, Shikibu; Konishi, Yasuhiro [Osaka Prefecture University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The cytotoxic effect of positively charged polystyrene latex nanoparticles (PSL NPs) was compared between planktonic bacterial cells and bacterial biofilms using confocal laser scanning microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and a colony counting method. Pseudomonas fluorescens, which is commonly used in biofilm studies, was employed as the model bacteria. We found that the negatively charged bacterial surface of the planktonic cells was almost completely covered with positively charged PSL NPs, leading to cell death, as indicated by the NP concentration being greater than that required to achieve single layer coverage. In addition, the relationship between surface coverage and cell viability of P. fluorescens cells correlated well with the findings in other bacterial cells (Escherichia coli and Lactococcuslactis). However, most of the bacterial cells that formed the biofilm were viable despite the positively charged PSL NPs being highly toxic to planktonic bacterial cells. This indicated that bacterial cells embedded in the biofilm were protected by self-produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that provide resistance to antibacterial agents. In conclusion, mature biofilms covered with EPS exhibit resistance to NP toxicity as well as antibacterial agents.

  8. Using Generic Examples to Make Viable Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Ely, Rob; Yopp, David

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen an increased call to train students to craft mathematical arguments. The third of the Common Core's (CCSS) Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP 3) (CCSSI 2010) calls for all mathematically proficient students to "construct viable arguments" to support the truth of their ideas and to "critique…

  9. Aeroallergens and viable microbes in sandstorm dust. Potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaasi, A A; Parhar, R S; al-Mohanna, F A; Harfi, H A; Collison, K S; al-Sedairy, S T

    1998-03-01

    Aeroallergens and antigens in sandstorm dust, extracts of which were skin prick test (SPT) positive in allergic patients, were detected by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA. Fungi and bacteria isolated by agar settle plates and soil dilution and soil washing methods were enumerated and identified. Cat dander, Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chenopodium, Cladosporium, Bermuda grass, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Rumex, cultivated rye, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detected by both methods. Viable microbes including 1892 +/- 325 colony-forming units (cfu) of bacteria, and 869 +/- 75 cfu of fungi were isolated per gram of dust by the soil dilution method. Randomly selected microbial colonies on streaking and subculture were found to consist of between two and seven mixed colonies. Fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Mucor, Mycelia sterilia, Penicillium, Pythium, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and some yeasts were isolated. Actinomyces, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species were identified, but the bulk of unidentified bacterial isolates were mainly mixed colonies of rods, cocci, coccobacilli, and some filamentous types. Six-hour agar settle-plate counts during sandstorms were 100 and 40% higher for bacteria and fungi, respectively, than without sandstorms. The most abundant aeroallergens were those of Acacia, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bermuda grass, Cladosporium, cultivated rye, Prosopis, and cat dander. Pithecellobium dulce, Rumex crispus, and Washingtonia palm allergens were detectable for the first time in Riyadh. IgE reactivities of the dust in man were demonstrated by ELISA using sera from atopic, exposed, and normal subjects. These results indicate that sandstorm dust is a prolific source of potential triggers of allergic and nonallergic respiratory ailments, and the methods mentioned here should be routinely used for quick sampling of the environment.

  10. A PCR-Based Method for Monitoring Legionella pneumophila in Water Samples Detects Viable but Noncultivable Legionellae That Can Recover Their Cultivability▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusserre, Eric; Ginevra, Christophe; Hallier-Soulier, Sylvie; Vandenesch, François; Festoc, Gabriel; Etienne, Jerome; Jarraud, Sophie; Molmeret, Maëlle

    2008-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. This bacterium is ubiquitous in aqueous environments and uses amoebae as an intracellular replicative niche. Real-time PCR has been developed for rapid detection of Legionella DNA in water samples. In addition to culturable bacteria, this method may also detect dead and viable but noncultivable (VBNC) legionellae. In order to understand the significance of positive PCR results in this setting, we prepared water samples containing known concentrations of L. pneumophila and analyzed them comparatively by means of conventional culture, real-time PCR, viability labeling, and immunodetection (solid-phase cytometry). We also examined the influence of chlorination on the results of the four methods. The different techniques yielded similar results for nonchlorinated water samples but not for chlorinated samples. After treatment for 24 h with 0.5 and 1 ppm chlorine, all cultures were negative, PCR and immunodetection showed about 106 genome units and bacteria/ml, and total-viable-count (TVC) labeling detected 105 and 102 metabolically active bacteria/ml, respectively. Thus, PCR also detected bacteria that were VBNC. The recoverability of VBNC forms was confirmed by 5 days of coculture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Therefore, some TVC-positive bacteria were potentially infective. These data show that L. pneumophila PCR detects not only culturable bacteria but also VBNC forms and dead bacterial DNA at low chlorine concentrations. PMID:18515476

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 117 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

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  14. Isolation of Viable but Non-culturable Bacteria from Printing and Dyeing Wastewater Bioreactor Based on Resuscitation Promoting Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Gan, Guojuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Dongdong; Zhang, Li; Yang, Na; Hu, Jiadan; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin; Hong, Huachang; Yan, Xiaoqing; Liang, Yan; Ding, Linxian; Pan, Yonglong

    2017-07-01

    Printing and dyeing wastewater with high content of organic matters, high colority, and poor biochemical performance is hard to be degraded. In this study, we isolated viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria from printing and dyeing wastewater with the culture media contained resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) protein secreted by Micrococcus luteus, counted the culturable cells number with the most probable number, sequenced 16S rRNA genes, and performed polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. It is obviously that the addition of Rpf in the enrichment culture could promote growth and resuscitation of bacteria in VBNC state to obtain more fastidious bacteria significantly. The identified bacteria were assigned to nine genera in the treatment group, while the two strains of Ochrobactrum anthropi and Microbacterium sp. could not be isolated from the control group. The function of isolated strains was explored and these strains could degrade the dye of Congo red. This study provides a new sight into the further study including the present state, composition, formation mechanism, and recovery mechanism about VBNC bacteria in printing and dyeing wastewater, which would promote to understand bacterial community in printing and dyeing wastewater, and to obtain VBNC bacteria from ecological environment.

  15. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  16. Bacterial communities of fresh goat meat packaged in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Elia; Benito, María José; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Hernández, Alejandro; Villalobos, Maria Del Carmen; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the growth and development of fortuitous flora and food pathogens in fresh goat meat packaged under modified atmospheres containing two different concentrations of CO2. Meat samples were stored at 10 °C under two different modified-atmosphere packing (MAP) conditions: treatment A had 45% CO2 + 20% O2 + 35% N2 and treatment B had 20% CO2 + 55% O2 + 25% N2. During 14 days of storage, counts of each bacterial group and dominant species identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to determine the microbial diversity present. The MAP condition used for treatment A was a more effective gas mixture for increasing the shelf life of fresh goat meat, significantly reducing the total number of viable bacteria and enterobacteria counts. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were the most common contaminants, although Hafnia alvei was dominant in treatment A and Serratia proteamaculans in treatment B. Identification studies at the species level showed that different microorganisms develop under different storage conditions, reflecting the importance of gas composition in the modified atmosphere on the bacterial community. This work provides new insights into the microbial changes of goat meat storage under different MAP conditions, which will be beneficial for the meat industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bacterial Keratitis Sections What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ... Lens Care Bacterial Keratitis Treatment What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Bacteriana? ...

  18. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión...

  20. Oligonucleotide microarrays for the detection and identification of viable beer spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D G; Sahm, K; Polen, T; Wendisch, V F; Antranikian, G

    2008-10-01

    The design and evaluation of an oligonucleotide microarray in order to detect and identify viable bacterial species that play a significant role in beer spoilage. These belong to the species of the genera Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. Oligonucleotide probes specific to beer spoilage bacteria were designed. In order to detect viable bacteria, the probes were designed to target the intergenic spacer regions (ISR) between 16S and 23S rRNA. Prior to hybridization the ISR were amplified by combining reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions using a designed consenus primer. The developed oligonucleotide microarrays allows the detection of viable beer spoilage bacteria. This method allows the detection and discrimination of single bacterial species in a sample containing complex microbial community. Furthermore, microarrays using oligonucleotide probes targeting the ISR allow the distinction between viable bacteria with the potential to grow and non growing bacteria. The results demonstrate the feasibility of oligonucleotide microarrays as a contamination control in food industry for the detection and identification of spoilage micro-organisms within a mixed population.

  1. Enzymatic isolation of viable human odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffaro, H M; Pääkkönen, V; Tjäderhane, L

    2016-05-01

    To improve an enzymatic method previously used for isolation of rat odontoblasts to isolate viable mature human odontoblasts. Collagenase I, collagenase I/hyaluronidase mixture and hyaluronidase were used to extract mature human odontoblasts from the pulp chamber. Detachment of odontoblasts from dentine was determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and to analyse the significance of differences in tubular diameter, and the t-test was used. MTT-reaction was used to analyse cell viability, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney post hoc tests were used to analyse the data. Immunofluorescent staining of dentine sialoprotein (DSP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were used to confirm the odontoblastic nature of the cells. MTT-reaction and FESEM demonstrated collagenase I/hyaluronidase resulted in more effective detachment and higher viability than collagenase I alone. Hyaluronidase alone was not able to detach odontoblasts. Immunofluorescence revealed the typical odontoblastic-morphology with one process, and DSP, AQP4 and MMP-20 were detected. Quantitative PCR of DSPP confirmed that the isolated cells expressed this odontoblast-specific gene. The isolation of viable human odontoblasts was successful. The cells demonstrated morphology typical for odontoblasts and expressed characteristic odontoblast-type genes and proteins. This method will enable new approaches, such as apoptosis analysis, for studies using fully differentiated odontoblasts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Automated differential leukocyte counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, E E; Nashed, A; Spilove, L

    1989-01-01

    Automated differential counts have the advantage of precision, efficiency, safety, and economy. They could potentially serve effectively in 90 percent of patients with normal counts or in 75 percent of patients with anemia only (64 percent of the total in this study). Even patients with increased white blood cell counts and major population shifts (toward granulocytes or lymphocytes) could be followed with automated differential counts. Such a tactic would decrease turnaround time for results, be less expensive, and reduce exposure of technologists to direct contact with patients' blood. However, presently available instruments fail to detect patients' blood samples with small numbers of abnormal cells, e.g., blasts in early relapse of acute leukemia, atypical lymphocytes in viral diseases such as infectious mononucleosis, eosinophils in allergic or parasitic disease, and band forms in early infectious diseases. Clinical judgment should be used in selectively ordering manual differential counts for these patients. While automated differential counts can be very useful in screening general medical and surgical patients in the ambulatory setting, in referral centers where hematologic abnormalities are more prevalent, the manual differential count and further examination of a smear is particularly necessary at least on initial presentation. Selective manual differential counts may improve efficiency, economy, and safety while not compromising patient care. Further studies of the correlation of clinical disease with automated differential counts are necessary.

  3. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  4. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  5. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  6. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  8. Advantageous direct quantification of viable closely related probiotics in petit-suisse cheeses under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions by Propidium Monoazide--qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Padilha, Marina; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2013-01-01

    Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1) and probiotic (F2) petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (Ppetit-suisse cheeses and under stress conditions.

  9. Advantageous Direct Quantification of Viable Closely Related Probiotics in Petit-Suisse Cheeses under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Conditions by Propidium Monoazide - qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Padilha, Marina; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2013-01-01

    Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1) and probiotic (F2) petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (Ppetit-suisse cheeses and under stress conditions. PMID:24358142

  10. Removal of viable bioaerosol particles with a low-efficiency HVAC filter enhanced by continuous emission of unipolar air ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Agranovski, I; Pyankov, O; Grinshpun, S

    2008-04-01

    Continuous emission of unipolar ions has been shown to improve the performance of respirators and stationary filters challenged with non-biological particles. In this study, we investigated the ion-induced enhancement effect while challenging a low-efficiency heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) filter with viable bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and viruses. The aerosol concentration was measured in real time. Samples were also collected with a bioaerosol sampler for viable microbial analysis. The removal efficiency of the filter was determined, respectively, with and without an ion emitter. The ionization was found to significantly enhance the filter efficiency in removing viable biological particles from the airflow. For example, when challenged with viable bacteria, the filter efficiency increased as much as four- to fivefold. For viable fungal spores, the ion-induced enhancement improved the efficiency by a factor of approximately 2. When testing with virus-carrying liquid droplets, the original removal efficiency provided by the filter was rather low: 9.09 +/- 4.84%. While the ion emission increased collection about fourfold, the efficiency did not reach 75-100% observed with bacteria and fungi. These findings, together with our previously published results for non-biological particles, demonstrate the feasibility of a new approach for reducing aerosol particles in HVAC systems used for indoor air quality control. Recirculated air in HVAC systems used for indoor air quality control in buildings often contains considerable number of viable bioaerosol particles because of limited efficiency of the filters installed in these systems. In the present study, we investigated - using aerosolized bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and virus-carrying particles - a novel idea of enhancing the performance of a low-efficiency HVAC filter utilizing continuous emission of unipolar ions in the filter vicinity. The findings described in

  11. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  12. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe ...

  14. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 59K ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 60K ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean Hands Count campaign, which also ... views 3:56 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean Hands Count campaign, which also ... 3:56 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History Help ...

  19. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... smoking status. It is not uncommon for the elderly to fail to develop high WBC count ( leukocytosis ) ...

  20. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000887.htm Calorie count - fast food To use the sharing features on this page, ... Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sign in Share More Report Need to report the video? Sign in to report inappropriate content. Sign ... opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The interactive transcript could not be loaded. Loading... Loading... ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 61K Loading... ...

  4. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain clinical conditions and in assessing iron deficiency anemia in children. Can the reticulocyte count be done on the ... Irwin, J. and Kirchner, J. (2001 October 15). Anemia in Children. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online ...

  5. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  6. Is Greenberg's "Macro-Carib" viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg's primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib 'etymologies' and another 64 Amerind 'etymologies'. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg's Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg's morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg's 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable

  7. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  8. Comparison of fluorescence microscopy and solid-phase cytometry methods for counting bacteria in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John T.; Hamilton, Martin A.; Willse, Alan R.; McFeters, Gordon A.

    2004-01-01

    Total direct counts of bacterial abundance are central in assessing the biomass and bacteriological quality of water in ecological and industrial applications. Several factors have been identified that contribute to the variability in bacterial abundance counts when using fluorescent microscopy, the most significant of which is retaining an adequate number of cells per filter to ensure an acceptable level of statistical confidence in the resulting data. Previous studies that have assessed the components of total-direct-count methods that contribute to this variance have attempted to maintain a bacterial cell abundance value per filter of approximately 106 cells filter-1. In this study we have established the lower limit for the number of bacterial cells per filter at which the statistical reliability of the abundance estimate is no longer acceptable. Our results indicate that when the numbers of bacterial cells per filter were progressively reduced below 105, the microscopic methods increasingly overestimated the true bacterial abundance (range, 15.0 to 99.3%). The solid-phase cytometer only slightly overestimated the true bacterial abundances and was more consistent over the same range of bacterial abundances per filter (range, 8.9 to 12.5%). The solid-phase cytometer method for conducting total direct counts of bacteria was less biased and performed significantly better than any of the microscope methods. It was also found that microscopic count data from counting 5 fields on three separate filters were statistically equivalent to data from counting 20 fields on a single filter.

  9. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  10. The influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705 together with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS on potentially carcinogenic bacterial activity in human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, Katja; Holma, Reetta; El-Nezami, Hani; Suomalainen, Tarja; Kuisma, Minna; Saxelin, Maija; Poussa, Tuija; Mykkänen, Hannu; Korpela, Riitta

    2008-12-10

    The bacterial enzymes beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and urease may contribute to the development of colon cancer by generating carcinogens. A reduction in the activity of these enzymes by certain lactic acid bacteria is considered to be beneficial. This study examined fecal beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and urease activities during administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LC705 (LC705) together with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp shermanii JS (PJS). Thirty-eight healthy men participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study with treatment periods of 4 weeks. Subjects consumed daily bacterial or placebo capsules. Bacterial capsules contained viable LC705 and PJS (2x10(10) CFU of each strain daily). The activities of beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase and urease, recovery of LC705 and PJS, and counts of total lactobacilli and propionibacteria were determined from feces. The mean fecal counts of total lactobacilli and propionibacteria as well as strains LC705 and PJS were significantly increased during the administration of bacteria (3.5-, 13-, 80- and 11-fold, respectively). beta-glucosidase activity decreased by 10% (P=0.18) and urease activity by 13% (P=0.16) during bacterial supplementation versus placebo. The change in beta-glucosidase activity was negatively correlated with the change in propionibacteria counts (R=-0.350, P=0.039), being -2.68 versus 0.94 nmol/min/mg protein in subjects with increased and unchanged/decreased propionibacteria, respectively (P=0.003). To conclude, the administration of LC705 and PJS was followed by an increase in the fecal counts of lactobacilli and propionibacteria and a decrease in the activity of beta-glucosidase with increasing counts of propionibacteria.

  11. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  12. Colpoda secrete viable Listeria monocytogenes within faecal pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu Nadhanan, Rethish; Thomas, Connor J

    2014-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to demonstrate that co-cultures of the ciliate Colpoda RR (an environmental isolate) and Colpoda MLS-5 (a food processing environment isolate) with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes DRDC8 resulted in secretion of faecal pellets containing intact DRDC8 cells. A green fluorescent protein expressing variant of DRDC8 was used in co-cultures to confirm that the pellet-associated bacterial cells were L. monocytogenes. Viability was confirmed by plate counts, and assay of microbial respiratory activity-proved DRDC8 cells present within faecal pellets was metabolically active. Following treatment of faecal pellets secreted by Colpoda RR and MLS-5 with gentamycin and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), no loss of viability of the pellet-located DRDC8 cells was observed, indicating that faecal pellet encapsulated DRDC8 cells are resistant to biocidal agents. This work suggests that Colpoda-derived faecal pellets may provide a mechanism for transmission of L. monocytogenes and other pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, bacteria encapsulated by faecal pellets may be resistant to disinfectants and cleaning agents used in food manufacturing and preparation facilities. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi induce inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Fevrier, Helene B; Philipp, Mario T

    2013-11-27

    In previous studies, exposure to live Borrelia burgdorferi was shown to induce inflammation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes. In this study we assessed the ability of non-viable bacteria (heat killed or sonicated) to induce inflammatory mediators and cell death. Both heat-killed and sonicated bacteria induced release of CCL2, IL-6, and CXCL8 from oligodendrocytes in a dose dependent manner. In addition, non-viable B. burgdorferi also induced cell death as evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and another cell viability assay. These results suggest that spirochetal residues left after bacterial demise, due to treatment or otherwise, may continue to be pathogenic to the central nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  15. Control of Postharvest Bacterial Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation and its Potential Modes of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae-Dong Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against a postharvest bacterial pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc. Gamma irradiation in a bacteria cell suspension resulted in a dramatic reduction of the viable counts as well as an increase in the amounts of DNA and protein released from the cells. Gamma irradiation showed complete inactivation of Ecc, especially at a dose of 0.6 kGy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of irradiated cells revealed severe damage on the surface of most bacterial cells. Along with the morphological changes of cells by gamma irradiation, it also affected the membrane integrity in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms by which the gamma irradiation decreased the bacterial soft rot can be directly associated with the disruption of the cell membrane of the bacterial pathogen, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent cell inactivation. These findings suggest that gamma irradiation has potential as an antibacterial approach to reduce the severity of the soft rot of paprika.

  16. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days. PMID:25026086

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v does not reduce enteric bacteria or bacterial translocation in patients undergoing colon resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangell, Peter; Thorlacius, Henrik; Syk, Ingvar; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran; Olsson, Crister; Jeppsson, Bengt

    2012-07-01

    Probiotics may exert beneficial effects in the gastrointestinal tract. This randomized trial investigated the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on the intestinal load of potentially pathogenic bacteria, bacterial translocation, and cell proliferation in elective colon surgery. Seventy-five patients were randomized to pre- and postoperative oral intake of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v or placebo. Rectal swabs and mucosal biopsies were taken before the start of intake, after 1 week, at surgery, and after 6 days, weeks, and months. Viable counts were quantified for clostridia, Enterobacteriaceae, Gram-negative anaerobes, and lactobacilli. Bacterial translocation was determined by the analysis of bacterial DNA genes in mesenteric lymph nodes. Ki-67 was used as a marker of cell proliferation in normal mucosa and tumor. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v was given without adverse effects. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v as well as Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative anaerobes increased in the colon 1 week after the administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v. There were no significant differences between patients receiving Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and placebo in the incidence of bacterial translocation (27 vs. 13%) and postoperative complications (16 vs. 31%). Lactobacillus plantarum 299v was established in the intestine, but no inhibitory effect on enteric bacteria, bacterial translocation, or postoperative complications was found. The mechanism behind the protective effects of probiotics found in animal and some human studies remain elusive and require further explorations. No adverse effects were recorded after the administration of high doses of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v.

  18. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a component of the Clean Hands Count campaign, which also aims to address myths and misperceptions ... views 3:56 Creative Communication - LifeBouy Hand Washing Campaign - Duration: 2:08. LIQVD ASIA 15,338 views ...

  20. Platelet Count and Plateletcrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine whether platelet count, plateletcrit (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width. (PDW) and their ratios can predict mortality in hospitalised children. Methods: Children who died during hospital stay were the cases. Controls were age matched children admitted contempora- neously.

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ Music makes for happy holidays Loading... Even the scrooges ... smile at 3 free months of ad-free music with YouTube Red. Working... No thanks Try it ...

  2. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in to report inappropriate content. Sign in Transcript Statistics Add translations 30,667 views 113 Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 114 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to ...

  4. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells.We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria.This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis of streptococcal soft tissue infections

  5. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  6. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  7. Bacterial conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjunctivitis causes irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, and watering or discharge of the eye. Most cases in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Staphylococcus species in adults, and Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children.A bacterial cause is more likely if there is gluing of the eyelids and no itch.Contact le...

  8. Bacterial conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, John

    2010-01-01

    Conjunctivitis causes irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, and watering or discharge of the eye. Most cases in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Staphylococcus species in adults, and Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children.A bacterial cause is more likely if there is glueing of the eyelids and no itch.Contact l...

  9. Comparison of solid-phase cytometry and the plate count method for the evaluation of the survival of bacteria in pharmaceutical oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prijck, K; Peeters, E; Nelis, H J

    2008-12-01

    To compare the survival of four bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in pharmaceutical oils, including jojoba oil/tea tree oil, carbol oil, jojoba oil and sesame oil. Oils were spiked with the test bacteria in a concentration of 10(4) CFU ml(-1). Bacteria were extracted from oils with phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.5% Tween 20. Aliquots of the pooled water layers were analysed by solid-phase cytometry and plate counting. Plate counts dropped to zero for all test strains exposed for 24 h to three of the four oils. In contrast, significant numbers of viable cells were still detected by SPC, except in the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture and partly in sesame oil. Exposure of bacteria for 24 h to the two oils containing an antimicrobial led to a loss of their culturability but not necessarily of their viability. The antibacterial activity of the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture supersedes that of carbol oil. These in vitro data suggest that the jojoba oil/tea tree oil mixture more than carbol oil inhibits bacterial proliferation when used for intermittent self-catherization.

  10. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    -viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...... of viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the PCA of each cultivar and the pooled samples. However, the PCA did not exhibit a pattern of separation among the early, normal and late germinated tomato seeds. The NIR spectral regions of 1160–1170, 1383–1397, 1647–1666, 1860–1884 and 1915–1940 nm were...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable...

  11. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  12. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Reference Español: Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis is very serious and can be deadly. Death ...

  13. Bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosdrecht, van M.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it

  14. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  15. Selective detection of viable seed-borne Acidovorax citrulli by real-time PCR with propidium monoazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qian; Feng, Jian-jun; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Wen-jun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, use of the DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) in real-time PCR has been reported as a novel method to detect viable bacteria in different types of samples, such as food, environmental, and microbiological samples. In this study, viable cells of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial seedling blight and fruit blotch, were selectively detected and differentiated from dead cells by real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction amplification after the bacterial solution was treated with the DNA-binding dye PMA. The primers and TaqMan probe were based on the A. citrulli genome (Aave_1909, Gene ID: 4669443) and were highly specific for A. citrulli. The detection threshold of this assay was 103 colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) in pure cell suspensions containing viable and dead cells and infected watermelon seeds. Application of this assay enables the selective detection of viable cells of A. citrulli and facilitates monitoring of the pathogen in watermelon and melon seeds. PMID:27739469

  16. Identification of Viable Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water Supplies by Cultural and Molecular Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Paula; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, M Antonía

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infection in humans, directly related to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It has been suggested that H. pylori can be acquired through different transmission routes, including water. In this study, culture and qPCR were used to detect and identify the presence of H. pylori in drinking water. Furthermore, the combined techniques PMA-qPCR and DVC-FISH were applied for detection of viable cells of H. pylori. Among 24 drinking water samples, 16 samples were positive for the presence of H. pylori, but viable cells were only detected in six samples. Characteristic colonies, covered by a mass of bacterial unspecific growth, were observed on selective agar plates from an only sample, after enrichment. The mixed culture was submitted to DVC-FISH and qPCR analysis, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Molecular techniques confirmed the growth of H. pylori on the agar plate. Our results demonstrate for the first time that H. pylori can survive and be potentially infective in drinking water, showing that water distribution systems could be a potential route for H. pylori transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

    2011-11-01

    Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

  18. Faecal Leucocyte Count and its Relationship with Bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients were put on oral rehydration solution (ORS) and seen subsequently every two days. During the visits, the progression or otherwise of their diarrhea determined further intervention with antibacterial agents. At resolution, the result of the stool macroscopy and microscopy of each patient taken at the visit when the ...

  19. Bacterial and yeast counts in Brazilian commodities and spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freire Francisco das Chagas Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of thirteen genera of bacteria and two genera of yeasts were detected in surface sterilized and unsterilized Brazilian commodities and spices such as cashew kernels, Brazil nut kernels, black and white pepper. The genus Bacillus with eight species was by far the most common. The yeasts isolated were Pichia sp., P. guillermondii and Rhodotorula sp. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in cashew and Brazil nut kernels.

  20. An advanced PCR method for the specific detection of viable total coliform bacteria in pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Takashi; Minami, Jun-ichi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-07-01

    Pasteurized milk is a complex food that contains various inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and may contain a large number of dead bacteria, depending on the milking conditions and environment. Ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA)-PCR is occasionally used to distinguish between viable and dead bacteria in foods other than pasteurized milk. EMA is a DNA-intercalating dye that selectively permeates the compromised cell membranes of dead bacteria and cleaves DNA. Usually, EMA-PCR techniques reduce the detection of dead bacteria by up to 3.5 logs compared with techniques that do not use EMA. However, this difference may still be insufficient to suppress the amplification of DNA from dead Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., total coliform bacteria) if they are present in pasteurized milk in large numbers. Thus, false positives may result. We developed a new method that uses real-time PCR targeting of a long DNA template (16S-23S rRNA gene, principally 2,451 bp) following EMA treatment to completely suppress the amplification of DNA of up to 7 logs (10(7) cells) of dead total coliforms. Furthermore, we found that a low dose of proteinase K (25 U/ml) removed PCR inhibitors and simultaneously increased the signal from viable coliform bacteria. In conclusion, our simple protocol specifically detects viable total coliforms in pasteurized milk at an initial count of ≥1 colony forming unit (CFU)/2.22 ml within 7.5 h of total testing time. This detection limit for viable cells complies with the requirements for the analysis of total coliforms in pasteurized milk set by the Japanese Sanitation Act (which specifies <1 CFU/2.22 ml).

