WorldWideScience

Sample records for viable alternative technology

  1. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  2. Removing hydrocarbons from soil more cost effectively than other conventional thermal technologies is now further enhanced when you can create viable recycling alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, B.B.F.; Harper, C.H. [CHH Consulting, Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The need for quick and accurate land remediation technology has become an important issue, as regulations and public opinion have placed pressure on industry leaders to find environmentally benign and less invasive solutions for handling and processing hazardous waste streams. This paper described the merging of two distinct and proven technologies used to remove and recover valuable liquids from the soil. The remaining soil can then be made into an environmentally friendly construction product. The technologies included the Earth Brick Press Model TB250 developed by Earth Brick International and the KAB-1000 PTDU thermal desorption unit developed by Terra-Tech Remediation. The thermal desorption process puts heated air into soil faster than conventional thermal treatment methods. A water wash process affects the chemistry of the remaining liquids and enhances the ability to reuse and recycle them. The Earth Brick Press takes the soils and additives and creates benign bricks. The blending of these two technologies has the potential to address cost, speed and future liability issues. The paper provided information on the project permits and licensing; product registration; and operational issues such as characteristics of the target soil; course versus fine soils; moisture levels; distribution of hydrocarbon content; and co-contaminant levels. The paper also discussed the technical support team, including inventors and partners; consultants and business development team; and third party consultants. It was concluded that the economic benefits of blending the two technologies may be enhanced by the benefit of positive public perceptions and the ability to give back to society. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R

    2003-11-10

    As clusters are widely accepted as cost-effective infrastructures for many scientific and commercial applications, improving the deliverable performance and reducing the energy consumption of such systems has become a pressing issue. In this paper, we exploit the feasibility of achieving these objectives through efficiently scheduling the communicating processes of parallel applications. In this context, we conduct an in-depth evaluation of a broad spectrum of scheduling alternatives for clusters. These include the widely used batch scheduling, local scheduling, gang scheduling, all prior communication-driven coscheduling algorithms, and a newly proposed HYBRID coscheduling algorithm. In order to provide ease of implementation and portability across many cluster platforms, we propose a generic framework for deploying any coscheduling algorithm. We have implemented four prior coscheduling algorithms (Dynamic Coscheduling (DCS), Spin Block (SB), Periodic Boost (PB), and Co-ordinated Coscheduling (CC)) and the HYBRID coscheduling using this framework on a 16-node, Myrinet connected Linux cluster that uses GM as the communication layer. In addition, we use PBS as the batch scheduler and a previously proposed gang scheduler (SCore) to analyze all classes of scheduling techniques. Performance and energy measurements using several NAS and LLNL benchmarks on the Linux cluster provide several interesting conclusions. First, although batch scheduling is currently used in most clusters, all blocking-based coscheduling techniques such as SB, CC and HYBRID and the gang scheduling can provide much better performance even in a dedicated cluster platform. Under high system load, these coscheduling schemes can provide orders of magnitude reduction in average response time and much better performance-energy behavior compared to the PBS scheme. Second, in contrast to some of the prior studies, we observe that blocking-based schemes like SB and HYBRID can provide better performance

  4. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The paper presents a brief review of palatogingival groove and highlights an easy and predictable alternative for its management.

  5. Case-based anatomy teaching: a viable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseonu, Onyedikachi; Carachi, Robert; Brindley, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a decline in the amount of time available for anatomy teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum, and new methods of anatomy teaching have been adopted for pragmatic reasons, with little evidence base to support their proposed educational benefits. This study seeks to establish the effect of a case-based teaching method on students' confidence in anatomy. Forty-three student volunteers in the clinical phase of the Glasgow medical course were given weekly anatomy teaching sessions based on clinical case presentations over 4 weeks. The students were given an anatomy test, and were asked to rate their confidence in their anatomy knowledge before and after the teaching sessions. There was a two-point increase in students' self-rated confidence, and a 10.9 per cent increase in average test score after the case-based anatomy teaching sessions. Both of these increases were statistically significant (p teaching was also highly rated by students, which may make it a viable option for the teaching of anatomy in the modern medical curriculum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Guleria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excellent alternative, has no learning curve and is ideally suited for donors in India who have a low BMI. The procedure is also relatively inexpensive. We are in need of a donor registry rather than reports from single institutions to fully evaluate the risks and benefits of both procedures.

  7. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  8. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  9. SMA actuators: a viable practical technology (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Hodgson, Darel E.

    2015-04-01

    Diverse products either based solely on or incorporating Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have and are being made in a wide range of industries, and IP is being captured. Why then compared to SE (superelastic) Nitinol, and especially conventional technology, do so few ideas reach production? This presentation delves deeply into this topic in reaching the final assessment that SMA actuators are indeed now a viable practical technology. The presentation begins with an introduction to and description of the fundamental basis of SMA actuator technology. Examples of multiple commercially available geometric forms of SMA actuators are given and the functionalities that they provide are described. This is followed by examples of multiple commercial products incorporating such SMA actuators. Given that there are literally millions of commercial products incorporating conventional actuator technologies, indications are given as to why there are their less than 1000 that utilize SMA. Experience based challenges to the commercial use of SMA actuators are described. Besides having to compete with existing non-SMA technology which is quite mature additional challenges that are unique to SM actuators are indicated these including a wider than expected set of technical engineering problems and challenges and that a broader scope of dynamics is required.

  10. ¡VAMOS! (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System) - a 'Horizon 2020' project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Cameron; Bodo, Balazs; Kapusniak, Stef; Bosman, Frank; Rainbird, Jenny; Silva, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    The 42-month ¡VAMOS! project (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System, Grant Agreement 642477, www.vamos-project.eu), funded by the EC H2020 Programme, will enable access to high-grade EU reserves of mineral ore-bodies by developing an innovative clean and low visibility mining technique. The project will demonstrate the technological and economic viability of the underwater extraction of metallic mineral deposits which are currently technologically, economically, and environmentally unobtainable. In doing so, ¡VAMOS! hopes to encourage investment in abandoned open-pit mines and prospective mines, helping to put the EU back on a level playing field with the rest of the world in terms of access to strategically important minerals. The ¡VAMOS! concept is defined by a remotely-operated underwater mining vehicle, adapted and improved from existing subsea mining technology. Operating in tandem with an HROV, the mining vehicle will connect to a flexible riser through which slurried mined material will be pumped from the mudline to onshore dewatering facilities via a floating mobile deployment-module, on which will be fitted a bypass system linked to an LIBS, allowing real-time grade-control. Analysis of European and national regulation and stakeholder assessments found there is significant support for developing the technology among local communities and governments. An initial environmental assessment of the potential impact of the innovative mining operation concluded the project has a smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining operations: this is due to factors including the quieter operation and absence of blasting, zero water-table flux, and the higher stripping ratio enabled by higher fluid pressure acting on the sidewalls of the mine. The prototypes are currently in their construction phase following a final design freeze in October 2016. Work is now underway on the foresight visioning, economic evaluation and policy guidelines for the

  11. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  12. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology...... is taken up. It is discussed that actor- approach can operationally relate the abstract societal factors with those of technical aspects. Some concrete measures regarding application of solar cooker projects are drawn from the discussion: solar cooking projects should a) be based on user and producer...

  13. FREE OPEN SOURCE AND SOFTWARE IN THE TEACHING OF CAT TOOLS: OMEGAT, A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Lúcio Caetano Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of Computer Aided Translation (CAT tools is essential to all courses aimed at preparing students for the effective exercise of this profession, in particular those students who will translate technical texts, especially in the field of localization. As an alternative to the paid commercial software which dominate the translation industry (such as SDL Trados Studio, Wordfast Pro and MemoQ, there are free proprietary softwares (such as Wordfast Anywhere and Google Translator Toolkit, and free open source ones (such as OmegaT and Anaphraseus. Starting from a description of CAT types and main functions, the purpose of this article is to point out, through an evaluative-comparative analysis based on a research and on a comparison between OmegaT, free proprietary softwares and others open source softwares, why and for which situations OmegaT is a viable alternative for the teaching of CAT tools in higher education.

  14. A viable technology to generate third-generation biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2011-01-01

    First generation biofuels are commercialized at large as the production technologies are well developed. However, to grow the raw materials, there is a great need to compromise with food security, which made first generation biofuels not so much promising. The second generation of biofuels does...... not have direct competition with food but requires several energy intensive processes to produce them and also increase the land use change, which reduces its environmental and economical feasibility. The third generation biofuels production avoids issues with first and second generation biofuels, viz...... of organic waste and carbon dioxide in flue gases for the production of biomass further increases the sustainability of third generation biofuels, as it does minimize greenhouse gases emission and disposal problems....

  15. Casing drilling TM : a viable technology for coal bed methane?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Muqeem, M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper highlighted the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling more than 30 wells using only casings as the drill stem, suggesting that such technology could be advantageous for Coal Bed Methane (CBM) exploration and development. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig that is ideal to meet the great demand for CBM development in Canada. The Casing Drilling TM system, when used in conjunction with the drilling rig, could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of CBM reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead and wire line retrieval can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or coal beds under balanced with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while finding gas at the same time. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling TM could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  17. Minimum Viable Product and the Importance of Experimentation in Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrila Rancic Moogk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often faced with limited resources in their quest to commercialize new technology. This article presents the model of a lean startup, which can be applied to an organization regardless of its size or environment. It also emphasizes the conditions of extreme uncertainty under which the commercialization of new technology is carried out. The lean startup philosophy advocates efficient use of resources by introducing a minimum viable product to the market as soon as possible in order to test its value and the entrepreneur’s growth projections. This testing is done by running experiments that examine the metrics relevant to three distinct types of the growth. These experiments bring about accelerated learning to help reduce the uncertainty that accompanies commercialization projects, thereby bringing the resulting new technology to market faster.

  18. Is Telemental Health Services a Viable Alternative to Traditional Psychotherapy for Deaf Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Teresa V

    2017-02-01

    Access to mental health treatment is a vital part of a comprehensive health care plan. Deaf individuals often have difficulty accessing mental health services. Four-hundred twenty-two participants completed an anonymous questionnaire about their perspectives of telemental health services for deaf individuals. Results showed that several variables, such as if the participant was unable to receive another type of psychotherapy and whether the therapist was ASL-fluent, were significantly related to whether the respondent would use TMH. The participants reported that TMH services are a viable option for treating a variety of mental health issues. Telemental health services can act as a bridge between consumers of mental health care and their providers allowing accessible and equitable healthcare opportunities.

  19. High resolution melt analysis (HRMA); a viable alternative to agarose gel electrophoresis for mouse genotyping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomsen, Nicole; Ali, Radiya G; Ahmed, Jehangir N; Arkell, Ruth M

    2012-01-01

    .... In contrast to the range of new technologies for mouse mutagenesis, genotyping methods have remained relatively static with alleles typically discriminated by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products...

  20. A fusion-driven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, M.; Jin, M.; FDS Team

    2011-10-01

    A fusion-driven hybrid subcritical system (FDS) concept has been designed and proposed as spent fuel burner based on viable technologies. The plasma fusion driver can be designed based on relatively easily achieved plasma parameters extrapolated from the successful operation of existing fusion experimental devices such as the EAST tokamak in China and other tokamaks in the world, and the subcritical fission blanket can be designed based on the well-developed technologies of fission power plants. The simulation calculations and performance analyses of plasma physics, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, thermomechanics and safety have shown that the proposed concept can meet the requirements of tritium self-sufficiency and sufficient energy gain as well as effective burning of nuclear waste from fission power plants and efficient breeding of nuclear fuel to feed fission power plants.

  1. Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: from science fiction ideas to viable technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J; Succi, Marc D; Langer, Robert

    2013-10-07

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micrometer-scale submarines and "cyborg" body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery: the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the predefined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics.

  2. Drug Delivery Interfaces in the 21st Century: From Science Fiction Ideas to Viable Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Beata; Webber, Matthew J.; Succi, Marc D.; Langer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Early science fiction envisioned the future of drug delivery as targeted micron-scale submarines and ‘Cyborg’ body parts. Here we describe the progression of the field toward technologies that are now beginning to capture aspects of this early vision. Specifically, we focus on the two most prominent types of systems in drug delivery – the intravascular micro/nano drug carriers for delivery to the site of pathology and drug-loaded implantable devices that facilitate release with the pre-defined kinetics or in response to a specific cue. We discuss the unmet clinical needs that inspire these designs, the physiological factors that pose difficult challenges for their realization, and viable technologies that promise robust solutions. We also offer a perspective on where drug delivery may be in the next 50 years based on expected advances in material engineering and in the context of future diagnostics. PMID:23915375

  3. The Blended Learning Environment: A Viable Alternative for Special Needs Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jennifer Hall

    2017-01-01

    The traditional classroom provides a classical medium for educating students by allowing an open forum of communication between the pupil and teacher. The last twenty-five years have opened a new realm of possibilities in education through the use of technology and virtual supplemental resources, designed to engage learners in all academic levels.…

  4. Extended-wear RGP contact lenses: a viable alternative to refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnider, C M

    1994-01-01

    The rigid gas-permeable (RGP) extended-wear lens offers a unique alternative to the hydrogel extended-wear lens as well as to refractive surgery. In suitable patients it can provide almost maintenance-free visual correction for a wide variety of refractive errors. With prudent patient selection, use of high-permeability RGP materials, sound lens design and fitting principles, and conservative follow-up procedures, RGP extended-wear lenses can have success rates exceeding those of either hydrogel extended-wear lenses or refractive surgery, with fewer complications. The complications that do occur are often predictable after a short period of daily wear, and the remainder can often be managed with small changes to lens design.

  5. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be

  6. Cataract surgery in mobile eye surgical unit: Safe and viable alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Pioneer Sangameswaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility and safety of a mobile eye surgical unit (MESU in providing quality cataract surgery for the indigent rural population with poor access to quality eye care. Materials and Methods: Two buses connected by a vestibule were built to meet the requirements for a self-sufficient operation theater (OT. In every camp, safe transportation of units, good alignment of buses, safe water, and maintenance of sterile environment were achieved with optimal utilization of OT. Results: Two thousand and twenty-one patients in 21 remote locations underwent cataract surgery in MESU between 2012 and 2015. Visual outcome was 6/9 or better in 79.3%, posterior capsular rupture in 0.91%, zonulardialysis in 0.3%, aphakia in 0.2%, iridodialysis in 0.2%, and there was no incidence of endophthalmitis. Conclusion: MESU is a safe alternative in combating preventable blindness due to cataract in far-off villages and tribal areas by providing quality eye care at the patient′s doorstep. This model has a great potential for duplication in other parts of India.

  7. Agrofood chains: a viable alternative for sustainable rural development or consolidation of big business?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Yumbla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the 90s, following patterns that responded to the global corporate food regime, the government of Ecuador encouraged the formation of agro-food chains, among them, the chain of corn-animal feed- poultry. The food chain includes two service links (SL and four productive links (PL controlled by companies such as Pronaca, Agripac, Ecuaquímica and Supermaxi. These companies implemented horizontal, vertical, financial, and brand integrations, as strategies to consolidate market power and something even more prejudicial –the shaping of decisions regarding what and how to plant, and the available choices of what and how to consume– progressively creating a gap between producers and consumers.This model promotes corn monoculture through contract farming, encourages the use of agrochemicals, and endorses large poultry and swine processing factories which cause air, soil and water pollution from the ‘by products’, gas, feces and urine produced by the animals. Additionally, it promotes, supports an increases the consumption of animal protein, which is energy inefficient.The article discusses the consolidation of the agro-food chain, corn –processed food– poultry, and their links in order to determine if the integration of producers and consumers in this chain is an alternative to equitable development. Or are they part of the business strategies that respond to global food systems?

  8. STRATEGIC ALLIANCES – VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO CREATE A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN A GLOBAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina NICOLAU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, in the light of the economic turbulences all around the world, one of the most important ways to assure a competitive advantage is creating a strategic alliance. Such collaborative ventures between firms were developed as a response to the changes which have been happening to the world economy as increased competition, higher costs of developing new products, accelerated technological changes and, maybe the most important – the recent world economic crises. Being part of a strategic alliance creates competitive advantage for the companies by establishing their presence worldwide, by building up operating experience in overseas markets and gaining access to those national markets that were inaccessible before. At the same time, a strategic alliance means management commitment, special skills and forward planning for each company which takes part to an alliance.

  9. Basilic vein transposition: A viable alternative for multiple failed arteriovenous fistulas - A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sudhir Chipde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary use of the autogenous arteriovenous access is recommended by the National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. In spite of troublesome comorbidities associated with basilic vein transposition (BVT, it is still the most preferred technique when autologous veins are not suitable to construct radio-cephalic fistula (RCF and brachiocephalic fistula (BCF, arteriovenous fistula (AVF. The present study highlights our experience with BVT, with small incision technique, over a period of two years with excellent outcome. This retrospective study included all the patients who underwent BVT at our tertiary care center between March 2013 and March 2015. It was performed in patients with failed previous RCF or BCF or who had small caliber or thrombosed cephalic veins. The patients with minimum 3 mm basilic vein diameter on Doppler were only included in the study. A 3-cm horizontal incision was made in antecubital fossa to expose brachial artery and basilic vein. Multiple longitudinal separate second skin incisions (2–3 cm were made to explore proximal part of basilic vein. Side branches of the vein were isolated and ligated. The divided basilic vein in antecubital fossa was brought over fascia through newly created subcutaneous tunnel followed by end-to-side anastomosis. A total of 18 (12 males and 6 females underwent BVT in the two years period. The mean fistula maturation time was 42 ± 10 days. Maturation rate was 100%, and the postoperative flow rate was 290 ± 22 (mL/min. No bleeding, thrombosis, failure, pseudo aneurysm, or rupture occurred in our patients. Arm edema occurred in ix (33% patients, infection in three (17%, and lymphorrhea in five (28%. The mean follow-up was six months. BVT is an alternative method with excellent initial maturation and functional patency rates requiring less extensive skin incision and surgical dissection. It is the most durable hemodialysis access procedure for those patients

  10. Bioethanol from poplar clone Imola: an environmentally viable alternative to fossil fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Li, Changsheng; Facciotto, Gianni; Bergante, Sara; Bhatia, Rakesh; Comolli, Roberto; Ferré, Chiara; Murphy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues, e.g. climate change, fossil resource depletion have triggered ambitious national/regional policies to develop biofuel and bioenergy roles within the overall energy portfolio to achieve decarbonising the global economy and increase energy security. With the 10 % binding target for the transport sector, the Renewable Energy Directive confirms the EU's commitment to renewable transport fuels especially advanced biofuels. Imola is an elite poplar clone crossed from Populus deltoides Bartr. and Populus nigra L. by Research Units for Intensive Wood Production, Agriculture Research Council in Italy. This study examines its suitability for plantation cultivation under short or very short rotation coppice regimes as a potential lignocellulosic feedstock for the production of ethanol as a transport biofuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to model the cradle-to-gate environmental profile of Imola-derived biofuel benchmarked against conventional fossil gasoline. Specific attention was given to analysing the agroecosystem fluxes of carbon and nitrogen occurring in the cultivation of the Imola biomass in the biofuel life cycle using a process-oriented biogeochemistry model (DeNitrification-DeComposition) specifically modified for application to 2G perennial bioenergy crops and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Our results demonstrate that carbon and nitrogen cycling in perennial crop-soil ecosystems such as this example can be expected to have significant effects on the overall environmental profiles of 2G biofuels. In particular, soil carbon accumulation in perennial biomass plantations is likely to be a significant component in the overall greenhouse gas balance of future biofuel and other biorefinery products and warrants ongoing research and data collection for LCA models. We conclude that bioethanol produced from Imola represents a promising alternative transport fuel offering some savings ranging from 35 to 100 % over petrol in global

  11. The Web-Lecture - a viable alternative to the traditional lecture format?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, S.

    2004-12-01

    Educational research shows that students learn best in an environment with emphasis on teamwork, problem-solving, and hands-on experience. Still professors spend the majority of their time with students in the traditional lecture-hall setting where the combination of large classes and limited time prevents sufficient student-teacher interaction to foster an active learning environment. Can modern computer technology be used to provide "lecture-type" information to students via the World Wide Web? If so, will that help professors make better and/or different use of their scheduled time with the students? Answering these questions was the main motivation for the Extra-Solar Planet Project. The Extra-Solar Planet Project was designed to test the effectiveness of a lecture available to the student on the World Wide Web (Web-Lecture) and to engage the students in an active learning environment were their use the information presented in the Web-Lecture. The topic of the Web-Lecture was detection of extra-solar planets and the project was implemented into an introductory astronomy course at University of Wisconsin Madison in the spring of 2004. The Web-Lecture was designed to give an interactive presentation of synchronized video, audio and lecture notes. It was created using the eTEACH software developed at the University of Wisconsin Madison School of Engineering. In my talk, I will describe the project, show excerpts of the Web-Lecture, and present assessments of student learning and results of student evaluations of the web-lecture format.

  12. Waste association in mass for coating formulations: a viable alternative to dispose; Associacao de residuos em formulacoes de massas para revestimentos: uma alternativa viavel ao descarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.A.C.; Soares Filho, J.E.; Souza, F.J.P.; Almeida, V.S. de; Oliveira, T.M. de, E-mail: erikcferreira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The ceramic coatings industries are able to use in their formulations whose waste Eco disposal make the costly disposal, being able to reduce production costs by replacing traditional inputs for mining and industrial waste. Their raw materials are classified as plasticizers, fluxes and structural according to their physicochemical characteristics. Since waste falls within these classifications, their use in formulations becomes a viable and attractive alternative from an ecological point of view and marketing. Several studies have attested to waste incorporating viability porcelains formulations, however, is not common to find studies evaluating the addition of more than one simultaneously in formulations. It is the objective of the study, to examine whether fine waste rock and kaolin together with traditional raw materials are able to produce porcelain wet as technological properties defined by the NBR-13818. (author)

  13. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-08-20

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains.

  14. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  15. Commercializing Biorefinery Technology: A Case for the Multi-Product Pathway to a Viable Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available While there may be many reasons why very interesting science ideas never reach commercial practice, one of the more prevalent is that the reaction or process, which is scientifically possible, cannot be made efficient enough to achieve economic viability. One pathway to economic viability for many business sectors is the multi-product portfolio. Research, development, and deployment of viable biorefinery technology must meld sound science with engineering and business economics. It is virtually axiomatic that increased value can be generated by isolating relatively pure substances from heterogeneous raw materials. Woody biomass is a heterogeneous raw material consisting of the major structural components, cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses, as well as minor components, such as extractives and ash. Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of D-glucopyrano-units with β-D(1®4 connections and is the wood component most resistant to chemical and biological degradation. Lignin is a macromolecule of phenylpropanoid units, second to cellulose in bio-resistance, and is the key component that is sought for removal from woody biomass in chemical pulping. Hemicelluloses are a collection of heteropolysaccharides, comprised mainly of 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Extractives, some of which have high commercial value, are a collection of low molecular weight organic and inorganic woody materials that can be removed, to some extent, under mild conditions. Applied Biorefinery Sciences, LLC (a private, New York, USA based company is commercializing a value-optimization pathway (the ABS Process™ for generating a multi-product portfolio by isolating and recovering homogeneous substances from each of the above mentioned major and minor woody biomass components. The ABS Process™ incorporates the patent pending, core biorefinery technology, “hot water extraction”, as developed at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  18. A methodology for the comparative evaluation of alternative bioseparation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Richard; Zhou, Yuhong; Lacki, Karol M; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2008-01-01

    Advances in upstream technologies and growing commercial demand have led to cell culture processes of ever larger volumes and expressing at higher product titers. This has increased the burden on downstream processing. Concerns regarding the capacity limitations of packed-bed chromatography have led process engineers to begin investigating new bioseparation techniques that may be considered as "alternatives" to chromatography, and which could potentially offer higher processing capacities but at a lower cost. With the wide range of alternatives, which are currently available, each with their own strengths and inherent limitations, coupled with the time pressures associated with process development, the challenge for process engineers is to determine which technologies are most worth investigating. This article presents a methodology based on a multiattribute decision making (MADM) analysis approach, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data, which can be used to determine the "industrial attractiveness" of bioseparation technologies, accounting for trade-offs between their strengths and weaknesses. By including packed-bed chromatography in the analysis as a reference point, it was possible to determine the alternatives, which show the most promise for use in large-scale manufacturing processes. The results of this analysis show that although the majority of alternative techniques offer certain advantages over conventional packed-bed chromatography, their attractiveness overall means that currently none of these technologies may be considered as viable alternatives to chromatography. The methodology introduced in this study may be used to gain significant quantitative insight as to the key areas in which improvements are required for each technique, and thus may be used as a tool to aid in further technological development.

  19. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  20. 40 CFR 35.2032 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Innovative and alternative technologies... Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Funding for innovative and alternative technologies. Projects or... innovative or alternative technology shall receive increased grants under § 35.2152. (1) Only funds from the...

  1. Combustion aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels as a viable demil technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Davis, K.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J.; Sclippa, G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1996-05-01

    This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2,600 ppm on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen-containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.

  2. Views on Finnish energy technology programmes. Environmentally viable results for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannus, S.; Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Finland`s exports of energy technology have been growing dynamically over the past few years and they have now exceeded net imports of oil. Highly efficient technology has not only been applied to the national energy economy but also exported to more than 140 other countries. Finnish skills in this field are the result of many traditional factors: the cold climate, long distances between towns, energy-intensivity industry and the lack of fossil fuels in Finland. In addition to these geographical and natural factors, Finnish expertise in energy has been radically influenced by especially favourable organizational and institutional conditions: the mechanisms for competition in the domestic marketplace ant strong networking both in Finland and abroad. The small home market has also been a stimulus for exports. Finland`s potential new subdivisions of energy fields include automation and IT for energy production systems, which is based on strong Finnish expertise and success in information technology. Another new field with potential is photoelectric systems, an area in which Finland is already well placed on the market. The extensive utilization of solar energy in northern latitudes calls for the seasonal storage of energy. The use of hydrogen as a means of storing solar power has been studied with good results in the NEMO 2 Technology Programme. In addition Finland put great emphasis on renewable energy sources like biomass, combustion processes and environmental technologies related to the energy sector. Harvesting and utilisation of biomass has been studied in the national BIOENERGIA programme. Combustion processes have been studied in the LIEKKI 2 programme. A variety of different energy related environmental technologies have been studied in the S1HTI 2 programme

  3. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology Analysis Group

    1995-05-24

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ``wise`` configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE`s mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities.

  4. The Technology of Waste, Biofuels and Global Warming in Viable Closed Loop, Sustainable Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Butterworth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research set out to explore and develop a route relating the recycling of urban and industrial wastes to land to produce agricultural crops with energy crops in the rotation, using the green leaf to “harvest” sunlight and to examine the sequestration of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen in a sustainable closed loop. Further, to establish if the pollution, particularly of nitrogen and phosphates (often associated with cultivations and use of mineral fertilisers could be reduced or eliminated, so as to be able to develop systems which could contribute to the reversal of global warming. Finally, to probe whether practical operators on the ground could understand the technology, use it, and express what they were doing in a way acceptable to a wider society.

  5. High Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA); a Viable Alternative to Agarose Gel Electrophoresis for Mouse Genotyping: e45252

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicole Thomsen; Radiya G Ali; Jehangir N Ahmed; Ruth M Arkell

    2012-01-01

    .... In contrast to the range of new technologies for mouse mutagenesis, genotyping methods have remained relatively static with alleles typically discriminated by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products...

  6. Bosch - An alternate CO2 reduction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Clark, D. C.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1979-01-01

    The Bosch process is the most promising CO2 reduction concept for future prolonged space missions. The paper presents the design of a three-person-capacity preprototype B-CRS (Bosch-based CO2 Reduction Subsystem). It is sized to reduce 3.0 kg/d CO2 generated by the crew and to supply the product water to an O2 generation subsystem to obtain O2. The design supports future development of the B-CRS as an alternative CO2 reduction subsystem to the Sabatier-based process presently under test at NASA. The discussion covers the Bosch CO2 reduction concept, process and hardware description, performance parameters, design specifications, subsystem schematic and operation, mechanical subsystem summary, control/monitor instrumentation, and subsystem packaging. A B-CRS with a proven technological base is an attractive CO2 reduction subsystem that eliminates overboard venting.

  7. Chest ultrasound in the evaluation of complicated pneumonia in the ICU patients: Can be viable alternative to CT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham El Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Chest US provides an accurate evaluation of the pleural and parenchymal abnormalities associated with complicated pneumonia in the ICU patients. Considering that chest US is a bedside and avoids transportation of the patient outside ICU, free of radiation exposure and easily repeatable, chest US appears to be an attractive alternative to CT.

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  9. IS COMMUNITY JUSTICE A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND DOES IT CONTRIBUTE TO THE LOCAL BUSINESS ECONOMY?

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Lewis; Maryam Davodi-Far

    2008-01-01

    Local communities are suffering extreme financial and economic hardships due to falling revenues and increased expenditures and therefore must seek alternate means to balance their budgets. A very large expenditure that must be borne by every community is the administration of the Criminal Justice System. As a result, many communities are trying to develop a more proactive approach to fighting crime by undertaking new and innovative approaches to solving their worsening crime problems and at ...

  10. Nondestructive detection of total viable count changes of chilled pork in high oxygen storage condition based on hyperspectral technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    The plate count method is commonly used to detect the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in pork, which is timeconsuming and destructive. It has also been used to study the changes of the TVC in pork under different storage conditions. In recent years, many scholars have explored the non-destructive methods on detecting TVC by using visible near infrared (VIS/NIR) technology and hyperspectral technology. The TVC in chilled pork was monitored under high oxygen condition in this study by using hyperspectral technology in order to evaluate the changes of total bacterial count during storage, and then evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the storage condition. The VIS/NIR hyperspectral images of samples stored in high oxygen condition was acquired by a hyperspectral system in range of 400 1100nm. The actual reference value of total bacteria was measured by standard plate count method, and the results were obtained in 48 hours. The reflection spectra of the samples are extracted and used for the establishment of prediction model for TVC. The spectral preprocessing methods of standard normal variate transformation (SNV), multiple scatter correction (MSC) and derivation was conducted to the original reflectance spectra of samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) of TVC was performed and optimized to be the prediction model. The results show that the near infrared hyperspectral technology based on 400-1100nm combined with PLSR model can describe the growth pattern of the total bacteria count of the chilled pork under the condition of high oxygen very vividly and rapidly. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the nondestructive method of TVC based on NIR hyperspectral has great potential in monitoring of edible safety in processing and storage of meat.

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Pudendal Block is a Viable Alternative to Caudal Block for Hypospadias Surgery: a Single Surgeon Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Sarah; Piñeda, Jorge; Bayne, Aaron

    2017-11-16

    To evaluate pudendal nerve block as an alternative to caudal block for hypospadias surgery. Data were obtained by chart review. Children who underwent hypospadias repair between 2012 and 2016 by a single surgeon at an academic institution were included. Patients received ultrasound-guided pudendal block (n=21) or caudal block (n=19) as a regional adjunct to general anesthesia. Primary outcomes included analgesic requirement and postoperative length of stay in the recovery unit. The pudendal block cohort was slightly older (27.6 vs. 18.5 months, p = 0.017) and had more severe hypospadias than the caudal block cohort (53% vs. 35% proximal hypospadias, respectively). We detected no statistically significant difference in intraoperative opioid, postoperative opioid, or nonopioid analgesic requirement (17.9 vs. 12.9 mcg fentanyl, p=0.267; 0.3 vs. 0.3 doses, p = 0.92; 0.2 vs. 0.1 doses, p= 0.46, respectively). Postoperative length of stay was significantly shorter in the pudendal block cohort (96 vs. 128 minutes, p=0.016). We are the first to report the use of ultrasound-guided pudendal block for hypospadias repair. This appears to be a safe, effective alternative to caudal block with no perioperative delays. Pudendal block has several advantages over caudal block. It avoids the risks of urinary retention and lower extremity weakness and can be administered to older patients and children with spinal anomalies. Compared to caudal block, ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block is safe, provides equivalent pain control for hypospadias repair, and results in a shorter time to discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional Reconstruction of a Combined Tendocutaneous Defect of the Achilles Using a Segmental Rectus Femoris Myofascial Construct: A Viable Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vincent DeFazio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The composite anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata has emerged as a workhorse at our institution for complex Achilles defects requiring both tendon and soft tissue reconstruction. Safe elevation of this flap, however, is occasionally challenged by absent or inadequate perforators supplying the anterolateral thigh. When discovered intraoperatively, alternative options derived from the same vascular network can be pursued. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who underwent composite Achilles defect reconstruction using a segmental rectus femoris myofascial free flap. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient resumed full activity and was able to ambulate on his tip-toes. At 1-year follow-up, active total range of motion of the reconstructed ankle exceeded 85% of the unaffected side, and donor site morbidity was negligible. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores improved by 78.8% and 28.8%, respectively, compared to preoperative baseline assessments. Based on our findings, we advocate for use of the combined rectus femoris myofascial free flap as a rescue option for reconstructing composite Achilles tendon/posterior leg defects in the setting of inadequate anterolateral thigh perforators. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe use of this flap for such an indication.

