WorldWideScience

Sample records for viable alternative strategy

  1. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  2. How Can We Prevent Violence Becoming a Viable Political Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Justino

    2009-01-01

    A basic issue that conflict analysis investigates is how non-peaceful ways of living and governing become viable political strategies. Macro-level studies provide some important insights but micro-level analysis is vital to understand the mechanisms that make violence possible. This briefing outlines some preliminary findings in this respect from MICROCON, a major research programme analysing violent conflict at the micro level. It also discusses their implications for policies aimed at preve...

  3. Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R

    2003-11-10

    As clusters are widely accepted as cost-effective infrastructures for many scientific and commercial applications, improving the deliverable performance and reducing the energy consumption of such systems has become a pressing issue. In this paper, we exploit the feasibility of achieving these objectives through efficiently scheduling the communicating processes of parallel applications. In this context, we conduct an in-depth evaluation of a broad spectrum of scheduling alternatives for clusters. These include the widely used batch scheduling, local scheduling, gang scheduling, all prior communication-driven coscheduling algorithms, and a newly proposed HYBRID coscheduling algorithm. In order to provide ease of implementation and portability across many cluster platforms, we propose a generic framework for deploying any coscheduling algorithm. We have implemented four prior coscheduling algorithms (Dynamic Coscheduling (DCS), Spin Block (SB), Periodic Boost (PB), and Co-ordinated Coscheduling (CC)) and the HYBRID coscheduling using this framework on a 16-node, Myrinet connected Linux cluster that uses GM as the communication layer. In addition, we use PBS as the batch scheduler and a previously proposed gang scheduler (SCore) to analyze all classes of scheduling techniques. Performance and energy measurements using several NAS and LLNL benchmarks on the Linux cluster provide several interesting conclusions. First, although batch scheduling is currently used in most clusters, all blocking-based coscheduling techniques such as SB, CC and HYBRID and the gang scheduling can provide much better performance even in a dedicated cluster platform. Under high system load, these coscheduling schemes can provide orders of magnitude reduction in average response time and much better performance-energy behavior compared to the PBS scheme. Second, in contrast to some of the prior studies, we observe that blocking-based schemes like SB and HYBRID can provide better performance

  4. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The paper presents a brief review of palatogingival groove and highlights an easy and predictable alternative for its management.

  5. Case-based anatomy teaching: a viable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseonu, Onyedikachi; Carachi, Robert; Brindley, Nicola

    2013-08-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a decline in the amount of time available for anatomy teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum, and new methods of anatomy teaching have been adopted for pragmatic reasons, with little evidence base to support their proposed educational benefits. This study seeks to establish the effect of a case-based teaching method on students' confidence in anatomy. Forty-three student volunteers in the clinical phase of the Glasgow medical course were given weekly anatomy teaching sessions based on clinical case presentations over 4 weeks. The students were given an anatomy test, and were asked to rate their confidence in their anatomy knowledge before and after the teaching sessions. There was a two-point increase in students' self-rated confidence, and a 10.9 per cent increase in average test score after the case-based anatomy teaching sessions. Both of these increases were statistically significant (p teaching was also highly rated by students, which may make it a viable option for the teaching of anatomy in the modern medical curriculum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Guleria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excellent alternative, has no learning curve and is ideally suited for donors in India who have a low BMI. The procedure is also relatively inexpensive. We are in need of a donor registry rather than reports from single institutions to fully evaluate the risks and benefits of both procedures.

  7. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  8. Enabling Strategy Formulation by ICT: A Viable Systems Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, D.J.; Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter the role of ICT for competitive intelligence is approached from the perspective of strategy formulation. The authors hold the view that competitive intelligence can be seen as knowledge necessary for the process of strategy formulation. To determine the role of ICT, it is proposed to

  9. Is Microcredit a Viable Strategy for Empowering Women?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    target women and provide accompanying education on health, nutrition, family planning, financial planning and budgeting and microenterprise development. The strategy for credit delivery differs from microcredit to microcredit. An important policy of credit schemes is the establishment of loan beneficiary selection criteria.

  10. FREE OPEN SOURCE AND SOFTWARE IN THE TEACHING OF CAT TOOLS: OMEGAT, A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Lúcio Caetano Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of Computer Aided Translation (CAT tools is essential to all courses aimed at preparing students for the effective exercise of this profession, in particular those students who will translate technical texts, especially in the field of localization. As an alternative to the paid commercial software which dominate the translation industry (such as SDL Trados Studio, Wordfast Pro and MemoQ, there are free proprietary softwares (such as Wordfast Anywhere and Google Translator Toolkit, and free open source ones (such as OmegaT and Anaphraseus. Starting from a description of CAT types and main functions, the purpose of this article is to point out, through an evaluative-comparative analysis based on a research and on a comparison between OmegaT, free proprietary softwares and others open source softwares, why and for which situations OmegaT is a viable alternative for the teaching of CAT tools in higher education.

  11. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  12. Alternative War Strategies for Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ciolponea, Constantin A; Iancu, Cristian A

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores strategically viable options for dealing with the Iraq conflict with a new perspective on the dynamics of insurgency in Iraq and basic guidelines for an unconventional counterinsurgency effort...

  13. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  14. ¡VAMOS! (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System) - a 'Horizon 2020' project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Cameron; Bodo, Balazs; Kapusniak, Stef; Bosman, Frank; Rainbird, Jenny; Silva, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    The 42-month ¡VAMOS! project (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System, Grant Agreement 642477, www.vamos-project.eu), funded by the EC H2020 Programme, will enable access to high-grade EU reserves of mineral ore-bodies by developing an innovative clean and low visibility mining technique. The project will demonstrate the technological and economic viability of the underwater extraction of metallic mineral deposits which are currently technologically, economically, and environmentally unobtainable. In doing so, ¡VAMOS! hopes to encourage investment in abandoned open-pit mines and prospective mines, helping to put the EU back on a level playing field with the rest of the world in terms of access to strategically important minerals. The ¡VAMOS! concept is defined by a remotely-operated underwater mining vehicle, adapted and improved from existing subsea mining technology. Operating in tandem with an HROV, the mining vehicle will connect to a flexible riser through which slurried mined material will be pumped from the mudline to onshore dewatering facilities via a floating mobile deployment-module, on which will be fitted a bypass system linked to an LIBS, allowing real-time grade-control. Analysis of European and national regulation and stakeholder assessments found there is significant support for developing the technology among local communities and governments. An initial environmental assessment of the potential impact of the innovative mining operation concluded the project has a smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining operations: this is due to factors including the quieter operation and absence of blasting, zero water-table flux, and the higher stripping ratio enabled by higher fluid pressure acting on the sidewalls of the mine. The prototypes are currently in their construction phase following a final design freeze in October 2016. Work is now underway on the foresight visioning, economic evaluation and policy guidelines for the

  15. Agrofood chains: a viable alternative for sustainable rural development or consolidation of big business?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Yumbla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the 90s, following patterns that responded to the global corporate food regime, the government of Ecuador encouraged the formation of agro-food chains, among them, the chain of corn-animal feed- poultry. The food chain includes two service links (SL and four productive links (PL controlled by companies such as Pronaca, Agripac, Ecuaquímica and Supermaxi. These companies implemented horizontal, vertical, financial, and brand integrations, as strategies to consolidate market power and something even more prejudicial –the shaping of decisions regarding what and how to plant, and the available choices of what and how to consume– progressively creating a gap between producers and consumers.This model promotes corn monoculture through contract farming, encourages the use of agrochemicals, and endorses large poultry and swine processing factories which cause air, soil and water pollution from the ‘by products’, gas, feces and urine produced by the animals. Additionally, it promotes, supports an increases the consumption of animal protein, which is energy inefficient.The article discusses the consolidation of the agro-food chain, corn –processed food– poultry, and their links in order to determine if the integration of producers and consumers in this chain is an alternative to equitable development. Or are they part of the business strategies that respond to global food systems?

  16. Survival Strategy of Erwinia amylovora against Copper: Induction of the Viable-but-Nonculturable State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Marco-Noales, Ester; López, María M.; Biosca, Elena G.

    2006-01-01

    Copper compounds, widely used to control plant-pathogenic bacteria, have traditionally been employed against fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. However, recent studies have shown that some phytopathogenic bacteria enter into the viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) state in the presence of copper. To determine whether copper kills E. amylovora or induces the VBNC state, a mineral medium without copper or supplemented with 0.005, 0.01, or 0.05 mM Cu2+ was inoculated with 107 CFU/ml of this bacterium and monitored over 9 months. Total and viable cell counts were determined by epifluorescence microscopy using the LIVE/DEAD kit and by flow cytometry with 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride and SYTO 13. Culturable cells were counted on King's B nonselective solid medium. Changes in the bacterial morphology in the presence of copper were observed by scanning electron microscopy. E. amylovora entered into the VBNC state at all three copper concentrations assayed, much faster when the copper concentration increased. The addition of different agents which complex copper allowed the resuscitation (restoration of culturability) of copper-induced VBNC cells. Finally, copper-induced VBNC cells were virulent only for the first 5 days, while resuscitated cells always regained their pathogenicity on immature fruits over 9 months. These results have shown, for the first time, the induction of the VBNC state in E. amylovora as a survival strategy against copper. PMID:16672494

  17. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  18. Is Telemental Health Services a Viable Alternative to Traditional Psychotherapy for Deaf Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Teresa V

    2017-02-01

    Access to mental health treatment is a vital part of a comprehensive health care plan. Deaf individuals often have difficulty accessing mental health services. Four-hundred twenty-two participants completed an anonymous questionnaire about their perspectives of telemental health services for deaf individuals. Results showed that several variables, such as if the participant was unable to receive another type of psychotherapy and whether the therapist was ASL-fluent, were significantly related to whether the respondent would use TMH. The participants reported that TMH services are a viable option for treating a variety of mental health issues. Telemental health services can act as a bridge between consumers of mental health care and their providers allowing accessible and equitable healthcare opportunities.

  19. PRICE-LEVEL TARGETING – A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO INFLATION TARGETING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Vasile Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that has led some central banks reaching the zero lower bound of their interest rate to use unconventional monetary policy instruments, has brought to the forefront theacademic discussions on the shift from inflation targeting (IT to price level targeting. This paper provides a comparative analysis on IT strategy and targeting the price level, assesses the implications and highlights the challenges of an eventual transition to a new monetary policy strategy. Balancing the advantages (mainly better anchored inflation expectations and disadvantages (communication difficulties generated by following a potential price-level targeting strategy and the necessary prerequisites for its functionality (predictive agents, fully familiar with the implications of such a strategy and with complete confidence in themonetary authority has led us to the conclusion that there is no common acceptance that price level targeting strategy might replace the present IT framework.

  20. Extended-wear RGP contact lenses: a viable alternative to refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnider, C M

    1994-01-01

    The rigid gas-permeable (RGP) extended-wear lens offers a unique alternative to the hydrogel extended-wear lens as well as to refractive surgery. In suitable patients it can provide almost maintenance-free visual correction for a wide variety of refractive errors. With prudent patient selection, use of high-permeability RGP materials, sound lens design and fitting principles, and conservative follow-up procedures, RGP extended-wear lenses can have success rates exceeding those of either hydrogel extended-wear lenses or refractive surgery, with fewer complications. The complications that do occur are often predictable after a short period of daily wear, and the remainder can often be managed with small changes to lens design.

  1. Is repositioning of drugs a viable alternative in the treatment of tuberculosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi

    2013-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem because of the scarcity of new antibiotics effective against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extensively drug resistance is particularly worrying in tuberculosis (TB), since the causative bacteria have become resistant to almost all available first- and second-line drugs and resistance is a threat to achieving control of the disease. Development of new drugs is a lengthy and costly endeavour. This is a particular problem for antibiotics, usage of which is likely to be of limited duration, and is even more true of antibiotics whose use is restricted to the treatment of a disease, such as TB, that is considered to be 'poverty related', and for which the return on the investment is seen as non-attractive. In spite of this, there is an emerging pipeline of new drugs under development that hopefully will bring new anti-TB drugs to the market in the near future. The strategy of drug repurposing, finding new uses for existing approved medicines, has seen unexpected success in other medical areas. More than one blockbuster drug has originated from this strategy. And in the field of TB, there have been several examples in recent years of this approach leading to the use of drugs for which there is undeniable evidence of efficacy in the treatment of the disease, the best example being the fluoroquinolones, which were not developed originally to treat TB. This article reviews some examples of repurposing of drugs in the treatment of TB, newer candidates for repurposing for which there is already preliminary evidence of activity and possible new options that merit further investigation.

  2. Cataract surgery in mobile eye surgical unit: Safe and viable alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Pioneer Sangameswaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility and safety of a mobile eye surgical unit (MESU in providing quality cataract surgery for the indigent rural population with poor access to quality eye care. Materials and Methods: Two buses connected by a vestibule were built to meet the requirements for a self-sufficient operation theater (OT. In every camp, safe transportation of units, good alignment of buses, safe water, and maintenance of sterile environment were achieved with optimal utilization of OT. Results: Two thousand and twenty-one patients in 21 remote locations underwent cataract surgery in MESU between 2012 and 2015. Visual outcome was 6/9 or better in 79.3%, posterior capsular rupture in 0.91%, zonulardialysis in 0.3%, aphakia in 0.2%, iridodialysis in 0.2%, and there was no incidence of endophthalmitis. Conclusion: MESU is a safe alternative in combating preventable blindness due to cataract in far-off villages and tribal areas by providing quality eye care at the patient′s doorstep. This model has a great potential for duplication in other parts of India.

  3. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Mila F M; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Werneck, Silvia M C; Corrêa, Jôice D; Soriani, Frederico M; Garlet, Gustavo P; Souza, Daniele G; Teixeira, Mauro M; Silva, Tarcilia A; Perretti, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Alveolar bone loss is a result of an aggressive form of periodontal disease (PD) associated with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) infection. PD is often observed with other systemic inflammatory conditions, including arthritis. Melanocortin peptides activate specific receptors to exert antiarthritic properties, avoiding excessing inflammation and modulating macrophage function. Recent work has indicated that melanocortin can control osteoclast development and function, but whether such protection takes place in infection-induced alveolar bone loss has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of melanocortin in Aa-induced PD. Mice were orally infected with Aa and treated with the melanocortin analog DTrp8-γMSH or vehicle daily for 30 d. Then, periodontal tissue was collected and analyzed. Aa-infected mice treated with DTrp8-γMSH presented decreased alveolar bone loss and a lower degree of neutrophil infiltration in the periodontium than vehicle-treated animals; these actions were associated with reduced periodontal levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17A. In vitro experiments with cells differentiated into osteoclasts showed that osteoclast formation and resorptive activity were attenuated after treatment with DTrp8-γMSH. Thus, melanocortin agonism could represent an innovative way to tame overexuberant inflammation and, at the same time, preserve bone physiology, as seen after Aa infection.-Madeira, M. F. M., Queiroz-Junior, C. M., Montero-Melendez, T., Werneck, S. M. C., Corrêa, J. D., Soriani, F. M., Garlet, G. P., Souza, D. G., Teixeira, M. M., Silva, T. A., Perretti, M. Melanocortin agonism as a viable strategy to control alveolar bone loss induced by oral infection. © FASEB.

  4. Basilic vein transposition: A viable alternative for multiple failed arteriovenous fistulas - A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Sudhir Chipde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary use of the autogenous arteriovenous access is recommended by the National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. In spite of troublesome comorbidities associated with basilic vein transposition (BVT, it is still the most preferred technique when autologous veins are not suitable to construct radio-cephalic fistula (RCF and brachiocephalic fistula (BCF, arteriovenous fistula (AVF. The present study highlights our experience with BVT, with small incision technique, over a period of two years with excellent outcome. This retrospective study included all the patients who underwent BVT at our tertiary care center between March 2013 and March 2015. It was performed in patients with failed previous RCF or BCF or who had small caliber or thrombosed cephalic veins. The patients with minimum 3 mm basilic vein diameter on Doppler were only included in the study. A 3-cm horizontal incision was made in antecubital fossa to expose brachial artery and basilic vein. Multiple longitudinal separate second skin incisions (2–3 cm were made to explore proximal part of basilic vein. Side branches of the vein were isolated and ligated. The divided basilic vein in antecubital fossa was brought over fascia through newly created subcutaneous tunnel followed by end-to-side anastomosis. A total of 18 (12 males and 6 females underwent BVT in the two years period. The mean fistula maturation time was 42 ± 10 days. Maturation rate was 100%, and the postoperative flow rate was 290 ± 22 (mL/min. No bleeding, thrombosis, failure, pseudo aneurysm, or rupture occurred in our patients. Arm edema occurred in ix (33% patients, infection in three (17%, and lymphorrhea in five (28%. The mean follow-up was six months. BVT is an alternative method with excellent initial maturation and functional patency rates requiring less extensive skin incision and surgical dissection. It is the most durable hemodialysis access procedure for those patients

  5. Bioethanol from poplar clone Imola: an environmentally viable alternative to fossil fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Li, Changsheng; Facciotto, Gianni; Bergante, Sara; Bhatia, Rakesh; Comolli, Roberto; Ferré, Chiara; Murphy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Environmental issues, e.g. climate change, fossil resource depletion have triggered ambitious national/regional policies to develop biofuel and bioenergy roles within the overall energy portfolio to achieve decarbonising the global economy and increase energy security. With the 10 % binding target for the transport sector, the Renewable Energy Directive confirms the EU's commitment to renewable transport fuels especially advanced biofuels. Imola is an elite poplar clone crossed from Populus deltoides Bartr. and Populus nigra L. by Research Units for Intensive Wood Production, Agriculture Research Council in Italy. This study examines its suitability for plantation cultivation under short or very short rotation coppice regimes as a potential lignocellulosic feedstock for the production of ethanol as a transport biofuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to model the cradle-to-gate environmental profile of Imola-derived biofuel benchmarked against conventional fossil gasoline. Specific attention was given to analysing the agroecosystem fluxes of carbon and nitrogen occurring in the cultivation of the Imola biomass in the biofuel life cycle using a process-oriented biogeochemistry model (DeNitrification-DeComposition) specifically modified for application to 2G perennial bioenergy crops and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Our results demonstrate that carbon and nitrogen cycling in perennial crop-soil ecosystems such as this example can be expected to have significant effects on the overall environmental profiles of 2G biofuels. In particular, soil carbon accumulation in perennial biomass plantations is likely to be a significant component in the overall greenhouse gas balance of future biofuel and other biorefinery products and warrants ongoing research and data collection for LCA models. We conclude that bioethanol produced from Imola represents a promising alternative transport fuel offering some savings ranging from 35 to 100 % over petrol in global

  6. Alternative entrepreneurial options: a policy mitigation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on alternative entrepreneurial options as a mitigation strategy against climate change among part-time farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Some farmers abandoned farming in the face of reoccurring adverse weather conditions to other livelihood sustaining activities. The objectives were to examine the ...

  7. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the ma...

  8. Instructional Strategies Alternative for Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajaira del Valle Cadenas Terán

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to expose significantly instruccionales strategic alternatives that help improve the process of reading in college students to be trained holistically, able to make critical decisions, thoughtful and successful in the academic field. The strategies implemented educational event isolated to produce no change is necessary, that are planned and executed in the proper context of the need to ensure a certain extent the instructional success. It is also essential that teachers be the first to appropriate it. This study was conducted with a literature review serves as instructional foundation - strategic. In conclusion the importance of instructional strategies in reading comprehension was determined, since they increase communication skills, provide specific or complex experiences and promote meaningful learning.

  9. Exploring alternative assessment strategies in science classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Stears

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge children bring to the classroom or construct in the classroom may find expression in a variety of activities and is often not measurable with the traditional assessment instruments used in science classrooms. Different approaches to assessment are required to accommodate the various ways in which learners construct knowledge in social settings. In our research we attempted to determine the types of outcomes achieved in a Grade 6 classroom where alternative strategies such as interactive assessments were implemented. Analyses of these outcomes show that the learners learned much more than the tests indicate, although what they learnt was not necessarily science. The implications for assessment are clear: strategies that assess knowledge of science concepts, as well as assessment of outcomes other than science outcomes, are required if we wish to gain a holistic understanding of the learning that occurs in science classrooms.

  10. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  11. Scenario Analysis to Identify Viable Conservation Strategies in Paraguay's Imperiled Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Carlson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A common challenge facing land use planning is assessment of the future performance of land use options. The challenge can be acute in developing regions where land use is expanding rapidly and funding and data needed for planning are scarce. To inform land use planning for a biosphere reserve located in Paraguay's Atlantic forest region, a scenario analysis explored the relative merits of conventional and conservation agricultural practices, sustained yield forestry, and protection. Simulations compared the long-term impacts on land cover, biotic carbon, and income of the area's residents. Ecological and economic decline were projected under conventional practices. Protection and forestry scenarios achieved only small relative improvements to ecological indicators at the cost of reduced economic performance. By addressing the underlying issue of land degradation, conservation agriculture including no-tillage was the most successful land use strategy both ecologically and economically. Identification of conservation agriculture as the most promising land use strategy prioritizes issues that must be addressed to achieve sustainability, most importantly the provision of education and funding to smallholder farmers. We conclude that scenario analysis offers a flexible strategy to integrate available data for the purpose of informing land use planning in data-limited regions such as Paraguay's Atlantic forest.

  12. Is political behavior a viable coping strategy to perceived organizational politics? Unveiling the underlying resource dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhua; Chen, Huaizhong

    2017-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(10) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-34254-001). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected.] We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. 24 CFR 248.223 - Alternative State strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservation Act of 1987 § 248.223 Alternative State strategy. (a) The Commissioner may approve a State strategy providing for State approval of plans of action that involve termination of low income... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative State strategy. 248.223...

  14. Alternative Strategies for Pricing Home Work Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D.; Bryant, W. Keith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses techniques for measuring the value of home work time. Estimates obtained using the reservation wage technique are contrasted with market alternative estimates derived with the same data set. Findings suggest that the market alternative cost method understates the true value of a woman's home time to the household. (JOW)

  15. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the mainstream biofuels narrative. The EROI (Energy Return on Investment of biofuels reaches a few units, while the EROI of fossil fuels is 20–30 or higher and has a power density (W/m2 thousands of times higher than the best biofuels, such as sugarcane in Brazil. When metabolic approaches are used it becomes clear that biomass cannot represent an energy carrier able to meet the metabolism of industrialized societies. For our industrial society to rely on “sustainable biofuels” for an important fraction of its energy, most of the agricultural and non-agricultural land would need to be used for crops, and at the same time a radical cut to our pattern of energy consumption would need to be implemented, whilst also achieving a significant population reduction.

  16. Chest ultrasound in the evaluation of complicated pneumonia in the ICU patients: Can be viable alternative to CT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham El Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Chest US provides an accurate evaluation of the pleural and parenchymal abnormalities associated with complicated pneumonia in the ICU patients. Considering that chest US is a bedside and avoids transportation of the patient outside ICU, free of radiation exposure and easily repeatable, chest US appears to be an attractive alternative to CT.

  17. IS COMMUNITY JUSTICE A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND DOES IT CONTRIBUTE TO THE LOCAL BUSINESS ECONOMY?

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Lewis; Maryam Davodi-Far

    2008-01-01

    Local communities are suffering extreme financial and economic hardships due to falling revenues and increased expenditures and therefore must seek alternate means to balance their budgets. A very large expenditure that must be borne by every community is the administration of the Criminal Justice System. As a result, many communities are trying to develop a more proactive approach to fighting crime by undertaking new and innovative approaches to solving their worsening crime problems and at ...

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Pudendal Block is a Viable Alternative to Caudal Block for Hypospadias Surgery: a Single Surgeon Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Sarah; Piñeda, Jorge; Bayne, Aaron

    2017-11-16

    To evaluate pudendal nerve block as an alternative to caudal block for hypospadias surgery. Data were obtained by chart review. Children who underwent hypospadias repair between 2012 and 2016 by a single surgeon at an academic institution were included. Patients received ultrasound-guided pudendal block (n=21) or caudal block (n=19) as a regional adjunct to general anesthesia. Primary outcomes included analgesic requirement and postoperative length of stay in the recovery unit. The pudendal block cohort was slightly older (27.6 vs. 18.5 months, p = 0.017) and had more severe hypospadias than the caudal block cohort (53% vs. 35% proximal hypospadias, respectively). We detected no statistically significant difference in intraoperative opioid, postoperative opioid, or nonopioid analgesic requirement (17.9 vs. 12.9 mcg fentanyl, p=0.267; 0.3 vs. 0.3 doses, p = 0.92; 0.2 vs. 0.1 doses, p= 0.46, respectively). Postoperative length of stay was significantly shorter in the pudendal block cohort (96 vs. 128 minutes, p=0.016). We are the first to report the use of ultrasound-guided pudendal block for hypospadias repair. This appears to be a safe, effective alternative to caudal block with no perioperative delays. Pudendal block has several advantages over caudal block. It avoids the risks of urinary retention and lower extremity weakness and can be administered to older patients and children with spinal anomalies. Compared to caudal block, ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block is safe, provides equivalent pain control for hypospadias repair, and results in a shorter time to discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1996-01-01

    Three control strategies allowing improved operational flexibility of an alternating type activated sludge process are presented in a unified model based framework. The control handles employed are the addition rate of an external carbon source to denitrification, the cycle length...

  20. Functional Reconstruction of a Combined Tendocutaneous Defect of the Achilles Using a Segmental Rectus Femoris Myofascial Construct: A Viable Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vincent DeFazio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The composite anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata has emerged as a workhorse at our institution for complex Achilles defects requiring both tendon and soft tissue reconstruction. Safe elevation of this flap, however, is occasionally challenged by absent or inadequate perforators supplying the anterolateral thigh. When discovered intraoperatively, alternative options derived from the same vascular network can be pursued. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who underwent composite Achilles defect reconstruction using a segmental rectus femoris myofascial free flap. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient resumed full activity and was able to ambulate on his tip-toes. At 1-year follow-up, active total range of motion of the reconstructed ankle exceeded 85% of the unaffected side, and donor site morbidity was negligible. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores improved by 78.8% and 28.8%, respectively, compared to preoperative baseline assessments. Based on our findings, we advocate for use of the combined rectus femoris myofascial free flap as a rescue option for reconstructing composite Achilles tendon/posterior leg defects in the setting of inadequate anterolateral thigh perforators. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe use of this flap for such an indication.

  1. A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Banfield, Laura E; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

  2. Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii; Joos, Karen M; Schwettman, H Alan; Jansen, E Duco

    2007-03-01

    Investigations with a Mark-III free electron laser, tuned to 6.45 microm in wavelength have demonstrated minimal collateral damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While the use of mid-IR light produced by the free electron laser (FEL) has shown much promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited due the high costs of its use. Further investigation and widespread clinical use of six-micron radiation requires the development of an alternative laser source. In this research, we compared a Mark-III FEL and an Er:YAG pumped ZGP-OPO with respect to the effect of pulse duration on ablation efficiency and thermal damage on porcine cornea. A five by seven grid of craters was made about the center of each cornea. Craters were made with a 60-microm spotsize with a 500-microm spacing. Ablation craters were made using 50 pulses per crater at approximately three times the ablation threshold (for water). Histological analysis was used to determine crater depth and thermal damage. The average zone of thermal damage at 6.1 microm was found to be 4.1 microm for the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and 5.4 microm for the FEL. At 6.45 microm, the damaged zone was 7.2 microm for the OPO and 7.2 microm for the FEL. At 6.73 microm, the damaged zone was 6.3 microm for the OPO and 7.6 microm+/-0.3 microm for the FEL. The OPO caused similar or significantly less thermal damage in porcine cornea when compared with the FEL while generating significantly deeper craters. We determined that the ZGP-OPO has much promise as a bench-top replacement for the FEL for soft tissue ablation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  3. Use of core biopsy in diagnosing cervical lymphadenopathy: a viable alternative to surgical excisional biopsy of lymph nodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, D; David, S; Jacob, A; Mir, N; Giles, A; Gibbins, N

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVES Lymphoma often presents with a neck mass and while fine-needle aspiration cytology may be suggestive, tissue biopsy is required for reliable diagnosis and classification of a lymphoma that is sufficient to deliver the correct treatment for the patient. Traditionally, excisional biopsy of a lymph node has been the standard method of tissue sampling, providing ample tissue for assessment. However, this requires theatre time, and preceding fine-needle aspiration cytology, which may incur a delay. With careful use of tissue, coupled with advances in immunohistochemical and molecular investigative techniques, core biopsy provides a possible alternative to traditional fine-needle aspiration and excisional biopsy. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of diagnosing neck masses. METHOD A retrospective analysis was performed of patients being investigated for a neck mass who were undergoing ultrasound-guided core biopsies of cervical lymph nodes over a 17-month period. The final histology report was scrutinised to assess whether adequate tissue was obtained to allow for full tissue diagnosis. RESULTS Over the 17-month period analysed, 70 patients with cervical lymphadenopathy underwent core biopsy. Of these, 63 (90%) were diagnostic for either lymphoma or other pathology and did not require further tissue sampling. Overall, 19 patients were diagnosed with lymphoma, of which only 1 required further biopsy due to inconclusive initial core biopsy. CONCLUSIONS Current guidelines for investigating lymphomas require that excisional biopsy be performed to obtain ample tissue to allow full nodal architecture assessment and ancillary investigation to reach an accurate histological classification. Within our head and neck multidisciplinary team, however, it is considered that results from core biopsies can be obtained in a more timely fashion and with histological accuracy equal to those of open biopsy. The results obtained demonstrate that core biopsy is an

  4. Simulation analysis of alternative strategies for public debt issuance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a simulation of alternative strategies for public debt issuance in Zimbabwe. The analysis is undertaken with a view to find a strategy that minimises the cost and risk of public debt under different scenarios of interest and exchange rate developments. The premise is that increases in debt service charges ...