  1. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  2. Assessment of enteric bacterial indicators and correlation with physico-chemical parameters in Veraval coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borade, S.; Dhawde, R.; Maloo, A; Gajbhiye, S.N; Ram; Dastager, S.G.

    different locations in three different seasons Statistical analysis of data showed that there is a significant increase in count in September (Monsoon) as compared to January (post monsoon) It was also found that the enteric bacterial count was higher...

  3. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu

    2018-02-15

    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  5. Coastal bacterial viability and production in the eastern English Channel: A case study during a Phaeocystis globosa bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, D.; Artigas, L. F.; Jauzein, C.; Lizon, F.; Cornille, V.

    2006-10-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial standing stocks (total and viable cells) and production were determined in the coastal surface waters of the eastern English Channel, during different stages of a phytoplankton succession. Two coastal zones of variable freshwater influence were surveyed within the 'coastal flow system' (Wimereux and Somme Bay) where massive and recurrent Phaeocystis globosa blooms take place in spring. The proportion of intact (MEM+) cells, assessed by the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ (L/D) method, varied from 15 to 94% at the two coastal stations studied (median of 46%). MEM+ and total (DAPI) cell counts were significantly correlated over the study period, whereas the higher proportion of MEM+ cells did not correspond to an elevated bacterial cell production (BP). Low levels of living (potentially active) cells were nevertheless responsible for the high productivity levels within the bacterial community when the P. globosa bloom declined. Our study revealed that the bacterial carbon production/primary production ratios (BCP/PP) showed broad variations (7 to 111%) within each site, going from low values (7-16%) when the bloom was the most productive, to higher values (61-111%) at the end of the bloom. This suggested (i) a temporal uncoupling between bacteria and phytoplankton throughout the bloom duration and (ii) a drastic change of the amount of PP potentially processed by the bacterial community among high and low productive periods. The BCP increase after the decline of the P. globosa bloom implies that, at this time, a large part of the phytoplankton-derived organic matter (OM) was remineralised via the bacterial heterotrophic production. With respect to the L/D results, this bacterial remineralisation was due to a small yet productive total cell fraction.

  6. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... most common vaginal infection in sexually active teenaged girls . It appears to be caused by a bacterial ...

  7. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  8. The effect of phosphate based glasses on the formation and viability of oral bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, April Miranda

    glasses investigated exhibited some ability to reduce the viability of oral bacterial biofilms, silver glasses proving more effective, although they did not manage to maintain viable counts at the low levels initially observed.

  9. Vibrio cholerae classical biotype is converted to the viable non-culturable state when cultured with the El Tor biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Subhra; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2013-01-01

    A unique event in bacterial epidemiology was the emergence of the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 and the subsequent rapid displacement of the existing classical biotype as the predominant cause of epidemic cholera. We demonstrate that when the El Tor and classical biotypes were cocultured in standard laboratory medium a precipitous decline in colony forming units (CFU) of the classical biotype occurred in a contact dependent manner. Several lines of evidence including DNA release, microscopy and flow cytometric analysis indicated that the drastic reduction in CFU of the classical biotype in cocultures was not accompanied by lysis, although when the classical biotype was grown individually in monocultures, lysis of the cells occurred concomitant with decrease in CFU starting from late stationary phase. Furthermore, uptake of a membrane potential sensitive dye and protection of genomic DNA from extracellular DNase strongly suggested that the classical biotype cells in cocultures retained viability in spite of loss of culturability. These results suggest that coculturing the classical biotype with the El Tor biotype protects the former from lysis allowing the cells to remain viable in spite of the loss of culturability. The stationary phase sigma factor RpoS may have a role in the loss of culturability of the classical biotype in cocultures. Although competitive exclusion of closely related strains has been reported for several bacterial species, conversion of the target bacterial population to the viable non-culturable state has not been demonstrated previously and may have important implications in the evolution of bacterial strains.

  10. Impact of solar radiation exposure on phyllosphere bacterial community of red-pigmented baby leaf lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchado, Pilar; Gil, M Isabel; Reboleiro, Patricia; Rodelas, Belén; Allende, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Solar radiation has been identified as a stress factor affecting phyllosphere associated bacteria colonization and survival during primary production. In the present study, the impact of different solar radiation doses on the phyllosphere microbiota of red-pigmented baby leaf lettuce cultivated in open field under commercial conditions was evaluated. Four weeks before harvest, the growing field was divided into four plots; each one was consecutively covered with one-week-interval with a light-excluding plastic to reduce the sunlight exposure. Four different solar radiation treatments were generated and cumulative photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was used to differentiate treatments as follows: 4889 ± 428 μmol/m 2 /s (uncovered), 4265 ± 356 μmol/m 2 /s (covered for 1 week), 3602 ± 225 μmol/m 2 /s (covered for 2 weeks) and 3115 ± 313 μmol/m 2 /s (covered for 3 weeks). The size and composition of the phyllosphere bacterial community were determined by cultivation-depended (plate count) and independent (qPCR) techniques. Exposure to decreased levels of cumulative PAR did not produce significant differences in total bacterial community size, regardless of the chosen quantification techniques. However, total bacteria size quantified by qPCR was around 3.5 orders of magnitude higher than those obtained by plate count. The observed differences between cultivation-depended and independent techniques could be attributed to the presence of non-viable or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria. The bacterial community structure was analyzed using temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), and significant differences were detected when the four solar treatment were compared. A qPCR approach was applied to the quantification of specific bacterial phyla and classes, previously identified in the phyllosphere of plants available literature, confirming that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacterias and Firmicutes were the most abundantly

  11. AdipoCount: A New Software for Automatic Adipocyte Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhao Zhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has spread worldwide and become a common health problem in modern society. One typical feature of obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat in adipocytes, which occurs through the following two physiological phenomena: hyperplasia (increase in quantity and hypertrophy (increase in size of adipocytes. In clinical and scientific research, the accurate quantification of the number and diameter of adipocytes is necessary for assessing obesity. In this study, we present a new automatic adipocyte counting system, AdipoCount, which is based on image processing algorithms. Comparing with other existing adipocyte counting tools, AdipoCount is more accurate and supports further manual correction. AdipoCount counts adipose cells by the following three-step process: (1 It detects the image edges, which are used to segment the membrane of adipose cells; (2 It uses a watershed-based algorithm to re-segment the missing dyed membrane; and (3 It applies a domain connectivity analysis to count the cells. The outputs of this system are the labels and the statistical data of all adipose cells in the image. The AdipoCount software is freely available for academic use at: http://www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/AdipoCount/.

  12. Development of a high-throughput method to evaluate serum bactericidal activity using bacterial ATP measurement as survival readout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Necchi

    Full Text Available Serum Bactericidal Activity (SBA assay is the method of choice to evaluate the complement-mediated functional activity of both infection- and vaccine-induced antibodies. To perform a typical SBA assay, serial dilutions of sera are incubated with target bacterial strains and complement. The conventional SBA assay is based on plating on agar the SBA reaction mix and counting the surviving bacterial colony forming units (CFU at each serum dilution. Even with automated colony counting, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and not amenable for large-scale studies. Here, we have developed a luminescence-based SBA (L-SBA method able to detect surviving bacteria by measuring their ATP. At the end of the SBA reaction, a single commercially available reagent is added to each well of the SBA plate, and the resulting luminescence signal is measured in a microplate reader. The signal obtained is proportional to the ATP present, which is directly proportional to the number of viable bacteria. Bactericidal activity is subsequently calculated. We demonstrated the applicability of L-SBA with multiple bacterial serovars, from 5 species: Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri serovars 2a and 3a, Shigella sonnei and Neisseria meningitidis. Serum bactericidal titers obtained by the luminescence readout method strongly correlate with the data obtained by the conventional agar plate-based assay, and the new assay is highly reproducible. L-SBA considerably shortens assay time, facilitates data acquisition and analysis and reduces the operator dependency, avoiding the plating and counting of CFUs. Our results demonstrate that L-SBA is a useful high-throughput bactericidal assay.

  13. Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli in bean seeds by flow cytometry, immunostaining and direct viable counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tebaldi, N.D.; Peters, J.; Chitarra, L.G.; Souza, R.M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Bergervoet, J.H.W.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Flow cytometric analysis of immuno-stained cells (immuno-FCM) was compared to immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and dilution plating on a semi-selective medium, for quantitative detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) in bean seed extracts. Cell concentrations of Xap between 103-107

  14. Bacterial conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, John

    2012-02-20

    Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants, oral antibiotics, parenteral antibiotics, saline, topical antibiotics, and warm compresses.

  15. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  16. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  17. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  18. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated

  19. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-16

    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS g.kg(-1), respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  20. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  1. Validation of EIA sampling methods - bacterial and biochemical analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheelu, G.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.

    the Indian Experiment (INDEX) during September 1996 and June-Sept. 1997. Analysis were done for lipid, protein and carbohydrates, which comprise the labile organic matter (LOM), total organic carbon (TOC) and total bacterial counts (TC). Of the 5 variables...

  2. Determination of viable wine yeast using DNA binding dyes and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andorrà, Imma; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Guillamón, José M; Mas, Albert

    2010-12-15

    The detection and quantification of wine yeast can be misleading due to under or overestimation of these microorganisms. Underestimation may be caused by variable growing rates of different microorganisms in culture media or the presence of viable but non-cultivable microorganisms. Overestimation may be caused by the lack of discrimination between live and dead microorganisms if quantitative PCR is used to quantify with DNA as the template. However, culture-independent methods that use dyes have been described to remove the DNA from dead cells and then quantify the live microorganisms. Two dyes have been studied in this paper: ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) and propidium monoazide bromide (PMA). The technique was applied to grape must fermentation and ageing wines. Both dyes presented similar results on yeast monitoring. Membrane cell recovery was necessary when yeasts were originated from ethanol-containing media. When applied to grape must fermentation, differences of up to 1 log unit were seen between the QPCR estimation with or without the dye during the stationary phase. In ageing wines, good agreement was found between plating techniques and QPCR. Most of the viable cells were also culturable and no differences were observed with the methods, except for Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Dekkera bruxellensis where much higher counts were occasionally detected by QPCR. The presence of excess dead cells did not interfere with the quantification of live cells with either of the dyes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Making environmental DNA count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?' © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Diversity of Streptococcus mutans strains in bacterial interspecies interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Hoogenkamp, Michel A; Ling, Junqi; Crielaard, Wim; Deng, Dong Mei

    2014-02-01

    Biofilms are matrix-enclosed microbial population adhere to each other and to surfaces. Compared to planktonic bacterial cells, biofilm cells show much higher levels of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to investigate Streptococcus mutans strain diversity in biofilm formation and chlorhexidine (CHX) resistance of single S. mutans and dual S. mutans-Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Four clinical S. mutans strains (C180-2, C67-1, HG723 and UA159) formed 24-h biofilms with or without an E. faecalis strain. These biofilms were treated for 10 min with 0.025% CHX. Biofilm formation, CHX resistance and S.mutans-E. faecalis interactions were evaluated by biomass staining, resazurin metabolism, viable count and competition agar assays. The main finding is that the presence of E. faecalis generally reduced all dual-species biofilm formation, but the proportions of S. mutans in the dual-species biofilms as well as CHX resistance displayed a clear S. mutans strain dependence. In particular, decreased resistance against CHX was observed in dual S. mutans C67-1 biofilms, while increased resistance was found in dual S. mutans UA159 biofilms. In conclusion, the interaction of S. mutans with E. faecalis in biofilms varies between strains, which underlines the importance of studying strain diversity in inter-species virulence modulation and biofilm antimicrobial resistance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  6. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  7. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  8. Bacterial Cryoprotectants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    culture plate, whereas no growth was detected under similar conditions without betaine. They also observed that uptake of betaine into the bacterial cell was .... lar content of bound water, and (4) modifying the growth of ice crystals in the extracellular environment. Conclusion. At the present time, betaine serves as a model ...

  9. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...

  10. Bacterial Cryoprotectants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Bacterial Cryoprotectants. M K Chattopadhyay. General Article Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 59-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/11/0059-0063. Keywords.

  11. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  12. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for polymerase chain ...

  13. Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local governments are principally established for development at the grassroots and they must be structured in a manner that makes them viable and capable of achieving this purpose. The objective of this comment is to appraise the current local government structure under the Nigerian constitutional framework with a view ...

  14. Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic Trypanosoma vivax in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic. Trypanosoma vivax in vitro and in vivo. O. A. Idowu, A. B. Idowu, C. F. Mafiana and S. O. Sam-Wobo*. Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Accepted 13 April, 2006. Trypanosoma vivax was ...

  15. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for ...

  16. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  17. Quantification and risks associated with bacterial aerosols near domestic greywater-treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benami, Maya; Busgang, Allison; Gillor, Osnat; Gross, Amit, E-mail: amgross@exchange.bgu.ac.il

    2016-08-15

    to provide more accurate quantification of small amounts of viable, aerosolized bacterial pathogens. - Highlights: • Greywater aerosols had higher bacterial counts compared to background amounts. • Low pathogen counts were detected on settle-plates from greywater aerosols. • Before enrichment no bacteria were found in greywater aerosols, using a BioSampler®. • After enrichment some pathogens were occasionally found in the greywater aerosols. • QMRA results show that greywater aerosols were below safety limits for S. aureus.

  18. Sorption and precipitation of Mn2+ by viable and autoclaved Shewanella putrefaciens: Effect of contact time

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of Mn(II) by viable and inactivated cells of Shewanella putrefaciens, a non-pathogenic, facultative anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium characterised as a Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reducer, was studied under aerobic conditions, as a function of pH, bacterial density and metal loading. During a short contact time (3-24h), the adsorptive behaviour of live and dead bacteria toward Mn(II) was sufficiently similar, an observation that was reflected in the studies on adsorption kinetics at various metal loadings, effects of pH, bacteria density, isotherms and drifting of pH during adsorption. Continuing the experiment for an additional 2-30days demonstrated that the Mn(II) sorption by suspensions of viable and autoclaved cells differed significantly from one another. The sorption to dead cells was characterised by a rapid equilibration and was described by an isotherm. In contrast, the sorption (uptake) to live bacteria exhibited a complex time-dependent uptake. This uptake began as adsorption and ion exchange processes followed by bioprecipitation, and it was accompanied by the formation of polymeric sugars (EPS) and the release of dissolved organic substances. FTIR, EXAFS/XANES and XPS demonstrated that manganese(II) phosphate was the main precipitate formed in 125ml batches, which is the first evidence of the ability of microbes to synthesise manganese phosphates. XPS and XANES spectra did not detect Mn(II) oxidation. Although the release of protein-like compounds by the viable bacteria increased in the presence of Mn2+ (and, by contrast, the release of carbohydrates did not change), electrochemical analyses did not indicate any aqueous complexation of Mn(II) by the organic ligands. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Damgaard

    Full Text Available Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC-fraction.Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA.Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013.60 donors (≥50 years old, self-reported medically healthy.Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35% of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53% of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10-6, respectively. Propionibacterium acnes was found in 23% of the donations, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 38%. The majority of bacteria identified in the present study were either facultative anaerobic (59.5% or anaerobic (27.8% species, which are not likely to be detected during current routine screening.Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing of RBC-fractions for adherent bacteria should be recommended.

  20. Intestinal Bacterial Flora that Compete on the Haem Precursor Iron Fumarate in Iron Deficiency Anemia Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim, S. A. H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study focused on finding if there is any possible relation between the intestinal bacterial population quantitative and qualitative and the deficiency of the most important iron compounds as haem precursors. Methodology and Results: Blood complete picture and stool analyses were done to 750 volunteer cases whom were asked for these analyses by their physicians. Analyses proved that 560 cases representing 75.2 % were anemic as the RBC(s based on counts of the total studied cases of less than 263 x 104 and the haemoglobin amount ranged between 7.2 and 11.3 g/dl, while the remainder 24.8 % of the volunteer sample was not anemic. A high male/female ratio ofanemic cases, 1:27 was also documented. Considering that all the studied stool samples should be completely free from any parasites or any other anemia-related diseases was a priority. Bacteriological analysis of stool samples of the anemic cases resulted in the detection of high counts of total viable bacteria, exceeded 42 x 109 cfu/g, while it was never more than 26 x 106 cfu/g and decreased to 4 x 106 cfu/g in many cases in this study. Identifying of the 361 bacterial isolates, were found to belong to 12 genera and 19 species, 6 of them; Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus coagulans , were found and in high counts in the stool samples of only anemic cases. The ability of these isolates to compete for iron compounds such as ferrous fumarate alone or with glucose and phytate as activators or inhibitors to these abilities was investigated. Results proved 11 species out of the 19 identified species are capable to use and compete on ferrous fumarate as a haemprecursor. Sensitivity test for the representatives of the 19 species and 6 of the most commonly used antibiotics in the Egyptian pharmacy, using standard disc method, revealed variable susceptibilities of almost all of them to more than one of

  1. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated...

  2. Microbial counts of food contact surfaces at schools depending on a feeding scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng Nhlapo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of disease transmission between individuals in confined environments is a concern, particularly in the educational environment. With respect to school feeding schemes, food contact surfaces have been shown to be potential vehicles of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the cleanliness of the surfaces that come into contact with food that is provided to children through the National School Nutrition Programme in central South Africa. In each school under study, microbiological samples were collected from the preparation surface and the dominant hand and apron of the food handler. The samples were analysed for total viable counts, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and moulds. The criteria specified in the British Columbia Guide for Environmental Health Officers were used to evaluate the results. Total viable counts were high for all surfaces, with the majority of colonies being too numerous to count (over 100 colonies per plate. Counts of organisms were relatively low, with 20% of the surfaces producing unsatisfactory enumeration of S. aureus and E. coli and 30% unsatisfactory for coliforms. Yeast and mould produced 50% and 60% unsatisfactory counts from preparation surfaces and aprons, respectively. Statistically significant differences could not be established amongst microbial counts of the surfaces, which suggests cross-contamination may have occurred. Contamination may be attributed to foodstuffs and animals in the vicinity of the preparation area rather than to the food handlers, because hands had the lowest counts of enumerated organisms amongst the analysed surfaces.

  3. Bacterial lipases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, meaning a sharp increase in lipase activity observed when the substrate starts to form an emulsion, thereby presenting to the enzyme an interfacial area. As a consequence, the kinetics of a lipase rea...

  4. Custom fabrication of biomass containment devices using 3-D printing enables bacterial growth analyses with complex insoluble substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cassandra E; Beri, Nina R; Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-11-01

    Physiological studies of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation are challenging for several reasons, one of which is the difficulty in obtaining a reproducibly accurate real-time measurement of bacterial growth using insoluble substrates. Current methods suffer from several problems including (i) high background noise due to the insoluble material interspersed with cells, (ii) high consumable and reagent cost and (iii) significant time delay between sampling and data acquisition. A customizable substrate and cell separation device would provide an option to study bacterial growth using optical density measurements. To test this hypothesis we used 3-D printing to create biomass containment devices that allow interaction between insoluble substrates and microbial cells but do not interfere with spectrophotometer measurements. Evaluation of materials available for 3-D printing indicated that UV-cured acrylic plastic was the best material, being superior to nylon or stainless steel when examined for heat tolerance, reactivity, and ability to be sterilized. Cost analysis of the 3-D printed devices indicated they are a competitive way to quantitate bacterial growth compared to viable cell counting or protein measurements, and experimental conditions were scalable over a 100-fold range. The presence of the devices did not alter growth phenotypes when using either soluble substrates or insoluble substrates. We applied biomass containment to characterize growth of Cellvibrio japonicus on authentic lignocellulose (non-pretreated corn stover), and found physiological evidence that xylan is a significant nutritional source despite an abundance of cellulose present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Uncertainty in measurements by counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich, Walter; Pennecchi, Francesca

    2012-02-01

    Counting is at the base of many high-level measurements, such as, for example, frequency measurements. In some instances the measurand itself is a number of events, such as spontaneous decays in activity measurements, or objects, such as colonies of bacteria in microbiology. Countings also play a fundamental role in everyday life. In any case, a counting is a measurement. A measurement result, according to its present definition, as given in the 'International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)', must include a specification concerning the estimated uncertainty. As concerns measurements by counting, this specification is not easy to encompass in the well-known framework of the 'Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement', known as GUM, in which there is no guidance on the topic. Furthermore, the issue of uncertainty in countings has received little or no attention in the literature, so that it is commonly accepted that this category of measurements constitutes an exception in which the concept of uncertainty is not applicable, or, alternatively, that results of measurements by counting have essentially no uncertainty. In this paper we propose a general model for measurements by counting which allows an uncertainty evaluation compliant with the general framework of the GUM.

  6. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  7. Asymptomatic cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis present exacerbated tissue pathology and bacterial dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menin

    Full Text Available Rational discovery of novel immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate antigens to control bovine tuberculosis (bTB requires knowledge of disease immunopathogenesis. However, there remains a paucity of information on the Mycobacterium bovis-host immune interactions during the natural infection. Analysis of 247 naturally PPD+ M. bovis-infected cattle revealed that 92% (n = 228 of these animals were found to display no clinical signs, but presented severe as well as disseminated bTB-lesions at post-mortem examination. Moreover, dissemination of bTB-lesions positively correlated with both pathology severity score (Spearman r = 0.48; p<0.0001 and viable tissue bacterial loads (Spearman r = 0.58; p = 0.0001. Additionally, granuloma encapsulation negatively correlated with M. bovis growth as well as pathology severity, suggesting that encapsulation is an effective mechanism to control bacterial proliferation during natural infection. Moreover, multinucleated giant cell numbers were found to negatively correlate with bacterial counts (Spearman r = 0.25; p = 0.03 in lung granulomas. In contrast, neutrophil numbers in the granuloma were associated with increased M. bovis proliferation (Spearman r = 0.27; p = 0.021. Together, our findings suggest that encapsulation and multinucleated giant cells control M. bovis viability, whereas neutrophils may serve as a cellular biomarker of bacterial proliferation during natural infection. These data integrate host granuloma responses with mycobacterial dissemination and could provide useful immunopathological-based biomarkers of disease severity in natural infection with M. bovis, an important cattle pathogen.

  8. A random effect multiplicative heteroscedastic model for bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinto Emiliano J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predictive microbiology develops mathematical models that can predict the growth rate of a microorganism population under a set of environmental conditions. Many primary growth models have been proposed. However, when primary models are applied to bacterial growth curves, the biological variability is reduced to a single curve defined by some kinetic parameters (lag time and growth rate, and sometimes the models give poor fits in some regions of the curve. The development of a prediction band (from a set of bacterial growth curves using non-parametric and bootstrap methods permits to overcome that problem and include the biological variability of the microorganism into the modelling process. Results Absorbance data from Listeria monocytogenes cultured at 22, 26, 38, and 42°C were selected under different environmental conditions of pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.4 and percentage of NaCl (2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Transformation of absorbance data to viable count data was carried out. A random effect multiplicative heteroscedastic model was considered to explain the dynamics of bacterial growth. The concept of a prediction band for microbial growth is proposed. The bootstrap method was used to obtain resamples from this model. An iterative procedure is proposed to overcome the computer intensive task of calculating simultaneous prediction intervals, along time, for bacterial growth. The bands were narrower below the inflection point (0-8 h at 22°C, and 0-5.5 h at 42°C, and wider to the right of it (from 9 h onwards at 22°C, and from 7 h onwards at 42°C. A wider band was observed at 42°C than at 22°C when the curves reach their upper asymptote. Similar bands have been obtained for 26 and 38°C. Conclusions The combination of nonparametric models and bootstrap techniques results in a good procedure to obtain reliable prediction bands in this context. Moreover, the new iterative algorithm proposed in this paper allows one to

  9. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine ...

  10. Diagnostic challenges with acellular bacterial meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pleocytosis, hypoglycorrhachia and a raised CSF protein level.[2,8,16]. Despite our patient's reduced CSF glucose and raised protein, the inconsistent polymorph cell count was striking. Based on clinical suspicion, CSF and laboratory determinants, she was treated for acute bacterial meningitis. CSF Gram stains and culture ...

  11. Removal of viable bacteria and endotoxins by Electro Deionization (EDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Norimitsu; Otomo, Teruo; Watabe, Tomoichi; Ase, Tomonobu; Takemura, Takuto; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    Viable bacteria and endotoxins in water sometimes cause problems for human health. Endotoxins are major components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharides). In medical procedures, especially haemodialysis (HD) and related therapies (haemodiafiltration (HDF), haemofiltration (HF)), endotoxins in the water for haemodialysis can permeate through the haemodialysis membrane and cause microinflammation or various haemodialysis-related illnesses. To decrease such a biological risk, RO and UF membranes are generally used. Also, hot water disinfection or the chemical disinfection is regularly executed to kill bacteria which produce endotoxins. However, simple treatment methods and equipment may be able to decrease the biological risk more efficiently. In our experiments, we confirmed that viable bacteria and endotoxins were removed by Electro Deionization (EDI) technology and also clarified the desorption mechanisms.

  12. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  13. Academic Pediatric Dentistry is a Rewarding, Financially Viable Career Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L

    2017-09-15

    Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.

  14. How Can We Prevent Violence Becoming a Viable Political Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Justino

    2009-01-01

    A basic issue that conflict analysis investigates is how non-peaceful ways of living and governing become viable political strategies. Macro-level studies provide some important insights but micro-level analysis is vital to understand the mechanisms that make violence possible. This briefing outlines some preliminary findings in this respect from MICROCON, a major research programme analysing violent conflict at the micro level. It also discusses their implications for policies aimed at preve...

  15. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  16. A rapid biosensor for viable B. anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumner, Antje J; Leonard, Barbara; McElwee, John; Montagna, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    A simple membrane-strip-based biosensor assay has been combined with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction for rapid (4 h) detection of a small number (ten) of viable B. anthracis spores. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from one of the anthrax toxin genes, the protective antigen ( pag), encoded on the toxin plasmid, pXO1, and thus provides high specificity toward B. anthracis. Previously, the anthrax toxins activator ( atxA) mRNA had been used in our laboratory for the development of a biosensor for the detection of a single B. anthracis spore within 12 h. Changing the target sequence to the pag mRNA provided the ability to shorten the overall assay time significantly. The vaccine strain of B. anthracis (Sterne strain) was used in all experiments. A 500-microL sample containing as few as ten spores was mixed with 500 microL growth medium and incubated for 30 min for spore germination and mRNA production. Thus, only spores that are viable were detected. Subsequently, RNA was extracted from lysed cells, selectively amplified using NASBA, and rapidly identified by the biosensor. While the biosensor assay requires only 15 min assay time, the overall process takes 4 h for detection of ten viable B. anthracis spores, and is shortened significantly if more spores are present. The biosensor is based on an oligonucleotide sandwich-hybridization assay format. It uses a membrane flow-through system with an immobilized DNA probe that hybridizes with the target sequence. Signal amplification is provided when the target sequence hybridizes to a second DNA probe that has been coupled to liposomes encapsulating the dye sulforhodamine B. The amount of liposomes captured in the detection zone can be read visually or quantified with a hand-held reflectometer. The biosensor can detect as little as 1 fmol target mRNA (1 nmol L(-1)). Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with 11 organisms tested, among them closely

  17. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter on chicken carcasses by real-time PCR and propidium monoazide as a tool for quantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    of foodborne Campylobacter, combining real-time PCR (Q-PCR) with a simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 hours, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Campylobacter with an intact membrane. The method performance was evaluated......-values (R2 = 0.993), with a quantification range from 1×1021×107 CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R2 = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by chicken rinse matrix...... or by species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does...