  13. A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Banfield, Laura E; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

  14. Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii; Joos, Karen M; Schwettman, H Alan; Jansen, E Duco

    2007-03-01

    Investigations with a Mark-III free electron laser, tuned to 6.45 microm in wavelength have demonstrated minimal collateral damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While the use of mid-IR light produced by the free electron laser (FEL) has shown much promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited due the high costs of its use. Further investigation and widespread clinical use of six-micron radiation requires the development of an alternative laser source. In this research, we compared a Mark-III FEL and an Er:YAG pumped ZGP-OPO with respect to the effect of pulse duration on ablation efficiency and thermal damage on porcine cornea. A five by seven grid of craters was made about the center of each cornea. Craters were made with a 60-microm spotsize with a 500-microm spacing. Ablation craters were made using 50 pulses per crater at approximately three times the ablation threshold (for water). Histological analysis was used to determine crater depth and thermal damage. The average zone of thermal damage at 6.1 microm was found to be 4.1 microm for the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and 5.4 microm for the FEL. At 6.45 microm, the damaged zone was 7.2 microm for the OPO and 7.2 microm for the FEL. At 6.73 microm, the damaged zone was 6.3 microm for the OPO and 7.6 microm+/-0.3 microm for the FEL. The OPO caused similar or significantly less thermal damage in porcine cornea when compared with the FEL while generating significantly deeper craters. We determined that the ZGP-OPO has much promise as a bench-top replacement for the FEL for soft tissue ablation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  15. Use of core biopsy in diagnosing cervical lymphadenopathy: a viable alternative to surgical excisional biopsy of lymph nodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, D; David, S; Jacob, A; Mir, N; Giles, A; Gibbins, N

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVES Lymphoma often presents with a neck mass and while fine-needle aspiration cytology may be suggestive, tissue biopsy is required for reliable diagnosis and classification of a lymphoma that is sufficient to deliver the correct treatment for the patient. Traditionally, excisional biopsy of a lymph node has been the standard method of tissue sampling, providing ample tissue for assessment. However, this requires theatre time, and preceding fine-needle aspiration cytology, which may incur a delay. With careful use of tissue, coupled with advances in immunohistochemical and molecular investigative techniques, core biopsy provides a possible alternative to traditional fine-needle aspiration and excisional biopsy. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of diagnosing neck masses. METHOD A retrospective analysis was performed of patients being investigated for a neck mass who were undergoing ultrasound-guided core biopsies of cervical lymph nodes over a 17-month period. The final histology report was scrutinised to assess whether adequate tissue was obtained to allow for full tissue diagnosis. RESULTS Over the 17-month period analysed, 70 patients with cervical lymphadenopathy underwent core biopsy. Of these, 63 (90%) were diagnostic for either lymphoma or other pathology and did not require further tissue sampling. Overall, 19 patients were diagnosed with lymphoma, of which only 1 required further biopsy due to inconclusive initial core biopsy. CONCLUSIONS Current guidelines for investigating lymphomas require that excisional biopsy be performed to obtain ample tissue to allow full nodal architecture assessment and ancillary investigation to reach an accurate histological classification. Within our head and neck multidisciplinary team, however, it is considered that results from core biopsies can be obtained in a more timely fashion and with histological accuracy equal to those of open biopsy. The results obtained demonstrate that core biopsy is an

  16. Impact of ancient cereals, pseudocereals and legumes on starch hydrolysis and antiradical activity of technologically viable blended breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino

    2014-11-26

    Wheat flour replacement from 22.5% up to 45% by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours provided technologically viable and acceptable sensory rated multigrain breads with superior nutritional value compared to the 100% wheat flour (WT) counterparts. Blended breads exhibited superior nutritional composition, larger amounts of bioaccessible polyphenols, higher anti-radical activity, and lower and slower starch digestibility. Simultaneous lower rapidly digestible starch (57.1%) and higher slowly digestible starch (12.9%) and resistant starch (2.8%) contents (g per 100g fresh bread), considered suitable nutritional trends for dietary starch fractions, were met by the blend formulated 7.5% T, 15% GP, 15% BK. The associated mixture that replaced 37.5% WT, showed a rather lower extent and slower rate of starch hydrolysis with medium-low values for C∞, and H90, and lowest k, and intermediate expected Glycaemic Index (86). All multigrain breads can be labelled as source of dietary fibre (≥ 3 g dietary fibre/100g bread). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The heparin-glutathione test: an alternative to the hypo-osmotic swelling test to select viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, F J; Rubio, C; Tarín, J J

    1998-12-01

    To evaluate the heparin-glutathione test (HEGLUT) for the selection of viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study. Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Valencia and Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Semen samples from healthy donors and patients with infertility. Sperm samples were kept in culture for different periods in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented or not supplemented with heparin, reduced glutathione (GSH), or a heparin-GSH mixture. Control and heparin-GSH-treated spermatozoa were injected into hamster oocytes. The HEGLUT and ICSI were performed. Sperm nuclear decondensation, progressive and nonprogressive motility, and male pronucleus formation. The maximum proportion of sperm nuclear decondensation (28.7%+/-2.1% versus 2.6%+/-0.5% in the control group) was reached after 60 minutes of incubation in the presence of a heparin-GSH mixture. Differences in the percentages of progressive and nonprogressive motility among treatments and times of incubation, although statistically significant, were biologically negligible. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rate of sperm head decondensation (8.2% [4/49] versus 11.1% [6/54]) and male pronucleus formation (18.4% [9/49] versus 22.2% [12/541) after the injection of control and treated spermatozoa into hamster oocytes. The HEGLUT may offer an alternative to the hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of viable sperm for ICSI.

  18. Chemical Safety Alert: Safer Technology and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This alert is intended to introduce safer technology concepts and general approaches, explains the concepts and principles, and gives brief examples of the integration of safer technologies into facility risk management activities.

  19. Comparing an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative for mid-infrared tissue ablation with a free electron laser (FEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M; Contag, Christopher H; Kozub, John A; Jansen, E Duco

    2012-11-01

    Beneficial medical laser ablation removes material efficiently with minimal collateral damage. A Mark-III free electron laser (FEL), at a wavelength of 6.45 μm has demonstrated minimal damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While this wavelength has shown promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited by the high overhead for FEL use. Alternative mid-infrared sources are needed for further development. We compared the FEL with a 5-μs pulse duration with a Q-switched ZGP-OPO with a 100-ns pulse duration at mid-infrared wavelengths. There were no differences in the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis with these two sources in spite of the difference in their pulse structures. There was a significant difference in crater depth between the ZGP:OPO and the FEL. At 6.1 μm, the OPO craters are eight times the depth of the FEL craters. The OPO craters at 6.45 and 6.73 μm were six and five times the depth of the FEL craters, respectively. Bright-field (pump-probe) images showed the classic ablation mechanism from formation of a plume through collapse and recoil. The crater formation, ejection, and collapse phases occurred on a faster time-scale with the OPO than with the FEL. This research showed that a ZGP-OPO laser could be a viable alternative to FEL for clinical applications.

  20. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  1. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L. S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-01-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and institutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included.

  2. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  3. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    .... Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1...

  4. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Bhattacharya, Saugato; Sarkar, Tathagato; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro's limit (that is, above a potency of 12C) has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient's family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases.

  5. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    reactions going to completion without side reactions, and lower demands on materials of construction. Three university research groups from PSU, USC, and TU as well as a group from ANL have been collaborating on the development of enabling technologies for the Cu-Cl cycle, including experimental work on the Cu-Cl cycle reactions, modeling and simulation, and particularly electrochemical reaction for hydrogen production using a CuCl electrolyzer. The Consortium research was distributed over the participants and organized in the following tasks: (1) Development of CuCl electrolyzer (PSU), (2) Thermodynamic modeling of anolyte solution (PSU), (3) Proton conductive membranes for CuCl electrolysis (PSU), (4) Development of an analytical method for online analysis of copper compounds in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (USC), (5) Electrodialysis as a means for separation and purification of the streams exiting the electrolyzer in the Cu-Cl cycle (USC), (6) Development of nanostructured electrocatalysts for the Cu-Cl electrolysis (USC), (7) Cu-Cl electrolyzer modeling (USC), (8) Aspen Plus modeling of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (TU), (9) International coordination of research on the development of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (ANL). The results obtained in the project clearly demonstrate that the Cu-Cl alternative thermochemical cycle is a promising and viable technology to produce hydrogen efficiently.

  6. Harnessing microbial gene pools to remediate persistent organic pollutants using genetically modified plants--a viable technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylott, Elizabeth L; Johnston, Emily J; Bruce, Neil C

    2015-11-01

    It has been 14 years since the international community came together to legislate the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), restricting the production and use of specific chemicals that were found to be environmentally stable, often bioaccumulating, with long-term toxic effects. Efforts are continuing to remove these pollutants from the environment. While incineration and chemical treatment can be successful, these methods require the removal of tonnes of soil, at high cost, and are damaging to soil structure and microbial communities. The engineering of plants for in situ POP remediation has had highly promising results, and could be a more environmentally-friendly alternative. This review discusses the characterization of POP-degrading bacterial pathways, and how the genes responsible have been harnessed using genetic modification (GM) to introduce these same abilities into plants. Recent advances in multi-gene cloning, genome editing technologies and expression in monocot species are accelerating progress with remediation-applicable species. Examples include plants developed to degrade 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), trichloroethylene (TCE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, the costs and timescales needed to gain regulatory approval, along with continued public opposition, are considerable. The benefits and challenges in this rapidly developing and promising field are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. New sterilization technologies alternative to ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, Maryam; Lerouge, Sophie; Debrie, Anne; Yahia, L'Hocine

    1997-06-01

    Sterilization of biomedical devices may induce bulk and surface modification, responsible for the decrease or loss of their biofunctionality. Pure ethylene oxide (EO) at low temperature and new alternative techniques such as cold gas plasma sterilization have been developed for heat-sensitive polymers. There is a lack of the knowledge concerning their safety in terms of materials damage and consequences on the biofunctionality of sterilized devices. The objective of our work consists in studying bulk and surface changes in biomedical devices induced by these two sterilization techniques. Samples from PVC, Polyurethane, Polyacrylate and Polyethylene-based medical devices are subjected to 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles by Steri-Vac-3M (pure EO), Sterrad-100$TM, J&J (gas plasma + H2O2), and studied by X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary results show an increasing in Oxygen/Carbon ratio by a factor of 1.3 to 4.4 between the first and tenth cycle indicating the surface oxidation by gas plasma sterilization processes. Some changes in C-C chemical bounding are associated with EO sterilization.

  8. Alternative control technologies: Technologies de contrôle non conventionnelles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudgins, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    .... Through different chapters, the various human factors issues related to the introduction of alternative control technologies into military cockpits are reviewed, in conjunction with more technical...

  9. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3He-alternative

  10. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Haque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro’s limit (that is, above a potency of 12C has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. Methods: The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient’s family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. Results: The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Conclusion: Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases.

  11. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Bhattacharya, Saugato; Sarkar, Tathagato; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro’s limit (that is, above a potency of 12C) has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. Methods: The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient’s family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. Results: The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Conclusion: Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases. PMID:28097045

  12. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. 76 FR 539 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the... Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) published... National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS...

  14. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  15. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in water are up to 100 ug/1. According to MCL, present technologies are unadjusted for safely arsenic removal for concentrations below of 10 ug/1. This fact has inspired many companies to solve this problem adequately, by using an alternative technologies and new process able materials. In this paper the observation of conventional and the alternative technologies will be given, bearing in mind complex chemistry and electrochemistry of arsenic, formation of colloidal arsenic, which causes the biggest problems in water purification technologies. In this paper many results will be presented, which are obtained using the alternative technologies, as well as the newest results of original author's investigations. Using new nanomaterials, on Pilot plant "VALETA H2O-92", concentration of arsenic was removed far below MLC value.

  16. 76 FR 78889 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology... Technology's (NIST) Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) is designed to (1) improve hiring and...

  17. Alternative Solvents and Technologies for Precision Cleaning of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Hintze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Precision cleaning solvents for aerospace components and oxygen fuel systems, including currently used Vertrel-MCA, have a negative environmental legacy, high global warming potential, and have polluted cleaning sites. Thus, alternative solvents and technologies are being investigated with the aim of achieving precision contamination levels of less than 1 mg/sq ft. The technologies being evaluated are ultrasonic bath cleaning, plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide cleaning.

  18. 40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste water treatment works. Such technologies may be used in the construction of waste water treatment... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act... alternative to conventional treatment works for a small community (a municipality with a population of 3,500...

  19. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  20. Microwaving human faecal sludge as a viable sanitation technology option for treatment and value recovery - A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Oluwasola O D; Sohail, M

    2017-02-01

    The prolonged challenges and terrible consequences of poor sanitation, especially in developing economies, call for the exploration of new sustainable sanitation technologies. Such technologies must be: capable of effectively treating human faecal wastes without any health or environmental impacts; scalable to address rapid increases in population and urbanization; capable of meeting environmental regulations and standards for faecal management; and competitive with existing strategies. Further and importantly, despite its noxiousness and pathogenic load, the chemical composition of human faecal sludge indicates that it could be considered a potentially valuable, nutrient-rich renewable resource, rather than a problematic waste product. New approaches to faecal sludge management must consequently seek to incorporate a 'valuable resource recovery' approach, compatible with stringent treatment requirements. This review intends to advance the understanding of human faecal sludge as a sustainable organic-rich resource that is typically high in moisture (up to 97 per cent), making it a suitable candidate for dielectric heating, i.e. microwave irradiation, to promote faecal treatment, while also recovering value-added products such as ammonia liquor concentrate (suitable for fertilizers) and chars (suitable for fuel) - which can provide an economic base to sustain the technology. Additionally, microwaving human faecal sludge represents a thermally effective approach that can destroy pathogens, eradicate the foul odour associated human faecal sludge, while also preventing hazardous product formations and/or emissions, aside from other benefits such as improved dewaterability and heavy metals recovery. Key technological parameters crucial for scaling the technology as a complementary solution to the challenges of onsite sanitation are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, P W; Coleman, J A; Shull, R D; Matheny, R W; Hock, J C

    1981-02-01

    A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity.

  2. Beyond Moore's technologies: operation principles of a superconductor alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Igor I; Klenov, Nikolay V; Bakurskiy, Sergey V; Kupriyanov, Mikhail Yu; Gudkov, Alexander L; Sidorenko, Anatoli S

    2017-01-01

    The predictions of Moore's law are considered by experts to be valid until 2020 giving rise to "post-Moore's" technologies afterwards. Energy efficiency is one of the major challenges in high-performance computing that should be answered. Superconductor digital technology is a promising post-Moore's alternative for the development of supercomputers. In this paper, we consider operation principles of an energy-efficient superconductor logic and memory circuits with a short retrospective review of their evolution. We analyze their shortcomings in respect to computer circuits design. Possible ways of further research are outlined.

  3. Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackin, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

  4. The use of smart technologies in enabling construction components reuse: A viable method or a problem creating solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Purnell, Phil; Lim, Ming K

    2017-05-05

    The exploitation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for tracking and archiving the properties of structural construction components could be a potentially innovative disruption for the construction sector. This is because RFID can stimulate the reuse of construction components and reduce their wastage, hence addressing sustainability issues in the construction sector. To test the plausibility of that idea, this study explores the potential pre-conditions for RFID to facilitate construction components reuse, and develops a guidance for promoting their redistribution back to the supply chain. It also looks at how integrating RFID with Building Information Modelling (BIM) can possibly be a valuable extension of its capabilities, providing the opportunity for tracked components to be incorporated into new structures in an informed, sound way. A preliminary assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the RFID technology is presented in order to depict its current and future potential in promoting construction components' sustainable lifecycle management, while emphasis has been laid on capturing their technical, environmental, economic and social value. Findings suggest that the collection of the right amount of information at the design-construction-deconstruction-reuse-disposal stage is crucial for RFID to become a successful innovation in the construction sector. Although a number of limitations related to the technical operability and recycling of RFID tags seem to currently hinder its uptake for structural components' lifecycle management, future technological innovations could provide solutions that would enable it to become a mainstream practice. Taken together these proposals advocate that the use of RFID and its integration with BIM can create the right environment for the development of new business models focused on sustainable resource management. These models may then unlock multiple values that are otherwise dissipated in

  5. The use of ultrasound and slightly acidic electrolyzed water as alternative technologies in the meat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, D. R. M.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of meat from different animal species is defined by chemical, physical sensory and microbiological characteristics, which can be influenced by procedures during the slaughter of animals. Technologies such as ultrasound (US and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW are being studied in order to assist in food processing and in developing methods that are economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between US and SAEW in relation to tenderness, microbiology, and oxidation of meat. The meat industry was a pioneer in the use of the ultrasound, which initially aimed to determine the layer of fat on carcasses and subsequently improve the tenderness of the meat. Recently studies mention that the ultrasound and SAEW can influence the microbiological parameters. The combination of both technologies should also be considered, with the possibility of enhancing the antimicrobial effects. However, there is little information regarding oxidative parameters promoted in meat for these two alternative technologies, where the individual or when interspersed use. Knowing the actions and consequences of ultrasound and SAEW in meat will enable the opening of new perspectives about the application of these technologies in the meat industry.

  6. Liposomal systems as viable drug delivery technology for skin cancer sites with an outlook on lipid-based delivery vehicles and diagnostic imaging inputs for skin conditions'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naseem; Khan, Riaz A

    2016-10-01

    Skin cancer is among one of the most common human malignancies wide-spread world-over with mortality statistics rising continuously at an alarming rate. The increasing frequency of these malignancies has marked the need for adopting effective treatment plan coupled with better and site-specific delivery options for the desired therapeutic agent's availability at the affected site. The concurrent delivery approaches to cancerous tissues are under constant challenge and, as a result, are evolving and gaining advancements in terms of delivery modes, therapeutic agents and site-specificity of the therapeutics delivery. The lipid-based liposomal drug delivery is an attractive and emerging option, and which is meticulously shaping up beyond a threshold level to a promising, and viable route for the effective delivery of therapeutic agents and other required injuctions to the skin cancer. An update on liposomal delivery of chemotherapeutic agents, natural-origin compounds, photosensitizer, and DNA repair enzymes as well as other desirable and typical delivery modes employed in drug delivery and in the treatment of skin cancers is discussed in details. Moreover, liposomal delivery of nucleic acid-based therapeutics, i.e., small interfering RNA (siRNA), mRNA therapy, and RGD-linked liposomes are among the other promising novel technology under constant development. The current clinical applicability, viable clinical plans, future prospects including transport feasibility of delivery vesicles and imaging techniques in conjunction with the therapeutic agents is also discussed. The ongoing innovations in liposomal drug delivery technology for skin cancers hold promise for further development of the methodology for better, more effective and site-specific delivery as part of the better treatment plan by ensuring faster drug transport, better and full payload delivery with enough and required concentration of the dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The U.S. Department of Education's "Race-Neutral Alternatives in Postsecondary Education: Innovative Approaches to Diversity"--Are They Viable Substitutes for Affirmative Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    On March 28, 2003 the U.S. Department of Education (ED) issued a report titled "Race-Neutral Alternatives in Postsecondary Education: Innovative Approaches to Diversity." The purpose of this report is to describe a number of race-neutral approaches that postsecondary institutions across the United States are using. This staff assessment by the…

  8. Are early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVG) a viable alternative to tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs)? An observational "virtual study" and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Emma; Iqbal, Kashfa; Thomson, Peter; Kasthuri, Ram; Kingsmore, David

    2016-05-07

    Early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVGs) are advocated as an alternative to tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs). A real-time observational "virtual study" and budget impact model was performed to evaluate a strategy of ecAVG as a replacement to TCVC as a bridge to definitive access creation. Data on complications and access-related bed days was collected prospectively for all TCVCs inserted over a six-month period (n = 101). The feasibility and acceptability of an alternative strategy (ecAVGs) was also evaluated. A budget impact model comparing the two strategies was performed. Autologous access in the form of native fistula was the goal wherever possible. We found 34.7% (n = 35) of TCVCs developed significant complications (including 17 culture-proven bacteraemia and one death from line sepsis). Patients spent an average of 11.9 days/patient/year in hospital as a result of access-related complications. The wait for TCVC insertion delayed discharge in 35 patients (median: 6 days). The ecAVGs were a practical and acceptable alternative to TCVCs in over 80% of patients. Over a 6-month period, total treatment costs per patient wereGBP5882 in the TCVC strategy and GBP4954 in the ecAVG strategy, delivering potential savings ofGBP927 per patient. The ecAVGs had higher procedure and re-intervention costs (GBP3014 vs. GBP1836); however, these were offset by significant reductions in septicaemia treatment costs (GBP1322 vs. GBP2176) and in-patient waiting time bed costs (GBP619 vs. GBP1870). Adopting ecAVGs as an alternative to TCVCs in patients requiring immediate access for haemodialysis may provide better individual patient care and deliver cost savings to the hospital.

  9. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, S.; Due-Hansen, J.; Putluru, S.S.R.; Kunov-Kruse, A.; Fehrmann, R.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-04-15

    The aim of the project is to identify, make and test possible alkali resistant deNO{sub x} catalysts for use in biomass, waste or fossil fuelled power plants, where the flue gas typically has a high level of potassium compounds, which rapidly de-activate the traditional V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst. Furthermore, new technologies are investigated based on a protective coating of the catalyst elements and selective reversible absorption of NO{sub x} with ionic liquids. Several promising alternative deNO{sub x} catalyst types have been made during the project: 1) V, Fe, CU based nano-TiO{sub 2} and nano-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} catalysts; 2) V/ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}- and V/ZrO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts; V, Fe, Cu based Zeolite catalysts; 4) V, Fe, Cu based Heteropoly acid catalysts. Several of these are promising alternatives to the state-of the art industrial reference catalyst. All catalysts prepared in the present project exhibit higher to much higher alkali resistance compared to the commercial reference. Furthermore, two catalysts, i.e. 20 wt% V{sub 2}O-3-TiO{sub 2} nano-catalyst and the 4 wt% CuO-Mordenite zeolite based catalyst have also a higher initial SCR activity compared to the commercial one before alkali poisoning. Thus, those two catalysts might be attractive for SCR deNO{sub x} purposes even under ''normal'' fuel conditions in power plants and elsewhere making them strong candidates for further development. These efforts regarding all the promising catalysts will be pursued after this project has expired through a one year Proof of Concept project granted by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. Also the severe rate of deactivation due to alkali poisons can be avoided by coating the vanadium catalyst with Mg. Overall, the protective coating of SCR catalysts developed in the project seems promising and a patent application has been filed for this technology. Finally, a completely different approach to

  10. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program, Erie County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswanger, Robert C. [Daemen College, Amherst, NY (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings that are quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center

  11. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program Erie County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswanger, Jr, Robert C

    2010-05-20

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center, Daemen will

  12. Foster care as a viable alternative to institutional care in the Middle East: community acceptance and stigma across type of placement in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Schwalbe, Craig S J; Gearing, Robin E; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Batayneh, Jude; Darwish, Dua'a M; Al-Kharabsheh, Jihad; Al-Zu'bi, Mu'ayad H

    2012-07-01

    Utilizing an experimental vignette design, this study assessed attitudes in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan toward the implementation of foster care as an alternative to institutions for children in need of care and protection. A sample of 111 adults were surveyed in Amman and presented with a vignette describing a 14-year-old boy who came into the care of the Ministry of Social Development when he was a baby after being placed by the grandfather because of shame surrounding the mother being unwed. The vignettes systematically varied as to whether the child was described as raised in an orphanage, with a relative in a kinship foster placement, or with a nonkin foster family. Participants were then asked a series of questions about their acceptance of the child, stigma that the community might attach to the child, and potential outcomes for the child. We found no differences across the acceptance and stigma questions between the kinship and non-kin foster conditions. The 2 foster care options were at least as acceptable as current institutional models across all domains, and participants were more likely to accept the child going to school with or being friends with their child if they were in foster care rather than an institution. These results represent the first evidence of public acceptance of foster care as a model of care in Jordan and may inform the process of local stakeholders implementing alternatives to institutional care on a meaningful and sustainable scale in the Kingdom and regionally.

  13. Determination of the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro: MGIT 960 as a viable alternative for BACTEC 460

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Singh Jhamb

    Full Text Available BACTEC 460 has now been phased out, so the search for an alternative is imperative. We have determined the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro, by using BACTEC 460 and MGIT 960 methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv were found to be 0.2, 0.8, 8.0, and 5.0 µg/mL, respectively, by both methods. These results show a significant (p < 0.001 concordance between minimum inhibitory concentrations obtained by these two different methods. MGIT 960 system uses a robust florescence quenching-based oxygen sensor, requires no radioisotope, is safe, and relatively easy to operate. Apparently, this is the first report wherein MGIT 960 has been validated for anti-tubercular susceptibility testing against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our preliminary data thus clearly demonstrate that the MGIT 960 method can be considered as a promising alternative to BACTEC 460 method.

  14. Primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology produces viable pure-line Houbara bustard offspring: potential for repopulating an endangered species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Wernery

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata is a wild seasonal breeding bird populating arid sandy semi-desert habitats in North Africa and the Middle East. Its population has declined drastically during the last two decades and it is classified as vulnerable. Captive breeding programmes have, hitherto, been unsuccessful in reviving population numbers and thus radical technological solutions are essential for the long term survival of this species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of primordial germ cell-mediated chimera technology to produce viable Houbara bustard offspring.Embryonic gonadal tissue was dissected from Houbara bustard embryos at eight days post-incubation. Subsequently, Houbara tissue containing gonadal primordial germ cells (gPGCs was injected into White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus embryos, producing 83/138 surviving male chimeric embryos, of which 35 chimeric roosters reached sexual maturity after 5 months. The incorporation and differentiation of Houbara gPGCs in chimeric chicken testis were assessed by PCR with Houbara-specific primers and 31.3% (5/16 gonads collected from the injected chicken embryos showed the presence of donor Houbara cells. A total of 302 semen samples from 34 chimeric roosters were analyzed and eight were confirmed as germline chimeras. Semen samples from these eight roosters were used to artificially inseminate three female Houbara bustards. Subsequently, 45 Houbara eggs were obtained and incubated, two of which were fertile. One egg hatched as a male live born Houbara; the other was female but died before hatching. Genotyping confirmed that the male chick was a pure-line Houbara derived from a chimeric rooster.This study demonstrates for the first time that Houbara gPGCs can migrate, differentiate and eventually give rise to functional sperm in the chimeric chicken testis. This approach may provide a promising tool for propagation and conservation of endangered avian

  15. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaek, M.O.

    2012-03-15

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact on for example the emission of green house gasses. Cellulases and hemi-cellulases are used for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass, and fermentable sugars are released upon the enzymatic process. Even though many years of research has decreased the amount of enzyme needed in the process, the cost of enzymes is still considered a bottleneck in the economic feasibility of lignocellulose utilization. The purpose of this project was to investigate and compare different technologies for production of these enzymes. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is currently used for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesis was to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process was carried out in pilot scale stirred tank reactors and based on a range of different process conditions, a process model was constructed which satisfactory described the course of fermentation. The process was governed by the rate limiting mass transfer of oxygen from the gas to the liquid phase. During fermentation, filamentous growth of the fungus lead to increased viscosity which hindered mass transfer. These mechanisms were described by a viscosity model based on the biomass concentration of the fermentation broth and a mass transfer correlation that incorporated a viscosity term. An analysis of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative

  16. Verniz vitral incolor 500®: uma alternativa de meio de montagem economicamente viável Verniz vitral incolor 500®: a mounting medium alternative and economically viable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Antunes de Paiva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Há diferentes meios de montagem comercializados a preço relativamente alto para a produção de lâminas permanentes de tecidos vegetais corados. Esses meios endurecem à medida que secam e possibilitam a manutenção do material botânico em boas condições de conservação por tempo indeterminado. Os meios de montagem mais utilizados em anatomia vegetal são: Bálsamo-do-canadá, Euparal®, Entellan® e Permount®. Visando a redução dos custos de produção de lâminas permanentes para anatomia vegetal, foram testados meios alternativos, produzidos por empresas brasileiras, principalmente para uso em artesanato. Entre os diferentes meios sintéticos testados, o verniz vitral incolor 500® demonstrou propriedades compatíveis para o uso eficiente como meio de montagem, em substituição às resinas sintéticas importadas, com custo baixo e sem alteração do processo rotineiro de trabalho. O verniz vitral incolor 500® permitiu a montagem de lâminas permanentes com órgãos seccionados a mão livre ou em micrótomo rotatório, após o emblocamento em parafina ou historresina, mantendo inalteradas as características dos materiais vegetais e da coloração. Os resultados evidenciaram que os meios de montagem tradicionais podem ser substituídos pelo verniz vitral incolor 500®, sem comprometimento da qualidade das lâminas.There are different imported mounting mediuns commercialized at a relative high price for producing permanent slides of stained plant sections. These mounting mediuns become harder as they dry and preserve the good conditions of the plant material for indetermined time. The most used mouting mediuns to plant anatomy are: Canada balsam, Euparal®, Entellan® and Permount®. Aiming to reduce costs of producing permanent plant anatomy slides, alternative mediuns produced by brazilian industries, used mostly in artesanal work, were tested. Among the different synthetic mediuns tested, the verniz vitral incolor 500® showed

  17. Barriers and Opportunities for the Use of Alternative Technologies to Reduce Nitrogen in Coastal Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In coastal New England, many communities wrestling with nitrogen over-enrichment from insufficient wastewater management are considering alternative technologies to supplement traditional sewering technology. In particular, communities on Cape Cod, Massachusetts are actively comp...

  18. Principles of sustainability science to assess alternative energy technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of sustainability science recognizes the important role of technologies in reaching the conditional goals of sustainable development. Research in sustainable technologies requires transdisciplinarity to determine the resilience...

  19. Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface PreparationlDepainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2006-01-01

    For this project, particulates and solvents used during the depainting process of steel structures were the identified hazardous material (HazMat) targeted for elimination or reduction. This Potential Alternatives Report (PAR) provides technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and center participant recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered fifteen (15) alternatives. In late 2004, stakeholders down-selected the list and identified specific processes as potential alternatives to the current depainting methods. The selected alternatives were: 1. Plastic Blast Media 2. Hard Abrasive Media 3. Sponge Blast Media 4. Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment 5. Liquid Nitrogen 6. Laser Coating Removal Available information about these processes was used to analyze the technical merits and the potential environmental, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) impacts of these methods. A preliminary cost benefit analysis will be performed to determine if implementation of alternative technologies is economically justified. NASA AP2

  20. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  1. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector; Teknologivurdering af altgernative drivmidler til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of the alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. (BA)

  2. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Fact sheets on technology elements and system calculations for technology tracks; Teknologivurdering af alternative drivmidler til transportsektoren. Fakta-ark for teknologi-elementer og systemberegninger for teknologi-spor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. This appendix presents key fact sheets which substantiate the analysis presented in the report 'Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector'. (BA)

  3. Alternative deNO{sub x} catalysts and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Due-Hansen, J.

    2010-06-15

    produced to evaluate the optimum mixing ratio. Based on these results, a monolith containing V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SO{sub 4}2-ZrO{sub 2} in 25 wt% sepiolite was produced, and evaluated with respect to the influence of space velocity, reaction temperature, and NH{sub 3}/NO feed ratio on the NO reduction efficiency. The last part of this thesis deals with the non-catalytic sorption of NO{sub x} in ionic liquids, collected in chapter 5. Since no previous studies of the absorption of NO in ionic liquids have been reported, a preliminary study was conducted to identify suitable solvents. Two resulting imidazolium-based candidates, namely [BMIM]OAc and [BMIM]OTf, were selected due to their impressively high sorption capacities. Both solvents examined here revealed solubilities about twofold higher than those previously reported for e.g. CO{sub 2}-capture in ionic liquids. Especially the [BMIM]OAc demonstrated extraordinary absorption capabilities, being able to retain around four NO molecules per molecule ionic liquid. However, [BMIM]OTf exhibited promising behavior due to its reversible absorption/desorption properties. This in principle allows recycling of the ionic liquid as well as harvesting the NO. The accumulated NO could hereby be used in e.g. the synthesis of nitric acid allowing production of value-added chemicals from waste flue gas effluent. Although additional understanding of the mechanisms of the presented system is required, the perspective of a selective NO stripping technology is a very interesting alternative to the catalytic removal of NO from industrial flue gases. (Author)

  4. Design Anthropology, Emerging Technologies and Alternative Computational Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    Emerging technologies are providing a new field for design anthropological inquiry that unite experiences, imaginaries and materialities in complex way and demands new approaches to developing sustainable computational futures.......Emerging technologies are providing a new field for design anthropological inquiry that unite experiences, imaginaries and materialities in complex way and demands new approaches to developing sustainable computational futures....

  5. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

  6. Access to augmentative and alternative communication: new technologies and clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fager, Susan; Bardach, Lisa; Russell, Susanne; Higginbotham, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Children with severe physical impairments require a variety of access options to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and computer technology. Access technologies have continued to develop, allowing children with severe motor control impairments greater independence and access to communication. This article will highlight new advances in access technology, including eye and head tracking, scanning, and access to mainstream technology, as well as discuss future advances. Considerations for clinical decision-making and implementation of these technologies will be presented along with case illustrations.

  7. Economics of alternative palm oil processing technologies in Imo State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to analyse the costs and returns of alternative palm oil processing techniques in Imo State. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 120 randomly selected palm oil processors, and analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that there was a significant ...

  8. 77 FR 48128 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the... Engineering (ZP) career path at the Pay Band III and above except for the Information Technology Management... Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),'' and...

  9. Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

  10. Alternative energy technologies an introduction with computer simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Buxton, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Alternative Energy SourcesGlobal WarmingPollutionSolar CellsWind PowerBiofuelsHydrogen Production and Fuel CellsIntroduction to Computer ModelingBrief History of Computer SimulationsMotivation and Applications of Computer ModelsUsing Spreadsheets for SimulationsTyping Equations into SpreadsheetsFunctions Available in SpreadsheetsRandom NumbersPlotting DataMacros and ScriptsInterpolation and ExtrapolationNumerical Integration and Diffe

  11. Hydrogen storage alternatives - a technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Joakim; Hjortsberg, Ove [Volvo Teknisk Utveckling AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This study reviews state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage alternatives for vehicles. We will also discuss the prospects and estimated cost for industrial production. The study is based on published literature and interviews with active researchers. Among the alternatives commercially available today, we suggest using a moderate-pressure chamber for seasonal stationary energy storage; metal hydride vessels for small stationary units; a roof of high-pressure cylinders for buses, trucks and ferries; cryogenic high-pressure vessels or methanol reformers for cars and tractors; and cryogenic moderate-pressure vessels for aeroplanes. Initial fuel dispensing systems should be designed to offer hydrogen in pressurised form for good fuel economy, but also as cryogenic liquid for occasional needs of extended driving range and as methanol for reformer-equipped vehicles. It is probable that hydrogen can be stored efficiently in adsorbents for use in recyclable hydrogen fuel containers or rechargeable hydrogen vessels operating at ambient temperature and possibly ambient pressure by year 2004, and at reasonable or even low cost by 2010. The most promising alternatives involve various forms of activated graphite nanostructures. Recommendations for further research and standardisation activities are given.