  5. The heparin-glutathione test: an alternative to the hypo-osmotic swelling test to select viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, F J; Rubio, C; Tarín, J J

    1998-12-01

    To evaluate the heparin-glutathione test (HEGLUT) for the selection of viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study. Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Valencia and Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Semen samples from healthy donors and patients with infertility. Sperm samples were kept in culture for different periods in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented or not supplemented with heparin, reduced glutathione (GSH), or a heparin-GSH mixture. Control and heparin-GSH-treated spermatozoa were injected into hamster oocytes. The HEGLUT and ICSI were performed. Sperm nuclear decondensation, progressive and nonprogressive motility, and male pronucleus formation. The maximum proportion of sperm nuclear decondensation (28.7%+/-2.1% versus 2.6%+/-0.5% in the control group) was reached after 60 minutes of incubation in the presence of a heparin-GSH mixture. Differences in the percentages of progressive and nonprogressive motility among treatments and times of incubation, although statistically significant, were biologically negligible. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rate of sperm head decondensation (8.2% [4/49] versus 11.1% [6/54]) and male pronucleus formation (18.4% [9/49] versus 22.2% [12/541) after the injection of control and treated spermatozoa into hamster oocytes. The HEGLUT may offer an alternative to the hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of viable sperm for ICSI.

  6. Waste association in mass for coating formulations: a viable alternative to dispose; Associacao de residuos em formulacoes de massas para revestimentos: uma alternativa viavel ao descarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.A.C.; Soares Filho, J.E.; Souza, F.J.P.; Almeida, V.S. de; Oliveira, T.M. de, E-mail: erikcferreira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The ceramic coatings industries are able to use in their formulations whose waste Eco disposal make the costly disposal, being able to reduce production costs by replacing traditional inputs for mining and industrial waste. Their raw materials are classified as plasticizers, fluxes and structural according to their physicochemical characteristics. Since waste falls within these classifications, their use in formulations becomes a viable and attractive alternative from an ecological point of view and marketing. Several studies have attested to waste incorporating viability porcelains formulations, however, is not common to find studies evaluating the addition of more than one simultaneously in formulations. It is the objective of the study, to examine whether fine waste rock and kaolin together with traditional raw materials are able to produce porcelain wet as technological properties defined by the NBR-13818. (author)

  7. Quality of life, coping strategies and support needs of women seeking Traditional Chinese Medicine for infertility and viable pregnancy in Australia: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Alfred, Ann

    2013-04-09

    Infertility affects about 15% of couples in Western-societies with most progressing to fertility clinics for treatment. Despite being common, infertility is often experienced as a lonely road for affected couples. In this paper we expand on our previously published findings of women's experiences with infertility or difficulty of viable pregnancy who had sought Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapy in Australia, and focus on women's quality of life, coping strategies, and support needs. We applied mixed methods using the Tuebingen Quality of Life and the COPE questionnaires and in-depth interviews with 25 women with primary or secondary infertility, recurrent miscarriages or unexplained stillbirth, and who had consulted a TCM practitioner. We used a thematic approach to analyse the interviews, and descriptive statistics to evaluate questionnaire responses. Women reported through both questionnaires and interviews compromised quality of life due to the high level of distress, guilt, grief, and frustration caused by infertility. However, our women represented a highly motivated sample, actively seeking alternative support. While the TCM approach to infertility management increased women's sense of personal agency and control through education and continuity of care, the need for greater understanding and support on a societal level remains. In infertility, ongoing emotional and instrumental support is pivotal to the wellbeing and quality of life of the affected. Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses some support needs in infertility not routinely available in the Western model of care. More peer-led and professional-led support groups are greatly needed for women experiencing infertility to help break isolation and raise awareness of integrative approaches to fertility management.

  8. Are early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVG) a viable alternative to tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs)? An observational "virtual study" and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Emma; Iqbal, Kashfa; Thomson, Peter; Kasthuri, Ram; Kingsmore, David

    2016-05-07

    Early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVGs) are advocated as an alternative to tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs). A real-time observational "virtual study" and budget impact model was performed to evaluate a strategy of ecAVG as a replacement to TCVC as a bridge to definitive access creation. Data on complications and access-related bed days was collected prospectively for all TCVCs inserted over a six-month period (n = 101). The feasibility and acceptability of an alternative strategy (ecAVGs) was also evaluated. A budget impact model comparing the two strategies was performed. Autologous access in the form of native fistula was the goal wherever possible. We found 34.7% (n = 35) of TCVCs developed significant complications (including 17 culture-proven bacteraemia and one death from line sepsis). Patients spent an average of 11.9 days/patient/year in hospital as a result of access-related complications. The wait for TCVC insertion delayed discharge in 35 patients (median: 6 days). The ecAVGs were a practical and acceptable alternative to TCVCs in over 80% of patients. Over a 6-month period, total treatment costs per patient wereGBP5882 in the TCVC strategy and GBP4954 in the ecAVG strategy, delivering potential savings ofGBP927 per patient. The ecAVGs had higher procedure and re-intervention costs (GBP3014 vs. GBP1836); however, these were offset by significant reductions in septicaemia treatment costs (GBP1322 vs. GBP2176) and in-patient waiting time bed costs (GBP619 vs. GBP1870). Adopting ecAVGs as an alternative to TCVCs in patients requiring immediate access for haemodialysis may provide better individual patient care and deliver cost savings to the hospital.

  9. Comparing an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative for mid-infrared tissue ablation with a free electron laser (FEL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M; Contag, Christopher H; Kozub, John A; Jansen, E Duco

    2012-11-01

    Beneficial medical laser ablation removes material efficiently with minimal collateral damage. A Mark-III free electron laser (FEL), at a wavelength of 6.45 μm has demonstrated minimal damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While this wavelength has shown promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited by the high overhead for FEL use. Alternative mid-infrared sources are needed for further development. We compared the FEL with a 5-μs pulse duration with a Q-switched ZGP-OPO with a 100-ns pulse duration at mid-infrared wavelengths. There were no differences in the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis with these two sources in spite of the difference in their pulse structures. There was a significant difference in crater depth between the ZGP:OPO and the FEL. At 6.1 μm, the OPO craters are eight times the depth of the FEL craters. The OPO craters at 6.45 and 6.73 μm were six and five times the depth of the FEL craters, respectively. Bright-field (pump-probe) images showed the classic ablation mechanism from formation of a plume through collapse and recoil. The crater formation, ejection, and collapse phases occurred on a faster time-scale with the OPO than with the FEL. This research showed that a ZGP-OPO laser could be a viable alternative to FEL for clinical applications.

  10. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Sundström; Helene Wahlström; Sofie Ivarsson; Susanna Sternberg Lewerin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes i...

  11. Towards an alternative testing strategy for nanomaterials used in nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dusinska, M; Boland, S; Saunders, M

    2015-01-01

    towards alternative testing strategies for hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials, highlighting the adaptation of standard methods demanded by the special physicochemical features of nanomaterials and bioavailability studies. The work has assessed a broad range of toxicity tests, cell models and NP...

  12. Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament : Alternative Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, F.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term results of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with an allograft. Due to the poor results found, further studies were performed to investigate alternative strategies for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in the field of tissue

  13. Alternative search strategies to explore ATLAS diboson excess

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charanjit K Khosa

    Alternative search strategies to explore ATLAS diboson excess. CHARANJIT K KHOSA. Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, India. E-mail: khosacharanjit@chep.iisc.ernet.in. Published online 5 October 2017. Abstract. We consider the s-channel resonance to fit the 2 TeV ATLAS ...

  14. Supporting Alternative Strategies for Learning Chemical Applications of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, Daniel C.; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    A group theory course for chemists was taught entirely with process oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) to facilitate alternative strategies for learning. Students completed a test of one aspect of visuospatial aptitude to determine their individual approaches to solving spatial tasks, and were sorted into groups for analysis on the basis of…

  15. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Bhattacharya, Saugato; Sarkar, Tathagato; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-12-01

    Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro's limit (that is, above a potency of 12C) has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient's family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases.

  16. Alternate Strategies for Conversion of Waste Plastic to Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Patni; Pallav Shah; Shruti Agarwal; Piyush Singhal

    2013-01-01

    The present rate of economic growth is unsustainable without saving of fossil energy like crude oil, natural gas, or coal. There are many alternatives to fossil energy such as biomass, hydropower, and wind energy. Also, suitable waste management strategy is another important aspect. Development and modernization have brought about a huge increase in the production of all kinds of commodities, which indirectly generate waste. Plastics have been one of the materials because of their wide range ...

  17. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Haque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro’s limit (that is, above a potency of 12C has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. Methods: The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient’s family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. Results: The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Conclusion: Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases.

  18. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Bhattacharya, Saugato; Sarkar, Tathagato; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro’s limit (that is, above a potency of 12C) has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. Methods: The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient’s family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. Results: The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Conclusion: Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases. PMID:28097045

  19. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Alternating-time temporal logic with finite-memory strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Model-checking the alternating-time temporal logics ATL and ATL* with incomplete information is undecidable for perfect recall semantics. However, when restricting to memoryless strategies the model-checking problem becomes decidable. In this paper we consider two other types of semantics based...... on finite-memory strategies. One where the memory size allowed is bounded and one where the memory size is unbounded (but must be finite). This is motivated by the high complexity of model-checking with perfect recall semantics and the severe limitations of memoryless strategies. We show that both types...... of semantics introduced are different from perfect recall and memoryless semantics and next focus on the decidability and complexity of model-checking in both complete and incomplete information games for ATL/ATL*. In particular, we show that the complexity of model-checking with bounded-memory semantics...

  1. Creating a viable financial structure for electricity generation projects in Quebec : latest techniques and strategies; Creer une structure financiere viable pour les projets de production d'electricite au Quebec : dernieres techniques et strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorion, M. [McCarthy Tetrault, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Several factors, such as the rapid rise in electricity demand, the increase in electricity prices, technological progress, and environmental concerns have prompted the Quebec government to develop strategies and measures to restructure its electricity industry. Independent electricity producers in Quebec rely primarily on water, natural gas, biomass, and wind power to generate electricity. Calls for tender were made by Hydro-Quebec Production and Hydro-Quebec Distribution in order to meet the expected increased electricity demand in the province in the next few years. Financial markets in Quebec are also following developments in the electricity market. Financing for electric power generation projects is available from a variety of sources including debt financing, conventional corporate financing, leasing, security, equity investment, strategic partners, and institutional investors. The author discussed risk management associated with a private production project, with reference to general risks, specific risks, and financial risks. The basic principles in terms of risk allocation were examined along with the specific risks related to the source of energy production (hydroelectricity, combined cycle natural gas and cogeneration, biomass, and wind power) and the possible management solutions.

  2. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Kristian; Wahlström, Helene; Ivarsson, Sofie; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs) were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million), implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year), with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million) and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million). Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  3. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Sundström

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae, for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million, implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year, with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million. Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  4. Some Convergence Strategies for the Alternating Generalized Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricarmen Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the application of the alternating projection algorithm to solve the problem of finding a point in the intersection of $n$ sets ($n\\geq2$, which are not all of them convex sets. Here we term such method as alternating generalized projection (AGP method. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem of avoiding the so-called trap points, which may prevent an algorithm to obtain a feasible solution in two or more sets not all convex. Some strategies that allow us to reach the feasible solution are established and conjectured. Finally, we present simple numerical results that illustrate the efficiency of the iterative methods considered.

  5. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    for introducing assessment and testing strategies e.g. using a limited number of tests and/or alternative test methods are: (a) animal welfare considerations; (b) new scientific knowledge i.e. introducing tests for new endpoints and tests for better understanding of mode of action; and (c) lack of testing......The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises...... ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...

  6. Advances toward regenerative medicine in the central nervous system: challenges in making stem cell therapy a viable clinical strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in the prospects of stem cell-based therapies for the treatment of nervous system disorders. The eagerness of scientists, clinicians, and spin-out companies to develop new therapies led to premature clinical trials in human patients, and now the initial excitement has largely turned to skepticism. Rather than embracing a defeatist attitude or pressing blindly ahead, I argue it is time to evaluate the challenges encountered by regenerative medicine in the central nervous system and the progress that is being made to solve these problems. In the twenty years since the adult brain was discovered to have an endogenous regenerative capacity, much basic research has been done to elucidate mechanisms controlling proliferation and cellular identity; how stem cells may be directed into neuronal lineages; genetic, pharmacological, and behavioral interventions that modulate neurogenic activity; and the exact nature of limitations to regeneration in the adult, aged, diseased and injured CNS. These findings should prove valuable in designing realistic clinical strategies to improve the prospects of stem cell-based therapies. In this review, I discuss how basic research continues to play a critical role in identifying both barriers and potential routes to regenerative therapy in the CNS.

  7. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

  8. Ecological carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage (WHS): Can it be a viable climate and energy strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, N.; Zaitchik, B. F.; King, A. W.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    A carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forests are sustainably managed to optimal carbon productivity, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition under anaerobic, dry or cold conditions. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. The live trees serve as a `carbon scrubber' or `carbon remover' that provides continuous sequestration (negative emissions). The stored wood is a semi-permanent carbon sink, but also serves as a `biomass/bioenergy reserve' that could be utilized in the future.Based on forest coarse wood production rate, land availability, bioconservation and other practical constraints, we estimate a carbon sequestration potential for wood harvest and storage (WHS) 1-3 GtC y-1. The implementation of such a scheme at our estimated lower value of 1 GtC y-1 would imply a doubling of the current world wood harvest rate. This can be achieved by harvesting wood at a modest harvesting intensity of 1.2 tC ha-1 y-1, over a forest area of 8 Mkm2 (800 Mha). To achieve the higher value of 3 GtC y-1, forests need to be managed this way on half of the world's forested land, or on a smaller area but with higher harvest intensity. However, the actual implementation may face challenges that vary regionally. We propose `carbon sequestration and biomass farms' in the tropical deforestation frontiers with mixed land use for carbon, energy, agriculture, as well as conservation. In another example, the forests damaged by insect infestation could be thinned to reduce fire and harvested for carbon sequestration.We estimate a cost of $10-50/tCO2 for harvest and storage around the landing site. The technique is low tech, distributed and reversible. We compare the potential of WHS with a number of other carbon sequestration methods. We will also show its impact on future land carbon sink

  9. Alternating-time temporal logic with finite-memory strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Vester

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Model-checking the alternating-time temporal logics ATL and ATL* with incomplete information is undecidable for perfect recall semantics. However, when restricting to memoryless strategies the model-checking problem becomes decidable. In this paper we consider two other types of semantics based on finite-memory strategies. One where the memory size allowed is bounded and one where the memory size is unbounded (but must be finite. This is motivated by the high complexity of model-checking with perfect recall semantics and the severe limitations of memoryless strategies. We show that both types of semantics introduced are different from perfect recall and memoryless semantics and next focus on the decidability and complexity of model-checking in both complete and incomplete information games for ATL/ATL*. In particular, we show that the complexity of model-checking with bounded-memory semantics is Delta_2p-complete for ATL and PSPACE-complete for ATL* in incomplete information games just as in the memoryless case. We also present a proof that ATL and ATL* model-checking is undecidable for n >= 3 players with finite-memory semantics in incomplete information games.

  10. An Alternate Compliance Strategy for Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Heidi S

    1997-04-01

    An alternate compliance strategy (ACS) is developed which incorporates pollution prevention and flexibility to replace traditional end-of-pipe (EOP) control strategy regulation. The ACS takes into consideration the intent of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) to incorporate pollution prevention into regulations and provides a viable mechanism for implementation. This proposed new compliance strategy was developed after studying the CAAA regulations, related compliance issues, and pollution prevention literature. The ACS is defined by amending language in the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HON) regulation into a performance-based standard permitting regulated facilities to design compliance programs to meet all requirements. A change in regulation is considered reasonable only if it forces the same emission reductions, reduces risk a comparable amount, and is acceptable to the public, the regulators, and the regulated industry. In order to demonstrate that the ACS can meet all these requirements, an example application is summarized from an ethylene oxide-ethylene glycol plant. The example demonstrates that the ACS reduces hazardous air pollution (HAP) emissions more than the HON rule requires. Three evaluation methods are developed and applied to further demonstrate the acceptability of the ACS. They include a qualitative evaluation matrix, a total cost assessment, and a risk reduction measurement model. Results indicate that the ACS provided a preferable compliance program. The ACS should be adopted as an alternative method of compliance. It provides a major step in the progression of regulations from the traditional EOP treatment philosophy to pollution prevention performance-based standards.

  11. "Is political behavior a viable coping strategy to perceived organizational politics? Unveiling the underlying resource dynamics": Correction to Sun and Chen (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Reports an error in "Is Political Behavior a Viable Coping Strategy to Perceived Organizational Politics? Unveiling the Underlying Resource Dynamics" by Shuhua Sun and Huaizhong Chen (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, May 22, 2017, np). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-22542-001.) We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godshall William T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  13. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-12-21

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable--or at least unwilling--to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist

  14. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist

  15. The U.S. Department of Education's "Race-Neutral Alternatives in Postsecondary Education: Innovative Approaches to Diversity"--Are They Viable Substitutes for Affirmative Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    On March 28, 2003 the U.S. Department of Education (ED) issued a report titled "Race-Neutral Alternatives in Postsecondary Education: Innovative Approaches to Diversity." The purpose of this report is to describe a number of race-neutral approaches that postsecondary institutions across the United States are using. This staff assessment by the…

  16. Comparing Alternative U.S. Counterterrorism Strategies: Can Assumption-Based Planning Help Elevate the Debate?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lempert, Robert J; Trujillo, Horacio R; Aaron, David; Dewar, James A; Berry, Sandra H; Popper, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    .... Frequently, both expert decisionmakers and lay citizens have trouble assessing alternative strategies to address such issues because of the emotions they engender and of the deep uncertainty involved...

  17. Alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality in India: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldie, Sue J; Sweet, Steve; Carvalho, Natalie; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Hu, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    .... Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve...

  18. Effectiveness of alternative management strategies in meeting conservation objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards S. Holthausen; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2007-01-01

    This chapter evaluates how well various management strategies meet a variety of conservation objectives, summarizes their effectiveness in meeting objectives for rare or little-known (RLK) species, and proposes ways to combine strategies to meet overall conservation objectives. We address two broad categories of management strategies. Species approaches result in...

  19. Foster care as a viable alternative to institutional care in the Middle East: community acceptance and stigma across type of placement in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Schwalbe, Craig S J; Gearing, Robin E; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Batayneh, Jude; Darwish, Dua'a M; Al-Kharabsheh, Jihad; Al-Zu'bi, Mu'ayad H

    2012-07-01

    Utilizing an experimental vignette design, this study assessed attitudes in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan toward the implementation of foster care as an alternative to institutions for children in need of care and protection. A sample of 111 adults were surveyed in Amman and presented with a vignette describing a 14-year-old boy who came into the care of the Ministry of Social Development when he was a baby after being placed by the grandfather because of shame surrounding the mother being unwed. The vignettes systematically varied as to whether the child was described as raised in an orphanage, with a relative in a kinship foster placement, or with a nonkin foster family. Participants were then asked a series of questions about their acceptance of the child, stigma that the community might attach to the child, and potential outcomes for the child. We found no differences across the acceptance and stigma questions between the kinship and non-kin foster conditions. The 2 foster care options were at least as acceptable as current institutional models across all domains, and participants were more likely to accept the child going to school with or being friends with their child if they were in foster care rather than an institution. These results represent the first evidence of public acceptance of foster care as a model of care in Jordan and may inform the process of local stakeholders implementing alternatives to institutional care on a meaningful and sustainable scale in the Kingdom and regionally.

  20. Determination of the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro: MGIT 960 as a viable alternative for BACTEC 460

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Singh Jhamb

    Full Text Available BACTEC 460 has now been phased out, so the search for an alternative is imperative. We have determined the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro, by using BACTEC 460 and MGIT 960 methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv were found to be 0.2, 0.8, 8.0, and 5.0 µg/mL, respectively, by both methods. These results show a significant (p < 0.001 concordance between minimum inhibitory concentrations obtained by these two different methods. MGIT 960 system uses a robust florescence quenching-based oxygen sensor, requires no radioisotope, is safe, and relatively easy to operate. Apparently, this is the first report wherein MGIT 960 has been validated for anti-tubercular susceptibility testing against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our preliminary data thus clearly demonstrate that the MGIT 960 method can be considered as a promising alternative to BACTEC 460 method.

  1. 77 FR 41370 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the first...

  2. 77 FR 47361 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    .... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test... series of projects and tests throughout the decade. Contact involving cellular telephone numbers, text... mail, landline telephone, and internet modes. The 2013 Alternative Contact Strategy Test is the first...

  3. Integrative Strategy for Effective Teaching of Alternating Circuits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the reasons advanced for the low enrolment and achievement of students in Physics at both secondary and post-secondary schools is poor teaching strategies used by teachers of Physics particularly in teaching Physics concepts classified by students as being difficult. In this paper, integrative strategy for effective ...

  4. Alternative Strategies for Funding a General Dentistry Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralewski, John E.; Wiggins, Carla

    1987-01-01

    Three alternative program funding approaches used in other professions are examined: (1) the reorientation of selected dental schools toward graduate education, (2) emphasizing and marketing the service aspects of the programs, and (3) developing education programs as in-house training for large organizations. (MSE)

  5. Lexical Borrowing as Code Alternation Strategy in Gender Discourse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Code alternation is one of the unavoidable consequences of communication between different language varieties that has lingered on, in discussion of various ... The paper concludes that such alterations express deference or its opposite to the ideal/repulsive qualities expected from or exhibited by each gender in various ...

  6. Economics of eradicating Foot-and-Mouth disease epidemics with alternative control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an economic analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) control strategies for livestock herds. Alternative vaccination-to-live control strategies were compared to the strategy that involves culling of all susceptible animals in an area of 1 km around infected herds in addition to

  7. Verniz vitral incolor 500®: uma alternativa de meio de montagem economicamente viável Verniz vitral incolor 500®: a mounting medium alternative and economically viable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Antunes de Paiva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Há diferentes meios de montagem comercializados a preço relativamente alto para a produção de lâminas permanentes de tecidos vegetais corados. Esses meios endurecem à medida que secam e possibilitam a manutenção do material botânico em boas condições de conservação por tempo indeterminado. Os meios de montagem mais utilizados em anatomia vegetal são: Bálsamo-do-canadá, Euparal®, Entellan® e Permount®. Visando a redução dos custos de produção de lâminas permanentes para anatomia vegetal, foram testados meios alternativos, produzidos por empresas brasileiras, principalmente para uso em artesanato. Entre os diferentes meios sintéticos testados, o verniz vitral incolor 500® demonstrou propriedades compatíveis para o uso eficiente como meio de montagem, em substituição às resinas sintéticas importadas, com custo baixo e sem alteração do processo rotineiro de trabalho. O verniz vitral incolor 500® permitiu a montagem de lâminas permanentes com órgãos seccionados a mão livre ou em micrótomo rotatório, após o emblocamento em parafina ou historresina, mantendo inalteradas as características dos materiais vegetais e da coloração. Os resultados evidenciaram que os meios de montagem tradicionais podem ser substituídos pelo verniz vitral incolor 500®, sem comprometimento da qualidade das lâminas.There are different imported mounting mediuns commercialized at a relative high price for producing permanent slides of stained plant sections. These mounting mediuns become harder as they dry and preserve the good conditions of the plant material for indetermined time. The most used mouting mediuns to plant anatomy are: Canada balsam, Euparal®, Entellan® and Permount®. Aiming to reduce costs of producing permanent plant anatomy slides, alternative mediuns produced by brazilian industries, used mostly in artesanal work, were tested. Among the different synthetic mediuns tested, the verniz vitral incolor 500® showed

  8. Exploring alternative ovarian cancer biomarkers using innovative nanotechnology strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Cesar M; Im, Hyungsoon; Le, Christine; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph; Birrer, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Our increased understanding of ovarian cancer's blueprints (mediated by DNA and RNA) and behavior (mediated by proteins) points to wide differences across patients that cannot be depicted by histology alone. Conventional diagnosis usually entails an adequate tissue biopsy, which limits serial testing. There is thus a motivation to shift towards easier to obtain clinical samples (e.g., ascites or blood). In response, investigators are increasingly leveraging alternative circulating biomarkers in blood or proximal fluids and harnessing novel profiling platforms to help explore treatment-related effects on such biomarkers in serial fashion. In this review, we discuss how new nanotechnologies we developed intersect with alternative ovarian cancer biomarkers for improved understanding of metastases and therapeutic response.

  9. Withdrawing from Iraq: Alternative Schedules, Associated Risks, and Mitigating Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    alternatives create two overlapping phases: (1) the redeployment of combat units and associated support units and (2) the rede - ployment of units and...transporter HQ headquarters IED improvised explosive device IMET International Military Education and Training IPS Iraqi Police Service IRR Iraqi Railroad...members of the Iraqi armed forces, the National Police (NP), and the Iraqi Police Service ( IPS ). The team researching the effect of the drawdown on the

  10. Development strategy of alternative energy responding to Climate Change Concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh; Moon, Young Seok; Cho, Gyeong Lyeob [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Since UNICEF (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) has adopted in Brazil, June 1992, there have been four times of COPS taken place to discuss more detailed and realistic international action plan for regulating greenhouse gas emission and reduction scheme. Due to this, the direction of future energy policy has been changed in a large scale. The reduction of greenhouse gas is the most urgent issue at present rather than the stable supply of energy in the past. It is natural that improving energy efficiency and developing clean alternative energy have been a major issue. In case of the advanced countries, the energy policy has been changed to the harmonization of so called 3E, environmental conservation, economic growth, and energy security from the economic growth oriented energy policy and has tried to enhance industrial competition through developing new technology and alternative energy for improving energy efficiency. Alternative energy, called as new renewable energy, does not have to concern about its exhaustion and is the only clean future energy source. Therefore this is an important project that should be implemented with a long-term vision and interest by the people as well as the government. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. An Alternative Front End Analysis Strategy for Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    196. van Berlo, M. W., Lowyck, J., & Schaafstal, A. (2007). Supporting the instructional design process for team training. Computers In Human Behavior , 23...Malone, N. (2013). Instructional strategies framework for military training systems. Computers in Human Behavior , 29, 1490-1498. Voss, J. F

  12. Nonequilibrium relaxation method–An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One well-established simulation strategy to study the thermal phases and transitions of a given microscopic model system is the so-called equilibrium method, in which one first realizes the equilibrium ensemble of a finite system and then extrapolates the results to infinite system. This equilibrium method traces over the ...

  13. Nonequilibrium relaxation method – An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. One well-established simulation strategy to study the thermal phases and transitions of a given microscopic model system is the so-called equilibrium method, in which one first realizes the equilibrium ensemble of a finite system and then extrapolates the results to infinite system. This equilibrium method traces ...

  14. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  15. Alternative Schooling Strategies and the Religious Lives of American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents’ religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers’ involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers’, but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed. PMID:21709822

  16. Alternative Schooling Strategies and the Religious Lives of American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2008-12-01

    I analyze the effects of Catholic schooling, Protestant schooling, and homeschooling on adolescents' religious lives and test three mechanisms through which these schooling strategies might influence religiosity: friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors. Data from Wave 1 of the National Survey of Youth and Religion suggest that Catholic schoolers attend religious services more frequently and value their faith more highly than public schoolers, but attend religious education classes and youth group less often. Protestant schoolers' involvement in their local congregation is similar to public schoolers', but their faith plays a more salient role in their life and they are more active in private religious activities. Homeschoolers do not differ significantly from public schoolers on any outcome considered. Moreover, friendship networks, network closure, and adult mentors play a very limited role in mediating the relationships between schooling strategies and adolescent religiosity. Interpretations of these findings are presented and discussed.

  17. Using alternative feedback strategies to improve aircraft inspection performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkuekool, Sittichai

    The aircraft inspection and maintenance system consists of several interrelated human and machine components, with visual inspection playing a significant role in ensuring aircraft safety. Training has been identified as one of the most important intervention strategies for enhancing the quality and reliability of aircraft inspection. This process has the potential to be improved using advancements in computer technology, especially virtual reality (VR) technology, which is becoming increasingly more affordable and prevalent. In light of this situation, this study investigated the use of VR technology to support training in the improvement of aircraft inspection performance. An experiment was developed to investigate the use of performance and process feedback in both statistical and graphical forms in two different task environments. In addition, information on defect criticality, defect location, and occurrence of defect was provided to subjects to study the effectiveness of feedforward information on inspection performance. Specifically, the experiment involved the inspection of an aircraft cargo bay using VR technology with eye tracking movement devices and a 6 degree of freedom mouse for pointing and clicking on defects. Results from the feedback training indicated that providing process along with performance feedback improved inspection performance as evidenced in the speed, accuracy and search strategy measures. Similar results were shown for both task environments. However, the addition feedforward information in the heterogeneous task environment yielded ever better inspection performance, and process and performance feedback coupled with feedforward information on defect criticality, defect location, and occurrence of defect yielded the best inspection performance as seen in the speed, accuracy and search strategy measures. The findings of this study indicate that using a combination of training intervention strategies leads to an improvement in

  18. Flipped Classroom as an Alternative Strategy for Teaching Stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norrie E. Gayeta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of flipped classroom and traditional classroom instruction in measuring conceptual change and to determine if flipped classroom instruction would be an alternative method of teaching to traditional lecture method. This study covered the level of conceptual understanding of students on stoichiometry and the type of conceptual change before and after exposure to flipped and traditional classroom environment. Qualitative and quantitative research methods were used in the study. Respondents were two sections of third year Bachelor of Secondary Education, Biological Science. Frequency, percentage, ranking, mean, standard deviation, Hake factor test, and t-test were the statistical tools applied to answer specific questions. Results showed profound increase towards conceptual change representing a shift from intuitive understanding to correct incomplete understanding level. Thus, change for the better, in theoretical type was determined from pretest to posttest of students exposed to flipped and traditional classroom. Results also indicated that there is no significant difference on students’ conceptual change on stoichiometry exposed to flipped and traditional classroom environment thus, flipped classroom instruction can be used as an alternative teaching method to traditional lecture method in teaching stoichiometry

  19. Alternative strategy for manufacturing of all-solid-state reference electrodes for potentiometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J C B Fernandes; E V Heinke

    2015-01-01

      This paper presents an alternative strategy for manufacturing solid-state reference electrodes based on particles of graphite/silver/silver chloride synthesized by electroless deposition of metallic...

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibition as an alternative strategy against invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLamoth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a life-threatening infection due to Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. Drugs targeting the fungal cell membrane (triazoles, amphotericin B or cell wall (echinocandins are currently the sole therapeutic options against IA. Their limited efficacy and the emergence of resistance warrant the identification of new antifungal targets. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes responsible of the deacetylation of lysine residues of core histones, thus controlling chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. HDACs also control the acetylation and activation status of multiple non-histone proteins, including the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, an essential molecular chaperone for fungal virulence and antifungal resistance. This review provides an overview of the different HDACs in Aspergillus spp. as well as their respective contribution to total HDAC activity, fungal growth, stress responses, and virulence. The potential of HDAC inhibitors, currently under development for cancer therapy, as novel alternative antifungal agents against IA is discussed.