  18. Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    of foodborne Campylobacter, combining real-time PCR (Q-PCR) with a simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 hours, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Campylobacter with an intact membrane. The method performance was evaluated......-values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range from 1x10(2)-1x10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by chicken rinse...... matrix or by species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed...

  19. Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor Listeriolysin O favors bacterial growth in co-culture with the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, causes protozoan encystment and promotes bacterial survival inside cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermolaeva Svetlana A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is widely spread in the nature. L. monocytogenes was reported to be isolated from soil, water, sewage and sludge. Listeriolysin O (LLO is a L. monocytogenes major virulence factor. In the course of infection in mammals, LLO is required for intracellular survival and apoptosis induction in lymphocytes. In this study, we explored the potential of LLO to promote interactions between L. monocytogenes and the ubiquitous inhabitant of natural ecosystems bacteriovorous free-living ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. Results Wild type L. monocytogenes reduced T. pyriformis trophozoite counts and stimulated encystment. The effects were observed starting from 48 h of co-incubation. On the day 14, trophozoites were eliminated from the co-culture while about 5 × 104 cells/ml remained in the axenic T. pyriformis culture. The deficient in the LLO-encoding hly gene L. monocytogenes strain failed to cause mortality among protozoa and to trigger protozoan encystment. Replenishment of the hly gene in the mutant strain restored toxicity towards protozoa and induction of protozoan encystment. The saprophytic non-haemolytic species L. innocua transformed with the LLO-expressing plasmid caused extensive mortality and encystment in ciliates. During the first week of co-incubation, LLO-producing L. monocytogenes demonstrated higher growth rates in association with T. pyriformis than the LLO-deficient isogenic strain. At latter stages of co-incubation bacterial counts were similar for both strains. T. pyriformis cysts infected with wild type L. monocytogenes caused listerial infection in guinea pigs upon ocular and oral inoculation. The infection was proved by bacterial plating from the internal organs. Conclusions The L. monocytogenes virulence factor LLO promotes bacterial survival and growth in the presence of bacteriovorous ciliate T. pyriformis. LLO is responsible for L. monocytogenes

  20. Automated counting of cells in cerebrospinal fluid using the CellDyn-4000 haematology analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Janssen, Willy C M

    2002-11-01

    Counting of cells in cerebrospinal fluid is currently performed manually. Because of the inherent analytical and economical disadvantages, we attempted to introduce a fully automated method. Therefore, we validated the Abbott CellDyn-4000 haematology analyser for counting cells in cerebrospinal fluid. The analyser was used in its standard configuration with the simple precaution of a preceding blank sample. As for leukocyte counting the analyser yielded high precision (CV approximately 5% above the upper reference limit), good linearity, low limit of detection (2/microl) and excellent correlation (r > 0.99) with the counting chamber method. The differential leukocyte count was equally accurate and precise, even in the low concentration range. Performance of the erythrocyte count was impaired by its high limit of detection (6/nl) and it appeared satisfactory only for detecting blood admixture due to traumatic puncture. The specificity of the analyser is excellent, since it correctly classified non-viable leukocytes and excluded yeast cells from the leukocyte count in a patient with cryptococcal meningitis. We conclude that the CellDyn-4000 is well suited for quickly and reliably counting leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid. Developing some software modifications might make the analyser useful also for performing erythrocyte counting in cerebrospinal fluid.

  1. Body Mass Index, Haemoglobin, and Total Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate for CD4 Count in Resource Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunu, Bismark Kwame

    2017-01-01

    Background. In view of the lack of evidence on the possibility of an economically viable, easy, and readily available biomarker to substitute the traditional role of CD4 counts in HIV disease progression, this study seeks to investigate the potential use of body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin (Hb), and total lymphocyte count (TLC) as surrogate biomarkers for monitoring the disease. Methods. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the antiretroviral clinic (ART) of the Bomso Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. We recruited 384 individuals who were 18 years or older and confirmed HIV seropositive patients. Blood samples were assayed for TLC and Hb. Weight and height were determined and BMI was calculated. Result. At a cut-off point of 12.15 g/dL, Hb had sensitivity and specificity of 73.9% and 56.8%, respectively, whereas BMI had 69.6% and 80.1% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were also 100% among the studied participants at a cut-off point of 1200 mm−3 for TLC. There was a significant positive correlation between CD4 count and Hb (rho 0.262, p = 0.0001), BMI (rho 0.301, p = 0.0001), and TLC (rho 0.834, p = 0.0001). Conclusion. The study demonstrates that TLC, Hb, and BMI may provide some useful prognostic information independent of that provided by CD4 count. PMID:28484663

  2. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG, progesterone (P4 and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20 was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013, as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant. Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071, but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure

  3. Nitrate treatment effects on bacterial community biofilm formed on carbon steel in produced water stirred tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana Montezano; de Almeida, Fernando Pereira; Lins, Ulysses; Seldin, Lucy; Korenblum, Elisa

    2012-06-01

    To better understand the impact of nitrate in Brazilian oil reservoirs under souring processes and corrosion, the goal of this study was to analyse the effect of nitrate on bacterial biofilms formed on carbon steel coupons using reactors containing produced water from a Brazilian oil platform. Three independent experiments were carried out (E1, E2 and E3) using the same experimental conditions and different incubation times (5, 45 and 80 days, respectively). In every experiment, two biofilm-reactors were operated: one was treated with continuous nitrate flow (N reactor), and the other was a control reactor without nitrate (C reactor). A Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis approach using the 16S rRNA gene was performed to compare the bacterial groups involved in biofilm formation in the N and C reactors. DGGE profiles showed remarkable changes in community structure only in experiments E2 and E3. Five bands extracted from the gel that represented the predominant bacterial groups were identified as Bacillus aquimaris, B. licheniformis, Marinobacter sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Thioclava sp. A reduction in the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) most probable number counts was observed only during the longer nitrate treatment (E3). Carbon steel coupons used for biofilm formation had a slightly higher weight loss in N reactors in all experiments. When the coupon surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, an increase in corrosion was observed in the N reactors compared with the C reactors. In conclusion, nitrate reduced the viable SRB counts. Nevertheless, the nitrate dosing increased the pitting of coupons.

  4. Inkjet printing of viable human dental follicle stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau Robert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing technology has the potential to be used for seeding of viable cells for tissue engineering approaches. For this reason, a piezoelectrically actuated, drop-on-demand inkjet printing system was applied to deliver viable human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSC of sizes of about 15 μm up to 20 μm in diameter. The purpose of these investigations was to verify the stability of the printing process and to evaluate cell viability post printing. Using a Nanoplotter 2.1 (Gesim, Germany equipped with the piezoelectric printhead NanoTip HV (Gesim, Germany, a concentration of 6.6 ×106 cells ml−1 in DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS could be dispensed. The piezoelectric printhead has a nominal droplet volume of ~ 400 pl and was set to a voltage of 75 V and a pulse of 50 μs while dosing 50 000 droplets over a time of 100 seconds. The volume and trajectory of the droplet were checked by a stroboscope test right before and after the printing process. It was found that the droplet volume decreases significantly by 35% during printing process, while the trajectory of the droplets remains stable with only an insignificant number of degrees deviation from the vertical line. It is highly probable that some cell sedimentations or agglomerations affect the printing performance. The cell viability post printing was assessed by using the Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The printing process was found to have no significant influence on cell survival. In conclusion, drop-on-demand inkjet printing can be a potent tool for the seeding of viable cells.

  5. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  7. Experience in using thermal disinfection to remove viable bacteria and endotoxins in centraly distributed reverse osmosis water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayoud, Ahmed; Hamzi, Mohamed Amine; Razkaoui, Abdelaziz; Benyahia, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The water used for dilution of hemodialysis concentrates has to meet official quality recommendations regarding microbiology and chemical parameters. To avoid chemical use and to simplify treatments, hot water has been used to control microbial contamination of water distribution systems. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of heat disinfection in maintaining the quality of dialysis water generated by reverse osmosis (RO). During the first part of the study, we consecutively used (1) continuous water circulation, (2) daily heat disinfection and (3) a combination of daily heat disinfection and weekly chemical disinfection while checking bacterial count and endotoxin level every 4-5 weeks. During the second part of the study, we continued using daily heat disinfection while checking bacterial count and endotoxin level on weekly basis. The endotoxin levels at all sampling points of the water treatment system were lower than 0.005/ ml throughout the study. The application of heat disinfection alone reduced bacterial levels but an escape phenomenon occurred. After an interval of 21 days, an exponential increase of bacterial count was noted and cultures from the RO unit revealed growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence. The addition of chemical disinfection was successful in eliminating micro-organisms. Throughout this study, micro-organisms and endotoxins were not detectable in dialysate fluid and substitution fluid in dialysis monitors. The isolation of a thermo-sensitive organism from the RO unit after a period of relying on thermal disinfection suggests the existence of dead space in the RO unit that is not adequately exposed to heat but is accessible to chemical disinfection. .

  8. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Method as a Tool To Quantify Viable Photobacterium phosphoreum Bacteria in Salmon (Salmo salar) Steaks

    OpenAIRE

    Macé, Sabrina; Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Chipchakova, Stoyka; Prévost, Hervé; Joffraud, Jean-jacques; Dalgaard, Paw,; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    A specific real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide sample treatment step was developed to determine quantitatively the viable population of the Photobacterium phosphoreum species group in raw modified-atmosphere-packed salmon. Primers were designed to amplify a 350-bp fragment of the gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) of P. phosphoreum. The specificity of the two primers was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 81 strains of 52 different bacterial species. When th...

  9. Photon-counting image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Teranishi, Nobukazu; Theuwissen, Albert; Stoppa, David; Charbon, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    The field of photon-counting image sensors is advancing rapidly with the development of various solid-state image sensor technologies including single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs) and deep-sub-electron read noise CMOS image sensor pixels. This foundational platform technology will enable opportunities for new imaging modalities and instrumentation for science and industry, as well as new consumer applications. Papers discussing various photon-counting image sensor technologies and selected new applications are presented in this all-invited Special Issue.

  10. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  11. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  12. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  13. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  14. On modelling overdispersion of counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortema, Klaas

    1999-01-01

    For counts it often occurs that the observed variance exceeds the nominal variance of the claimed binomial, multinomial or Poisson distributions. We study how models can be extended to cope with this phenomenon: a survey of literature is given. We focus on modelling, not on estimation or testing

  15. Kids Count Data Sheet, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.

    Data from the 50 United States are listed for 1997 from Kids Count in an effort to track state-by-state the status of children in the United States and to secure better futures for all children. Data include percent low birth weight babies; infant mortality rate; child death rate; rate of teen deaths by accident, homicide, and suicide; teen birth…

  16. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    -based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  17. Kids Count New Hampshire, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Susan Palmer; Hall, Douglas E.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 14 indicators of child well being: (1) children in poverty; (2) fatherless families; (3) maternal education; (4) teen births; (5) births to unmarried mothers; (6) low birth weight births; (7) insurance coverage; (8)…

  18. Evaluating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) leukocyte differential counts comparing the CellaVision DM96 and the manual method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaias, Julia; Bradley, Christine; Richardson, Jill; Eskelinen, Holli C; Ikpatt, Frances; Cray, Carolyn

    2017-09-01

    The leukocyte differential count is an excellent diagnostic tool; however, the manual differential count has several drawbacks, especially for nontraditional species. Automated cell analyzers commonly used in veterinary practices require species-specific validation for use in nondomestic species other than dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of the CellaVision DM96 (DM96), an automated image analysis system, as a rapid and accurate method for providing a WBC differential count in comparison to the manual WBC differential count in bottlenose dolphins. Ten fresh, EDTA anticoagulated blood samples were collected, blood smears were made and stained, and the differential WBC counts were performed on the DM96 and compared with manual differential WBC counts. Agreement, means, and errors were compared between the methods. There was good agreement between the DM96 and manual differential WBC counts for neutrophils; however, there was significant variation when comparing lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts. No basophils were seen by any method. Despite a small sample size, the DM96 appeared to provide a viable alternative for automated neutrophil counting in blood of bottlenose dolphins. Whether the counts are comparable in animals with highly pathologic differential counts must be addressed in follow-up studies, preferably with more study animals. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. Leukocyte blood count during early puerperium and its relation to puerperal infection†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dior, Uri P; Kogan, Liron; Elchalal, Uriel; Goldschmidt, Neta; Burger, Ayala; Nir-Paz, Ran; Ezra, Yossef

    2014-01-01

    To describe the white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil counts in early puerperium and to investigate their contribution to the diagnosis of puerperal bacterial infection. A retrospective cohort analysis through which clinical and laboratory data were collected from 67 695 term live births. Total leukocyte and neutrophil blood count percentiles were established for febrile parturients (FP) with puerperal fever (≥38 °C) and for non-FP (NFP), and stratified by mode of delivery. Rates of positive bacterial cultures were compared according to the total leukocyte and neutrophil blood counts. Mean WBC counts of parturients delivering vaginally and by cesarean section were 12.62 × 10(3) and 12.71 × 10(3)/µL for NFP, and 14.38 × 10(3) and 12.74 × 10(3)/µL for FP, respectively. The proportions of parturients with a WBC count of ≥15 × 10(3)/µL were 36.4% for FP and 21.8% for NFP (p leukocyte count in 57.6% of FP and in 30.6% of NFP (p leukocytes and neutrophils. Leukocytosis and non-extreme neutrophilia were not found to reliably associate with bacterial infection, and their value in determining antibiotic therapy is questioned.

  20. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  1. Bacterial growth during the early phase of infection determines the severity of experimental Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornalijnslijper, J.E.; Daemen, A.; Werven, van T.; Niewold, T.A.; Rutten, V.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of bacterial growth for the severity of experimental Escherichia coli mastitis, indirectly expressed as the area under the curve of bacterial counts in milk over time. The association of pre-infusion somatic cell count and post-infusion influx

  2. BACTERIAL PLASMIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

  3. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  4. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  5. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  6. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with dopaminergic agonist (cabergoline. A second ultrasound scan revealed the presence of two gestational vesicles in the right uterine horn that were successfully carried to term. Unusually, while pyometra persisted in the left uterine horn, two viable puppies were delivered by caesarean section from the right uterine horn.

  7. “Limits of Control” – Crucial Parameters for a Reliable Quantification of Viable Campylobacter by Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Nora-Johanna; Buhler, Christiane; Iwobi, Azuka N.; Huber, Ingrid; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Appel, Bernd; Stingl, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The unsuitability of the “CFU” parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS) or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase). In contrast, propidium iodide (PI) and propidium monoazide (PMA) were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the implementation of

  8. "Limits of control"--crucial parameters for a reliable quantification of viable campylobacter by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Nora-Johanna; Buhler, Christiane; Iwobi, Azuka N; Huber, Ingrid; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Appel, Bernd; Stingl, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The unsuitability of the "CFU" parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS) or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase). In contrast, propidium iodide (PI) and propidium monoazide (PMA) were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the implementation of

  9. "Limits of control"--crucial parameters for a reliable quantification of viable campylobacter by real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora-Johanna Krüger

    Full Text Available The unsuitability of the "CFU" parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase. In contrast, propidium iodide (PI and propidium monoazide (PMA were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the

  10. Kinetics of kill of bacterial conjunctivitis isolates with moxifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, compared with the aminoglycosides tobramycin and gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph S Wagner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rudolph S Wagner1, David B Granet2, Steven J Lichtenstein3, Tiffany Jamison4, Joseph J Dajcs4, Robert D Gross5, Paul Cockrum41New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA; 2Ratner Children’s Eye Center, University of California – San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, Illinois, USA; 4Alcon Research, Ltd, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 5Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: To compare the kinetics and speed of kill of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae on exposure to three topical ophthalmic antibiotic solutions.Materials and methods: Bacterial conjunctivitis isolates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were exposed to 1:1000 dilutions of moxifloxacin 0.5%, tobramycin 0.3%, gentamicin 0.3%, and water (control. At 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after exposure, aliquots were collected, cells were cultured, and viable cell counts were determined using standard microbiological methods.Results: Moxifloxacin achieved 99.9% kill (3-log reduction at approximately 2 hours for S. pneumoniae and at 15 minutes for H. influenzae. Tobramycin and gentamicin did not achieve 3-log reduction of S. pneumoniae during the 180-minute study period. An increase in bacterial growth was noted for these isolates. Gentamicin took more than 120 minutes to achieve the 3-log reduction of H. influenzae and tobramycin did not reach the 3-log reduction of this pathogen during the 180-minute study period.Conclusion: Moxifloxacin killed S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in vitro faster than tobramycin and gentamicin, suggesting its potential clinical benefit as a first-line treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis to minimize patient symptoms and to limit the contagiousness of the disease.Keywords: kinetics of kill, bacterial conjunctivitis, in vitro, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides

  11. Capacity building: benchmark for production of meat with low levels of bacterial contamination in local slaughterhouses in Somaliland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamalwa, Kinyanjui; Castiello, Massimo; Ombui, Jackson Nyarangi; Gathuma, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested questionnaire on abattoir hygiene and food safety standards was administered to International Aid Organizations, government officials, abattoir workers and supervisors. In addition, a total of 320 surface meat swab samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminant carcasses slaughtered from four purposefully selected local slaughter facilities. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya, for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors associated with hygiene practices based on training offered or not was identified. It was noted that slaughter facilities where abattoir workers had not received trainings on minimum meat hygiene standards and quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices and sanitary standard operating procedures produced carcasses with high levels of bacterial contamination in comparison with those where workers had received the said trainings. The laboratory results were in agreement with poor hygiene meat handling practices and lack of compliance with minimum meat hygiene and food safety standards in Berbera and Burao local livestock slaughter facilities where personnel had not been trained.

  12. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-09-13

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by human pathogens, and the incidence has a strong regional distribution. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is mainly associated with animal contact, consumption of animal products, and an immunocompromised state of the patient. In a high proportion of zoonotic bacterial meningitis cases, CSF analysis showed only a mildly elevated leukocyte count. The recommended antibiotic therapy differs per pathogen, and the overall mortality is low. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon but is associated with specific complications. The suspicion should be raised in patients with bacterial meningitis who have recreational or professional contact with animals and in patients living in regions endemic for specific zoonotic pathogens. An immunocompromised state is associated with a worse prognosis. Identification of risk factors and underlying disease is necessary to improve treatment. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Viable cold-tolerant iron-reducing microorganisms in geographically diverse subglacial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L.; Telling, Jon P.; Wadham, Jemma L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-03-01

    Subglacial environments are known to harbour metabolically diverse microbial communities. These microbial communities drive chemical weathering of underlying bedrock and influence the geochemistry of glacial meltwater. Despite its importance in weathering reactions, the microbial cycling of iron in subglacial environments, in particular the role of microbial iron reduction, is poorly understood. In this study we address the prevalence of viable iron-reducing microorganisms in subglacial sediments from five geographically isolated glaciers. Iron-reducing enrichment cultures were established with sediment from beneath Engabreen (Norway), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard), Leverett and Russell glaciers (Greenland), and Lower Wright Glacier (Antarctica). Rates of iron reduction were higher at 4 °C compared with 15 °C in all but one duplicated second-generation enrichment culture, indicative of cold-tolerant and perhaps cold-adapted iron reducers. Analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicates Desulfosporosinus were the dominant iron-reducing microorganisms in low-temperature Engabreen, Finsterwalderbreen and Lower Wright Glacier enrichments, and Geobacter dominated in Russell and Leverett enrichments. Results from this study suggest microbial iron reduction is widespread in subglacial environments and may have important implications for global biogeochemical iron cycling and export to marine ecosystems.

  14. Viable adhered Staphylococcus aureus highly reduced on novel antimicrobial sutures using chlorhexidine and octenidine to avoid surgical site infection (SSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jochen; Harrasser, Norbert; Tübel, Jutta; Mühlhofer, Heinrich; Pförringer, Dominik; von Deimling, Constantin; Foehr, Peter; Kiefel, Barbara; Krämer, Christina; Stemberger, Axel; Schieker, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Background Surgical sutures can promote migration of bacteria and thus start infections. Antiseptic coating of sutures may inhibit proliferation of adhered bacteria and avoid such complications. Objectives This study investigated the inhibition of viable adhering bacteria on novel antimicrobially coated surgical sutures using chlorhexidine or octenidine, a critical factor for proliferation at the onset of local infections. The medical need, a rapid eradication of bacteria in wounds, can be fulfilled by a high antimicrobial efficacy during the first days after wound closure. Methods As a pretesting on antibacterial efficacy against relevant bacterial pathogens a zone of inhibition assay was conducted with middle ranged concentrated suture coatings (22 μg/cm). For further investigation of adhering bacteria in detail the most clinically relevant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC®49230™) was used. Absorbable braided sutures were coated with chlorhexidine-laurate, chlorhexidine-palmitate, octenidine-laurate, and octenidine-palmitate. Each coating type resulted in 11, 22, or 33 μg/cm drug content on sutures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed once to inspect the coating quality and twice to investigate if bacteria have colonized on sutures. Adhesion experiments were assessed by exposing coated sutures to S. aureus suspensions for 3 h at 37°C. Subsequently, sutures were sonicated and the number of viable bacteria released from the suture surface was determined. Furthermore, the number of viable planktonic bacteria was measured in suspensions containing antimicrobial sutures. Commercially available sutures without drugs (Vicryl®, PGA Resorba®, and Gunze PGA), as well as triclosan-containing Vicryl® Plus were used as control groups. Results Zone of inhibition assay documented a multispecies efficacy of novel coated sutures against tested bacterial strains, comparable to most relevant S. aureus over 48 hours. SEM pictures demonstrated uniform layers on

  15. Viable adhered Staphylococcus aureus highly reduced on novel antimicrobial sutures using chlorhexidine and octenidine to avoid surgical site infection (SSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Andreas; Schneider, Jochen; Harrasser, Norbert; Tübel, Jutta; Mühlhofer, Heinrich; Pförringer, Dominik; Deimling, Constantin von; Foehr, Peter; Kiefel, Barbara; Krämer, Christina; Stemberger, Axel; Schieker, Matthias; Burgkart, Rainer; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger

    2018-01-01

    Surgical sutures can promote migration of bacteria and thus start infections. Antiseptic coating of sutures may inhibit proliferation of adhered bacteria and avoid such complications. This study investigated the inhibition of viable adhering bacteria on novel antimicrobially coated surgical sutures using chlorhexidine or octenidine, a critical factor for proliferation at the onset of local infections. The medical need, a rapid eradication of bacteria in wounds, can be fulfilled by a high antimicrobial efficacy during the first days after wound closure. As a pretesting on antibacterial efficacy against relevant bacterial pathogens a zone of inhibition assay was conducted with middle ranged concentrated suture coatings (22 μg/cm). For further investigation of adhering bacteria in detail the most clinically relevant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC®49230™) was used. Absorbable braided sutures were coated with chlorhexidine-laurate, chlorhexidine-palmitate, octenidine-laurate, and octenidine-palmitate. Each coating type resulted in 11, 22, or 33 μg/cm drug content on sutures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed once to inspect the coating quality and twice to investigate if bacteria have colonized on sutures. Adhesion experiments were assessed by exposing coated sutures to S. aureus suspensions for 3 h at 37°C. Subsequently, sutures were sonicated and the number of viable bacteria released from the suture surface was determined. Furthermore, the number of viable planktonic bacteria was measured in suspensions containing antimicrobial sutures. Commercially available sutures without drugs (Vicryl®, PGA Resorba®, and Gunze PGA), as well as triclosan-containing Vicryl® Plus were used as control groups. Zone of inhibition assay documented a multispecies efficacy of novel coated sutures against tested bacterial strains, comparable to most relevant S. aureus over 48 hours. SEM pictures demonstrated uniform layers on coated sutures with higher roughness for

  16. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    , method of measuring SC and semen volume, exclusion criteria and indicators of completeness of covariate data]. The slopes of SC and TSC were estimated as functions of sample collection year using both simple linear regression and weighted meta-regression models and the latter were adjusted for pre......-determined covariates and modification by fertility and geographic group. Assumptions were examined using multiple sensitivity analyses and nonlinear models. OUTCOMES: SC declined significantly between 1973 and 2011 (slope in unadjusted simple regression models -0.70 million/ml/year; 95% CI: -0.72 to -0.69; P ...BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  17. 1/Nc Countings in Baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Goity

    2004-05-01

    The 1/N{sub c} power countings for baryon decays and configuration mixings are determined by means of a non-relativistic quark picture. Such countings are expected to be robust as the quark masses are decreased towards the chiral limit. It is shown that excited baryons have natural widths of {Omicron}(N{sub c}{sup 0}). These dominant widths are due to the decays that proceed directly to the ground state baryons, with cascade decays being suppressed to {Omicron}(1/N{sub c}). Configuration mixings, defined as mixings between states belonging to different O(3) x SU(2N{sub f}) multiplets, are shown to be sub-leading in an expansion in 1/{radical}N{sub c}, except for certain mixings between excited multiplets belonging to the mixed-symmetric spin-flavor representation and different O(3) representations, where the mixings are of zeroth order in 1/N{sub c}.

  18. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  19. Evaluation of method bias for determining bacterial populations in bacterial community analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Kita, Yasuko; Mizuno, Akihiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2017-10-01

    Various methods are used for analyzing a bacterial community. We recently developed a method for quantifying each bacterium constituting the microbiota by combining a next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (NGS-qPCR) assay. Our NGS-qPCR method is useful for analyzing a comprehensive bacterial community because it is enables the easy calculation of the amounts of each bacterium constituting the microbiota. However, it has not been confirmed whether the estimated bacterial community obtained using this NGS-qPCR method corresponds to the results obtained using conventional methods. Accordingly, we prepared model bacterial community samples and analyzed them by several methods (NGS-qPCR, species-specific qPCR, flow cytometry, total direct counting by epifluorescent microscopy [TDC], and plate count). The total bacterial cell densities determined by the PCR-based methods were largely consistent with those determined by the TDC method. There was a difference between the amounts of each bacterium analyzed by NGS-qPCR and species-specific qPCR, although the same trend was shown by both species-specific qPCR and NGS-qPCR. Our findings also demonstrated that there is a strong positive correlation between the cell densities of a specific bacterial group in craft beer samples determined by group-specific qPCR and NGS-qPCR, and there were no significant differences among quantification methods (we tested two bacterial groups: lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria). Thus, the NGS-qPCR method is a practical method for analyzing a comprehensive bacterial community based on a bacterial cell density. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel interference fringes software counting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhao; Chen, Benyong; Wu, Xiaowei; Li, Dacheng

    2005-02-01

    Conventional interference fringes counting methods often process two sinusoidal interference signals with a phase difference of π/2 to realize fringe-counting. But when the signals fluctuate in half a period of the signal, the conventional fringe-counting method sometimes produces direction-distinguishing mistakes, then resulting in counting errors. To address the problem, this paper presents a novel interference fringes counting method that uses software to distinguish the forward or backward direction of interference fringe and to count. This fringe-counting method can accurately distinguish the moving direction induced by the fluctuation of interference fringes, so it has the advantages of exact counting, intelligence and reliability. An experimental setup based on a Michelson interferometer is constructed to demonstrate the utility of this fringe-counting method for displacement measurement, and experimental results with a range of 1036mm is presented.