  12. Technology and alternative cancer therapies: an analysis of heterodoxy and constructivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, D J

    1996-12-01

    Theories of the construction of technology are reviewed from the wider interdisciplinary conversation known as science and technology studies (STS) and from the growing field of the anthropology of science and technology. These theories are used to contribute to research situated at the intersection of the anthropology of alternative medicine and of medical technologies. Cases drawn from the research tradition on microbial theories of cancer are considered to show how unorthodox medical theories become embedded in technologies through choices in microscope design and treatment technologies. In turn, the technologies contribute to the heterodox standing of the researchers, their research, and their therapies.

  13. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla

    evaluated by use of the process model. For each technology the scale-up enzyme production was simulated at industrial scale based on equal mass transfer. The technical feasibility of each technology was assessed based on prior knowledge of successful implementation at industrial scale and mechanical......Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact......, the cost of enzymes is still considered a bottleneck in the economic feasibility of lignocellulose utilization. The purpose of this project was to investigate and compare different technologies for production of these enzymes. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is currently used for industrial...

  14. Victualling for Future Royal Australia Navy Platforms - Alternative Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Pollution MATS Microwave Assisted Thermal Sterilisation MOTS Military off the Shelf PATS Pressure Assisted Thermal Processing PEF Pulsed...technology using high-energy pulsed electric field ( PEF ) to breakdown harmful microorganisms and enzymes in liquids and slurries. Liquids are pumped

  15. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologist workforce in support of the government policy highlights issues pertaining to the development and offering of practical-oriented programs as a knowledge expansion in engineering education at universities as envisioned by the Malaysian Government.  This paper evaluates the current scenario and examines the application-oriented programs of engineering technology education as practice in local institutions in Malaysia in comparisons to some universities abroad. It also investigates the challenges faced by university management in dealing with issues concerning national quality assurance and accreditation pertaining to the engineering technology education programs. Specifically, it analyzes the faculty planning of pedagogies in term of hands-on skills in teaching and learning. A key conclusion of this research is that Malaysian universities need to evaluate its engineering technology education strategies if they aim for quality assurance and accreditation to be established and aspire for successful attempts towards the creation of the requisite knowledge workers that Malaysia needs.Keywords: application-oriented, engineering education, engineering technology, hands-on skills, knowledge expansion 

  16. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hamizah Hussain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologist workforce in support of the government policy highlights issues pertaining to the development and offering of practical-oriented programs as a knowledge expansion in engineering education at universities as envisioned by the Malaysian Government. This paper evaluates the current scenario and examines the application-oriented programs of engineering technology education as practice in local institutions in Malaysia in comparisons to some universities abroad. It also investigates the challenges faced by university management in dealing with issues concerning national quality assurance and accreditation pertaining to the engineering technology education programs. Specifically, it analyzes the faculty planning of pedagogies in term of hands-on skills in teaching and learning. A key conclusion of this research is that Malaysian universities need to evaluate its engineering technology education strategies if they aim for quality assurance and accreditation to be established and aspire for successful attempts towards the creation of the requisite knowledge workers that Malaysia needs. Keywords: application-oriented, engineering education, engineering technology, hands-on skills, knowledge expansion

  17. The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

    2010-03-31

    Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

  18. The Aluminum Smelting Process and Innovative Alternative Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabløs, Per Arne

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The industrial aluminum production process is addressed. The purpose is to give a short but comprehensive description of the electrolysis cell technology, the raw materials used, and the health and safety relevance of the process. Methods: This article is based on a study of the extensive chemical and medical literature on primary aluminum production. Results: At present, there are two main technological challenges for the process—to reduce energy consumption and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. A future step may be carbon dioxide gas capture and sequestration related to the electric power generation from fossil sources. Conclusions: Workers' health and safety have now become an integrated part of the aluminum business. Work-related injuries and illnesses are preventable, and the ultimate goal to eliminate accidents with lost-time injuries may hopefully be approached in the future. PMID:24806723

  19. Food irradiation : an alternative technology for an emerging need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    Development and implementation of food irradiation was driven by needs pertaining to food safety improvement, food spoilage reduction, and quarantine/trade. The need for food safety is caused by the increasing morbidity and mortality caused by food-borne diseases worldwide, and it affects national economy and world-trade. Radiation technology can serve to ameliorate the vulnerability of our food supply system. (author)

  20. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M.; Barba, Francisco J.; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A.; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. PMID:27879659

  1. Development of other oil-alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development efforts are being given on a large wind power generation system which has high reliability and economy and suits the actual situations in Japan. Verification tests will be conducted to establish control systems to realize load leveling against the increase in maximum power demand and the differences in demands between seasons, days and nights. Development will also be made on technologies for systems to operate devices optimally using nighttime power for household use. Solar light and heat energies will be introduced and used widely in housing to achieve efficient comprehensive energy utilization. Wastes, waste heat and unused energies locally available will be utilized to promote forming environment harmonious type energy communities. Photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation facilities will be installed on a trial basis to promote building a groundwork for full-scale installations. Photovoltaic power generation systems will be installed on actual houses to establish technologies to assess and optimize the load leveling effect. Attempts will be made on practical application of high-efficiency regional heat supply systems which utilize such unutilized energies as those from sea water and river water. Assistance will be given through preparing manuals on introduction of wastes power generation systems by local governments, and introduction of regional energy systems by using new discrete type power generation technologies and consumer-use cogeneration systems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

  3. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Rober [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  4. Jaboticaba peel for jelly preparation: an alternative technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni-Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The peel of jaboticaba is attractive regarding its nutritional, functional and sensory aspects. However, its use for consumption is still restricted due to the need of technological development in order to obtain processed preparations for its inclusion in the human diet. The purpose of this study was to produce jelly using the peel of jaboticaba and to characterize it chemically and sensorially. Diferent formulations were prepared, all with 50% of sugar and with different proportions of peel, pulp and pectin. The formulations, which were tested for preference, were the following: F1a (80% of peel, 20% of pulp and 0.5% of pectin and F3b (50% of peel, 50% pulp and 1.0% of pectin. These formulations showed chemical composition of 216.44 mg phenolic compounds, 148.00 mg gallic acid.100 g-1, 10.42 mg flavonoids, and 12.10 mg catechin.100 g-1, and 80% acceptability index. The peel presented higher levels of nutrients than the pulp, especially as source of fiber, carbohydrates and natural pigments. Results indicated the feasibility of technological nutritional harnessing of the jaboticaba peel in obtaining jelly. The results also indicated good sensory and nutritional characteristics, acceptability, and antioxidant properties of natural pigments.

  5. Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsa, M.

    1980-01-01

    An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

  6. The Alternative Way of Creating Infographics Using SVG Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pavazza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article develops new ways of creating and using interactive SVG infographics. The emphasis lies on the compatibility of SVG standard with other web standards, like XML, XSL, CSS, SMIL and ECMAScript, the advantages that it brings are particularly explored. There is a XSLT template developed which transforms XML data into SVG infographic, and the way of achieving complete control over data and data visualization is tested. This enabled the achieving of dynamic control of content and its presentation, and contributed to the results in reduced developing cost and time, better flexibility and reliability of the organizational system. The paper also studied the possibility to convey infographic message by adding interactivity, and explored technologies by means of which this can be achieved. The aspects of establishing a more efficient communication with end users, such as searchability and accessibility are also considered. SVG infographics are compared with other approaches for creating infographics in raster and vector techniques.

  7. Technology alternatives towards low-cost and high-speed interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Kniknie, B.; Lankhorst, A.M.; Winands, G.; Poodt, P.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this work we will review our recent work on novel alternative and disruptive technology concepts with industrial potential for cost-effective and high-speed interconnect manufacturing, in particular on the creation (drilling and filling) of advanced interconnects like TSVs. These technologies are

  8. Barriers and possibilities for the emerging alternative lighting technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Andersen, Jan; Kjær, Tyge

    2009-01-01

    that set a big question mark on how the CO2 emission goals can ever been achieved for 2020 even if we are talking about a reduction of 20%. Therefore, when we, on one hand, know that 20% of the world electricity consumption is due to illumination and on the other hand, that 1.6 billion people do not have......Final electricity consumption grew across the EU-27 at an average annual rate of 1.7 % between 1990 and 2005 showing an absolute increase of 28.7 %. The average electricity use per capita in the EU-27 is almost 2.5 times the global average and 3.5 times that for China. These are some of the facts...... access to this service yet, it is obvious that this is a very important sector to target. Most of the electricity consumption due to illumination is today mainly produced by fossil fuels. Therefore beside CO2 emissions, the shortage of resources will press the development of new technologies that can...

  9. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  10. A Pluriatividade na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco: o turismo rural como uma viável alternativa econômicaThe pluriactivity of the Zona da Mata in Pernanbuco: rural tourism as a viable economic alternativeLa Pluriactividad en la Zona da Mata de Pernambuco: el turismo rural como una viable alternativa económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISBOA FILHO, Waldeck

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem como objetivo analisar se o turismo rural pode ser apontado como uma alternativa de diversificação econômica para a Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco. A principal fonte econômica desta região é a agroindústria canavieira. No entanto, esta atividade vem perdendo dinamismo com o encerramento das atividades de um grande número de unidades produtoras de açúcar e álcool, agravando a situação de pobreza de milhares de pessoas que vivem nesta região. O meio rural está passando por um processo de grandes transformações, tais alterações vão desde a inversão radical das correntes migratórias até o surgimento de novas atividades econômicas não precisamente agrícolas. O Turismo Rural, uma atividade pluriativa, vem sendo apontado como uma viável alternativa de diversificação econômica para a Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco, diante da crise da agroindústria canavieira. Caracterizada pelas belezas naturais, históricas e arquitetônicas, esta região vem registrando o crescimento de tal atividade.ABSTRACTThis article aims to analyze whether the rural tourism can be indicated as an option for economic diversification of Zona da Mata of the State of Pernambuco. The main economic source of this region is sugar-cane agricultural industry. However, this activity is losing dynamism with the end of activities of a large number of sugar and alcohol producing plants, thereby aggravating the poverty condition of thousands of people who live in that region. At the present, rural environment goes through a process of great changes, from the radical inversion of migratory currents to the appearance of new economic activities, which are not necessarily agricultural. Rural tourism, a pluri-active activity, is presently considered as a feasible alternative of economic diversification for "Zona da Mata" of the State of Pernambuco against the crisis experienced by sugar-cane agricultural industry. Characterized by the

  11. An assessment of the future impact of alternative technologies on antibiotics markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokoro, Ejike; Leach, Ross; Årdal, Christine; Baraldi, Enrico; Ryan, Kellie; Plahte, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance combined with the paucity of new classes of antibiotics represents a serious public health challenge. New treatment technologies could, in theory, have a significant impact on the future use of traditional antibiotics, be it by facilitating rational and responsible use or by product substitution in the existing antibiotics markets, including by reducing the incidence of bacterial infections through preventative approaches. The aim of this paper is to assess the potential of alternative technologies in reducing clinical use of and demand for antibiotics, and to briefly indicate which segments of the antibiotics market that might be impacted by these technologies. An initial mapping exercise to identify the alternative technologies was followed by a review of relevant published and grey literature (n = 52). We also carried out stakeholder engagement activities by a round-table discussion with infectious disease specialists and a multi-criteria decision analysis exercise with pharmaceutical industry experts. Ten alternative technologies were identified and analyzed for their potential impact on the antibiotics market. Of these, rapid point-of-care diagnostics, vaccines, fecal microbiota transplantation, and probiotics were considered to have a "high" or "medium" potential impact over a 10-20 year horizon. Therapeutic antibodies, antibiotic biomaterials, bacteriophages, antimicrobial nanoparticles, antimicrobial peptides, and anti-virulence materials were rated as having "low" potential impact. Despite the apparent potential of the most promising alternative technologies to reduce demand, that reduction will likely only happen in limited segments of the antibiotics market or, in the case of preventing community acquired streptococcal infections by vaccination, in a low-price generics market segment. Thus, alternative technologies are not expected to represent any disincentive to antibiotics developers. Finally, it

  12. Tumor-selective replication herpes simplex virus-based technology significantly improves clinical detection and prognostication of viable circulating tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen; Bao, Li; Yang, Shaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells remains a significant challenge due to their vast physical and biological heterogeneity. We developed a cell-surface-marker-independent technology based on telomerase-specific, replication-selective oncolytic herpes-simplex-virus-1 that targets telomerase...

  13. Surveillance technology: an alternative to physical restraints? A qualitative study among professionals working in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working with surveillance technology as an alternative to traditional restraints creates obvious differences in the way care is organised. It is not clear whether professional caregivers find working with surveillance technology useful and workable and whether surveillance technology is

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL ALTERNATIVES TO REDUCE THE VOLUME OF VINASSES FROM THE ALCOHOL INDUSTRY AND ITS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Alonso Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two technological alternatives were analyzed for the production of ethanol in order to diminish the vinasse volume at the exit of the distilling column. Also environmental effects and energy efficiency of the process were discussed, making a proposal for the treatment of residuals. A simulation model was elaborated in Microsoft Excel using process analysis techniques. By means of mass and energy balances, actual process behavior and its technological changes were simulated. The alternatives proposed of adding a bottom reboiler to the distilling column and to recirculate vinasses to the molasses dilution tank decrease the flow obtained at the bottom of the distilling column, showing the best results when combining the alternatives. The alternatives are economically feasible, they obtain higher IRR (Rate of return on investment than the interest rate used, and the investment is recovered in less than four years, showing liquidity.

  15. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Musgrave, B.C. [BC Musgrave, Inc. (United States); Drake, R.N. [Drake Engineering, Inc. (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

  16. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

  17. Technological Determinism in Educational Technology Research: Some Alternative Ways of Thinking about the Relationship between Learning and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are…

  18. 77 FR 51518 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... efficiency of personnel systems through installation of a simpler and more flexible classification system..., and other personnel systems, and through automation. Since implementing the APMS in 1987, according to... National Institute of Standards and Technology Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the...

  19. 77 FR 36485 - Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ...) increase the efficiency of personnel systems through installation of a simpler and more flexible... classification, hiring, and other personnel systems, and through automation (52 FR 37082, October 2, 1987). Since... National Institute of Standards and Technology Alternative Personnel Management System (APMS) at the...

  20. Alternative Assessment Methods Based on Categorizations, Supporting Technologies, and a Model for Betterment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Marion G.; Ben-Jacob, Tyler E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores alternative assessment methods from the perspective of categorizations. It addresses the technologies that support assessment. It discusses initial, formative, and summative assessment, as well as objective and subjective assessment, and formal and informal assessment. It approaches each category of assessment from the…

  1. Impact of alternative harvesting technologies on thinning entry and optimal rotation age for eastern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2007-01-01

    A complete system simulation model is used to integrate alternative logging technologies, stand data, market prices, transportation costs, and economic concerns in a longterm continuous manner to evaluate thinning entry timing and optimal rotation age. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) stand data for the oak/hickory forest type and time and motion study data for 70,...

  2. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  3. Environmental sustainability assessment of family house alternatives and application of green technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moňoková, A.; Vilčeková, S.; Mečiarová, Ľ.; Krídlová Burdová, E.

    2017-10-01

    Transition to environmentally friendly technologies provides a comprehensive solution to problem of creating an economic value without destroying the nature. Buildings using green technologies lead to lower operating costs, healthier living and working environment and protect the environment more. The aim of this paper is to assess the environmental impact of two alternatives of family house designed as conventional building and building with green technologies. Evaluated family house are located in village Kokšov Bakša, which is situated 12 km south-east from city of Košice, a metropolis of eastern Slovakia. This analysis investigates the role of applied green technologies in single family houses for impact categories: global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP) expressed as CO2eq, SO2eq and PO4 3- eq within “Cradle to Grave” boundary by using the LCA assessment method. The main contribution of the study is a proof that green technologies have significant part in the reduction of environmental impacts. Results show that alternative of family house designed as green one contributes to CO2eq, SO2eq and PO4 3- eq emissions by 81%, 73% and 35% less than alternative of conventional family house, respectively.

  4. Final Report: Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Ethylene, Caustic-Chlorine, Ethylene Oxide, Ammonia, and Terephthalic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-12-01

    This report evaluates alternative technologies for chemicals manufacturing which may present energy efficiency improvements compared to existing technologies. It is an extension of the Chemical Bandwidth Study, which evaluates energy and exergy losses in the U.S. chemicals industry.

  5. Assessing the use of Radio Frequency Identification technologies as an alternative for insurance costs in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh-Karamshahloo, Iraj; Jabbarzadeh, Armin; Shavvalpour, Saeed

    2017-12-15

    This research assesses the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies as an alternative for insurance costs in hospitals. Despite the advantages of RFID, this technology has not been applied in most hospitals due to implementation costs and amortization of RFID. In this paper, we intend to model the total profit of hospitals in three scenarios namely, application of RFID technology in the hospital, without applying RFID technology in the hospital and insuring patients and equipment in the hospital. We analyzed the aforementioned situations over a period of time to find out how they affect the profit of the hospital. Based on this analysis we concluded that if applying RFID technology is costly, it will be feasible for advanced hospitals with more beds. In the scenario of insuring patients and equipment, if insurance organization takes over a small portion of the cost of the mistakes and oversights, insuring patients and equipment will not be feasible for the hospital, and it is better to apply RFID technology Instead. RFID is among the technologies applied to reduce mistakes of the personnel in hospitals. Moreover, applying this technology has led to a decrease in the number of personnel required in hospitals. This study models total profit of hospitals in three aforementioned scenarios. Based on analyzing these models we conclude that if applying RFID technology is costly, it will be feasible for advanced hospitals with more beds.

  6. Putting people first: re-thinking the role of technology in augmentative and alternative communication intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Janice; McNaughton, David

    2013-12-01

    Current technologies provide individuals with complex communication needs with a powerful array of communication, information, organization, and social networking options. However, there is the danger that the excitement over these new devices will result in a misplaced focus on the technology, to the neglect of what must be the central focus - the people with complex communication needs who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In order to truly harness the power of technology, rehabilitation and educational professionals must ensure that AAC intervention is driven, not by the devices, but rather by the communication needs of the individual. Furthermore, those involved in AAC research and development activities must ensure that the design of AAC technologies is driven by an understanding of motor, sensory, cognitive, and linguistic processing, in order to minimize learning demands and maximize communication power for individuals with complex communication needs across the life span.

  7. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G. [BP - Gulf Coast Restoration (United States)], email: michael.cortez@bp.com

    2011-07-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  8. Beyond Moore’s technologies: operation principles of a superconductor alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenov, Nikolay V; Bakurskiy, Sergey V; Kupriyanov, Mikhail Yu; Gudkov, Alexander L; Sidorenko, Anatoli S

    2017-01-01

    The predictions of Moore’s law are considered by experts to be valid until 2020 giving rise to “post-Moore’s” technologies afterwards. Energy efficiency is one of the major challenges in high-performance computing that should be answered. Superconductor digital technology is a promising post-Moore’s alternative for the development of supercomputers. In this paper, we consider operation principles of an energy-efficient superconductor logic and memory circuits with a short retrospective review of their evolution. We analyze their shortcomings in respect to computer circuits design. Possible ways of further research are outlined. PMID:29354341

  9. Beyond Moore’s technologies: operation principles of a superconductor alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Soloviev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The predictions of Moore’s law are considered by experts to be valid until 2020 giving rise to “post-Moore’s” technologies afterwards. Energy efficiency is one of the major challenges in high-performance computing that should be answered. Superconductor digital technology is a promising post-Moore’s alternative for the development of supercomputers. In this paper, we consider operation principles of an energy-efficient superconductor logic and memory circuits with a short retrospective review of their evolution. We analyze their shortcomings in respect to computer circuits design. Possible ways of further research are outlined.

  10. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing

    2004-08-09

    On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the probable installation costs, incentives or grants to reduce the installed costs and simple payback for the following alternative measures: (1) Daylighting in New Gym; (2) Solar Photovoltaics; (3) Solar Domestic Hot Water Pre-Heat; and (4) Solar Outside Air Pre-Heat Following are the findings of the energy savings and cost-effectiveness analysis of above alternative energy saving technologies.

  12. New technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining. Preprints of the conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Jess, A.; Lercher, J.A.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    This international conference paper provides a forum for chemists and engineers from refinery, petrochemistry and the chemical industry as well as from academia to discuss new technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining with the special topic ''Shale Gas, Heavy Oils and Coal''. 23 Lectures and 18 Posters are presented. All papers are analyzed for the ENERGY database.

  13. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  14. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  15. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu

    2018-02-15

    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  16. Application of magnesite–bentonite clay composite as an alternative technology for removal of arsenic from industrial effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of integrating amorphous magnesite and bentonite clay (composite) as an alternative technology for removing arsenic from industrial effluents. The removal of arsenic from industrial effluents by using magnesite...

  17. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  18. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  19. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  20. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately {+-}500 pounds (i.e., {+-}62 gal of water or {+-}0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology.

  1. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  2. Treatment of clinical solid waste using a steam autoclave as a possible alternative technology to incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-03-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  3. Risk-Informed Decision Making: Application to Technology Development Alternative Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    NASA NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements, defines risk management in terms of two complementary processes: Risk-informed Decision Making (RIDM) and Continuous Risk Management (CRM). The RIDM process is used to inform decision making by emphasizing proper use of risk analysis to make decisions that impact all mission execution domains (e.g., safety, technical, cost, and schedule) for program/projects and mission support organizations. The RIDM process supports the selection of an alternative prior to program commitment. The CRM process is used to manage risk associated with the implementation of the selected alternative. The two processes work together to foster proactive risk management at NASA. The Office of Safety and Mission Assurance at NASA Headquarters has developed a technical handbook to provide guidance for implementing the RIDM process in the context of NASA risk management and systems engineering. This paper summarizes the key concepts and procedures of the RIDM process as presented in the handbook, and also illustrates how the RIDM process can be applied to the selection of technology investments as NASA's new technology development programs are initiated.

  4. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  5. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  6. Liquid metal alloy ion sources—An alternative for focussed ion beam technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Lothar, E-mail: l.bischoff@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Mazarov, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Mazarov@raith.de; Bruchhaus, Lars, E-mail: Lars.Bruchhaus@raith.de [Raith GmbH, Konrad-Adenauer-Allee 8, 44263 Dortmund (Germany); Gierak, Jacques, E-mail: jacques.gierak@lpn.cnrs.fr [LPN-CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

    2016-06-15

    Today, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing is nearly exclusively based on gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). But, many applications in the μm- or nm range could benefit from ion species other than gallium: local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis, or Focused Ion Beam Lithography (IBL). Therefore, Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) represent a promising alternative to expand the remarkable application fields for FIB. Especially, the IBL process shows potential advantages over, e.g., electron beam or other lithography techniques: direct, resistless, and three-dimensional patterning, enabling a simultaneous in-situ process control by cross-sectioning and inspection. Taking additionally into account that the used ion species influences significantly the physical and chemical nature of the resulting nanostructures—in particular, the electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanic properties leading to a large potential application area which can be tuned by choosing a well suited LMAIS. Nearly half of the elements of the periodic table are recently available in the FIB technology as a result of continuous research in this area during the last forty years. Key features of a LMAIS are long life-time, high brightness, and stable ion current. Recent developments could make these sources feasible for nano patterning issues as an alternative technology more in research than in industry. The authors will review existing LMAIS, LMIS other than Ga, and binary and ternary alloys. These physical properties as well as the fabrication technology and prospective domains for modern FIB applications will similarly be reviewed. Other emerging ion sources will be also presented and their performances discussed.

  7. Two innovative healthcare technologies at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahnam, Sheryl; Brooks, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Using game technologies and digital media for improving physical and mental health and for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people is an area of study that is rapidly expanding. Much research in this emerging field is centered at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy. In this paper the authors describe their transdisciplinary work at this intersection: i) an integrative system of psychotherapy technologies called MyPsySpace currently being prototyped in Second Life with the aim of offering new and virtual translations of traditional expressive therapies (virtual sandplay, virtual drama therapy, digital expressive therapy, and virtual safe spaces) and ii) a mature body of research entitled SoundScapes that is exploring the use of interactive video games and abstract creative expression (making music, digital painting, and robotic device control) as a supplement to traditional physical rehabilitation intervention. Aside from introducing our work to a broader audience, our goal is to encourage peers to investigate ideas that reach across disciplines-to both risk and reap the benefits of combining technologies, theories, and methods stemming from multiple disciplines.

  8. Surface texture and hardness of dental alloys processed by alternative technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Liliana; Savencu, Cristina E.; Topală, Florin I.; Porojan, Sorin D.

    2017-08-01

    Technological developments have led to the implementation of novel digitalized manufacturing methods for the production of metallic structures in prosthetic dentistry. These technologies can be classified as based on subtractive manufacturing, assisted by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems, or on additive manufacturing (AM), such as the recently developed laser-based methods. The aim of the study was to assess the surface texture and hardness of metallic structures for dental restorations obtained by alternative technologies: conventional casting (CST), computerized milling (MIL), AM power bed fusion methods, respective selective laser melting (SLM) and selective laser sintering (SLS). For the experimental analyses metallic specimens made of Co-Cr dental alloys were prepared as indicated by the manufacturers. The specimen structure at the macro level was observed by an optical microscope and micro-hardness was measured in all substrates. Metallic frameworks obtained by AM are characterized by increased hardness, depending also on the surface processing. The formation of microstructural defects can be better controlled and avoided during SLM and MIL process. Application of power bed fusion techniques, like SLS and SLM, is currently a challenge in dental alloys processing.

  9. The Science and Technology Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Levels and Opinions about Alternative Assessment and Evaluation Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmaz Oren, Fatma; Ormanci, Ummuhan; Evrekli, Ertug

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the science and technology pre-service teachers' self-efficacy levels and their opinions about alternative assessment and evaluation approaches. The study was carried out with the participation of 53 science and technology pre-service teachers studying in the Faculty of Education at Celal Bayar University. As…

  10. Single, community-based blood glucose readings may be a viable alternative for community surveillance of HbA1c and poor glycaemic control in people with known diabetes in resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin is commonly used in relation to diabetes mellitus. The measure gives an indication of the average blood sugar levels over a period of weeks or months prior to testing. For most low- and middle-income countries HbA1c measurement in community surveillance is prohibitively expensive. A question arises about the possibility of using a single blood glucose measure for estimating HbA1c and therefore identifying poor glycaemic control in resource-poor settings. Design: Using data from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we examined the relationship between HbA1c and a single fasting measure of blood glucose in a non-clinical population of people with known diabetes (n=333. A linear equation for estimating HbA1c from blood glucose was developed. Appropriate blood glucose cut-off values were set for poor glycaemic control (HbA1c≥69.4 mmol/mol. Results: The HbA1c and blood glucose measures were well correlated (r=0.7. Three blood glucose cut-off values were considered for classifying poor glycaemic control: 8.0, 8.9, and 11.4 mmol/L. A blood glucose of 11.4 had a specificity of 1, but poor sensitivity (0.37; 8.9 had high specificity (0.94 and moderate sensitivity (0.7; 8.0 was associated with good specificity (0.81 and sensitivity (0.75. Conclusions: Where HbA1c measurement is too expensive for community surveillance, a single blood glucose measure may be a reasonable alternative. Generalising the specific results from these US data to low resource settings may not be appropriate, but the general approach is worthy of further investigation.

  11. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume......Wh of electricity from straw through gasification would lead to a global warming potential of 0.08 kg CO2e, non-renewable energy use of 0.2 MJ primary, acidification of 1.3 g SO2e, respiratory inorganics of 0.08 g PM2.5e and eutrophication potential of -1.9 g NO3e. The production of electricity from straw based...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  12. Structural and morphological approach of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Sorin; Bîrdeanu, Mihaela; Savencu, Cristina; Porojan, Liliana

    2017-08-01

    The integration of digitalized processing technologies in traditional dental restorations manufacturing is an emerging application. The objective of this study was to identify the different structural and morphological characteristics of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing techniques in order to understand the influence of microstructure on restorations properties and their clinical behavior. Metallic specimens made of Co-Cr dental alloys were prepared using traditional casting (CST), and computerized milling (MIL), selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM). The structural information of the samples was obtained by X-ray diffraction, the morphology and the topography of the samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscope. Given that the microstructure was significantly different, further differences in the clinical behavior of prosthetic restorations manufactured using additive techniques are anticipated.

  13. Cavitation processes as a preparation technology basis for burning of common and alternative energy fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormilitsyn, V. I.; Ganiev, S. R.; Shmyrkov, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    The present work contains the results of an experimental research of the flow characteristics and the mechanism occurring in flat passages during liquid flow around of various figures and by formation of the enhanced turbulence stream at the input aimed at improvement of fuel preparation for combustion. Below are implementation ways of non-linear wave mechanics effects and border layer turbulence intensification for formation of finely dispersed emulsions and components of liquid compounds that are non-soluble in each other providing for improvement of technological processes of common and alternative energy fuels preparation for combustion. It is shown that effects of acquiring finely dispersed fuel-water emulsions (high quality energy fuel based on either common or alternative products) are achieved at flow of liquids in shaped passages in a wide range of Re numbers with high pressure falls in a generator with different cavitation booster figures and various arrangement with topping area containing holes in front of cavity zones formation area.

  14. IMPLICATION OF ALTERNATIVE MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE THRESHOLD ESTIMATION METHODS ON TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixner, Diana; Meltzer, Eli O; Morland, Kellie; Carroll, Cathryn A; Munzel, Ullrich; Lipworth, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Various minimal clinically important difference (MCID) threshold estimation techniques have been applied to seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the difference in magnitude of alternative SAR MCID threshold estimates and (ii) evaluate the impact of alternative MCID estimates on health technology assessment (HTA). Data describing change from baseline of the reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (rTNSS) for four intranasal SAR treatments were obtained from United States Food and Drug Administration-approved prescribing information. Treatment effects were then compared with anchor-based MCID thresholds derived by Barnes et al. and thresholds obtained from an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) panel. The change in rTNSS score from baseline, represented as the average of the twice-daily recorded scores of the rTNSS, was -2.1 (p MCID threshold and the AHRQ panel estimates. Comparison of the observed treatment effect to the anchor-based and AHRQ panel MCID thresholds results in different conclusions, with clinically important differences being inferred when anchor-based estimates serve as the reference point. The AHRQ panel MCID threshold for the rTNSS was twelve times larger than the anchor-based estimates resulting in conflicting recommendations on whether different SAR treatments provide clinically meaningful benefit.

  15. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  16. Effect of thickness of HA-coating on microporous silk scaffolds using alternate soaking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongguo; Zhu, Rui; Sun, Liguo; Xue, Yingsen; Hao, Zhangying; Xie, Zhenghong; Fan, Xiangli; Fan, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated on various materials surface and has the function of osteogenicity. Microporous silk scaffold has excellent biocompatibility. In this study, alternate soaking technology was used to coat HA on microporous silk scaffolds. However, the cell proliferation was found to decrease with the increasing thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating. This study aims to determine the best thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating on microporous silk scaffolds. The SEM observation showed that group with one cycle of alternate soaking (1C-HA) has the most optimal porosity like non-HA-modified microporous silk scaffolds. The proliferation of osteoblasts has no significant difference between noncoated HA (N-HA) and 1C-HA groups, which are both significantly higher than those in two cycles of soaking (2C-HA) and three cycles of soaking (3C-HA) groups. The transcription levels of specific genes (runx2 and osteonectin) in osteoblasts of 1C-HA group were significantly higher than those of N-HA group. Moreover, the levels showed no significant difference among 1C-HA, 2C-HA, and 3C-HA groups. In conclusion, microporous silk scaffold with 1 cycle of HA-coating can combine the biocompatibility of silk and osteogenicity of HA.

  17. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV) and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue. PMID:22500224

  18. Efficacy of ultraviolet radiation as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Ilse N; du Toit, Maret; Krügel, Maricel

    2011-05-01

    Since sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) is associated with health risks, the wine industry endeavours to reduce SO(2) levels in wines with new innovative techniques. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-C (254 nm) as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines. A pilot-scale UV-C technology (SurePure, South Africa) consisting of an UV-C germicidal lamp (100 W output; 30 W UV-C output) was used to apply UV-C dosages ranging from 0 to 3672 J l(-1), at a constant flow rate of 4000 l h(-1) (Re > 7500). Yeasts, lactic and acetic acid bacteria were singly and co-inoculated into 20 l batches of Chenin blanc juice, Shiraz juice, Chardonnay wine and Pinotage wine, respectively. A dosage of 3672 J l(-1), resulted in an average log(10) microbial reduction of 4.97 and 4.89 in Chardonnay and Pinotage, respectively. In Chenin blanc and Shiraz juice, an average log(10) reduction of 4.48 and 4.25 was obtained, respectively. UV-C efficacy may be influenced by liquid properties such as colour and turbidity. These results had clearly indicated significant (p < 0.05) germicidal effect against wine-specific microorganisms; hence, UV-C radiation may stabilize grape juice and wine microbiologically in conjunction with reduced SO(2) levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

  20. Two Alternative Strategies for Raising Public Awareness of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Couto Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s knowledge society it is important to keep people informed about emerging technological developments while at the same time providing an accurate scientific and historical framework for such novelties in order to contribute to eradicate existing misconceptions. Dissemination of science and technology is presently essential to convey information within the research communities as well as among the younger generations and the general public. This paper describes two initiatives which pursue this objective by using multimedia tools. One consists in a set of 250 one-minute programs about engineering topics which were broadcast on TV, radio and the multimedia online platform of a daily journal. The other is a collection of videos produced by a research unit in two alternative formats aimed at specialist and general viewers. Both initiatives, based on two very different budgets, may be instrumental for improving the general perception of the role of engineering and for attracting new vocations. The multimedia contents developed are also valuable teaching tools.