  1. Main transition strategies and its logic: Actors, alternatives and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author deals with ideological background of two transition strategies under the influence of three grand ideologies: liberalism conservativism, Marxism. Two prevailing strategies of shock therapy and gradualism are revisited with reference to the geopolitical context shaped after the fall of communism and vividly marked with conflict of liberalism and conservativism during the last 15 years in East Europe. Neoliberal strategy of shock therapy provides renewal of the conditions that this very strategy tries to avoid, namely condition of rise of socialism and conservativism. On the other hand, occurrences in East Europe in the same period, marked with failures in efforts to establish free market privatization and free flow of capital in economy, are unfolding in well known logic of confrontation of grand ideologies. In other words, after the fall of Berlin wall we could notice the rise of liberalism on the global scene akin to the form known from the XIX and beginning of the XX century. Ex socialist countries under the pressure of IMF and World Bank policies are disposed to the reiteration of neoliberal experiment that with its economic political and social effects paves the way to the renewal of left and right ideologies. Author maintains that enduring of ideological conflicts presents great obstacle to the rational politics. In addition to that, authors in the social sciences, due to their sharp divisions along ideological lines mostly failed in its historical opportunity to analyze and predict events. They were mostly pleading for democracy, regardless of concrete political and economic conditions, and were neglecting the care for institution building. But due to the lack in proper institutional frame transition amounts to one misfortune more in societies already ruined with outcomes of socialism. Without institutional background free market amounts to the black market, privatization turn into great robbery as a form of primary

  2. Coagulation factor XI vaccination: an alternative strategy to prevent thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, C; Zhang, L; Chen, L; Deng, L; Li, R

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Coagulation Factor (F) XI is a safe target for the development of antithrombotics. We designed an antigen comprising the human FXI catalytic domain and diphtheria toxin T domain. Antigen immunization reduced plasma FXI activity by 54% and prevented thrombosis in mice. FXI vaccination can serve as an effective strategy for thrombosis prevention. Background Coagulation factor XI serves as a signal amplifier in the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Blockade of FXI by mAbs or small-molecule inhibitors inhibits thrombosis without causing severe bleeding, which is an inherent risk of currently available antithrombotic agents. Objectives To design an FXI vaccine and assess its efficacy in inhibiting FXI activity and preventing thrombosis. Methods An FXI antigen was generated by fusing the catalytic domain of human FXI to the C-terminus of the transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin. The anti-FXI antibody response, plasma FXI activity and antithrombotic efficacy in mice immunized with the FXI antigen were examined. Results The antigen elicited a significant antibody response against mouse FXI, and reduced the plasma FXI activity by 54.0% in mice. FXI vaccination markedly reduced the levels of coagulation and inflammation in a mouse model of inferior vena cava stenosis. Significant protective effects were also observed in mouse models of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that FXI vaccination can serve as an effective strategy for thrombosis prevention. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  3. Bioflocculation: An alternative strategy for harvesting of microalgae - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummalyma, Sabeela Beevi; Gnansounou, Edgard; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Sindhu, Raveendran; Pandey, Ashok; Sahoo, Dinabandhu

    2017-10-01

    Microalgae based research has been extensively progressed for the production of value added products and biofuels. Potential application of microalgae for biofuel is recently gained more attention for possibilities of biodiesel and other high value metabolites. However, high cost of production of biomass associated with harvesting technologies is one of the major bottleneck for commercialization of algae based industrial product. Based on the operation economics, harvesting efficiency, technological possibilities, flocculation of algal biomass is a superior method for harvesting microalgae from the growth medium. In this article, latest trends of microalgal cell harvesting through flocculation are reviewed with emphasis on current progress and prospect in environmental friendly bio-based flocculation approach. Bio-flocculation based microalgae harvesting technologies is a promising strategy for low cost microalgal biomass production for various applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An alternative strategy to teach biomechanics: The long jump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, G J de la [School of Exactly, Physical and Naturals Science. I de la Roza 590 (Oeste). CP 5413. San Juan (Argentina); Aguilera, J A [School of Exactly, Physical and Naturals Science. I de la Roza 590 (Oeste). CP 5413. San Juan (Argentina); Puzzella, A E [School of Exactly, Physical and Naturals Science. I de la Roza 590 (Oeste). CP 5413. San Juan (Argentina); Mallamaci, C C [School of Exactly, Physical and Naturals Science. I de la Roza 590 (Oeste). CP 5413. San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The work develops an alternative methodology to teach the Physics principles of Parabolic Cannon Shot in the career of Bioengineering using instead the physic-biological relationship of the long jump performed in Athletics. This is a closer-to-reality example for this discipline, and it is a field- and computer laboratory-reproducible practice that is simple to do by using affordable technology, because the practice can be filmed by the students in a real setting for future analysis off classroom hours. The data extracted from the film can be analysed and used to learn the physics of motion of the participating athletes, and to draw conclusions from their hands-on experience. As a main factor of the proposal, this latter characteristic aims at motivating the students to work and participate within a collaborative framework, so as to motivate them to reason and respond the questionnaire issues that stems from a real experience. A significant improvement of knowledge transference is thus attained by promoting teaching (and self-teaching) through reality-based perception, analysis and learning). This work is undergoing its first stage, and its conclusions arise from the observations on team-work dynamics. Quantitative results are expected for the following stages which are under way of execution.

  5. An alternative strategy to teach biomechanics: The long jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, G. J.; Aguilera, J. A.; Puzzella, A. E.; Mallamaci, C. C.

    2007-11-01

    The work develops an alternative methodology to teach the Physics principles of Parabolic Cannon Shot in the career of Bioengineering using instead the physic-biological relationship of the long jump performed in Athletics. This is a closer-to-reality example for this discipline, and it is a field- and computer laboratory-reproducible practice that is simple to do by using affordable technology, because the practice can be filmed by the students in a real setting for future analysis off classroom hours. The data extracted from the film can be analysed and used to learn the physics of motion of the participating athletes, and to draw conclusions from their hands-on experience. As a main factor of the proposal, this latter characteristic aims at motivating the students to work and participate within a collaborative framework, so as to motivate them to reason and respond the questionnaire issues that stems from a real experience. A significant improvement of knowledge transference is thus attained by promoting teaching (and self-teaching) through reality-based perception, analysis and learning). This work is undergoing its first stage, and its conclusions arise from the observations on team-work dynamics. Quantitative results are expected for the following stages which are under way of execution.

  6. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  7. Ethnic enclaves and middleman minorities: alternative strategies of immigrant adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobas, J A

    1987-04-01

    This article examines 2 modes or strategies of immigrant adaptation: middleman minorities and ethnic enclaves. Although they have been discussed as if they were disjointed and mutually exclusive, the authors challenge this view. Middleman minorities 1) tend to be self-employed or to work for a coethnic, 2) are usually concentrated in small business, 3) tend to rely on the in-group for resources, and 4) fill a "status gap" in the receiving society. Ethnic enclaves depend on 3 features: 1) recent coethnic arrivals spend a tour of duty at the worst jobs, 2) coethnics provide ethnic entrepreneurs with consumer markets, 3) ethnic businesses rely on each other to supply their operating needs. Ethnic enclaves are concentrated and spatially identifiable. For this study, the authors collected data in a survey of the Cuban exile community of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The sample selection procedure yielded a total of 261 individuals, 220 of whom were interviewed. 10 predictions found in the middleman minority and ethnic enclave perspectives were checked against the researchers' data. 4 of these predictions are hld in common by both approaches: 1) eomployment in an ethnic enterprise increases subsequent chances of self-employment, 2) ethnic firms rely on the in-group for business resources, 3) coethnic workers represent an asset to the ethnic entrepreneur in that they occupy important positions requiring the employer's trust, and 4) there is business competition between locals and minority members. As predicted by the middleman strategy, Cuban businesses in Puerto Rico tend not to be immediately productive and there is no evidence of spatial concentration of these businesses. However, fitting the enclave approach, these firms do not dominate certain business lines, Cuban entrepreneurs do not appear to be sojourners, and they tend to have business backgrounds. The middleman perspective is supported in that some elements of the local elite favor Cuban exiles. Thus, there is no

  8. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  9. Family strategies for managing childhood cancer: using complementary and alternative medicine in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudimat, Mohammad R; Rozmus, Cathy L; Farhan, Nemah

    2011-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study that examined the use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies among children with cancer in Jordan. Complementary and alternative medicine use by oncology patients has been gaining acceptance in the developed countries and developing countries. Healthcare professionals are becoming increasingly aware that patients use complementary and alternative medicine either covertly or overtly. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used with parents of children with cancer under treatment and follow-up in a paediatric oncology department in Jordan between August 2007 and April 2008. Parents of 69 children with cancer in Jordan were surveyed for their use of complementary and alternative medicine with their children. A total of 65.2% of the sample had used at least one type of complementary and alternative medicine during the course of their child's treatment. The use of biological and nutritional complementary and alternative medicine was 70.5% among the users. Use of body and soul complementary and alternative medicine strategies was reported for 22.2% of the children using complementary and alternative medicine. Twenty per cent of the sample used body movement complementary and alternative medicine for their children. A total of 45.5% of complementary and alternative medicine users perceived benefits in using complementary and alternative medicine for their children with cancer. However, 40% of complementary and alternative medicine users had stopped using complementary and alternative medicine for multiple reasons. Parents used complementary and alternative medicine to support their children's medical treatment and to use all possible methods to cure their children. The reason for parents not using complementary and alternative medicine included not being aware of complementary and alternative medicine. Most of the patients have not discussed the issue of using complementary and alternative medicine with the medical staff.

  10. Alternative Testing Strategies for Nanomaterials: State of the Science and Considerations for Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, K J

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry has warranted equal progress in the nanotoxicology and risk assessment fields. In vivo models have traditionally been used to determine human and environmental risk for chemicals; however, the use of these tests has limitations, and there are global appeals to develop reliable alternatives to animal testing. Many have investigated the use of alternative (nonanimal) testing methods and strategies have quickly developed and resulted in the generation of large toxicological data sets for numerous nanomaterials (NMs). Due to the novel physicochemical properties of NMs that are related to surface characteristics, the approach toward toxicity test development has distinct considerations from traditional chemicals, bringing new requirements for adapting these approaches for NMs. The methodical development of strategies that combine multiple alternative tests can be useful for predictive NM risk assessment and help screening-level decision making. This article provides an overview of the main developments in alternative methods and strategies for reducing uncertainty in NM risk assessment, including advantages and disadvantages of in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico methods, and examples of existing comprehensive strategies. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified toward improvements for experimental and strategy design, specifically highlighting the need to represent realistic exposure scenarios and to consider NM-specific concerns such as characterization, assay interferences, and standardization. Overall, this article aims to improve the reliability and utility of alternative testing methods and strategies for risk assessment of manufactured NMs. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. An alternative flow cytometry strategy for peripheral blood dendritic cell enumeration in the setting of repetitive GM-CSF dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Rita S

    2006-04-01

    in less data variation across gating strategies, and 3 resulted in more uniform and concordant longitudinal data, consistent with established GM-CSF biological activity. Conclusion An alternative lineage negative cocktail substituting anti-CD66 antibody for anti-CD14 is a viable option for enumerating the circulating DC population, potentially more accurately defining the circulating DC pool by including CD14 positive immature DCs, and thus, may give more reliable data, particularly in the setting of sustained GM-CSF administration.

  12. Comparing Alternative U.S. Counterterrorism Strategies: Can Assumption-Based Planning Help Elevate the Debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    leaders . In part, debate about such significant and novel challenges is made more difficult by the deep uncertainty involved. The evidence available to...and map well onto the range of different voices in the U.S. political debate . The first plan we considered is the 2003 National Strategy for Combating...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Comparing Alternative U.S. Counterterrorism Strategies: Can Assumtion-Based Planning Help Elevate the Debate ? 5a. CONTRACT

  13. Environmental assessment strategies in support of the Nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program (NASAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.M.; Warner, M.L.; Meyer, H.R.; Little, C.A.; Till, J.E.

    1977-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting a Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) to identify nuclear fuel cycle options that pose inherently low risks of nuclear weapons proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. During FY 1978, the desirability and effectiveness of alternative nuclear fuel cycles will be examined in terms of the cycles' proliferation risk, technical feasibility, economic feasibility, and potential environmental and health effects. Final recommendations based on these several assessments may be made late in FY 1978. Carefully planned, highly efficient research strategies will be required to complete the necessary assessments within the anticipated time frame. The purpose of this report is to identify and evaluate alternative strategies for organizing the environmental and health (E and H) effects assessment. Following a brief review of the range of alternative nuclear fuel cycles under consideration, the report consists of three major sections. A discussion of what presently appear to be the most significant environmental and health issues associated with alternative fuel cycles is presented in Section 2. Major choice points in developing an effective assessment strategy, and the range of options available at each, are identified and evaluated in Section 3. Section 4 summarizes conclusions and recommends courses of action for proceeding with the detailed NASAP environmental assessment.

  14. Social Competence and Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies--PATHS Preschool Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Tugce Burcu; Ocak, Sakire

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effects of Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS)--Preschool Curriculum on Preschool Children's Social Skills. The six years old children (N = 95) and their teachers (N =7) were included in participant group in Izmir. With a pretest-intervention-posttest design, data was collected through…

  15. Alternative strategies to improve the beneficial effects of exercise throughout life : dietary and physiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert Tomasz)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract It is certain that the aging process leads to death, but decreasing the levels of pathology throughout life improves the quality of life and extends life span. Therefore, this dissertation focuses on alternative strategies that may contribute to improving the aging

  16. Evaluation of alternative management strategies of muskrat Ondatra zibethicus population control using a population model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Daan; Ydenberg, Ron

    Muskrats Ondatra zibethicus are considered a pest species in the Netherlands, and a year-round control programme is in effect. Currently, the agency responsible for the management of muskrat populations in the Netherlands (the LCCM) is preparing for field studies to compare alternative strategies of

  17. Evaluation of alternative management strategies of muskrat Ondatra zibethicus population control using a population model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, D.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Muskrats Ondatra zibethicus are considered a pest species in the Netherlands, and a year-round control programme is in effect. Currently, the agency responsible for the management of muskrat populations in the Netherlands (the LCCM) is preparing for field studies to compare alternative strategies of

  18. The War on Drugs and Correctional Warehousing: Alternative Strategies for the Drug Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Examines the current strategy to combat illegal drug use and its effect on corrections. Reviews three schools of thought on drug-control policy and explores the assumptions offered by the public-health generalists, the legalists, and the cost-benefit specialists. Concentrates on issues of race, class, and alternatives to correctional warehousing.…

  19. Use of augmentative and alternative communication strategies by family members in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Lauren M; Tate, Judith A; Happ, Mary Beth

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about communication between patients and their family members during critical illness and mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit, including use of augmentative and alternative communication tools and strategies. To identify (1) which augmentative and alternative communication tools families use with nonspeaking intensive care patients and how they are used, and (2) what families and nurses say about communication of family members with nonspeaking intensive care patients. A qualitative secondary analysis was conducted of existing data from a clinical trial testing interventions to improve communication between nurses and intensive care patients. Narrative study data (field notes, intervention logs, nurses' interviews) from 127 critically ill adults were reviewed for evidence of family involvement with augmentative and alternative communication tools. Qualitative content analysis was applied for thematic description of family members' and nurses' accounts of patient-family communication. Family involvement with augmentative and alternative communication tools was evident in 44% of the 93 patients who completed the parent study protocol. Spouses or significant others communicated with patients most often. Main themes describing patient-family communication included (1) families being unprepared and unaware, (2) families' perceptions of communication effectiveness, (3) nurses deferring to or guiding patient-family communication, (4) patients' communication characteristics, and (5) families' experience with and interest in augmentative and alternative communication tools. Assessment by skilled bedside clinicians can reveal patients' communication potential and facilitate useful augmentative and alternative communication tools and strategies for patients and their families.

  20. Dealing with Alternatively Organized Workers: Recruitment and Retention Strategies among Danish Shop Stewards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ilsøe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Membership rates of alternative unions that offer individual juridical guidance and assistance but rarely contribute to collective bargaining are increasing in Denmark. Conversely, the overall membership rates of traditional unions that negotiate collective agreements are decreasing. This means that local shop stewards often face a mixed environment of workers in traditional unions and workers in alternative unions at the individual workplace. Surveys have indicated that shop stewards split into two groups when dealing with non-members at the workplace. Half of them choose to represent non-members (pull strategy, whereas the other half choose not to (push strategy. This article presents an explorative case study of the recruitment and retention strategies used by two shop stewards in two different companies with significant groups of alternatively organized workers. A case with sector-level wage setting and a case with local-level wage setting within the manufacturing sector are compared. Results suggest that shop stewards in both types of settings tend to combine push and pull strategies, because they serve different purposes. Push strategies help retain existing members of the traditional unions, whereas pull strategies are necessary to recruit new members. Local-level wage setting seems to offer more opportunities for shop stewards to make use of push and pull strategies than sector-level wage setting. Local negotiators can be efficient organizers, because they are able to demonstrate visible advantages of union membership on a regular and individual basis. However, it is also a high-risk project that among others depends on the support from the local union office.

  1. A Pluriatividade na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco: o turismo rural como uma viável alternativa econômicaThe pluriactivity of the Zona da Mata in Pernanbuco: rural tourism as a viable economic alternativeLa Pluriactividad en la Zona da Mata de Pernambuco: el turismo rural como una viable alternativa económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISBOA FILHO, Waldeck

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem como objetivo analisar se o turismo rural pode ser apontado como uma alternativa de diversificação econômica para a Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco. A principal fonte econômica desta região é a agroindústria canavieira. No entanto, esta atividade vem perdendo dinamismo com o encerramento das atividades de um grande número de unidades produtoras de açúcar e álcool, agravando a situação de pobreza de milhares de pessoas que vivem nesta região. O meio rural está passando por um processo de grandes transformações, tais alterações vão desde a inversão radical das correntes migratórias até o surgimento de novas atividades econômicas não precisamente agrícolas. O Turismo Rural, uma atividade pluriativa, vem sendo apontado como uma viável alternativa de diversificação econômica para a Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco, diante da crise da agroindústria canavieira. Caracterizada pelas belezas naturais, históricas e arquitetônicas, esta região vem registrando o crescimento de tal atividade.ABSTRACTThis article aims to analyze whether the rural tourism can be indicated as an option for economic diversification of Zona da Mata of the State of Pernambuco. The main economic source of this region is sugar-cane agricultural industry. However, this activity is losing dynamism with the end of activities of a large number of sugar and alcohol producing plants, thereby aggravating the poverty condition of thousands of people who live in that region. At the present, rural environment goes through a process of great changes, from the radical inversion of migratory currents to the appearance of new economic activities, which are not necessarily agricultural. Rural tourism, a pluri-active activity, is presently considered as a feasible alternative of economic diversification for "Zona da Mata" of the State of Pernambuco against the crisis experienced by sugar-cane agricultural industry. Characterized by the

  2. Cost effectiveness of alternative strategies for incorporating bevacizumab into the primary treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jason C; Alvarez Secord, Angeles; Cohn, David E; Leath, Charles A; Myers, Evan R; Havrilesky, Laura J

    2013-10-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of strategies that incorporated bevacizumab into the primary platinum-based treatment of ovarian cancer: 1) no bevacizumab; 2) concurrent and maintenance bevacizumab for all; 3) bevacizumab for suboptimally debulked stage III and stage IV disease (high-risk cohort); and the evaluation of an alternative exploratory strategy of 4) directed bevacizumab therapy based on a predictive test for bevacizumab responsiveness. A modified Markov state transition model with a 3-year time horizon that simulated publically available International Collaboration on Ovarian Neoplasms (ICON7) trial outcomes was used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of each strategy. Costs and adverse events were incorporated. An alternative strategy was used to model the impact on overall survival of a genetic-based predictive test. A Monte Carlo simulation simultaneously accounted for uncertainty in key parameters. The incorporation of bevacizumab for high-risk patients had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $168,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved compared with chemotherapy alone and dominated a strategy of giving bevacizumab to all patients with ovarian cancer. Monte Carlo simulation acceptability curves indicated that, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $200,000 per QALY, the treatment of high-risk women with bevacizumab was the strategy of choice in 84% of simulations. A predictive test had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $129,000 per QALY compared with chemotherapy alone and dominated other bevacizumab treatment strategies. The selective treatment of women with suboptimal and/or stage IV ovarian cancer was a more cost-effective use of bevacizumab than universal treatment but still did not fall within the limits of common willingness-to-pay thresholds. Continued investigation of potentially cost-effective strategies, such as a predictive test, is necessary to optimize the use of this

  3. Strategies to teach alternative and complementary therapies in nursing: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Chantal Magalhães da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of discussions that clarify the teaching of alternative and complementary therapies in undergraduate nursing programs shows the need for developing research on this topic. The objective of this study was to identify, in scientific literature, the strategies for teaching alternative and complementary therapies in nursing undergraduate programs. The guiding methodology used was integrative review. The search was performed on SCIENCE DIRECT, LILACS and MEDLINE databases. According to the articles included in this study, the proposals for including these therapies in the program are by: lectures, theoretical courses and discussion groups. However, studies should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of these strategies so these therapeutic methods can be included in the Pedagogical Political Project of the nursing undergraduate program, thus allowing for the consolidation of those practices. Descriptors: Education, Nursing; Education, Higher; Complementary Therapies.

  4. Alternative life cycle strategies of Megalodiscus temperatus in tadpoles and metamorphosed anurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolek M.G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Megalodiscus temperatus (Stafford, 1905 is a common paramphistome trematode of North American amphibians with a two host life cycle and has been reported to infect frogs and rarely tadpoles. In this study we document the alternative life cycle strategy of M. temperatus in tadpoles and metamorphosed anurans. We show through field work and experimental infections that M. temperatus can establish in both anuran life stages and worms become gravid and release eggs in both tadpoles and metamorphosed frogs. However, worms exhibit differences in route of infection, development, egg production, and diet in tadpoles and metamorphosed anurans. These alternative life history strategies of M. temperatus suggest different selective pressures on the development and reproductive success of these worms in tadpoles and metamorphosed anurans, and we discuss the evolutionary avenues for and constraints on amphibian trematode life cycles presented by these two different anuran life stages.

  5. Ranking and Generating Alternatives for the National Air Intelligence Center’s (NAIC) Resource Allocation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-10

    selected based on the ranked impacts alone, this may still not be the optimal alternative. To set the stage for this optimization, NAIC must cut at...values and preferences are used to select a resource allocation strategy, new program implementation, customer support, or how NAIC does business , all...SIGIN[4 1] [SIGINT] ,SI GIN[42] [SIGINT]-AERO[42][AERO-SYS] ,SIGIN[43] [SIGINT] 91 Appendix F. Attributes Global Threat Attributes: GLOBA [0] [GLOBAL

  6. Access to healthcare and alternative health-seeking strategies among undocumented migrants in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Dan; Kristiansen, Maria; Krasnik, Allan; Norredam, Marie

    2011-07-13

    As in many European countries, undocumented migrants in Denmark have restricted access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse undocumented migrants' experiences of access to healthcare, use of alternative health-seeking strategies; and ER nurses' experiences in encounters with undocumented migrants. Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and observations. The participants included ten undocumented South Asian migrants and eight ER nurses. Undocumented migrants reported difficulties accessing healthcare. The barriers to healthcare were: limited medical rights, arbitrariness in healthcare professionals' attitudes, fear of being reported to the police, poor language skills, lack of network with Danish citizens, lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and lack of knowledge about informal networks of healthcare professionals. These barriers induced alternative health-seeking strategies, such as self-medication, contacting doctors in home countries and borrowing health insurance cards from Danish citizens. ER nurses expressed willingness to treat all patients regardless of their migratory status, but also reported challenges in the encounters with undocumented migrants. The challenges for ER nurses were: language barriers, issues of false identification, insecurities about the correct standard procedures and not always being able to provide appropriate care. Undocumented migrants face formal and informal barriers to the Danish healthcare system, which lead to alternative health-seeking strategies that may have adverse effects on their health. This study shows the need for policies and guidelines, which in accordance with international human rights law, ensure access to healthcare for undocumented migrants and give clarity to healthcare professionals.

  7. Performance and suggested alternative strategies in developing Indonesian cocoa export business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dradjat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research focussed on the export development of cocoa bean with respect to its export growth, values and competitiveness. Based on this deve-lopment, the aim of this research is to propose alternative development strategies of export business for cocoa bean in the future. The Analysis Hierarchie Process (AHP framework of export business of cocoa bean was arranged consecutively from formulation of focuss or goals, identification of affecting factors and actors, deter mination of actor objectives, and recognition of alternative strategies needed. Each component of goals, factors, actors, objectives, and alternative strategies were valued on the basis of their importance using Saaty scales. Results of interviews with experts were analyzed using AHP technique. The development of cocoa bean export from 2000 to 2006 showed the competitiveness position of Indonesia in the world market was fairly good. In order to increase the growth and values of cocoa bean export, the experts consider the role of government as regulators and facilitators is very important. The government became the main actor for the export development through de/regulation related to the cocoa bean commodity. The objectives of actors could be achieved by combining strategies (i provision of fund in national and regional budget, as well as other sources (ii implementation of recomended technologies of cocoa, (iii acceleration of replanting program, (iv improvement of research productivity in producing high yielding plant materials, (v development of transportation facilities from farms to harbours, (vi development of farmers’ organization and partnerships as well as strategic alliance, and (viii pests and diseases control. Key words: Cocoa bean, expor, role of government, objectives and strategies.

  8. Barriers, strategies, and lessons learned from complementary and alternative medicine curricular initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpina, Victor S; Schneeweiss, Ronald; Frenkel, Moshe A; Bulik, Robert; Maypole, Jack

    2007-10-01

    Fifteen U.S. academic programs were the recipients of a National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine R25 Education Grant Program to introduce curricular changes in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in their institutions. The authors describe the lessons learned during the implementation of these CAM education initiatives. Principal investigators identified these lessons along with discovered barriers and strategies, both those traditionally related to medical and nursing education and those unique to CAM education. Many lessons, barriers, and strategies were common across multiple institutions. Most significant among the barriers were issues such as the resistance by faculty; the curriculum being perceived as too full; presenting CAM content in an evidence-based and even-handed way; providing useful, reliable resources; and developing teaching and assessment tools. Strategies included integration into existing curriculum; creating increased visibility of the curriculum; placing efforts into faculty development; cultivating and nurturing leadership at all levels in the organization, including among students, faculty, and administration; providing access to CAM-related databases through libraries; and fostering efforts to maintain sustainability of newly established CAM curricular elements through institutionalization and embedment into overall educational activities. These lessons, along with some detail on barriers and strategies, are reported and summarized here with the goal that they will be of practical use to other institutions embarking on new CAM education initiatives.

  9. Cost effectiveness of Alternative Helicobacter pylori Eradication Strategies in the Management of Duodenal Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie O'Brien

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data and techniques for decision analysis were used to construct a model to estimate the cost effectiveness of nine alternative strategies for the management of patients diagnosed with uncomplicated duodenal ulcer. Two strategies of intermittent therapy with either ranitidine or omeprazole, one strategy of continuous maintenance treatment with ranitidine, and six strategies for ulcer healing and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection were considered. Healing time curves were estimated by using published data, allowing for estimation of expected time for acute healing episodes. The expected number of weeks to heal per patient, in a one-year period, was estimated by combining healing time data with probability of ulcer recurrence. It was found that patients that underwent any of the six H pylori eradication regimens had fewer days with ulcer per year than those who underwent maintenance or intermittent ranitidine. Four eradication regimens had lower costs and better outcomes than ranitidine therapy. In comparing H pylori strategies, the two strategies of omeprazole plus one antibiotic (either amoxicillin or clarithromycin are more costly than omeprazole plus two antibiotics (specifically amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin and metronidazole and result in similar outcomes. Although omeprazole-based eradication regimens are more costly than ranitidine bismuth triple therapy, they are associated with fewer recurrences of ulcer and days of symptoms. A limitation of the analysis is that it did not incorporate issues of compliance and metronidazole resistance; however, the former concern may be less of an issue as H pylori regimens become simpler and shorter in duration.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of alternative conservation strategies with application to the Pacific leatherback turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjertsen, Heidi; Squires, Dale; Dutton, Peter H; Eguchi, Tomoharu

    2014-02-01

    Although holistic conservation addressing all sources of mortality for endangered species or stocks is the preferred conservation strategy, limited budgets require a criterion to prioritize conservation investments. We compared the cost-effectiveness of nesting site and at-sea conservation strategies for Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). We sought to determine which conservation strategy or mix of strategies would produce the largest increase in population growth rate per dollar. Alternative strategies included protection of nesters and their eggs at nesting beaches in Indonesia, gear changes, effort restrictions, and caps on turtle takes in the Hawaiian (U.S.A.) longline swordfish fishery, and temporal and area closures in the California (U.S.A.) drift gill net fishery. We used a population model with a biological metric to measure the effects of conservation alternatives. We normalized all effects by cost to prioritize those strategies with the greatest biological effect relative to its economic cost. We used Monte Carlo simulation to address uncertainty in the main variables and to calculate probability distributions for cost-effectiveness measures. Nesting beach protection was the most cost-effective means of achieving increases in leatherback populations. This result creates the possibility of noncompensatory bycatch mitigation, where high-bycatch fisheries invest in protecting nesting beaches. An example of this practice is U.S. processors of longline tuna and California drift gill net fishers that tax themselves to finance low-cost nesting site protection. Under certain conditions, fisheries interventions, such as technologies that reduce leatherback bycatch without substantially decreasing target species catch, can be cost-effective. Reducing bycatch in coastal areas where bycatch is high, particularly adjacent to nesting beaches, may be cost-effective, particularly, if fisheries in the area are small and of little commercial value.