  1. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  2. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  3. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  4. Is Greenberg’s “Macro-Carib” viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg’s primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib ‘etymologies’ and another 64 Amerind ‘etymologies’. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg’s Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg’s morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg’s 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable.

  5. Case-based anatomy teaching: a viable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseonu, Onyedikachi; Carachi, Robert; Brindley, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a decline in the amount of time available for anatomy teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum, and new methods of anatomy teaching have been adopted for pragmatic reasons, with little evidence base to support their proposed educational benefits. This study seeks to establish the effect of a case-based teaching method on students' confidence in anatomy. Forty-three student volunteers in the clinical phase of the Glasgow medical course were given weekly anatomy teaching sessions based on clinical case presentations over 4 weeks. The students were given an anatomy test, and were asked to rate their confidence in their anatomy knowledge before and after the teaching sessions. There was a two-point increase in students' self-rated confidence, and a 10.9 per cent increase in average test score after the case-based anatomy teaching sessions. Both of these increases were statistically significant (p teaching was also highly rated by students, which may make it a viable option for the teaching of anatomy in the modern medical curriculum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  7. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  8. SMA actuators: a viable practical technology (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Hodgson, Darel E.

    2015-04-01

    Diverse products either based solely on or incorporating Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have and are being made in a wide range of industries, and IP is being captured. Why then compared to SE (superelastic) Nitinol, and especially conventional technology, do so few ideas reach production? This presentation delves deeply into this topic in reaching the final assessment that SMA actuators are indeed now a viable practical technology. The presentation begins with an introduction to and description of the fundamental basis of SMA actuator technology. Examples of multiple commercially available geometric forms of SMA actuators are given and the functionalities that they provide are described. This is followed by examples of multiple commercial products incorporating such SMA actuators. Given that there are literally millions of commercial products incorporating conventional actuator technologies, indications are given as to why there are their less than 1000 that utilize SMA. Experience based challenges to the commercial use of SMA actuators are described. Besides having to compete with existing non-SMA technology which is quite mature additional challenges that are unique to SM actuators are indicated these including a wider than expected set of technical engineering problems and challenges and that a broader scope of dynamics is required.

  9. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation...

  10. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  11. A stable live bacterial vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunda, Nitesh K; Wafula, Denis; Tram, Meilinn; Wu, Terry H; Muttil, Pavan

    2016-06-01

    Formulating vaccines into a dry form enhances its thermal stability. This is critical to prevent administering damaged and ineffective vaccines, and to reduce its final cost. A number of vaccines in the market as well as those being evaluated in the clinical setting are in a dry solid state; yet none of these vaccines have achieved long-term stability at high temperatures. We used spray-drying to formulate a recombinant live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm; expressing Francisella tularensis immune protective antigen pathogenicity island protein IglC) bacterial vaccine into a thermostable dry powder using various sugars and an amino acid. Lm powder vaccine showed minimal loss in viability when stored for more than a year at ambient room temperature (∼23°C) or for 180days at 40°C. High temperature viability was achieved by maintaining an inert atmosphere in the storage container and removing oxygen free radicals that damage bacterial membranes. Further, in vitro antigenicity was confirmed by infecting a dendritic cell line with cultures derived from spray dried Lm and detection of an intracellularly expressed protective antigen. A combination of stabilizing excipients, a cost effective one-step drying process, and appropriate storage conditions could provide a viable option for producing, storing and transporting heat-sensitive vaccines, especially in regions of the world that require them the most. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Disinfectant Footmats for the Reduction of Bacterial Contamination on Footwear in a Large Animal Veterinary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, K J; Burgess, B A; Saklou, N T; Johnson, V; Malmlov, A; Van Metre, D C; Morley, P S; Byers, S R

    2016-11-01

    Infection control is critical to providing high-quality patient care. Many veterinary teaching hospitals (VTHs) utilize footbaths or footmats at entrances and key control points throughout the facility to decrease trafficking of pathogenic microorganism on contaminated footwear. To compare efficacy of 4 disinfectants used in footmats for decreasing bacterial contamination of footwear in a large animal hospital. A single adult dairy cow was housed in a stall for 4 days to facilitate stall contamination with fecal material. Overboots were experimentally contaminated with organic material in a standardized manner. Each boot was randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (no treatment, or exposure to 1 of 4 disinfectants: an accelerated peroxygen [AHP], a peroxygen [VIRKON], a quaternary ammonium [QUAT], and a phenolic disinfectant [PHENOLIC]) by stepping on a soaked footmat and collecting samples from boot soles. Generalized linear modeling was used to analyze differences in bacterial counts. Reductions in colony-forming units (CFUs) on treated boots ranged from no detectable reduction to 0.45 log10 and varied by disinfectant. Percentage reductions in total bacterial counts generally were larger (albeit still modest) for AHP and QUAT disinfectants (range 37-45%) and smallest for the PHENOLIC (no detectable reduction). In general, use of disinfectant footmats was associated with significant reductions in viable bacteria on overboots-albeit with variable efficacy. Footmats may be useful adjuncts to cleaning and disinfection programs for decreasing trafficking of microorganisms throughout VTHs but should not be considered as a sole prevention method. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Effect of montelukast on bacterial sinusitis in allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Paneez; Baroody, Fuad M; Klemens, James J; Thompson, Kenneth; Naclerio, Robert M

    2006-09-01

    In mice, allergic rhinitis augments the infectious and inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced sinusitis. To investigate the effects of cysteinyl leukotriene antagonism on the severity of bacterial infection. We performed 3 parallel, placebo-controlled experiments. In the first, mice were ovalbumin sensitized and ovalbumin challenged to show the effects of montelukast on the allergic inflammation; in the second, we evaluated the effect of montelukast on S. pneumoniae infection; in the third, we used mice that were both allergic and infected. Montelukast was given starting 2 days after sensitization until the day before euthanasia. One day after drug treatment began, the mice were inoculated intranasally with S. pneumoniae in the infected groups. Nasal hypersensitivity was measured with histamine challenges before the first sensitization and on the day before euthanasia. On the fifth day after infection, mice were euthanized, nasal lavage was performed, bacteria were cultured, and inflammatory cells in the sinuses were quantified. Mice that were infected only tended toward having increased bacterial counts from nasal lavage in the montelukast-treated group. The mice that were allergic and infected experienced significantly higher bacterial counts (P < .05). All 3 montelukast treatment groups had significantly decreased eosinophil counts as well as T-lymphocyte counts. Montelukast reduces the manifestations of allergic rhinitis in mice. Surprisingly, montelukast led to an increase in bacterial growth in infected mice. This suggests an effect of the cysteinyl leukotrienes on the innate response to bacterial infection.

  14. Sensitive and Specific Biomimetic Lipid Coated Microfluidics to Isolate Viable Circulating Tumor Cells and Microemboli for Cancer Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yang Chen

    Full Text Available Here we presented a simple and effective membrane mimetic microfluidic device with antibody conjugated supported lipid bilayer (SLB "smart coating" to capture viable circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM directly from whole blood of all stage clinical cancer patients. The non-covalently bound SLB was able to promote dynamic clustering of lipid-tethered antibodies to CTC antigens and minimized non-specific blood cells retention through its non-fouling nature. A gentle flow further flushed away loosely-bound blood cells to achieve high purity of CTCs, and a stream of air foam injected disintegrate the SLB assemblies to release intact and viable CTCs from the chip. Human blood spiked cancer cell line test showed the ~95% overall efficiency to recover both CTCs and CTMs. Live/dead assay showed that at least 86% of recovered cells maintain viability. By using 2 mL of peripheral blood, the CTCs and CTMs counts of 63 healthy and colorectal cancer donors were positively correlated with the cancer progression. In summary, a simple and effective strategy utilizing biomimetic principle was developed to retrieve viable CTCs for enumeration, molecular analysis, as well as ex vivo culture over weeks. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity, it is the first time to show the high detection rates and quantity of CTCs in non-metastatic cancer patients. This work offers the values in both early cancer detection and prognosis of CTC and provides an accurate non-invasive strategy for routine clinical investigation on CTCs.

  15. Optimizing Viable Leukocyte Sampling from the Female Genital Tract for Clinical Trials: An International Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Stephen C.; Martinson, Jeffrey A.; Plants, Jill; Brady, Kirsten E.; Gumbi, Pamela P.; Adams, Devin J.; Vojtech, Lucia; Galloway, Christine G.; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Gao, Dayong; Shu, Zhiquan; Nyanga, Billy; Izulla, Preston; Kimani, Joshua; Kimwaki, Steve; Bere, Alfred; Moodie, Zoe; Landay, Alan L.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Kaul, Rupert; Novak, Richard M.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hladik, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear. Methods and Findings We enrolled women from four sites in Africa and the US to compare three genital leukocyte sampling methods: cervicovaginal lavages (CVL), endocervical cytobrushes, and ectocervical biopsies. Absolute yields of mononuclear leukocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometric bead-based cell counting. Of the non-invasive sampling types, two combined sequential cytobrushes yielded significantly more viable mononuclear leukocytes than a CVL (pbiopsies. Sample yields were consistent between sites. In a subgroup analysis, we observed significant reproducibility between replicate same-day biopsies (r = 0.89, p = 0.0123). Visible red blood cells in cytobrushes increased leukocyte yields more than three-fold (p = 0.0078), but did not change their subpopulation profile, indicating that these leukocytes were still largely derived from the mucosa and not peripheral blood. We also confirmed that many CD4+ T cells in the female genital tract express the α4β7 integrin, an HIV envelope-binding mucosal homing receptor. Conclusions CVL sampling recovered the lowest number of viable mononuclear leukocytes. Two cervical cytobrushes yielded comparable total numbers of viable leukocytes to one biopsy, but cytobrushes and biopsies were biased toward macrophages and T lymphocytes, respectively. Our study also established the feasibility of obtaining consistent flow cytometric analyses of isolated genital cells from four study sites in the US and Africa. These data represent an important step towards implementing mucosal cell sampling in international clinical trials of HIV prevention. PMID:24454917

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  18. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells are a major component of the ...

  19. Count data distributions and their zero-modified equivalents as a framework for modelling microbial data with a relatively high occurrence of zero counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Kerr, Marie; Sheridan, James J; Butler, Francis

    2010-01-01

    In many cases, microbial data are characterised by a relatively high proportion of zero counts, as occurs with some hygiene indicators and pathogens, which complicates the statistical treatment under the assumption of log normality. The objective of this work was to introduce an alternative Poisson-based distribution framework capable of representing this kind of data without incurring loss of information. The negative binomial, and two zero-modified parameterizations of the Poisson and negative binomial distributions (zero-inflated and hurdle) were fitted to actual zero-inflated bacterial data consisting of total coliforms (n=590) and Escherichia coli (n=677) present on beef carcasses sampled from nine Irish abattoirs. Improvement over the simple Poisson was shown by the simple negative binomial (p=0.426 for chi(2) test for the coliforms data) due to the added heterogeneity parameter, although it slightly overestimated the zero counts and underestimated the first few positive counts for both data sets. Whereas, the zero-modified Poisson could not cope with the data over-dispersion in any of its parameterizations (pdistribution was comparable to the simpler negative binomial distribution. Thus, bacterial data consisting of a considerable number of zero counts can be appropriately represented by using such count distributions, and this work serves as the starting point for an alternative statistical treatment of this kind of data and stochastic risk assessment modelling. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Count Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plan, E L

    2014-01-01

    Count data, or number of events per time interval, are discrete data arising from repeated time to event observations. Their mean count, or piecewise constant event rate, can be evaluated by discrete probability distributions from the Poisson model family. Clinical trial data characterization often involves population count analysis. This tutorial presents the basics and diagnostics of count modeling and simulation in the context of pharmacometrics. Consideration is given to overdispersion, underdispersion, autocorrelation, and inhomogeneity. PMID:25116273

  1. Quality assurance study of bacterial antigen testing of cerebrospinal fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiska, D L; Jones, M. C.; Mangum, M E; Orkiszewski, D; Gilligan, P H

    1995-01-01

    Bacterial antigen testing (BAT) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by latex agglutination is a low-yield procedure in patients whose CSF specimens have normal laboratory parameters. Between August 1992 and August 1994, we evaluated 287 bacterial antigen (BA) test requests to determine whether yields could be improved and whether patient costs could be reduced by cancelling BAT for those patients with normal CSF parameters (cell count, protein, glucose) after consultation with physicians. A total of...

  2. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Suescún

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La acupuntura es una antigua técnica terapéutica desarrollada en China, que ha evidenciado ser efectiva en síntomas como las náuseas, vómito y dolor dentario. A pesar del sustento fisiológico que posibilitaría un uso efectivo en otras patologías, incluyendo el campo de las adicciones, los estudios son contradictorios, posiblemente por la diferencias de visión entre la medicina oriental y la occidental. El consumo de psicoactivos es un problema de salud pública en Colombia y en el mundo que genera grandes costos tangibles e intangibles, los cuales, en países desarrollados, puede llegar hasta el 1,6 % del PIB. En contraste, el beneficio económico del tratamiento de las adicciones, según las Naciones Unidas Contra la Droga y el Delito (UNODC, está entre 1:3 a 1:13; por lo tanto, cualquier esfuerzo que se realice en favor de los consumidores es una ganancia. Con base en estos datos, los organismos internacionales han generado políticas que ayudan a aminorar estos efectos. Colombia, como integrante de estos organismos, ha realizado varios compromisos para llevar a cabo dichas metas. Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  3. 7 CFR 1220.625 - Counting requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Counting requests. 1220.625 Section 1220.625... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.625 Counting requests. (a) The requests for a referendum shall be counted by county FSA offices on the same day as the requests are...

  4. How much do women count if they not counted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Taddia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all

  5. Detection and quantification of viable Bacillus cereus group species in milk by propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Fernanda; Barth, Valdir C; Nasário, Jéssica S R; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2016-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes important spore-forming bacteria that present spoilage capability and may cause foodborne diseases. These microorganisms are traditionally evaluated in food using culturing methods, which can be laborious and time-consuming, and may also fail to detect bacteria in a viable but nonculturable state. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to analyze the contamination of UHT milk by B. cereus group species viable cells. Thirty micrograms per milliliter of PMA was shown to be the most effective concentration for reducing the PCR amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA from dead cells. The quantification limit of the PMA-qPCR assay was 7.5 × 10(2) cfu/mL of milk. One hundred thirty-five UHT milk samples were analyzed to evaluate the association of PMA to qPCR to selectively detect viable cells. The PMA-qPCR was able to detect B. cereus group species in 44 samples (32.6%), whereas qPCR without PMA detected 78 positive samples (57.8%). Therefore, the PMA probably inhibited the amplification of DNA from cells that were killed during UHT processing, which avoided an overestimation of bacterial cells when using qPCR and, thus, did not overvalue potential health risks. A culture-based method was also used to detect and quantify B. cereus sensu stricto in the same samples and showed positive results in 15 (11.1%) samples. The culture method and PMA-qPCR allowed the detection of B. cereus sensu stricto in quantities compatible with the infective dose required to cause foodborne disease in 3 samples, indicating that, depending on the storage conditions, even after UHT treatment, infective doses may be reached in ready-to-consume products. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Membrane permeability alteration of some bacterial clinical isolates by selected antihistaminics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa A El-Nakeeb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several antihistaminics possess antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. However, the exact mechanism of such activity was unclear. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate their mechanism of antibacterial activity especially their effect upon the permeability of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The effects of azelastine, cetirizine, cyproheptadine and diphenhydramine were studied using Gram-positive and Gram-negative multiresistant clinical isolates. Leakage of 260 and 280 nm UV-absorbing materials was detected upon treatment with the tested antihistaminics; indicative of membrane alteration. Using an artificial membrane model, cholesterol-free negatively-charged unilamellar liposomes, confirmed the effect of antihistaminics upon the membrane permeability both by showing an apparent membrane damage as observed microscopically and by detection of leakage of preloaded dye from the liposomes colorimatrically. Moreover, examination of the ultrastructure of cells treated with azelastine and cetirizine under the transmission electron microscope substantiated the detected abnormalities in the cell wall and membrane. Furthermore, the effect of pretreating certain isolates for both short and long periods with selected antihistaminics was followed by the viable count technique. Increased vulnerability towards further exposure to azelastine was observed in cells pretreated with azelastine for 2 days and those pretreated with azelastine or cetrizine for 30 days.

  7. Identification of mosquito larvicidal bacterial strains isolated from north Sinai in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, two of the most toxic bacterial strains of Bacillus sphaericus against mosquito were identified with the most recent genetic techniques. The PCR product profiles indicated the presence of genes encoding Bin A, Bin B and Mtx1 in all analyzed strains; they are consistent with protein profiles. The preliminary bioinformatics analysis of the binary toxin genes sequence revealed that the open reading frames had high similarities when matched with nucleotides sequence in the database of other B. sphaericus strains. The biological activity of B. sphaericus strains varied according to growing medium, and cultivation time. The highest yield of viable counts, spores and larvicidal protein were attained after 5 days. Poly (P) medium achieved the highest yield of growth, sporulation, protein and larvicidal activity for all tested strains compared to the other tested media. The larvicidal protein produced by local strains (B. sphaericus EMCC 1931 and EMCC 1932) in P medium was more lethal against the 3rd instar larvae of Culex pipiens than that of reference strains (B. sphaericus 1593 and B. sphaericus 2297). The obtained results revealed that P medium was the most effective medium and will be used in future work in order to optimize large scale production of biocide by the locally isolated Bacillus sphaericus strains. PMID:22280528

  8. Impact of commonly used agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, J A; Tetteh, W; Bello, M

    2009-09-01

    The effects of three selected agrochemicals on bacterial diversity in cultivated soil have been studied. The selected agrochemicals are Cerox (an insecticide), Ceresate and Paraquat (both herbicides). The effect on bacterial population was studied by looking at the total heterotrophic bacteria presence and the effect of the agrochemicals on some selected soil microbes. The soil type used was loamy with pH of 6.0-7.0. The soil was placed in opaque pots and bambara bean (Vigna subterranean) seeds cultivated in them. The agrochemicals were applied two weeks after germination of seeds at concentrations based on manufacturer's recommendation. Plant growth was assessed by weekly measurement of plant height, foliage appearance and number of nodules formed after one month. The results indicated that the diversity index (Di) among the bacteria populations in untreated soil and that of Cerox-treated soils were high with mean diversity index above 0.95. Mean Di for Ceresate-treated soil was 0.88, and that for Paraquattreated soil was 0.85 indicating low bacterial populations in these treatment-type soils. The study also showed that application of the agrochemicals caused reduction in the number of total heterotrophic bacteria population sizes in the soil. Ceresate caused 82.50% reduction in bacteria number from a mean of 40 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) of soil sample to 70 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Paraquat-treated soil showed 92.86% reduction, from a mean of 56 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) to 40 × 10(4) cfu g(-1). Application of Cerox to the soil did not have any remarkable reduction in bacterial population number. Total viable cell count studies using Congo red yeast-extract mannitol agar indicated reduction in the number of Rhizobium spp. after application of the agrochemicals. Mean number of Rhizobium population numbers per gram of soil was 180 × 10(4) for the untreated soil. Cerox-treated soil recorded mean number of 138 × 10(4) rhizobial cfu g(-1) of soil, a 23.33% reduction. Ceresate- and

  9. Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R

    2003-11-10

    than spin-based techniques like PB on a Linux platform. Third, the proposed HYBRID scheduling provides the best performance-energy behavior and can be implemented on any cluster with little effort. All these results suggest that blocking-based coscheduling techniques are viable candidates to be used instead of batching scheme for significant performance-energy benefits.

  10. Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacterial Biofilms and Reduction of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ziuzina

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP against a range of microbial biofilms commonly implicated in foodborne and healthcare associated human infections and against P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS-regulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin, elastase (Las B and biofilm formation capacity post-ACP treatment. The effect of processing factors, namely treatment time and mode of plasma exposure on antimicrobial activity of ACP were also examined. Antibiofilm activity was assessed for E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in terms of reduction of culturability and retention of metabolic activity using colony count and XTT assays, respectively. All samples were treated 'inpack' using sealed polypropylene containers with a high voltage dielectric barrier discharge ACP generated at 80 kV for 0, 60, 120 and 300 s and a post treatment storage time of 24 h. According to colony counts, ACP treatment for 60 s reduced populations of E. coli to undetectable levels, whereas 300 s was necessary to significantly reduce populations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus biofilms. The results obtained from XTT assay indicated possible induction of viable but non culturable state of bacteria. With respect to P. aeruginosa QS-related virulence factors, the production of pyocyanin was significantly inhibited after short treatment times, but reduction of elastase was notable only after 300 s and no reduction in actual biofilm formation was achieved post-ACP treatment. Importantly, reduction of virulence factors was associated with reduction of the cytotoxic effects of the bacterial supernatant on CHO-K1 cells, regardless of mode and duration of treatment. The results of this study point to ACP technology as an effective strategy for inactivation of established biofilms and may play an important role in attenuation of virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Further investigation is warranted to propose direct evidence

  11. Bacterial diversity determination using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghiasian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mud volcanoes are taken into consideration by geologists and oil industry experts have given their association with oil and gas reserves and methane greenhouse gas production in hydrosphere and atmosphere. Gomishan mud volcano phenomenon in the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, given its oil and gas resources, has been studied by some geologists in terms of geology and tectonics but not in terms of microbiology. Accordingly, it seems necessary to study this phenomenon from the perspective of microbiology in order to identify prokaryotes living in this area. Prokaryotes diversity in Mud volcano has been studied by cultivation techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes. Total cell abundance in the mud volcano from 1×101-6×101per milliliter was determined by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole direct count. The detectable proportion of Archaea to Bacteria in the community by FISH was one to five. High viable counts (1 – 3 × 106 were obtained in culture media. A total of 122 isolates were obtained, 46 colonies were selected based on primarily morphological and physiological traits, and their 16S rRNA sequences were determined. The isolated genera included Halomonas (20%, Arthrobacter (5%, Kocuria (5%, Thalassobacillus (5%, Marinobacter (20%, Paracoccus (5%, Roseovarius (5%, Jeotgalicoccus (5%, Bacillus (15%, and Staphylococcus (15%. Regarding DGGE analysis, selected bands were obtained from the gels, reamplified and sequenced. Overall, 75% of the bacterial sequences were related to Rahnella and 25% related to Serratia.

  12. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  13. Discrete calculus methods for counting

    CERN Document Server

    Mariconda, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

  14. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care ... Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy ...

  15. Effect of myocardial revascularisation on left ventricular systolic function in patients with and without viable myocardium: should non-viable segments be revascularised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipac, Alja Vlahovic; Stankovic, Ivan; Vidakovic, Radosav; Putnikovic, Biljana; Ilic, Ivan; Milicic, Biljana; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of surgical revascularisation on left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with viable and non-viable dysfunctional LV segments determined by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Prospective observational cohort study. Single tertiary care centre. Consecutive patients referred to surgical revascularisation (n=115). DSE and surgical revascularisation. Functional recovery defined as increase in ejection fraction ≥ 5% 1 year after revascularisation in patients with and without viable myocardium (viability defined as improvement of contractility in ≥ 4 LV segments on DSE). The mean age, ejection fraction and wall motion score index (WMSi) of patients were 59 ± 9 years, 44 ± 9% and 1.82 ± 0.31, respectively. There was no difference between DSE positive and DSE negative patients for any of those parameters at baseline study (p>0.05 for all). After 12 months, the ejection fraction increased 11 ± 1% in patients with viable myocardium vs 7 ± 1% in patients without viable myocardium (p=0.002). Moreover, in patients with viable myocardium, the greatest increase of ejection fraction occurred 1 month after surgery (9 ± 1%), whereas in those patients with negative DSE the ejection fraction increased more gradually (2±1% after 1 month, p=0.002 between groups for 1 month vs preoperative value), but still improved after 12 months follow-up (pmyocardial revascularisation. Functional recovery continuously occurs throughout the first year after surgical treatment.

  16. Cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities in the fermentation chambers of Holotrichia parallela (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Yuan, Yimin; Ali, Muhammad Waqar; Peng, Tao; Peng, Wei; Raza, Muhammad Fahim; Zhao, Yongshun; Zhang, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    As important pests, scarab beetle larvae survive on plant biomass and the microbiota of the fermentation chamber play an important role in the digestion of lignocellulose-rich diets. However, the cultivable microbes, especially the anaerobic cultivable microbes, are still largely unknown. Here, both cultivable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial communities associated with the fermentation chamber of Holotrichia parallela larvae were investigated. In total bacteria cells directly enumerated by the 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method, the viable plate counts of cultivable bacteria in the fermentation chamber accounted for 0.92% of proportion. These cultivable bacteria were prone to attach to the fermentation chamber wall (88.41%) compared to the chamber contents. Anaerobic bacteria were dominant in the cultivable bacteria attaching to the fermentation chamber wall (70.20%), while the quantities of anaerobes and aerobes were similar in the chamber contents. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), fingerprinting and sequence analysis of isolated colonies revealed that the cultivable bacteria are affiliated with class γ-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia and β-Proteobacteria. γ-Proteobacteria was the major type of anaerobic cultivable bacteria and even the only one type of aerobic cultivable bacteria. Taken together, our results suggest, for the first time, that anaerobic microbiota are dominant in cultivable bacteria in the special anoxia niche of the fermentation chamber from H. parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates could be a treasure trove for screening lignocellulytic microbes which are essential for the plant biomass digestion of this scarab species.

  17. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de C.J.A.M.; Slaghuis, B.A.; Vorst, van der Y.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems) on dairy farms in The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms with conventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but

  18. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  19. Study of alterations in the microbial counts of scalder and chiller water in poultry slaughter house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Javadi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The soaking of bird carcasses in the hot water of scalder in order to loosen the feathers inside the follicles and facilitate the subsequent plucking is considered to be one of the critical points of the poultry slaughter house. Chilling and washing of the carcasses are the other critical points which can cause cross contamination. Thus the purpose of the present study was to determine the alterations in the microbial counts of scalder and chiller water at different times. For this reason, 50 ml samples of scalder and chiller water were collected separately at times zero, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 hours following slaughter with 6 replicates for each sample and the total mesophilic and thermophilic bacterial counts of scalder and the total mesophilic and psychrophilic bacterial counts of chiller were investigated. The results indicated that the mesophilic counts of scalder had decreased significantly over time but the thermophilic bacterial levels had increased significantly (p

  20. Survey of bacterial pathogens on leaves and seeds of red mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial pathogens of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were investigated. 50 samples each of leaves and seeds (healthy and diseased) were randomly collected and used for the analysis. Mean bacterial counts obtained were: healthy and diseased leaves; 8.26 x 103 and 5.9 l x l03 cfu/ml respectively; healthy seeds ...