  1. A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used

  2. LISA technologies in new light: exploring alternatives for charge management and optical bench construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Giacomo; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Apple, Stephen; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-08-01

    A LISA-like gravitational wave observatory is the choice candidate for ESA's L3 large mission scheduled to launch in 2034. The LISA Test Package (LTP) mission will launch later this year and test many critical technologies needed for such an observatory, among which are picometer interferometry in space and UV charge management of the Test Mass (TM). The design of these subsystems has been frozen many years ago during the final formulation of the LTP mission; since then, the LISA mission concept has evolved and new technologies have become available, making it possible to re-think the way these subsystem are implemented. With the final formulation of the L3 mission still years in the future and the LTP results expected in about one year, now is an ideal time look for areas of possible improvement and explore alternative implementations that can enhance performance, reduce costs or mitigate risks.Recently developed UV LED are lighter, cheaper and more powerful than traditional mercury lamps; in addition, their fast response time can be used to implement AC discharge techniques that can save even more space and power, and provide a more precise control of the charge.The most recent iteration of the mission baseline design allows for eliminating some of the optical components initially deemed essential; paired with the use of polarization multiplexing, this permits a redesign of the optical bench that simplifies the layout and enables a modular approach to machining and assembly, thus reducing the risks and costs associated with the current monolithic design without compromising the picometer stability of the optical path.Leveraging on extensive previous experience with LISA interferometry and the availability of a torsion pendulum-based LISA test-bed, the University of Florida LISA group is working at developing, demonstrating and optimizing both these technologies. I will describe the most recent advancements and results.

  3. Individual characteristics and stated preferences for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles: A discrete choice analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the determinants of the demand for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles. The data stem from a stated preference discrete choice experiment with 598 potential car buyers. In order to simulate a realistic automobile purchase situation, seven alternatives were incorporated in each of the six choice sets, i.e. hybrid, gas, biofuel, hydrogen, and electric as well as the common fuels gasoline and diesel. The vehicle types were additional...

  4. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  5. The Short Saphenous Vein: A Viable Alternative Conduit for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide variety of vascular conduits including the. Internal Mammary Artery (IMA), Radial Artery. (RA) and the Long Saphenous Vein (LSV), are available to the Cardiac Surgeon performing Coronary. Artery Bypass Graft procedures. These have demonstrated various successes over the years in both long-term patency.

  6. Providing Homes For The Homeless - The Viable Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Guinea pig Cavia porcellus farming for meat production remains a marginalised activity in Cameroon in spite of the advantages this specie offers. With the view to promote its production, a national countrywide survey was carried out in order to evaluate the production systems and constraints. Traditional guinea pig farming appears to be a secondary household activity undertaken by small farmers basically women. The extensive production system which reveals no management practices, integrates very well in the agricultural systems (small livestock, food crops and natural forages production of the western highlands and southern forest zones of Cameroon. Guinea pig productivity remains low due to many constraints such as predation, uncontrolled breeding, inbreeding, poor feeding, negative selection and lack of veterinary care. Nevertheless, guinea pig farming plays an important role in the well being of low income village dwellers as food security, cash savings and socio-cultural values within the populations of South Cameroon. The promotion of its production requires an awareness of animal scientists, development authorities, as well as on station research if improved raising conditions.

  7. Facet joints infiltration: A viable alternative treatment to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: All patients with clinical lower back pain (LBP) and MRI features of FJA were recruited into this prospective study randomly. All the FJI patients had depot methylprednisolone and the physiotherapy patients had McKenzie regimen. Outcome questionnaires comprising Oswentry disability index scores ...

  8. Distance Education at the Graduate Level: A Viable Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian M.; Everard, Andrea; McCoy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This research extends a previous comparative study that looked at learning outcomes between traditional classroom and web-based education at the graduate level. That research (Jones and Everard, 2008) provided little evidence that there were significant differences between delivery methods. This research looks at employment status, household…

  9. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  10. 2D arrays device for calcaneus bone transmission: an alternative technological solution using crossed beam forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defontaine, M; Bonneau, S; Padilla, F; Gomez, M A; Nasser Eddin, M; Laugier, P; Patat, F

    2004-04-01

    In the context of manned space flight with the European Space Agency, a quantitative ultrasound device for transmission imaging through the calcaneus bone has been developed. It includes two matrix transducers of 576 elements each in order to electronically perform the scanning and the focusing of the 500 kHz ultrasonic beam. This device called the BEAM scanner, provides two parametric images of attenuation (BUA, broadband ultrasonic attenuation) and velocity (SOS, speed of sound) of the investigated skeletal site. The cost and complexity of such a device has motivated the study of an alternative solution, less demanding in terms of technology, based on a crossed beam former [H. Ermert et al., A new concept for a real-time ultrasound transmission camera, in: IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 2000, pp. 1611-1614]. It consists in forming two perpendicular cylindrically focused planes, one in emission, one in reception, instead of two spherically focused apertures. The crossing line of the two planes replaces the focused beam. The 2D beam forming technological challenge is moved to a 1D simpler and cheaper architecture. In this work the two solutions have been compared for in vivo measurements. Data sets have been acquired using all spatial combinations of emission and reception single elements of the matrix. Then signals have been processed using either the cylindrical or the spherical focussing mode. For cylindrical focussing, the increased level of the side lobes caused severe artefacts. Several apodization techniques have been implemented to reduce these artefacts, resulting in encouraging results. After a brief description of this new ultrasonic method for bone quantitative assessment, several reconstructed images using both processing schemes are presented. Corresponding statistical results obtained in 29 subjects are also provided.

  11. Polymeric nanocapsules as a technological alternative to reduce the toxicity caused by meloxicam in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Benonio T; Ianiski, Francine R; Vogt, Ane G; Pinz, Mikaela P; Reis, Angélica S; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Soares, Mauro P; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Luchese, Cristiane

    2016-11-01

    This study determined whether meloxicam in nanocapsules modifies stomach and liver damage caused by free meloxicam in mice. Male Swiss mice were treated with blank nanocapsules or meloxicam in nanocapsules or free meloxicam (10 mg/kg, intragastrically, daily for five days). On the seventh day, blood was collected to determine biochemical markers (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, albumin and alkaline phosphatase). Stomachs and livers were removed for histological analysis. There was no significant difference in the biochemical markers in the plasma of mice. Meloxicam in nanocapsules did not have an ulcerogenic potential in the stomach or cause lipid peroxidation in the stomach and liver. Free meloxicam increased the ulcerogenic potential in the stomach and lipid peroxidation in the stomach and liver. Meloxicam in nanocapsules caused less histological changes than free meloxicam. In conclusion, polymeric nanocapsules can represent a technological alternative to reduce the toxicity caused by meloxicam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alternative technological approach for synthesis of ceramic pigments by waste materials recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doynov, M.; Dimitrov, T.; Kozhukharov, S.

    2016-05-01

    Alternative technological approach is proposed enabling utilization of raw materials from an oil refinery, such as waste guard layers from reactors. Reagent grade and purified MgO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), were used as additional precursors. The homogeneous mixtures obtained were formed into pellets and sintered at different temperatures. The main phase was proved by X-ray phase analysis (XRD) and compared to ICPDS database. The main phase in the ceramics synthesized was solid solution of spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and magnesiochromite. These minerals are classified as chromspinelide MgCr{sub 1}.2Al{sub 0}.4Fe{sub 0}.4O{sub 4} and alumochromite MgCr{sub 1}.6Al{sub 0}.4O{sub 4}. Additional SEM observations, combined with EDX analysis were performed, evincing agglomeration at lower temperatures, followed by agglomerate crumbling, at elevated calcination temperature. The complete transformation of initial precursors into the final ceramic compounds was found to occur at 800 degree centigrade 1 h. The ceramic samples synthesized had high density of 1.72-1.93 g/cm{sup 3} and large absorption area - 32.93% which is probably due to the high porosity of the sample. (Author)

  13. Iodine catalysis: A green alternative to transition metals in organic chemistry and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekhman S. Yusubov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Iodine and compounds of iodine in higher oxidation states have emerged as versatile and environmentally benign reagents for organic chemistry. One of the most impressive recent achievements in this area has been the discovery of catalytic activity of iodine in numerous oxidative transformations leading to the formation of new CO, CN, and CC bonds in organic compounds. These catalytic transformations in many cases are very similar to the transition metal-catalyzed reactions, but have the advantage of environmental sustainability and efficient utilization of natural resources. Iodine is an environmentally friendly and a relatively inexpensive element, which is currently underutilized in industrial applications. One of the main goals of this review is presenting to industrial researchers the benefits of using catalytic iodine in chemical technology as an environmentally sustainable alternative to transition metals. The present review summarizes catalytic applications of iodine and compounds of iodine in organic synthesis. The material is organized according to the nature of active catalytic species (hypoiodite, trivalent, or pentavalent hypervalent iodine species generated in these reactions from appropriate pre-catalysts. Numerous synthetic procedures based on iodine(III or iodine(V catalytic species in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, Oxone, peroxyacids or other stoichiometric oxidants are summarized. A detailed discussion of catalytic cycles involving hypervalent iodine, hypoiodites, and other active intermediates is presented.

  14. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF`s) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV`S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available ``practical``. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  15. The Effect of Using Alternative Assessment Activities on Students' Success and Attitudes in Science and Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirikkaya, Esma Bulus; Vurkaya, Gurbet

    2011-01-01

    The pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design with control group was used in this study, in which the impact of alternative assessment activities on students' academic achievement levels and attitudes were explored by employing these activities in the unit "Electricity in Our Lives" of the Science and Technology Course. The…

  16. Assistive technology as a predictor of general or alternate assessment among elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Thompson, Samuel; Wei, Tianlan; Richman, David

    2014-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 specifically mandates that all students participate in the general assessment process or some form of alternate assessment as a measure of school accountability for student academic progress. Although levels of communication difficulties, intellectual impairment, and specific diagnoses such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are correlated with increased probability of participating in alternate assessment methods, very little empirical research has focused on identifying predictors for students' assessment modality. Archival data from the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SEELS; 2005) were used to examine variables that predict whether elementary school students with ASD participated in the general or alternate assessment. Results indicated that receptive and expressive communication abilities appear to influence participation in the general vs. alternate assessment in tandem with access to assistive technology. Students with ASDs were approximately 2.71 times more likely to participate in the general assessment when they had access to assistive technology. Next, we performed a second, follow-up analysis for only ASD students with communication problems. The odds ratio value increased to 14.9 indicating that ASD students with communication problems that had access to assistive technology were almost 15 times more likely to participate in the general assessment than students with communication problems without access to assistive technology.

  17. Chicken fat: technological and nutritional alternatives / Gordura de frango: alternativas tecnológicas e nutricionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Almeida de Souza-Soares

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the production of chicken meat have increased considerably, and as consequence have been generated a larger amount of industrial waste of the poultry processing. These agroindustrial residues are rich in several nutrients that can be used in nature, but may also be applied processing techniques in order to provide transformations desired on the chemical and physical characteristics, in view to a better use of the same ones. These by-product are rich in lipids could be used in several products, however are usually used in the elaboration of animal feed and products with low value. In this review are being approached the principal technological and nutritional aspects presented by the derived lipids of the chicken processing. Technological alternatives are also presented to solve the discard of that material in the environment.Nos últimos anos a produção de carne de frango tem aumentado expressivamente, e como conseqüência tem sido gerada uma maior quantidade de resíduos industriais provenientes do processamento das aves. Estes resíduos agroindustriais são ricos em diversos nutrientes que podem ser utilizados “in natura”, mas também podem ser aplicadas técnicas de processamento a fim de proporcionar transformações desejadas sobre as características químicas e físicas, tendo em vista um melhor aproveitamento dos mesmos. Estes subprodutos são ricos em lipídios podendo ser utilizados em diversos produtos, porém geralmente são utilizados na elaboração de rações animais e produtos com baixo valor agregado. Nesta revisão estão sendo abordados os principais aspectos tecnológicos e nutricionais apresentados pelos lipídios derivados da indústria processadora de frango. Alternativas tecnológicas também são apresentadas para solucionar a questão do descarte desse material no meio ambiente.

  18. 40 CFR Appendix E to Subpart E of... - Innovative and Alternative Technology Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... innovative and alternative waste water treatment processes and techniques. The Administrator may publish.... Alternative waste water treatment processes and techniques are proven methods which provide for the reclaiming.... Innovative waste water treatment processes and techniques are developed methods which have not been fully...

  19. Assessment and selection of the best treatment alternative for infectious waste by modified Sustainability Assessment of Technologies methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ata; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Parmy, Saeid; Mahvi, Amirhosein; Yunesian, Masud; Khaefi, Mehran; Nabizadeh, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Improper treatment of infectious waste can cause numerous adverse environmental and health effects such as transmission of diseases through health personnel and other susceptible groups,who come in contact with such wastes. On the other hand, selection of appropriate treatment alternatives in infectious waste management has become a challenging task for public health authorities especially in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to select the best infectious waste treatment alternative by the modified Sustainability Assessment of Technologies (SAT) methodology, developed by the International Environmental Technology Center of the United Nations Environment Program (IETC-UNEP). SAT methodology consists of three main components, including screening, scoping and detailed assessment. In screening, different infectious waste treatment alternatives undergo screening using the finalized environmental and technical criteria. Short-listed treatment options from the previous step, then go through the comprehensive scoping and detailed assessment (2nd and 3rd components) which is more qualitative and quantitative in nature. An empirical case in Tehran, the largest city in Iran, is provided to illustrate the potential of the proposed methodology. According to the final score, "Hydroclave", was the most suitable infectious treatment technology. The ranking order of the treatment alternatives were "Autoclave with a shredder", "Autoclave", "Central Incineration" and "chemical treatment" on the basis of technical, economical, social and environmental aspects and their related criteria. According to the results it could be concluded that the top ranking technologies basically have higher scores in all the aspects. Hence it is easier to arrive at a decision for the final technology selection based on the principles of sustainability.

  20. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  1. Mobile Learning as Alternative to Assistive Technology Devices for Special Needs Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili, Jalal; Ibrahimi, El Houcine Ouazzani

    2017-01-01

    Assistive Technology (AT) revolutionized the process of learning for special needs students during the past three decades. Thanks to this technology, accessibility and educational inclusion became attainable more than any time in the history of special education. Meanwhile, assistive technology devices remain unreachable for a large number of…

  2. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  3. Information technology to support alternative vehicle travel in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Because of crowding, overuse, and pollution, the National Park Service is conducting a major effort to develop alternative forms of transportation in the national parks. A new generation of busses and trams will provide features that motivate visitor...

  4. Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

    1981-04-01

    A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

  5. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

  6. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space...

  7. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...

  8. Technological Minimalism: A Cost-Effective Alternative for Course Design and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of minimum levels of technology, or technological minimalism, for Web-based multimedia course content. Highlights include cost effectiveness; problems with video streaming, the use of XML for Web pages, and Flash and Java applets; listservs instead of proprietary software; and proper faculty training. (LRW)

  9. Use of Web 2.0 Technologies to Enhance Learning Experiences in Alternative School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    As the learning paradigms are shifting to include various forms of digital technologies such as synchronous, asynchronous, and interactive methods, social networking technologies have been introduced to the educational settings in order to increase the quality of learning environments. The literature suggests that effective application of these…

  10. 77 FR 47375 - Applications for New Awards; Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... competitive one-year grants to 33 States under title III of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (AT Act of... competitive grants to support AFPs that help individuals with disabilities purchase assistive technology... judgment and care that a person of prudence, discretion, and intelligence would exercise in the management...

  11. Specific Pressure and Mechanical Properties of the Alternator Flange from EN AC 47100 Alloy in HPDC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gaspar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The technology HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting of metals represents accurate casting which approximates the most ideal effort of direct change of basic material to finished product. The die casting itself is characterized by mechanical method of casting with the molten metal being forced-in under high pressure (specific pressure into the divided metal mould by a plunger acting upon the melt in the filling chamber. The HPDC technology has in recent years achieved an expansive growth in the volume as well as the range of production and that is particularly in aviation and automobile industry. The presented paper deals with the experimental assessment of the impact of specific pressure on the mechanical properties of the alternator flange from EN AC 47100 in HPDC technology.

  12. An Assessment Of The Life Cycle Costs And GHG Emissions For Alternative Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, C. Richard; Carias, Anibal; Ali, Mohammad; Wood, Nicholas; Morgenroth, Michael; Bridgeman, Andrew

    2010-09-15

    The best choices for supplying energy in a manner that can reduce emissions at a reasonable cost while still ensuring grid stability and reliability of supply is a matter of some debate. In this paper, a first principles analysis is performed to look at life-cycle costs and emissions as well as the amount of energy that is provided to the system from various low-emission alternatives, including wind, water, solar and nuclear power. These low-emission sources are then benchmarked against coal-fired energy production to establish a normalized assessment of the clean energy alternatives currently available.

  13. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  14. Electrokinetics as alternative technological operation when creating agroecosystems in complex climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsev, E. G.; Malozyomov, B. V.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    It was proposed to use electrokinetic phenomena for the cultivation of agricultural products, taking into account the multifactority of technology and the presence of relaxation phenomena. It is forecasted to use new approaches to reduce energy costs for the process of moistening the root-layer of soil and saving natural resources. The proposed technology will make it possible to get rid of a number of irrationally used natural resources. This is especially true for the Crimean region and the Volga region. Using this technology in Uzbekistan will allow the elimination of the Aral catastrophe and restoration of the natural balance in this region.

  15. Democratic Television in the Netherlands : Two Curious Cases of Alternative Media as Counter-Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, Tom; Aasman, Susan

    2015-01-01

    For this article, the authors retrieved two curious cases of non-conformist TV from the archives of the Netherlands Institute of Sound and Vision. Being made in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the two cases represent an alternative history of broadcast television in the Netherlands. Whereas Neon

  16. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  17. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohd Hasan, Mohd Rosli; You, Zhanping

    2016-01-01

    .... In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point...

  18. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  20. II. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), and incandescent lamps on broiler welfare in response to recent interest in the agriculture industry to transition to more energy-efficient lighting technologies. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 light-tight modified large colony houses under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested were a CCFL, and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of the 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Birds were removed from each house at days 7, 14, 35, and 42 to be humanely euthanized and weighed for necropsy evaluation and comparison of body mass. Blood collection via cardiac puncture was performed to obtain heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios for evaluation of environmental stress. Birds raised under CCFLs had significantly lower body weights (2,871 g±53) than the control (3,000±33 g) by 42 d. Birds raised under CCFLs additionally had significantly higher H:L ratios (0.68±0.06) than the control (0.53±0.03), indicating that these birds may have been chronically stressed (P=0.03). There were not significant differences in the H:L ratio between LED technologies at α=0.05. A significant age and seasonal correlation in H:L ratios was observed across all technologies, along with significant differences among birds raised under the experimental technologies. This study indicates that variation in broiler body weight and stress may be attributed in part to lighting technologies implemented in broiler houses. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Phage Display: A Powerful Technology for the Generation of High-Specificity Affinity Reagents from Alternative Immune Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, William J J; Bloom, Laird; Grant, Joanne; Franklin, Edward; Shúilleabháin, Deirdre Ní; Cunningham, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are critical reagents in many fundamental biochemical methods such as affinity chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), flow cytometry, western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry techniques. As our understanding of the proteome becomes more complex, demand is rising for rapidly generated antibodies of higher specificity than ever before. It is therefore surprising that few investigators have moved beyond the classical methods of antibody production in their search for new reagents. Despite their long-standing efficacy, recombinant antibody generation technologies such as phage display are still largely the tools of biotechnology companies or research groups with a direct interest in protein engineering. In this chapter, we discuss the inherent limitations of classical polyclonal and monoclonal antibody generation and highlight an attractive alternative: generating high-specificity, high-affinity recombinant antibodies from alternative immune sources such as chickens, via phage display.

  2. Photovoltaic Technology and Applications | Othieno | Discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photovoltaic home systems appear to be the most viable alternative source of electricity. The photovoltaic technology is therefore reviewed and recommendations made on their application for rural electrification in the developing nations. Keywords: solar energy, photovoltaic materials, electrification, rural power, cost, ...

  3. An Alternative Approach for Designing and Teaching Communication Skills to University of Technology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineteh, Ernest A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the contents and teaching strategies of communication skills courses at a South African higher institution: Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). It seeks to understand why the courses have not been very responsive to increasing academic and professional challenges undergraduate students experience at this…

  4. Storytelling Supported by Technology: An Alternative for EFL Children with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sy-ying

    2012-01-01

    This action research aims to investigate how technology improves the conditions of storytelling to help enhance the learning attitude and motivation of EFL children with learning difficulty using power point designs and an online recording system--VoiceThread (http://voicethread.com/). The use of power point designs is to assure children of clear…

  5. Comprehensive Evaluation of Catalytic Hydroreduction and Nonthermal Plasma as Alternative Technologies for Detoxification of Chemical Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    suggested that well- known HDS catalysts, such as Ni-Mo and Co-Mo, might be candidates for combined HDS and HDC of CEES. Another process developed by Kalnes ...7. Kalnes , T.N., and R.B. James, Innovative Hazardous Waste Treatment Technology Series, Vol. 1, Thermal Processes, Freeman, H.M., Ed., p. 65-76

  6. Removal of viable bacteria and endotoxins by Electro Deionization (EDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Norimitsu; Otomo, Teruo; Watabe, Tomoichi; Ase, Tomonobu; Takemura, Takuto; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    Viable bacteria and endotoxins in water sometimes cause problems for human health. Endotoxins are major components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharides). In medical procedures, especially haemodialysis (HD) and related therapies (haemodiafiltration (HDF), haemofiltration (HF)), endotoxins in the water for haemodialysis can permeate through the haemodialysis membrane and cause microinflammation or various haemodialysis-related illnesses. To decrease such a biological risk, RO and UF membranes are generally used. Also, hot water disinfection or the chemical disinfection is regularly executed to kill bacteria which produce endotoxins. However, simple treatment methods and equipment may be able to decrease the biological risk more efficiently. In our experiments, we confirmed that viable bacteria and endotoxins were removed by Electro Deionization (EDI) technology and also clarified the desorption mechanisms.

  7. Alternative treaty monitoring approaches using ultra-low background measurement technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, H S; Aalseth, C E; Bowyer, T W; Fast, J E; Hayes, J C; Hoppe, E W; Hossbach, T W; Keillor, M E; Kephart, J D; McIntyre, J I; Seifert, A

    2009-05-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty includes a network of stations and laboratories for collection and analysis of radioactive aerosols. Alternative approaches to IMS operations are considered as a method of enhancing treaty verification. Ultra-low background (ULB) detection promises the possibility of improvements to IMS minimum detectable activities (MDAs) well below the current approach, requiring MDA < or = 30 microBq/m(3) of air for (140)Ba, or about 10(6) fissions per daily sample.

  8. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hasan, Mohd Rosli; You, Zhanping

    2016-01-01

    Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as f...

  9. Technologies of inclusive well-being serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Brahnam, Sheryl; Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    This book is the first single volume that brings together the topics of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy. The focus is on the use of digital media for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people−spanning those with special needs to the elderly to entire urban neighborhoods. This book brings together these topics to demonstrate the increasing trans/inter/multi-disciplinary initiatives apparent today in science, medicine, and academic research−interdisciplinary initiative that are already profoundly impacting society.

  10. Democratic Television in the Netherlands: Two Curious Cases of Alternative Media as Counter-Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Slootweg, Tom; Aasman, Susan

    2015-01-01

    For this article, the authors retrieved two curious cases of non-conformist TV from the archives of the Netherlands Institute of Sound and Vision. Being made in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the two cases represent an alternative history of broadcast television in the Netherlands. Whereas Neon (1979–1980) aimed to establish a punk-inspired DIY video culture, Ed van der Elsken (1980, 1981) strived for an expressive amateur film culture. The authors propose to regard these cases as two differ...

  11. Technological alternative on environmental management for pipeline installation in the Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Amadeu Farage; Teixeira, Ivan Jose [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Riquena, Renata Maria; Freitas, Wanderleia Isabel P. de [CONCREMAT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Usually pipelines construction are located in isolated places which are difficult to access. Due this characteristic the logistical support services are not available as easily as it is in large centers. Even so these enterprises may not release these services mainly due to high demand from stakeholders and the commitment to quality that these pipelines are submitted. This work presents some alternatives in environmental management implemented during an installation of pipelines in the Amazon forest with emphasis on the quality of water bodies and correct effluents destination. Located in western Amazonia in a region with several restrictions like: logistics, low supply of skilled labor and high environmental requirements. The project aligned competence and creativity since from its planning until its delivery to overcome difficulties and meet the demands of stakeholders. Usual techniques to assist legal requirements such as effluent treatment and environmental monitoring had to be adapted to the Amazon reality, always seeking for balance between technical and alignment economic and respect for social and environmental aspects. Using the methodology of 'wetland' (system of alternative treatment of effluents, based on the use of regional plants - macrophytes), the reuse of sludge from sewage treatment station, floating sewage treatment system, was crucial to meet the challenge to deploy this product to work in Amazonia. The aim of this work is to disseminate the techniques used and help other enterprises with the same challenges. (author)

  12. Results of the Alternative Water Processor Test, A Novel Technology for Exploration Wastewater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Leticia; Meyer, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    Biologically-based water recovery systems are a regenerative, low energy alternative to physiochemical processes to reclaim water from wastewater. This paper summarizes the results of the Alternative Water Processor (AWP) test conducted over one year. The AWP recovered 90% of water from four crewmembers using (4) membrane aerated bioreactors (MABRs) to remove carbon and nitrogen from an exploration mission wastewater, including urine, hygiene, laundry and humidity condensate. Downstream, a coupled forward and reverse osmosis system removed large organics and inorganic salts from the biological system effluent. The system exceeded the overall objectives of the test by recovering 90% of the influent wastewater processed and a 29% reduction of consumables from the current state of the art water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS). However the biological system fell short of its test goals, failing to remove 75% and 90% of the influent ammonium and organic carbon, respectively. Despite not meeting its test goals, the BWP demonstrated the feasibility of an attached-growth biological system for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, an innovative, volume and consumable-saving design that doesn't require toxic pretreatment. This paper will explain the reasons for this and will discuss steps to optimize each subsystem to increase effluent quality from the MABRs and the FOST to advance the system.

  13. An Alternative to Liquid Human Nature at the Crossroads of the Technological Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Santos Arnaiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the idea of an ethic of weakness, expressing distrust about the rise of exacerbated capitalist individualism that drives a technological perfectionism. The extended modernity, as uncompleted project, provides context around the strong separation between humanity and nature. Both concepts posts in relation to perfectionism of the human beings eventually devalue and even deny a more or less permanent human nature. It therefore urges return to a concept of human nature understood as the development program of a free human being, which includes a number of common elements due to genotypic and phenotypic traits, while an ontological concept of human dignity that stems from political equity of all human beings. Historical time must be rethought to make ethical, medical and legal decisions in technology with prudence and responsibility, considering that unfortunately processes undertaken are irreversible.

  14. Alternative catalysts and technologies for NOx removal from biomass- and wastefired plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schill, Leonhard

    removed with the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using a vanadia-tungsta-titania (VWT) catalyst and ammonia (NH3) as reductant. For application in coal- and gas-red power plants this technology is mature. However, when ring biomass the ue gas contains potassium in large amounts which deactivates...... the VWT catalyst very rapidly. Firing of biomass increased strongly over the past decade and is expected to increase even further in the near future. Also waste incineration creates ue gases that are very challenging to the SCR catalyst. Therefore, SCR units in waste incineration plants are commonly......, even at low concentrations. One of the causes for the catalyst's high activity in NO reduction, the high concentration of chemisorbed surface oxygen, might be exploited in the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC), another growing environmental technology. Preliminary tests are under planning....

  15. Analysis of Alternative Forest Road Retaining Technologies on Difficult Slopes in Japan*

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Mika; Takahashi, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, soft and sandy soils and steep slopes werenative problems and usually caused difficulties in forest road construction. Inaddition, there were many crushing zones in mountainous forested area, andunderground water often sprung out from stones and rocks in these crushingzones. This underground water often caused road degradation and should bedrained. Some forest road retaining technologies had been introduced recentlyfor stabling spur roads. One is L-shaped steel retaining wall techno...

  16. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  17. Alternative polymer separation technology by centrifugal force in a melted state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovszky, Károly; Ronkay, Ferenc

    2014-11-01

    In order to upgrade polymer waste during recycling, separation should take place at high purity. The present research was aimed to develop a novel, alternative separation opportunity, where the polymer fractions were separated by centrifugal force in melted state. The efficiency of the constructed separation equipment was verified by two immiscible plastics (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; low density polyethylene, LDPE), which have a high difference of density, and of which large quantities can also be found in the municipal solid waste. The results show that the developed equipment is suitable not only for separating dry blended mixtures of PET/LDPE into pure components again, but also for separating prefabricated polymer blends. By this process it becomes possible to recover pure polymer substances from multi-component products during the recycling process. The adequacy of results was verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement as well as optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Generic Examples to Make Viable Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Ely, Rob; Yopp, David

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen an increased call to train students to craft mathematical arguments. The third of the Common Core's (CCSS) Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP 3) (CCSSI 2010) calls for all mathematically proficient students to "construct viable arguments" to support the truth of their ideas and to "critique…

  19. Box Energy: rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles; Box-energy. Rental of energy. Storage systems and alternative-fuel. Technologies for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of study on the rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles. Experience gained in the area of battery-rental is discussed. The aims of the 'Box Energy' project are described, as is its market environment. The 'Box Energy' concept is described and possible customers and partners listed. Logistics aspects are discussed. The organisation of 'Box Energy' is described and the concept's chances and weaknesses are discussed. The launching of a pilot project in Switzerland is discussed. Recommendations on further work to be done are made.

  20. An R&D programme on alternative technologies for the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Appelquist, G; Bohm, C; Engström, M; Hellman, S; Holmgren, S O; Johansson, E; Yamdagni, N; Zhao, X; Sundblad, R; Ödmark, A; Bodo, P; Elderstig, H; Hentzell, H; Lindgren, S; Tober, M; Johansson, H; Svensson, C; Yuan, J R; Mohktari, M; Ellis, Nick

    1995-01-16

    This note describes a first-level calorimeter trigger processor designed to take advantage of new possibilities that arise as a consequence of modern design techniques and components such as optical interconnections, application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and multi-chip modules (MCMs). The design is homogeneous down to the trigger cell level. This means that no boundary effects occur due to the system partitioning. The construction presented relies mainly on two different types of highly complex ASICs for processing and an MCM for opto-electrical conversion of input data. The trigger processor performs electron/photon identification, jet detection and missing ET calculations for the central first-level trigger and region of interest (RoI) selection for the second-level trigger. Exploring the possibilities given by advanced technologies leads to a first-level trigger architecture with advantages over more traditional designs, allowing, for example, higher precision calculations. Remaining degrees of ...

  1. Extraction and purification of high added value compounds from by-products of the winemaking chain using alternative/nonconventional processes/technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Sami; Brianceau, Sylène; Manteau, Sébastien; Turk, Mohammad; Ghidossi, Rémy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine

    2016-12-21

    Grape byproducts are today considered as a cheap source of valuable compounds since existent technologies allow the recovery of target compounds and their recycling. The goal of the current article is to explore the different recovery stages used by both conventional and alternative techniques and processes. Alternative pre-treatments techniques reviewed are: ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields and high voltage discharges. In addition, nonconventional solvent extraction under high pressure, specifically, supercritical fluid extraction and subcritical water extraction are discussed. Finally alternative purification technologies, for example membrane processing were also examined. The intent is to describe the mechanisms involved by these alternative technologies and to summarize the work done on the improvement of the extraction process of phenolic compounds from winery by-products. With a focus on the developmental stage of each technology, highlighting the research need and challenges to be overcome for an industrial implementation of these unitary operations in the overall extraction process. A critical comparison of conventional and alternative techniques will be reviewed for ethe pre-treatment of raw material, the diffusion of polyphenols and the purification of these high added value compounds. This review intends to give the reader some key answers (costs, advantages, drawbacks) to help in the choice of alternative technologies for extraction purposes.

  2. Application and Research Status of Alternative Materials for 3D-printing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yanqing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Application features and research status of alternative 3D-printing materials for six typical 3D-printingtechniques were reviewed. From the point of view of physical forms, four kinds of materials of liquid photosensitive resin material, thin sheet material (paper or plastic film , low melting point filament material and powder material are included. And from the composition point of view, nearly all kinds of materials in the production and life are included such as polymer materials: plastic, resin, wax; metal and alloy materials; ceramic materials. Liquid photosensitive resin material is used for stereo lithigraphy apparatus(SLA; thin sheet materials such as paper or plastic film are used for laminated object manufacturing(LOM; low melting point polymer filament materials such as wax filament, polyolefin resin filament, polyamide filament and ABS filament are used for fused deposition modeling(FDM; very wide variety powder materials including nylon powder, nylon-coated glass powder, polycarbonate powder, polyamide powder, wax powder, metal powder(Re-sintering and infiltration of copper are needed after sintering, wax-coated ceramic powder, wax-coated metal powder and thermosetting resin-coated fine sand are used for selective laser sintering(SLS. Nearly the same above powder materials are used for selective laser melting(SLM, but the printed parts own much more higher density and better mechanical properties. Powder materials are likewise used for threedimensional printing and gluing(3DP, however, the powders are stuck together by tricolor binder sprayed through nozzle and cross-section shape of the part is color-printed on it. Finally, the development direction in both quality and the yield of 3D-printing materials were pointed out to be a bottle-neck issue and a hot topic in the field of 3D-printing.

  3. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as foaming agents through the measurements of rotational viscosity, the reduction in temperature during foaming, and volatile loss. The ethanol-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 80 °C and 100 °C, while the water-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 100 °C and 120 °C. Additionally, the rolling thin film oven (RTFO was used to generate short-term aging of the foamed asphalt binders. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity of the asphalt binders at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C, 140 °C, and 160 °C. Overall, ethanol can function in the same manner as water but requires less energy to foam. It is proven based on the smaller drop in temperature of the asphalt binder foamed using ethanol compared with that prepared with water. This is due to the lower latent heat capacity of ethanol, which requires less energy to vaporize compared with water. Through the rotational viscometer test, ethanol performs better in lowering the viscosity of asphalt binders, which is essential in allowing production processes at low temperatures, as well as a better workability and aggregate coating. Ethanol can be expelled from the foamed asphalt binders at a higher rate due to its lower boiling point and latent heat.