  11. Cost and Efficacy Assessment of an Alternative Medication Compliance Urine Drug Testing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kelly; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the frequency at which quantitative results provide additional clinical benefit compared to qualitative results alone. A comparison between alternative urine drug screens and conventional screens including the assessment of cost-to-payer differences, accuracy of prescription compliance or polypharmacy/substance abuse was also included. In a reference laboratory evaluation of urine specimens from across the United States, 213 urine specimens with provided prescription medication information (302 prescriptions) were analyzed by two testing algorithms: 1) conventional immunoassay screen with subsequent reflexive testing of positive results by quantitative mass spectrometry; and 2) a combined immunoassay/qualitative mass-spectrometry screen that substantially reduced the need for subsequent testing. The qualitative screen was superior to immunoassay with reflex to mass spectrometry in confirming compliance per prescription (226/302 vs 205/302), and identifying non-prescription abuse (97 vs 71). Pharmaceutical impurities and inconsistent drug metabolite patterns were detected in only 3.8% of specimens, suggesting that quantitative results have limited benefit. The percentage difference between the conventional testing algorithm and the alternative screen was projected to be 55%, and a 2-year evaluation of test utilization as a measure of test order volume follows an exponential trend for alternative screen test orders over conventional immunoassay screens that require subsequent confirmation testing. Alternative, qualitative urine drug screens provide a less expensive, faster, and more comprehensive evaluation of patient medication compliance and drug abuse. The vast majority of results were interpretable with qualitative results alone indicating a reduced need to automatically reflex to quantitation or provide quantitation for the majority of patients. This strategy highlights a successful approach using an alternative strategy for both the

  12. The Performance of Alternating Top-Bottom Strategy for Successive Over Relaxation Scheme on Two Dimensional Boundary Value Problem

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Hasan; Y. H. Ng; J. Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    This paper present the implementation of a new ordering strategy on Successive Overrelaxation scheme on two dimensional boundary value problems. The strategy involve two directions alternatingly; from top and bottom of the solution domain. The method shows to significantly reduce the iteration number to converge. Four numerical experiments were carried out to examine the performance of the new strategy.

  13. An alternative strategy to western blot as a confirmatory diagnostic test for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia; Wang, Jibao; Gao, Zhiyun; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Huichao; Zhang, Tong; Xiao, Lin; Yao, Jun; Xing, Wenge; Qiu, Maofeng; Jiang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    In China, western blot (WB) is the recommended procedure for the diagnosis of HIV infection. However, this technique is time consuming and labor intensive, and its complexity restricts wide application in resource-limited regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a dry blood spots (DBS)-urine paired enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, instead of WB, for HIV antibody detection. Plasma, DBS, and urine samples were collected from 1213 subjects from different populations. Two diagnostic testing strategies were conducted in parallel. The equivalence of the paired ELISA and WB strategies was assessed. A diagnosis of HIV was determined in 250 subjects according to the paired ELISA test, and in 249 according to the WB strategy. The discordant case was judged HIV-positive during follow-up. In total, 18 subjects were diagnosed with possible HIV using the paired ELISA test, among whom, 11 subjects tested negative with WB, and one was confirmed to be HIV-positive during follow-up. For the remaining 945 subjects, both strategies indicated a negative result. The kappa test indicated good conformity (kappa=0.954) between the two diagnostic strategies. The DBS-urine paired ELISA could be applied as an alternative to WB in HIV diagnosis, which would be valuable in resource-limited regions owing to the associated affordability and ease of use. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementation of Alternative Test Strategies for the Safety Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology introduces a new field that requires novel approaches and methods for hazard and risk assessment. For an appropriate scientific platform for safety assessment, nanoscale properties and functions of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including how the physicochemical properties of the materials related to mechanisms of injury at the nano-bio interface, must be considered. Moreover, this rapidly advancing new field requires novel test strategies that allow multiple toxicants to be screened in robust, mechanism-based assays in which the bulk of the investigation can be carried out at the cellular and biomolecular level whilst maintaining limited animal use and is based on the contribution of toxicological pathways to the pathophysiology of disease. First, a predictive toxicological approach for the safety assessment of ENMs will be discussed against the background of a ‘21st-century vision’ for using alternative test strategies (ATSs) to perform toxicological assessment of large numbers of untested chemicals, thereby reducing a backlog that could otherwise become a problem for nanotechnology. An ATS is defined here as an alternative/reduction alternative to traditional animal testing. Secondly, the approach of selecting pathways of toxicity to screen for the pulmonary hazard potential of carbon nanotubes and metal oxides will be discussed, as well as how to use these pathways to perform high-content or high-throughput testing and how the data can be used for hazard ranking, risk assessment, regulatory decision-making and ‘safer-by-design’ strategies. Finally, the utility and disadvantages of this predictive toxicological approach to ENM safety assessment, and how it can assist the 21st- century vision, will be addressed PMID:23879741

  15. Implementation of alternative test strategies for the safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, A E

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology introduces a new field that requires novel approaches and methods for hazard and risk assessment. For an appropriate scientific platform for safety assessment, nanoscale properties and functions of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including how the physicochemical properties of the materials relate to mechanisms of injury at the nano-bio interface, must be considered. Moreover, this rapidly advancing new field requires novel test strategies that allow multiple toxicants to be screened in robust, mechanism-based assays in which the bulk of the investigation can be carried out at the cellular and biomolecular level whilst maintaining limited animal use and is based on the contribution of toxicological pathways to the pathophysiology of disease. First, a predictive toxicological approach for the safety assessment of ENMs will be discussed against the background of a '21st-century vision' for using alternative test strategies (ATSs) to perform toxicological assessment of large numbers of untested chemicals, thereby reducing a backlog that could otherwise become a problem for nanotechnology. An ATS is defined here as an alternative to animal experiments or refinement/reduction alternative to traditional animal testing. Secondly, the approach of selecting pathways of toxicity to screen for the pulmonary hazard potential of carbon nanotubes and metal oxides will be discussed, as well as how to use these pathways to perform high-content or high-throughput testing and how the data can be used for hazard ranking, risk assessment, regulatory decision-making and 'safer-by-design' strategies. Finally, the utility and disadvantages of this predictive toxicological approach to ENM safety assessment, and how it can assist the 21st-century vision, will be addressed. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. Access to healthcare and alternative health-seeking strategies among undocumented migrants in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norredam Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As in many European countries, undocumented migrants in Denmark have restricted access to healthcare. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse undocumented migrants' experiences of access to healthcare, use of alternative health-seeking strategies; and ER nurses' experiences in encounters with undocumented migrants. Methods Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and observations. The participants included ten undocumented South Asian migrants and eight ER nurses. Results Undocumented migrants reported difficulties accessing healthcare. The barriers to healthcare were: limited medical rights, arbitrariness in healthcare professionals' attitudes, fear of being reported to the police, poor language skills, lack of network with Danish citizens, lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and lack of knowledge about informal networks of healthcare professionals. These barriers induced alternative health-seeking strategies, such as self-medication, contacting doctors in home countries and borrowing health insurance cards from Danish citizens. ER nurses expressed willingness to treat all patients regardless of their migratory status, but also reported challenges in the encounters with undocumented migrants. The challenges for ER nurses were: language barriers, issues of false identification, insecurities about the correct standard procedures and not always being able to provide appropriate care. Conclusions Undocumented migrants face formal and informal barriers to the Danish healthcare system, which lead to alternative health-seeking strategies that may have adverse effects on their health. This study shows the need for policies and guidelines, which in accordance with international human rights law, ensure access to healthcare for undocumented migrants and give clarity to healthcare professionals.

  17. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-01-01

    Within toxicology there is a pressure to find new test systems and organisms to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. In nanoecotoxicology the need for alternative testing strategies (ATS) is further emphasized as the validity of tests and risk assessment practices developed for dissolved...... chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) through ATS was discussed in September 2014 at an international Society for Risk Analysis (SRA...

  18. Temporary implants for patients with low bone density of the upper maxilla: an alternative rehabilitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Rogério Coelho; Zabolotsky, Borys; de Souza, Dircilene Colares; Ferreira, Cimara Fortes; Cardoso, Antônio Carlos

    2012-03-01

    The use of removable provisional prosthesis after implant placement is undesirable for many patients. In addition, removable prostheses place unfavorable pressure over implants during the healing period. The use of temporary implants enable greater stability and functionality of the prostheses. This clinical report shows the use of temporary implants in a low density maxilla in conjunction with a fixed provisional prosthesis. The temporary implants contributed to the support of the provisional fixed upper arch prosthesis and to patient comfort with a fixed prosthesis during the healing period.   Fixed provisional prostheses are a potentially desirable alternative treatment strategy. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessment of an alternative postdeployment reintegration strategy with soldiers returning from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Maurice L; Foran, Heather M; Wood, Michael D; Wright, Kathleen M; Barnhart, Vincent J; Riviere, Lyndon A; Adler, Amy B

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined behavioral health outcomes, risk behaviors, aggression, alcohol misuse, marital satisfaction, and attitudes toward reintegration associated with an alternative, front-loaded reintegration strategy compared with a more standardized reintegration process in soldiers returning from combat deployments. The type of reintegration strategy used did not predict differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, alcohol misuse, aggression, and marital satisfaction, although slightly higher reports of risk behaviors were found in the unit using the standard reintegration approach even after controlling for demographic covariates and combat exposure. These findings may help guide leadership when making decisions regarding reintegration approaches in the future. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory Evolution to Alternating Substrate Environments Yields Distinct Phenotypic and Genetic Adaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Troy E; Lloyd, Colton J; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

    2017-07-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments are often designed to maintain a static culturing environment to minimize confounding variables that could influence the adaptive process, but dynamic nutrient conditions occur frequently in natural and bioprocessing settings. To study the nature of carbon substrate fitness tradeoffs, we evolved batch cultures of Escherichia coli via serial propagation into tubes alternating between glucose and either xylose, glycerol, or acetate. Genome sequencing of evolved cultures revealed several genetic changes preferentially selected for under dynamic conditions and different adaptation strategies depending on the substrates being switched between; in some environments, a persistent "generalist" strain developed, while in another, two "specialist" subpopulations arose that alternated dominance. Diauxic lag phenotype varied across the generalists and specialists, in one case being completely abolished, while gene expression data distinguished the transcriptional strategies implemented by strains in pursuit of growth optimality. Genome-scale metabolic modeling techniques were then used to help explain the inherent substrate differences giving rise to the observed distinct adaptive strategies. This study gives insight into the population dynamics of adaptation in an alternating environment and into the underlying metabolic and genetic mechanisms. Furthermore, ALE-generated optimized strains have phenotypes with potential industrial bioprocessing applications.IMPORTANCE Evolution and natural selection inexorably lead to an organism's improved fitness in a given environment, whether in a laboratory or natural setting. However, despite the frequent natural occurrence of complex and dynamic growth environments, laboratory evolution experiments typically maintain simple, static culturing environments so as to reduce selection pressure complexity. In this study, we investigated the adaptive strategies underlying evolution to fluctuating

  1. Search strategies for retrieving complementary and alternative medicine clinical trials in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardia, Aditya; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Erwin, Patricia L; Sood, Amit

    2006-09-01

    Several Medline search strategies exist to retrieve complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) literature related to oncology. The objective of this study was to compare different search methods to ascertain the most optimal strategy. All clinical trials with CAM interventions in patients with cancer, published from 1965 to 2004, were abstracted using 4 different approaches. In the CAM filter search, the PubMed complementary medicine filter was used. The Ovid search was performed using a complex search strategy with the Ovid search engine. CAM keyword and not phytogenic searches involved the CAM filter search with the addition of the search terms "AND (complementary OR alternative)" and "NOT (antineoplastic agents, phytogenic), respectively. Articles were evaluated by 3 reviewers to ascertain whether they were clinical trials, the study intervention was related to CAM, and the condition prevented/treated was cancer related (inclusion criteria). The CAM filter search retrieved 10 718 citations, Ovid retrieved 1190, CAM keyword retrieved 2895, and not phytogenic retrieved 1806. Compared to the CAM filter search, all other methods had significantly lower sensitivity (Ovid 48.3% +/- 3.2%, CAM keyword 5.8% +/- 1.5%, and not phytogenic 77.9% +/- 2.7%, P searches was significantly higher (P filter (8.8% +/- 0.5%) and CAM keyword searches (1.9% +/- 0.5%). The search strategy using PubMed's complementary medicine filter, although comprehensive, lacks specificity; other methods, although more specific, lack sensitivity. Future indexing of all CAM clinical trials with a common medical subject heading term complementary medicine would enhance efficient retrieval of relevant citations.

  2. Alternative futures: Fields, boundaries, and divergent professionalisation strategies within the Chiropractic profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh

    2017-10-01

    Sociological studies of the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) occupations have documented the professionalisation strategies these groups use to establish boundaries between themselves and their competitors, including seeking educational accreditation and statutory regulation/licensure. Chiropractic has been particularly successful at professionalising and in Australia and the UK it is taught within public universities. Recent events have threatened chiropractic's university foothold, however, showing that professionalisation needs to be understood as an ongoing process of negotiation. Based on interviews with chiropractors in Australia and the UK, this paper examines the professionalisation strategies deployed by chiropractors within and outside of the university. Highly divergent strategies are identified across different sectors of the profession, relating to defining the chiropractic paradigm, directing education and constructing professional identity. In each domain, chiropractic academics tended to prioritise building the evidence base and becoming more aligned with medicine and other allied health professions. Although some practitioners supported this agenda, others strove to preserve chiropractic's vitalistic philosophy and professional distinction. Following Bourdieu, these intra-professional struggles are interpreted as occurring within a field in which chiropractors compete for different forms of capital, pulled by two opposing poles. The differing orientations and strategies pursued at the two poles of the field point to a number of possible futures for this CAM profession, including a potential split within the profession itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative foraging strategies enable a mountain ungulate to persist after migration loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtemanch, Alyson B.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Kilpatrick, Steve; Dewey, Sarah R.

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of many migratory ungulate populations worldwide is threatened due to anthropogenic impacts to seasonal ranges and migration routes. While many studies have linked migratory ungulate declines to migration disruption or loss, very few have explored the underlying factors that determine whether a population perishes or persists. In some cases, populations undergo severe declines and extirpation after migration loss; however, others appear able to persist as residents. We predict that to persist, populations must replace the traditional benefits of migration by altering the foraging strategies they employ as residents within one seasonal range. We propose the alternative foraging strategies (AFS) hypothesis as a framework for identifying various behavioral strategies that populations may use to cope with migration loss. We tested the hypothesis using the formerly migratory Teton bighorn sheep population in northwest Wyoming, which ceased migrating over 60 yr ago, but has persisted as a resident population. We used global positioning system data to evaluate winter and summer habitat selection and seasonal elevational movements for 28 adult female bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from 2008 to 2010. Resource selection functions revealed that bighorn sheep employ winter foraging strategies to survive as residents by seeking out rugged, high-elevation, windswept ridgelines. Seasonal movement analyses indicated that bighorn sheep undergo a newly documented “abbreviated migration” strategy that is closely synchronized with vegetation green-up patterns within their one range. Bighorn sheep descend 500 m in elevation and travel up to 10 km in spring, gaining access to newly emergent forage approximately 30 d before it appears on their high-elevation winter and summer ranges. Our findings indicate that the Teton bighorn sheep population has persisted due to its habitat selection, AFS, and unique movement patterns, which allow migration loss to be mediated

  5. Implications for local and global climate of alternative forest management strategies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Astrup, Rasmus; Cherubini, Francesco; Kvalevåg, Maria; Hammer Strømman, Anders

    2014-05-01

    We applied a mix of observation and empirical models to evaluate both local and global climate effects of three realistic alternative forest management scenarios in the boreal forests of Norway's largest logging region. The alternative management scenarios embraced strategies aimed at increasing harvest intensities and allowing harvested conifer sites to regenerate naturally with broadleaved species. Stand-level analysis was firstly executed to attribute differences in daily, seasonal, and annual mean surface temperatures to differences in surface intrinsic biophysical properties across coniferous, deciduous, and clear-cut sites. Relative to a coniferous site, we observed a slight local cooling of 0.13 °C at a deciduous site and 0.25 °C at a clear-cut site over a 6-year period which was mostly attributed to a higher albedo throughout the year. When monthly mean albedo trajectories over the entire managed forest landscape were taken into consideration, we found that strategies promoting natural regeneration of coniferous sites with native deciduous species led to substantial global direct climate cooling benefits relative to those maintaining current silviculture regimes - despite predicted long-term regional warming feedbacks and a reduced albedo in spring and autumn months. The magnitude and duration of the cooling benefit depended largely on whether management strategies simultaneously promoted an enhanced material supply over business-as-usual levels. While additional climate impact linked to changes in life-cycle emissions and to changes in the global supply and demand of timber products ought to be factored into any mitigation-oriented climate policy involving the forestry sector, our analysis demonstrates that - within the boundaries of the managed forest ecosystem - excluding important biogeophysical considerations like surface albedo change may lead to sub-optimal climate policy.

  6. Breeding Experience, Alternative Reproductive Strategies and Reproductive Success in a Captive Colony of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M.; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Birds exhibit a remarkable diversity of different reproductive strategies both between and within species. Species such as the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) may evolve the flexible use of alternative reproductive strategies, as well as benefit from prior breeding experience, which allows them to adaptively respond to unpredictable environments. In birds, the flexible use of alternative reproductive strategies, such as extra-pair mating, has been reported to be associated with fast reproduction, high mortality and environmental variability. However, little is known about the role of previous breeding experience in the adaptive use of alternative reproductive strategies. Here we performed an in-depth study of reproductive outcomes in a population of domesticated zebra finches, testing the impact of prior breeding experience on the use of alternative reproductive strategies and reproductive success. We provide evidence that older females with prior breeding experience are quicker to initiate a clutch with a new partner and have increased success in chick rearing, even in a captive colony of zebra finches with minimal foraging demands. We also find evidence that the breeding experience of other females in the same social group influences reproductive investment by female zebra finches. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the use of alternative reproductive strategies in female zebra finches is associated with previous failed breeding attempts with the same pair partner. The results provide evidence that age and breeding experience play important roles in the flexible use of both facultative and adaptive reproductive strategies in female zebra finches. PMID:24587051

  7. Intrasexual competition facilitates the evolution of alternative mating strategies in a colour polymorphic fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uy J Albert C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intense competition for access to females can lead to males exploiting different components of sexual selection, and result in the evolution of alternative mating strategies (AMSs. Males of Poecilia parae, a colour polymorphic fish, exhibit five distinct phenotypes: drab-coloured (immaculata, striped (parae, structural-coloured (blue and carotenoid-based red and yellow morphs. Previous work indicates that immaculata males employ a sneaker strategy, whereas the red and yellow morphs exploit female preferences for carotenoid-based colours. Mating strategies favouring the maintenance of the other morphs remain to be determined. Here, we report the role of agonistic male-male interactions in influencing female mating preferences and male mating success, and in facilitating the evolution of AMSs. Results Our study reveals variation in aggressiveness among P. parae morphs during indirect and direct interactions with sexually receptive females. Two morphs, parae and yellow, use aggression to enhance their mating success (i.e., number of copulations by 1 directly monopolizing access to females, and 2 modifying female preferences after winning agonistic encounters. Conversely, we found that the success of the drab-coloured immaculata morph, which specializes in a sneak copulation strategy, relies in its ability to circumvent both male aggression and female choice when facing all but yellow males. Conclusions Strong directional selection is expected to deplete genetic variation, yet many species show striking genetically-based polymorphisms. Most studies evoke frequency dependent selection to explain the persistence of such variation. Consistent with a growing body of evidence, our findings suggest that a complex form of balancing selection may alternatively explain the evolution and maintenance of AMSs in a colour polymorphic fish. In particular, this study demonstrates that intrasexual competition results in phenotypically distinct

  8. Comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening colonoscopy vs. sigmoidoscopy and alternative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Ravi N; Ladabaum, Uri

    2013-01-01

    Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and sigmoidoscopy are proven to decrease colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. Sigmoidoscopy's benefit is limited to the distal colon. Observational data are conflicting regarding the degree to which colonoscopy affords protection against proximal CRC. Our aim was to explore the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy vs. sigmoidoscopy and alternative CRC screening strategies in light of the latest published data. We performed a contemporary cost-utility analysis using a Markov model validated against data from randomized controlled trials of FOBT and sigmoidoscopy. Persons at average CRC risk within the general US population were modeled. Screening strategies included those recommended by the United States (US) Preventive Services Task Force, including colonoscopy every 10 years (COLO), flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years (FS), annual fecal occult blood testing, annual fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), and the combination FS/FIT. The main outcome measures were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and costs. In the base case, FIT dominated other strategies. The advantage of FIT over FS and COLO was contingent on rates of uptake and adherence that are well above current US rates. Compared with FIT, FS and COLO both cost compared with FIT and sigmoidoscopy, depending on the relative rates of screening uptake and adherence and the protective benefit of colonoscopy in the proximal colon. Colonoscopy's cost-effectiveness compared with sigmoidoscopy is contingent on the ability to deliver ~50% protection against CRC in the proximal colon.

  9. Development of alternative sulfur dioxide control strategies for a metropolitan area and its environs, utilizing a modified climatological dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Skipka; D. B. Smith

    1977-01-01

    Alternative control strategies were developed for achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards in Portland, Maine, and its environs, using a modified climatological dispersion model (CDM) and manipulating the sulfur content of the fuel oil consumed in four concentric zones. Strategies were evaluated for their impact on ambient air quality, economics, and...

  10. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

  11. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-01

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  12. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-01-01

    Within toxicology there is a pressure to find new test systems and organisms to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. In nanoecotoxicology the need for alternative testing strategies (ATS) is further emphasized as the validity of tests and risk assessment practices developed for dissolved...... chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) through ATS was discussed in September 2014 at an international Society for Risk Analysis (SRA......) workshop in Washington, D.C. and serves as the point of depature for this paper. Here we present the main outcomes by describing and defining the use of ATS for ENMs as well as discussing its future role in environmental risk science. We conclude that diversity in testing should be encouraged to avoid...

  13. Cultural adaptation of preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum for Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Ayesha; Tariq, Pervaiz N; Zaman, Sahira

    2015-06-01

    Cultural adaptation of evidence-based programmes has gained importance primarily owing to its perceived impact on the established effectiveness of a programme. To date, many researchers have proposed different frameworks for systematic adaptation process. This article presents the cultural adaptation of preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum for Pakistani children using the heuristic framework of adaptation (Barrera & Castro, 2006). The study was completed in four steps: information gathering, preliminary adaptation design, preliminary adaptation test and adaptation refinement. Feedbacks on programme content suggested universality of the core programme components. Suggested changes were mostly surface structure: language, presentation of materials, conceptual equivalence of concepts, training needs of implementation staff and frequency of programme delivery. In-depth analysis was done to acquire cultural equivalence. Pilot testing of the outcome measures showed strong internal consistency. The results were further discussed with reference to similar work undertaken in other cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Punk as a Strategy for Body Politicization in the Ljubljana Alternative Scene of the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Založnik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the notion of punk understood as a political position and as a strategy by the actors of the Ljubljana alternative scene in the 1980s. With exposing the minor, invisible and hidden subjectivities the actors and agents of the scene created a ground for experimentation with subjectivities, but also for shaking the Yugoslav Grand National narrative of ‘brotherhood and unity’. I am emphasizing mainly the notion of the body with and through the code of sex and sexuality, being still a base and the core investment of the government. No matter that the discourse has been radically changed, the procedures and protocols of power investments in their core have not. This is an additional reason and a need to recall the past and tackle the bodies that have appeared as unwanted, as ‘not right and not quiet’ identities in the past in order to evaluate and compare the position of the marginalized and suppressed today. Additionally, I am claiming that only with creating different genealogies can we fight against growing ‘intellectual redundancy’ and the continuous process of erasure of the subjectivities, which we are confronting today.   Article received: June 2, 2017; Article accepted: June 12, 2017; Published online: October 15, 2017; Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Založnik, Jasmina. "Punk as a Strategy for Body Politicization in the Ljubljana Alternative Scene of the 1980s." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 14 (2017: 145-156. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i14.217

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR, one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU. Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance

  16. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine instruction into health professions education: organizational and instructional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary Y; Benn, Rita; Wimsatt, Leslie; Cornman, Jane; Hedgecock, Joan; Gerik, Susan; Zeller, Janice; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Allweiss, Pamela; Finklestein, Claudia; Haramati, Aviad

    2007-10-01

    A few years ago, the National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine funded a program called the Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Education Project. Grantees were 14 medical and nursing schools and the American Medical Student Association, which funded six additional medical schools. Grants were awarded in cohorts of five per year in 2000, 2001, and 2002-2003. The R25 grant recipients identified several major themes as crucial to the success of integrating CAM into health professions curricula. The rationale for integrating CAM curricula was in part to enable future health professionals to provide informed advice as patients dramatically increase the use of CAM. Success of new CAM education programs relied on leadership, including top-down support from institutions' highest administrators. Formal and informal engagement of key faculty and opinion leaders raised awareness, interest, and participation in programs. A range of faculty development efforts increased CAM-teaching capacity. The most effective strategies for integration addressed a key curriculum need and used some form of evidence-based practice framework. Most programs used a combination of instructional delivery strategies, including experiential components and online resources, to address the needs of learners while promoting a high level of ongoing interest in CAM topics. Institutions noted several benefits, including increased faculty development activities, the creation of new programs, and increased cross- and inter-university collaborations. Common challenges included the need for qualified faculty, crowded and changing curricula, a lack of defined best practices in CAM, and post-grant sustainability of programs.

  17. Dimorphic ejaculates and sperm release strategies associated with alternative mating behaviors in the squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostólico, Lígia H; Marian, José E A R

    2017-11-01

    Sperm competition is a powerful postcopulatory selective force influencing male adaptations associated with increasing fertilization success, and it is usually related to the evolution of different strategies of ejaculate expenditure between individuals. Ejaculates may also be influenced by additional selective pressures associated with sperm competition, such as timing between insemination and fertilization, female reproductive tract morphology, and fertilization environment. Also, males that adopt alternative mating tactics may face distinct sperm competition pressures, which may lead to the evolution of intraspecific diversity in ejaculates. In loliginid squids, males with alternative reproductive tactics (sneakers and consorts) differ not only in mating behavior, but also transfer spermatophores into two distinct sites within the female. Here, we compared structure and functioning of spermatophores between sneakers and consorts in the squid Doryteuthis plei applying microscopy techniques and in vitro experiments. Sneakers and consorts exhibit differences in spermatophore structure that lead to distinct spermatophoric reactions and spermatangium morphologies. Moreover, in sneakers, sperm release lasts longer and their sperm show an aggregative behavior not detected in consorts. Slow sperm release may be a strategy to guarantee longer sperm provision, given the wide interval between sneaker mating and egg release. For consorts, in turn, intense and quick sperm discharge may be advantageous, as timing between mating and egg-laying is relatively short. Within the complex squid mating system, factors such as (i) different fertilization sites and (ii) interval between mating and egg release may also influence sperm competition, and ultimately shape the evolution of divergent ejaculates between dimorphic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Teaching evidence-based medicine at complementary and alternative medicine institutions: strategies, competencies, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwickey, Heather; Schiffke, Heather; Fleishman, Susan; Haas, Mitch; Cruser, des Anges; LeFebvre, Ron; Sullivan, Barbara; Taylor, Barry; Gaster, Barak

    2014-12-01

    As evidence-based medicine (EBM) becomes a standard in health care, it is essential that practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) become experts in searching and evaluating the research literature. In support of this goal, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) provided R25 funding to nine CAM colleges to develop individual programs focused on teaching EBM. An overarching goal of these research education grants has been to provide CAM faculty and students with the skills they need to apply a rigorous evidence-based perspective to their training and practice. This paper reviews the competencies and teaching strategies developed and implemented to enhance research literacy at all nine R25-funded institutions. While each institution designed approaches suitable for its research culture, the guiding principles were similar: to develop evidence-informed skills and knowledge, thereby helping students and faculty to critically appraise evidence and then use that evidence to guide their clinical practice. Curriculum development and assessment included faculty-driven learning activities and longitudinal curricular initiatives to encourage skill reinforcement and evaluate progress. As the field of integrative medicine matures, the NIH-NCCAM research education grants provide essential training for future clinicians and clinician-researchers. Building this workforce will facilitate multidisciplinary collaborations that address the unique needs for research that informs integrative clinical practice.

  19. Approaches to Develop Alternative Testing Strategies to Inform Human Health Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Vicki; Johnston, Helinor J; Balharry, Dominique; Gernand, Jeremy M; Gulumian, Mary

    2016-08-01

    The development of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for hazard assessment of new and emerging materials is high on the agenda of scientists, funders, and regulators. The relatively large number of nanomaterials on the market and under development means that an increasing emphasis will be placed on the use of reliable, predictive ATS when assessing their safety. We have provided recommendations as to how ATS development for assessment of nanomaterial hazard may be accelerated. Predefined search terms were used to identify the quantity and distribution of peer-reviewed publications for nanomaterial hazard assessment following inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption. A summary of knowledge gaps relating to nanomaterial hazard is provided to identify future research priorities and areas in which a rich data set might exist to allow ATS identification. Consultation with stakeholders (e.g., academia, industry, regulators) was critical to ensure that current expert opinion was reflected. The gap analysis revealed an abundance of studies that assessed the local and systemic impacts of inhaled particles, and so ATS are available for immediate use. Development of ATS for assessment of the dermal toxicity of chemicals is already relatively advanced, and these models should be applied to nanomaterials as relatively few studies have assessed the dermal toxicity of nanomaterials to date. Limited studies have investigated the local and systemic impacts of ingested nanomaterials. If the recommendations for research prioritization proposed are adopted, it is envisioned that a comprehensive battery of ATS can be developed to support the risk assessment process for nanomaterials. Some alternative models are available for immediate implementation, while others require more developmental work to become widely adopted. Case studies are included that can be used to inform the selection of alternative models and end points when assessing the pathogenicity of fibers and mode of

  20. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2014-05-01

    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  1. Appealing to altruism: an alternative strategy to address the health workforce crisis in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Lagarde, Mylene; Blaauw, Duane; Goodman, Catherine; English, Mike; Mullei, Kethi; Pagaiya, Nonglak; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Erasmus, Ermin; Hanson, Kara

    2013-03-01

    Recruitment and retention of health workers is a major concern. Policy initiatives emphasize financial incentives, despite mixed evidence of their effectiveness. Qualitative studies suggest that nurses especially may be more driven by altruistic motivations, but quantitative research has overlooked such values. This paper adds to the literature through characterizing the nature and determinants of nurses' altruism, based on a cross-country quantitative study. An experimental 'dictator game' was undertaken with 1064 final year nursing students in Kenya, South Africa and Thailand between April 2007 and July 2008. This presents participants with a real financial endowment to split between themselves and another student, a patient or a poor person. Giving a greater share of this financial endowment to the other person is interpreted as reflecting greater altruism. Nursing students gave over 30% of their initial endowment to others (compared with 10% in similar experiments undertaken in other samples). Respondents in all three countries showed greater generosity to patients and the poor than to fellow students. Consideration needs to be given to how to appeal to altruistic values as an alternative strategy to encourage nurses to enter the profession and remain, such as designing recruitment strategies to increase recruitment of altruistic individuals who are more likely to remain in the profession.