  1. Evaluation of bacterial profile and biodegradation potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stages of abattoir wastewater treatment were evaluated through determination of physicochemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, total dissolved solid, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, phosphate, nitrate and iron using standard procedures. Bacterial plate counts were ...

  2. Effects of prebiotics and probiotics on the performance and bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of Neoxyval (antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP)), TechnoMos (prebiotic), GalliPro (probiotic) and a mixture of TechnoMos and GalliPro (symbiotic) on growth performance, carcass yield, histomorphology and intestinal bacterial counts in broilers (0 d to 42 d). Two hundred ...

  3. Kynetic resazurin assay (KRA) for bacterial quantification of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Yaxal; Mandel, Arkady; Lilge, Lothar

    2012-03-01

    Fast detection of bacterial concentrations is important for the food industry and for healthcare. Early detection of infections and appropriate treatment is essential since, the delay of treatments for bacterial infections tends to be associated with higher mortality rates. In the food industry and in healthcare, standard procedures require the count of colony-forming units in order to quantify bacterial concentrations, however, this method is time consuming and reports require three days to be completed. An alternative is metabolic-colorimetric assays which provide time efficient in vitro bacterial concentrations. A colorimetric assay based on Resazurin was developed as a time kinetic assay (KRA) suitable for bacterial concentration measurements. An optimization was performed by finding excitation and emission wavelengths for fluorescent acquisition. A comparison of two non-related bacteria, foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, was performed in 96 well plates. A metabolic and clonogenic dependence was established for fluorescent kinetic signals.

  4. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  5. Enhanced antibacterial effects of green synthesized ZnO NPs using Aristolochia indica against Multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens from Diabetic Foot Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, Katherin; Shanthi, G; Maroky, Anson S; Selvakumar, S

    2017-11-14

    Increased incidence of Multi-drug resistance in microorganisms has become the greatest challenge in the treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) and urges the need of a new antimicrobial agent. In this study, we determined the bactericidal effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) green synthesized from Aristolochia indica against Multi-drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) isolated from pus samples of DFU patients attending in a tertiary care hospital in South India. ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-vis-DRS spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and for its zeta potential value. MIC/MBC assays were performed to determine bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects. Time-kill assays, Protein leakage and Flow cytometric analysis evaluated bacterial cell death at 1x MIC and 2x MIC concentrations of ZnO NPs. ZnO NPs of size 22.5nm with a zeta potential of -21.9±1mV exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity with MIC/MBC ranging from 25 to 400μg/ml with a significant reduction in viable count from 2h onwards. Protein leakage and Flow cytometric analysis confirmed bacterial cell death due to ZnO NPs. This study concluded that green synthesis protocol offers reliable, eco-friendly approach towards the development of antimicrobial ZnO NPs to combat antibiotic drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design

  7. Value of platelet count in the early diagnosis of nosocomial invasive fungal infections in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Chen; Mao, Jian

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a platelet count (PLT) in the early diagnosis of nosocomial invasive fungal infections in premature infants. Based on clinical diagnosis combined with blood culture results, 72 premature infants of 5354 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in the neonatal ward of our hospital between September 2009 and February 2013 were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive fungal infections (fungal infection group). There were 58 premature infants diagnosed with bacterial infections during the same period (bacterial infection group). The control group included 74 premature infants without nosocomial infections who were hospitalized during the same period. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic efficacy of the PLT and white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in the diagnosis of fungal infections in premature infants. The risk factors for invasive fungal infections included birth weight infection group decreased in the early and acute stages of infection (p infection group decreased in the early and acute stages of infection (p infection group was more significant than the bacterial infection group (p infection group in the early stage of infection (p infection groups in the acute stage of infection (p > 0.05). ROC curve analysis of the WBC and PLT counts and the CRP level in the early diagnosis of fungal infections showed that the area under the curve of the PLT count was 0.912 (95% confidence interval:0.863-0.961), thus indicating a high accuracy with a cutoff PLT count of 157.0 × 10 9 /L. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 77.8% and 94.6%, respectively. We conclude that the PLT count is a convenient, economical, and effective predictor of invasive fungal infections in premature infants and has potential in the early diagnosis of fungal infections.

  8. Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

    1991-04-01

    When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice.

  9. The CD4 Lymphocyte Count is a Better Predictor of Overall Infection Than the Total Lymphocyte Count in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis Under a Corticosteroid and Cyclophosphamide Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yi-Yun; Li, Zhi-Ying; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Chen, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody associated vasculitis (AAV) have a high prevalence of infection during immunosuppressive therapy, and the total lymphocyte count (TLC) has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of infection. The current study investigated the value of the TLC and its subsets, particularly the CD4 count, for predicting infections of AAV in a single Chinese cohort. A total of 124 AAV patients were retrospectively recruited in our department from December 1997 to October 2013. Multivariate Cox models with the CD4 count or TLC measured at three typical time points, that is, at baseline, at the beginning of immunosuppressant dose reduction, and at the last visit before infection or censoring, or with the measurements included as time-varying covariates, were compared to select the most predictive time point for infection. A time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC(t)) for the TLC (AUC(t)TLC) and the CD4 count (AUC(t)CD4count) measured at the most predictive time point were calculated and compared. During an average follow-up of 11.5 (range 0.5–142) months, 55 of the 124 patients (44.3%) experienced a microbiologically confirmed infection. Independent predictors of overall infection were initial creatinine clearance (P = 0.02 and 0.04), pulmonary interstitial fibrosis (P = .04 and .05), pulmonary nodule or cavity (P = 0.002 and .002), CD4 count (P  0.1). The TLC and CD4 count were both independent risk factors of overall infection and non-bacterial infection in AAV patients. The CD4 count had a higher predictive value than the TLC for overall infections, particularly during the first 2 years of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25950695

  10. Hydrodebridement of wounds: effectiveness in reducing wound bacterial contamination and potential for air bacterial contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong David G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the level of air contamination with bacteria after surgical hydrodebridement and to determine the effectiveness of hydro surgery on bacterial reduction of a simulated infected wound. Methods Four porcine samples were scored then infected with a broth culture containing a variety of organisms and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The infected samples were then debrided with the hydro surgery tool (Versajet, Smith and Nephew, Largo, Florida, USA. Samples were taken for microbiology, histology and scanning electron microscopy pre-infection, post infection and post debridement. Air bacterial contamination was evaluated before, during and after debridement by using active and passive methods; for active sampling the SAS-Super 90 air sampler was used, for passive sampling settle plates were located at set distances around the clinic room. Results There was no statistically significant reduction in bacterial contamination of the porcine samples post hydrodebridement. Analysis of the passive sampling showed a significant (p 3 to 16780 CFUs/m3 were observed with active sampling of the air whilst using hydro surgery equipment compared with a basal count of 582 CFUs/m3. During removal of the wound dressing, a significant increase was observed relative to basal counts (p Conclusion The results suggest a significant increase in bacterial air contamination both by active sampling and passive sampling. We believe that action might be taken to mitigate fallout in the settings in which this technique is used.

  11. Evaluation of the Bacterial Status of Water Samples at Umudike Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriological status of different water samples (borehole, sachet, bottled, stream and rain) from Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria and its environs was evaluated. The total viable count (TVC) for the borehole I (MOUAU) and borehole II (Umuwaya) were 14.7x102 and 15.7x102 cfu/ml respectively, while the sachet water ...

  12. The utility of biomarkers in differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized children: difference of the diagnostic performance between acute pneumonia and bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshina, Takayuki; Nanishi, Etsuro; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nishio, Hisanori; Kusuhara, Koichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of several biomarkers in differentiating bacterial community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection (CA-LRTI) from non-bacterial CA-LRTI in children and the difference of their diagnostic performance between pneumonia and bronchitis. A retrospective cohort study composed of 108 pediatric patients hospitalized for CA-LRTI was performed during 2010-2013. Based on the findings of chest X-ray and sputum samples, patients were divided into 4 categories, group of bacterial pneumonia or bronchitis, and non-bacterial (viral or etiology-unknown) pneumonia or bronchitis. Peripheral white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were compared among the 4 groups. Finally, 54 patients were the subject of this study. In the patients with pneumonia, serum CRP and PCT levels were significantly elevated in the group of bacterial pneumonia (CRP: p = 0.02, PCT: p = 0.0008). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PCT for distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial pneumonia was the largest, and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCT were best among 4 markers. On the other hand, in the patients with bronchitis, neutrophil count was significantly decreased in non-bacterial bronchitis whereas no significant differences of WBC count, CRP level or PCT level were seen. In conclusion, PCT was the most useful marker to differentiate bacterial pneumonia whereas neutrophil count contributed most to the discrimination of bacterial bronchitis. The diagnostic performance of biomarkers may be different between pneumonia and bronchitis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Counting losses due to saturation effects of scintillation counters at high count rates

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, K

    1999-01-01

    The counting statistics of a scintillation counter, with a preamplifier saturated by an overloading input, are investigated. First, the formulae for the variance and the mean number of counts, accumulated within a given gating time, are derived by considering counting-loss effects originating from the saturation and a finite resolving time of the electronic circuit. Numerical examples based on the formulae indicate that the saturation makes a positive contribution to the variance-to-mean ratio and that the contribution increases with count rate. Next the ratios are measured under high count rates when the preamplifier saturation can be observed. By fitting the present formula to the measured data, the counting-loss parameters can be evaluated. Corrections based on the parameters are made for various count rates measured in a nuclear reactor. As a result of the corrections, the linearity between count rate and reactor power can be restored.

  14. Tropical count of curves on abelian varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halle, Lars Halvard; Rose, Simon Charles Florian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the problem of counting tropical genus g curves ing-dimensional tropical abelian varieties. We do this by studyingmaps from principally polarized tropical abelian varieties into afixed abelian variety. For g = 2, 3, we prove that the tropical countmatches the count provided in [Göt98...

  15. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  16. It Is Time to Count Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henscheid, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    As the modern learning community movement turns 30, it is time to determine just how many, and what type, of these programs exist at America's colleges and universities. This article first offers a rationale for counting learning communities followed by a description of how disparate counts and unclear definitions hamper efforts to embed these…

  17. Lazy reference counting for the Microgrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.; Grelck, C.; Herhut, S.; Scholz, S.-B.

    2012-01-01

    This papers revisits non-deferred reference counting, a common technique to ensure that potentially shared large heap objects can be reused safely when they are both input and output to computations. Traditionally, thread-safe reference counting exploit implicit memory-based communication of counter

  18. Power-counting theorem for staggered fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Giedt, J

    2006-01-01

    One of the assumptions that is used in Reisz's power-counting theorem does not hold for staggered fermions, as was pointed out long ago by Lüscher. Here, we generalize the power-counting theorem, and the methods of Reisz's proof, such that the dif culties posed by staggered fermions are overcome.

  19. Counting sequences, Gray codes and lexicodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suparta, I.N.

    2006-01-01

    A counting sequence of length n is a list of all 2^n binary n-tuples (binary codewords of length n). The number of bit positions where two codewords differ is called the Hamming distance of these two codewords. The average Hamming distance of a counting sequence of length n is defined as the average

  20. Surgical count process: evidence for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Patrícia Scotini; Mendes, Karina Dal Sasso; Galvão, Cristina Maria

    2017-02-23

    To analyze the surgical count process according to reports of nurses working in surgical centers of a city in the state of São Paulo. Cross-sectional study with a sample of 55 nurses. Data collection occurred from August to December 2013, with application of an instrument submitted to face and content validation, composed of data on variables regarding characteristics of nurses, hospital, and surgical count process. Fifty-two (94.5%) nurses reported that the surgical count process was carried out in their workplaces. A statistically significant association was found between the surgical count process and the type of institution (P=0.046), and between the presence of a surgical technologist and the processes for counting surgical instruments (Pprocess was carried out in the studied hospital.

  1. Cluster counting in helium based gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, G.; Grancagnolo, F.; Spagnolo, S.

    1997-02-01

    The statistical advantages deriving from counting primary ionization, as opposed to the conventional energy loss measurement, are extensively discussed. A primary ionization counting method is proposed for a "traditional", cylindrical, single sense wire cell drift chamber, which makes use of a helium based gas mixture. Its conceptual feasibility is proven by means of a simple Monte Carlo simulation. A counting algorithm is developed and tested on the simulation output. A definition of the parameters of the read-out and of the digitizing electronics is given, assuming the described counting algorithm applied to a general detector design, in order to have a complete and realistic planning of a cluster counting measurement. Finally, some interesting results from a beam test, performed according to the described parameters, on primary ionization measurements and on {π}/{μ} separation are shown.

  2. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  3. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Pourakbari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC count may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

  4. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  5. Anti-Bacterial Activity of Recombinant Human β-Defensin-3 Secreted in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Produced by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengquan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Quan, Fusheng; Gao, Mingqing; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether recombinant human β-defensin-3 (rHBD3) in the milk of transgenic goats has an anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) that could cause mastitis. A HBD3 mammary-specific expression vector was transfected by electroporation into goat fetal fibroblasts which were used to produce fourteen healthy transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The expression level of rHBD3 in the milk of the six transgenic goats ranged from 98 to 121 µg/ml at 15 days of lactation, and was maintained at 90–111 µg/ml during the following 2 months. Milk samples from transgenic goats showed an obvious inhibitory activity against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of rHBD3 in milk against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae were 9.5–10.5, 21.8–23.0 and 17.3–18.5 µg/mL, respectively, which was similar to those of the HBD3 standard (P>0.05). The in vivo anti-bacterial activities of rHBD3 in milk were examined by intramammary infusion of viable bacterial inoculums. We observed that 9/10 and 8/10 glands of non-transgenic goats infused with S. aureus and E. coli became infected. The mean numbers of viable bacteria went up to 2.9×103 and 95.4×103 CFU/ml at 48 h after infusion, respectively; the mean somatic cell counts (SCC) in infected glands reached up to 260.4×105 and 622.2×105 cells/ml, which were significantly higher than the SCC in uninfected goat glands. In contrast, no bacteria was presented in glands of transgenic goats and PBS-infused controls, and the SSC did not significantly change throughout the period. Moreover, the compositions and protein profiles of milk from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were identical. The present study demonstrated that HBD3 were an effective anti-bacterial protein to enhance the mastitis resistance of dairy animals. PMID:23799010

  6. Mutacins and bacteriocins like genes in Streptococcus mutans isolated from participants with high, moderate, and low salivary count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Carolina; Padilla, Carlos; Lobos, Olga

    2017-02-01

    To detect S. mutans producers of mutacins and bacteriocins like substances (BLIS) from saliva of participants with low, moderate, and high salivary counts. 123 strains of S. mutans were obtained from participants with low, moderate, and high salivary counts (age 18 and 20 years old) and their antibacterial capacity analyzed. By using PCR amplification, the expression levels of mutacins and BLIS genes were studied (expressed in arbitrary units/ml) in all three levels. S. mutans strains from participants with low salivary counts show high production of mutacins (63%). In contrast, participants with moderate and high salivary counts depict relatively low levels of mutacins (22 and 15%, respectively). Moreover, participants with low salivary counts showed high expression levels of genes encoding mutacins, a result that correlates with the strong antimicrobial activity of the group. Participants with moderate and high salivary counts however depict low expression levels of mutacin related genes, and little antimicrobial activity. No BLIS were detected in any of the groups studied. S. mutans isolated from the saliva of participants with low bacterial counts have significant antibacterial capacity compared to that of participants with moderate and high salivary counts. The superior lethality of S. mutans in participants with low salivary counts is likely due to the augmented expression of mutacin- related genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-invasive, label-free cell counting and quantitative analysis of adherent cells using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, A; Sebesta, M; Gustafsson, M; Gisselson, L; Wingren, A Gjörloff; Alm, K

    2008-11-01

    Manual cell counting is time consuming and requires a high degree of skill on behalf of the person performing the count. Here we use a technique that utilizes digital holography, allowing label-free and completely non-invasive cell counting directly in cell culture vessels with adherent viable cells. The images produced can provide both quantitative and qualitative phase information from a single hologram. The recently constructed microscope Holomonitor (Phase Holographic Imaging AB, Lund, Sweden) combines the commonly used phase contrast microscope with digital holography, the latter giving us the possibility of achieving quantitative information on cellular shape, area, confluence and optical thickness. This project aimed at determining the accuracy and repeatability of cell counting measurements using digital holography compared to the conventional manual cell counting method using a haemocytometer. The collected data were also used to determine cell size and cellular optical thickness. The results show that digital holography can be used for non-invasive automatic cell counting as precisely as conventional manual cell counting.

  8. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  9. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J; MacIntyre, Hugh L

    2016-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water. In principle, the serial dilution culture-most probable number (SDC-MPN) method provides the appropriate measure for phytoplankton. But, the method has been criticized, particularly because it is thought that many phytoplankton species cannot be cultured. A review of the literature shows that although SDC-MPN has been used for more than 50 years-generally to identify and count phytoplankton species that cannot be preserved-its application to enumerate total viable phytoplankton seems to be new, putting past criticisms of the method in a different light. Importantly, viable cells need to grow only enough to be detected, not to be brought into sustained culture, and competition between species in a dilution tube is irrelevant as long as the winner is detectable. Thorough consideration of sources of error leads to recommendations for minimizing and quantifying uncertainties by optimizing growth conditions and conducting systematic comparisons. We conclude that with careful evaluation, SDC-MPN is potentially an effective method for assessing the viability of phytoplankton after BWT.

  10. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter bacteria on chicken carcasses, using real-time PCR and propidium monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Hansen, T B; Christensen, L S; Olsen, J E; Hoorfar, J

    2010-08-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Campylobacter bacteria with an intact membrane. The method's performance was evaluated by assessing the contributions to variability by individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and differences in efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with cycle threshold (C(T)) values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by the chicken rinse matrix or by the species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter bacteria in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter bacteria but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.

  11. Comparison of viable cell counts and fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific rRNA-based probes for the quantification of human fecal bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, HJM; Gibson, GR; Elfferich, P; Raangs, GC; Wildeboer-Veloo, ACM; Argaiz, A; Roberfroid, MB; Welling, GW

    2000-01-01

    Conventional cultivation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using 16S rRNA-based probes were compared for the enumeration of human colonic bacteria. Groups of common intestinal anaerobic bacteria were enumerated in slurries prepared From fecal samples of three healthy volunteers. To

  12. Controlling bacterial contamination of dental impression guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergard, Eric J; Romito, Laura M; Kowolik, Michael J; Palenik, Charles John

    2011-11-01

    Dental impression material handgun cartridge dispensers are contaminated easily during clinical use. The authors attempted to quantify contamination by bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), of impression guns used in an academic dental clinic after five infection-prevention protocols were followed. The authors obtained samples from four commercially available impression guns at four specific sites (button, handle, latch, trigger) after routine clinical use, disinfection, steam sterilization (also known as autoclaving), steam sterilization followed by use of plastic impression gun covers and steam sterilization followed by use of plastic impression gun covers and disinfection. The authors found that after routine clinical use, bacteria-including MRSA-heavily contaminated the impression guns. After the impression guns underwent disinfection, there was a 6 percent decrease in bacterial counts. The use of steam sterilization achieved sterility without harming the impression guns. Use of steam-sterilized impression guns with plastic impression gun covers decreased bacterial isolates by approximately 60 percent. Use of steam-sterilized impression guns plus covers and disinfection resulted in an approximately 95 percent reduction in contamination. The use of common infection-prevention methods appears to reduce the bacterial counts, including those of MRSA. Bacterial contamination was lowest after steam sterilization, followed by the use of plastic impression gun covers and disinfection. Use of contaminated impression guns on successive patients could increase the risk of causing cross-transmission of disease. The use of sterilization, plus plastic impression gun covers and disinfection, for impression guns after each use could be an effective and practical infection-control method for dental practices.

  13. Dynamics of bacterial communities during manufacture and ripening of traditional Caciocavallo of Castelfranco cheese in relation to cows' feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giello, Marina; La Storia, Antonietta; Masucci, Felicia; Di Francia, Antonio; Ercolini, Danilo; Villani, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Traditional Caciocavallo of Castelfranco is a semi-hard "pasta-filata" cheese produced from raw cows' milk in Campania region. The aim of the present research is mainly focused on the study, by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and viable counts, of the dynamics of bacterial communities during manufacture and ripening of traditional Caciocavallo cheese. Moreover, the possible correlation between cheese microbiota and cows' feeding based on silage or hay was also evaluated. In general, except for enterococci, the technological process significantly affected all the microbial groups. According to 16S rRNA, raw cows' milk was dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, L. lactis and Pseudomonas sp. in hay cheese production, whereas Lactococcus lactis and Acinetobacter sp. dominated silage production. Differences in the taxonomic structure of the milk's microbiota within diet groups were not related to silage and hay cows' feeding. Moreover, S. thermophilus was the unique species that dominate from raw milks to fermented intermediates and cheese in both hay and silage cheese productions. Feeding and ripening time influenced significantly sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial dynamics in model cheese systems, aiming at safety and quality of Portuguese-style traditional ewe's cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cláudia I; Graça, João A; Ogando, Natacha S; Gomes, Ana M P; Malcata, F Xavier

    2009-11-01

    An experiment using model ewe's milk cheeses was designed to characterize microbial interactions that arise in actual raw milk cheese environments. These model cheeses were manufactured according to Portuguese artisanal practices, except that the microbial load and biodiversity were fully controlled: single potential pathogens and spoilage bacteria, or a combination thereof, were combined at various initial inoculum levels in sterilized raw ewe's milk with several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) normally found in traditional cheeses. Viable microbial counts were monitored throughout a 60-day ripening period. Two alternative mathematical approaches were used to fit the experimental data generated in terms of population dynamics: percent of inhibition and D-values. These were able to explain the complex competitive interactions between the contaminant microorganisms and the LAB adventitious populations. In general, the tested LAB were less able to inhibit contaminants present in combination and in higher concentrations. Lactococcus lactis, with its strong acidifying potential, was the most effective factor in controlling the unwanted bacterial population, especially single Staphylococcus aureus. The two lactobacilli studied, especially Lactobacillus brevis, were shown to be less effective; Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua were the contaminants least inhibited by the LAB.

  15. Variation of broth composition by addition of broiler litter composting substrate extracts: influence on faecal bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobratee, N; Mohee, R; Driver, M-F B

    2009-10-01

    This study investigates differences in bacterial growth response in broth amended with compost-substrate extracts periodically bypassed during broiler litter composting. Compost samples, suspended in diluent were mixed with double strength broth into which ampicillin selective (0.3 g l(-1)) Escherichia coli and E. faecalis were separately seeded. Growth was measured by viable cell count. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was applied to obtain a four-parameter sigmoidal function that best described the diminishing height transitions of the curves for extracts of increasing composting age. The time course of the growth rate followed a unimodal bell-shaped curve. The Microfit application was run to generate information of direct microbiological interest: increasing lambda and decreasing mu(max) for both bacteria with time. More than the curve-fitting process, the Unified model option of the Microfit application has confirmed the significant differences (P microbiology concepts. Further structured studies are needed to fine-tune the generality of the findings for model development.

  16. Generalised count distributions for modelling parity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Barakat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parametric count distributions customarily used in demography - the Poisson and negative binomial models - do not offer satisfactory descriptions of empirical distributions of completed cohort parity. One reason is that they cannot model variance-to-mean ratios below unity, i.e., underdispersion, which is typical of low-fertility parity distributions. Statisticians have recently revived two generalised count distributions that can model both over- and underdispersion, but they have not attracted demographers' attention to date. Objective: The objective of this paper is to assess the utility of these alternative general count distributions, namely the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson and gamma count models, for the modeling of distributions of completed parity. Methods: Simulations and maximum-likelihood estimation are used to assess their fit to empirical data from the Human Fertility Database (HFD. Results: The results show that the generalised count distributions offer a dramatically improved fit compared to customary Poisson and negative binomial models in the presence of under- dispersion, without performance loss in the case of equidispersion or overdispersion. Conclusions: This gain in accuracy suggests generalised count distributions should be used as a matter of course in studies of fertility that examine completed parity as an outcome. Contribution: This note performs a transfer of the state of the art in count data modelling and regression in the more technical statistical literature to the field of demography, allowing demographers to benefit from more accurate estimation in fertility research.

  17. White blood cell counting on smartphone paper electrochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhao; Lin, Guohong; Cui, Guangzhe; Zhou, Xiangfei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2017-04-15

    White blood cell (WBC) analysis provides rich information in rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial and viral infections as well as chronic disease management. For patients with immune deficiency or leukemia WBC should be persistently monitored. Current WBC counting method relies on bulky instrument and trained personnel and is time consuming. Rapid, low-cost and portable solution is in highly demand for point of care test. Here we demonstrate a label-free smartphone based electrochemical WBC counting device on microporous paper with patterned gold microelectrodes. WBC separated from whole blood was trapped by the paper with microelectrodes. WBC trapped on the paper leads to the ion diffusion blockage on microelectrodes, therefore cell concentration is determined by peak current on the microelectrodes measured by a differential pulse voltammeter and the quantitative results are collected by a smartphone wirelessly within 1min. We are able to rapidly quantify WBC concentrations covering the common physiological and pathological range (200-20000μL-1) with only 10μL sample and high repeatability as low as 10% in CoV (Coefficient of Variation). The unique smartphone paper electrochemical sensor ensures fast cell quantification to achieve rapid and low-cost WBC analysis at the point-of-care under resource limited conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Bacterie remt phytophthora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuivers, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriën kunnen aardappelplanten weerbaarder maken tegen phytophthora. Uit kas-experimenten van Plant Research International (PRI) blijkt dat de aanwezigheid van de bacteriePseudomonas putida(isolaat P9) in twee late aardappelrassen leidt tot een vertraging met 45 procent van het ziekteverloop na

  19. common bacterial pathogens seen.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial infections are important causes of morbidity in the neonatal period. Therefore identification of infecting organisms and the risk factors for possible bacterial infection in the newborn is of great importance. Institution early appropriate therapy is an important step in combating morbidity and mortality in this ...

  20. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  1. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  2. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  3. B Counting at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  4. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Yang, Ming; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Wanyi; Suo, Biao

    2015-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at -18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA) was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexia Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at −18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach.