  4. System analysis and assessment of technological alternatives for Nordic H{sub 2} energy foresight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Gether, K. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Joergensen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2004-12-01

    The hydrogen scenarios developed during the Nordic Hydrogen Foresight project was analysed using a energy system model, which was developed during the project. The aim of the systems analysis was to analyse the technical and economical potential of hydrogen society in the Nordic countries in quantitative terms as well as the competitiveness of the selected hydrogen based systems. Visions and scenarios of the future energy systems in the Nordic area were defined in the workshops of the project. As a result of these workshops three scenarios were selected to outline the future of Nordic energy. The scenarios included different energy policies; scenarios for fossil fuel prices; and hydrogen energy demands, which varied from 6% to 18% of the total energy demand in 2030 for transport sector, and from 3% to 9% in heat and power production. In the roadmap workshops, the most important hydrogen based systems were selected, which were also included in the model. These include steam reforming of natural gas, electrolysis with renewable electricity, and biomass gasification for hydrogen production. For stationary applications, fuel cells and gas engines were selected for power and heat production. In our scenario calculations, biomass gasification and steam reforming seem to be the most competitive technologies for hydrogen production. The competitiveness of biomass gasification is greatly affected by the biomass fuel price, which is a local energy source. Electrolysis seems to be most competitive in decentralized systems, if the electricity price is low enough. For stationary applications, CHP fuel cells seem to be the most competitive in the long term, if the technological development and the decrease in investment costs follow the assumed scenario. The approximated Nordic market sizes in 2030 for the base scenarios varied from 1000 ME to 3000 MEuro for hydrogen production, from 1000 to 4000 MEuro for stationary applications and 4000 MEuro to 12.000 MEuro for hydrogen

  5. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP): Emergence As an Alternative Technology for Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Yue; Liang, Jun-Song; Zhou, Xing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of medicinal plant ingredients is essential for their safe use and for the regulation of herbal drug supply chain. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a recently developed approach to identify herbal medicine species. This novel molecular biology technique enables timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where infrastructures to support polymerase chain reaction facilities are lacking. Studies that used this method have altered our view on the extent and complexity of herbal medicine identification. In this review, we give an introduction into LAMP analysis, covers the basic principles and important aspects in the development of LAMP analysis method. Then we presented a critical review of the application of LAMP-based methods in detecting and identifying raw medicinal plant materials and their processed products. We also provide a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for the utilization of the LAMP protocol in herbal authentication, and consider the prospects of LAMP technology in the future developments of herbal medicine identification and the challenges associated with its application.

  6. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies. Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putluru, S.S.R.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The increased use of biomass as fuel has created some new challenges to establish SCR flue gas treatment technology. One of these challenges comes from biomass complex chemical composition, which includes potassium shown to have a negative impact on the SCR catalyst. Studies have shown that potassium deactivates SCR catalyst and reduces its ability to reduce NO to N{sub 2}. An attempt was made to protect the SCR catalyst from alkali poisoning by the imposition of a coating on the catalyst surface. Various compounds were coated on a commercial catalyst supplied by Haldor Topsoee A/S and tested for alkali poisoning resistance. These materials were broadly divided as metal oxides, zeolites and other materials. The coated catalysts were exposed to potassium chloride aerosols at 350 deg. C for 650-1200 h. SCR activity, SEM and EDX measurements were performed to analyze the coated catalysts resistance to potassium poisoning. Coated catalysts (Mg, Mg containing compounds and Zeolites) showed appreciable alkali resistivity compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Coated catalysts showed high potassium concentration at the surface of the coating and low potassium concentration across the cross section when compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Thus, it is assumed that the coating layer accumulates the potassium at the surface and prevents to penetrate through the catalyst. The overall assessment is that it is possible to protect an SCR catalyst from potassium poisoning by the imposition of coating layer. (Author)

  7. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation.

  8. Technical assessment of discarded tires gasification as alternative technology for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Einara Blanco; Pedroso, Daniel Travieso; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2017-10-01

    Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed. The combustion of producer gas derived from the gasification of TDF in an internal combustion engine driving a generator (ICE-G) appears as the more efficient route for electricity generation when compared with the efficiency obtained with the use of gas turbine (GT-G). A higher global efficiency, considering the electric and thermal generation efficiency can be expected with the use of TDF producer gas in GT-G, where is expected an overall efficiency of 77.49%. The assessment shows that is possible produces up to 7.67MJ and 10.62MJ of electric and thermal energy per kilogram of TDF gasified using an ICE-G and up to 6.06MJ and 13.03MJ of electric and thermal energy respectively per kilogram of gasified TDF using a GT-G. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    a problem. Separation of the slurry into a liquid nitrogen rich fraction and a more solid phosphorus rich fraction, which is exported away from the farm, may alleviate this problem. Separation offers an alternative to transporting the slurry further away, renting more land or buying more land. The need...... for P-balance is stricter in Denmark than before, but developments in feeding, changes in regulation and the reduction of livestock numbers have made separation less favourable. This article compares dominant separation technologies in Denmark, such as decanter and flocculation, as well as source....... Decanter separation can be the cheapest if area is limited and cooperation with neighbours is possible as large volumes reduce separation costs per tonne. Flocculation is the best if much P has to be removed from the farm in the solid fraction. Separation will in the future in many cases be combined...

  10. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  11. [Alternatives to femtosecond laser technology: subnanosecond UV pulse and ring foci for creation of LASIK flaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, A; Freidank, S; Linz, N

    2014-06-01

    In refractive corneal surgery femtosecond (fs) lasers are used for creating LASIK flaps, dissecting lenticules and for astigmatism correction by limbal incisions. Femtosecond laser systems are complex and expensive and cutting precision is compromised by the large focal length associated with the commonly used infrared (IR) wavelengths. Based on investigations of the cutting dynamics, novel approaches for corneal dissection using ultraviolet A (UVA) picosecond (ps) pulses and ring foci from vortex beams are presented. Laser-induced bubble formation in corneal stroma was investigated by high-speed photography at 1-50 million frames/s. Using Gaussian and vortex beams of UVA pulses with durations between 200 and 850 ps the laser energy needed for easy removal of flaps created in porcine corneas was determined and the quality of the cuts by scanning electron microscopy was documented. Cutting parameters for 850 ps are reported also for rabbit eyes. The UV-induced and mechanical stress were evaluated for Gaussian and vortex beams. The results show that UVA picosecond lasers provide better cutting precision than IR femtosecond lasers, with similar processing times. Cutting energy decreases by >50 % when the laser pulse duration is reduced to 200 ps. Vortex beams produce a short, donut-shaped focus allowing efficient and precise dissection along the corneal lamellae which results in a dramatic reduction of the absorbed energy needed for cutting and of mechanical side effects as well as in less bubble formation in the cutting plane. A combination of novel approaches for corneal dissection provides the option to replace femtosecond lasers by compact UVA microchip laser technology. Ring foci are also of interest for femtosecond laser surgery, especially for improved lenticule excision.

  12. Digial Technology Qualification Task 2 - Suitability of Digital Alternatives to Analog Sensors and Actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck

    2012-09-01

    The next generation reactors in the U.S. are an opportunity for vendors to build new reactor technology with advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems (control rooms, DCS, etc.). The advances made in the development of many current generation operating reactors in other parts of the world are being used in the design and construction of new plants. These new plants are expected to have fully integrated digital control rooms, computerized procedures, integrated surveillance testing with on-line monitoring and a major effort toward improving the O&M and fault survivability of the overall systems. In addition the designs are also incorporating major improvements in the man-machine interface based on lessons learned in nuclear and other industries. The above relates primarily to the scope of supply in instrumentation and control systems addressed by Chapter 7 of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) NUREG-0800 (Reference 9.5), and the associated Balance of Plant (BOP) I&C systems. This does not relate directly to the actuator and motor, breaker, initiation circuitry, valve position, etc. which is the subject of this report and normally outside of the traditional Distributed Control System (DCS), for both safety and non-safety systems. The recommendations presented in this report will be used as input to I&C research programming for the implementation of lessons learned during the early phases of new build both for large light water reactors (LWR) and also small modular reactors (SMR). This report is intended to support current research plans and provide user (vendor, owner-operator) input to the optimization of these research plans.

  13. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-05

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Air-spore in Cartagena, Spain: viable and non-viable sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Vergara, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jose; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In the presented study the airborne fungal spores of the semiarid city of Cartagena, Spain, are identified and quantified by means of viable or non-viable sampling methods. Airborne fungal samples were collected simultaneously using a filtration method and a pollen and particle sampler based on the Hirst methodology. This information is very useful for elucidating geographical patterns of hay fever and asthma. The qualitative results showed that when the non-viable methodology was employed, Cladosporium, Ustilago, and Alternaria were the most abundant spores identified in the atmosphere of Cartagena, while the viable methodology showed that the most abundant taxa were: Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. The quantitative results of airborne fungal spores identified by the Hirst-type air sampler (non-viable method), showed that Deuteromycetes represented 74% of total annual spore counts, Cladosporium being the major component of the fungal spectrum (62.2%), followed by Alternaria (5.3%), and Stemphylium (1.3%). The Basidiomycetes group represented 18.9% of total annual spore counts, Ustilago (7.1%) being the most representative taxon of this group and the second most abundant spore type. Ascomycetes accounted for 6.9%, Nectria (2.3%) being the principal taxon. Oomycetes (0.2%) and Zygomycestes and Myxomycestes (0.06%) were scarce. The prevailing species define our bioaerosol as typical of dry air. The viable methodology was better at identifying small hyaline spores and allowed for the discrimination of the genus of some spore types. However, non-viable methods revealed the richness of fungal types present in the bioaerosol. Thus, the use of both methodologies provides a more comprehensive characterization of the spore profile.

  15. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión...

  16. The Future of Classification in Wheelchair Sports; Can Data Science and Technological Advancement Offer an Alternative Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, Rienk M A; Bregman, Daan J J; Berger, Monique A M; de Witte, Annemarie M H; Veeger, Dirk-Jan H E J

    2017-11-01

    Classification is a defining factor for competition in wheelchair sports, but it is a delicate and time-consuming process with often questionable validity.1 New inertial sensor based measurement methods applied in match play and field tests, allow for more precise and objective estimates of the impairment effect on wheelchair mobility performance. It was evaluated if these measures could offer an alternative point of view for classification. Six standard wheelchair mobility performance outcomes of different classification groups were measured in match play (n=29), as well as best possible performance in a field test (n=47). In match-results a clear relationship between classification and performance level is shown, with increased performance outcomes in each adjacent higher classification group. Three outcomes differed significantly between the low and mid-class groups, and one between the mid and high-class groups. In best performance (field test), a split between the low and mid-class groups shows (5 out of 6 outcomes differed significantly) but hardly any difference between the mid and high-class groups. This observed split was confirmed by cluster analysis, revealing the existence of only two performance based clusters. The use of inertial sensor technology to get objective measures of wheelchair mobility performance, combined with a standardized field-test, brought alternative views for evidence based classification. The results of this approach provided arguments for a reduced number of classes in wheelchair basketball. Future use of inertial sensors in match play and in field testing could enhance evaluation of classification guidelines as well as individual athlete performance.

  17. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  18. Enzymatic isolation of viable human odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffaro, H M; Pääkkönen, V; Tjäderhane, L

    2016-05-01

    To improve an enzymatic method previously used for isolation of rat odontoblasts to isolate viable mature human odontoblasts. Collagenase I, collagenase I/hyaluronidase mixture and hyaluronidase were used to extract mature human odontoblasts from the pulp chamber. Detachment of odontoblasts from dentine was determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and to analyse the significance of differences in tubular diameter, and the t-test was used. MTT-reaction was used to analyse cell viability, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney post hoc tests were used to analyse the data. Immunofluorescent staining of dentine sialoprotein (DSP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were used to confirm the odontoblastic nature of the cells. MTT-reaction and FESEM demonstrated collagenase I/hyaluronidase resulted in more effective detachment and higher viability than collagenase I alone. Hyaluronidase alone was not able to detach odontoblasts. Immunofluorescence revealed the typical odontoblastic-morphology with one process, and DSP, AQP4 and MMP-20 were detected. Quantitative PCR of DSPP confirmed that the isolated cells expressed this odontoblast-specific gene. The isolation of viable human odontoblasts was successful. The cells demonstrated morphology typical for odontoblasts and expressed characteristic odontoblast-type genes and proteins. This method will enable new approaches, such as apoptosis analysis, for studies using fully differentiated odontoblasts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Inkjet printing of viable human dental follicle stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau Robert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing technology has the potential to be used for seeding of viable cells for tissue engineering approaches. For this reason, a piezoelectrically actuated, drop-on-demand inkjet printing system was applied to deliver viable human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSC of sizes of about 15 μm up to 20 μm in diameter. The purpose of these investigations was to verify the stability of the printing process and to evaluate cell viability post printing. Using a Nanoplotter 2.1 (Gesim, Germany equipped with the piezoelectric printhead NanoTip HV (Gesim, Germany, a concentration of 6.6 ×106 cells ml−1 in DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS could be dispensed. The piezoelectric printhead has a nominal droplet volume of ~ 400 pl and was set to a voltage of 75 V and a pulse of 50 μs while dosing 50 000 droplets over a time of 100 seconds. The volume and trajectory of the droplet were checked by a stroboscope test right before and after the printing process. It was found that the droplet volume decreases significantly by 35% during printing process, while the trajectory of the droplets remains stable with only an insignificant number of degrees deviation from the vertical line. It is highly probable that some cell sedimentations or agglomerations affect the printing performance. The cell viability post printing was assessed by using the Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The printing process was found to have no significant influence on cell survival. In conclusion, drop-on-demand inkjet printing can be a potent tool for the seeding of viable cells.

  20. Navigation-synchronized multimodal control wheelchair from brain to alternative assistive technologies for persons with severe disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puanhvuan, Dilok; Khemmachotikun, Sarawin; Wechakarn, Pongsakorn; Wijarn, Boonyanuch; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-04-01

    3 alternative input modules: an eye tracker module and chin and hand controller modules. The user could select the most suitable assistive technology based on his/her level of disability. Other existing assistive technologies could also be connected to the proposed system in the future using the same protocol.

  1. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  2. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  3. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the

  4. ASTA - A method for multi-criteria evaluation of water supply technologies to Assess the most SusTainable Alternative for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    Utilities in larger cities have to make complex decisions planning future investments in urban water infrastructure. Changes are driven by physical water stress or political targets for environmental water flows e.g. through the implementation of the European water framework directive. To include...... these environmental, economic and social sustainability dimensions we introduce a novel multi-criteria assessment method for evaluation of water supply technologies. The method is presented and demonstrated for four alternatives for water supply based on groundwater, rain- & stormwater or seawater developed...... weight was assigned to the environmental dimension of sustainability then the alternative of 'Rain- & stormwater harvesting' was the most sustainable water supply technology; when the highest weight was assigned to the economy or society dimensions then an alternative with 'Groundwater abstraction...

  5. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  6. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  7. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  8. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  9. Is Greenberg's "Macro-Carib" viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg's primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib 'etymologies' and another 64 Amerind 'etymologies'. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg's Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg's morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg's 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable

  10. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research and Testing. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    Perspectives, policy issues, and options for Congressional action that relate most directly to the development and implementation of alternatives to animal use in research and testing are addressed in this report. Testimonies and reports include those from the Office of Technology Assessment, the National Institute of Health, and the Food and Drug…

  11. Cooperativism, a viable option in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Izquierdo Muciño

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a big number of successful cooperative societies that have survived to the worst ravages of economic politics that the country is currently living, including companies that originally were commercial enterprises. Therefore this becomes a living proof that thought this system, is possible to achieve an alternative economy, fairer and more inclusive where is possible to get out of the crisis that the county is facing.Received: 08.07.2013Accepted: 30.07.2013

  12. An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunggye

    2012-01-01

    Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are…

  13. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  14. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology as an Alternative Male Annihilation Technique to Manage Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, O L; Osborne, T; Crisp, P; Barchia, I M

    2016-03-27

    The results of this study suggest that a novel male annihilation technique (specialized pheromone and lure application technology [SPLAT] incorporating cue-lure [CL] plus spinosad) is as effective as industry standard male annihilation controls, and is worth exploring further to manageBactrocera tryoni(Froggatt) populations. Three lures were evaluated in a contact and feeding bioassay and a cage attractancy trial: 1) SPLAT-CL + spinosad; 2) SPLAT-CL without spinosad; and 3) wick-CL + malathion. In a field attraction trial, lures (1) and (3) were evaluated with a third treatment, caneite blocks-CL + malathion. Lures were weathered for 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 wk, with an additional weathering treatment of 12 wk included in the field trial. In the contact and feeding bioassay, lures with SPLAT-CL + spinosad were >97% effective at 48 h for up to 2 wk weathering; however, wicks-CL + malathion killedB. tryoniwithin 2 h of exposure under all weathering periods. In the cage attractancy trial, SPLAT-CL + spinosad was as effective as, or performed better than, wicks-CL + malathion under all weathering treatments. The field study trap catches were similar for SPLAT-CL + spinosad and blocks-CL + malathion, and both had higher trap catches than wicks-CL + malathion at all weathering periods, except week 12. Overall, SPLAT-CL + spinosad compared favorably with current standard techniques for male annihilation and warrants further research. SPLAT-CL + spinosad may be a reduced-risk alternative for wicks-CL + malathion or blocks-CL + malathion forB. tryoniand other CL-responding fruit flies, such asBactrocera cucurbitaeCoquillett, because it contains a reduced-risk insecticide that poses a lower risk to humans and the environment and does not require labor-intensive handling and placement. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Technology choice and development in Brazil: An assessment of Brazil's alternative fuel program and the agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and service sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Lucy A.

    Technology choice profoundly affects a country's development process because capital-intensive and labor-intensive technologies have different socioeconomic linkages within the economy. This research examines the impacts of technology choice through the use of a social accounting matrix (SAM) framework. SAM-based modeling determines the direct and indirect effects of technology choice on development, particularly poverty alleviation in Brazil. Brazil's alternative fuel program was analyzed as a special example of technology choice. Two ethanol production technologies and the gasoline sector were compared; to make the study more robust, labor and capital intensive technologies were evaluated in the production of agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and services. Growth in these economic sectors was examined to assess the effects on employment, factor and household income, energy intensity, and carbon dioxide costs. Poverty alleviation was a focus, so income to unskilled agriculture labor, unskilled non-agriculture labor, and income to rural and urban households in poverty was also analyzed. The major research finding is that overall, labor-intensive technologies generate more employment, factor and household income, environmental and energy benefits to Brazil's economy than capital-intensive technologies. In addition, labor-intensive technologies make a particular contribution to poverty alleviation. The results suggest that policies to encourage the adoption of these technologies, especially in the agriculture and renewable energy sectors, are important because of their intersectoral linkages within the economy. Many studies have shown that Brazil's fuel ethanol program has helped to realize multiple macroeconomic objectives. However, this is the first empirical study to quantify its household income effects. The ethanol industry generated the most household income of the energy sectors. The research confirms a key finding of the appropriate technology literature

  16. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  17. ASTA - A method for multi-criteria evaluation of water supply technologies to Assess the most SusTainable Alternative for Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Albrechtsen, H-J; Rygaard, M

    2018-03-15

    Utilities in larger cities have to make complex decisions planning future investments in urban water infrastructure. Changes are driven by physical water stress or political targets for environmental water flows e.g. through the implementation of the European water framework directive. To include these environmental, economic and social sustainability dimensions we introduce a novel multi-criteria assessment method for evaluation of water supply technologies. The method is presented and demonstrated for four alternatives for water supply based on groundwater, rain- & stormwater or seawater developed for augmenting Copenhagen's current groundwater based water supply. To identify the most sustainable technology, we applied rank order distribution weights to a multi-criteria decision analysis to combine the impact assessments of environment, economy and society. The three dimensions were assessed using 1) life-cycle assessment, 2) cost calculations taking operation and maintenance into account and 3) the multi-criteria decision analysis method Analytical hierarchy process. Specialists conducted the life-cycle assessment and cost calculations and the multi-criteria decision analyses were based on a stakeholder workshop gathering stakeholders relevant for the specific case. The workshop reached consensus on three sets of ranked criteria. Each set represented stakeholder perspectives with first priority given to one of the three sustainability dimensions or categories. The workshop reached consensus and when the highest weight was assigned to the environmental dimension of sustainability then the alternative of 'Rain- & stormwater harvesting' was the most sustainable water supply technology; when the highest weight was assigned to the economy or society dimensions then an alternative with 'Groundwater abstraction extended with compensating actions' was considered the most sustainable water supply technology. Across all three sets of ranked weights, the establishment of

  18. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit

    2017-06-07

    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  19. "Happy and Excited": Perceptions of Using Digital Technology and Social Media by Young People Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynan, Amanda; Murray, Janice; Goldbart, Juliet

    2014-01-01

    Young people are using digital technology and online social media within their everyday lives to enrich their social relationships. The UK government believes that using digital technology can improve social inclusion. One well-recognized outcome measure for establishing social inclusion is to examine opportunities for self-determination.…

  20. Alternative Auditing Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This presentation for the 2017 Energy Exchange in Tampa, Florida, offers information about advanced auditing technologies and techniques including alternative auditing approaches and considerations and caveats.

  1. Alternative technology concepts for low-cost and high-speed 2D and 3D interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Smets, M.; Kniknie, B.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Pohl, Ralph; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The current industrial process of choice for Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of 3D features, e.g. Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs), Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), etc., is the Bosch process, which uses alternative SF6 etch cycles and C4F8-based sidewall passivation cycles in a time-sequenced

  2. Water-flushing toilets: systemic development and path-dependent characteristics and their bearing on technological alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, M.

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår den historiske proces, som førte til vandskyllende toilette med særlig fokus på hvordan praksisserne forandres. Herefter sættes denne udvikling op imod ønsket om mere bæredygtige toiletter og diskuterer hvordan det vandskyllende toilet hæmmer udviklingen af alternative toiletter....

  3. Alternative technology concepts for low-cost and high-speed 2D and 3D interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Smets, M.; Kniknie, B.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Pohl, R.; Huis In't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The current industrial process of choice for Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of 3D features, e.g. Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs), Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), etc., is the Bosch process, which uses alternative SF 6 etch cycles and C4F8-based sidewall passivation cycles in a time-sequenced

  4. Teaching and Technology Transfer as Alternative Revenue Streams: A Primer on the Potential Legal Implications for UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorebeek, Mark; Marson, James

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial and intellectual issues facing the university sector as many institutions in the UK pursue alternative revenue streams. As a consequence to the increasing financial pressures, university departments are increasingly exposed to new forms of potential litigation and also face the risk to…

  5. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  6. I. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, and allometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diode (LED), cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL), and incandescent lamps on broiler performance. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 black-out modified large colony houses, under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested included CCFL and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Live performance for each technology was evaluated using live broiler body weight (BW), weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality. Birds were removed from each house at 7, 14, 35, and 42 d to be humanely euthanized, weighed, and necropsied for allometric tissue sample analysis. Relative to the technologies tested, results indicate that birds raised under incandescent lamps had significantly higher BW by 42 d, compared to birds raised under CCFL lamps, which had poorer BW performance (P=0.03). Birds raised under both LED technologies grew to final BWs similar to those raised under incandescent light, with significant differences in neither feed conversion nor mortality. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  8. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    -viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...... of viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the PCA of each cultivar and the pooled samples. However, the PCA did not exhibit a pattern of separation among the early, normal and late germinated tomato seeds. The NIR spectral regions of 1160–1170, 1383–1397, 1647–1666, 1860–1884 and 1915–1940 nm were...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable...

  9. Light-induced immobilisation of biomolecules as an attractive alternative to microdroplet dispensing-based arraying technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crookshanks, Meg; Skovsen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Teresa Neves

    2007-01-01

    The present work shows how UV ‘light-induced molecular immobilisation' (LIMI) of biomolecules onto thiol reactive surfaces can be used to make biosensors, without the need for traditional microdispensing technologies. Using ‘LIMI,' arrays of biomolecules can be created with a high degree...... of reproducibility. This technology can be used to circumvent the need for often expensive nano/microdispensing technologies. The ultimate size of the immobilised spots is defined by the focal area of the UV beam, which for a diffraction-limited beam can be less than 1 mm in diameter. LIMI has the added benefit...... that the immobilised molecules will be spatially oriented and covalently bound to the surface. The activity of the sensor molecules is retained. Antibody sensor arrays made using LIMI demonstrated successful antigen binding. In addition, the pattern of immobilised molecules on the surface is not restricted...

  10. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. (Nuclear Energy Services, Inc., Danbury, CT (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  11. Definition of criteria for estimating alternative technologies of increasing quality of rotor shaft neck by electroerosive alloying and surface plastic deformation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsynkovskyy, V.; Kirik, G.; Tarelnyk, V.; Zharkov, P.; Konoplianchenko, Ie; Dovzhyk, M.

    2017-08-01

    There are represented the results of influence of the surface plastic deformation (SPD) methods, namely, diamond smoothing (DS) and ball-rolling surface roughness generation (BSRG) ones on the qualitative parameters (residual stresses, fatigue strength and wear resistance values) of the steel substrate surface layers formed by the electroerosive alloying (EEA) method. There are proposed the most rational methods of deformation and also the composition for electroerosive coatings providing the presence of the favorable residual compressive stresses in the surface layer, increasing fatigue strength and wear resistance values. There are stated the criteria for estimating the alternative variants of the combined technologies and choosing the most rational ones thereof.

  12. HF RFID versus UHF RFID--Technology for Library Service Transformation at City University of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Steve H.; Tai, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Since libraries first used RFID systems in the late 1990s, more and more libraries have identified the advantages of the technology. With advances in HF and UHF RFID, both alternatives are now viable in library applications. While some librarians are still skeptical towards UHF RFID as unproven in the library arena, the City University of Hong…

  13. Eye Gaze Technology as a Form of Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: Experiences of Families in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Gillian S; Marschik, Peter B; Smeets, Eric; van de Berg, Raymond; van den Berg, Mariёlle; Curfs, Leopold M G

    This paper provides a brief report on families' experiences of eye gaze technology as one form of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT), and the advice, training and support they receive in relation to this. An online survey exploring communication and AAC was circulated to 190 Dutch families; of the 67 questionnaires that were returned, 63 had answered questions relating to eye gaze technology. These 63 were analysed according to parameters including: experiences during trial periods and longer-term use; expert knowledge, advice and support; funding; communicative progress; and family satisfaction. 20 respondents were using or had previous experience of using an eye gaze system at the time of the survey, 28 of those with no prior experience wanted to try a system in the future. Following a trial period, 11 systems had been funded through health insurance for long-term use and two families had decided a system was not appropriate for them. Levels of support during trials and following long-term provision varied. Despite frustrations with the technology, satisfaction with the systems was higher than satisfaction with the support. The majority of families reported progress in their child's skills with longer term use. These findings suggest that although eye gaze technologies offer potential to individuals with RTT and their families, greater input from suppliers and knowledgeable AAC professionals is essential for individuals and families to benefit maximally. Higher levels of training and support should be part of the 'package' when an eye gaze system is provided.

  14. [OPPORTUNITIES OF HIFU TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT FIBROIDS DISEASES SUCH AS NON-INVASIVE AND ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO SURGERY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gincheva, D; Gorchev, G; Tomov, S

    2015-01-01

    Concepts of medical treatment are constantly evolving and improving. This opportunity provides treatment with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). In Europe and Asia more than 10,000 patients with uterine fibroids have been successfully treated with HIFU technology until now. This is completely innovative technology for non-invasive extracorporeal treatment of benign and malignant tumors. Neighboring healthy tissue is not damaged. The main indication in HIFU-Center in Pleven is uterine fibroid. It is the most common solid tumor in the female pelvis and is the leading cause of hysterectomy. The methods of treatment are hysterectomy, myomectomy or embolization of uterine arteries. HIFU-methodology allows non-invasive treatment of fibroids disease.

  15. Cellular Reprogramming, Genome Editing, and Alternative CRISPR Cas9 Technologies for Precise Gene Therapy of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the development of two innovative technologies, namely, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and the CRISPR Cas9 system, has enabled researchers to model diseases derived from patient cells and precisely edit DNA sequences of interest, respectively. In particular, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD has been an exemplary monogenic disease model for combining these technologies to demonstrate that genome editing can correct genetic mutations in DMD patient-derived iPSCs. DMD is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by mutations that disrupt the open reading frame of the dystrophin gene, which plays a critical role in stabilizing muscle cells during contraction and relaxation. The CRISPR Cas9 system has been shown to be capable of targeting the dystrophin gene and rescuing its expression in in vitro patient-derived iPSCs and in vivo DMD mouse models. In this review, we highlight recent advances made using the CRISPR Cas9 system to correct genetic mutations and discuss how emerging CRISPR technologies and iPSCs in a combined platform can play a role in bringing a therapy for DMD closer to the clinic.

  16. Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J.; Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 × 103), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6 mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research.

  17. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  18. Alternative Manufacturing Concepts for Solid Oral Dosage Forms From Drug Nanosuspensions Using Fluid Dispensing and Forced Drying Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhoeffer, Bastian; Kwade, Arno; Juhnke, Michael

    2017-11-16

    Flexible manufacturing technologies for solid oral dosage forms with a continuous adjustability of the manufactured dose strength are of interest for applications in personalized medicine. This study explored the feasibility of using microvalve technology for the manufacturing of different solid oral dosage form concepts. Hard gelatin capsules filled with excipients, placebo tablets, and polymer films, placed in hard gelatin capsules after drying, were considered as substrates. For each concept, a basic understanding of relevant formulation parameters and their impact on dissolution behavior has been established. Suitable matrix formers, present either on the substrate or directly in the drug nanosuspension, proved to be essential to prevent nanoparticle agglomeration of the drug nanoparticles and to ensure a fast dissolution behavior. Furthermore, convection and radiation drying methods were investigated for the fast drying of drug nanosuspensions dispensed onto polymer films, which were then placed in hard gelatin capsules. Changes in morphology and in drug and matrix former distribution were observed for increasing drying intensity. However, even fast drying times below 1 min could be realized, while maintaining the nanoparticulate drug structure and a good dissolution behavior. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of intensive and alternative production systems on the technological and quality parameters of rapeseed seed (Brassica napus L. 'Siska').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinek, Maja; Bavec, Martina; Repič, Milan; Turinek, Matjaž; Krajnc, Andreja Urbanek; Möllers, Christian; Tres, Alba; Bavec, Franc

    2017-06-01

    Organic production is widely assumed to affect quality and nutritional parameters of arable crops. A field experiment was started in 2009 following integrated (INT), organic (ORG) and biodynamic (BD) production standards for wheat, maize and rapeseed production. With resort to standard analytical procedures and chemometrics, compositional parameters of Brassica napus L. 'Siska' seed (water, protein, oil and glucosinolate content) by non-destructive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography, were assessed. The BD and ORG production systems positively influenced oleic fatty acid and oil content in comparison to INT, which had higher levels of protein and water content (19.8% and 4.7%, respectively), as well as linolenic (3.8%), gadoleic (12.6%) and hexadecadienoic (15.5%) fatty acids. Increases in the listed parameters were linked to mineral fertilizer application in the INT production system. With principal component analysis (PCA) the INT samples were clearly differentiated. The PCA results were influenced by differences in linolenic, gadoleic and behenic fatty acid levels as well as protein and water content. Because quality parameters in rapeseed are increased in alternative production systems, production with an understanding of the soil processes and yield formation presents an opportunity for ORG and BD farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Costs of slurry separation technologies and alternative use of the solid fraction for biogas production or burning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    Separation is an option when livestock are produced in livestock intensive areas producing a surplus of nutrients. Separation of the slurry into a liquid nitrogen rich fraction and a more solid phosphorus rich fraction, which is exported away from the farm, may alleviate this problem. Separation...... and the reduction of livestock numbers in Denmark have made separation less favourable. This article discusses the many options with focus on the dominant separation technologies in Denmark, such as decanter and flocculation, as well as source separation, in order to compare them with to traditional handling. Key...... parameters are livestock density, transport distance and cost of separation. The conclusion is that unless land prices or prices on slurry agreements are very high, traditional handling of animal manure has the lowest costs. Decanter separation can be the cheapest if area is limited and co...

  1. Use of a voice and video internet technology as an alternative to in-person urgent care clinic visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunett, Patrick H; DiPiero, Albert; Flores, Christine; Choi, Dongseok; Kum, Hayley; Girard, Donald E

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the feasibility of patient-initiated online Internet urgent care visits, and to describe patient characteristics, scope of care, provider adherence to protocols, and diagnostic and therapeutic utilization. A total of 456 unique patients were seen via Internet-based technology during the study period, generating 478 consecutive total patient visits. Of the 82 patients referred for an in-person evaluation, 75 patients (91.5%) reported to the clinic as instructed. None of the 82 patients recommended for in-person evaluation required an emergency department referral, hospital admission or urgent consultative referral. We conclude that real-time online primary and urgent care visits are feasible, safe and potentially beneficial in increasing convenient access to urgent and primary care. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Typical Toddlers' Participation in "Just-in-Time" Programming of Vocabulary for Visual Scene Display Augmentative and Alternative Communication Apps on Mobile Technology: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Christine; Drager, Kathryn; Light, Janice; Caron, Jessica Gosnell

    2017-08-15

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) promotes communicative participation and language development for young children with complex communication needs. However, the motor, linguistic, and cognitive demands of many AAC technologies restrict young children's operational use of and influence over these technologies. The purpose of the current study is to better understand young children's participation in programming vocabulary "just in time" on an AAC application with minimized demands. A descriptive study was implemented to highlight the participation of 10 typically developing toddlers (M age: 16 months, range: 10-22 months) in just-in-time vocabulary programming in an AAC app with visual scene displays. All 10 toddlers participated in some capacity in adding new visual scene displays and vocabulary to the app just in time. Differences in participation across steps were observed, suggesting variation in the developmental demands of controls involved in vocabulary programming. Results from the current study provide clinical insights toward involving young children in AAC programming just in time and steps that may allow for more independent participation or require more scaffolding. Technology designed to minimize motor, cognitive, and linguistic demands may allow children to participate in programming devices at a younger age.