  2. Alternative strategies of seed predator escape by early-germinating oaks in Asia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Yang, Yueqin; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W; Agosta, Salvatore J; Steele, Michael A

    2012-03-01

    Early germination of white oaks is widely viewed as an evolutionary strategy to escape rodent predation; yet, the mechanism by which this is accomplished is poorly understood. We report that chestnut oak Quercus montana (CO) and white oak Q. alba (WO) (from North America), and oriental cork oak Q. variabilis (OO) and Mongolian oak Q. mongolica (MO) (from Asia) can escape predation and successfully establish from only taproots. During germination in autumn, cotyledonary petioles of acorns of CO and WO elongate and push the plumule out of the cotyledons, whereas OO and MO extend only the hypocotyls and retain the plumule within the cotyledons. Experiments showed that the pruned taproots (>6 cm) of CO and WO acorns containing the plumule successfully germinated and survived, and the pruned taproots (≥12 cm) of OO and MO acorns without the plumule successfully regenerated along with the detached acorns, thus producing two seedlings. We argue that these two distinct regeneration morphologies reflect alternative strategies for escaping seed predation.

  3. Database Objects vs Files: Evaluation of alternative strategies for managing large remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, Chaitan; Nandigam, Viswanath; Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-05-01

    Increasingly, the geoscience user community expects modern IT capabilities to be available in service of their research and education activities, including the ability to easily access and process large remote sensing datasets via online portals such as GEON (www.geongrid.org) and OpenTopography (opentopography.org). However, serving such datasets via online data portals presents a number of challenges. In this talk, we will evaluate the pros and cons of alternative storage strategies for management and processing of such datasets using binary large object implementations (BLOBs) in database systems versus implementation in Hadoop files using the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The storage and I/O requirements for providing online access to large datasets dictate the need for declustering data across multiple disks, for capacity as well as bandwidth and response time performance. This requires partitioning larger files into a set of smaller files, and is accompanied by the concomitant requirement for managing large numbers of file. Storing these sub-files as blobs in a shared-nothing database implemented across a cluster provides the advantage that all the distributed storage management is done by the DBMS. Furthermore, subsetting and processing routines can be implemented as user-defined functions (UDFs) on these blobs and would run in parallel across the set of nodes in the cluster. On the other hand, there are both storage overheads and constraints, and software licensing dependencies created by such an implementation. Another approach is to store the files in an external filesystem with pointers to them from within database tables. The filesystem may be a regular UNIX filesystem, a parallel filesystem, or HDFS. In the HDFS case, HDFS would provide the file management capability, while the subsetting and processing routines would be implemented as Hadoop programs using the MapReduce model. Hadoop and its related software libraries are freely available

  4. Regenerative medicine provides alternative strategies for the treatment of anal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräs, Søren; Tolstrup, Cæcilie Krogsgaard; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-03-01

    Anal incontinence is a common disorder but current treatment modalities are not ideal and the development of new treatments is needed. The aim of this review was to identify the existing knowledge of regenerative medicine strategies in the form of cellular therapies or bioengineering as a treatment for anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects. PubMed was searched for preclinical and clinical studies in English published from January 2005 to January 2016. Animal studies have demonstrated that cellular therapy in the form of local injections of culture-expanded skeletal myogenic cells stimulates repair of both acute and 2 - 4-week-old anal sphincter injuries. The results from a small clinical trial with ten patients and a case report support the preclinical findings. Animal studies have also demonstrated that local injections of mesenchymal stem cells stimulate repair of sphincter injuries, and a complex bioengineering strategy for creation and implantation of an intrinsically innervated internal anal sphincter construct has been successfully developed in a series of animal studies. Cellular therapies with myogenic cells and mesenchymal stem cells and the use of bioengineering technology to create an anal sphincter are new potential strategies to treat anal incontinence caused by anal sphincter defects, but the clinical evidence is extremely limited. The use of culture-expanded autologous skeletal myogenic cells has been most intensively investigated and several clinical trials were ongoing at the time of this report. The cost-effectiveness of such a therapy is an issue and muscle fragmentation is suggested as a simple alternative.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of alternative colonoscopy surveillance strategies to mitigate metachronous colorectal cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenay, Fatih Safa; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Banerjee, Ritesh; Said, Adnan; Cima, Robert R

    2016-08-15

    The incidence of metachronous colorectal cancer (MCRC) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors varies significantly, and the optimal colonoscopy surveillance practice for mitigating MCRC incidence is unknown. A cost-effectiveness analysis was used to compare the performances of the US Multi-Society Task Force guideline and all clinically reasonable colonoscopy surveillance strategies for 50- to 79-year-old posttreatment CRC patients with a computer simulation model. The US guideline [(1,3,5)] recommends the first colonoscopy 1 year after treatment, whereas the second and third colonoscopies are to be repeated at 3- and 5-year intervals. Some promising alternative cost-effective strategies were identified. In comparison with the US guideline, under various scenarios for a 20-year period, 1) reducing the surveillance interval of the guideline after the first colonoscopy by 1 year [(1,2,5)] would save up to 78 discounted life-years (LYs) and prevent 23 MCRCs per 1000 patients (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] ≤ $23,270/LY), 2) reducing the intervals after the first and second negative colonoscopies by 1 year [(1,2,4)] would save/prevent up to 109 discounted LYs and 36 MCRCs (ICER ≤ $52,155/LY), and 3) reducing the surveillance intervals after the first and second negative colonoscopy by 1 and 2 years [(1,2,3)] would save/prevent up to 141 discounted LYs and 50 MCRCs (ICER ≤ $63,822/LY). These strategies would require up to 1100 additional colonoscopies per 1000 patients. Although the US guideline might not be cost-effective in comparison with a less intensive oncology guideline [(3,3,5); the ICER could be as high as $140,000/LY], the promising strategies would be cost-effective in comparison with such less intensive guidelines unless the cumulative MCRC incidence were very low. The US guideline might be improved by a slight increase in the surveillance intensity at the expense of moderately increased cost. More research is warranted to explore the

  6. Evaluation of the impact of planning alternative strategies on urban metabolism with the ACASA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Casula, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Paw U, K. T.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    A crucial point in urban sustainable development is to evaluate the impact that future planning alternatives has on the main factors affecting the citizens liveableness, as the development of the urban heat island or the carbon emissions level. Recent advances in bio-physical sciences have led to new methods and models to estimate energy, water, and carbon fluxes. Also, several studies have addressed urban metabolism issues, but few have integrated the development of numerical tools and methodologies for the analysis of fluxes between a city and its environment with its validation and application in terms of future development alternatives. Over the past several years and most recently within the European Project "BRIDGE", CMCC tested the ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) land-surface model over agricultural ecosystems (grapes), wild vegetation (forests and Mediterranean maquis), and urban (Florence) or mixed urban/vegetated land (Helsinki). Preliminary results show success in adapting the model to mixed urban systems in each of the main fluxes of interest. The model was improved to adapt it for urban environment, and key parameterizations of leaf-facet scale interactions permit separate accounting of both biogenic and anthropogenic flux sources and sinks, and allow for easy scenario building for simulations designed to test changes in land use or urban planning. In this way, sustainable planning strategies are proposed based on quantitative assessments of energy, water, and carbon fluxes. In this research, three planning alternatives accounting for an increase in urbanization intensity were tested by ACASA in Helsinki (Finland) for the year 2008. Helsinki is located at a high latitude and is characterized by a rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating. The model behavior for the baseline and alternatives scenarios (i.e., urban classes with low, mid, and high residential intensity) during the entire year was

  7. Modeling the Impact of Alternative Immunization Strategies: Using Matrices as Memory Lanes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir J Alonso

    Full Text Available Existing modeling approaches are divided between a focus on the constitutive (micro elements of systems or on higher (macro organization levels. Micro-level models enable consideration of individual histories and interactions, but can be unstable and subject to cumulative errors. Macro-level models focus on average population properties, but may hide relevant heterogeneity at the micro-scale. We present a framework that integrates both approaches through the use of temporally structured matrices that can take large numbers of variables into account. Matrices are composed of several bidimensional (time×age grids, each representing a state (e.g. physiological, immunological, socio-demographic. Time and age are primary indices linking grids. These matrices preserve the entire history of all population strata and enable the use of historical events, parameters and states dynamically in the modeling process. This framework is applicable across fields, but particularly suitable to simulate the impact of alternative immunization policies. We demonstrate the framework by examining alternative strategies to accelerate measles elimination in 15 developing countries. The model recaptured long-endorsed policies in measles control, showing that where a single routine measles-containing vaccine is employed with low coverage, any improvement in coverage is more effective than a second dose. It also identified an opportunity to save thousands of lives in India at attractively low costs through the implementation of supplementary immunization campaigns. The flexibility of the approach presented enables estimating the effectiveness of different immunization policies in highly complex contexts involving multiple and historical influences from different hierarchical levels.

  8. Modeling the Impact of Alternative Immunization Strategies: Using Matrices as Memory Lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Wladimir J.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Giglio, Ricardo; Miller, Mark A.; Schuck-Paim, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Existing modeling approaches are divided between a focus on the constitutive (micro) elements of systems or on higher (macro) organization levels. Micro-level models enable consideration of individual histories and interactions, but can be unstable and subject to cumulative errors. Macro-level models focus on average population properties, but may hide relevant heterogeneity at the micro-scale. We present a framework that integrates both approaches through the use of temporally structured matrices that can take large numbers of variables into account. Matrices are composed of several bidimensional (time×age) grids, each representing a state (e.g. physiological, immunological, socio-demographic). Time and age are primary indices linking grids. These matrices preserve the entire history of all population strata and enable the use of historical events, parameters and states dynamically in the modeling process. This framework is applicable across fields, but particularly suitable to simulate the impact of alternative immunization policies. We demonstrate the framework by examining alternative strategies to accelerate measles elimination in 15 developing countries. The model recaptured long-endorsed policies in measles control, showing that where a single routine measles-containing vaccine is employed with low coverage, any improvement in coverage is more effective than a second dose. It also identified an opportunity to save thousands of lives in India at attractively low costs through the implementation of supplementary immunization campaigns. The flexibility of the approach presented enables estimating the effectiveness of different immunization policies in highly complex contexts involving multiple and historical influences from different hierarchical levels. PMID:26509976

  9. Monogamy versus Consensual Non-Monogamy: Alternative Approaches to Pursuing a Strategically Pluralistic Mating Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilski, Justin K; Memering, Stacy L; Welling, Lisa L M; Shackelford, Todd K

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the frequency of partner-directed mate retention behaviors and several self- and partner-rated romantic relationship evaluations (i.e., sociosexuality, relationship satisfaction, mate value, and partner ideal measures) within monogamous and consensually non-monogamous (CNM) relationships. Measures were compared (1) between monogamous and CNM participants and (2) between two concurrent partners within each CNM relationship (i.e., primary and secondary partners). We found that individuals in currently monogamous relationships (n = 123) performed more mate retention behaviors compared to those currently in CNM relationships (n = 76). Within CNM relationships, participants reported engaging in more mate retention behaviors with primary partners compared to secondary partners. Likewise, CNM participants reported talking about their extra-dyadic sexual experiences and downplaying these sexual experiences more often with their primary partner compared to their secondary partner. There were no significant differences between ratings of monogamous and primary partners in participants' overall relationship satisfaction. However, monogamous participants reported less satisfaction with the amount of communication and openness they had with their partner compared to CNM participants' reports of their primary partner, but not secondary partner. By comparison, CNM participants reported higher overall relationship satisfaction with primary compared to secondary partners and considered their primary partner to be more desirable as a long-term mate than their secondary partner. We interpret these results within the context of previous research on monogamous and CNM relationships and hypothesize that these relationship configurations are alternative strategies for pursuing a strategically pluralistic mating strategy.

  10. The Future of Public Health Informatics: Alternative Scenarios and Recommended Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Margo; Thorpe, Lorna; Sepulveda, Martin; Bezold, Clem; Ross, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In October 2013, the Public Health Informatics Institute (PHII) and Institute for Alternative Futures (IAF) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to evaluate forces shaping public health informatics (PHI) in the United States, with the aim of identifying upcoming challenges and opportunities. The PHI workshop was funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as part of its larger strategic planning process for public health and primary care. Workshop Context: During the two-day workshop, nine experts from the public and private sectors analyzed and discussed the implications of four scenarios regarding the United States economy, health care system, information technology (IT) sector, and their potential impacts on public health in the next 10 years, by 2023. Workshop participants considered the potential role of the public health sector in addressing population health challenges in each scenario, and then identified specific informatics goals and strategies needed for the sector to succeed in this role. Recommendations and Conclusion: Participants developed recommendations for the public health informatics field and for public health overall in the coming decade. These included the need to rely more heavily on intersectoral collaborations across public and private sectors, to improve data infrastructure and workforce capacity at all levels of the public health enterprise, to expand the evidence base regarding effectiveness of informatics-based public health initiatives, and to communicate strategically with elected officials and other key stakeholders regarding the potential for informatics-based solutions to have an impact on population health. PMID:25848630

  11. Range expansion drives the evolution of alternate reproductive strategies in invasive fire ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson A. Helms IV

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many species are expanding their ranges in response to climate changes or species introductions. Expansion-related selection likely drives the evolution of dispersal and reproductive traits, especially in invasive species introduced into novel habitats. We used an agent-based model to investigate these relationships in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, by tracking simulated populations over 25 years. Most colonies of this invasive species produce two types of queens practicing alternate reproductive strategies. Claustral queens found new colonies in vacant habitats, while parasitic queens take over existing colonies whose queens have died. We investigated how relative investment in the two queen types affects population demography, habitat occupancy, and range expansion. We found that parasitic queens extend the ecological lifespan of colonies, thereby increasing a population’s overall habitat occupancy as well as average colony size (number of workers and territory size. At the same time, investment in parasitic queens slowed the rate of range expansion by diverting investment from claustral queens. Divergent selection regimes caused edge and interior populations to evolve different levels of reproductive investment, such that interior populations invested heavily in parasitic queens whereas those at the edge invested almost entirely in claustral queens. Our results highlight factors shaping ant life histories, including the evolution of social parasitism, and have implications for the response of species to range shifts.

  12. The future of public health informatics: alternative scenarios and recommended strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Margo; Thorpe, Lorna; Sepulveda, Martin; Bezold, Clem; Ross, David A

    2014-01-01

    In October 2013, the Public Health Informatics Institute (PHII) and Institute for Alternative Futures (IAF) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to evaluate forces shaping public health informatics (PHI) in the United States, with the aim of identifying upcoming challenges and opportunities. The PHI workshop was funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation as part of its larger strategic planning process for public health and primary care. During the two-day workshop, nine experts from the public and private sectors analyzed and discussed the implications of four scenarios regarding the United States economy, health care system, information technology (IT) sector, and their potential impacts on public health in the next 10 years, by 2023. Workshop participants considered the potential role of the public health sector in addressing population health challenges in each scenario, and then identified specific informatics goals and strategies needed for the sector to succeed in this role. Participants developed recommendations for the public health informatics field and for public health overall in the coming decade. These included the need to rely more heavily on intersectoral collaborations across public and private sectors, to improve data infrastructure and workforce capacity at all levels of the public health enterprise, to expand the evidence base regarding effectiveness of informatics-based public health initiatives, and to communicate strategically with elected officials and other key stakeholders regarding the potential for informatics-based solutions to have an impact on population health.

  13. Unraveling the evolution of the Atlantic cod's (Gadus morhua L. alternative immune strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malmstrøm

    Full Text Available Genes encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC have been thought to play a vital role in the adaptive immune system in all vertebrates. The discovery that Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua has lost important components of the MHC II pathway, accompanied by an unusually high number of MHC I genes, shed new light on the evolution and plasticity of the immune system of teleosts as well as in higher vertebrates. The overall aim of this study was to further investigate the highly expanded repertoire of MHC I genes using a cDNA approach to obtain sequence information of both the binding domains and the sorting signaling potential in the cytoplasmic tail. Here we report a novel combination of two endosomal sorting motifs, one tyrosine-based associated with exogenous peptide presentation by cross-presenting MHCI molecules, and one dileucine-based associated with normal MHC II functionality. The two signal motifs were identified in the cytoplasmic tail in a subset of the genes. This indicates that these genes have evolved MHC II-like functionality, allowing a more versatile use of MHC I through cross-presentation. Such an alternative immune strategy may have arisen through adaptive radiation and acquisition of new gene function as a response to changes in the habitat of its ancestral lineage.

  14. Alternative sampling strategies for the assessment of alcohol intake of living persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Natalie; Lambert, Willy E E; Samyn, Nele; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of alcohol consumption by living persons takes place in various contexts, amongst which workplace drug testing, driving under the influence of alcohol, driving licence regranting programs, alcohol withdrawal treatment, diagnosis of acute intoxication or fetal alcohol ingestion. The matrices that are mostly used today include blood, breath and urine. The aim of this review is to present alternative sampling strategies that allow monitoring of the alcohol consumption in living subjects. Ethanol itself, indirect (carbohydrate deficient transferrin, CDT%) as well as direct biomarkers (ethyl glucuronide, EtG; ethyl sulphate, EtS; fatty acid ethyl esters, FAEEs and phosphatidylethanol species, PEths) of ethanol consumption will be considered. This review covers dried blood spots (CDT%, EtG/EtS, PEths), dried urine spots (EtG/EtS), sweat and skin surface lipids (ethanol, EtG, FAEEs), oral fluid (ethanol, EtG), exhaled breath (PEths), hair (EtG, FAEEs), nail (EtG), meconium (EtG/EtS, FAEEs), umbilical cord and placenta (EtG/EtS and PEth 16:0/18:1). Main results, issues and considerations specific to each matrix are reported. Details about sample preparation and analytical methods are not within the scope of this review. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A field trial of alternative targeted screening strategies for Chagas disease in Arequipa, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is endemic in the rural areas of southern Peru and a growing urban problem in the regional capital of Arequipa, population ∼860,000. It is unclear how to implement cost-effective screening programs across a large urban and periurban environment.We compared four alternative screening strategies in 18 periurban communities, testing individuals in houses with 1 infected vectors; 2 high vector densities; 3 low vector densities; and 4 no vectors. Vector data were obtained from routine Ministry of Health insecticide application campaigns. We performed ring case detection (radius of 15 m around seropositive individuals, and collected data on costs of implementation for each strategy.Infection was detected in 21 of 923 (2.28% participants. Cases had lived more time on average in rural places than non-cases (7.20 years versus 3.31 years, respectively. Significant risk factors on univariate logistic regression for infection were age (OR 1.02; p = 0.041, time lived in a rural location (OR 1.04; p = 0.022, and time lived in an infested area (OR 1.04; p = 0.008. No multivariate model with these variables fit the data better than a simple model including only the time lived in an area with triatomine bugs. There was no significant difference in prevalence across the screening strategies; however a self-assessment of disease risk may have biased participation, inflating prevalence among residents of houses where no infestation was detected. Testing houses with infected-vectors was least expensive. Ring case detection yielded four secondary cases in only one community, possibly due to vector-borne transmission in this community, apparently absent in the others.Targeted screening for urban Chagas disease is promising in areas with ongoing vector-borne transmission; however, these pockets of epidemic transmission remain difficult to detect a priori. The flexibility to adapt to the epidemiology that emerges during screening is key to

  16. A Field Trial of Alternative Targeted Screening Strategies for Chagas Disease in Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gabrielle C.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Ancca Juárez, Jenny; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Malaga Chavez, Fernando S.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Córdova Benzaquen, Eleazar; Náquira, César; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is endemic in the rural areas of southern Peru and a growing urban problem in the regional capital of Arequipa, population ∼860,000. It is unclear how to implement cost-effective screening programs across a large urban and periurban environment. Methods We compared four alternative screening strategies in 18 periurban communities, testing individuals in houses with 1) infected vectors; 2) high vector densities; 3) low vector densities; and 4) no vectors. Vector data were obtained from routine Ministry of Health insecticide application campaigns. We performed ring case detection (radius of 15 m) around seropositive individuals, and collected data on costs of implementation for each strategy. Results Infection was detected in 21 of 923 (2.28%) participants. Cases had lived more time on average in rural places than non-cases (7.20 years versus 3.31 years, respectively). Significant risk factors on univariate logistic regression for infection were age (OR 1.02; p = 0.041), time lived in a rural location (OR 1.04; p = 0.022), and time lived in an infested area (OR 1.04; p = 0.008). No multivariate model with these variables fit the data better than a simple model including only the time lived in an area with triatomine bugs. There was no significant difference in prevalence across the screening strategies; however a self-assessment of disease risk may have biased participation, inflating prevalence among residents of houses where no infestation was detected. Testing houses with infected-vectors was least expensive. Ring case detection yielded four secondary cases in only one community, possibly due to vector-borne transmission in this community, apparently absent in the others. Conclusions Targeted screening for urban Chagas disease is promising in areas with ongoing vector-borne transmission; however, these pockets of epidemic transmission remain difficult to detect a priori. The flexibility to adapt to the epidemiology that

  17. Determine separations process strategy decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    This study provides a summary level comparative analysis of selected, top-level, waste treatment strategies. These strategies include No Separations, Separations (high-level/low-level separations), and Deferred Separations of the tank waste. These three strategies encompass the full range of viable processing alternatives based upon full retrieval of the tank wastes. The assumption of full retrieval of the tank wastes is a predecessor decision and will not be revisited in this study.

  18. The ecology of population dispersal: Modeling alternative basin-plateau foraging strategies to explain the Numic expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magargal, Kate E; Parker, Ashley K; Vernon, Kenneth Blake; Rath, Will; Codding, Brian F

    2017-07-08

    The expansion of Numic speaking populations into the Great Basin required individuals to adapt to a relatively unproductive landscape. Researchers have proposed numerous social and subsistence strategies to explain how and why these settlers were able to replace any established populations, including private property and intensive plant processing. Here we evaluate these hypotheses and propose a new strategy involving the use of landscape fire to increase resource encounter rates. Implementing a novel, spatially explicit, multi-scalar prey choice model, we examine how individual decisions approximating each alternative strategy (private property, anthropogenic fire, and intensive plant processing) would aggregate at the patch and band level to confer an overall benefit to this colonizing population. Analysis relies on experimental data reporting resource profitability and abundance, ecological data on the historic distribution of vegetation patches, and ethnohistoric data on the distribution of Numic bands. Model results show that while resource privatization and landscape fires produce a substantial advantage, intensified plant processing garners the greatest benefit. The relative benefits of alternative strategies vary significantly across ecological patches resulting in variation across ethnographic band ranges. Combined, a Numic strategy including all three alternatives would substantially increase subsistence yields. The application of a strategy set that includes landscape fire, privatization and intensified processing of seeds and nuts, explains why the Numa were able to outcompete local populations. This approach provides a framework to help explain how individual decisions can result in such population replacement events throughout human history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality in India: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue J Goldie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy (both planned and unintended and pregnancy- and childbirth-associated complications in individual women; and considers delivery location, attendant, and facility level. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to urban and rural India using survey-based data (e.g., unmet need for birth spacing/limiting, facility births, skilled birth attendants. Model validation compared projected maternal indicators with empiric data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions that could be provided individually or packaged as integrated services, could reduce the incidence of a complication or its case fatality rate, and could include improved logistics such as reliable transport to an appropriate referral facility as well as recognition of referral need and quality of care. Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality. If over the next 5 y the unmet need for spacing and limiting births was met, more than 150,000 maternal deaths would be prevented; more than US$1 billion saved; and at least one of every two abortion-related deaths averted. Still, reductions in maternal mortality reached a threshold ( approximately 23%-35% without including strategies that ensured reliable access to intrapartum and emergency obstetrical care (EmOC. An integrated and stepwise approach was

  20. Sustainability indicators, alternative strategies and trade-offs in peasant agroecosystems : analysing 15 case studies from Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astier, M.; Speelman, E.N.; López-Ridaura, S.; Masera, O.R.; Gonzalez-Esquivel, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    In view of the urgent need to improve agroecosystem sustainability, several efforts have been made to evaluate the effect of alternative strategies on key environmental and socioeconomic variables at the farm, community and regional levels. Most peasant farmers manage complex and diverse

  1. Is a hybrid strategy a lower-risk alternative to stage 1 Norwood operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Travis J; McCrindle, Brian W; Hickey, Edward J; Ziemer, Gerhard; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Jacobs, Marshall L; Gruber, Peter J; Blackstone, Eugene H; Williams, William G; DeCampli, William M; Caldarone, Christopher A; Pizarro, Christian

    2017-01-01

    For neonates with critical left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), hybrid procedures are an alternative to the Norwood stage 1 procedure. Despite perceived advantages, however, outcomes are not well defined. Therefore, we compared outcomes after stage 1 hybrid and Norwood procedures. In a critical LVOTO inception cohort (2005-2014; 20 institutions), a total of 564 neonates underwent stage 1 palliation with the Norwood operation with a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (NW-BT; n = 232; 41%), Norwood operation with a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit (NW-RVPA; n = 222; 39%), or a hybrid procedure (n = 110; 20%). Post-stage 1 outcomes were analyzed via competing-risks and parametric hazard analyses and compared among all 564 patients and between patients who underwent propensity-matched hybrid and those who underwent NW-BT/NW-RVPA. By 6 years after the stage 1 operation, 50% ± 3%, 7% ± 2%, and 4% ± 1% of patients transitioned to Fontan, transplantation, and biventricular repair, respectively, whereas 7% ± 2% were alive without transition and 32% ± 2% died. Risk factors for death without transition included procedure type, smaller ascending aorta, aortic valve atresia, and lower birth weight. Risk-adjusted 4-year survival was better after NW-RVPA than after NW-BT or hybrid (76% vs 60% vs 61%; P < .001). Furthermore, for neonates with lower birth weight (<∼2 kg), an interaction between birth weight and hybrid resulted in a trend toward better survival after hybrid compared with NW-BT or NW-RVPA. For propensity-matched neonates between hybrid and NW-BT (88 pairs), 4-year survival was similar (62% vs 57%; P = .58). For propensity-matched neonates between hybrid and NW-RVPA (81 pairs), 4-year survival was better after NW-RVPA (59% vs 75%; P = .008). For neonates with critical LVOTO undergoing single-ventricle palliation, NW-RVPA was associated with the best overall survival. Hybrid strategies are not a lower-risk alternative to

  2. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp. in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A. Cloyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp. are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  3. A multi-stakeholder perspective on the use of alternative test strategies for nanomaterial safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Andre E; Nasser, Elina; Godwin, Hilary; Avery, David; Bahadori, Tina; Bergeson, Lynn; Beryt, Elizabeth; Bonner, James C; Boverhof, Darrell; Carter, Janet; Castranova, Vince; Deshazo, J R; Hussain, Saber M; Kane, Agnes B; Klaessig, Frederick; Kuempel, Eileen; Lafranconi, Mark; Landsiedel, Robert; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Morris, Jeffery; Moss, Kenneth; Oberdorster, Gunter; Pinkerton, Kent; Pleus, Richard C; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Thomas, Russell; Tolaymat, Thabet; Wang, Amy; Wong, Jeffrey

    2013-08-27

    There has been a conceptual shift in toxicological studies from describing what happens to explaining how the adverse outcome occurs, thereby enabling a deeper and improved understanding of how biomolecular and mechanistic profiling can inform hazard identification and improve risk assessment. Compared to traditional toxicology methods, which have a heavy reliance on animals, new approaches to generate toxicological data are becoming available for the safety assessment of chemicals, including high-throughput and high-content screening (HTS, HCS). With the emergence of nanotechnology, the exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in research, development, and commercialization requires a robust scientific approach to screen ENM safety in humans and the environment rapidly and efficiently. Spurred by the developments in chemical testing, a promising new toxicological paradigm for ENMs is to use alternative test strategies (ATS), which reduce reliance on animal testing through the use of in vitro and in silico methods such as HTS, HCS, and computational modeling. Furthermore, this allows for the comparative analysis of large numbers of ENMs simultaneously and for hazard assessment at various stages of the product development process and overall life cycle. Using carbon nanotubes as a case study, a workshop bringing together national and international leaders from government, industry, and academia was convened at the University of California, Los Angeles, to discuss the utility of ATS for decision-making analyses of ENMs. After lively discussions, a short list of generally shared viewpoints on this topic was generated, including a general view that ATS approaches for ENMs can significantly benefit chemical safety analysis.

  4. Bouldering: an alternative strategy to long-vertical climbing in root-climbing hortensias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Isnard, Sandrine; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Rowe, Nick P; Van Acker, Joris; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2014-10-06

    In the Neotropics, the genus Hydrangea of the popular ornamental hortensia family is represented by climbing species that strongly cling to their support surface by means of adhesive roots closely positioned along specialized anchoring stems. These root-climbing hortensia species belong to the nearly exclusive American Hydrangea section Cornidia and generally are long lianescent climbers that mostly flower and fructify high in the host tree canopy. The Mexican species Hydrangea seemannii, however, encompasses not only long lianescent climbers of large vertical rock walls and coniferous trees, but also short 'shrub-like' climbers on small rounded boulders. To investigate growth form plasticity in root-climbing hortensia species, we tested the hypothesis that support variability (e.g. differences in size and shape) promotes plastic responses observable at the mechanical, structural and anatomical level. Stem bending properties, architectural axis categorization, tissue organization and wood density were compared between boulder and long-vertical tree-climbers of H. seemannii. For comparison, the mechanical patterns of a closely related, strictly long-vertical tree-climbing species were investigated. Hydrangea seemannii has fine-tuned morphological, mechanical and anatomical responses to support variability suggesting the presence of two alternative root-climbing strategies that are optimized for their particular environmental conditions. Our results suggest that variation of some stem anatomical traits provides a buffering effect that regulates the mechanical and hydraulic demands of two distinct plant architectures. The adaptive value of observed plastic responses and the importance of considering growth form plasticity in evolutionary and conservation studies are discussed. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Low alcohol alternatives: a promising strategy for reducing alcohol related harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, David S; Stockwell, Tim

    2009-03-01

    Less than 1% of the beer market in British Columbia comprises beers with an alcohol content below 4%, despite the success of low alcohol beers in other countries, e.g. Australia. A small experimental study is described in which male students were given either unmarked low alcohol beer (3.8%) or regular strength beer (5.3%) to investigate their enjoyment and subjective intoxication. Thirty-four male students who reported drinking 5 or more beers in 1 day at least once in the last month volunteered for the study. In each drinking session, small groups of between 6 and 10 students consumed two servings of beer while playing dominoes. Each subject was his own control in the experiment by attending two group-drinking sessions, drinking a different beverage each time. The different beers were given in balanced order with half the subjects in each group drinking each type of beer. Standard measures of subjective intoxication and enjoyment were used. Blood alcohol levels were tested before, during and after drinking. Although significantly higher blood alcohol levels were obtained with the higher strength beer (means of 0.026 versus 0.033 mg/100 ml at the end of the study, p beer session, (ii) most did not report feeling different between the two sessions and (iii) only about half correctly guessed which was the higher alcohol content beer. There was a preference, however, for the taste of the stronger beer. We conclude beer drinkers cannot readily distinguish low and regular strength beers and can enjoy socializing equally with either. We recommend taxation strategies to create incentives for the manufacture, marketing and consumption of low alcohol alternatives.