  6. Examination of Bacterial Characteristics of Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors in Three Pilot-Scale Plants for Treating Low-Strength Wastewater by Application of the Colony-Forming-Curve Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Naoaki; Tokiwa, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yasuo; Fujiki, Kiichi; Taroda, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic sludge ecosystems arising in anaerobic membrane bioreactors of three pilot-scale plants treating low-strength (less than 1 g of biological oxygen demand per liter) sewage or soybean-processing wastewater were examined by analysis of the colony-forming-curves (CFC) obtained by counting colonies at suitable intervals. The wastewaters, containing high amounts of suspended solids (SS) (SS/chemical oxygen demand ratio, 0.51 to 0.80), were treated by using two types of bioreactors: (i) a hydrolyzation reactor for solubilization and acidification of SS in wastewater and (ii) a methane fermentation reactor for producing methane. The colony counts for the two sewage treatment plants continued to increase even after 3 weeks of incubation, whereas those for soybean-processing wastewater reached an approximately constant level within 3 weeks of incubation. The CFCs were analyzed by correlating the rate of colony appearance on roll tubes with the physiological types of bacteria present in the bioreactors. It was found that there were large numbers of slow-colony-forming anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactors and that the viable populations consisted of a few groups with different growth rates. It is considered that the slow-growing colonies appearing after 10 days of incubation were the dominant microflora in the sewage treated by hydrolyzation reactors. In particular, highly concentrated sludge (30.0 g of mixed-liquor volatile SS per liter) retained by the membrane separation module contained a large number of such bacteria. Slow-growing colonies of these bacteria could be counted by using a sludge extract medium prepared from only the supernatant of autoclaved sludge. In addition, the highest colony counts were almost always obtained with the sludge extract medium, meaning that most of the anaerobic bacteria in these sludges have complex nutrient requirements for growth. This report also indicates the usefulness of application of the CFC analysis method to

  7. Immunization of rodents against Hymenolepis infections using non-viable homologous oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Ito, Akira

    2004-12-01

    Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous non-viable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at -70 degrees C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  8. [Viable myocardium detecting by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Mu, Hu-Yati; He, Peng-Yi; Yang, Yu-Chun; Chou, Ping; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yan-Yi

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and practicability of detecting viable myocardium by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in 13 anesthetized swines via occluding the distal of left anterior descending coronary arteries by angioplasty balloon for 60-90 minutes. The viable myocardium detection by CARTO voltage mapping was made after reconstruction of the left ventricle using CARTO and the results were compared with TTC staining. The standard of CARTO voltage to detect viable myocardium was 0.5 - 1.5 mV while viable myocardium showed pink color by TTC staining. Eleven out of 13 swines survived the operation and 2 swines died of ventricular fibrillation at 45 and 65 minutes post ischemia. Left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and 176 segments from 11 swines were analyzed. Viable myocardium detected by CARTO voltage mapping was identical as identified by TTC staining (Kappa = 0.816, P < 0.001). Taken the TTC result as standard, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of CARTO voltage mapping are 71.8%, 96.5% and 90.9% respectively. CARTO voltage mapping could be used as a reliable tool to detect viable myocardium in this model.

  9. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E; Casafont, F; Guerra, A; de Benito, I; Pons-Romero, F

    2005-11-01

    Intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO) is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT) in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. The aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and small bowel dismotility in the development of BT in experimental cirrhosis. We included twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis without ascites and ten controls. Cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), peripheral and portal blood, liver, spleen and cecal samples were carried out. Small intestinal transit was determined in ten cirrhotic rats and in ten control rats. The prevalence of bacterial translocation was 56%. Total cecal aerobic bacteria count was significantly higher in cirrhotic rats than in control rats (p < 0.001). Cirrhotic rats with translocated bacteria had higher total aerobic intestinal counts than culture-negative MLN bacteria (p < 0.05). The prevalence of total intestinal bacterial overgrowth in cirrhotic animals was 67%, and 0% in control animals (p < 0.001). According to BT, total IBO was more frequent in cirrhotic rats with BT versus those without BT (93 vs. 33%) (p < 0.001). Of the translocating bacteria, 95.6% were found to be overgrown in the cecum. The small-intestinal transit was slower in cirrhotic rats (60.5 +/- 12.7 cm vs. 81.2 +/- 5.7 cm) than in control animals (p < 0.001). These results suggest that the increase of intestinal aerobic bacteria in experimental cirrhosis is associated with translocation. In addition, IBO is frequent in cirrhotic rats, and is supposed to play an important role in the development of BT. Impaired motility of the small intestine is a common feature in cirrhosis and may be implicated in the

  10. Furbearer track count index testing and development

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Indices of abundance can be useful in monitoring furbearer populations where actual counts of individual animals are difficult. I sampled marten and snowshoe hare...

  11. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  12. Mourning Dove Call-count Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) Call-Count Survey was developed to provide an index to population size and to detect annual changes in mourning dove breeding...

  13. Four square mile survey pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set of...

  14. Global Population Count Grid Time Series Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Population Count Grid Time Series Estimates provide a back-cast time series of population grids based on the year 2000 population grid from SEDAC's Global...

  15. 2013 bobwhite whistle count : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2013 spring whistle count to monitor northern bobwhite abundance in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1998, and is preformed on...

  16. 2012 bobwhite whistle count : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring whistle count to monitor northern bobwhite abundance in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1998, and is preformed on...

  17. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this page, ... 150 Wild Cherry Pepsi 12 oz 160 Energy Drinks AMP Energy Strawberry Lemonade 16 oz 220 AMP Energy Boost ...

  18. Why calories count: from science to politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nestle, Marion; Nesheim, Malden C

    2012-01-01

    .... They are also hard to understand. In Why Calories Count, Marion Nestle and Malden Nesheim explain in clear and accessible language what calories are and how they work, both biologically and politically...

  19. VSRR Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data contains provisional counts for drug overdose deaths based on a current flow of mortality data in the National Vital Statistics System. National...

  20. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    .... At each site and in each year, WBC counts in the Plasmodium falciparum infected patients were lower than those in the Plasmodium vivax infected patients, which, in turn, were lower than those in the uninfected patients...

  1. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  2. Copper effects on bacterial activity of estuarine silty sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Fernandes, Sandra; Sobral, Paula; Alcântara, Fernanda

    2007-07-01

    Bacteria of silty estuarine sediments were spiked with copper to 200 μg Cu g -1 dry weight sediment in order to assess the impact of copper on bacterial degradation of organic matter and on bacterial biomass production. Bacterial density was determined by direct counting under epifluorescence microscopy and bacterial production by the incorporation of 3H-Leucine. Leucine turnover rate was evaluated by 14C-leucine incorporation and ectoenzymatic activities were estimated as the hydrolysis rate of model substrates for β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase. The presence of added copper in the microcosms elicited, after 21 days of incubation, generalised anoxia and a decrease in organic matter content. The non-eroded surface of the copper-spiked sediment showed, when compared to the control, a decrease in bacterial abundance and significant lower levels of bacterial production and of leucine turnover rate. Bacterial production and leucine turnover rate decreased to 1.4% and 13% of the control values, respectively. Ectoenzymatic activities were also negatively affected but by smaller factors. After erosion by the water current in laboratory flume conditions, the eroded surface of the control sediment showed a generalised decline in all bacterial activities. The erosion of the copper-spiked sediment showed, however, two types of responses with respect to bacterial activities at the exposed surface: positive responses of bacterial production and leucine turnover rate contrasting with slight negative responses of ectoenzymatic activities. The effects of experimental erosion in the suspended cells were also different in the control and in the copper-spiked sediment. Bacterial cells in the control microcosm exhibited, when compared to the non-eroded sediment cells, decreases in all activities after the 6-h suspension. The response of the average suspended copper-spiked sediment cell differed from the control by a less sharp decrease in ectoenzymatic activities and

  3. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ]. •We give an O(n loglog n)-space data structure for approximate 2-D orthogonal range counting that can compute a (1+δ)-factor approximation to the count in O(loglog n) time for any fixed constant δ>0. Again, our bounds match the state of the art for the 2-D orthogonal range emptiness problem. •Lastly...

  4. How to count an introduction to combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Allenby, RBJT

    2010-01-01

    What's It All About? What Is Combinatorics? Classic Problems What You Need to Know Are You Sitting Comfortably? Permutations and Combinations The Combinatorial Approach Permutations CombinationsApplications to Probability Problems The Multinomial Theorem Permutations and Cycles Occupancy Problems Counting the Solutions of Equations New Problems from Old A ""Reduction"" Theorem for the Stirling Numbers The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle Double Counting Derangements A Formula for the Stirling NumbersStirling and Catalan Numbers Stirling Numbers Permutations and Stirling Numbers Catalan Numbers Pa

  5. The effect of temperature on the bacterial load and microbial composition in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) tail meat during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, S G; Albalat, A; Macpherson, H; Birkbeck, H; Neil, D M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to update and extend our knowledge of the bacterial load and microbial composition in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) under commercially relevant storage conditions to optimize handling procedures. Total viable counts were performed at different storage temperatures (0, 4, 8, 10, 12 or 16°C) and after different storage times (1-7 days). Storage at 16°C was found to be most detrimental, and storage at 0°C was found to be optimal. 16S-rRNA sequencing was utilized to determine the composition of the bacteria within the microflora. In this way, Photobacterium isolates, especially Photobacterium phosphoreum, were identified as the main specific spoilage organisms. The abilities to reduce trimethylamineoxide (TMAO) and to produce H(2)S were analysed in a selection of bacterial isolates. The higher the incubation temperature during storage, the more isolates were found to reduce TMAO and produce H(2)S. Nephrops norvegicus possesses an unusually high initial microbial load when fresh. Storage temperature is the most crucial factor affecting microbial growth, microbial activity and spoilage potential in N. norvegicus produce. Spoilage can be attributed mainly to P. phosphoreum. This study presents significant new findings with regard to the progression and causative agents of spoilage in N. norvegicus. Based on the results, we can recommend that N. norvegicus tails should be stored in a 0°C environment immediately after catch. Stored this way, the growth and spoilage activity of the microflora may be reduced significantly and an extension of shelf life might be attained. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Recent trends in non-invasive in situ techniques to monitor bacterial colonies in solid (model) food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobete, María M; Fernandez, Estefania Noriega; Van Impe, Jan F M

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic cells typically found in liquid systems, are routinely used for building predictive models or assessing the efficacy of food preserving technologies. However, freely suspended cells often show different susceptibility to environmental hurdles than colony cells in solid matrices. Limited oxygen, water and nutrient availability, metabolite accumulation and physical constraints due to cell immobilization in the matrix, are main factors affecting cell growth. Moreover, intra- and inter-colony interactions, as a consequence of the initial microbial load in solid systems, may affect microbial physiology. Predictive food microbiology approaches are moving toward a more realistic resemblance to food products, performing studies in structured solid systems instead of liquids. Since structured systems promote microbial cells to become immobilized and grow as colonies, it is essential to study the colony behavior, not only for food safety assurance systems, but also for understanding cell physiology and optimizing food production processes in solid matrices. Traditionally, microbial dynamics in solid systems have been assessed with a macroscopic approach by applying invasive analytical techniques; for instance, viable plate counting, which yield information about overall population. In the last years, this approach is being substituted by more mechanistically inspired ones at mesoscopic (colony) and microscopic (cell) levels. Therefore, non-invasive and in situ monitoring is mandatory for a deeper insight into bacterial colony dynamics. Several methodologies that enable high-throughput data collection have been developed, such as microscopy-based techniques coupled with image analysis and OD-based measurements in microplate readers. This research paper provides an overview of non-invasive in situ techniques to monitor bacterial colonies in solid (model) food and emphasizes their advantages and inconveniences in terms of accuracy, performance and output information.

  7. Lactic Acid Bacterial Starter Culture with Antioxidant and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Biosynthetic Activities Isolated from Flatfish-Sikhae Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yeong Geol; Yu, Hyun-Hee; Chang, Young-Hyo; Hwang, Han-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to select a lactic acid bacterial strain as a starter culture for flatfish-Sikhae fermentation and to evaluate its suitability for application in a food system. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial flatfish-Sikhae were identified and selected as starter culture candidates through investigation of growth rates, salt tolerance, food safety, and functional properties such as antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The fermentation properties of the starter candidates were also examined in food systems prepared with these strains (candidate batch) in comparison with a spontaneous fermentation process without starter culture (control batch) at 15°C. The results showed that the candidate YG331 batch had better fermentation properties such as viable cell count, pH, and acidity than the other experimental batches, including the control batch. The results are expressed according to selection criteria based on a preliminary sensory evaluation and physiochemical investigation. Also, only a small amount of histamine was detected with the candidate YG331 batch. The radical scavenging activity of the candidate batches was better compared with the control batch, and especially candidate YG331 batch showed the best radical scavenging activity. Also, we isolated another starter candidate (identified as Lactobacillus brevis PM03) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing activity from commercial flatfish-Sikhae products. The sensory scores of the candidate YG331 batch were better than those of the other experimental batches in terms of flavor, color, and overall acceptance. In this study, we established selection criteria for the lactic acid bacterial starter for the flatfish-Sikhae production and finally selected candidate YG331 as the most suitable starter.

  8. Bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Kenji; Kusugami, Kazuo; Ohta, Michio

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial diarrhea can be classified into two clinical entities, noninflammatory diarrhea and inflammatory diarrhea syndromes. The latter type of diarrhea is characterized by bloody and puruloid mucus stool, and is often accompanied by fever, tenesmus, and severe abdominal pain. Pathogenic bacteria causing the inflammatory diarrhea syndrome include Salmonella, Vibrio, Shigella, enteroinvasive and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Chlamydia, and Clostridium difficile. The pathologic changes in the inflammatory diarrhea syndrome range from a superficial exudative enterocolitis to a transmural enterocolitis with overt ulceration. This syndrome is also designated as bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis because of its usual manifestation by bloody diarrhea. The diagnostic approach needs information on the patient's age, travel history, epidemiological associations, sexual practice, and medical history, including usage of antibiotics. Bacterial information can be obtained by microscopic study, culture, and the identification of specific bacterial toxins. Flexible colonoscopy with biopsy is useful for the differentiation of bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis from idiopathic ulcerative colitis and ischemic colitis. Physicians should be familiar with the diagnostic modalities used to detect the specific pathogens causing hemorrhagic bacterial enterocolitis; namely, bacterial culture, serology, histology, and nucleic acid technologies.

  9. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

  10. Platelet count estimation using the CellaVision DM96 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuon; Mansoor, Adnan; Wood, Brenda; Nelson, Heather; Higa, Diane; Naugler, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate determination of platelet count is an important factor in diagnostic medicine. Traditional microscopic methods are labor intensive with variable results and are highly dependent on the individual training. Recent developments in automated peripheral blood differentials using a computerized system have shown many advantages as a viable alternative. The purpose of this paper was to determine the reliability and accuracy of the CellaVision DM 96 system with regards to platelet counts. One hundred twenty seven peripheral blood smears were analyzed for platelet count by manual microscopy, an automated hematology analyzer (Beckman Counter LH 780 or Unicel DXH 800 analyzers) and with the CellaVision DM96 system. Results were compared using the correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Platelet counts from the DM96 system showed an R(2) of 0.94 when compared to manual platelet estimates and an R(2) of 0.92 when compared to the automated hematology analyzer results. Bland-Altman plots did not show any systematic bias.

  11. Platelet count estimation using the CellaVision DM96 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuon Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid and accurate determination of platelet count is an important factor in diagnostic medicine. Traditional microscopic methods are labor intensive with variable results and are highly dependent on the individual training. Recent developments in automated peripheral blood differentials using a computerized system have shown many advantages as a viable alternative. The purpose of this paper was to determine the reliability and accuracy of the CellaVision DM 96 system with regards to platelet counts. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty seven peripheral blood smears were analyzed for platelet count by manual microscopy, an automated hematology analyzer (Beckman Counter LH 780 or Unicel DXH 800 analyzers and with the CellaVision DM96 system. Results were compared using the correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Results: Platelet counts from the DM96 system showed an R 2 of 0.94 when compared to manual platelet estimates and an R 2 of 0.92 when compared to the automated hematology analyzer results. Bland-Altman plots did not show any systematic bias.

  12. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria....

  13. Aortic bacterial endarteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma Maroto, M J; Gorodezky, M; Contreras, R; C'ardenas, M

    1975-01-01

    Micotic aneurisms are very rare. They are produced as a consequence of a bacterial infection of the endartery. They are divided into "primary", or those of an unknown septic focus, and "secondary" to bacterial endocarditis, to intravascular in infection or to infection located in a neighboring region. Two cases of the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico are presented, with "primary" micotic aneurysm, which is the least frequent. One of them was because of bacterial endarteritis located in the thoracic aorta, an extremely rate entity. Due to the frequent rupture of these aneurysm with a very high mortality, emphasis is placed on the convenience of rapid surgical treatment of patients diagnosed.

  14. Characterization of the dominant bacterial communities during storage of Norway lobster and Norway lobster tails (Nephrops norvegicus) based on 16S rDNA analysis by PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Karen; Devriese, Lisa; Maes, Sara; Robbens, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial quality of whole Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) and Norway lobster tails to optimize handling conditions. This was done by assessing the total viable count (TVC) and characterizing the dominant microbiota. The cultivable microorganisms were quantified via classical microbiological plating methods. To characterize as many bacterial species present as possible, we performed advanced molecular identification techniques (PCR-DGGE). The initial TVC of fresh Norway lobster meat was high (3.0 log cfu/g) as compared to fish. No significant difference between whole Norway lobster and Norway lobster tails could be found during the storage period. From day 6 of storage, a significant difference between Plate Count Agar (PCA) and Marine Agar (MA) was observed. The microbiota of Norway lobster was dominated by members of the Gram-negative genera such as Psychrobacter spp., Pseudoalteromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Luteimonas spp., and Aliivibrio spp. From these bacteria, mainly Psychrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. remained present until the end of the storage period. These are known spoilage organisms in fishery products. Other known spoilage organisms of crustaceans such as Photobacterium spp. could not be identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tuberculosis, fungal infection ) Infection within the heart (bacterial endocarditis) Collagen vascular diseases (e.g., lupus, scleroderma , rheumatoid ... On The Web National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Immune System American Society of Hematology: Blood ...

  16. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  17. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  18. When bacterial tracheitis complicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral croup is the most common cause of stridor in children seen at emergency room. In the absence of response to treatment with corticosteroids and nebulized adrenaline, bacterial tracheitis should be considered. Case Report: A six year-old child, was admitted in emergency room with stridor, respiratory distress and fever, with partial response to therapy with nebulized epinephrine. Ceftriaxone was prescribed for suspected bacterial laryngotracheobronchitis. Despite therapy, developed cervical cellulitis with progression to retropharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis. Good outcome after therapy with ceftriaxone, clindamycin and vancomycin. Discussion/Conclusion: The authors describe an original case of a bacterial tracheitis complicated with retropharyngeal abcess and mediastinitis, emphasizing that bacterial tracheitis is potentially life threatening, requiring a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis.

  19. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  20. Bacterial proteases and virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing....... These extracellular proteases are activated in complex cascades involving auto-processing and proteolytic maturation. Thus, proteolysis has been adopted by bacterial pathogens at multiple levels to ensure the success of the pathogen in contact with the human host....

  1. Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-11-03

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (pbacterial meningitis received antibiotic>24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

  2. Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford Count Rumford on the nature of heat

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Sanborn C

    1967-01-01

    Men of Physics: Benjamin Thompson - Count Rumford: Count Rumford on the Nature of Heat covers the significant contributions of Count Rumford in the fields of physics. Count Rumford was born with the name Benjamin Thompson on March 23, 1753, in Woburn, Massachusetts. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 11 chapters, and begins with a presentation of Benjamin Thompson's biography and his interest in physics, particularly as an advocate of an """"anti-caloric"""" theory of heat. The subsequent chapters are devoted to his many discoveries that profoundly affected the physical thought

  3. Blood Count Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish WBC count (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Blood Count Tests ... WBC count Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Bleeding Disorders Blood Laboratory Tests National Institutes of ...

  4. [Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Ćirković, Ivana; Arsić, Biljana; Garalejić, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  5. Immunization of Rodents Against Hymenolepis Infections using Non-Viable Homologous Oncospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous nonviable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at −70°C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  6. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  7. The Acquisition of Counting Skill in Preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Çakır

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- The aim of this study was to find out more information on the acquisition of counting skill in preschool children. For this purpose, children’s judgment of acceptability of a counting activity was used to investigate whether children’s counting skills are governed by their implicit knowledge of a number of counting principles. Data showed that children easily recognized the violation of one or more counting principles in a one’s application of counting principles in sequences of English and Turkish count words, implying that children have the understanding of counting principles. The sessions on counting in Turkish make it very likely that the children were responding to violations of rules rather than merely violation of well-learning of count words. These results give additional support to the assumption that there are innate counting principles that rule young children’s counting. Keywords: counting principles, error-detection task, mathematical development. Özet- Okul Öncesi Çocuklarda Sayma İlkeleri. Bu çalışmada çocukların bir sayma etkinliğinin geçerli olup olmadığı hakkındaki yargıları kullanılarak, sayma becerisinin doğuştan sahip olunan bir dizi örtük ilkeler tarafından yönlendirilip yönlendirilmediği incelenmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, bir grup okul öncesi çocuklardan videodan izledikleri bir aktör çocuğun hem anadilinde (İngilizce hem de bilmedikleri bir yabancı dilde (Türkçe yaptığı farklı hatalar içeren sayma serilerinin doğru veya yanlış olup olmadığı belirtmesi istenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar çocukların sayma etkinliklerine rehberlik eden doğuştan getirdikleri örtük “sayma ilkelerine” sahip olduklarına ilişkin görüşleri destekler yönündedir. Örneğin, gerek İngilizce gerekse Türkçe sayma serilerinde, “standart (doğru sayma” serisi diğer tüm serilere göre anlamlı ölçüde “doğru” bir sayma olarak değerlendirilirken, T

  8. Suitability of Optical, Physical and Chemical Measurements for Detection of Changes in Bacterial Drinking Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial colony counts (CFU) and total bacterial cell counts (TBC) were used as reference methods for assessing the bacterial water quality. The study consists of a series of laboratory scale experiments: monitoring of regrowth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, estimation of the detection limits for optical measurements using Escherichia coli dilutions, verification of the relationships by analysing grab water samples from various distribution systems and utilisation of the measurements in the case of an accidentally contaminated distribution network. We found significant correlations between the tested measurements and the bacterial water quality. As the bacterial contamination of water often co-occurs with the intrusion of matrixes containing mainly non-bacterial components, the tested measurement tools can be considered to have the potential to rapidly detect any major changes in drinking water quality. PMID:24284353

  9. Suitability of optical, physical and chemical measurements for detection of changes in bacterial drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-10-25

    In this study, different optical, physical and chemical measurements were tested for their capacity to detect changes in water quality. The tests included UV-absorbance at 254 nm, absorbance at 420 nm, turbidity, particle counting, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), free chlorine concentration and ATP concentration measurements. Special emphasis was given to investigating the potential for measurement tools to detect changes in bacterial concentrations in drinking water. Bacterial colony counts (CFU) and total bacterial cell counts (TBC) were used as reference methods for assessing the bacterial water quality. The study consists of a series of laboratory scale experiments: monitoring of regrowth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, estimation of the detection limits for optical measurements using Escherichia coli dilutions, verification of the relationships by analysing grab water samples from various distribution systems and utilisation of the measurements in the case of an accidentally contaminated distribution network. We found significant correlations between the tested measurements and the bacterial water quality. As the bacterial contamination of water often co-occurs with the intrusion of matrixes containing mainly non-bacterial components, the tested measurement tools can be considered to have the potential to rapidly detect any major changes in drinking water quality.

  10. Protecting count queries in study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  11. Can dead bacterial cells be defined and are genes expressed after cell death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2012-07-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on gene expression in dead bacterial cells. Why would this knowledge be useful? The cells are dead. However, the time duration of gene expression following cell death is often unknown, and possibly in the order of minutes. In addition, it is a challenge to determine if bacterial cells are dead, or viable but non-culturable (VBNC), and what is an agreed upon correct definition of dead bacteria. Cells in the bacterial population or community may die at different rates or times and this complicates both the viability and gene expression analysis. In this article, the definition of dead bacterial cells is discussed and its significance in continued gene expression in cells following death. The definition of living and dead has implications for possible, completely, synthetic bacterial cells that may be capable of growth and division. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining ethidium monoazide treatment with real-time PCR selectively quantifies viable Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Vercammen, Francis; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Detection of the lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis relies on PCR-based techniques. Although highly accurate and sensitive, these methods fail to distinguish between viable and dead cells. In this study a novel approach combining the DNA intercalating dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) and real-time PCR is presented that allows quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis cells without the need for culturing. The developed method is able to suppress real-time PCR signals of heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores by 99.9 % and is able to discriminate viable from heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores in mixed samples. Furthermore, the novel approach was applied to assess the antifungal activity of the veterinary antiseptic F10(®) Antiseptic Solution. This disinfectant killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores effectively within 1 min at concentrations as low as 1:6400. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  14. Carbohydrate counting-1: South Asian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lovely; Khandelwal, Deepak; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-08-01

    Carbohydrate counting or "carb counting" is a meal planning technique for persons with diabetes for managing blood glucose levels by tracking the grams of carbohydrate consumed at meals. It has shown to improve glycaemic control and glycaemic variability and decreases risk of hypoglycaemia in persons with diabetes especially on insulins. It needs basic education of the patient regarding meal plan, assessment of carbohydrate content of various foods and also exchange lists. It also gives flexibility of food choice, helps to identify patterns in blood glucose levels and adjustment of pre meals short acting insulins as related to food intake. In this short review we have summarised basic principles of carbohydrate counting, its application in clinical practice and also exchange lists primarily pertaining to South Asian population.

  15. Colours, luminosity functions and counts of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Chincarini, G.; Iovino, A.

    1996-12-01

    Standard models for deep galaxy counts are based on luminosity functions (LFs) that have a relatively flat faint end (alpha~-1.0). Galaxy counts in the B band exceed the prediction of such models from a factor of 2 to more than a factor of 5, forcing the introduction of strong luminosity and/or density evolution. Recently Marzke, Huchra & Geller, using the CfA redshift survey sample, found that the number of galaxies in the range -16<2.5 for dwarf galaxies, we reproduce well also the observed K-band deep galaxy counts. This assumption is supported by the strong correlation we found between B-K colour of galaxies and their infrared absolute magnitude: galaxies become bluer with decreasing luminosity.

  16. CERN_DxCTA counting mode chip

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, D; Nygård, E

    2008-01-01

    This ASIC is a counting mode front-end electronic optimized for the readout of CdZnTe/CdTe and silicon sensors, for possible use in applications where the flux of ionizing radiation is high. The chip is implemented in 0.25 μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain shaper stage with 21 ns peaking time, two discriminators and two 18-bit counters. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 118 mV/fC and an equivalent noise charge of about 711 e−, for a detector capacitance of 5 pF. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and pixel detectors.

  17. Detection limits for radioanalytical counting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.

    1975-06-01

    In low-level radioanalysis it is usually necessary to test the sample net counts against some ''Critical Level'' in order to determine if a given result indicates detection. This is an interpretive review of the work by Nicholson (1963), Currie (1968) and Gilbert (1974). Nicholson's evaluation of three different computational formulas for estimation of the ''Critical Level'' is discussed. The details of Nicholson's evaluation are presented along with a basic discussion of the testing procedures used. Recommendations are presented for calculation of confidence intervals, for reporting of analytical results, and for extension of the derived formula to more complex cases such as multiple background counts, multiple use of a single background count, and gamma spectrometric analysis. (auth)

  18. Sub electron readout noise & photon counting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, J.-L.; Balard, Ph.; Daigle, O.; Destefanis, G.; Feautrier, Ph.; Guillaume, Ch.; Rothman, J.