  3. An extractive membrane biofilm reactor as alternative technology for the treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, I M; Purswani, J; González-López, J; Pozo, C

    2016-09-01

    Among the strategies developed for contaminated groundwater bioremediation, those based on the use of bacteria adhering to inert supports and establishing biofilms have gained great importance in this field. Extractive membrane biofilm reactor (EMBFR) technology offers productive solutions for the removal of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. EMBFR technology is based on the use of extractive semipermeable membranes through which contaminants migrate to the biological compartment in which microorganisms with pollutant biotransformation and/or mineralization capacities can grow, forming an active biofilm on the membrane surface. The objective of this study was to assess the use of three bacterial strains (Paenibacillus sp. SH7 CECT 8558, Agrobacterium sp. MS2 CECT 8557, and Rhodococcus ruber EE6 CECT 8612), as inoculum in a lab-scale EMBFR running for 28 days under aerobic conditions to eliminate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) from water samples. Three different hydraulic retention times (1, 6, and 12 h) were employed. MTBE degradation values were determined daily by a gas GC-MS technique, as well as suspended bacterial growth. The biofilm established by the bacterial strains on the semipermeable membrane was detected by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) at the end of each experiment. The acute toxicity of the treated effluents and biomedium was determined by Microtox(©) assay (EC50 ).The results achieved from the MTBE degradation, biofilm formation, and toxicity analysis indicated that bacterial strains MS2 and EE6 were the best options as selective inoculum, although further research is needed, particularly with regard to their possible use as a mixed culture. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1238-1245, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Multicriteria cost–benefit assessment of tannery production: The need for breakthrough process alternatives beyond conventional technology optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetti, Biagio F. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Agostinho, Feni, E-mail: feni@unip.br [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Moraes, Luciano C.; Almeida, Cecília M.V.B. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Ulgiati, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.ulgiati@uniparthenope.it [Università degli studi di Napoli, Parthenope (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The worldwide use of chromium-based processes in tanneries generates increased concerns about their related environmental burdens. Cleaner production alternatives for leather production are being proposed, based on the optimization of specific aspects or criteria, for instance, reducing demand for specific materials and energy, or reducing local toxicological emissions. While improvement on individual characteristics of the process is certainly to be favored, a more comprehensive evaluation of alternatives is also needed to prevent the risk of shifting the burden to increase global load while addressing one specific critical factor of production. This work aims to discuss the importance of a multicriteria, multiscale approach to address cleaner production strategy costs and benefits. For this, materials balance, an economic approach, and emergy (with an “m”) accounting methods are applied to selected unhairing/liming, pickling/tanning and wastewater treatment steps in a tannery process, which was chosen as a case study. Results show that the assessed recycling cleaner production strategies assessed allow the manufacturer to reduce by one half the amount of water used and the demand for chemicals up to 4% with respect to the business-as-usual process, at the expense of increasing electricity demand by 10%. Economic cost-to-benefit ratio was 25$ benefits per 1$ invested, as well as an emergy-based cost-to-benefit of 33Em$ per 1Em$ invested, of course these improvements were limited to the three investigated process steps. The improvement in cost/benefit ratios indicates that converting scenario #0 into #1 is favorable under economic and emergy views. However, when the two scenarios are investigated from the point of view of the imbalance in local and renewable resource use versus imported and nonrenewable use, the emergy method shows a small overall increase in renewability (from 3.51% to 3.85%), a low, but expected, emergy yield ratio equal to 1, and a high

  5. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  6. Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells: Physics and technology by alternative tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea

    -based chalcogenide. Fourth, I measure for the rst time the dielectric function of a monoclinic Cu2SnS3 thin film by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Cu2SnS3 is gaining some interest as a solar absorber and is produced by pulsed laser deposition by PhD student Rebecca Ettlinger. What is special about this study...... of the properties of radio-frequency sputtered ZnO:Al thin lms used as a lateral electron transport layer on top of CZTS solar cells. With considerable fabrication help from M.Sc. student Tobias Ottsen, I demonstrate that compressive stress in the films is clearly correlated to several other properties (carrier......In this thesis I shall present the most scientifically interesting and/or practically useful results achieved in my PhD project. Such results are related to fundamental properties and technological aspects of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and related materials for solar cells. By "related materials" I mean two...

  7. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  8. Peer-led prenatal breast-feeding education: a viable alternative to nurse-led education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A; Moore, Katrina C J

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate a prenatal breast-feeding class developed and facilitated by peer Breast-feeding Buddies. Non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study comparing participants of the peer-led class (PLC) to those attending an established hospital-based breast-feeding nurse-led class (NLC). A brief questionnaire was completed immediately prior to the class, and telephone interviews were conducted approximately one week following the class, and one and six months post partum. 54 expectant mothers who registered for the community PLC and 55 expectant mothers who registered for the NLC. Breast-feeding intentions were measured at all time-points. Class evaluations, breast-feeding experiences, and breast-feeding support were measured at all post-class interviews. Both classes were considered worthwhile, but the PLC class was rated as more helpful and participants appreciated learning from the peers' personal experiences. Mothers taught by peers were more likely to access peer breast-feeding support. PLC participants initially decreased their prenatal breast-feeding duration intentions but had significantly stronger intentions to continue breast feeding at six months than did NLC mothers. A peer-led prenatal breast-feeding class is as effective as a traditional model of breast-feeding education and is a valuable tool to promote and support successful breast feeding. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Peer-led breast-feeding classes should be provided to enhance the accessibility of breast-feeding education and support for expectant mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biofiltration as a Viable Alternative for Air Pollution Control at Department of Defense Surface Coating Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    their own, however, they have been labeled by the EPA as “ozone precursors” due to their proclivity to react with sunlight, heat and nitrogen oxide...authorized to perform major structural aircraft repairs, install aircraft modifications, and completely strip and paint entire aircraft (DoN, 2005a...effectiveness of cow and pig manure , wheat bran, and bagasse (fibrous material extracted from the juice of crushed stalks of sugar cane) (Chou and

  10. PRICE-LEVEL TARGETING – A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO INFLATION TARGETING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Vasile Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that has led some central banks reaching the zero lower bound of their interest rate to use unconventional monetary policy instruments, has brought to the forefront theacademic discussions on the shift from inflation targeting (IT to price level targeting. This paper provides a comparative analysis on IT strategy and targeting the price level, assesses the implications and highlights the challenges of an eventual transition to a new monetary policy strategy. Balancing the advantages (mainly better anchored inflation expectations and disadvantages (communication difficulties generated by following a potential price-level targeting strategy and the necessary prerequisites for its functionality (predictive agents, fully familiar with the implications of such a strategy and with complete confidence in themonetary authority has led us to the conclusion that there is no common acceptance that price level targeting strategy might replace the present IT framework.

  11. Is repositioning of drugs a viable alternative in the treatment of tuberculosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi

    2013-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem because of the scarcity of new antibiotics effective against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extensively drug resistance is particularly worrying in tuberculosis (TB), since the causative bacteria have become resistant to almost all available first- and second-line drugs and resistance is a threat to achieving control of the disease. Development of new drugs is a lengthy and costly endeavour. This is a particular problem for antibiotics, usage of which is likely to be of limited duration, and is even more true of antibiotics whose use is restricted to the treatment of a disease, such as TB, that is considered to be 'poverty related', and for which the return on the investment is seen as non-attractive. In spite of this, there is an emerging pipeline of new drugs under development that hopefully will bring new anti-TB drugs to the market in the near future. The strategy of drug repurposing, finding new uses for existing approved medicines, has seen unexpected success in other medical areas. More than one blockbuster drug has originated from this strategy. And in the field of TB, there have been several examples in recent years of this approach leading to the use of drugs for which there is undeniable evidence of efficacy in the treatment of the disease, the best example being the fluoroquinolones, which were not developed originally to treat TB. This article reviews some examples of repurposing of drugs in the treatment of TB, newer candidates for repurposing for which there is already preliminary evidence of activity and possible new options that merit further investigation.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF CANCRINITE ZEOLITE DERIVATED FROM KAOLIN:A Viable Alternative to Reduce Environmetal Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Joel Schwanke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of cancrinite zeolite was accomplished by three types of kaolins called AD44, Mina and Reagen. These materials were used as aluminium and silicon sources in substitution of expensive reactants. The first two types are natural kaolin and the last one is a commercial. These clays were used in natural and calcinated (900ºC forms. The clays and the obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD specific superficial area (BET and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. The results showed that calcinated clays lead to cancrinite phases with higher cristallinity when compared with the natural clays. Different phases such as sodalite and mesophases between sodalite and cancrinite were formed too.

  13. Virtual shopping: A viable alternative to direct assessment of real life function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Kathryn E; Morris, Robin; Smith, Vanessa; Jones, Anna-Marie; Pearman, Douglas; Wykes, Til

    2016-04-01

    Real-life function is markedly impaired in schizophrenia and is an important outcome for interventions, but direct assessment is time consuming and resource intensive. Virtual reality (VR) enables assessment using simulation, akin to real life (RL), but allowing greater experimental control, reliability, and a more timely assessment. This study explores whether VR simulation predicts RL performance in supermarket shopping and how both relate to underlying cognitive abilities. Forty three people with DSM-IV schizophrenia were included in the study. Participants were required to shop for items using a self-directed search in both RL and VR. In each task, accuracy (number of correct items) and efficiency (time taken and number of aisles entered) were measured. IQ, executive function, working memory, spatial memory and social cognition were also assessed. Specific correlations were found between RL accuracy and VR accuracy, and between RL and VR efficiency measures. Multiple regression analyses indicated that VR efficiency measures contributed significant unique variance to RL efficiency outcomes, in addition to that explained by background cognitive measures, with a final model predicting 58% of variance in RL efficiency. VR functional shopping measures may enhance predictions of real life performance, over and above existing cognitive test procedures, and provide a more time-efficient method for evaluating real life outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Peer mentoring – is a virtual form of support a viable alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Gannon-Leary

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Support systems are vital for university entrants and one established means of support is peer mentoring, which has the potential to improve student engagement and retention. Peer mentoring models are generally based on face-to-face contact. However, given the increasing number of higher education institutions using social media, might online models be beneficial in a peer mentoring context? This article describes a literature review and case study that considers the advantages and disadvantages of three potential virtual models to facilitate a peer mentoring scheme. The case study, undertaken at Northumbria University, UK, involved an investigation of mentoring needs and current usage of electronic media where special attention is afforded to a diverse student body. The three models discussed are virtual learning environments (VLE, social networking sites and virtual worlds. We find that the VLE is established within institutions but lacks excitement; social networking is popular particularly with younger students but there may be resentment if this appears to be appropriated by the institution; whilst virtual worlds are unfamiliar to many students and require advanced skills to use successfully. Based on these findings the social networking model is now being run as a pilot study by business programmes at Northumbria University.

  15. Giant cervical lipoma excision under cervical epidural anesthesia: A viable alternative to general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Pal; Shukla, Aparna; Verma, Satyajeet

    2011-01-01

    The technique of Cervical Epidural Anesthesia (CEA) was first described by Dogliotti in 1933 for upper thoracic procedures. Administration of local anesthetic into cervical epidural space results in anesthesia of the neck, upper extremity, and upper thoracic region. CEA provides high-quality analgesia and anesthesia of above dermatomes and, at the same time, it has favorable effect on hemodynamic variable by blocking sympathetic innervation of the heart. CEA is not practiced routinely because of its potential complications. We selected this technique of CEA for excision of giant cervical lipoma on the back of the neck in an adult patient, as the patient was unwilling for general anesthesia. CEA was induced with 10 ml of 1% lignocaine-adrenaline mixture administered into C7-T1 space through 18G Tuohy needle. Our patient maintained vital parameters throught the procedure. The added advantage of epidural anesthesia was that the patient was awake and comfortable throughout the procedure.

  16. "Back-and-forth" as a viable alternative to the brain drain perspective, with Chinese examples

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, P.; Lee, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Dans la présente contribution, nous exposons les modèles de prise de décision de retourner au pays à l'issue d'études à l'étranger. L'analyse s'appuie sur les données qualitatives et quantitatives obtenues auprès d'étudiants de Taïwan qui ont mené des études aux Etats-Unis en sciences et en ingénierie. Nous passons en revue la littérature existante sur les processus de retour et présentons des examples de cas, enfin nous émettons quelques suggestions pouvant servir de base à de futures études...

  17. Implications of Introducing New Technology: Comparative Survivorship Modeling of Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements and Contemporary Alternatives in the National Joint Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Linda P; Whitehouse, Michael R; Beswick, Andrew; Porter, Martyn L; Howard, Peter; Blom, Ashley W

    2018-02-07

    New medical technologies are often used widely without adequate supporting data, a practice that can lead to widespread catastrophic failure such as occurred with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements. We determined both how revision rates would have differed if, instead of receiving MoM hip replacements, patients had received existing alternatives and the subsequent cumulative re-revision rates of the patients who did receive MoM hip replacements compared with alternatives. This study is a population-based longitudinal cohort study of patient data recorded in the National Joint Registry (NJR) for England, Wales and Northern Ireland between April 2003 and December 2014. We ascertained implant failure rates separately among stemmed MoM total hip replacement (THR) and hip-resurfacing procedures and, using flexible parametric survival modeling, compared them with the failure rates that would have been expected had existing alternatives been used. We used Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis to compare cumulative re-revision of patients who received stemmed MoM primary replacements that failed and of those who underwent hip resurfacing that failed with those whose non-MoM THRs had failed. In all, 37,555 patients underwent MoM hip resurfacing, with a 10-year revision rate of 12.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.2% to 13.1%) compared with a predicted revision rate of 4.8% if alternative implants had been used. The 32,024 stemmed MoM THRs had a 19.8% (95% CI: 18.9% to 20.8%) 10-year failure rate compared with an expected rate of 3.9% if alternatives had been used. For every 100 MoM hip-resurfacing procedures, there were 7.8 excess revisions by 10 years, and for every 100 stemmed MoM THR procedures, there were 15.9, which equates to 8,021 excess first revisions. Seven-year re-revision rates were 14.9% (95% CI: 13.8% to 16.2%) for stemmed non-MoM THRs, 18.0% (95% CI: 15.7% to 20.7%) for MoM hip resurfacing, and 19.8% (95% CI: 17.0% to 23.0%) for stemmed MoM THRs. This

  18. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Third quarterly report, [July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M.R.

    1993-12-21

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Part 2. Included in Part 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips.

  19. Technology-assisted language intervention for children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing; a pilot study of augmentative and alternative communication for enhancing language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; McAuley, Rose; Smith, Laura; Grether, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    Pilot study to assess the effect of augmentative and alternative communication technology to enhance language development in children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Five children ages 5-10 years with permanent bilateral hearing loss who were identified with language underperformance participated in an individualized 24-week structured program using the application TouchChat WordPower on iPads®. Language samples were analyzed for changes in mean length of utterance, vocabulary words and mean turn length. Repeated measures models assessed change over time. The baseline median mean length of utterance was 2.41 (range 1.09-6.63; mean 2.88) and significantly increased over time (p = 0.002) to a median of 3.68 at final visit (range 1.97-6.81; mean 3.62). At baseline, the median total number of words spoken per language sample was 251 (range 101-458), with 100 (range 36-100) different words spoken. Total words and different words significantly increased over time (β = 26.8 (7.1), p = 0.001 for total words; β = 8.0 (2.7), p = 0.008 for different words). Mean turn length values also slightly increased over time. Using augmentative and alternative communication technology on iPads® shows promise in supporting rapid language growth among elementary school-age children who are deaf or hard-of-hearing with language underperformance.

  20. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-16

    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS g.kg(-1), respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  1. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises. Significance The aging population in Western countries is causing a progressive reduction of blood donors and a constant increase of blood recipients. Because blood is the main therapeutic option to treat acute hemorrhage, cost-effective alternatives to blood donations are being actively investigated. The enormous replication capability of induced pluripotent stem cells and their promising results in many other fields of medicine could be an apt solution to produce the large numbers of viable cells required in transfusion and usher in a new era in transfusion medicine. The present report describes the potentiality, technological hurdles, and promises of induced pluripotent stem cells to generate red blood cells by redifferentiation. PMID:26819256

  2. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  3. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for polymerase chain ...

  4. Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local governments are principally established for development at the grassroots and they must be structured in a manner that makes them viable and capable of achieving this purpose. The objective of this comment is to appraise the current local government structure under the Nigerian constitutional framework with a view ...

  5. Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic Trypanosoma vivax in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic. Trypanosoma vivax in vitro and in vivo. O. A. Idowu, A. B. Idowu, C. F. Mafiana and S. O. Sam-Wobo*. Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Accepted 13 April, 2006. Trypanosoma vivax was ...

  6. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for ...

  7. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  8. The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now.

  9. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts

  10. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  11. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the ma...

  12. Alternative Media Technologies for the Open University. A Research Report on Costed Alternatives to the Direct Transmission of Audio-Visual Materials. Final Report. I.E.T. Papers on Broadcasting No. 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Tony; Kern, Larry

    This study examines alternatives to direct transmission of television and radio programs for courses with low student enrollment at the Open University. Examined are cut-off points in terms of student numbers at which alternative means of distributing audio or audio-visual materials become more economical than direct television or radio…

  13. Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, E; Rani, D Amutha; Cheeseman, C R; Deegan, D; Wise, M; Boccaccini, A R

    2009-01-30

    This review describes the current status of waste treatment using thermal plasma technology. A comprehensive analysis of the available scientific and technical literature on waste plasma treatment is presented, including the treatment of a variety of hazardous wastes, such as residues from municipal solid waste incineration, slag and dust from steel production, asbestos-containing wastes, health care wastes and organic liquid wastes. The principles of thermal plasma generation and the technologies available are outlined, together with potential applications for plasma vitrified products. There have been continued advances in the application of plasma technology for waste treatment, and this is now a viable alternative to other potential treatment/disposal options. Regulatory, economic and socio-political drivers are promoting adoption of advanced thermal conversion techniques such as thermal plasma technology and these are expected to become increasingly commercially viable in the future.

  14. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  15. Academic Pediatric Dentistry is a Rewarding, Financially Viable Career Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L

    2017-09-15

    Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.

  16. How Can We Prevent Violence Becoming a Viable Political Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Justino

    2009-01-01

    A basic issue that conflict analysis investigates is how non-peaceful ways of living and governing become viable political strategies. Macro-level studies provide some important insights but micro-level analysis is vital to understand the mechanisms that make violence possible. This briefing outlines some preliminary findings in this respect from MICROCON, a major research programme analysing violent conflict at the micro level. It also discusses their implications for policies aimed at preve...

  17. A multi-stakeholder partnership for the dissemination of alternate wetting and drying water-saving technology for rice farmers in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia G. Palis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To address issues of water scarcity and food security for sustainable rice farming and increasing production, a water-saving technology called alternate wetting and drying (AWD was disseminated in the Philippines. This study assessed the impact of facilitating a network of stakeholders on disseminating AWD in irrigated rice systems in the Philippines. It used both qualitative and quantitative data collected from 2002 to 2012 in study sites in the country. Engaging multi-stakeholders in adaptive research, training, and dissemination facilitated the process of more interaction by partners. All partners joined a knowledge and dissemination alliance for scaling out AWD activities. This in turn effected a policy outcome, and the synergetic interactions of each partner within and outside the current network fast-tracked the dissemination process and adoption of AWD by farmers. The AWD practice resulted in an increase in irrigated rice area but not necessarily in rice production and farmers’ income. It also reduced labor and fuel consumption, especially in deep-well irrigation systems.

  18. High-technology augmentative and alternative communication for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and complex communication needs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Morin, Kristi L; Foster, Margaret J; Vannest, Kimberly J; Genç Tosun, Derya; Gregori, Emily V; Gerow, Stephanie L

    2017-12-01

    The use of mobile technology is ubiquitous in modern society and is rapidly increasing in novel use. The use of mobile devices and software applications ("apps") as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is rapidly expanding in the community, and this is also reflected in the research literature. This article reports the social-communication outcome results of a meta-analysis of single-case experimental research on the use of high-tech AAC, including mobile devices, by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder. Following inclusion determination, and excluding studies with poor design quality, raw data from 24 publications were extracted and included 89 A-B phase contrasts. Tau-U nonparametric, non-overlap effect size was used to aggregate the results across all studies for an omnibus and moderator analyses. Kendall's S was calculated for confidence intervals, p-values, and standard error. The omnibus analysis indicated overall low to moderate positive effects on social-communication outcomes for high-tech AAC use by individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

  19. Evaluation of the technological characteristics and bread-making quality of alternative wheat cereals in comparison with common and durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, A; Piergiovanni, A R; Caponio, F; Paradiso, V M; Summo, C; Simeone, R

    2011-04-01

    The growing sensibility toward those foods that are characterized by natural and healthy features has raised the interest toward alternative wheat cereals. This research was carried out to compare the technological characteristics and the bread-making quality of Khorasan wheat, type Kamut and spelt (cv. Forenza), to those of common (cv. Rio) and durum wheat (cv. Norba). The results obtained show that both Forenza and Kamut gave an acceptable bread-making performance. A certain variability affected flour characteristics (protein content, carotenoid pigments and alveograph indices) over the 2 years of experimentation, due to environmental effects. This reflected on the corresponding breads but the statistical analysis indicated that, on the whole, Kamut bread was characterized by a high content of carotenoid pigments. Regarding sensory properties (profiled by means of 11 descriptors of visual appearance, texture, odor and flavor) and loaf volumes, breads from Forenza and Kamut appeared different from each other but similar to those obtained from Rio and Norba grown in the same environment, respectively.

  20. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  1. A rapid biosensor for viable B. anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumner, Antje J; Leonard, Barbara; McElwee, John; Montagna, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    A simple membrane-strip-based biosensor assay has been combined with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction for rapid (4 h) detection of a small number (ten) of viable B. anthracis spores. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from one of the anthrax toxin genes, the protective antigen ( pag), encoded on the toxin plasmid, pXO1, and thus provides high specificity toward B. anthracis. Previously, the anthrax toxins activator ( atxA) mRNA had been used in our laboratory for the development of a biosensor for the detection of a single B. anthracis spore within 12 h. Changing the target sequence to the pag mRNA provided the ability to shorten the overall assay time significantly. The vaccine strain of B. anthracis (Sterne strain) was used in all experiments. A 500-microL sample containing as few as ten spores was mixed with 500 microL growth medium and incubated for 30 min for spore germination and mRNA production. Thus, only spores that are viable were detected. Subsequently, RNA was extracted from lysed cells, selectively amplified using NASBA, and rapidly identified by the biosensor. While the biosensor assay requires only 15 min assay time, the overall process takes 4 h for detection of ten viable B. anthracis spores, and is shortened significantly if more spores are present. The biosensor is based on an oligonucleotide sandwich-hybridization assay format. It uses a membrane flow-through system with an immobilized DNA probe that hybridizes with the target sequence. Signal amplification is provided when the target sequence hybridizes to a second DNA probe that has been coupled to liposomes encapsulating the dye sulforhodamine B. The amount of liposomes captured in the detection zone can be read visually or quantified with a hand-held reflectometer. The biosensor can detect as little as 1 fmol target mRNA (1 nmol L(-1)). Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with 11 organisms tested, among them closely

  2. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells.We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria.This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis of streptococcal soft tissue infections

  3. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  4. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  6. Alternative output measurement for the US retail trade sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.P.; Inklaar, R.; van Ark, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental alternative estimate of real output in retail trade, based on double deflated margins might be a viable methodology for measuring retail trade output, but important data issues need to be resolved and further research is necessary.

  7. Supercritical technology as an alternative for biotechnological xylitol purificationTecnologia supercrítica como uma alternativa para purificar xilitol biotecnológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Masson Salaue

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnological processes have been developed and applied successfully to obtain new products. Among these, one in development is the use of microorganisms that ferment xylose from the hemicellulosic fraction of agroindustrial waste to xylitol, a functional food with important industrial applications. Among the agroindustrial waste the sugarcane bagasse is the most abundant lignocellulosic residue in Brazil, and this has not been exploited to its full potential due to ignorance or lack of readily available technology to be applied, or have been used in a less valued. In this context the biotechnology emerges as an alternative route for generation of high-value added products aimed use this waste suitably. Basically the biotechnological processes can be divided in two stages: the stage of the process itself and the purification stage. As the separation, purification and recovery stages are an important part of the biotechnology process, which can reach up to 80% of the final cost of the product, this study therefore aimed the recovery and purification through the use of an alternative technology, not yet applied for this aim, the supercritical technology. The bioprocess was carried out in a fluidized reactor with cells of Candida guilliermondii immobilized in calcium alginate effectively and the purification process was tested in a supercritical extractor with a capacity of 50mL using CO2 + ethanol as solvent. It was evaluated the influence of the parameters: pressure and support in the purification process, using a 22 full factorial design keeping the temperature and residence time of solvent with the liquid matrix constant. The preliminary results showed the potentiality of use supercritical technology as an alternative for biotechnological xylitol purification produced from sugarcane bagasse.Processos biotecnológicos têm sido desenvolvidos e aplicados com sucesso para a obtenção de novos produtos. Entre estes, um em desenvolvimento é o

  8. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG, progesterone (P4 and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20 was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013, as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant. Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071, but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure

  9. Alternating Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as alternating hemiplegia, with the goals of learning more about these disorders and finding ways to prevent, treat and, ultimately cure them. Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Alternating ...

  10. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  11. Climate-Determined Suitability of the Water Saving Technology "Alternate Wetting and Drying" in Rice Systems: A Scalable Methodology demonstrated for a Province in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    Full Text Available 70% of the world's freshwater is used for irrigated agriculture and demand is expected to increase to meet future food security requirements. In Asia, rice accounts for the largest proportion of irrigated water use and reducing or conserving water in rice systems has been a long standing goal in agricultural research. The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD technique has been developed to reduce water use by up to 30% compared to the continuously flooded conditions typically found in rice systems, while not impacting yield. AWD also reduces methane emissions produced by anaerobic archae and hence has applications for reducing water use and greenhouse gas emissions. Although AWD is being promoted across Asia, there have been no attempts to estimate the suitable area for this promising technology on a large scale. We present and demonstrate a spatial and temporal climate suitability assessment method for AWD that can be widely applied across rice systems in Asia. We use a simple water balance model and easily available spatial and temporal information on rice area, rice seasonality, rainfall, potential evapotranspiration and soil percolation rates to assess the suitable area per season. We apply the model to Cagayan province in the Philippines and conduct a sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainties in soil percolation and suitability classification. As expected, the entire dry season is climatically suitable for AWD for all scenarios. A further 60% of the wet season area is found suitable contradicting general perceptions that AWD would not be feasible in the wet season and showing that spatial and temporal assessments are necessary to explore the full potential of AWD.

  12. Bolivian Health Providers’ Attitudes Toward Alternative Technologies for Cervical Cancer Prevention: A Focus on Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Analía Romina; Altamirano, Victor Conde; Pérez-Castells, Macarena; Espey, David; Padilla, Haydee; Panameño, Karen; Soria, Milton; Santos, Carlos; Saraiya, Mona; Luciani, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about health providers’ attitudes toward visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in the prevention of cervical cancer, as most research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has examined attitudes of the general population. This study describes attitudes of Bolivian health professionals toward new technologies for cervical cancer prevention, focusing on VIA and cryotherapy. Methods Between February 2011 and March 2012, we surveyed 7 nurses and 35 physicians who participated in 5-day workshops on VIA and cryotherapy conducted in Bolivia. Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to assess participants’ acceptability of these procedures and the feasibility of their implementation in the context of perceived barriers for the early detection of cervical cancer in this country. Results Most believed that cultural factors represent the main barrier for the early detection of cervical cancer (70%), although all stated that VIA and cryotherapy would be accepted by women, citing the advantages of VIA over cytology for this belief. Most also believed their colleagues would accept VIA and cryotherapy (71%) and that VIA should replace Pap testing (61%), reiterating the advantages of VIA for these beliefs. Those who believed the contrary expressed a general resistance to change associated with an already existing cytology program and national norms prioritizing Pap testing. Conclusions Most participants had favorable attitudes toward VIA and cryotherapy; however, a sizable minority cited challenges to their adoption by colleagues and believed VIA should not replace cytology. This report can inform the development of strategies to expand the use of alternative cervical cancer screening methods in LAC and Bolivia. PMID:22816515

  13. Heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity, and multiculturalism What is a viable framework for Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thung Ju Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a plural society that consists of several hundred ethnic and sub-ethnic groups. One of its generic characteristics is heterogeneity. In the last ten years after the implementation of regional autonomy, we have witnessed the emergence of strong ethnic and religiously flavoured local identity politics in various places in Indonesia that created open and vicious conflicts. This periodical violence exploded especially during the election of district and provincial heads. The intimate relation multiculturalism, with the actual political praxis of everyday life as an alternative to the existing paradigm of the “homogenization” of nationhood, has not been discussed. I believe it is time to discuss the strategic junctures between heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity (and religion and multiculturalism as well as their possible realization at the local and national levels in order to find a viable framework for a future Indonesia.

  14. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  15. Strategic Technologies for Deep Space Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Deep space transportation capability for science and exploration is fundamentally limited by available propulsion technologies. Traditional chemical systems are performance plateaued and require enormous Initial Mass in Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO) whereas solar electric propulsion systems are power limited and unable to execute rapid transits. Nuclear based propulsion and alternative energetic methods, on the other hand, represent potential avenues, perhaps the only viable avenues, to high specific power space transport evincing reduced trip time, reduced IMLEO, and expanded deep space reach. Here, key deep space transport mission capability objectives are reviewed in relation to STMD technology portfolio needs, and the advanced propulsion technology solution landscape is examined including open questions, technical challenges, and developmental prospects. Options for potential future investment across the full compliment of STMD programs are presented based on an informed awareness of complimentary activities in industry, academia, OGAs, and NASA mission directorates.

  16. HL-LHC alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; White, S

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC parameters assume unexplored regimes for hadron colliders in various aspects of accelerator beam dynamics and technology. This paper reviews three alternatives that could potentially improve the LHC performance: (i) the alternative filling scheme 8b+4e, (ii) the use of a 200 MHz RF system in the LHC and (iii) the use of proton cooling methods to reduce the beam emittance (at top energy and at injection). The alternatives are assessed in terms of feasibility, pros and cons, risks versus benefits and the impact on beam availability.

  17. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  18. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with dopaminergic agonist (cabergoline. A second ultrasound scan revealed the presence of two gestational vesicles in the right uterine horn that were successfully carried to term. Unusually, while pyometra persisted in the left uterine horn, two viable puppies were delivered by caesarean section from the right uterine horn.

  19. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  20. International Conference on Compliant & Alternative Substrate Technology Held in Disney’s BoardWalk Inn, Lake Buena Vista, FL on September 19-23, 1999. Meeting Program and Abstract Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-07

    a.m. -12:00 noon Robert Davis - Lateral and Pendeo - epitaxial Growth of GaN and Related Compounds and Alloys on 6H-SiC(0001) and Si(111) Substrates 12...perspective. International Conference on Compliant & Alternative Substrate Technology, Sept. 1999 Page 20 Lateral and Pendeo - epitaxial Growth of... pendeo (from the Latin: to hang or be suspended from)- epitaxy (PE). It incorporates mechanisms of growth exploited by conventional lateral growth

  1. An online listserv for nurse practitioners: a viable venue for continuous nursing professional development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, Khe Foon; Hara, Noriko

    2008-05-01

    This study reports the results of a qualitative study involving a large and longstanding online nurse listserv in the United States. A sample of 27 critical care and advanced-practice nurse practitioners was interviewed using semi-structured individual interviews. This study found evidence that participation in an online listserv offers a viable avenue for the continuous professional development of nurses by providing nurses the opportunity to make more informed decisions about their professional practice and keeping abreast with up-to-date changes in their specialty areas when they shared knowledge with one another. Follow-up interviews with 10 nurses who frequently shared their knowledge revealed six motivators that helped promote knowledge sharing: (a) reciprocity, (b) collectivism, (c) personal gain, (d) respectful environment, (e) altruism, and (f) technology. Implications for sustaining knowledge sharing in an online listserv are discussed. The finding will inform educators and administrators who support continuing education and professional development of healthcare professionals.

  2. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  3. Environment and Alternative Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Rajni

    Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

  4. Liquid biopsy in cancer patients: advances in capturing viable CTCs for functional studies using the EPISPOT assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix-Panabières, Catherine; Pantel, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood of cancer patients have received increasing attention as new diagnostic tool enabling 'liquid biopsies'. In contrast to the wealth of descriptive studies demonstrating the clinical relevance of CTCs as biomarkers, the extremely low concentration of CTCs in the peripheral blood of most cancer patients challenges further functional studies. This article discusses the current possibilities to enrich and, in particular, detect viable CTCs with emphasis on the EPithelial ImmunoSPOT technology. This functional assay detects viable CTCs at the single-cell level and has been used on hundreds of patients with different tumor types including epithelial tumors (breast, prostate and colon cancer) and melanomas. Moreover, the article summarizes recent advances in the in vitro and in vivo expansion of CTCs from cancer patients. These functional analyses will contribute to identifying the biological properties of metastatic cells and reveal new therapeutic targets against disseminating cancer cells.

  5. Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mammography is an established screening tool for breast cancer in high-income countries but may not be feasible for most resource poor nations. Alternative modalities are needed to mitigate the impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. This may require the development of new ...

  6. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  7. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  8. Is Greenberg’s “Macro-Carib” viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg’s primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib ‘etymologies’ and another 64 Amerind ‘etymologies’. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg’s Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg’s morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg’s 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable.

  9. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  10. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  11. Strategic Technology Investment Analysis: An Integrated System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Complex technology investment decisions within NASA are increasingly difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Due to a restricted science budget environment and numerous required technology developments, the investment decisions need to take into account not only the functional impact on the program goals, but also development uncertainties and cost variations along with maintaining a healthy workforce. This paper describes an approach for optimizing and qualifying technology investment portfolios from the perspective of an integrated system model. The methodology encompasses multi-attribute decision theory elements and sensitivity analysis. The evaluation of the degree of robustness of the recommended portfolio provides the decision-maker with an array of viable selection alternatives, which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy nontechnical constraints. The methodology is presented in the context of assessing capability development portfolios for NASA technology programs.

  12. The GBFEL-TIE (Ground Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) Sample Survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    types (O’Hara 1986). Although this analysis iso -surveylated several styles unique to the Tularosa Basin area and ficulties in distinguishing aceramic... 50001 -100000 - - 11 0.8 8 0.4 100001-200000 16 0.7 6 0.4 - - >200000 24 1.0 6 0.4 Orogrande Alternative Basin Floor Lower Fan Total Sites Total Sites

  13. Treatment of Acute Seizures: Is Intranasal Midazolam a Viable Option?

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, Lesley K.; Eiland, Lea S.