  6. Single, community-based blood glucose readings may be a viable alternative for community surveillance of HbA1c and poor glycaemic control in people with known diabetes in resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin is commonly used in relation to diabetes mellitus. The measure gives an indication of the average blood sugar levels over a period of weeks or months prior to testing. For most low- and middle-income countries HbA1c measurement in community surveillance is prohibitively expensive. A question arises about the possibility of using a single blood glucose measure for estimating HbA1c and therefore identifying poor glycaemic control in resource-poor settings. Design: Using data from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we examined the relationship between HbA1c and a single fasting measure of blood glucose in a non-clinical population of people with known diabetes (n=333. A linear equation for estimating HbA1c from blood glucose was developed. Appropriate blood glucose cut-off values were set for poor glycaemic control (HbA1c≥69.4 mmol/mol. Results: The HbA1c and blood glucose measures were well correlated (r=0.7. Three blood glucose cut-off values were considered for classifying poor glycaemic control: 8.0, 8.9, and 11.4 mmol/L. A blood glucose of 11.4 had a specificity of 1, but poor sensitivity (0.37; 8.9 had high specificity (0.94 and moderate sensitivity (0.7; 8.0 was associated with good specificity (0.81 and sensitivity (0.75. Conclusions: Where HbA1c measurement is too expensive for community surveillance, a single blood glucose measure may be a reasonable alternative. Generalising the specific results from these US data to low resource settings may not be appropriate, but the general approach is worthy of further investigation.

  7. Effects of winter feeding strategies with alternative feeds on the performance of mature suckler cows and their progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MANNINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of feeding strategies with alternative feeds on the performance of mature suckler cows and their progeny during indoor feeding and subsequent grazing. In both experiments, a 2 × 2 factorially arranged design consisted of two feeding strategies (Step-up, Sas offered on Strategy S, but at a constant daily level. In Experiment 1, cows on Diet C were offered grass silage and straw and on Diet A grass silage and a fl our-mill industry by-product. On Strategy S, feeding was stepped with barley (0, 1.5 and 3.5 kg d-1. On Strategy F, barley was offered 1.43 kg per head daily. In Experiment 2, cows were offered either grass silage (C or whole-crop barley silage (A as a sole feed. Strategy S was carried out by offering 68, 95 and 119 MJ metabolizable energy (ME per cow daily. On Strategy F, roughage was given daily 97 MJ ME. In both experiments, there were no signifi cant differences between treatments in the cow live weight, body condition score, calf pre-weaning live weight gain and cow reproduction. Strategy F can be practised in the nutrition of mature suckler cows in marginal circumstances. Flour-mill industry by-product can partly replace grass silage and straw in the winter diet. Wholecrop barley silage can be offered as a sole feed to suckler cows with good body condition score in autumn.;

  8. A cluster randomized controlled trial of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Pert, Kirsty; Joyce, Craig; Stephens, Emma; Wo, Lawrence; Squires, Garry; Woods, Kevin; Calam, Rachel; Turner, Alex

    2016-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies curriculum (PATHS; Kusche & Greenberg, 1994) as a means to improve children's social-emotional competence (assessed via the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS); Gresham & Elliot, 2008) and mental health outcomes (assessed via the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Goodman, 1997). Forty-five schools in Greater Manchester, England, were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Allocation was balanced by proportions of children eligible for free school meals and speaking English as an additional language via minimization. Children (N=4516) aged 7-9years at baseline in the participating schools were the target cohort. During the two-year trial period, teachers of this cohort in schools allocated to the intervention group delivered the PATHS curriculum, while their counterparts in the control group continued their usual provision. Teachers in PATHS schools received initial training and on-going support and assistance from trained coaches. Hierarchical linear modeling of outcome data was undertaken to identify both primary (e.g., for all children) and secondary (e.g., for children classified as "at-risk") intervention effects. A primary effect of the PATHS curriculum was found, demonstrating increases in teacher ratings of changes in children's social-emotional competence. Additionally, secondary effects of PATHS were identified, showing reductions in teacher ratings of emotional symptoms and increases in pro-social behavior and child ratings of engagement among children identified as at-risk at baseline. However, our analyses also identified primary effects favoring the usual provision group, showing reductions in teacher ratings of peer problems and emotional symptoms, and secondary effects demonstrating reductions in teacher ratings of conduct problems and child ratings of co-operation among at-risk children. Effect sizes were small

  9. Augmentative and alternative communication in daily clinical practice: strategies and tools for management of severe communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankoff, Denise J; Hatfield, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches can be used effectively by patients and their caregivers to improve communication skills. This article highlights strategies and tools for re-establishing communication competence by considering the complexity and diversity of communication interactions in an effort to maximize natural speech and language skills via a range of technologies that are implemented across the continuum of care rather than as a last resort.

  10. The Short Saphenous Vein: A Viable Alternative Conduit for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide variety of vascular conduits including the. Internal Mammary Artery (IMA), Radial Artery. (RA) and the Long Saphenous Vein (LSV), are available to the Cardiac Surgeon performing Coronary. Artery Bypass Graft procedures. These have demonstrated various successes over the years in both long-term patency.

  11. Providing Homes For The Homeless - The Viable Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Guinea pig Cavia porcellus farming for meat production remains a marginalised activity in Cameroon in spite of the advantages this specie offers. With the view to promote its production, a national countrywide survey was carried out in order to evaluate the production systems and constraints. Traditional guinea pig farming appears to be a secondary household activity undertaken by small farmers basically women. The extensive production system which reveals no management practices, integrates very well in the agricultural systems (small livestock, food crops and natural forages production of the western highlands and southern forest zones of Cameroon. Guinea pig productivity remains low due to many constraints such as predation, uncontrolled breeding, inbreeding, poor feeding, negative selection and lack of veterinary care. Nevertheless, guinea pig farming plays an important role in the well being of low income village dwellers as food security, cash savings and socio-cultural values within the populations of South Cameroon. The promotion of its production requires an awareness of animal scientists, development authorities, as well as on station research if improved raising conditions.

  12. Facet joints infiltration: A viable alternative treatment to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: All patients with clinical lower back pain (LBP) and MRI features of FJA were recruited into this prospective study randomly. All the FJI patients had depot methylprednisolone and the physiotherapy patients had McKenzie regimen. Outcome questionnaires comprising Oswentry disability index scores ...

  13. Distance Education at the Graduate Level: A Viable Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian M.; Everard, Andrea; McCoy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This research extends a previous comparative study that looked at learning outcomes between traditional classroom and web-based education at the graduate level. That research (Jones and Everard, 2008) provided little evidence that there were significant differences between delivery methods. This research looks at employment status, household…

  14. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  15. Evaluating alternative management strategies for bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhe Tong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus support a large commercial fishery in the Indian Ocean. However, explicit management strategies and harvest control rules are yet to be developed for the management of this fishery. We used a stochastic age-structured production model as an operating model to evaluate several potential management strategies under different assumptions of stock productivity. Five management strategies—constant fishing mortality, constant catch, quasi-constant catch, constant escapement, and status-dependent strategies—were evaluated and compared using the performance indicators including average catch, average spawning stock biomass, variation in catch, average fishing mortality and lowest biomass during the time period considered in the simulation. This study shows that (1 for the constant catch strategy, an annual catch of 90000 t would result in a low risk of stock being overfished while obtaining a stable catch; (2 for the constant fishing mortality strategy fishing mortality of 0.3 per year could yield a higher catch, but might have a high probability (64% of stock dropping below the spawning stock biomass (SSB that could achieve maximum sustainable yield (SSBmsy; and (3 for the quasi-constant catch strategy an annual catch of 110000 t was sustainable if the current SSB was higher than SSBmsy. Constant escapement and status-dependent strategies were robust with respect to different levels of virgin recruitment and steepness. This study suggests that it is important to incorporate uncertainties associated with key life history, fisheries and management processes in evaluating management strategies.

  16. An Alternative National Security Strategy: Elevating the Economic Instrument of National Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawkins, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    This research project argues for an integrated approach to National Security. It follows the ends-way-means framework for strategy development, and focuses on our current interests and the threats to those interests...

  17. Self-regulation from Educational Psychology to L2 Pedagogy: an Alternative to Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banisaeid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategy was the focus of many studies during the last two decades. Because of definitional fuzziness and unreliable instrument, the concept of language learning strategy was replaced by self-regulation in educational psychology. Subsequently, this shift affected L2 research. The notion of self-regulation is used in some L2 studies today (Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006; Rose, 2011b, Banisaeid, 2013a, 2013b. Self-regulation is more process-oriented while language learning strategy is more product-oriented. Although it only encompasses the metacognitive strategy, the general domain of it is meaningfully wider than the strategic framework. It covers some aspects in the learning process as motivation, goals and self-efficacy.

  18. Pyramiding, alternating or mixing: comparative performances of deployment strategies of nematode resistance genes to promote plant resistance efficiency and durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djian-Caporalino, Caroline; Palloix, Alain; Fazari, Ariane; Marteu, Nathalie; Barbary, Arnaud; Abad, Pierre; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Mateille, Thierry; Risso, Sabine; Lanza, Roger; Taussig, Catherine; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2014-02-22

    Resistant cultivars are key elements for pathogen control and pesticide reduction, but their repeated use may lead to the emergence of virulent pathogen populations, able to overcome the resistance. Increased research efforts, mainly based on theoretical studies, explore spatio-temporal deployment strategies of resistance genes in order to maximize their durability. We evaluated experimentally three of these strategies to control root-knot nematodes: cultivar mixtures, alternating and pyramiding resistance genes, under controlled and field conditions over a 3-years period, assessing the efficiency and the durability of resistance in a protected crop rotation system with pepper as summer crop and lettuce as winter crop. The choice of the resistance gene and the genetic background in which it is introgressed, affected the frequency of resistance breakdown. The pyramiding of two different resistance genes in one genotype suppressed the emergence of virulent isolates. Alternating different resistance genes in rotation was also efficient to decrease virulent populations in fields due to the specificity of the virulence and the trapping effect of resistant plants. Mixing resistant cultivars together appeared as a less efficient strategy to control nematodes. This work provides experimental evidence that, in a cropping system with seasonal sequences of vegetable species, pyramiding or alternating resistance genes benefit yields in the long-term by increasing the durability of resistant cultivars and improving the long-term control of a soil-borne pest. To our knowledge, this result is the first one obtained for a plant-nematode interaction, which helps demonstrate the general applicability of such strategies for breeding and sustainable management of resistant cultivars against pathogens.

  19. Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de K.; Klijn, F.; McGahey, C.; Mens, M.; Wolfert, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on

  20. Assessing Tuition and Student Aid Strategies: Using Price-Response Measures to Simulate Pricing Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    1994-01-01

    A study used price-response measures from recent national studies to assess college and university pricing (tuition and student aid) alternatives in diverse institutional settings. It is concluded that such analyses are feasible. Analysis indicated limits to "Robin Hood" pricing patterns are predominant in private colleges. Consideration…

  1. A Qualitative Case Study of Strategies for Choosing and Evaluating Alternative Assessments in Online Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streff, Robert James

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that not all students are assessed effectively using standard testing formats. However, it is unclear what alternative methodology would be useful to determine whether students have acquired the skills necessary for today's global market. This research study's purpose was to understand the processes instructors use when choosing…

  2. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  3. Alternative Strategies for Maximizing the Output of Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Panels

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Ze'ev R

    2014-01-01

    Multi-junction photovoltaics provide a logical method of increasing the utilization of solar power for a given area. However, their current design and fabrication methods invoke numerous material and cost complexities that limit their potential, particularly for flat panel paradigms. In this paper, three general strategies based on the electrical isolation of the internal sub-layers are described. These strategies involve current or voltage matching the sub-layers by varying of fractional absorption and areal coverage of individual cells within each sub-layer, as well as modifying their combined output using power electronics. A simplified theoretical description of these strategies is provided for pairs of junction materials that allows a more streamlined description of the requirements.

  4. Efficiency of alternative McMC strategies illustrated using the reaction norm model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shariati, M; Sorensen, D

    2008-01-01

    norm model with unknown covariates as an example. The six strategies are single-site Gibbs updates (SG), single-site Gibbs sampler for updating transformed (a priori independent) additive genetic values (TSG), pairwise Gibbs updates (PG), blocked (all location parameters are updated jointly) Gibbs......The Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy provides remarkable flexibility for fitting complex hierarchical models. However, when parameters are highly correlated in their posterior distributions and their number is large, a particular MCMC algorithm may perform poorly and the resulting...

  5. Evaluation of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2014-01-01

    The water resources of the upper Klamath Basin, in southern Oregon and northern California, are managed to achieve various complex and interconnected purposes. Since 2001, irrigators in the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Irrigation Project (Project) have been required to limit surface-water diversions to protect habitat for endangered freshwater and anadromous fishes. The reductions in irrigation diversions have led to an increased demand for groundwater by Project irrigators, particularly in drought years. The potential effects of sustained pumping on groundwater and surface-water resources have caused concern among Federal and state agencies, Indian tribes, wildlife groups, and groundwater users. To aid in the development of a viable groundwater-management strategy for the Project, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Klamath Water and Power Agency and the Oregon Water Resources Department, developed a groundwater-management model that links groundwater simulation with techniques of constrained optimization. The overall goal of the groundwater-management model is to determine the patterns of groundwater pumping that, to the extent possible, meet the supplemental groundwater demands of the Project. To ensure that groundwater development does not adversely affect groundwater and surface-water resources, the groundwater-management model includes constraints to (1) limit the effects of groundwater withdrawal on groundwater discharge to streams and lakes that support critical habitat for fish listed under the Endangered Species Act, (2) ensure that drawdowns do not exceed limits allowed by Oregon water law, and (3) ensure that groundwater withdrawal does not adversely affect agricultural drain flows that supply a substantial portion of water for irrigators and wildlife refuges in downslope areas of the Project. Groundwater-management alternatives were tested and designed within the framework of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (currently [2013

  6. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  7. A Comparison of Alternative Strategies for Cost-Effective Water Quality Management in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Boyd Kramer; Stephen Polasky; Anthony Starfield; Brian Palik; Lynn Westphal; Stephanie Snyder; Pamela Jakes; Rachel Hudson; Eric Gustafson

    2006-01-01

    Roughly 45% of the assessed lakes in the United States are impaired for one or more reasons. Eutrophication due to excess phosphorus loading is common in many impaired lakes. Various strategies are available to lake residents for addressing declining lake water quality, including septic system upgrades and establishing riparian buffers. This study examines 25 lakes to...

  8. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Regenerative medicine provides alternative strategies for the treatment of anal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Tolstrup, Cæcilie Krogsgaard; Lose, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Anal incontinence is a common disorder but current treatment modalities are not ideal and the development of new treatments is needed. The aim of this review was to identify the existing knowledge of regenerative medicine strategies in the form of cellular therapies o...

  10. A Contingency in the Rosetta Reaction Control System: Alternative Cruise Trajectory Strategies to Cope with Degraded Delta-V Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauske, Rainer; Companys, Vincente

    2007-01-01

    Since August 2006 a pressure transducer of the Rosetta Reaction Control System (RCS) shows anomalous telemetries indicating a possible leak in a pressurant line. The future operation mode of the RCS may be affected by this problem, resulting in performance degradation. The current propellant budget and its future evolution are evaluated to show the possible states w.r.t. the required mission delta-V. Alternative cruise trajectory strategies are analyzed, providing delta-V savings, to compensate for the expected performance loss of the RCS.

  11. Alternative spawning strategy and temperature for larval emergence of longfin dace (Agosia chrysogaster) in stream mesocosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troia, Matthew J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitney, James E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Gido, Keith B. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2014-06-01

    To determine if the strategy of spawning in saucer-like depressions is obligate or facultative for longfin dace (Agosia chrysogaster), we collected adults from four sites in the upper Gila River (southwestern New Mexico), stocked them in separate outdoor stream-mesocosms lined with cobble substrate, and made daily observations for the presence of saucer-nests and hatched larvae. Larvae were observed from three of the four mesocosms and emerged at temperatures ranging from 19.2 24.0 °C. Here, the absence of saucer-nests in all mesocosms throughout the study indicates that longfin dace can spawn over cobble substrate and have larvae hatch successfully, suggesting that longfin dace can use an alternate spawning strategy when sand substrate is not available for construction of saucer-nests.

  12. Evaluation of alternative pollutant emission control strategies to urban water systems using substance flow analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundy, L.; Revitt, D. M.; Eriksson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    to develop semi-hypothetical case cities (SHCCs), which represent virtual platforms for the evaluation of ECSs using substance flow analysis. The results indicate that the full implementation of existing legislation is capable of reducing total emissions of Cd and Hg by between 11% and 20%. Consideration...... of emissions on a compartment-by-compartment basis indicates that the impact of a particular ECS is sensitive to both pollutant and city-specific characteristics. Whilst reductions in emissions to one compartment are typically associated with an increase in emissions to an alternative compartment, the final...

  13. Operating in the Gray Zone: An Alternative Paradigm for U.S. Military Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in history from Princeton University, and is currently working on a book on military strategy for Oxford University Press...immune to history’s interpretation of the past. The regrettable result is his- torical illiteracy , which in turn has compounded the West’s conceptual...2016. 7. The best work on this is still Robert A. Doughty, Break- ing Point: Sedan and the Fall of France, 1940, Hamden, CT: Archon Books , 1990

  14. Prospects for a nicotine-reduction strategy in the cigarette endgame: Alternative tobacco harm reduction scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2015-06-01

    Some major national and international tobacco control organisations favour mandating a reduction in nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addictive levels as a tobacco control tool. Reducing nicotine content, it is argued, will make tobacco smoking less attractive. The 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulation of cigarettes appears to have the power to reduce nicotine to non-addictive levels provided it is not taken to zero. A consideration of the U.S. context, however, raises doubts about (a) whether this will ever be practicable and (b), if practicable, how long it will take to implement. Current versions of the nicotine-reducing strategy propose the systematic, incentivised use of less harmful nicotine/tobacco products as elements of the mandatory cigarette nicotine-reduction strategy. Time will tell if and when mandatory nicotine reduction in tobacco cigarettes will occur and what impact it might have on smoking prevalence. The question posed here is "Why wait?" Resources used in implementing reduction in nicotine content have an opportunity cost. In the meantime, nicotine-maintaining harm reduction strategies can have nearer term effects on tobacco use as an individual and a public health issue. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Alternative Composite Lisbon Development Strategy Indices: A Comparison of EU, USA, Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongEun Oh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the measurement of two composite Lisbon strategy indices that quantifies the level and patterns of development for ranking countries. The first index is nonparametric labelled as Lisbon strategy index (LSI. It is composed of six components: general economics, employment, innovation research, economic reform, social cohesion and environment, each generated from a number of Lisbon indicators. LSI by reducing the complexity of the set of indicators, it makes the ranking procedures quite simple. The second and parametric index is based on principal component analysis. Despite the difference in the ranking by the two indices, it is shown that the United States outperformed most EU-member states. Our investigations also show evidence of significant dynamic changes taking place, as the countries of the Union struggle to achieve the Lisbon goals. The necessity of a real reform agenda in several old and new members and candidate countries emerges from our analysis. We briefly refer to two important European phenomena emerging from our data analysis and discuss the possible lessons learned from the Korean development strategy

  16. An Alternative Evacuation Framework to Improve Protective-action Strategies Following a Nuclear Power Accident: The Adaptive Protective Action Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Gregory D.

    Within the U.S. current protective-action strategies to safeguard the public following a nuclear power accident have remained largely unchanged since their implementation in the early 1980s. In the past thirty years, new technologies have been introduced allowing faster computations, better modeling of predicted radiological consequences, and improved accident mapping with geographic information systems (GIS). Utilizing these new technologies, we evaluate the efficacy of alternative strategies, called adaptive protective action zones (APAZs), that use site-specific and event-specific data to dynamically determine evacuation boundaries with simple heuristics in order to better inform protective action decisions (rather than relying on pre-event regulatory bright lines). Several candidate APAZs were developed and then compared to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's keyhole evacuation strategy (and full evacuation of the emergency planning zone). Two of the APAZs were better on average than existing NRC strategies at reducing either the radiological exposure, the population evacuated, or both. These APAZs are especially effective for larger radioactive plumes and at high population sites; one of them is better at reducing radiation exposure, while the other is better at reducing the population evacuated. However, should policy makers decide that the benefits of APAZs outweigh the costs of implementation, APAZ adoption by U.S. regulatory agencies should be accompanied by a revision to the nuclear-power plant emergency planning basis, and revisions to local nuclear power emergency response planning areas.

  17. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-16

    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS g.kg(-1), respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  18. Lesbian Continuum As An Alternative Strategy In Negotiating Heteronormativity In Sarah Water’s Fingersmith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Hayuningtyas Erwanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to examine the portrayal of a lesbian continuum in Sarah Waters’ Fingersmith. To conduct the analysis, there are two research questions: first, how is the construction of lesbian continuum portrayed in the relationship between Susan Trinder and Maud Lilly and how does lesbian continuum become a strategy to negotiate compulsory heterosexuality. In doing the analysis, the theory of lesbian continuum which is proposed by Adrienne Rich will be used to elaborate the novel. This study is a qualitative research where the data are taken from the novel Fingersmith, library research, journals, and other relevant sources. To gain the comprehensive analysis, this study uses some methods which are: close reading, postulation the statements of the problems, data classification, and analysis using the lesbian continuum theory, supporting analysis through library research, books, and academic journals. This study finds that the characters of Susan Trinder and Maud Lilly can be identified as having a double life which constructs the lesbian continuum. Moreover, the lesbian continuum becomes a strategy to negotiate compulsory heterosexuality with denial and negotiation of women’s oppression. Abstrak: Artikel ini mengkaji representasi lesbian continuum dalam novel Sarah Waters yang berjudul Fingersmith. Dua pertanyaan utama penelitian ini adalah (1 bagaimana konstruksi lesbian continuum direpresentasikan dalam hubungan antara tokoh Susan Trinder dan Maud Lily dalam novel Fingersmith dan (2 bagaimana lesbian continuum menjadi strategi untuk menghadapi compulsory heterosexuality dalam novel Fingersmith. Teori lesbian continuum oleh Adrienne Rich akan menjadi teori utama untuk menjawab pertanyaan penelitian. Menggunakan teknik pembacaan novel dan analisis pustaka yang bersumber dari jurnal dan sumber lain yang mendukung. Untuk mendapatkan data yang komprehensip, metode yang dipakai adalah close reading, menjabarkan pertanyaan, klasifikasi

  19. Wings versus legs in the avian bauplan: development and evolution of alternative locomotor strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Ashley M; Dial, Kenneth P

    2015-02-01

    Wings have long been regarded as a hallmark of evolutionary innovation, allowing insects, birds, and bats to radiate into aerial environments. For many groups, our intuitive and colloquial perspective is that wings function for aerial activities, and legs for terrestrial, in a relatively independent manner. However, insects and birds often engage their wings and legs cooperatively. In addition, the degree of autonomy between wings and legs may be constrained by tradeoffs, between allocating resources to wings versus legs during development, or between wing versus leg investment and performance (because legs must be carried as baggage by wings during flight and vice versa). Such tradeoffs would profoundly affect the development and evolution of locomotor strategies, and many related aspects of animal ecology. Here, we provide the first evaluation of wing versus leg investment, performance and relative use, in birds-both across species, and during ontogeny in three precocial species with different ecologies. Our results suggest that tradeoffs between wing and leg modules help shape ontogenetic and evolutionary trajectories, but can be offset by recruiting modules cooperatively. These findings offer a new paradigm for exploring locomotor strategies of flying organisms and their extinct precursors, and thereby elucidating some of the most spectacular diversity in animal history. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Laboratory Evolution to Alternating Substrate Environments Yields Distinct Phenotypic and Genetic Adaptive Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Troy E.; Lloyd, Colton J.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments are often designed to maintain a static culturing environment to minimize confounding variables that could influence the adaptive process, but dynamic nutrient conditions occur frequently in natural and bioprocessing settings. To study the nature...... applications.IMPORTANCE Evolution and natural selection inexorably lead to an organism's improved fitness in a given environment, whether in a laboratory or natural setting. However, despite the frequent natural occurrence of complex and dynamic growth environments, laboratory evolution experiments typically...... maintain simple, static culturing environments so as to reduce selection pressure complexity. In this study, we investigated the adaptive strategies underlying evolution to fluctuating environments by evolving Escherichia coli to conditions of frequently switching growth substrate. Characterization...

  1. Enhancing intervertebral disc repair and regeneration through biology: platelet-rich plasma as an alternative strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a common orthopedic disease associated with mechanical changes that may result in significant pain. Current treatments for IDD mainly depend on conservative therapies and spinal surgeries that are only able to relieve the symptoms but do not address the cause of the degeneration and even accelerate the degeneration of adjacent segments. This has prompted research to improve our understanding of the biology of intervertebral disc healing and into methods to enhance the regenerative process. Recently, biological therapies, including active substances, gene therapy and tissue engineering based on certain cells, have been attracting more attention in the field of intervertebral disc repair and regeneration. Early selection of suitable biological treatment is an ideal way to prevent or even reverse the progressive trend of IDD. Growth factors have been enjoying more popularity in the field of regeneration of IDD and many have been proved to be effective in reversing the degenerative trend of the intervertebral disc. Identification of these growth factors has led to strategies to deliver platelet-derived factors to the intervertebral disc for regeneration. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is the latest technique to be evaluated for promoting intervertebral disc healing. Activation of the PRP leads to the release of growth factors from the α-granules in the platelet cytoplasm. These growth factors have been associated with the initiation of a healing cascade that leads to cellular chemotaxis, angiogenesis, synthesis of collagen matrix, and cell proliferation. This review describes the current understanding of IDD and related biological therapeutic strategies, especially the promising prospects of PRP treatment. Future limitations and perspectives of PRP therapy for IDD are also discussed. PMID:24165687

  2. Strategies and determinants for selection of alternate foot placement during human locomotion: influence of spatial and temporal constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Renato; Lewis, M Anthony; Patla, Aftab E

    2004-11-01

    During locomotion in a cluttered terrain, certain terrain surfaces such as an icy one are not appropriate for foot placement; an alternate choice is required. In a previous study we showed that the selection of foot placement is not random but systematic; the dominant choices made are not uniquely defined by the available or predicted sensory inputs. We argued that selection is guided by specific rules and involves minimal displacement of the foot from its normal landing spot. The experimental protocol involved implicit spatial constraint by requiring individuals to step on the force plate that could trigger a lighted area to be avoided, thereby requiring individuals to respond within one step-cycle. Alternate foot placement was visually identified, but not measured. The purpose of this study was to directly measure foot placement, validate and/or refine the rules used to guide selection, and identify whether the alternate foot placement choices are influenced by spatial and temporal constraints on response selection. The area to be avoided was visible from the start and therefore individuals could plan and implement appropriate avoidance strategies without any temporal constraint. Spatial constraint introduced in this experiment included requirement both to step on a specific location and to avoid stepping on a specific location on the next step. The results provide support for the rules previously identified in guiding foot placement to an alternate location. Minimal displacement of the foot from its normal landing spot was validated as an important factor for selecting alternate foot placement. When several choices satisfied this factor, additional factors guide alternate foot placement. Modifications in the plane of progression are preferred while stepping wide is avoided. When no temporal constraints are imposed on the response selection, enhancing forward progression of the body becomes the dominant determinant followed by stability and lastly by energy costs

  3. Inducing the Alternative Oxidase Forms Part of the Molecular Strategy of Anoxic Survival in Freshwater Bivalves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Yusseppone

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems is spreading as a consequence of global change, including pollution and eutrophication. In the Patagonian Andes, a decline in precipitation causes reduced lake water volumes and stagnant conditions that limit oxygen transport and exacerbate hypoxia below the upper mixed layer. We analyzed the molecular and biochemical response of the North Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis after 10 days of experimental anoxia (<0.2 mg O2/L, hypoxia (2 mg O2/L, and normoxia (9 mg O2/L. Specifically, we investigated the expression of an alternative oxidase (AOX pathway assumed to shortcut the regular mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS during metabolic rate depression (MRD in hypoxia-tolerant invertebrates. Whereas, the AOX system was strongly upregulated during anoxia in gills, ETS activities and energy mobilization decreased [less transcription of glycogen phosphorylase (GlyP and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH in gills and mantle]. Accumulation of succinate and induction of malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity could indicate activation of anaerobic mitochondrial pathways to support anoxic survival in D. chilensis. Oxidative stress [protein carbonylation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx expression] and apoptotic intensity (caspase 3/7 activity decreased, whereas an unfolded protein response (HSP90 was induced under anoxia. This is the first clear evidence of the concerted regulation of the AOX and ETS genes in a hypoxia-tolerant freshwater bivalve and yet another example that exposure to hypoxia and anoxia is not necessarily accompanied by oxidative stress in hypoxia-tolerant mollusks.