    We present recent advances on ultra low noise visible detectors at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, photon counting and EMCCD developments in collaboration with Observatoire de haute provence, Laboratoire d'astrophysique de l'observatoire de Grenoble and Laboratoire d'Astrophysique Experimentale (Montreal). After a review of the progress with third generation Image Photon Counting Systems (IPCS), we present the OCAM camera, based on the E2V CCD220 EMCCD, part of the Opticon JRA2 programme, and the CCCP controller, a new controller for the 3DNTT instrument that reduces the clock induced charge of an EMCCD by a factor 10, making it competitive with IPCS detectors for very faint fluxes. We will finally present the RAPID project and the concept of photon counting avalanche photodiode CMOS device (in collaboration with CEA-LETI) which is foreseen to be the ultimate detector for the visible-IR range providing no readout noise, high QE and extremely fast readout.

  19. Effects of nisin on Staphylococcus aureus count and physicochemical properties of Minas Frescal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicio, Bruna A; Pinto, Maximiliano S; Oliveira, Francielly S; Lempk, Marcus W; Pires, Ana Clarissa S; Lelis, Carini A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nisin on in vitro and in situ Staphylococcus aureus counts. For in vitro experiment, milk was inoculated with 5.0 log cfu·mL(-1) of S. aureus and nisin was added at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, and 500 IU mL(-1). The main effect of the bacteriocin was lag phase extension from 0h, for 0 and 100 IU·mL(-1) to 8h, when 200, 400, and 500 IU·mL(-1) of nisin were used; however, log phase was not affected. Microbial growth rate was found to be exponential and around 0.11 log cfu·mL(-1)·h(-1) for all treatments. For in situ experiments, 0, 400, and 500 IU·mL(-1) of nisin were directly added to pasteurized milk previously inoculated with 5.0 log cfu·g(-1) of S. aureus. Milk, curd, and whey were analyzed to S. aureus counts. Nisin at concentration of 500 IU·mL(-1) was able to reduce S. aureus count in curd and whey, demonstrating nisin partition between both phases. Throughout storage at 4°C, S. aureus count increased for all treatments, but the bacterial grew slower when nisin was added in both concentrations, maintaining S. aureus count about 1.5 log cycles lower than the control, despite abusive initial S. aureus count. Therefore, nisin seems to play an important role in reducing S. aureus initial count in cheese made with highly contaminated milk. Nisin showed potential to be used as an additional, important hurdle to improve Minas Frescal cheese safety, without replacing good manufacturing practices. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Viable cell yield from active dry yeast products and effects of storage temperature and diluent on yeast cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M L; Bradford, B J

    2011-01-01

    Active dry yeast (ADY) products are commonly fed in the dairy industry, but research regarding quality control for such products is limited. The objectives of this study were to determine yeast viability in field samples relative to manufacturers' guarantees (experiment 1), measure the effects of high-temperature storage on yeast viability (experiment 1), and determine the effect of vitamin-trace mineral (VTM) premix on yeast viability (experiment 2). Commercially available ADY products were acquired in triplicate through normal distribution channels and stored at 4°C upon receipt. Initial samples were evaluated for colony-forming units and compared with product label guarantees. Only 1 of the 6 products sampled in experiment 1 met product guarantees for all 3 samples. To determine effects of storage temperature and duration on viability, ADY samples were stored in an incubator at 40°C with ambient humidity for 1, 2, and 3 mo. High-temperature storage significantly decreased viability over the 3-mo period; approximately 90% of viable cells were lost each month. Three of the 5 products sampled in experiment 2 met product guarantees. Fresh samples of 4 of these 5 ADY products were mixed in duplicate with ground corn (GC) or a VTM premix to achieve a target concentration of 2.2×10(8) cfu/g. For each product, GC and VTM samples were stored at ambient temperature (22°C) and at an elevated temperature (40°C) for 2 wk. No differences in viable yeast count were observed between GC and VTM samples immediately after mixing or after storage at ambient temperature. Yeast viability in GC and VTM samples decreased during storage at an elevated temperature. There also was a significant interaction of diluent and storage temperature; VTM samples had higher cell viability than GC samples when subjected to high-temperature storage. Results suggest that (1) ADY products failed to consistently meet product guarantees; (2) viability of ADY products was greatly diminished during

  1. Bacterial content in the intestine of frozen common carp Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quantitative and qualitative analyses of bacterial flora associated with the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio in fresh and frozen storage conditions for 16 months was determined. Aerobic plate counts (APC) ranged from 1.8 ± 2.7 × 109 to 1.1 ± 2.9 x 104 colony forming unit (CFU) g-1, 2.0 ± 2.1 x 1010 to 6.1 ± 1.4 ...

  2. Etiology and laboratory abnormalities in bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kotzbauer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective review of electronic medical records of all cases of bacterial meningitis in neonates and young infants at our institution from 2004 to 2014. Fifty-six cases were identified. The most common causative organism was group B streptococcus, followed by Escherichia coli and then Listeria monocytogenes. Fortyfour of the 56 patients in the study had abnormalities of the blood white blood cell (WBC count. The most common WBC count abnormalities were leukopenia and elevation of the immature to total (I:T neutrophil ratio. Six patients in the case series lacked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pleocytosis. Overall, just 3 of the 56 patients had normal WBC count with differential, CSF WBC count, and urinalysis. Only 1 of the 56 patients was well appearing with all normal lab studies. Our study indicates that bacterial meningitis may occur without CSF pleocytosis but very infrequently occurs with all normal lab studies and well appearance.

  3. Total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obirikorang, Christian; Quaye, Lawrence; Acheampong, Isaac

    2012-06-07

    CD4 testing is the recognized gold standard used to stage HIV/AIDS, guide treatment decisions for HIV-infected persons and evaluate effectiveness of therapy. The need for a less expensive surrogate marker that can be used in resource-limited setting is however necessary. The study sought to assess the suitability of Total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in resource-limited localities in Ghana. This observational study was conducted at the Central Regional Hospital, which has one of the established antiretroviral therapy centres in Ghana. A total of one hundred and eighty-four (184) confirmed HIV I seropositive subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were taken from all the subjects for estimation of CD4 and total lymphocyte counts. The study subjects were further categorised into three (3) groups according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classification criteria as follows: CD4 counts (1) ≥ 500 cells/mm3 (2) 200-499 cells/mm3 and (3) Lymphocyte count obtained. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of TLC 1200 cells/ mm3 to predict CD4 count were Lymphocyte count can therefore adequately serve as a surrogate marker for CD4 count in HIV patients who are naïve for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited areas.

  4. El modelo de sistema viable: un instrumento para la organización efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlando Sánchez Rueda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este ensayo se presenta una interpretación teórica del denominado Modelo de Sistema Viable (MSV, de Stafford Beer y su Potencial Aplicación en Tareas de Diagnóstico  y diseño empresarial, al igual que para Mejorar las capacidades Organizacionales de Auto- Regulación  y Auto- Organización. Se explica como el Modelo del Sistema Viable permite conocer e interpretar  los mecanismos de estabilidad y adaptabilidad de las organizaciones, pilares para el crecimiento de una verdadera organización Efectiva.

  5. Optical planar waveguide for cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, John; Mueller, Andrew J.; Prinz, Adrian; Butte, Manish J.

    2012-01-01

    Low cost counting of cells has medical applications in screening, military medicine, disaster medicine, and rural healthcare. In this report, we present a shallow, buried, planar waveguide fabricated by potassium ion exchange in glass that enables low-cost and rapid counting of metal-tagged objects that lie in the evanescent field of the waveguide. Laser light transmitted through the waveguide was attenuated proportionately to the presence of metal-coated microstructures fabricated from photoresist. This technology enables the low-cost enumeration of cells from blood, urine, or other biofluids.

  6. Urticaria and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence.

  7. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  8. Use of propidium monoazide and quantitative PCR for differentiation of viable Escherichia coli from E. coli killed by mild or pasteurizing heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianqin; Badoni, Madhu; Gill, Colin O

    2011-12-01

    Suspensions of Escherichia coli in peptone water were heated at temperatures between 52 and 90 °C, inclusive. Samples withdrawn at suitable times were not or were treated with propidium monoazide (PMA) or deoxycholate then PMA before extraction of DNA. DNA was quantified by real-time PCR for estimation of the numbers of E. coli from which template DNA for the PCR was obtained. Numbers of viable E. coli in suspensions at the times of sampling were determined from plate counts. For samples from suspensions heated at temperatures ≥ 52 ≤ 72 °C, PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values were little or no different for DNA from corresponding samples that were or were not treated with PMA. PMA treatment of samples heated to ≥ 80 °C largely inactivated E. coli DNA for PCR. When samples heated to ≤ 72 °C were treated with deoxycholate before treatment with PMA, Ct values for treated samples were greater than the Ct values for the corresponding untreated samples. Similar results were obtained with E. coli suspended in milk or fluid from ground beef pummeled with diluent. The results indicate that cells killed by heating to ≥ 80 °C are permeable to PMA, but most cells killed by heating to ≤ 72 °C are not. However, treatment with deoxycholate renders a substantial fraction of the latter cells permeable to PMA. Numbers of viable or dead E. coli can then be estimated from Ct values for samples not treated or treated with deoxycholate and PMA, provided viable cells are ≥ 1% of the total. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactive thrombocytosis in febrile young infants with serious bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouzas, S; Mantagou, L; Skylogianni, E; Varvarigou, A

    2010-11-01

    to estimate the incidence of reactive thrombocytosis among febrile young infants and to asses the utility of platelet count as a potential predictor of serious bacterial infection (SBI). retrospective study between January 2005 and December 2008. tertiary care pediatric unit. all infants 29 to 89 days of age, admitted with rectal temperature > 38oC without a focus of infection. the results of the sepsis evaluation on admission were recorded. SBI included all cases of occult bacteremia, urinary tract infection, bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, bacterial gastroenteritis and infections of the soft tissues and bones. of the 408 infants studied, 103 (25.2%) had SBI. Platelet count was significantly higher in infants with SBI compared to those without (median 513000 /mm3 [interquartile range 455,000-598,000/mm3] vs median 398000/mm3; [interquartile range 313,000-463,000/mm3]; PThrombocytosis had only moderate ability in predicting SBI (area under the curve: 0.74, 95 % CI 0.70-0.79). The combination of platelet count >450,000/mm3, WBC >15,000/mm3, Creactive protein >2 mg/dL, and pyuria >10 WBC/hpf would lead to misclassification of 4 infants with SBI (3.9% of SBIs; negative likelihood ratio 0.08). reactive thrombocytosis was a frequent finding in young infants with SBI. Thrombocytosis >450,000 cells/mm3, in combination with leucocytosis, elevated CRP and pyuria, may help in early recognition of febrile young infants at risk for SBI.

  10. The single sperm curling test, a modified hypo-osmotic swelling test, as a potential technique for the selection of viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, A; Ng, S C

    1997-08-01

    To develop a technique for the selection of viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), based on the phenomenon of sperm tail curling in a hypo-osmotic environment, through modification of the hypo-osmotic swelling test. Individual sperm were exposed to single sperm curling (SSC) medium and then injected into hamster oocytes to study the effect of SSC medium on fertilization. All materials were collected from the National University Hospital in Singapore. Semen of proven donors and hamster oocytes with intact zonae were used. ICSI and the SSC test. Sperm head decondensation and male pronucleus formation. Sperm head decondensation and male pronucleus formation were present in 59.4% and 42.4%, respectively, of the oocytes injected with sperm that had been exposed to SSC medium. These rates were 70% and 48.8%, respectively, when the sperm were washed thoroughly after exposure to SSC medium. In the control group (sperm that were not exposed to SSC medium), these rates were 68.8% and 46.2%, respectively. The SSC test is useful for the selection of viable sperm for ICSI. It allows the behavioral study of a single sperm in hypo-osmotic conditions. Thorough washing of the exposed sperm is important. This procedure would be of benefit especially in testicular biopsies or very severe cases of low sperm count in which only a few sperm are found among many other cells and artifact.

  11. Heterotrophic plate count vs. in situ bacterial 16S rRNA gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to ensure accurate and reproducible 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, rigorous methodical evaluation and standardisation procedures were undertaken (DGGE optimisation, replication of PCR, multiplelane standardisation, representative sampling volume determination, application of multiple similarity coefficients).

  12. Lipoproteins of Bacterial Pathogens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs-Simon, A.; Titball, R. W.; Michell, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are a set of membrane proteins with many different functions. Due to this broad-ranging functionality, these proteins have a considerable significance in many phenomena, from cellular physiology through cell division and virulence. Here we give a general overview of lipoprotein biogenesis and highlight examples of the roles of lipoproteins in bacterial disease caused by a selection of medically relevant Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Neisseria meningitidis. Lipoproteins have been shown to play key roles in adhesion to host cells, modulation of inflammatory processes, and translocation of virulence factors into host cells. As such, a number of lipoproteins have been shown to be potential vaccines. This review provides a summary of some of the reported roles of lipoproteins and of how this knowledge has been exploited in some cases for the generation of novel countermeasures to bacterial diseases. PMID:20974828

  13. Considerations on bacterial nucleoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Rama, José Luis R; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2017-07-01

    The classic genome organization of the bacterial chromosome is normally envisaged with all its genetic markers linked, thus forming a closed genetic circle of duplex stranded DNA (dsDNA) and several proteins in what it is called as "the bacterial nucleoid." This structure may be more or less corrugated depending on the physiological state of the bacterium (i.e., resting state or active growth) and is not surrounded by a double membrane as in eukayotic cells. The universality of the closed circle model in bacteria is however slowly changing, as new data emerge in different bacterial groups such as in Planctomycetes and related microorganisms, species of Borrelia, Streptomyces, Agrobacterium, or Phytoplasma. In these and possibly other microorganisms, the existence of complex formations of intracellular membranes or linear chromosomes is typical; all of these situations contributing to weakening the current cellular organization paradigm, i.e., prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells.

  14. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the benefits......, but the identity and significance of interspecies bacterial interactions is neglected in these analyses. There is therefore an urgent need for bridging the gap between metagenomic analysis and in vitro models suitable for studies of bacterial interactions.Bacterial interactions and coadaptation are important...... at the microscale of complex communities, including biofilms.Studies of multispecies biofilms and the interactions shaping these are conducted in traditional approaches used for single-species biofilms with some adjustments; but a crucial point for consideration is which strains to combine and where these should...

  15. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  16. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  17. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.

  18. Counting Women's Work in Vietnam | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... “The success of women's entrepreneurship and economic participation, as well as national efforts to improve gender equality, is an example to other countries in the region.” Globally, methodologies to count women's work are essential to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 5 on gender equality and ...

  19. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  20. Photon Counting Chirped Amplitude Modulation Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    a computer simulation of the photon counting chirped AM ladar technique in MathCAD * and presented results from the computer simulation using a two... MathCAD is a trademark of Mathsoft Inc. 4 Figure 3. Magnitude spectrum of the IF waveform from the first chirped AM

  1. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  2. Stalking the count. Dracula, Fandom and Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLarge numbers of tourists travel to Transylvania every year, looking for traces of Count Dracula. This article investigates why people feel the need to connect fictional stories, such as Dracula, with identifiable physical locations, and why they subsequently want to visit these

  3. Counting Processes for Retail Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiefer, Nicholas Maximilian; Larson, C. Erik

    in a discrete state space. In a simple case, the states could be default/non-default; in other models relevant for credit modeling the states could be credit scores or payment status (30 dpd, 60 dpd, etc.). Here we focus on the use of stochastic counting processes for mortgage default modeling, using data...

  4. Maine KIDS COUNT 2002 Data Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Children's Alliance, Augusta.

    This KIDS COUNT data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Maine's children. Following a brief overview of the data book and a summary of indicators, state trend data are presented in the areas of: (1) poverty; (2) child and adolescent suicide; (3) public high school dropouts; (4) teen pregnancy; (5) public high school graduates…

  5. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  6. An analytical model of crater count equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Minton, David A.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2017-06-01

    Crater count equilibrium occurs when new craters form at the same rate that old craters are erased, such that the total number of observable impacts remains constant. Despite substantial efforts to understand this process, there remain many unsolved problems. Here, we propose an analytical model that describes how a heavily cratered surface reaches a state of crater count equilibrium. The proposed model formulates three physical processes contributing to crater count equilibrium: cookie-cutting (simple, geometric overlap), ejecta-blanketing, and sandblasting (diffusive erosion). These three processes are modeled using a degradation parameter that describes the efficiency for a new crater to erase old craters. The flexibility of our newly developed model allows us to represent the processes that underlie crater count equilibrium problems. The results show that when the slope of the production function is steeper than that of the equilibrium state, the power law of the equilibrium slope is independent of that of the production function slope. We apply our model to the cratering conditions in the Sinus Medii region and at the Apollo 15 landing site on the Moon and demonstrate that a consistent degradation parameterization can successfully be determined based on the empirical results of these regions. Further developments of this model will enable us to better understand the surface evolution of airless bodies due to impact bombardment.

  7. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  8. pulmonary candidiasis and cd4 count

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    sputum of HIV sero-positive patient's presenting to hospital with complaint of cough for more than two weeks and related the level of CD4 count to Pulmonary candidiasis. Methods: Using sterile wire loop, each sputum sample was inoculated into duplicate SDA (Thermo Scientific, UK); one tube without antibiotics, another ...

  9. KidsCount in Colorado! 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  10. KidsCount in Colorado! 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staberg, Christine

    This Kids Count report examines statewide and county trends in the well-being of Colorado's children. The statistical portrait is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) infant mortality; (2) low birth weight births; (3) immunizations; (4) child poverty; (5) early prenatal care; (6) child abuse deaths; (7) health insurance; (8) paternity…

  11. The analysis of dependent count data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the literature, methods have been presented for the analysis of count data classified by fixed and crossed factors under the assumptions that this data can be modeled by independent binomial or Poisson distributions. In general, the mean value of these distributions depends on the levels

  12. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein and procalcitonin tests, when negative, can be used to prevent the unnecessary use of antibiotics. Direct non-culture-based tests ... White blood cell count 12 000 cells/mm³; or the presence of >10% .... tests. Culture results, which usually take at least 48 - 72 hours to become available, are then ...

  13. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  14. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  15. Bacterial meningitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitric oxide-derived urinary nitrate as a marker of intestinal bacterial translocation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudenhoven, I M; Klaasen, H L; Lapré, J A; Weerkamp, A H; Van der Meer, R

    1994-07-01

    Bacterial translocation across the gut wall may lead to bacteremia and sepsis. Bacteriological analyses are laborious and time consuming, which precludes a rapid diagnosis of bacterial translocation. Synthesis of nitric oxide by macrophages is a primary response to bacterial infections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether NO-derived nitrate excretion in urine can be used as a rapid and quantitative marker of intestinal bacterial translocation. The kinetics of urinary nitrate excretion was determined in rats intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide. Subsequently, the response to bacterial translocation was studied in rats infected orally with different doses of viable, invasive S. enteritidis. Increasing the lipopolysaccharide dose from 0.05 to 0.50 mg/kg resulted in a transient, dose-dependent, almost 10-fold increase in urinary nitrate excretion. Administration of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester merely inhibited the increase in nitrate excretion after lipopolysaccharide injection. Increasing the infective dose of viable Salmonella resulted in a time- and dose-dependent exponential increase in nitrate output. Translocation was a prerequisite for provoking a nitrate response. Total urinary nitrate excretion after infection and classical infection parameters, such as weight of the mesenteric lymph nodes and population levels of Salmonella in feces, were highly correlated. Urinary nitrate excretion is a quantitative, noninvasive biomarker of intestinal bacterial translocation, which can be used to follow the course of a systemic infection.

  17. An Overview of the Evolution of Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to Bacterial Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintelas, Cristina; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Lopes, João A; Sousa, Clara

    2018-01-01

    The sustained emergence of new declared bacterial species makes typing a continuous challenge for microbiologists. Molecular biology techniques have a very significant role in the context of bacterial typing, but they are often very laborious, time consuming, and eventually fail when dealing with very closely related species. Spectroscopic-based techniques appear in some situations as a viable alternative to molecular methods with advantages in terms of analysis time and cost. Infrared and mass spectrometry are among the most exploited techniques in this context: particularly, infrared spectroscopy emerged as a very promising method with multiple reported successful applications. This article presents a systematic review on infrared spectroscopy applications for bacterial typing, highlighting fundamental aspects of infrared spectroscopy, a detailed literature review (covering different taxonomic levels and bacterial species), advantages, and limitations of the technique over molecular biology methods and a comparison with other competing spectroscopic techniques such as MALDI-TOF MS, Raman, and intrinsic fluorescence. Infrared spectroscopy possesses a high potential for bacterial typing at distinct taxonomic levels and worthy of further developments and systematization. The development of databases appears fundamental toward the establishment of infrared spectroscopy as a viable method for bacterial typing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.; Jager, V.C. de; Geene, R.T.; Alen-Boerrigter, I.J. van; Hazelwood, L.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Kleerebezem, M; Smid, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem.

  19. Induction of viable 2n pollen in sterile Oriental × Trumpet Lilium hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, J.R.; Arens, P.; Niu, L.X.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to induce viable 2n pollen from highly sterile diploid Oriental × Trumpet (OT) (Lilium), N2O was used to treat flower buds of four sterile diploid OT cultivars (‘Nymph’, ‘Gluhwein’, ‘Yelloween’, and ‘Shocking’) at different stages of meiosis. There was no pollen germination in

  20. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section 113.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... in live vaccine. Each serial and subserial of biological product except live vaccines shall be tested...

  1. Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J.; Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 × 103), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6 mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research.

  2. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  3. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  4. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

  6. Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable eutrophication ... Microcystis in local eutrophic waters is perceived as a primary major constraint in implementing 'classical' food-web manip- ulation. Intrinsic ... cially in 'shallow' lakes) to dismal failure (often in deep lakes) and a range of ...

  7. Validation of the bacterial meningitis score in adults presenting to the ED with meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Robert; Edlow, Jonathan A; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2016-07-01

    The Bacterial Meningitis Score classifies children with meningitis and none of the following high-risk predictors at very low risk for bacterial meningitis: positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain, CSF protein ≥80mg/dL, CSF absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1000 cells/mm(3), peripheral ANC ≥10,000 cells/mm(3), and seizure at or prior to presentation. Although extensively validated in children, the Bacterial Meningitis Score has not been rigorously evaluated in adults. We performed a single-center cross-sectional retrospective study of adults presenting to the emergency department between 2003 and 2013 with meningitis (defined by CSF white blood cell count ≥10 cells/mm(3)). We defined a case of bacterial meningitis with either a positive CSF or blood culture. We report the performance of the Bacterial Meningitis Score in the study population. We identified 441 eligible patients of which, 4 (1%) had bacterial meningitis. The Bacterial Meningitis Score had a sensitivity of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI) 40%-100%], specificity 51% (95% CI, 46%-56%) and negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 98%-100%). None of the low risk adults had bacterial meningitis. If Bacterial Meningitis Score had been applied prospectively, the hospital admission rate would have dropped from 84% to 49% without missing any patients with bacterial meningitis. The Bacterial Meningitis Score accurately identified patients at low risk for bacterial meningitis and could assist clinical decision-making for adults with meningitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Entry of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri into the viable but nonculturable state

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah; Ravel, J.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    Physical responses of marine luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 14216) and V. fischeri (UM1373) to nutrient-limited normal strength (35 ppt iso-osmolarity) and low (10 ppt hypo-osmolarity) salinity conditions were determined. Plate counts...

  9. Automated microfluidic cartridges for point-of-care cell counting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents microfluidic cartridges for automated blood cell counting towards a point-of-care (POC) full blood count (FBC). Total white blood cell count (WBC) and red blood cell count (RBC) tests were implemented using low-cost, disposable...

  10. Estimation of malaria parasite density using leukocyte counts as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukocyte counts and screening for malaria parasites were carried out on 252 apparently healthy blood donors attending a transfusion centre in Ibadan. The leukocyte count range for the donors was 2.5-9.6 x 109 /l; the mean leukocyte count being 4.98 x 109 /l. 193 (76.6%) had leukocyte count less than 6.0 x 109 /l.

  11. Bacterial community associated with ensilage process of wilted guinea grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, S; Nishino, N

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of wilting, storage period and bacterial inoculant on the bacterial community and ensiling fermentation of guinea grass silage. Fermentation products, colony counts and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles were determined. There was more lactic acid than acetic acid in all silages, but the lactic acid to acetic acid ratio decreased with storage time. This shift from lactic to acetic acid was not prevented even with a combination of wilting and bacterial inoculant. The DGGE analyses suggest that facultatively heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus) were involved in the shift to acetic acid fermentation. Lactic acid can dominate the fermentation in tropical grass silage with sufficient wilting prior to ensiling. Prolonged storage may lead to high levels of acetic acid without distinctive changes in the bacterial community. The bacterial community looks stable compared to fermentation products over the course of long storage periods in tropical grass silage. Acetic acid fermentation in tropical grass silage can be a result of the changes in bacterial metabolism rather than community structure.

  12. To count or not to count: the effect of instructions on expecting a break in timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette

    2013-04-01

    When a break is expected during a time interval production, longer intervals are produced as the break occurs later during the interval. This effect of break location was interpreted as a result of distraction related to break expectancy in previous studies. In the present study, the influence of target duration and of instructions about chronometric counting strategies on the break location effect was examined. Using a strategy such as chronometric counting enhances the reliability of temporal processing, typically in terms of reduced variability, and could influence how timing is affected by break expectancy, especially when relatively long target durations are used. In two experiments, results show that time productions lengthened with increasing value of break location at various target durations and that variability was greater in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. More important, the break location effect was stronger in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. We conclude that chronometric counting orients attention toward timing processes, making them less likely to be disrupted by concurrent nontemporal processes.

  13. Evaluation of 6 Methods for Aerobic Bacterial Sanitization of Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Mia T; Madden, Carolyn M; Ma, Eric J; Fox, James G

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones are ubiquitous devices that offer a variety of useful applications for human and veterinary medical professionals and the biomedical research community. Smartphones can serve as fomites and potentially transmit pathogens, including bacterial species such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The goal of this study was to evaluate 6 methods to decrease aerobic bacterial colonies on smartphones, including two 254-nm UVC devices, 70% ethanol spray, quaternary ammonium disinfectant spray, sodium hypochlorite-impregnated wipes, and delicate-task wipes. All methods were individually effective at decreasing aerobic bacterial counts after sanitization. In addition, 254-nm UVC devices providing a dose of 60 mJ/cm2, with UVC bulbs exposing both sides of the smartphone, were an effective nonliquid method for smartphone sanitization.