    2013-01-01

    Seizures in the pediatric population commonly occur, and when proper rescue medication is not administered quickly, the risk of neurologic compromise emerges. For many years, rectal diazepam has been the standard of care, but recent interest in a more cost-effective, safe alternative has led to the investigation of intranasal midazolam for this indication. Although midazolam and diazepam are both members of the benzodiazepine class, the kinetic properties of these 2 anticonvulsants vary. This...

  14. Viable short-term directed energy weapon naval solutions: a systems analysis of current prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ciullo, Dan; deLongpre, Jeff; Mcarthur, Sim; Nowakowski, Jake; Shene, Rich; Taylor, Earvin; White, Roosevelt; Cheng, Po-Yu; Heng, Yinghui; Wong, Chia Sern; Wong, Wai Keat; Phua, Yee Ling; Zlatsin, Philip; Choon, Junwei; Neo, Yong Shern

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With conventional weapons nearing their peak capability, the need to identify alternative war fighting solutions suggests a look at Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs). The goal is to change the means by which warfare is conducted to improve operational efficiencies and overall effectiveness. The Naval Postgraduate School Systems Engineering and Analysis (SEA-19B) Capstone project team examined how existing directed energy technologies can ...

  15. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration: Prephase A Government Point-of-Departure Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, J. A.; Addona, B. M.; Gwaltney, D. A.; Holt, K. A.; Hopkins, R. C.; Matis, J. A.; McRight, P. S.; Popp, C. G.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Thomas, H. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to define a point-of-departure prephase A mission concept for the cryogenic propellant storage and transfer technology demonstration mission to be conducted by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). The mission concept includes identification of the cryogenic propellant management technologies to be demonstrated, definition of a representative mission timeline, and definition of a viable flight system design concept. The resulting mission concept will serve as a point of departure for evaluating alternative mission concepts and synthesizing the results of industry- defined mission concepts developed under the OCT contracted studies

  16. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Suescún

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La acupuntura es una antigua técnica terapéutica desarrollada en China, que ha evidenciado ser efectiva en síntomas como las náuseas, vómito y dolor dentario. A pesar del sustento fisiológico que posibilitaría un uso efectivo en otras patologías, incluyendo el campo de las adicciones, los estudios son contradictorios, posiblemente por la diferencias de visión entre la medicina oriental y la occidental. El consumo de psicoactivos es un problema de salud pública en Colombia y en el mundo que genera grandes costos tangibles e intangibles, los cuales, en países desarrollados, puede llegar hasta el 1,6 % del PIB. En contraste, el beneficio económico del tratamiento de las adicciones, según las Naciones Unidas Contra la Droga y el Delito (UNODC, está entre 1:3 a 1:13; por lo tanto, cualquier esfuerzo que se realice en favor de los consumidores es una ganancia. Con base en estos datos, los organismos internacionales han generado políticas que ayudan a aminorar estos efectos. Colombia, como integrante de estos organismos, ha realizado varios compromisos para llevar a cabo dichas metas. Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  17. Salix : A viable option for phytoremediation | Wani | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 8 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF ...

  18. The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each regional…

  19. All-printed smart structures: a viable option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, John; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Washington, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    The last two decades have seen evolution of smart materials and structures technologies from theoretical concepts to physical realization in many engineering fields. These include smart sensors and actuators, active damping and vibration control, biomimetics, and structural health monitoring. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing and printed electronics have received attention as methods to produce 3D objects or electronic components for prototyping or distributed manufacturing purposes. In this paper, the viability of manufacturing all-printed smart structures, with embedded sensors and actuators, will be investigated. To this end, the current 3D printing and printed electronics technologies will be reviewed first. Then, the plausibility of combining these two different additive manufacturing technologies to create all-printed smart structures will be discussed. Potential applications for this type of all-printed smart structures include most of the traditional smart structures where sensors and actuators are embedded or bonded to the structures to measure structural response and cause desired static and dynamic changes in the structure.

  20. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  1. Centre for Alternative Technology Publications,Zero Carbon Britain 2030: a new energy strategy.The second report of the Zero Carbon Britain project. Llwyngwern, 2010, 368 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Szuba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Centre for Alternative Technology (CAT, au Pays de Galles, vient pour la troisième fois de publier un programme de décarbonisation totale de la production d’énergie en Grande-Bretagne. A sa création en 1974, le CAT était une communauté de vie alternative visant l’autosuffisance énergétique dans un but d’exemplarité : « nous cherchons à encourager une plus grande autosuffisance nationale en montrant que l’on peut vivre avec moins de gaspillages » (CAT mimeo, 1976. Au fil des ans, le CAT s...

  2. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  3. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently

  4. The constraints in managing a transition towards clean energy technologies in developing nations: reflection on energy governance and alternative policy options.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiam, D.R.; Moll, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework stimulating a sustainable energy transition in developing nations. Based on the existing literature, we first index theoretical factors preventing deployment of low carbon technologies. After having identified these factors, we provide

  5. The Value of Capture: Taking an Alternative Approach to Using Lecture Capture Technologies for Increased Impact on Student Learning and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witton, Gemma

    2017-01-01

    Lecture Capture technologies are becoming widespread in UK Higher Education with many institutions adopting a capture-all approach. Installations of capture devices in all teaching rooms and lecture theatres, scheduled recordings through integration with timetabling and automated distribution through virtual learning environments are swiftly…

  6. Effect of myocardial revascularisation on left ventricular systolic function in patients with and without viable myocardium: should non-viable segments be revascularised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipac, Alja Vlahovic; Stankovic, Ivan; Vidakovic, Radosav; Putnikovic, Biljana; Ilic, Ivan; Milicic, Biljana; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of surgical revascularisation on left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with viable and non-viable dysfunctional LV segments determined by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Prospective observational cohort study. Single tertiary care centre. Consecutive patients referred to surgical revascularisation (n=115). DSE and surgical revascularisation. Functional recovery defined as increase in ejection fraction ≥ 5% 1 year after revascularisation in patients with and without viable myocardium (viability defined as improvement of contractility in ≥ 4 LV segments on DSE). The mean age, ejection fraction and wall motion score index (WMSi) of patients were 59 ± 9 years, 44 ± 9% and 1.82 ± 0.31, respectively. There was no difference between DSE positive and DSE negative patients for any of those parameters at baseline study (p>0.05 for all). After 12 months, the ejection fraction increased 11 ± 1% in patients with viable myocardium vs 7 ± 1% in patients without viable myocardium (p=0.002). Moreover, in patients with viable myocardium, the greatest increase of ejection fraction occurred 1 month after surgery (9 ± 1%), whereas in those patients with negative DSE the ejection fraction increased more gradually (2±1% after 1 month, p=0.002 between groups for 1 month vs preoperative value), but still improved after 12 months follow-up (pmyocardial revascularisation. Functional recovery continuously occurs throughout the first year after surgical treatment.

  7. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerz, D. A.

    1987-12-01

    Fusion, the process that powers our Sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on Earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the Moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical.

  8. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

  10. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, John J.; MacIntyre, Hugh L.

    2015-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the as...

  11. Control Technology for Depainting Operations: Estimation of Life-Cycle Costs of Controlling Methylene Chloride in Aircraft-Depainting Operations Versus Alternative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-24

    Treatment System 50 5 Example Rotary Concentrator VOC Treatment System 53 6 Fenix MAG 10000™ System 55 7 Typical Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer 57...system that uses polymer adsorption technology is the MAG 10000™ system marketed by Fenix Systems, Ltd. This system consists of a moving polymer bed...Plymouth Road, P.O. Box 2129 Plymouth, Ml 48170-4297 Tel.: (313)459-6800 POC: Mark Hill, (415) 669-1111 Fenix Systems, Ltd. 31500 W. 13 Mile Rd

  12. Alternative calcination development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  13. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Human migration to space: Alternative technological approaches for long-term adaptation to extraterrestrial environments and the implications for human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Elizabeth Song

    As humans embark upon the next phase of Space exploration---establishing human outposts in low-Earth orbit, on the Moon, and on Mars---the scope of human factors must expand beyond the meager requirements for short-term missions to Space to include issues of comfort and well-being necessary for long-term durations. However, to habitate---to dwell in a place---implies more than creature comforts in order to adapt. Human factors research must also include a phenomenological perspective---an understanding of how we experience the places we live in---in order for a community to be robust and to thrive. The first phase of migration will be an especially tenuous one requiring intensive technological intervention. The modes by which those technologies are implemented will have significant bearing on the process of human adaptation: the nature of the mediation can be either one of domination, subordination, avoidance, or integration. Ultimately, adaptation is best ensured if symbiotic processes of negotiation and cooperation between subject and environment are espoused over acts of conquest or acquiescence. The adaptive mechanisms we choose to develop and employ will have wider implications for long-range human evolution. The transformations we will undergo will be influenced by both the initial decision to migrate to Space (technological), as well as the actual conditions of Space (environmental). Migration to extraterrestrial environments will be unequivocally the most profound catalyst for evolution in the history of humankind---not only for the human species itself but also for the new environments we will eventually inhabit. At the same time, we also find ourselves---via a new generation of bio-, nano-, and digital technologies---in the position to consciously and willfully direct our own evolution. Technology has always been transformative, but in the not-so-distant future, we will soon possess the capacity to radically re-invent ourselves in almost any way

  15. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  16. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI: A Viable Functional Lung Imaging Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Samuel; Hersman, F. William; Muradian, Iga; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen; Jacobson, Francine; Topulos, George P.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used 3He as their imaging agent of choice rather than 129Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, 3He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized 129Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized 129Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO2) by observation of 129Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO2 by observation of 129Xe signal decay is more complex than that for 3He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of 129Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO2 that accounts for both traditional T1 decay from pO2 and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output. PMID:17890035

  17. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design

  18. Pressurised fluidised bed combustion: an alternative clean coal technology. La combustion en lecho fluido a presion, una alternativa de uso limpio del carbon en desarollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencomo Perez-Zamora, V.; Menendez Perez, J.A.E. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-11-01

    The primary aim of thistechnology is to reduce emissions of sulphur and nitrous oxides. Pilot plant tests have achieved a sulphur fixing rate of over 95%. Pressurised fluidised bed combustion also has advantages with regard to the emission of contaminants. Halogens, fluorine and chlorine, which in conventional combustion methods are released in the gases, to a large degree remain in the ash as do trace elements, such as arsenic, which usually vapourise at high temperatures in pulverised coal combustors. This technology also has a high output of between 38 and 40% net according to the type of coal used. 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

  20. Cross-protection of newly emerging HPAI H5 viruses by neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies: A viable alternative to oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huanhuan; Wang, Guiqin; Wang, Shuangshuang; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongxing; Cheng, Genhong; Zhou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Newly emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8 and H5N9 viruses have been spreading in poultry and wild birds. The H5N6 viruses have also caused 10 human infections with 4 fatal cases in China. Here, we assessed the cross-neutralization and cross-protection of human and mouse monoclonal antibodies against 2 viruses: a HPAI H5N8 virus, A/chicken/Netherlands/14015526/2014 (NE14) and a HPAI H5N6 virus, A/Sichuan/26221/2014 (SC14). The former was isolated from an infected chicken in Netherlands in 2014 and the latter was isolated from an infected human patient in Sichuan, China. We show that antibodies FLA5.10, FLD21.140, 100F4 and 65C6, but not AVFluIgG01, AVFluIgG03, S139/1 and the VRC01 control, potently cross-neutralize the H5N8 NE14 and H5N6 SC14 viruses. Furthermore, we show that a single injection of >1 mg/kg of antibody 100F4 at 4 hours before, or 20 mg/kg antibody 100F4 at 72 hours after, a lethal dose of H5N8 NE14 enables mice to withstand the infection. Finally, we show that a single injection of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg antibody 100F4 prophylactically or 10 mg/kg 100F4 therapeutically outperforms a 5-day course of 10 mg/kg/day oseltamivir treatment against lethal H5N8 NE14 or H5N6 SC14 infection in mice. Our results suggest that further preclinical evaluation of human monoclonal antibodies against newly emerging H5 viruses is warranted.

  1. Is the restricted ketogenic diet a viable alternative to the standard of care for managing malignant brain cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Marsh, Jeremy; Shelton, Laura M; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Mukherjee, Purna

    2012-07-01

    Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality. The failure to recognize brain cancer as a disease of energy metabolism has contributed in large part to the failure in management. As long as brain tumor cells have access to glucose and glutamine, the disease will progress. The current standard of care provides brain tumors with access to glucose and glutamine. The high fat low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) will target glucose availability and possibly that of glutamine when administered in carefully restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake and circulating levels of glucose. The restricted KD (RKD) targets major signaling pathways associated with glucose and glutamine metabolism including the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt/Hif pathway. The RKD is anti-angiogenic, anti-invasive, anti-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic when evaluated in mice with malignant brain cancer. The therapeutic efficacy of the restricted KD can be enhanced when combined with drugs that also target glucose and glutamine. Therapeutic efficacy of the RKD was also seen against malignant gliomas in human case reports. Hence, the RKD can be an effective non-toxic therapeutic option to the current standard of care for inhibiting the growth and invasive properties of malignant brain cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Touch Preps of Products of Conception for Rule-Out Ectopic Pregnancy:  A Viable Alternative to Frozen Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Athena L; Tambouret, Rosemary H; Roberts, Drucilla J

    2016-06-01

    Tissue confirmation of the intrauterine location of a pregnancy can be difficult grossly, necessitating a frozen section diagnosis. First-trimester tissue is often scant and can be exhausted by frozen section. We examined 39 endometrial curettings performed for rule-out ectopic pregnancy by touch prep to examine the utility of cytopathology in documenting trophoblast or chorionic villi (products of conception [POC]). First-trimester curettage specimens sent to the Massachusetts General Hospital Pathology Departmentreceived a gross examination followed by a touch prep of the area most suspicious for villi. Touch preps were reviewed blinded to the final diagnosis and then compared. Thirty-three of the 39 touch preps and histology specimens were concordant, including all 11 negative histology specimens and 22 of the 28 positive histology specimens. POC can be diagnosed by touch prep and may offer confirmation of grossly identified villi. Positive predictive value is 100%. Negative touch preps should receive further evaluation. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenn-Chyau Lee

    Full Text Available The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals.

  4. Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

    1991-04-01

    When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice.

  5. Brightly Luminescent and Color-Tunable Colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br, I, Cl) Quantum Dots: Potential Alternatives for Display Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Haizheng; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Xian-gang; Hu, Xiangmin; Huang, Hailong; Han, Junbo; Zou, Bingsuo; Dong, Yuping

    2015-04-28

    Organometal halide perovskites are inexpensive materials with desirable characteristics of color-tunable and narrow-band emissions for lighting and display technology, but they suffer from low photoluminescence quantum yields at low excitation fluencies. Here we developed a ligand-assisted reprecipitation strategy to fabricate brightly luminescent and color-tunable colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Br, I, Cl) quantum dots with absolute quantum yield up to 70% at room temperature and low excitation fluencies. To illustrate the photoluminescence enhancements in these quantum dots, we conducted comprehensive composition and surface characterizations and determined the time- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectra. Comparisons between small-sized CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots (average diameter 3.3 nm) and corresponding micrometer-sized bulk particles (2-8 μm) suggest that the intense increased photoluminescence quantum yield originates from the increase of exciton binding energy due to size reduction as well as proper chemical passivations of the Br-rich surface. We further demonstrated wide-color gamut white-light-emitting diodes using green emissive CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots and red emissive K2SiF6:Mn(4+) as color converters, providing enhanced color quality for display technology. Moreover, colloidal CH3NH3PbX3 quantum dots are expected to exhibit interesting nanoscale excitonic properties and also have other potential applications in lasers, electroluminescence devices, and optical sensors.

  6. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Wastewater Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    viruses in water and wastewater (Trojan, undated:l). Used properly, ultraviolet light can effectively destroy bacteria, viruses, algae and other...highly effective in disinfecting wastewaters of an industrial nature and viable for medium to large plants, where purified oxygen is readily available or...Alternatives This appendix provides information and cost data obtained from vendors in the wastewater disinfection industry . This data is provided for

  7. Use of computer access technology as an alternative to writing for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Brightlin Nithis; Samuel, Preethy Sarah; Manigandan, C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of an outcome-driven model of decision-making in the implementation of computer access technology (CAT) for a pre-school child with athetoid cerebral palsy. The child did not have the fine motor skills required to hold a pencil but had the cognitive abilities to learn to write; therefore, we explored the use of a CAT device to enable written communication. Case study methodology was used to describe the selection process, child-level outcomes, and clinical challenges faced by the therapist in the use of a consortium model that was designed for an outcome-driven model of decision-making. The critical role of an occupational therapist in this process using a family-centered approach is discussed.

  8. Designing viable cropping options for salt-affected lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Meinke, Holger

    2017-04-01

    scales and geographic distribution. We then consider different scenarios of land use and link these with international, national and local policy frameworks that govern land and water management. Finally, we discuss the importance of developing modelling approaches that facilitate informed debates about alternative management options and so engender dialogs between scientists, policy makers, communities and end users.

  9. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  10. Process Heat Generation Potential from Solar Concentration Technologies in Latin America: The Case of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Lillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC, linear Fresnel collector (LFC and parabolic trough collector (PTC—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year. CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373 K to 423 K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523 K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.

  11. Technological research on alternative energy sources in Brazil: the case of biodiesel; Pesquisas tecnologicas sobre fontes alternativas de energia no Brasil: o caso do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Franca; Souza, Cristina Gomes de; Peixoto, Jose Antonio Assuncao [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article aims to map the main characteristics of research projects promoted in Brazil on biodiesel, as part of the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB), aiming to identify issues, such as: what are the types of plants studied, which is being searched and what the different partners involved. The survey was made on the basis of data available on the web site of the government www.biodiesel.gov.br, and showed the existence of 118 searches registered on the subject. The contents of the study addresses initially some relevant information on biodiesel and its peculiarities in Brazil. In the following sections are identified actions taken by the Brazilian government to create an environment to encourage technological development related to biodiesel, with emphasis on the PNPB and its lines of research. Finally, the results obtained from the database found are presented and discussed. Among other information, the study reveals that: the plants most studied are castor bean, soybeans and cotton, and the research on the biodiesel has focused on improvements in its characterization and quality control as well as in the production of the fuel itself. (author)

  12. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  13. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  14. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  15. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kenkre, V.D.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Direct viable counts (DVC) of bacteria were quantified from polluted and relatively less/non-polluted coastal locations during different seasons to assess whether they can be routinely monitored for an understanding of environmental stress(es...

  16. Experimental human-like model to assess the part of viable Legionella reaching the thoracic region after nebulization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Pourchez

    Full Text Available The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD in European countries and the USA has been constantly increasing since 1998. Infection of humans occurs through aerosol inhalation. To bridge the existing gap between the concentration of Legionella in a water network and the deposition of bacteria within the thoracic region (assessment of the number of viable Legionella, we validated a model mimicking realistic exposure through the use of (i recent technology for aerosol generation and (ii a 3D replicate of the human upper respiratory tract. The model's sensitivity was determined by monitoring the deposition of (i aerosolized water and Tc99m radio-aerosol as controls, and (ii bioaerosols generated from both Escherichia coli and Legionella pneumophila sg 1 suspensions. The numbers of viable Legionella prior to and after nebulization were provided by culture, flow cytometry and qPCR. This study was designed to obtain more realistic data on aerosol inhalation (vs. animal experimentation and deposition at the thoracic region in the context of LD. Upon nebulization, 40% and 48% of the initial Legionella inoculum was made of cultivable and non-cultivable cells, respectively; 0.7% of both populations reached the filter holder mimicking the thoracic region in this setup. These results are in agreement with experimental data based on quantitative microbial risk assessment methods and bring new methods that may be useful for preventing LD.

  17. A multimodality imaging model to track viable breast cancer cells from single arrest to metastasis in the mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Katie M.; Hamilton, Amanda M.; Makela, Ashley V.; Chen, Yuanxin; Foster, Paula J.; Ronald, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Cellular MRI involves sensitive visualization of iron-labeled cells in vivo but cannot differentiate between dead and viable cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measures cellular viability, and thus we explored combining these tools to provide a more holistic view of metastatic cancer cell fate in mice. Human breast carcinoma cells stably expressing Firefly luciferase were loaded with iron particles, injected into the left ventricle, and BLI and MRI were performed on days 0, 8, 21 and 28. The number of brain MR signal voids (i.e., iron-loaded cells) on day 0 significantly correlated with BLI signal. Both BLI and MRI signals decreased from day 0 to day 8, indicating a loss of viable cells rather than a loss of iron label. Total brain MR tumour volume on day 28 also correlated with BLI signal. Overall, BLI complemented our sensitive cellular MRI technologies well, allowing us for the first time to screen animals for successful injections, and, in addition to MR measures of cell arrest and tumor burden, provided longitudinal measures of cancer cell viability in individual animals. We predict this novel multimodality molecular imaging framework will be useful for evaluating the efficacy of emerging anti-cancer drugs at different stages of the metastatic cascade.

  18. Immunization of rodents against Hymenolepis infections using non-viable homologous oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Ito, Akira

    2004-12-01

    Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous non-viable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at -70 degrees C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  19. [Viable myocardium detecting by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Mu, Hu-Yati; He, Peng-Yi; Yang, Yu-Chun; Chou, Ping; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yan-Yi

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and practicability of detecting viable myocardium by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in 13 anesthetized swines via occluding the distal of left anterior descending coronary arteries by angioplasty balloon for 60-90 minutes. The viable myocardium detection by CARTO voltage mapping was made after reconstruction of the left ventricle using CARTO and the results were compared with TTC staining. The standard of CARTO voltage to detect viable myocardium was 0.5 - 1.5 mV while viable myocardium showed pink color by TTC staining. Eleven out of 13 swines survived the operation and 2 swines died of ventricular fibrillation at 45 and 65 minutes post ischemia. Left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and 176 segments from 11 swines were analyzed. Viable myocardium detected by CARTO voltage mapping was identical as identified by TTC staining (Kappa = 0.816, P < 0.001). Taken the TTC result as standard, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of CARTO voltage mapping are 71.8%, 96.5% and 90.9% respectively. CARTO voltage mapping could be used as a reliable tool to detect viable myocardium in this model.

  20. An Introduction to Cochlear Implant Technology, Activation, and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jan A; Teagle, Holly F B

    2002-07-01

    Over the last decade, cochlear implantation has become an increasingly viable alternative for the treatment of profound sensorineural hearing loss in children. Although speech and hearing professionals play an important role in the communicative, social, and academic development of children with cochlear implants, many may be unfamiliar with recent advances in implant technology. This article provides an overview of the components of cochlear implant systems and the speech processing strategies that are currently being used by toddlers, preschoolers, and school-age children. A brief description of cochlear implant surgery and the procedures for programming these devices are also included. Finally, information regarding the use of assistive listening technology in the classroom is presented.

  1. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

    1980-12-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  2. Optimal interpretation as an alternative to Gricean pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeevat, H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces an optimality theoretic notion of optimal interpretation based on presupposition theory and shows that it is a viable alternative for Gricean pragmatics. It moreover is directly applicable to presupposition and rhetorical structure and improves the insights in those areas. The

  3. Heterologous surface display on lactic acid bacteria: non-GMO alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadravec, Petra; Štrukelj, Borut; Berlec, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are food-grade hosts for surface display with potential applications in food and therapy. Alternative approaches to surface display on LAB would avoid the use of recombinant DNA technology and genetically-modified organism (GMO)-related regulatory requirements. Non-covalent surface display of proteins can be achieved by fusing them to various cell-wall binding domains, of which the Lysine motif domain (LysM) is particularly well studied. Fusion proteins have been isolated from recombinant bacteria or from their growth medium and displayed on unmodified bacteria, enabling heterologous surface display. This was demonstrated on non-viable cells devoid of protein content, termed bacteria-like particles, and on various species of genus Lactobacillus. Of the latter, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741 was recently shown to be particularly amenable for LysM-mediated display. Possible regulatory implications of heterologous surface display are discussed, particularly those relevant for the European Union.

  4. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  5. Cellular bone matrices: viable stem cell-containing bone graft substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Cho, Samuel K; Iatridis, James C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the field of stem cell technology have stimulated the development and increased use of allogenic bone grafts containing live mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as cellular bone matrices (CBMs). It is estimated that CBMs comprise greater than 17% of all bone grafts and bone graft substitutes used. To critically evaluate CBMs, specifically their technical specifications, existing published data supporting their use, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, cost, potential pitfalls, and other aspects pertaining to their use. Areview of literature. A series of Ovid, Medline, and Pubmed-National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) searches were performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Specific technical information on each CBM was obtained by direct communication from the companies marketing the individual products. Five different CBMs are currently available for use in spinal fusion surgery. There is a wide variation between the products with regard to the average donor age at harvest, total cellular concentration, percentage of MSCs, shelf life, and cell viability after defrosting. Three retrospective studies evaluating CBMs and fusion have shown fusion rates ranging from 90.2% to 92.3%, and multiple industry-sponsored trials are underway. No independent studies evaluating spinal fusion rates with the use of CBMs exist. All the commercially available CBMs claim to meet the FDA criteria under Section 361, 21 CFR Part 1271, and are not undergoing FDA premarket review. The CBMs claim to provide viable MSCs and are offered at a premium cost. Numerous challenges exist in regard to MSCs' survival, function, osteoblastic potential, and cytokine production once implanted into the intended host. Cellular bone matrices may be a promising bone augmentation technology in spinal fusion surgery

  6. Is HAPS Viable for the Next-Generation Telecommunication Platform in Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwa Kim

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available HAPS is a promising technology capable of providing broadband multimedia services as an alternative to the satellite communication system or terrestrial network. In this study, economic aspects of HAPS service are analyzed, HAPS services are defined, and revenues from the defined services are forecasted assuming nine scenarios. Capital expenditure as well as operating expenditure is estimated. To evaluate the profitability of HAPS service, the net present value (NPV, payback period, and the internal rate of return (IRR are calculated. The results show that HAPS is economically justifiable in all the scenarios. Assuming that ARPU for the service is $35 per month in the average scenario, NPV is calculated as $2964 million, IRR becomes 31.9%, and payback occurs in 2017, which implies that HAPS service is profitable in Korea. In addition, the results of the sensitivity analysis show that the results are fairly robust.

  7. Is HAPS Viable for the Next-Generation Telecommunication Platform in Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Deokjoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HAPS is a promising technology capable of providing broadband multimedia services as an alternative to the satellite communication system or terrestrial network. In this study, economic aspects of HAPS service are analyzed, HAPS services are defined, and revenues from the defined services are forecasted assuming nine scenarios. Capital expenditure as well as operating expenditure is estimated. To evaluate the profitability of HAPS service, the net present value (NPV, payback period, and the internal rate of return (IRR are calculated. The results show that HAPS is economically justifiable in all the scenarios. Assuming that ARPU for the service is $35 per month in the average scenario, NPV is calculated as $2964 million, IRR becomes 31.9%, and payback occurs in 2017, which implies that HAPS service is profitable in Korea. In addition, the results of the sensitivity analysis show that the results are fairly robust.

  8. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the investigation of alternative gas system and process technologies for dry etching in electronic device manufacturing; 2000 nendo denshi device seizo process de shiyosuru etching gas no daitai gas system oyobi daitai process no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are made to develop technologies for saving PFC (perfluoro-compound) and conserving energy in semiconductor manufacturing processes, in particular, in the layer insulation film (SiO{sub 2}) dry etching process. Activities are conducted in the five fields of (1) research and development of technologies for reducing the amount of etching gas consumption, (2) development of a dry etching technology using alternative gas, (3) development of a dry etching technology using a low dielectric constant layer insulation film, (4) research and development of novel wiring structures and a method for fabricating the same, and (5) re-entrusted studies. Conducted in field (5) are studies of novel alternative gas - solid sources to substitute PFC, theory design technologies for low dielectric constant organic macromolecules, low dielectric constant material film fabrication by CVD (chemical vapor deposition), and technology for optical wiring inside chips. In field (2), studies are conducted of low GWP (global warming potential) alternative PFC gas aided etching and decomposition prevention technologies for reduction in PFC emissions, and it is made clear that C{sub 4}F{sub 6} performs excellently as an etchant. (NEDO)

  9. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-05-20

    What's in store for alternative Fuels and advanced technology vehicles in the new millennium? The Clean Cities Coalitions now operate more than 240,000 alternative fuel vehicles in both public and private sectors and have access to more than 4,000 alternative refueling stations. DOE recently announced the selection of 15 proposals that will receive just under $1.7 million in financial assistance to help expand DOE's information dissemination and public outreach efforts for alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies.

  10. Technological alternatives for the handling of high viscosity heavy crude oil and of petroleum residuals; Alternativas tecnologicas para el manejo de crudos pesados de alta viscosidad y residuales de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, Ramon; Peralta M, Maria Vita; Gonzalez Santalo, Jose M.; Herrera V, J. Ramon; Arriola M, Alejandro M.; Manzanares P, Emilio; Romo M, Cesar A.; Palacios L, Elvia M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the technological capacity that, through the years, has been developed in emulsions of heavy oil in water preparations, as well as the potential application that this technology has in the electrical sector and the problem reduction during the extraction and handling of high viscosity heavy oils. Within this technological development it first appears the process for the formation of emulsions of residual petroleum within lots, followed by the preparation of emulsions in a continuous way within a laboratory model, and finally the production in greater scale in a pilot plant, including more and more adequate tense-actives for the formation of emulsions. Also experimental systems are presented to execute static stability and dynamic tests in different conditions, pumping tests for the handling of these emulsions and burning tests for their combustion. All of this with the purpose of consolidating the technology of residual petroleum emulsions as a profitable alternative that replaces the heavy fuel oil and to solve specific problems of the oil industry, among other benefits. [Spanish] Este trabajo exhibe la capacidad tecnologica que, a traves de los anos, se ha desarrollado en la preparacion de emulsiones de aceites pesados en agua; asi como el potencial de aplicacion que tiene dicha tecnologia en el sector electrico y la reduccion de problemas durante la extraccion y manejo de aceites pesados de alta viscosidad. Dentro de este desarrollo tecnologico figura primero el proceso para la formacion de emulsiones de residuales de petroleo dentro de lotes, seguido por la preparacion de emulsiones en continuo dentro de un laboratorio modelo, y finalmente la produccion a mayor escala en una planta piloto, incluyendo cada vez mas adecuados tenso-activos para la formacion de las emulsiones. Tambien se presentan sistemas experimentales para ejecutar pruebas de estabilidad estatica y dinamica en diferentes condiciones, pruebas de bombeo para el manejo de estas

  11. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  12. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  13. Immunization of Rodents Against Hymenolepis Infections using Non-Viable Homologous Oncospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous nonviable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at −70°C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  14. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  15. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  16. Alternative Control Technologies: Human Factors Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    the late 60’s and has been installed in a variety of Theta angle (angle of fan bea when onedo hle intersecting Tea angle)_. Surveyin Fingure 2...7-11 24. Sutter, E.E., "The Visual Evoked Response as a Communication Channel", in "Proceedings: IEEE Symposium on Biosensors ", IEEE, 1984, pp 95-100...interactive communication", IBM Hursley Human Symposium on Biosensors ", IEEE, 1984, pp 95-100. Factors Laboratory Report, 1983. Taheri, B., Smith, R.L

  17. The Green Economy and Alternative Building Technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Study 1: Sub-structure ? CSIR 2012 Slide 8 Continuously reinforced thin concrete pavement Case Study 1: Super-structure ? CSIR 2012 Slide 9 Modular use of blocks Case Study 1: Roof assembly ? CSIR 2012 Slide 10 Re-oriented roofsheets... Insulation board as a ceiling Case Study 1: Services ? CSIR 2012 Slide 11 Modular plumbing Case Study 1: Finishes ? CSIR 2012 Slide 12 Thermally enhanced plaster Case Study 1: Results Concrete ? reduction of almost 1 ton Carbon dioxide ? reduction...

  18. AFTOMS Technology Issues and Alternatives Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Long-haul transmission facilities include TelCo circuit offerings as well as Value-added Networks (VANs). All carriers are upgrading backbone net-works...PBXs and TelCo access services will grow in number and Demo System. This cost effectiveness. ISDN and X25 host interface cards will be popular I...local telephone com- panies ( telcos ). B4.2.3 Security Secure facilities, secure networking and possibly trusted computer systems will be required for

  19. Alternative deNOx catalysts and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    in the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Some basic concepts and reactions regarding the formation and removal of NOx are presented in chapter 1 and 2. Two approaches are undertaken in the present work to reduce the emission of NOx: by means of catalytic removal, and by NO absorption in ionic liquids...... a catalyst less susceptible to the poisons present in the flue gas, a number of catalysts have been synthesized and tested in the present work, all based on commercially available supports. A highly acidic support consisting of sulfated zirconia was chosen based on preliminary studies. A number of different...... permolecule ionic liquid. However, [BMIM]OTf exhibited promising behavior due to its reversible absorption/desorption properties. This in principle allows recycling of the ionic liquid as well as harvesting the NO. The accumulated NO could hereby be used in e.g. the synthesis of nitric acid allowing...

  20. Alternative technologies for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2002-01-01

    Cranberry growers are concerned about the quality of water discharged from cranberry bogs into receiving surface waters. These water discharges may contain traces of pesticides arising from herbicide, insecticide or fungicide applications. They may also contain excess phosphorus from fertilizer application. Some cranberry farms have holding ponds to reduce the amount...