  4. Two Alternative Strategies for Raising Public Awareness of Science and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Couto Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s knowledge society it is important to keep people informed about emerging technological developments while at the same time providing an accurate scientific and historical framework for such novelties in order to contribute to eradicate existing misconceptions. Dissemination of science and technology is presently essential to convey information within the research communities as well as among the younger generations and the general public. This paper describes two initiatives which pursue this objective by using multimedia tools. One consists in a set of 250 one-minute programs about engineering topics which were broadcast on TV, radio and the multimedia online platform of a daily journal. The other is a collection of videos produced by a research unit in two alternative formats aimed at specialist and general viewers. Both initiatives, based on two very different budgets, may be instrumental for improving the general perception of the role of engineering and for attracting new vocations. The multimedia contents developed are also valuable teaching tools.

  5. Greek Civil Society’s Online Alternative Networks as Emergent Resilience Strategies in Time of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zafiropoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of new communications technologies and social media, in Greece, during the time of crisis, has led to the development of numerous online informal Civil Society Networks (CSNs (i.e. networking-building platforms, self - organized groups in Facebook, forums, exchange platforms proposing a rethinking of the status quo of formal civil organizations. This research, utilizing the methodology of discourse analysis, aims at summarizing the rise of these networks in Greece that incorporates both solidarity initiatives and autonomous political/economic spaces and identify the indicative predictive factors of their survival and growth. Some basic conclusions that have been drawn through this research is that alternative online networks can be proven as indicative sign of the social dynamism of a given period but in order to be resilient and sustainable they should develop focal points of physical reference, pursue national representation, focus mainly on monothematic goods/services and cultivate, in several cases, links with relevant social movements and local or national NGOs. A general induction through this research is that a CSN, during this current crisis, stands between two classical models of reference in a society seeking modernity and flexibility and can be considered as a proposed type of effective experimentation and mobilization that can pursue common social goals and serve needs of deprived people. Some issues that still remain underexplored and need further elaboration are social and political identity of participants, the potential links with local, national and international communities, the functional balance between structure and flexibility as well as the efficient distribution of energy between solidarity and protest.

  6. Comparative life cycle assessment of alternative strategies for energy recovery from used cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Mendecka, Barbara; Carnevale, Ennio

    2017-05-15

    The separate collection of Used Cooking Oil (UCO) is gaining popularity through several countries in Europe. An appropriate management of UCO waste stream leads to substantial benefits. In this study, we analyse two different possibilities of UCO energy reuse: the direct feed to a reciprocating internal combustion engine (ICE) for cogeneration purpose, and the processing to generate biodiesel. Concerning biodiesel production, we analyse four among conventional and innovative technologies, characterised by different type and amount of used chemicals, heat and electricity consumptions and yields. We perform a systematic evaluation of environmental benefits and drawbacks by applying life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis to compare the alternatives. For the impact assessment, two methods are selected: the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CExC). Results related only to the processing phases (i.e. not including yet the avoided effects) show that the recovery of UCO in cogeneration plant has in general lower values in terms of environmental impacts than its employment in biodiesel production. When products and co-products substitution are included, the savings obtained by the substitution of conventional diesel production, in the biodiesel cases, are significantly higher than the avoided effects for electricity and heat in the cogeneration case. In particular, by using the UCO in the biodiesel production processes, the savings vary from 41.6 to 54.6 GJ ex per tUCO, and from 2270 to 2860 kg CO 2eq per tUCO for CExC and GWP, respectively. A particular focus is put on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Overall, high uncertainty of final results for process impacts is observed, especially for the supercritical methanol process. Low uncertainty values are evaluated for the avoided effects. Including the uncertain character of the impacts, cogeneration scenario and NaOH catalysed process of biodiesel production result to be the most suitable

  7. Exploration of alternate catalytic mechanisms and optimization strategies for retroaldolase design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelic, Sinisa; Kipnis, Yakov; Wang, Ling; Pianowski, Zbigniew; Vorobiev, Sergey; Su, Min; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Xiao, Rong; Kornhaber, Gregory; Hunt, John F; Tong, Liang; Hilvert, Donald; Baker, David

    2014-01-09

    Designed retroaldolases have utilized a nucleophilic lysine to promote carbon-carbon bond cleavage of β-hydroxy-ketones via a covalent Schiff base intermediate. Previous computational designs have incorporated a water molecule to facilitate formation and breakdown of the carbinolamine intermediate to give the Schiff base and to function as a general acid/base. Here we investigate an alternative active-site design in which the catalytic water molecule was replaced by the side chain of a glutamic acid. Five out of seven designs expressed solubly and exhibited catalytic efficiencies similar to previously designed retroaldolases for the conversion of 4-hydroxy-4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-2-butanone to 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde and acetone. After one round of site-directed saturation mutagenesis, improved variants of the two best designs, RA114 and RA117, exhibited among the highest kcat (>10(-3)s(-1)) and kcat/KM (11-25M(-1)s(-1)) values observed for retroaldolase designs prior to comprehensive directed evolution. In both cases, the >10(5)-fold rate accelerations that were achieved are within 1-3 orders of magnitude of the rate enhancements reported for the best catalysts for related reactions, including catalytic antibodies (kcat/kuncat=10(6) to 10(8)) and an extensively evolved computational design (kcat/kuncat>10(7)). The catalytic sites, revealed by X-ray structures of optimized versions of the two active designs, are in close agreement with the design models except for the catalytic lysine in RA114. We further improved the variants by computational remodeling of the loops and yeast display selection for reactivity of the catalytic lysine with a diketone probe, obtaining an additional order of magnitude enhancement in activity with both approaches. © 2013.

  8. Evaluation of selection strategies alternative to nptII in genetic transformation of citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Alida; Cervera, Magdalena; Peña, Leandro

    2008-06-01

    The neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) selection system has proved successful in citrus transformation; however, it may be recommendable to replace it given the pressure exerted against antibiotic-resistance selectable marker genes in transgenic plants. The present work investigates three different selection alternatives, comparing them to nptII selection in two citrus genotypes, Carrizo citrange and Pineapple sweet orange. The first method used the beta-glucuronidase (uidA) reporter marker gene for selection; the second attempted to generate marker-free plants by transforming explants with a multi-auto-transformation (MAT) vector, combining an inducible R/RS-specific recombination system with transgenic-shoot selection through expression of isopentenyl transferase (ipt) and indoleacetamide hydrolase/tryptophan monooxygenase (iaaM/H) marker genes; while the third exploited the phosphomannose isomerase (PMI)/mannose conditional positive selection system. Firstly, GUS screening of all regenerated shoots in kanamycin-free medium gave 4.3% transformation efficiency for both genotypes. Secondly, workable transformation efficiencies were also achieved with the MAT system, 7.2% for citrange and 6.7% for sweet orange. This system affords an additional advantage as it enables selectable marker genes to be used during the in vitro culture phase and later removed from the transgenic plants by inducible recombination and site-specific excision. Thirdly, the highest transformation rates were obtained with the PMI/mannose system, 30% for citrange and 13% for sweet orange, which indicates that this marker is also an excellent candidate for citrus transformation.

  9. An alternative strategy for perinatal verbal autopsy coding: single versus multiple coders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, C.; Jehan, I.; Ditekemena, J.; Garces, A.; Phiri, M.; Mazariegos, M.; Chomba, E.; Pasha, O.; Tshefu, A.; McClure, E. M.; Thorsten, V.; Chakraborty, H; Goldenberg, R. L.; Bose, C.; Carlo, W. A.; Wright, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine the comparability between cause of death by a single physician coder and a two-physician panel, using verbal autopsy. Methods The study was conducted between May 2007 and June 2008. Within a week of a perinatal death in 38 rural remote communities in Guatemala, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia and Pakistan, VA questionnaires were completed. Two independent physicians, unaware of the others decisions, assigned an underlying cause of death, in accordance with the causes listed in the chapter headings of the International classification diseases and related health problems, 10th revision (ICD-10). Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess level of agreement between physician coders. Results There were 9461 births during the study period; 252 deaths met study enrollment criteria and underwent verbal autopsy. Physicians assigned the same COD for 75% of stillbirths (K=0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.61–0.78) and 82% early neonatal deaths (K=0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.65–0.84). The patterns and proportion of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths determined by the physician coders were very similar compared to causes individually assigned by each physician. Similarly, rank order of the top 5 causes of stillbirth and early neonatal death were identical for each physician. Conclusion This study raises important questions about the utility of a system of multiple coders that is currently widely accepted, and speculates that a single physician coder may be an effective and economical alternative to VA programs that use traditional two-physician panels to assign COD. PMID:21371206

  10. Predicting thermally stressful events in rivers with a strategy to evaluate management alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, K.O.; Cole, J.C.; Schmid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor in river ecology. Numerous models have been developed to predict river temperature. However, many were not designed to predict thermally stressful periods. Because such events are rare, traditionally applied analyses are inappropriate. Here, we developed two logistic regression models to predict thermally stressful events in the Delaware River at the US Geological Survey gage near Lordville, New York. One model predicted the probability of an event >20.0 °C, and a second predicted an event >22.2 °C. Both models were strong (independent test data sensitivity 0.94 and 1.00, specificity 0.96 and 0.96) predicting 63 of 67 events in the >20.0 °C model and all 15 events in the >22.2 °C model. Both showed negative relationships with released volume from the upstream Cannonsville Reservoir and positive relationships with difference between air temperature and previous day's water temperature at Lordville. We further predicted how increasing release volumes from Cannonsville Reservoir affected the probabilities of correctly predicted events. For the >20.0 °C model, an increase of 0.5 to a proportionally adjusted release (that accounts for other sources) resulted in 35.9% of events in the training data falling below cutoffs; increasing this adjustment by 1.0 resulted in 81.7% falling below cutoffs. For the >22.2 °C these adjustments resulted in 71.1% and 100.0% of events falling below cutoffs. Results from these analyses can help managers make informed decisions on alternative release scenarios.

  11. Evaluation of research activities and research needs to increase the impact and applicability of alternative testing strategies in risk assessment practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, A.; Schiffelers, M.J.W.A.; Jean Horbach, G.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Groothuis, G.M.M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Blaauboer, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims at identifying strategies to increase the impact and applicability of alternative testing strategies in risk assessment. To this end, a quantitative and qualitative literature evaluation was performed on (a) current research efforts in the development of in vitro methods

  12. Multiple intelligences and alternative teaching strategies: The effects on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding, and attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baragona, Michelle

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between multiple intelligence strengths and alternative teaching methods on student academic achievement, conceptual understanding and attitudes. The design was a quasi-experimental study, in which students enrolled in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, a developmental biology course, received lecture only, problem-based learning with lecture, or peer teaching with lecture. These students completed the Multiple Intelligence Inventory to determine their intelligence strengths, the Students' Motivation Toward Science Learning questionnaire to determine student attitudes towards learning in science, multiple choice tests to determine academic achievement, and open-ended questions to determine conceptual understanding. Effects of intelligence types and teaching methods on academic achievement and conceptual understanding were determined statistically by repeated measures ANOVAs. No significance occurred in academic achievement scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in logical-mathematical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and intrapersonal intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by problem-based learning (PBL) as compared to peer teaching (PT). No significance occurred in conceptual understanding scores due to lab group or due to teaching method used; however, significant interactions between group and teaching method did occur in students with strengths in musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and spatial intelligences. Post-hoc analysis using Tukey HSD tests revealed students with strengths in logical-mathematical intelligence and enrolled in Group Three scored significantly higher when taught by lecture as compared to PBL. Students with

  13. Control strategy minimizing the converter-alternating current motor losses: application to electric traction; Strategies de commande minimisant les pertes d'un ensemble convertisseur - machine alternative: application a la traction electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiani, Ph.

    2001-02-01

    Improving the efficiency of the converter-alternating current motor system is a major task in electric traction. Global energy optimisation implies a specific approach at system scale. To reach this goal, we have chosen an algebraic method using sub-system models. To start with, a synchronous machine Park model is developed to take account magnetic saturation and iron losses. Then, an averaged model of the voltage inverter is used in order to obtain a simplified model of the losses to be implemented in our optimisation method. This is how the global model is built including losses in the synchronous machine along with the losses of the power converter. Experimental results are there to validate our approach. This study proposes a method based on algebraic formulation of the general laws to control torque. Algorithms take into account magnetic circuits saturation and power losses in both the machine and its converter. Here again, experimental results validate the algorithm on several test benches. Achieved efficiency improvement is important compared to existing usual control strategies. The proposed method can be generalised to other machine-converter systems. As a matter of fact we have extended our study to the induction machine. As a complement ti this study we have looked at the effects natural limitations of voltages and currents in the torque-speed plane. Therefore algebraic formulation of the torque-speed plane and optimisation strategies are proposed including those constraints. (author)

  14. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  15. Evaluation of ICA-AROMA and alternative strategies for motion artifact removal in resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruim, Raimon H R; Mennes, Maarten; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian F

    2015-05-15

    We proposed ICA-AROMA as a strategy for the removal of motion-related artifacts from fMRI data (Pruim et al., 2015). ICA-AROMA automatically identifies and subsequently removes data-driven derived components that represent motion-related artifacts. Here we present an extensive evaluation of ICA-AROMA by comparing our strategy to a range of alternative strategies for motion-related artifact removal: (i) no secondary motion correction, (ii) extensive nuisance regression utilizing 6 or (iii) 24 realignment parameters, (iv) spike regression (Satterthwaite et al., 2013a), (v) motion scrubbing (Power et al., 2012), (vi) aCompCor (Behzadi et al., 2007; Muschelli et al., 2014), (vii) SOCK (Bhaganagarapu et al., 2013), and (viii) ICA-FIX (Griffanti et al., 2014; Salimi-Khorshidi et al., 2014), without re-training the classifier. Using three different functional connectivity analysis approaches and four different multi-subject resting-state fMRI datasets, we assessed all strategies regarding their potential to remove motion artifacts, ability to preserve signal of interest, and induced loss in temporal degrees of freedom (tDoF). Results demonstrated that ICA-AROMA, spike regression, scrubbing, and ICA-FIX similarly minimized the impact of motion on functional connectivity metrics. However, both ICA-AROMA and ICA-FIX resulted in significantly improved resting-state network reproducibility and decreased loss in tDoF compared to spike regression and scrubbing. In comparison to ICA-FIX, ICA-AROMA yielded improved preservation of signal of interest across all datasets. These results demonstrate that ICA-AROMA is an effective strategy for removing motion-related artifacts from rfMRI data. Our robust and generalizable strategy avoids the need for censoring fMRI data and reduces motion-induced signal variations in fMRI data, while preserving signal of interest and increasing the reproducibility of functional connectivity metrics. In addition, ICA-AROMA preserves the temporal non

  16. Costs and Effectiveness of Treating Homeless Persons with Cocaine Addiction with Alternative Contingency Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Schumacher, Joseph E; Milby, Jesse B; Wallace, Dennis

    2017-03-01

    "Housing First", achieved better abstinence (12.1 v. 10 weeks) at higher average cost (USD 22,512 v. USD 17,541) yielding an ICER for this comparison of (USD 2,367, 95% CI=USD -10,587 to USD 12,467). Similar results are found at 12 months (6 months after active treatment). More intensive methods of counseling improved abstinence but 4 of the 7 treatments were inefficient ("dominated"). Bootstrapping shows that results are sensitive to which individuals were randomly assigned to each arm. A limitation of the analysis is that it does not consider the full societal cost of lost wages, crime costs beyond jail expenses and deterioration of neighborhood quality of life. Additionally, populations treated by Housing First programs may differ from the Birmingham Homeless studies in the severity of addiction or co-occuring psychological problems. The Homeless studies show that abstinent contingent safe housing with counseling can substantially improve abstinence for homeless cocaine abusers. Incremental costs rise sharply with more intensive counseling; modest programs of counseling may be more cost effective in a stepped treatment strategy.

  17. Coupling of radiofrequency with magnetic nanoparticles treatment as an alternative physical antibacterial strategy against multiple drug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh K.; Thorat, Nanasaheb D.; Tandon, Anshula; Kim, Jin-Hahn; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria not only affect human health and but also threatens the safety in hospitals and among communities. However, the emergence of drug resistant bacteria is inevitable due to evolutionary selection as a consequence of indiscriminate antibiotic usage. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel strategy by which pathogenic bacteria can be eliminated without triggering resistance. We propose a novel magnetic nanoparticle-based physical treatment against pathogenic bacteria, which blocks biofilm formation and kills bacteria. In this approach, multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 are trapped to the positively charged magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) by electrostatic interaction. All the trapped bacteria can be completely killed within 30 min owing to the loss of membrane potential and dysfunction of membrane-associated complexes when exposed to the radiofrequency current. These results indicate that MCSNP-based physical treatment can be an alternative antibacterial strategy without leading to antibiotic resistance, and can be used for many purposes including environmental and therapeutic applications.

  18. Mentoring for text editors: Fit for purpose in the era of freelancing, more so than alternative development strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Linnegar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the supportive role that mentoring relationships currently do and should play in the development and careers of text editors is described against the background of the particular circumstances of these service providers in a sector experiencing great organisational and technological changes. This is a group that is much neglected in the literature on mentoring. Since the mentoring of text editors is distinct from other forms of mentoring in a number of key respects, this article draws together what the literature has to say about both conventional and online or distance mentoring as performed in a range of contexts. I consider the application of Knowles’ (1970, 1984 adult learning theory and Bandura’s (1977 self-efficacy mechanisms to be important potential contributors to the success of mentorships, in particular those involving adult text editors. The article also critically analyses how mentoring for text editors can be distinguished from alternative development strategies such as coaching, training, teaching and counselling. It shows that mentoring is fundamentally different from these strategies according to ten criteria, and is better suited to text editors’ need for professional development as a form of lifelong adult e-learning. The lack of any form of assessment of mentees, in particular, is regarded as a weakness of the currently available mentorship programmes aiming to professionalise adult text editors through a process of lifelong learning.

  19. Viable group A streptococci in macrophages during acute soft tissue infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Thulin

    2006-03-01

    highlights a need for alternative therapeutic strategies.

  20. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    of streptococcal soft tissue infections highlights a need for alternative therapeutic strategies.

  1. Adoption of alternative financing strategies to increase the diffusion of picture archiving and communication systems into the radiology marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, B; Siegel, E; McKay, P

    2000-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate current marketplace conditions and strategies employed by major picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) vendors in the creation of alternative financing strategies, to enhance the diffusion of filmless imaging. Data were collected from the major PACS vendors in the forms of survey questionnaires and review of existing leases. Topics evaluated in the survey included current financing options available, foreseeable changes in PACS financing, role of third-party financiers, and creation of risk-sharing arrangements. Generic leases were also reviewed evaluating the presence or absence of several key variables including technology obsolescence protection, hardware/software upgrades, end-of-term options, determination of fair market value, functionality/acceptance testing, uptime guarantees, and workflow management consulting. Eight of the 10 PACS vendors surveyed participated in the data collection. The vast majority of current PACS implementations (60% to 90%) occur through direct purchase, with conventional leasing (operating or capital) accounting for only 5% to 30% of PACS installations. The majority of respondents view fee-for-lease arrangements and other forms of risk sharing as increasing importance for future PACS financing. The specific targets for such risk-sharing arrangements consist of small hospital and privately owned imaging centers. Leases currently offered range in duration from 3 to 5 years and frequently offer technology obsolescence protection with upgrades, multiple end-of-term options, and some form of acceptance testing. A number of important variables frequently omitted from leases include uptime guarantees, flexibility in changing financing or vendors, and incorporation of expected productivity/operational efficiency gains. As vendors strive to increase the penetration of PACS into the radiology marketplace, there will be a shift from conventional financing (loan or purchase) to leasing. Fee

  2. Methodology for assessing alternative water-acquisition-and-use strategies for energy facilities in the American West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.J.; Adams, E.E.; Harleman, D.R.F.; Marks, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    A method for assessing alternative strategies for acquiring and using water at western energy plants was developed. The method was tested in a case study of cooling-water use for a hypothetical steam-electric power plant on the Crazy Woman Creek, an unregulated stream in Wyoming. The results from the case study suggest a careful analysis of reservoir design and water-right purchase strategies can reduce the cost of acquiring and using water at an energy facility. The method uses simulation models to assess the capital and operating costs and expected monthly water-consumption rates for different cooling-system designs. The method also uses reservoir operating algorithms to select, for a fixed cooling-system design, the optimal tradeoff between building a make-up water reservoir and purchasing water rights. These tradeoffs can be used to derive the firm's true demand curve for different sources of water. The analysis also reveals the implicit cost of selecting strategies that minimize conflicts with other water users. Results indicate that: (1) cooling ponds are as good as or preferred to wet towers because their costs already include provisions for storing water for use during the normally dry summer months and during occasional drought years; (2) the energy firm's demand for overall water consumption in the cooling system was found to be inversely proportional to both the cost of installing make-up water reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility; and (3) the firm's willingness to pay for existing rights is proportional to both the cost of installing reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility.

  3. Strategies in protein sequencing and characterization: Multi-enzyme digestion coupled with alternate CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardiello, Donatella; Palermo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.palermo@unifg.it; Natale, Anna; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • Multi-enzyme digestion for protein sequencing and characterization by CID/ETD. • Simultaneous use of trypsin/chymotrypsin for the maximization of sequence. • Identification of PTMs, sequence variants and species-specific residues. • Increase of accuracy in sequence assignments by orthogonal fragmentation techniques. - Abstract: A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

  4. An alternative strategy to apply equilibrium models to metamorphic rocks with disequilibrium features (GMPV Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Metamorphic rocks evolve dynamically in response to changes in pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions by adjusting their mineral assemblage, modes and compositions in an attempt to minimize their Gibbs free energy. The transformations are achieved by dissolution-precipitation via successive mineral reactions. Along a given P-T trajectory the evolution of metamorphic rocks can be easily modeled using the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization. Such a forward modeling technique requires a good approximation of the bulk rock composition and an appropriate thermodynamic dataset with complex solid solution models. Recent progress in the accuracy and efficiency of such techniques has had a major impact on the evolution of metamorphic petrology especially in our understanding of the physical conditions occurring in the crust. However, metamorphic rocks commonly preserve mineralogical and textural relics, such as compositionally zoned minerals. These archives are vitally important because they provide a (partial) record of the successive transformations and thus allow the reconstruction of their P-T history; but they also indicate that a rock-wide thermodynamic equilibrium clearly was not attained during the evolution of the rock. In this context, the use of an equilibrium model to understand the metamorphic petrogenesis can be questioned. It becomes necessary to quantify the compositional and textural effects on P-T estimation and to develop alternative modeling strategies that incorporate the complexity of the texture and mineral compositions. In this contribution, I seek to establish an alternative modeling framework to decipher the P-T history of metamorphic rocks. For this purpose it is essential to provide the adapted computer tools to study and model the mineral compositional variability in link with rock textures. Thermodynamic models are applied to local domains using quantitative compositional maps. The goal is to apply the equilibrium model to the

  5. A psychological effect of having a potentially viable sequestration strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2006-07-13

    Purposeful carbon sequestration by direct injection into the deep ocean can store carbon for centuries. Even after injected carbon begins to leak back out to the atmosphere, much of the injected carbon will remain sequestered because of the acid neutralizing capacity of seawater. The slow leakage that occurs centuries into the future can give a false sense of security that the carbon and climate problem is under control. If this were to cause policy makers to become less vigilant about reducing the total emissions of anthropogenic carbon, our descendants would be penalized with having much higher carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere when leakage begins. This "carelessness feedback" would apply to other forms of sequestration that are not permanent. To avoid falling into this trap requires generations of policy makers to be aware of the feedback and committed to intergenerational equity.

  6. A psychological effect of having a potentially viable sequestration strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Katsumi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purposeful carbon sequestration by direct injection into the deep ocean can store carbon for centuries. Even after injected carbon begins to leak back out to the atmosphere, much of the injected carbon will remain sequestered because of the acid neutralizing capacity of seawater. The slow leakage that occurs centuries into the future can give a false sense of security that the carbon and climate problem is under control. If this were to cause policy makers to become less vigilant about reducing the total emissions of anthropogenic carbon, our descendants would be penalized with having much higher carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere when leakage begins. This "carelessness feedback" would apply to other forms of sequestration that are not permanent. To avoid falling into this trap requires generations of policy makers to be aware of the feedback and committed to intergenerational equity.

  7. A psychological effect of having a potentially viable sequestration strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Purposeful carbon sequestration by direct injection into the deep ocean can store carbon for centuries. Even after injected carbon begins to leak back out to the atmosphere, much of the injected carbon will remain sequestered because of the acid neutralizing capacity of seawater. The slow leakage that occurs centuries into the future can give a false sense of security that the carbon and climate problem is under control. If this were to cause policy makers to become less vigilant abo...

  8. Skills training workshops as a viable strategy for improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical evidence from this study shows that six months after attending the workshops, project managers introduced positive changes in the personnel and financial management of their projects, and increased the volume and value of their projects outputs. They also undertook new investments, obtained new loans and ...

  9. The STARS Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening Participation in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Teresa; Barnes, Tiffany; Buch, Kim; Rorrer, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    The Students and Technology in Academia, Research, and Service (STARS) Alliance is a nationally-connected system of regional partnerships among higher education, K-12 schools, industry and the community with a mission to broaden the participation of women, under-represented minorities and persons with disabilities in computing (BPC). Each regional…

  10. Biodiversity information resource sharing as a viable strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Availability of accurate biodiversity information is a paramount necessity in facilitating the process of decision making on biodiversity resource use and protection. In Tanzania, like other countries in East Africa, a lot of biodiversity data and information is produced, analysed and disseminated as reports, seminars, ...

  11. Is Microcredit a Viable Strategy for Empowering Women? | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microfinance institutions (MFIs) grant microcredits to hundreds of thousands of people, particularly women in developing countries with the aim of empowering them. The microcredits in the form of small loans to women are considered a tool for empowering women toward change in their socio-economic conditions.

  12. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies as symptom management strategies for the late effects of breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneghan, Ashley M; Harrison, Tracie

    2015-03-01

    Advancements in breast cancer treatment continue to improve the likelihood of survival. The increase in survival has come at a cost, however; the late effects of breast cancer treatment have remained a constant reminder to women of what they have endured and require holistic nursing's attention. One area of nursing practice that might improve the condition of breast cancer survivors once their treatment has ended is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. To provide guidance to nurses working with breast cancer survivors, a focused review of the literature exploring the symptomatology and prevalence of breast cancer's late effects as well as the use of CAM therapies to improve those effects is presented. Evidence suggests that CAM therapies have sometimes been incorporated into symptom management strategies currently employed; however, the evidential claims as a whole have been generally inconclusive, especially for complete resolution of the late effects. Regardless, a number of studies demonstrate a reduction of negative symptoms experienced with few to no side effects of CAM therapies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Aerosol infectivity of a Baculovirus to Trichoplusia ni larvae: An alternative larval inoculation strategy for recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Kao, Suey-Sheng; Tseng, Yin-Chin; Chen, Ying-Ju; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The baculovirus-insect expression system is a popular tool for recombinant protein production. The standard method for infecting insect larvae with recombinant baculovirus for protein production involves either feeding occlusion bodies or injecting budded virus into the cuticle. In this study, we showed that the recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) at titers >10(8) pfu/mL efficiently infected Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae through aerosol inoculation of budded virus at a pressure of 5.5 x 10(4) Pa. The dipping T. ni larvae in virus-containing solution efficiently infected them. These results indicate that surface contamination, either by aerosol or dipping, lead to infection via spiracles. The aerosol infection route for AcMNPV was restricted to T. ni and Plutella xylostella larvae, whereas Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera larvae were resistant to this inoculation process. The yields of the reporter proteins DsRed and EGFP from T. ni larvae following aerosol infection were nearly identical to those following oral feeding or injection. This alternative baculovirus infection strategy facilitates recombinant protein and virus production by insect larvae. (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol.

  14. The effects of Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies Preschool Program on teacher-children relationships and children's social competence in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir Seyhan, Gamze; Ocak Karabay, Sakire; Arda Tuncdemir, Tugce B; Greenberg, Mark T; Domitrovich, Celene

    2017-05-02

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Preschool Program on the outcomes of children's social-emotional competence, perceived relationships between teacher and children and teachers' ability to create a positive classroom atmosphere. Two hundred and eighty five children (48-72 months) and teachers in Izmir participated in the intervention, and 280 children (48-72 months) and teachers participated as comparison group. Intervention teachers implemented PATHS in their classrooms. For data triangulation, multiple sources of data were collected in the study. Classrooms were observed using two different scales. Teacher rated students using another two different scales. Children were assessed with an interview to evaluate their perceptions of relationships. Intervention group teachers reported greater improvement of children's social-emotional skills, interpersonal relationship skills and emotion regulation. Furthermore, when observed intervention group children showed higher levels of pro-social behaviour, increased levels of compliance, better problem solving skills and more positive feelings. Intervention group children also described their relationships with their teachers as significantly more positively. Finally, intervention group teachers perceived more dependency in their relationships with children. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Using Generic Examples to Make Viable Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Ely, Rob; Yopp, David

    2017-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen an increased call to train students to craft mathematical arguments. The third of the Common Core's (CCSS) Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP 3) (CCSSI 2010) calls for all mathematically proficient students to "construct viable arguments" to support the truth of their ideas and to "critique…

  16. Comments on B. Kumaravadivelu's "The Postmethod Condition: (E)merging Strategies for Second/Foreign Language Teaching.""Alternative to" or "Addition to" Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dilin

    1995-01-01

    This critique of an article by B. Kumaravadivelu argues that principles/strategies should not and cannot replace methods; it also takes issue with Kumaravadivelu's claim that his strategic framework is an alternative to, not simply an addition to, method. A reply by Kumaravadivelu is included. (Contains nine references.) (LR)

  17. Understanding oral stereotypies in calves: alternative strategies, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (re)activity and gene by environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, L E; van Reenen, C G; Engel, B; Berends, H; Gerrits, W J J; Bokkers, E A M

    2017-06-01

    Stereotypies are used as indicators of poor animal welfare and it is, therefore, important to understand underlying factors mediating their development. In calves, two oral stereotypies, that is, tongue playing and object manipulation, result mostly from insufficient structure in the diet. Three hypotheses were studied: (1) oral stereotypies in calves are one of two alternative strategies, the alternative being hypo-activity; (2) stereotyping and non-stereotyping calves differ in terms of cortisol secretion; (3) oral stereotypy development in calves rests on a gene by environment interaction. Eight-week-old bull calves (n=48) were assigned to one of four solid feed allowances (0, 9, 18 or 27 g dry matter/kg metabolic weight per day) with the following composition: 50% concentrate, 25% maize silage and 25% straw on dry matter basis. The calves received milk replacer in buckets, the provision of which was adjusted to achieve equal growth rates. At 14 to 18 weeks of age, calves were exposed to a challenge, that is, tethering inside cages. Oral stereotypies and inactivity were recorded in the home pens in the 4 weeks before the challenge using instantaneous scan sampling. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at -120, +40, +80, +120 min and +48 h relative to the challenge. Individual differences in behaviour were recorded in the first 30 min after challenge implementation using focal animal sampling and continuous recording, and these elements were entered into a principal component (PC) analysis to extract PCs. Regression analyses were performed to find relationships between stereotypies and inactivity, stereotypies and cortisol, and stereotypies and PCs (individual differences, genes) and solid feed (environment). Relationships between PCs and cortisol were also investigated to help with the interpretation of PCs. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were rejected. Hypothesis 3, however, was supported: calves with a zero solid feed allowance, that is, in the most barren environment

  18. The Northeastern United States Energy-Water Nexus: Climate Change Impacts and Alternative Water Management Strategies for the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Macknick, J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Cohen, S. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeastern United States (NE) relies heavily on thermoelectric power plants (90% of total capacity) to provide electricity to more than 70 million people. This region's power plants require consistent, large volumes of water at sufficiently cold temperatures to generate electricity efficiently, and withdraw approximately 10.5 trillion gallons of water annually. Previous findings indicate that assessments of future electricity pathways must account for water availability, water temperature and the changing climate, as changes in these conditions may limit operational efficiency in the future. To account for such electric system vulnerabilities, we have created a link between an electricity system capacity expansion model (ReEDS) and a hydrologic model that is coupled to a power plant simulation model (FrAMES-TP2M) that allows for a new approach to analyze electricity system development, performance, and environmental impacts. Together, these coupled tools allow us to estimate electricity development and operations in the context of a changing climate and impacts on the seasonal spatial and temporal variability of water resources, downstream thermal effluents that cause plant-to-plant interferences and harm aquatic habitat, economic costs of water conservation methods and associated carbon emissions. In this study, we test and compare a business-as-usual strategy with three alternative water management scenarios that include changes in cooling technologies and water sources utilized for the years 2014-2050. Results of these experiments can provide useful insight into the feasibility of the electricity expansion scenarios in terms of associated water use and thermal impacts, carbon emissions, the cost of generating electricity, and also highlight the importance of accounting for water resources in future power sector planning and performance assessments.