  14. Comparison of PCR-DGGE and PCR-SSCP analysis for bacterial flora of Japanese traditional fermented fish products, aji-narezushi and iwashi-nukazuke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Choa; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Kuda, Takashi

    2010-08-30

    The bacterial flora of two Japanese traditional fermented fish products, aji-narezushi (salted and long-fermented horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicas) with rice) and iwashi-nukazuke (salted and long-fermented sardine (Sardinops melanostica) with rice bran), was analysed using non-culture-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and culture-based PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) methods. Viable plate counts in aji-narezushi and iwashi-nukazuke were about 6.3-6.6 and 5.7-6.9 log colony-forming units g(-1) respectively. In the PCR-DGGE analysis, Lactobacillus acidipiscis was detected as the predominant bacterium in two of three aji-narezushi samples, while Lactobacillus versmoldensis was predominant in the third sample. By the PCR-SSCP method, Lb. acidipiscis and Lactobacillus plantarum were isolated as the predominant bacteria, while Lb. versmoldensis was not detected. The predominant bacterium in two of three iwashi-nukazuke samples was Tetragenococcus muriaticus, while Tetragenococcus halophilus was predominant in the third sample. The results suggest that the detection of some predominant lactic acid bacteria species in fermented fish by cultivation methods is difficult. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Establishment of a high content assay for the identification and characterisation of bioactivities in crude bacterial extracts that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Nickels A; Gerth, Klaus; Grotjohann, Tim; Kapp, Dieter; Keck, Matthias; Niehaus, Karsten

    2009-03-10

    High content microscopy as a screening tool to identify bioactive agents has provided researchers with the ability to characterise biological activities at the level of single cells. Here, we describe the development and the application of a high content screening assay for the identification and characterisation of cytostatic bioactivities from Myxobacteria extracts. In an automated microscopy assay Sf9 insect cells were visualised utilising the stains bisbenzimide Hoechst 33342, calcein AM, and propidium iodide. Imaging data were processed by the ScanR Analysis-software to determine the ploidy and vitality of each cell and to quantify cell populations. More than 98% of the Sf9 cells were viable and the culture consisted of diploid ( approximately 30%), tetraploid ( approximately 60%), polyploidic (vitality, which were characteristic for the respective bioactive substance. Furthermore, crude extracts from the chivosazole producing Myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 induced an increase of polyploid cells and a decrease in total cell count, while a mutant producing nearly no chivosazole triggered none of these effects. Purified chivosazole induced the same effects as the wild type extract. Similar effects have been observed for the reference compound cytochalasin D. On the basis of this assay, crude extracts of ten different Myxobacteria cultures were screened. Three extracts exhibited strong cytotoxic activities, further five extracts induced weak changes in the ploidy distribution, and two extracts showed no detectable effect within the assay. Therefore, this robust assay provides the ability to discover and characterise cytotoxic and cytostatic bioactivities in crude bacterial extracts.

  16. BACTERIAL WATERBORNE PATHOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial pathogens are examples of classical etiological agents of waterborne disease. While these agents no longer serve as major threats to U.S. water supplies, they are still important pathogens in areas with substandard sanitation and poor water treatment facilities. In th...

  17. Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Bacterial Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones bacterianas: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ...

  18. Comparison of the mouse foot pad test with a Buddemeyer type radiorespirometric assay in detecting viable Mycobacterium leprae in human lesional biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Vinay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : This study assesses the utility of a Buddemeyer type radiorespirometric (RR assay in detecting viable Mycobacterium leprae in clinical samples taking the mouse foot pad (MFP test as gold standard. Methods : A total of 131 skin biopsy specimens comprising of 56 untreated, smear-positive, borderline lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy (BL-LL and 75 untreated, smear-negative, borderline tuberculoid and mid-borderline (BT-BB specimens were processed by both the methods. The cut-off value (in counts per minute, cpm for test samples in the RR assay was determined using nonleprous (normal skin biopsy specimens. Results : In the untreated BL-LL and BT-BB groups, 86 and 56% of the cases tested positive in the RR assay respectively, which was comparable to the results of the MFP test (80 and 45% respectively. The overall concordance between the two tests was 74.79%, whereas the sensitivity and specificity were 75 and 74.3% respectively. A Kappa value of 0.459 indicated a fairly good agreement between the two methods. There was no linear relationship observed between the bacteriological index (BI and the morphological index (MI with the counts per minute (cpm output. Conclusion : The results indicate the ability of this RR assay to detect viability; however a comparison with another sensitive method would further validate the assay system.

  19. Bacterial contamination of floors and other surfaces in operating rooms: a five-year survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, A.; Namba, Y; Matsuura, M; Horisawa, A.

    1984-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of floors and other surfaces in the operating suite has been investigated by contact impression plates during the past five years. Colony counts of the floors of operating rooms, cleaned with disinfectant, were 3.3 c.f.u./10 cm2; on the floors of semi-clean and dirty areas, cleaned with detergent, colony counts were 44.8 and 71.4 c.f.u./10 cm2 respectively. The highest colony counts of 487.4 c.f.u./10 cm2 were found in the dressing rooms, the floors of which were cover...

  20. Should the Standard Count Be Excluded from Neutron Probe Calibration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang

    2017-10-12

    About 6 decades after its introduction, the neutron probe remains one of the most accurate methods for indirect measurement of soil moisture content. Traditionally, the calibration of a neutron probe involves the ratio of the neutron count in the soil to a standard count, which is the neutron count in the fixed environment such as the probe shield or a specially-designed calibration tank. The drawback of this count-ratio-based calibration is that the error in the standard count is carried through to all the measurements. An alternative calibration is to use the neutron counts only, not the ratio, with proper correction for radioactive decay and counting time. To evaluate both approaches, the shield counts of a neutron probe used for three decades were analyzed. The results show that the surrounding conditions have a substantial effect on the standard count. The error in the standard count also impacts the calculation of water storage and could indicate false consistency among replicates. The analysis of the shield counts indicates negligible aging effect of the instrument over a period of 26 years. It is concluded that, by excluding the standard count, the use of the count-based calibration is appropriate and sometimes even better than ratio-based calibration. The count-based calibration is especially useful for historical data when the standard count was questionable or absent

  1. Comparative bacterial study of oral rehydration solution (ORS) prepared in plain unboiled and boiled drinking water of Kathmandu valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, R K; Rai, S K; Pokhrel, B M; Khadka, J B

    1989-01-01

    Result of bacterial study on Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) prepared in plain unboiled and boiled drinking water of Kathmandu valley is reported. Of the total 100 water samples collected from different sources and area all the samples, as a base line study, were subjected for the examination of bacterial presence. Eighty eight percent of the water samples studied were found to be unsatisfactory for drinking. Thirty five percent of the ORS prepared in unboiled water and kept for 24 hours at room temperature showed increased bacterial count whereas none of the ORS prepared in 5 minute boiled water and kept for 24 hour at room temperature showed any bacterial growth. Decreased bacterial count was not found in any of the ORS prepared in unboiled water. Typical coliform bacilli were found grown in 57.0% of the ORS prepared in unboiled water samples.

  2. Bacterial Meningitis in the Absence of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Hase

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cell count is a key sign in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. However, there have been reports of bacterial meningitis with no abnormalities in initial CSF testing. This type of presentation is extremely rare in adult patients. Here, a case involving an 83-year-old woman who was later diagnosed with bacterial meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is described, in whom CSF at initial and second lumbar puncture did not show elevation of cell counts. Twenty-six non-neutropenic adult cases of bacterial meningitis in the absence of CSF pleocytosis were reviewed. The frequent causative organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae and N meningitidis. Nineteen cases had bacteremia and seven died. The authors conclude that normal CSF at lumbar puncture at an early stage cannot rule out bacterial meningitis. Therefore, repeat CSF analysis should be considered, and antimicrobial therapy must be started immediately if there are any signs of sepsis or meningitis.

  3. Elaborate Item Count Questioning: Why Do People Underreport in Item Count Responses?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahiro Tsuchiya; Yoko Hirai

    2010-01-01

    ... `applies/does not apply' responses to each item. Because this inconsistency, which we refer to as the underreporting effect, often disturbs proper item count estimates, the causes of this effect are explored in this paper...

  4. TasselNet: counting maize tassels in the wild via local counts regression network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhuang, Bohan; Shen, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    Accurately counting maize tassels is important for monitoring the growth status of maize plants. This tedious task, however, is still mainly done by manual efforts. In the context of modern plant phenotyping, automating this task is required to meet the need of large-scale analysis of genotype and phenotype. In recent years, computer vision technologies have experienced a significant breakthrough due to the emergence of large-scale datasets and increased computational resources. Naturally image-based approaches have also received much attention in plant-related studies. Yet a fact is that most image-based systems for plant phenotyping are deployed under controlled laboratory environment. When transferring the application scenario to unconstrained in-field conditions, intrinsic and extrinsic variations in the wild pose great challenges for accurate counting of maize tassels, which goes beyond the ability of conventional image processing techniques. This calls for further robust computer vision approaches to address in-field variations. This paper studies the in-field counting problem of maize tassels. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a plant-related counting problem is considered using computer vision technologies under unconstrained field-based environment. With 361 field images collected in four experimental fields across China between 2010 and 2015 and corresponding manually-labelled dotted annotations, a novel Maize Tassels Counting (MTC) dataset is created and will be released with this paper. To alleviate the in-field challenges, a deep convolutional neural network-based approach termed TasselNet is proposed. TasselNet can achieve good adaptability to in-field variations via modelling the local visual characteristics of field images and regressing the local counts of maize tassels. Extensive results on the MTC dataset demonstrate that TasselNet outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches by large margins and achieves the overall best counting

  5. Platelet counting with a laser nephelometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitsis, D J

    1979-08-01

    A method for platelet counting is described, based on the Laser nephelometric principle. Experimental results are reported, together with the practical considerations for the standardisation and correlation of the method, and for application of the method in the routine biochemical laboratory. Venous blood, taken with EDTA-NaCL solution according to Schulz et al (1071, Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 9, 329-333) is used. The blood is centrifuged at 100 g for 10 min and 10 microliter of the supernatant is added to 3000 microliter of a suspending medium (dilution 1:80); 300 microliter platelet suspension are read in a nephelometer cuvet or tube against blank. The number of platelets per liter blood are determined with the aid of a standard curve. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the method, and the correlation with the "electronic coulter counting" method are satisfactory.

  6. [Significance of the automated blood count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratwohl, A; Tichelli, A; Speck, B

    1992-03-28

    Modern hematology depends on rapid and accurate determination of quantitative and qualitative blood counts. Fully automated analyzers based on the principles of flow cytometry have replaced the traditional blood smear in the routine laboratory. They count the number of red cells, platelets and leukocytes with high precision. In addition, they divide the cells into different populations according to their physical or chemical properties. This population distribution pattern mimics a "differential" blood smear. Normality can be assessed with a high degree of accuracy, rapidly and reproducibly. The qualitative changes frequently provide pointers to the final diagnosis. In case of abnormalities the reports are flagged. A microscopic analysis should be added according to internal laboratory guidelines. It clarifies pathological findings and is essential in the search for specific abnormalities such as malaria. This underlines the need for exchange of information between physician and laboratory.

  7. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Brigham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom – from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards a degree. However, for a range of reasons, not every institution can offer prior learning assessment (PLA in every discipline or for every student. With funding from several U.S. philanthropic organizations, the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL is launching Learning Counts, a national online service that will offer students a range of opportunities to have their learning evaluated for college credit. This online service will expand the capacity of institutions offering PLA to students and provide an efficient and scalable delivery mechanism for the awarding of credit through PLA.

  8. Low level counting from meteorites to neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Gerd

    2005-09-01

    The development in low level counting at Heidelberg with NaI(Tl) crystals, proportional counters and Germanium detectors is reviewed throughout the course of almost 40 years of experience. Research subjects changed from cosmogenic radionuclides in meteorites to solar neutrinos and double beta decay. Driven by screening measurements for these rare event experiments, the sensitivity in single gamma counting has gained almost 3 orders of magnitude. With Ge spectrometry the μBq/kg range is now accessible. It is discussed how further improvements can be realized. There is potential to reach a sensitivity at the level of 10 to 100 nBq/kg for cryogenic liquid type Gespectroscopy, a technique which the next generation 76Ge double beta decay experiment GERDA is based on.

  9. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Schönwald, Kay

    2017-06-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  10. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  11. Counting and mining research data with Unix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Baker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This lesson will look at how research data, when organised in a clear and predictable manner, can be counted and mined using the Unix shell. The lesson builds on the lessons “Preserving Your Research Data: Documenting and Structuring Data” and “Introduction to the Bash Command Line”. Depending on your confidence with the Unix shell, it can also be used as a standalone lesson or refresher.

  12. Methods for precise photoelectron counting with photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossi, R.; Ianni, A.; Ranucci, G.; Smirnov, O.Ju. E-mail: smirnov@lngs.infn.itsmipol@cv.jinr.ru

    2000-09-11

    A series of measurements has been performed on a THORN EMI 9351 phototube in order to investigate its response to a low light intensity. Precise procedures to determine the intensity of the incident photon flux have been developed and compared. The data show that the various approaches give consistent and reliable results, thus allowing the precise calibration of the device for applications of photon counting.

  13. Relationship between platelet count and hemodialysis membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr R

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabih Nasr,1 Chadi Saifan,1 Iskandar Barakat,2 Yorg Al Azzi,2 Ali Naboush,2 Marc Saad,2 Suzanne El Sayegh1 1Department of Nephrology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, USA Background: One factor associated with poor outcomes in hemodialysis patients is exposure to a foreign membrane. Older membranes are very bioincompatible and increase complement activation, cause leukocytosis by activating circulating factors, which sequesters leukocytes in the lungs, and activates platelets. Recently, newer membranes have been developed that were designed to be more biocompatible. We tested if the different “optiflux” hemodialysis membranes had different effects on platelet levels. Methods: Ninety-nine maintenance hemodialysis patients with no known systemic or hematologic diseases affecting their platelets had blood drawn immediately prior to, 90 minutes into, and immediately following their first hemodialysis session of the week. All patients were dialyzed using a Fresenius Medical Care Optiflux polysulfone membrane F160, F180, or F200 (polysulfone synthetic dialyzer membranes, 1.6 m2, 1.8 m2, and 2.0 m2 surface area, respectively, electron beam sterilized. Platelet counts were measured from each sample by analysis using a CBC analyzer. Results: The average age of the patients was 62.7 years; 36 were female and 63 were male. The mean platelet count pre, mid, and post dialysis was 193 (standard deviation ±74.86, 191 (standard deviation ±74.67, and 197 (standard deviation ±79.34 thousand/mm3, respectively, with no statistical differences. Conclusion: Newer membranes have no significant effect on platelet count. This suggests that they are, in fact, more biocompatible than their predecessors and may explain their association with increased survival. Keywords: platelet count, polysulfone membranes, complement activation, electron beam sterilized

  14. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  15. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  17. A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truernit Elisabeth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant cell death is a normal process during plant development. Mutant plants may exhibit misregulation of this process, which can lead to severe growth defects. Simple ways of visualising cell death in living plant tissues can aid the study of plant development and physiology. Results Spectral variants of the fluorescent SYTOX dyes were tested for their usefulness for the detection of non-viable cells within plant embryos and roots using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The dyes were selective for non-viable cells and showed very little background staining in living cells. Simultaneous detection of SYTOX dye and fluorescent protein (e.g. GFP fluorescence was possible. Conclusion The fluorescent SYTOX dyes are useful for an easy and quick first assay of plant cell viability in living plant samples using fluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy.

  18. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Sozzi, Fabiola; Poldermans, Don; Bax, Jeroen; Elhendy, Abdou; Vourvouri, Eleni; Valkema, Roelf; Sutter, J.; Schinkel, Arend; Borghetti, A; Roelandt, Jos

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference.
PATIENTS—30 patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction (mean (SD) age, 60 (8) years; 22 men).
METHODS—Dobutamine stress echocardiography was carried out in all patients using both fundamental and second harmonic imaging. All patients underwent dual isotope simul...

  19. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salma

    Full Text Available The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null Δssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state.

  20. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  1. Concurrent detection of other respiratory viruses in children shedding viable human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, T B; Paula, F E; Iwamoto, M A; Proença-Modena, J L; Santos, A E; Camara, A A; Cervi, M C; Cintra, O A L; Arruda, E

    2013-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease. The majority of studies addressing the importance of virus co-infections to the HRSV-disease have been based on the detection of HRSV by RT-PCR, which may not distinguish current replication from prolonged shedding of remnant RNA from previous HRSV infections. To assess whether co-detections of other common respiratory viruses are associated with increased severity of HRSV illnesses from patients who were shedding viable-HRSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates from children younger than 5 years who sought medical care for respiratory infections in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil) were tested for HRSV by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture. All samples with viable-HRSV were tested further by PCR for other respiratory viruses. HRSV-disease severity was assessed by a clinical score scale. A total of 266 samples from 247 children were collected and 111 (42%) were HRSV-positive. HRSV was isolated from 70 (63%), and 52 (74%) of them were positive for at least one additional virus. HRSV-positive diseases were more severe than HRSV-negative ones, but there was no difference in disease severity between patients with viable-HRSV and those HRSV-positives by RT-PCR. Co-detection of other viruses did not correlate with increased disease severity. HRSV isolation in cell culture does not seem to be superior to RT-PCR to distinguish infections associated with HRSV replication in studies of clinical impact of HRSV. A high rate of co-detection of other respiratory viruses was found in samples with viable-HRSV, but this was not associated with more severe HRSV infection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Transplantation of a bacterial consortium ameliorates trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis and intestinal dysbiosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Zhenzhen; Wen, Shu; Liu, Yinhui; Wang, Ying; Tang, Li

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of a defined bacterial consortium on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis and intestinal dysbiosis in rats. Rats with TNBS-induced colitis were treated with ceftriaxone and/or a mixture of ten bacterial strains isolated from mouse feces for continuous 24 days. Macroscopic and histopathological parameters in colonic tissue were compared, as were myeloperoxidase enzyme activity and cytokine levels. Patterns of intestinal microbiota were assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, the abundance of selected microbial groups was evaluated by qPCR. Transplantation of the bacterial consortium showed anti-inflammatory activity in the intestines of rats with TNBS-induced colitis and contributed to the rapid re-establishment of intestinal microbial equilibrium. A defined bacterial consortium may be a viable therapeutic option for the treatment inflammatory bowel disease.

  3. Bacterial Genome Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Elise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial genomes are remarkably stable from one generation to the next but are plastic on an evolutionary time scale, substantially shaped by horizontal gene transfer, genome rearrangement, and the activities of mobile DNA elements. This implies the existence of a delicate balance between the maintenance of genome stability and the tolerance of genome instability. In this review, we describe the specialized genetic elements and the endogenous processes that contribute to genome instability. We then discuss the consequences of genome instability at the physiological level, where cells have harnessed instability to mediate phase and antigenic variation, and at the evolutionary level, where horizontal gene transfer has played an important role. Indeed, this ability to share DNA sequences has played a major part in the evolution of life on Earth. The evolutionary plasticity of bacterial genomes, coupled with the vast numbers of bacteria on the planet, substantially limits our ability to control disease. PMID:24600039

  4. Carbohydrate mediated bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Roland J

    2011-01-01

    In the process of adhesion, bacteria often carry proteins on their surface, adhesins, that bind to specific components of tissue cells or the extracellular matrix. In many cases these components are carbohydrate structures. The carbohydrate binding specificities of many bacteria have been uncovered over the years. The design and synthesis of inhibitors of bacterial adhesion has the potential to create new therapeutics for the prevention and possibly treatment of bacterial infections. Unfortunately, the carbohydrate structures often bind only weakly to the adhesion proteins, although drug design approaches can improve the situation. Furthermore, in some cases linking carbohydrates covalently together, to create so-called multivalent systems, can also significantly enhance the inhibitory potency. Besides adhesion inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy, the adhesion proteins can also be used for detection. Novel methods to do this are being developed. These include the use of microarrays and glyconanoparticles. New developments in these areas are discussed.

  5. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...... susceptibility occurred in 21 (23%) of 92 cases of known aetiology, compared to an estimated 6% in nationally notified cases (p treatment was appropriate in 97% of ABM cases in the study population, and in 99.6% of nationally notified cases. The notification rate...... treatment for ABM should not be based exclusively on clinical notification systems with possible unbalanced under-reporting....

  6. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  7. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  8. Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olofsson Ida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC by California Mastitis Test (CMT and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC. Method Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111, in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Results Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18% of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81% samples while 3 (1% samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS (72% of all isolates, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates. Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000 associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ≥2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. Conclusions According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a

  9. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f( R) gravity with producing Λ CDM background expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Liu, Molin; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang

    2016-12-01

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H0 (or σ 8) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in Λ CDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f( R) gravity producing Λ CDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f( R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σ m_ν case, m_{ν , sterile}^effcase. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f_{R0}× 10^{-6}> -1.89 and f_{R0}× 10^{-6}> -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H_0 gets slightly weaker in the viable f( R) model than that in the base Λ CDM model.

  10. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  11. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, F B; Poldermans, D; Bax, J J; Elhendy, A; Vourvouri, E C; Valkema, R; De Sutter, J; Schinkel, A F; Borghetti, A; Roelandt, J R

    2001-12-01

    To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. 30 patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction (mean (SD) age, 60 (8) years; 22 men). Dobutamine stress echocardiography was carried out in all patients using both fundamental and second harmonic imaging. All patients underwent dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA-SPECT) with (99m)technetium-tetrofosmin/(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose on a separate day. Myocardial viability was considered present by dobutamine stress echocardiography when segments with severe dysfunction showed a biphasic sustained improvement or an ischaemic response. Viability criteria on DISA-SPECT were normal or mildly reduced perfusion and metabolism, or perfusion/metabolism mismatch. Using fundamental imaging, 330 segments showed severe dysfunction at baseline; 144 (44%) were considered viable. The agreement between dobutamine stress echocardiography by fundamental imaging and DISA-SPECT was 78%, kappa = 0.56. Using second harmonic imaging, 288 segments showed severe dysfunction; 138 (48%) were viable. The agreement between dobutamine stress echocardiography and DISA-SPECT was significantly better when second harmonic imaging was used (89%, kappa = 0.77, p = 0.001 v fundamental imaging). Second harmonic imaging applied during dobutamine stress echocardiography increases the agreement with DISA-SPECT for detecting myocardial viability.

  12. Mice carrying a complete deletion of the talin2 coding sequence are viable and fertile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debrand, Emmanuel; Conti, Francesco J.; Bate, Neil; Spence, Lorraine; Mazzeo, Daniela; Pritchard, Catrin A.; Monkley, Susan J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Critchley, David R., E-mail: drc@le.ac.uk [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice lacking talin2 are viable and fertile with only a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Talin2 null fibroblasts show no major defects in proliferation, adhesion or migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maintaining a colony of talin2 null mice is difficult indicating an underlying defect. -- Abstract: Mice homozygous for several Tln2 gene targeted alleles are viable and fertile. Here we show that although the expression of talin2 protein is drastically reduced in muscle from these mice, other tissues continue to express talin2 albeit at reduced levels. We therefore generated a Tln2 allele lacking the entire coding sequence (Tln2{sup cd}). Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice were viable and fertile, and the genotypes of Tln2{sup cd/+} intercrosses were at the expected Mendelian ratio. Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice showed no major difference in body mass or the weight of the major organs compared to wild-type, although they displayed a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Moreover, Tln2{sup cd/cd} mouse embryo fibroblasts showed no obvious defects in cell adhesion, migration or proliferation. However, the number of Tln2{sup cd/cd} pups surviving to adulthood was variable suggesting that such mice have an underlying defect.

  13. Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry F. Bartlett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures.

  14. Desiccation induces viable but Non-Culturable cells in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriezen, Jan Ac; de Bruijn, Frans J; Nüsslein, Klaus R

    2012-01-20

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a microorganism commercially used in the production of e.g. Medicago sativa seed inocula. Many inocula are powder-based and production includes a drying step. Although S. meliloti survives drying well, the quality of the inocula is reduced during this process. In this study we determined survival during desiccation of the commercial strains 102F84 and 102F85 as well as the model strain USDA1021.The survival of S. meliloti 1021 was estimated during nine weeks at 22% relative humidity. We found that after an initial rapid decline of colony forming units, the decline slowed to a steady 10-fold reduction in colony forming units every 22 days. In spite of the reduction in colony forming units, the fraction of the population identified as viable (42-54%) based on the Baclight live/dead stain did not change significantly over time. This change in the ability of viable cells to form colonies shows (i) an underestimation of the survival of rhizobial cells using plating methods, and that (ii) in a part of the population desiccation induces a Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC)-like state, which has not been reported before. Resuscitation attempts did not lead to a higher recovery of colony forming units indicating the VBNC state is stable under the conditions tested. This observation has important consequences for the use of rhizobia. Finding methods to resuscitate this fraction may increase the quality of powder-based seed inocula.

  15. Isolation of cell-free bacterial inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carmona, Escarlata; Cano-Garrido, Olivia; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Villaverde, Antonio; García-Fruitós, Elena

    2010-09-17

    Bacterial inclusion bodies are submicron protein clusters usually found in recombinant bacteria that have been traditionally considered as undesirable products from protein production processes. However, being fully biocompatible, they have been recently characterized as nanoparticulate inert materials useful as scaffolds for tissue engineering, with potentially wider applicability in biomedicine and material sciences. Current protocols for inclusion body isolation from Escherichia coli usually offer between 95 to 99% of protein recovery, what in practical terms, might imply extensive bacterial cell contamination, not compatible with the use of inclusion bodies in biological interfaces. Using an appropriate combination of chemical and mechanical cell disruption methods we have established a convenient procedure for the recovery of bacterial inclusion bodies with undetectable levels of viable cell contamination, below 10⁻¹ cfu/ml, keeping the particulate organization of these aggregates regarding size and protein folding features. The application of the developed protocol allows obtaining bacterial free inclusion bodies suitable for use in mammalian cell cultures and other biological interfaces.

  16. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hanning Chen; Yunlong Zhu; Kunyuan Hu

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how ...

  17. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

    2014-04-01

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

  18. Bacterial terpene cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2016-01-01

    Covering: up to 2015. This review summarises the accumulated knowledge about characterised bacterial terpene cyclases. The structures of identified products and of crystallised enzymes are included, and the obtained insights into enzyme mechanisms are discussed. After a summary of mono-, sesqui- and diterpene cyclases the special cases of the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol synthases that are both particularly widespread in bacteria will be presented. A total number of 63 enzymes that have been characterised so far is presented, with 132 cited references.

  19. Combing bacterial turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Nishiguchi, Daiki; Aronson, Igor

    Living systems represented by ensembles of motile organisms demonstrate a transition from a chaotic motion to a highly ordered state. Examples of such living systems include suspensions of bacteria, schools of fish, flocks of birds and even crowds of people. In spite of significant differences in interacting mechanisms and motion scales, ordered living systems have many similarities: short-range alignment of organism, turbulent-like motion, emergence of large-scale flows and dynamic vortices. In this work, we rectify a turbulent dynamics in suspensions of swimming bacteria Bacillus subtilis by imposing periodical constraints on bacterial motion. Bacteria, swimming between periodically placed microscopic vertical pillars, may self-organize in a stable lattice of vortices. We demonstrate the emergence of a strong anti-ferromagnetic order of bacterial vortices in a rectangular lattice of pillars. Hydrodynamic interaction between vortices increases the stability of an emerged pattern. The highest stability of vortices in the anti-ferromagnetic lattice and the fastest vortices speed were observed in structures with the periods comparable with a correlation length of bacterial unconstrained motion. A.S and I.A were supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science And Engineering, under contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357 and D.N was supported by ALPS and JSPS Grant No. 26-9915.

  20. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.