  1. Technology roadmapping, uma alternativa no delineamento da pesquisa agropecuária e sua aplicação na cadeia de cenoura Technology roadmapping, an alternative for designing agricultural research and its application on the carrot chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia S Onoyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo discutir a aplicação do método "Technology roadmapping" (TRM na definição da programação de pesquisa da cadeia de cenoura da Embrapa Hortaliças, considerando um horizonte de 15 anos. Esta cadeia produtiva foi escolhida por ser a cenoura uma das olerícolas de maior importância socioeconômica do Brasil, pelo histórico de projetos da Embrapa Hortaliças com impactos positivos nesta cadeia e pela motivação da equipe em realizar estudos prospectivos para identificar demandas reais e potenciais de pesquisa à cultura. A aplicação do TRM obedeceu a seguinte ordem cronológica: 1 definição do escopo do estudo prospectivo; 2 entedimento do contexto da cadeia de valor da cenoura para facilitar o processo de adaptação do TRM; 3 estabelecimento do modelo conceitual do roadmapping adaptado da representação gráfica básica com quatro macrocamadas indicadoras: mercado, negócio, linhas de pesquisa e recursos (físico, financeiro, humano e competências; 4 realização de pesquisas em fontes primárias e secundárias com produtores, atacadistas, empresas de semente, supermercados, processadoras, consumidores e pesquisadores; e 5 realização de workshop com parceiros externos e colaboradores e reuniões posteriores com os grupos temáticos para a construção do mapa da rota tecnológica. A aplicação do TRM, do ponto de vista gerencial, possibilitou um levantamento atualizado da realidade da cadeia produtiva de cenoura no Brasil e a explicitação clara de ações de pesquisa visando a atender as demandas priorizadas desta cadeia. Contemplou ainda a verificação dos recursos humanos e materiais necessários para atender as ações de pesquisa distribuídas no tempo. Na esfera científica, constatou-se a flexibilidade do método ao ser aplicado com sucesso no setor olerícola, podendo se extender para as demais cadeias de hortaliças bem como do agronegócio.This study aimed to present the application of

  2. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau geothermal assessment is acquiring and interpreting comprehensive field data that can provide quantitative constraints on the recovery of heat from the Columbia River Basalts at depths greater than those currently tested by deep boreholes.

  3. Development of a specific immunomagnetic capture-PCR for rapid detection of viable Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, G; Lecca, V; Foddai, A; Tola, S

    2014-12-01

    To develop an immunomagnetic capture (IMC) to detect viable Mycoplasma agalactiae in routine ovine milk samples. Polyclonal antibodies against two M. agalactiae membrane surface proteins (P80 and P55) were covalently conjugated to magnetic beads (MBs) to form MB-Ab80 and MB-Ab55. Mycoplasma agalactiae cells were captured by a specific antigen-antibody reaction and magnetic separation. Immunomagnetic capture (IMC) was used to isolate and concentrate M. agalactiae in serial decimal dilutions and in artificially contaminated milk to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR. A 375-bp fragment of M. agalactiae was amplified using a pair of M. agalactiae-specific primers in PCR. The limit of detection of IMC-PCR method ranged from 10 to 10(2)  CCU ml(-1) when mycoplasmas were resuspended in PBS and from 10(2) to 10(3)  CCU ml(-1) when mycoplasmas were resuspended in uncontaminated ovine milk. This study also describes the application of IMC-PCR method to test for M. agalactiae in 516 milk samples collected from sheep with suspected contagious agalactia. Its performance was evaluated relative to culture. This report has demonstrated for the first time, the effective use of rapid and reliable IMC combined with PCR assay for the detection of viable M. agalactiae. The method IMC-PCR provides an alternative to conventional microbiological detection, method and it could be applied to quick detection of M. agalactiae in routine sheep milk samples. © 2014 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. 40 CFR 63.447 - Clean condensate alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP emissions reductions achieved by this clean condensate alternative technology are equal to or... definitions apply. (1) Clean condensate alternative affected source means the total of all HAP emission points... occurring by complying with the clean condensate alternative technology. (f) For the purposes of all...

  5. Combining ethidium monoazide treatment with real-time PCR selectively quantifies viable Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Vercammen, Francis; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Detection of the lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis relies on PCR-based techniques. Although highly accurate and sensitive, these methods fail to distinguish between viable and dead cells. In this study a novel approach combining the DNA intercalating dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) and real-time PCR is presented that allows quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis cells without the need for culturing. The developed method is able to suppress real-time PCR signals of heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores by 99.9 % and is able to discriminate viable from heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores in mixed samples. Furthermore, the novel approach was applied to assess the antifungal activity of the veterinary antiseptic F10(®) Antiseptic Solution. This disinfectant killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores effectively within 1 min at concentrations as low as 1:6400. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  8. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  9. Television and Our Children. A Report of the Activities of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainse, David

    Two major objectives of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project were to determine the extent of the influence of violence in children's television and to determine if children's interest in prosocial programming makes it a viable alternative to violence programming. Both adults and 8-10 year old children were surveyed about their…

  10. El modelo de sistema viable: un instrumento para la organización efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlando Sánchez Rueda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este ensayo se presenta una interpretación teórica del denominado Modelo de Sistema Viable (MSV, de Stafford Beer y su Potencial Aplicación en Tareas de Diagnóstico  y diseño empresarial, al igual que para Mejorar las capacidades Organizacionales de Auto- Regulación  y Auto- Organización. Se explica como el Modelo del Sistema Viable permite conocer e interpretar  los mecanismos de estabilidad y adaptabilidad de las organizaciones, pilares para el crecimiento de una verdadera organización Efectiva.

  11. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  12. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  13. BIOGAS AS AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE TO PROMOTE INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos SABORÍO VÍQUEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The key areas that determine the food and nutrition security are: availability, access, consumption and biological utilization. For this reason it is necessary to promote the health of vulnerable groups, in this case, indigenous communities, protecting and establishing conditions to ensure the human right to food. The initial plan focuses ondeveloping facilities for small swine and poultry farms, familiar, non-commercial. The main objective of the pigs raised at the site will be the production of animal waste in order to implement digesters for the production of biogas as an alternative energy source, the production of meat stays in the background, thinking only about the community consumption and helping to ensure their food source, from this perspective, the technologies applied to rural and indigenous progress are environmentally friendly, socially just, economically viable and culturally acceptable. The theme of rural and indigenous Development is focused on their food security and the use of alternative energies, considering that energy is a key element in achieving sustainable development in all sectors, therefore sought from a broad perspective solidarity and actively promote greater and more rational use of energy and the environment in remote communities, through diversification of supply sources and efficient use, thereby contributing toenvironmental conservation and reduction of health problems through the use of appropriate technologies.

  14. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity's access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today's restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these

  15. OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING: An Emerging System for Alternative Higher Education in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chisa IBARA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nigeria no doubt is at the threshold of transformation in information and communication technology (ICT, a development that should be utilized to meet the demand of time, especially in the education sector. One area in which ICT has made enormous impact is in open and distance learning. Undoubtedly, the demand on the conventional higher education delivery system in the country is high and ever increasing that the system at the moment is unable to accommodate the number of candidates seeking admission. This paper, therefore, attempts some definition of open and distance learning as well as its practices with a view to advancing the prospects of open and distance as alternative system of higher education in Nigeria. Furthermore, it concludes that considering the level of infrastructural decay in the conventional higher education system, open and distance learning as an alternative system of education has become imperative for the realization of the primary objectives of higher education in Nigeria. Recommendations that will enhance the prospects of open and distance learning as viable alternative system of higher education were proffered.

  16. Alternative models for academic family practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarnall Kimberly SH

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Future of Family Medicine Report calls for a fundamental redesign of the American family physician workplace. At the same time, academic family practices are under economic pressure. Most family medicine departments do not have self-supporting practices, but seek support from specialty colleagues or hospital practice plans. Alternative models for academic family practices that are economically viable and consistent with the principles of family medicine are needed. This article presents several "experiments" to address these challenges. Methods The basis of comparison is a traditional academic family medicine center. Apart of the faculty practice plan, our center consistently operated at a deficit despite high productivity. A number of different practice types and alternative models of service delivery were therefore developed and tested. They ranged from a multi-specialty office arrangement, to a community clinic operated as part of a federally-qualified health center, to a team of providers based in and providing care for residents of an elderly public housing project. Financial comparisons using consistent accounting across models are provided. Results Academic family practices can, at least in some settings, operate without subsidy while providing continuity of care to a broad segment of the community. The prerequisites are that the clinicians must see patients efficiently, and be able to bill appropriately for their payer mix. Conclusion Experimenting within academic practice structure and organization is worthwhile, and can result in economically viable alternatives to traditional models.

  17. Alternative models for academic family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, J Lloyd; Østbye, Truls; Kaprielian, Victoria S; Krause, Katrina M; Yarnall, Kimberly S H; Yaggy, Susan D; Gradison, Margaret

    2006-03-20

    The Future of Family Medicine Report calls for a fundamental redesign of the American family physician workplace. At the same time, academic family practices are under economic pressure. Most family medicine departments do not have self-supporting practices, but seek support from specialty colleagues or hospital practice plans. Alternative models for academic family practices that are economically viable and consistent with the principles of family medicine are needed. This article presents several "experiments" to address these challenges. The basis of comparison is a traditional academic family medicine center. Apart of the faculty practice plan, our center consistently operated at a deficit despite high productivity. A number of different practice types and alternative models of service delivery were therefore developed and tested. They ranged from a multi-specialty office arrangement, to a community clinic operated as part of a federally-qualified health center, to a team of providers based in and providing care for residents of an elderly public housing project. Financial comparisons using consistent accounting across models are provided. Academic family practices can, at least in some settings, operate without subsidy while providing continuity of care to a broad segment of the community. The prerequisites are that the clinicians must see patients efficiently, and be able to bill appropriately for their payer mix. Experimenting within academic practice structure and organization is worthwhile, and can result in economically viable alternatives to traditional models.

  18. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J; MacIntyre, Hugh L

    2016-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water. In principle, the serial dilution culture-most probable number (SDC-MPN) method provides the appropriate measure for phytoplankton. But, the method has been criticized, particularly because it is thought that many phytoplankton species cannot be cultured. A review of the literature shows that although SDC-MPN has been used for more than 50 years-generally to identify and count phytoplankton species that cannot be preserved-its application to enumerate total viable phytoplankton seems to be new, putting past criticisms of the method in a different light. Importantly, viable cells need to grow only enough to be detected, not to be brought into sustained culture, and competition between species in a dilution tube is irrelevant as long as the winner is detectable. Thorough consideration of sources of error leads to recommendations for minimizing and quantifying uncertainties by optimizing growth conditions and conducting systematic comparisons. We conclude that with careful evaluation, SDC-MPN is potentially an effective method for assessing the viability of phytoplankton after BWT.

  19. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Yang, Ming; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Wanyi; Suo, Biao

    2015-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at -18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA) was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexia Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at −18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach.

  1. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM), a new broad-based journal, is founded on two key tenets: To publish exciting research in all areas of applied medicinal plants, Traditional medicines, Complementary Alternative Medicines, food and agricultural technologies, and ...

  2. R744 ejector technology future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Armin; Banasiak, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Carbon Dioxide, CO2 (R744) was one of the first commonly applied working fluids in the infancy of refrigeration more than 100 years ago. In contrast to ammonia it mainly disappeared after the first generation of synthetic refrigerants have been introduced to the market after 1930. One reason was that the transition from low-rpm belt driven compressors towards the direct electrical motor driven compressors (50-60 Hz) was not performed for CO2 compressors before the revival introduced by Gustav Lorentzen in the 90is of last century. Since 1988 an enormous R & D effort has been made to further develop CO2 refrigeration technology in spite of the opposition from the chemical industry. Today CO2 refrigeration and heat pumping technologies are accepted as viable and sustainable alternatives for several applications like commercial refrigeration, transport refrigeration, vehicle air conditioning & heat pumping, domestic hot water heat pumps and industrial applications. For some applications, the current threshold to introduce R744 technology can be overcome when the system design takes into account the advantage of the thermo dynamical- and fluid properties of CO2. I.e. the system is designed for transcritical operation with all it pros and cons and takes into consideration how to minimize the losses, and to apply the normally lost expansion work. Shortcut-designs, i.e. drop in solutions, just replacing the H(C)FC refrigeration unit with an CO2 systems adapted for higher system pressures will not result in energy efficient products. CO2 systems do offer the advantage of enabling flooded evaporators supported with adapted ejector technology. These units offer high system performances at low temperature differences and show low temperature air mal-distributions across evaporators. This work gives an overview for the development possibilities for several applications during the next years. Resulting in a further market share increase of CO2 refrigeration and heat pump

  3. Emerging Biological Technologies: Biofuels and Biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Composting and anaerobic digestion are well established technologies, although the latter is a relative recent technology regarding solidwaste and full scale plants still are relatively few. However, alternative technologies based on biotechnology are emerging. These technologies are focused arou...

  4. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.; Jager, V.C. de; Geene, R.T.; Alen-Boerrigter, I.J. van; Hazelwood, L.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Kleerebezem, M; Smid, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem.

  5. Induction of viable 2n pollen in sterile Oriental × Trumpet Lilium hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, J.R.; Arens, P.; Niu, L.X.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to induce viable 2n pollen from highly sterile diploid Oriental × Trumpet (OT) (Lilium), N2O was used to treat flower buds of four sterile diploid OT cultivars (‘Nymph’, ‘Gluhwein’, ‘Yelloween’, and ‘Shocking’) at different stages of meiosis. There was no pollen germination in

  6. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section 113.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... in live vaccine. Each serial and subserial of biological product except live vaccines shall be tested...

  7. Oligonucleotide microarrays for the detection and identification of viable beer spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D G; Sahm, K; Polen, T; Wendisch, V F; Antranikian, G

    2008-10-01

    The design and evaluation of an oligonucleotide microarray in order to detect and identify viable bacterial species that play a significant role in beer spoilage. These belong to the species of the genera Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. Oligonucleotide probes specific to beer spoilage bacteria were designed. In order to detect viable bacteria, the probes were designed to target the intergenic spacer regions (ISR) between 16S and 23S rRNA. Prior to hybridization the ISR were amplified by combining reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions using a designed consenus primer. The developed oligonucleotide microarrays allows the detection of viable beer spoilage bacteria. This method allows the detection and discrimination of single bacterial species in a sample containing complex microbial community. Furthermore, microarrays using oligonucleotide probes targeting the ISR allow the distinction between viable bacteria with the potential to grow and non growing bacteria. The results demonstrate the feasibility of oligonucleotide microarrays as a contamination control in food industry for the detection and identification of spoilage micro-organisms within a mixed population.

  8. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  9. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  10. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

  12. Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable eutrophication ... Microcystis in local eutrophic waters is perceived as a primary major constraint in implementing 'classical' food-web manip- ulation. Intrinsic ... cially in 'shallow' lakes) to dismal failure (often in deep lakes) and a range of ...

  13. Viable placental allograft as a biological dressing in the clinical management of full-thickness thermal occupational burns: Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric L; Tassis, Elisabet K; Michael, Georgina M; Whittinghill, Susan G

    2017-12-01

    Occupational burn injuries can be detrimental and difficult to manage. The majority of complex cases are referred and managed at regional burn centers where access to specialized care is available. As an alternative to hospitalization with staged surgical procedures, placental products may be used for outpatient medical management of these common burn injuries, especially if access to a regional burn center is limited or restricted.Fresh amnion has been a treatment of choice in burns for more than 100 years. As a biological covering with a broad scope of potential uses, human placental membranes represent a dressing that is particularly advantageous for burn therapy. Recent advances in tissue-preservation technology have allowed for the commercialization of placental amnion products. To address several complications associated with burn injuries-contractures, scar formation, and pain-a viable cryopreserved placental membrane (vCPM) (Grafix-PRIME, Osiris Therapeutics, Inc., MD) retaining the anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and antimicrobial properties of fresh placental tissues was chosen for clinical use in the 2 cases reported, where both patients had restricted access to the regional burn center. Two cases of work-related extremity burns presented to a local rural hospital for immediate post-injury assessment. The 1 case was of a man who sustained a 55.4 cm full-thickness 3 degree thermal burn with exposed bone and tendon, to the left dorsal forefoot after having an industrial pressure washer caught on his work boot. The 2 case was of a female who sustained a 4.7 cm full-thickness 3 degree crush burn to the dorsum extensor surface of her dominant hand's index finger after applying 80-pounds per square inch of heated pressure from a hydraulic press. Both burn patients elected to continue their care at the outpatient-based wound and hyperbaric center, receiving a combination of weekly ad libitum debridement, applications of vCPM, and occupational therapy

  14. Regionalization of laboratory care: a viable option for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M

    1990-06-01

    The conversion of the hospital laboratory to a cost center under pressure of prospective payment and fixed reimbursement is increasingly forcing hospitals to consider alternative modes for delivery of laboratory care. Changes in the health care environment, amended statutes and regulations, and, particularly, dramatic developments in laboratory equipment, methodologies, and data processing technology make it advisable and feasible to contemplate the creation of regional laboratory consortia. A fundamental step in this direction is the "commercialization" of the hospital laboratory through a change in focus from being an in-house support program to becoming a regional resource. By the same token, the hospital laboratory can become an effective competitor of independent laboratories and be reconverted to a profit center. Creation of hospital laboratory consortia in a splintered, competitive environment requires a committed entrepreneurial effort and convincing evidence of potential benefits. The sequence of steps needed to achieve regional laboratory integration include concerting the goals and objectives of the interested parties, creating an appropriate committee structure, conducting a feasibility assessment, identifying alternative organizational and operational options, selecting a favorite option viewed by all parties as a win/win proposition, developing a business plan, and determining an implementation action plan. The major disadvantages of regionalization of laboratories are employee displacement, potential leveling of quality standards, and reduced hospital control. The major advantages include elimination of duplicate capital, personnel, and service costs, improved efficiency through test batching, reduced unit costs, increased technical capability through staff, instrument, and systems sharing, disengagement from hospital-imposed limitations, strengthened ability to penetrate the marketplace, freeing of hospital space for more direct patient care

  15. Technology Assessment Report: Aqueous Sludge Gasification Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study reveals that sludge gasification is a potentially suitable alternative to conventional sludge handling and disposal methods. However, very few commercial operations are in existence. The limited pilot, demonstration or commercial application of gasification technology t...

  16. Backstop Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Liski, Matti; Murto, Pauli

    2006-01-01

    We consider how efficient markets adopt technologies that reduce dependence on volatile factors such as oil. We find a relationship between volatility and technology overlap: new technology entry rate exceeds old technology exit rate under sufficient uncertainty. From this follows that efficient adoption is characterized by prolonged coexistence of alternative technologies and that uncertainty increasingly propagates from input to output market despite the declining use of the volatile factor...

  17. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the mainstream biofuels narrative. The EROI (Energy Return on Investment of biofuels reaches a few units, while the EROI of fossil fuels is 20–30 or higher and has a power density (W/m2 thousands of times higher than the best biofuels, such as sugarcane in Brazil. When metabolic approaches are used it becomes clear that biomass cannot represent an energy carrier able to meet the metabolism of industrialized societies. For our industrial society to rely on “sustainable biofuels” for an important fraction of its energy, most of the agricultural and non-agricultural land would need to be used for crops, and at the same time a radical cut to our pattern of energy consumption would need to be implemented, whilst also achieving a significant population reduction.

  18. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  19. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  20. Constructed wetlands: A future alternative wastewater treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment will always pose problems if there are no new alternative technologies in place to replace the currently available technologies. More recently, it has been estimated that developing countries will run out of water by 2050. This is a course for concern not only to the communities but also a challenge to ...

  1. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  2. Postoptimality Analysis in the Selection of Technology Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, Virgil; Shelton, Kacie; Elfes, Alberto; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a process of postoptimally analysing the selection of technology portfolios. The rationale for the analysis stems from the need for consistent, transparent and auditable decision making processes and tools. The methodology is used to assure that project investments are selected through an optimization of net mission value. The main intent of the analysis is to gauge the degree of confidence in the optimal solution and to provide the decision maker with an array of viable selection alternatives which take into account input uncertainties and possibly satisfy non-technical constraints. A few examples of the analysis are reviewed. The goal of the postoptimality study is to enhance and improve the decision-making process by providing additional qualifications and substitutes to the optimal solution.

  3. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  5. Non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi induce inflammatory mediators and apoptosis in human oligodendrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Fevrier, Helene B; Philipp, Mario T

    2013-11-27

    In previous studies, exposure to live Borrelia burgdorferi was shown to induce inflammation and apoptosis of human oligodendrocytes. In this study we assessed the ability of non-viable bacteria (heat killed or sonicated) to induce inflammatory mediators and cell death. Both heat-killed and sonicated bacteria induced release of CCL2, IL-6, and CXCL8 from oligodendrocytes in a dose dependent manner. In addition, non-viable B. burgdorferi also induced cell death as evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and another cell viability assay. These results suggest that spirochetal residues left after bacterial demise, due to treatment or otherwise, may continue to be pathogenic to the central nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truernit Elisabeth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant cell death is a normal process during plant development. Mutant plants may exhibit misregulation of this process, which can lead to severe growth defects. Simple ways of visualising cell death in living plant tissues can aid the study of plant development and physiology. Results Spectral variants of the fluorescent SYTOX dyes were tested for their usefulness for the detection of non-viable cells within plant embryos and roots using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The dyes were selective for non-viable cells and showed very little background staining in living cells. Simultaneous detection of SYTOX dye and fluorescent protein (e.g. GFP fluorescence was possible. Conclusion The fluorescent SYTOX dyes are useful for an easy and quick first assay of plant cell viability in living plant samples using fluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy.

  7. Environmental evaluation of route alternative system - technological approach of environmental viability project study; Sistema de avaliacao ambiental de alternativas de percursos - uma abordagem tecnologica para estudos de viabilidade ambiental de projetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Wilson Jose de; Porciano, Patricia Pereira [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alvarez, Beatriz Silva Villa; Casanova, Marco Antonio; Carvalho, Marcelo Tilio Monteiro de; Montenegro, Anselmo Antunes; Carvalho, Paulo Cezar Pinto [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica. Grupo de Tecnologia em Computacao Grafica (TECGRAF)

    2003-07-01

    SAAAP - Routing Alternatives Environmental Evaluation System - was designed to select the best alternative pipeline route. The system takes into account economic, environmental and engineering factors, according to an optimality criterion that combines several variables, such as vegetation coverage, soil type and declivity. The system is operational and has been tested in several realistic projects. (author)

  8. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  9. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  10. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  11. Cultivos de cobertura,¿una alternativa viable para la región semirárida pampeana? Cover crops: a viable alternative for the semiarid Pampa region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto que tienen los cultivos de cobertura (CC en términos de proveer cobertura al suelo, acumular N y P en su biomasa y favorecer la acumulación de agua útil y el rendimiento de los cultivos de verano, se estableció un ensayo con los siguientes tratamientos: barbecho (B sin CC, centeno (Secale cereale L. sin fertilizar como CC testigo (CT y centeno fertilizado con nitrógeno (CF, en un diseño en bloques completos aleatorizados con tres repeticiones. Al momento de secado del CC el arreglo de los tratamientos fue en parcelas dividas con la fertilización como tratamiento principal y el momento de secado como subtratamiento: secado del CC en julio (CTJ y CFJ respectivamente y en agosto (CTA y CFA respectivamente. Sobre todos los tratamientos se establecieron cultivos de verano (CV, maíz y sorgo, luego de un barbecho, a fines de noviembre. Se determinó humedad de suelo y N-NO3- a la siembra del CC, durante su ciclo y a la siembra del cultivo de verano y en floración de maíz y sorgo. Se calculó el uso consuntivo (UC y la eficiencia de uso de agua (EUA en la producción de biomasa del CC y en la producción de granos (rendimiento de los CV. En ambos momentos de secado del CC, julio (J y agosto (A, a la siembra, floración y cosecha de los cultivos de verano se determinó la cantidad de residuos del CC y su contenido de carbono, nitrógeno y fósforo. A la siembra del cultivo de verano el tratamiento B tuvo menos cantidad de agua útil que los tratamientos con CC. En CT y CF, la fecha de secado más temprana almacenó mayor cantidad de agua que la más tardía. La producción total de materia seca del CC fue mayor cuando se secó en A y en tratamientos fertilizados. Los CC fijaron importantes cantidades de C y retuvieron en sus tejidos P y N contribuyendo a disminuir potenciales pérdidas de nitratos por lixiviación durante el barbecho. El N proveniente de la mineralización de los residuos aumentó los niveles de N disponible en el suelo para el cultivo de maíz y sorgo. El rendimiento de maíz fue dependiente de la disponibilidad hídrica en el suelo a la siembra, ya que en B fue de 1015 kg ha-1, mientras que el rendimiento promedio con antecesor CC fue de 4044 kg ha-1. Para el caso del cultivo de sorgo, el manejo previo (con o sin CC no condicionó los rendimientos del mismo, debido a su ciclo fenológico más largo que facilitó que el cultivo aprovechara mayores precipitaciones específicamente durante el período entre siembra y floración.The effect of cover crops (CC on the provision of soil cover, N sequestration, accumulation of available water and the yield of a subsequent summer crop was evaluated. A field experiment with the following treatments was established: fallow without cover crop (B and rye as CC, control (CT, and fertilized (CF in a randomized complete block design with plots divided in two moments of drying of CC: July (CTJ and CFJ respectively and August (CTA and CFA respectively. On all treatments, two summer crops (CV, corn and sorghum were planted after fallowing at the end of November. Soil moisture and nitrate-N were determined at seeding of the CC, during their growing season, and at planting and flowering of corn and sorghum. Consumptive water use (UC and water use efficiency (EUA of CC, corn and sorghum were calculated. The standing biomass of CC was determined at the two dates of drying (J and A, and at planting of the summer crops and during their growing period the CC biomass litter was measured. The carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P contents of the dry matter were determined for all sampling dates. At planting of the summer crops, B treatment had less available water stored in the soil than CC, and J stored more water than A treatment. Total dry matter production of CC was higher in F and when dried in A. The CC sequestered important amounts of C, N and P, preventing potential leaching losses of N during the fallow, and CC litter contributed considerable amounts of both nutrients to the subsequent summer crops. Corn yields were related to water availability as conditioned by CC, and were therefore higher in CC than in B treatments (4044 and 1015 kg ha-1 respectively. Sorghum yield was not affected by previous soil management with or without CC, due to the longer phenological cycle of this crop which enabled it to make use of more rainfall specifically between planting and flowering.

  12. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Sozzi, Fabiola; Poldermans, Don; Bax, Jeroen; Elhendy, Abdou; Vourvouri, Eleni; Valkema, Roelf; Sutter, J.; Schinkel, Arend; Borghetti, A; Roelandt, Jos

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference.
PATIENTS—30 patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction (mean (SD) age, 60 (8) years; 22 men).
METHODS—Dobutamine stress echocardiography was carried out in all patients using both fundamental and second harmonic imaging. All patients underwent dual isotope simul...

  13. Molecular approaches for viable bacterial population and transcriptional analyses in a rodent model of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M I; Scott-Anne, K M; Gregoire, S; Rosalen, P L; Koo, H

    2012-10-01

    Culturing methods are the primary approach for microbiological analysis of plaque biofilms in rodent models of dental caries. In this study, we developed strategies for the isolation of DNA and RNA from plaque biofilms formed in vivo to analyse the viable bacterial population and gene expression. Plaque biofilm samples from rats were treated with propidium monoazide to isolate DNA from viable cells, and the purified DNA was used to quantify total bacteria and the Streptococcus mutans population via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and specific primers; the same samples were also analysed by counting colony-forming units (CFU). In parallel, RNA was isolated from plaque-biofilm samples (from the same animals) and used for transcriptional analyses via reverse transcription-qPCR. The viable populations of both S. mutans and total bacteria assessed by qPCR were positively correlated with the CFU data (P  0.8). However, the qPCR data showed higher bacterial cell counts, particularly for total bacteria (vs. CFU). Moreover, S. mutans proportion in the plaque biofilm determined by qPCR analysis showed strong correlation with incidence of smooth-surface caries (P = 0.0022, r = 0.71). The purified RNAs presented high RNA integrity numbers (> 7), which allowed measurement of the expression of genes that are critical for S. mutans virulence (e.g. gtfB and gtfC). Our data show that the viable microbial population and the gene expression can be analysed simultaneously, providing a global assessment of the infectious aspect of dental caries. Our approach could enhance the value of the current rodent model in further understanding the pathophysiology of this disease and facilitating the exploration of novel anti-caries therapies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salma

    Full Text Available The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null Δssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state.

  15. Mitochondrial respiration in human viable platelets-Methodology and influence of gender, age and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Ehinger, Johannes K H; Marelsson, Sigurður E

    2013-01-01

    Studying whole cell preparations with intact mitochondria and respiratory complexes has a clear benefit compared to isolated or disrupted mitochondria due to the dynamic interplay between mitochondria and other cellular compartments. Platelet mitochondria have a potential to serve as a source...... of human viable mitochondria when studying mitochondrial physiology and pathogenic mechanisms, as well as for the diagnostics of mitochondrial diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a detailed evaluation of platelet mitochondrial respiration using high-resolution respirometry. Further...

  16. An advanced PCR method for the specific detection of viable total coliform bacteria in pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Takashi; Minami, Jun-ichi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-07-01

    Pasteurized milk is a complex food that contains various inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and may contain a large number of dead bacteria, depending on the milking conditions and environment. Ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA)-PCR is occasionally used to distinguish between viable and dead bacteria in foods other than pasteurized milk. EMA is a DNA-intercalating dye that selectively permeates the compromised cell membranes of dead bacteria and cleaves DNA. Usually, EMA-PCR techniques reduce the detection of dead bacteria by up to 3.5 logs compared with techniques that do not use EMA. However, this difference may still be insufficient to suppress the amplification of DNA from dead Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., total coliform bacteria) if they are present in pasteurized milk in large numbers. Thus, false positives may result. We developed a new method that uses real-time PCR targeting of a long DNA template (16S-23S rRNA gene, principally 2,451 bp) following EMA treatment to completely suppress the amplification of DNA of up to 7 logs (10(7) cells) of dead total coliforms. Furthermore, we found that a low dose of proteinase K (25 U/ml) removed PCR inhibitors and simultaneously increased the signal from viable coliform bacteria. In conclusion, our simple protocol specifically detects viable total coliforms in pasteurized milk at an initial count of ≥1 colony forming unit (CFU)/2.22 ml within 7.5 h of total testing time. This detection limit for viable cells complies with the requirements for the analysis of total coliforms in pasteurized milk set by the Japanese Sanitation Act (which specifies <1 CFU/2.22 ml).

  17. Concurrent detection of other respiratory viruses in children shedding viable human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, T B; Paula, F E; Iwamoto, M A; Proença-Modena, J L; Santos, A E; Camara, A A; Cervi, M C; Cintra, O A L; Arruda, E

    2013-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease. The majority of studies addressing the importance of virus co-infections to the HRSV-disease have been based on the detection of HRSV by RT-PCR, which may not distinguish current replication from prolonged shedding of remnant RNA from previous HRSV infections. To assess whether co-detections of other common respiratory viruses are associated with increased severity of HRSV illnesses from patients who were shedding viable-HRSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates from children younger than 5 years who sought medical care for respiratory infections in Ribeirão Preto (Brazil) were tested for HRSV by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture. All samples with viable-HRSV were tested further by PCR for other respiratory viruses. HRSV-disease severity was assessed by a clinical score scale. A total of 266 samples from 247 children were collected and 111 (42%) were HRSV-positive. HRSV was isolated from 70 (63%), and 52 (74%) of them were positive for at least one additional virus. HRSV-positive diseases were more severe than HRSV-negative ones, but there was no difference in disease severity between patients with viable-HRSV and those HRSV-positives by RT-PCR. Co-detection of other viruses did not correlate with increased disease severity. HRSV isolation in cell culture does not seem to be superior to RT-PCR to distinguish infections associated with HRSV replication in studies of clinical impact of HRSV. A high rate of co-detection of other respiratory viruses was found in samples with viable-HRSV, but this was not associated with more severe HRSV infection. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cosmic constraint on massive neutrinos in viable f( R) gravity with producing Λ CDM background expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Liu, Molin; Wu, Yabo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Weiqiang

    2016-12-01

    Tensions between several cosmic observations were found recently, such as the inconsistent values of H0 (or σ 8) were indicated by the different cosmic observations. Introducing the massive neutrinos in Λ CDM could potentially solve the tensions. Viable f( R) gravity producing Λ CDM background expansion with massive neutrinos is investigated in this paper. We fit the current observational data: Planck-2015 CMB, RSD, BAO, and SNIa to constrain the mass of neutrinos in viable f( R) theory. The constraint results at 95% confidence level are: Σ m_ν case, m_{ν , sterile}^effcase. For the effects due to the mass of the neutrinos, the constraint results on model parameter at 95% confidence level become f_{R0}× 10^{-6}> -1.89 and f_{R0}× 10^{-6}> -2.02 for two cases, respectively. It is also shown that the fitting values of several parameters much depend on the neutrino properties, such as the cold dark matter density, the cosmological quantities at matter-radiation equality, the neutrino density and the fraction of baryonic mass in helium. Finally, the constraint result shows that the tension between direct and CMB measurements of H_0 gets slightly weaker in the viable f( R) model than that in the base Λ CDM model.

  19. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  20. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, F B; Poldermans, D; Bax, J J; Elhendy, A; Vourvouri, E C; Valkema, R; De Sutter, J; Schinkel, A F; Borghetti, A; Roelandt, J R

    2001-12-01

    To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. 30 patients with chronic left ventricular dysfunction (mean (SD) age, 60 (8) years; 22 men). Dobutamine stress echocardiography was carried out in all patients using both fundamental and second harmonic imaging. All patients underwent dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA-SPECT) with (99m)technetium-tetrofosmin/(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose on a separate day. Myocardial viability was considered present by dobutamine stress echocardiography when segments with severe dysfunction showed a biphasic sustained improvement or an ischaemic response. Viability criteria on DISA-SPECT were normal or mildly reduced perfusion and metabolism, or perfusion/metabolism mismatch. Using fundamental imaging, 330 segments showed severe dysfunction at baseline; 144 (44%) were considered viable. The agreement between dobutamine stress echocardiography by fundamental imaging and DISA-SPECT was 78%, kappa = 0.56. Using second harmonic imaging, 288 segments showed severe dysfunction; 138 (48%) were viable. The agreement between dobutamine stress echocardiography and DISA-SPECT was significantly better when second harmonic imaging was used (89%, kappa = 0.77, p = 0.001 v fundamental imaging). Second harmonic imaging applied during dobutamine stress echocardiography increases the agreement with DISA-SPECT for detecting myocardial viability.