  19. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in winter wheat: II. alternative strategies using the CropSyst simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corbellini

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important, both for farmer profit and for the environment, to correctly dose fertilizer nitrogen (N for winter wheat growth. Balance-sheet methods are often used to calculate the recommended dose of N fertilizer. Other methods are based on the dynamic simulation of cropping systems. Aim of the work was to evaluate the balance-sheet method set up by the Region Emilia-Romagna (DPI, by comparing it with the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst (CS, and with an approach based on fixed supplies of N (T. A 3-year trial was structured as a series of N fertility regimes at 3 sites (Papiano di Marsciano, Ravenna, San Pancrazio. The N-regimes were generated at each site-year as separate trials in which 3 N rates were applied: N1 (DPI, N2 (DPI+50 kg ha-1 N at spike initiation, N3 (DPI + 50 kg ha-1 N at early booting. Above ground biomass and soil data (NO3-N and water were sampled and used to calibrate CS. Doses of fertilizer N were calculated by both DPI and CS for winter wheat included in three typical rotations for Central and Northern Italy. Both these methods and method T were simulated at each site over 50 years, by using daily generated weather data. The long-term simulation allowed evaluating such alternative fertilization strategies. DPI and CS estimated comparable crop yields and N leached amounts, and both resulted better than T. Minor risk of leaching emerged for all N doses. The N2 and N3 rates allowed slightly higher crop yields than N1.

  20. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  1. Air-spore in Cartagena, Spain: viable and non-viable sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Vergara, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jose; Moreno-Grau, Stella

    2013-01-01

    In the presented study the airborne fungal spores of the semiarid city of Cartagena, Spain, are identified and quantified by means of viable or non-viable sampling methods. Airborne fungal samples were collected simultaneously using a filtration method and a pollen and particle sampler based on the Hirst methodology. This information is very useful for elucidating geographical patterns of hay fever and asthma. The qualitative results showed that when the non-viable methodology was employed, Cladosporium, Ustilago, and Alternaria were the most abundant spores identified in the atmosphere of Cartagena, while the viable methodology showed that the most abundant taxa were: Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. The quantitative results of airborne fungal spores identified by the Hirst-type air sampler (non-viable method), showed that Deuteromycetes represented 74% of total annual spore counts, Cladosporium being the major component of the fungal spectrum (62.2%), followed by Alternaria (5.3%), and Stemphylium (1.3%). The Basidiomycetes group represented 18.9% of total annual spore counts, Ustilago (7.1%) being the most representative taxon of this group and the second most abundant spore type. Ascomycetes accounted for 6.9%, Nectria (2.3%) being the principal taxon. Oomycetes (0.2%) and Zygomycestes and Myxomycestes (0.06%) were scarce. The prevailing species define our bioaerosol as typical of dry air. The viable methodology was better at identifying small hyaline spores and allowed for the discrimination of the genus of some spore types. However, non-viable methods revealed the richness of fungal types present in the bioaerosol. Thus, the use of both methodologies provides a more comprehensive characterization of the spore profile.

  2. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión...

  3. Retrofitting a spent fuel pool spray system for alternative cooling as a strategy for beyond design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Christoph; Vujic, Zoran [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Due to requirements for nuclear power plants to withstand beyond design basis accidents, including events such as happened in 2011 in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, alternative cooling of spent fuel is needed. Alternative spent fuel cooling can be provided by a retrofitted spent fuel pool spray system based on the AP1000 plant design. As part of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant's Safety Upgrade Program, Krsko Nuclear Power Plant decided on, and Westinghouse successfully designed a retrofit of the AP1000 {sup registered} plant spent fuel pool spray system to provide alternative spent fuel cooling.

  4. Enzymatic isolation of viable human odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffaro, H M; Pääkkönen, V; Tjäderhane, L

    2016-05-01

    To improve an enzymatic method previously used for isolation of rat odontoblasts to isolate viable mature human odontoblasts. Collagenase I, collagenase I/hyaluronidase mixture and hyaluronidase were used to extract mature human odontoblasts from the pulp chamber. Detachment of odontoblasts from dentine was determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and to analyse the significance of differences in tubular diameter, and the t-test was used. MTT-reaction was used to analyse cell viability, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney post hoc tests were used to analyse the data. Immunofluorescent staining of dentine sialoprotein (DSP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were used to confirm the odontoblastic nature of the cells. MTT-reaction and FESEM demonstrated collagenase I/hyaluronidase resulted in more effective detachment and higher viability than collagenase I alone. Hyaluronidase alone was not able to detach odontoblasts. Immunofluorescence revealed the typical odontoblastic-morphology with one process, and DSP, AQP4 and MMP-20 were detected. Quantitative PCR of DSPP confirmed that the isolated cells expressed this odontoblast-specific gene. The isolation of viable human odontoblasts was successful. The cells demonstrated morphology typical for odontoblasts and expressed characteristic odontoblast-type genes and proteins. This method will enable new approaches, such as apoptosis analysis, for studies using fully differentiated odontoblasts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  6. Is case-based learning an effective teaching strategy to challenge students' alternative conceptions regarding chemical kinetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Eylem; Taştan-Kırık, Özgecan; Boz, Yezdan; Yıldıran, Demet

    2012-07-01

    Background: Case-based learning (CBL) is simply teaching the concept to the students based on the cases. CBL involves a case, which is a scenario based on daily life, and study questions related to the case, which allows students to discuss their ideas. Chemical kinetics is one of the most difficult concepts for students in chemistry. Students have generally low levels of conceptual understanding and many alternative conceptions regarding it. Purpose: This study aimed to explore the effect of CBL on dealing with students' alternative conceptions about chemical kinetics. Sample: The sample consists of 53 high school students from one public high school in Turkey. Design and methods : Nonequivalent pre-test and post-test control group design was used. Reaction Rate Concept Test and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Convenience sampling technique was followed. For data analysis, the independent samples t-test and ANOVA was performed. Results : Both concept test and interview results showed that students instructed with cases had better understanding of core concepts of chemical kinetics and had less alternative conceptions related to the subject matter compared to the control group students, despite the fact that it was impossible to challenge all the alternative conceptions in the experimental group. Conclusions: CBL is an effective teaching method for challenging students' alternative conceptions in the context of chemical kinetics. Since using cases in small groups and whole class discussions has been found to be an effective way to cope with the alternative conceptions, it can be applied to other subjects and grade levels in high schools with a higher sample size. Furthermore, the effect of this method on academic achievement, motivation and critical thinking skills are other variables that can be investigated for future studies in the subject area of chemistry.

  7. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  8. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  9. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  10. Impact Assessment and Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Alternative Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies Based on Treated Wastewater in Northern Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For better planning of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR project, the most promising strategies should analyze the environmental impact, socio-economic efficiency, and their contribution to the existing or future water resource conditions in the region. The challenge of such studies is to combine and quantify a wide range of criteria from the environment and society. This necessity leads to an integrated concept and analysis. This paper outlines an integrated approach considering environmental, health, social and economic aspects to support in the decision-making process to implement a managed aquifer recharge project as a potential response to water resource problems. In order to demonstrate the approach in detail, this paper analysed several water resources management strategies based on MAR implementation, by using treated wastewater in the Northern Gaza Strip and the potential impacts of the strategies on groundwater resources, agriculture, environment, health, economy and society. Based on the Palestinian water policy (Year 2005–2025 on wastewater reuse, three MAR strategies were developed in close cooperation with the local decision makers. The strategies were compared with a base line strategy referred to as the so-called “Do Nothing Approach”. The results of the study show that MAR project implementation with treated wastewater at a maximum rate, considered together with sustainable development of groundwater, is the best and most robust strategy amongst those analyzed. The analysis shows the defined MAR strategies contribute to water resources development and environmental protection or improvement including an existing eutrophic lake. The integrated approach used in this paper may be applicable not only to MAR project implementation but also to other water resources and environmental development projects.

  11. Alternative forest management strategies to account for climate change-induced productivity and species suitability changes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Reyer, C.; Hanewinkel, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Cullmann, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present for the first time a study on alternative forest management at the European scale to account for climate change impacts. We combine insights into detailed studies at high resolution with the actual status of the forest and a realistic estimate of the current management practices at large

  12. The effect of double nursing, an alternative nursing strategy for the hyper-prolific sow herd, on herd performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Manon A M; Tobias, Tijs J; Holstege, Manon M C

    2017-01-01

    Hyper-prolific sows produce more piglets than they can suckle, as the number of milk producing teats of the sow is lower (twelve to sixteen) than the number of live born piglets per litter. Farmers and farm workers are struggling to feed this surplus of piglets. To minimize suckling piglet mortality, litter size at 24 hours after parturition should not exceed the number of functional teats of the sow. Strategies to adequately nurse or feed the surplus of piglets after 24 hours are limited and mostly restricted to either fostering piglets by other sows, supplying milk replacers (formula) or early weaning and rearing on formula. In this case report we describe the design and application of a so called 'double nursing' strategy, for which one sow simultaneously nurses two litters from birth to weaning. Piglet mortality and reproductive parameters of sows that have nursed two litters are compared, over a three year period, with those that nursed one litter. In this herd, the double nursing strategy appeared to be a successful strategy. Double nursing sows experienced a lower piglet mortality, despite the double nursing strategy. The negative effects on reproduction proved to be limited, there was a negative effect on litter size in subsequent litters, but no significant effect on the interval weaning to next conception. It has to be noted though that not all characteristics on which double nursing selection takes place, could be taken into account during statistical analyses.

  13. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Globalised World : alternative perceptiveness of terrorist emergence theory and policing strategies confrontation with human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkas, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation and development in technology have advanced terrorism to reach a broader target audience. Especially focussing at the international co-operation strategies and combined social networks, terrorist activities have an direct- and indirect effect on private households, international commerce and local governments. Security institutions and state organisations use various combinations of counter- terrorism measures, that are mostly social-, political-, or financial in nature. Neverth...

  14. The PM&R Journal Implements a Social Media Strategy to Disseminate Research and Track Alternative Metrics in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, William N; Silver, Julie K; Katz, Matthew S

    2017-12-15

    Implementation science is an evolving part of translating evidence into clinical practice and public health policy. This report describes how a social media strategy for the journal PM&R using metrics, including alternative metrics, contributes to the dissemination of research and other information in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation. The primary goal of the strategy was to disseminate information about rehabilitation medicine, including but not limited to new research published in the journal, to healthcare professionals. Several different types of metrics were studied, including alternative metrics that are increasingly being used to demonstrate impact in academic medicine. A secondary goal was to encourage diversity and inclusion of the physiatric workforce-enhancing the reputations of all physiatrists by highlighting their research, lectures, awards and other accomplishments with attention to those who may be underrepresented. A third goal was to educate the public so that they are more aware of the field and how to access care. This report describes the early results following initiation of PM&R's coordinated social media strategy. Through a network of social media efforts that are strategically integrated, physiatrists and their associated institutions have an opportunity to advance their research and clinical agendas, support the diverse physiatric workforce, and educate the public about the field to enhance patient awareness and access to care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  16. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  17. Is Greenberg's "Macro-Carib" viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg's primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib 'etymologies' and another 64 Amerind 'etymologies'. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg's Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg's morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg's 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable

  18. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  19. Evaluation of ICA-AROMA and alternative strategies for motion artifact removal in resting state fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruim, R.H.; Mennes, M.; Buitelaar, J.; Beckmann, C.F.

    2015-01-01

    We proposed ICA-AROMA as a strategy for the removal of motion-related artifacts from fMRI data (Pruim et al., submitted for publication). ICA-AROMA automatically identifies and subsequently removes data-driven derived components that represent motion-related artifacts. Here we present an extensive

  20. The stadium diagram, a web-based tool for visualizing the expected outcomes of alternative clinical management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Douglas S; Sobolevsky, Steven; Day, Frank C; Hoffman, Jerome R; Higa, Jerilyn K; Wilkes, Michael S

    2005-01-01

    To explore the use of graphical animation for helping clinicians to understand the evidence about expected risks and benefits associated with multi-step clinical management strategies. We used Flash and XML to create a tool capable of displaying the sequence of health state changes that may result from a specific management strategy, as applied to a simulated population. We evaluated this tool in 6 focus groups involving a total of 44 community internists and family physicians. We successively revised the tool based on grounded theory analysis of the focus group transcripts. The process of responding to design issues raised in focus groups resulted in a final tool that presents a group of person icons arranged in rows to give the illusion of people in a stadium or theater. Each action in the management strategy causes persons to change color and move among rows to reflect changes in health state. The tool can play audio narration to explain each step and links are provided to the supporting evidence. Most physicians found these visualizations to be attractive and clear. Some were interested in using the tool with patients. Others rejected the specific decision model used to demonstrate the tool and a few rejected the notion of applying quantitative risks to individual patients. A visual approach to demonstrating the possible benefits and harms of a given management strategy holds interest for many clinicians. However, visualizations may fail to influence clinicians who do not believe the available evidence.

  1. Partnerships: An Alternative Development Strategy. Inter-American Foundation 2000 in Review, October 1, 1999 to September 30, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan, Ed.

    The Inter-American Foundation (IAF), an independent agency of the U.S. government, works in Latin America and the Caribbean to promote equitable, participatory, and sustainable self-help development by awarding grants directly to local organizations. Its principal strategy is to support public-private partnerships that mobilize local, national,…

  2. Physical and biological responses to an alternative removal strategy of a moderate-sized dam in Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon Claeson; B. Coffin

    2015-01-01

    Dam removal is an increasingly practised river restoration technique, and ecological responses vary with watershed, dam and reservoir properties, and removal strategies. Moderate-sized dams, like Hemlock Dam (7.9m tall and 56m wide), are large enough that removal effects could be significant, but small enough that mitigation may be possible through a modified dam...

  3. Cost-effectiveness and public health impact of alternative influenza vaccination strategies in high-risk adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviotta, Jonathan M; Smith, Kenneth J; DePasse, Jay; Brown, Shawn T; Shim, Eunha; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Wateska, Angela; France, Glenson S; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2017-10-09

    High-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (HD-IIV3) or recombinant trivalent influenza vaccine (RIV) may increase influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in adults with conditions that place them at high risk for influenza complications. This analysis models the public health impact and cost-effectiveness (CE) of these vaccines for 50-64year-olds. Markov model CE analysis compared 5 strategies in 50-64year-olds: no vaccination; only standard-dose IIV3 offered (SD-IIV3 only), only quadrivalent influenza vaccine offered (SD-IIV4 only); high-risk patients receiving HD-IIV3, others receiving SD-IIV3 (HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV3); and high-risk patients receiving HD-IIV3, others receiving SD-IIV4 (HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV4). In a secondary analysis, RIV replaced HD-IIV3. Parameters were obtained from U.S. databases, the medical literature and extrapolations from VE estimates. Effectiveness was measured as 3%/year discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY) losses avoided. The least expensive strategy was SD-IIV3 only, with total costs of $99.84/person. The SD-IIV4 only strategy cost an additional $0.91/person, or $37,700/QALY gained. The HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV4 strategy cost $1.06 more than SD-IIV4 only, or $71,500/QALY gained. No vaccination and HD-IIV3 & SD-IIV3 strategies were dominated. Results were sensitive to influenza incidence, vaccine cost, standard-dose VE in the entire population and high-dose VE in high-risk patients. The CE of RIV for high-risk patients was dependent on as yet unknown parameter values. Based on available data, using high-dose influenza vaccine or RIV in middle-aged, high-risk patients may be an economically favorable vaccination strategy with public health benefits. Clinical trials of these vaccines in this population may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Making the relationships visible: testing alternative display design strategies for teaching principles of hemodynamic monitoring and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effken, J A; Kim, N G; Shaw, R E

    1994-01-01

    A hemodynamic monitoring and control task was used to explore the utility of perceptually based displays to teach basic hemodynamic principles. The baseline display showed discrete values of key hemodynamic data elements. Alternative displays showed (a) anatomical relationships between those elements, and (b) causal constraints. Critical care nurses and student nurses used simulated "drugs" to correct simple hemodynamic disturbances using the three displays. Showing the anatomic constraints on pressure and flow improved treatment coordination by novices. Showing how etiological factors related to symptoms shortened the time required to reach a criterion level of performance and improved treatment coordination for both novices and experts.

  5. Cooperativism, a viable option in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Izquierdo Muciño

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a big number of successful cooperative societies that have survived to the worst ravages of economic politics that the country is currently living, including companies that originally were commercial enterprises. Therefore this becomes a living proof that thought this system, is possible to achieve an alternative economy, fairer and more inclusive where is possible to get out of the crisis that the county is facing.Received: 08.07.2013Accepted: 30.07.2013

  6. Clinical outcomes with alternative dosing strategies for piperacillin/tazobactam: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yang

    Full Text Available A better dosing strategy can improve clinical outcomes for patients. We sought to compare the extended or continuous infusion with conventional intermittent infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam, investigating which approach is better and worthy of recommendation for clinical use.Articles were gathered from PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, Science Direct, Cochrane, two Chinese literature databases (CNKI, Wan Fang Data and related ICAAC and ACCP conferences. Randomized controlled and observational studies that compared extended or continuous infusion with conventional intermittent infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam were identified from the databases above and analyzed. Two reviewers independently extracted and investigated the data. A meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.2 software. The quality of each study was assessed. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were evaluated.Five randomized controlled trials and nine observational studies were included in this study. All included studies had high quality and no publication bias was found. Compared to the conventional intermittent infusion approach, the extended or continuous infusion group had a significantly higher clinical cure rate (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.29-2.73, P = 0.0009 and a lower mortality rate (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.89, P = 0.005. No statistical difference was observed for bacteriologic cure (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.82-2.37, P = 0.22 between the two dosing regimens. The sensitivity analysis showed the results were stable.Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that the extended or continuous infusion strategy of piperacillin/tazobactam should be recommended for clinical use considering its higher clinical cure rate and lower mortality rate in comparison with conventional intermittent strategy. Data from this study could be extrapolated for other β-lactam antimicrobials. Therefore, this dosing strategy could be considered in clinical practice.

  7. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  8. New alternatives for reference evapotranspiration estimation in West Africa using limited weather data and ancillary data supply strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, Gorka; Bekoe, Emmanuel; Ampofo, Joseph; Logah, Frederick; Diop, Mbaye; Cisse, Madiama; Shiri, Jalal

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ET 0 ) is essential for the computation of crop water requirements, irrigation scheduling, and water resources management. In this context, having a battery of alternative local calibrated ET 0 estimation methods is of great interest for any irrigation advisory service. The development of irrigation advisory services will be a major breakthrough for West African agriculture. In the case of many West African countries, the high number of meteorological inputs required by the Penman-Monteith equation has been indicated as constraining. The present paper investigates for the first time in Ghana, the estimation ability of artificial intelligence-based models (Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Gene Expression Programing (GEPs)), and ancillary/external approaches for modeling reference evapotranspiration (ET 0 ) using limited weather data. According to the results of this study, GEPs have emerged as a very interesting alternative for ET 0 estimation at all the locations of Ghana which have been evaluated in this study under different scenarios of meteorological data availability. The adoption of ancillary/external approaches has been also successful, moreover in the southern locations. The interesting results obtained in this study using GEPs and some ancillary approaches could be a reference for future studies about ET 0 estimation in West Africa.

  9. ss-siRNAs allele selectively inhibit ataxin-3 expression: multiple mechanisms for an alternative gene silencing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yu, Dongbo; Aiba, Yuichiro; Pendergraff, Hannah; Swayze, Eric E; Lima, Walt F; Hu, Jiaxin; Prakash, Thazha P; Corey, David R

    2013-11-01

    Single-stranded silencing RNAs (ss-siRNAs) provide an alternative approach to gene silencing. ss-siRNAs combine the simplicity and favorable biodistribution of antisense oligonucleotides with robust silencing through RNA interference (RNAi). Previous studies reported potent and allele-selective inhibition of human huntingtin expression by ss-siRNAs that target the expanded CAG repeats within the mutant allele. Mutant ataxin-3, the genetic cause of Machado-Joseph Disease, also contains an expanded CAG repeat. We demonstrate here that ss-siRNAs are allele-selective inhibitors of ataxin-3 expression and then redesign ss-siRNAs to optimize their selectivity. We find that both RNAi-related and non-RNAi-related mechanisms affect gene expression by either blocking translation or affecting alternative splicing. These results have four broad implications: (i) ss-siRNAs will not always behave similarly to analogous RNA duplexes; (ii) the sequences surrounding CAG repeats affect allele-selectivity of anti-CAG oligonucleotides; (iii) ss-siRNAs can function through multiple mechanisms and; and (iv) it is possible to use chemical modification to optimize ss-siRNA properties and improve their potential for drug discovery.

  10. Evaluation of chemical and integrated strategies as alternatives to methyl bromide for the control of root-knot nematodes in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Ioannis O; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2003-08-01

    Current environmental awareness has led to a greater demand for alternative nematode control strategies. Three field experiments were established to compare management tactics on cucumber in commercial greenhouses naturally infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp). Cucumber rootstocks which have shown resistance to soil-borne diseases were tested to reveal any resistance/tolerance to root-knot nematodes, and integration of these rootstocks with nematicides was investigated. Metham-sodium and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) provided good control of nematode populations when their application was followed by the application of a non-fumigant nematicide such as cadusafos or oxamyl. Neither fumigant could provide season-long control of nematode populations, and a further application of cadusafos was required for satisfactory control. The efficacy of metham-sodium was significantly increased when injected into soil in comparison with its application through the drip irrigation system. The use of rootstocks resistant to soil-borne fungal pathogens used together with chemical means of nematode control provided promising results for their further use in integrated strategies as alternatives to methyl bromide. However, the latter was the superior treatment for the control of root-knot nematodes in soil infested with residues of galled roots. Dazomet, metham-sodium nor the non-fumigant nematicides oxamyl and fenamiphos could reduce nematode population as efficiently as methyl bromide. None of the chemicals tested except methyl bromide could enter galled roots and kill surviving nematodes.

  11. Sustainable alternatives for land-based biofuels in the European Union. Assessment of options and development of a policy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H.

    2012-12-15

    It is feasible for EU member states to meet their commitments regarding transport fuels under the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) without resorting to biofuels from food crops. The RED target (10% renewable transport energy in 2020) can be met by a mix of measures aimed at improving energy efficiency, combined with a strong focus on growth of renewable electricity use and biofuels and biomethane from waste and residues. These measures also contribute to the FQD target (6% reduction in carbon intensity of fuels by 2020), but will need to be complemented by other measures such as reduced flaring and venting during oil production. The report shows how EU transport energy policy could reduce its reliance on biofuels from food crops that are likely to cause land use change. This alternative vision for the transport sector in 2020 would cut CO2 emissions by 205 million tonnes.

  12. Fermi paradox and alternative strategies for SETI programs - The anthropic principle and the search for close solar analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracassini, Massimo; Pasinetti Fracassini, Laura E.; Pasinetti, Antonio L.

    1988-07-01

    The Anthropic Principle, a new trend of modern cosmology, claims that the origin of life and the development of intelligent beings on the Earth is the result of highly selective biological processes, strictly tuned in the fundamental physical characteristics of the Universe. This principle could account for the failure of some programs of search for extraterrestrial intelligences (SETI) and suggests the search for strict solar analogs as a primary target for SETI strategies. In this connection, the authors have selected 22 solar analogs and discussed their choice.

  13. The effect of double nursing, an alternative nursing strategy for the hyper-prolific sow herd, on herd performance

    OpenAIRE

    Houben, Manon A. M.; Tobias, Tijs J.; Holstege, Manon M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyper-prolific sows produce more piglets than they can suckle, as the number of milk producing teats of the sow is lower (twelve to sixteen) than the number of live born piglets per litter. Farmers and farm workers are struggling to feed this surplus of piglets. To minimize suckling piglet mortality, litter size at 24?hours after parturition should not exceed the number of functional teats of the sow. Strategies to adequately nurse or feed the surplus of piglets after 24?hours are ...

  14. Alternative imaging strategy of solitary pulmonary nodule by FDG PET/CT: Can be imagined a tailored PET?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafora, Marco; Evangelista, Laura; Gridelli, Cesare; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    Patients with solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) are usually sent to total-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, a segmental scan strategy may improve cost/effectiveness in this category of patients. A segmental PET/CT scan only at the chest level could be performed in patients with indeterminate SPN. Limiting the PET/CT field to the thoracic region would greatly affect on radiobiology, department organization and health-care costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of unsafe abortion and alternative first-trimester pregnancy termination strategies in Nigeria and Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Delphine; Grossman, Daniel; Levin, Carol; Blanchard, Kelly; Adanu, Richard; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-06-01

    To explore the policy implications of increasing access to safe abortion in Nigeria and Ghana, we developed a computer-based decision analytic model which simulates induced abortion and its potential complications in a cohort of women, and comparatively assessed the cost-effectiveness of unsafe abortion and three first-trimester abortion modalities: hospital-based dilatation and curettage, hospital- and clinic-based manual vacuum aspiration (MVA), and medical abortion using misoprostol (MA). Assuming all modalities are equally available, clinic-based MVA is the most cost-effective option in Nigeria. If clinic-based MVA is not available, MA is the next best strategy. Conversely, in Ghana, MA is the most cost-effective strategy, followed by clinic-based MVA if MA is not available. From a real world policy perspective, increasing access to safe abortion in favor over unsafe abortion is the single most important factor in saving lives and societal costs, and is more influential than the actual choice of safe abortion modality.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the direct and indirect impact of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccination strategies in children: alternative country profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Safadi, Marco Aurélio; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Influenza poses a significant burden on healthcare systems and society, with under-recognition in the paediatric population. Existing vaccination policies (largely) target the elderly and other risk groups where complications may arise. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of annual paediatric vaccination (in 2-17-year-olds) with live attenuated influenza vaccination (LAIV), as well as the protective effect on the wider population in England and Wales (base). The study aimed to demonstrate broad applications of the model in countries where epidemiological and transmission data is limited and that have sophisticated vaccination policies (Brazil, Spain, and Taiwan). The direct and indirect impact of LAIV in the paediatric cohort was simulated using an age-stratified dynamic transmission model over a 5-year time horizon of daily cycles and applying discounting of 3.5% in the base case. Pre-existing immunity structure was based on a 1-year model run. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. In the base case for England and Wales, the annual paediatric strategy with LAIV was associated with improvements in influenza-related events and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost, yielding an incremental cost per QALY of £6,208. The model was robust to change in the key input parameters. The probabilistic analysis demonstrated LAIV to be cost effective in more than 99% of iterations, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000. Incremental costs per QALY for Brazil were £2,817, and for the cases of Spain and Taiwan the proposed strategy was dominant over the current practice. In addition to existing policies, annual paediatric vaccination using LAIV provides a cost-effective strategy that offers direct and indirect protection in the wider community. Paediatric vaccination strategies using LAIV demonstrated clinical and economic benefits over alternative (current vaccination) strategies in England and Wales as well as Brazil, Spain, and Taiwan.

  17. A high performance PWM inverter voltage-fed induction machines drive with an alternative strategy for speed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounadja M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the method of behaviour model control is applied to an induction motor with its mechanical load in order to increase the robustness of the vector control and to keep its performances despite the presence of perturbations (parameters variations, abrupt load variations, etc. The idea of the proposed control is interesting and useful. It induces adding supplementary control inputs, which yield the process to follow the model. The distinguished feature of this control design is that it achieves the same performances as the Field Oriented Control without the need for heavy and expensive gain tuning. The proposed strategy minimizes the energy used for the control and ensures the stabilization and excellent tracking performance of the system. Simplicity of the method, minimization of the required energy and the elimination of the need for gain tuning are the main positive features of the proposed approach.

  18. Encouraging alternative forms of self expression in the generation Y student: a strategy for effective learning in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, Afua Ottie; Johnson-Mallard, Versie

    2003-01-01

    A majority of students in the classrooms of colleges and universities today, are a product of a generation of latch key kids in which daycare, babysitters, television, and computers serve as surrogate parents. With the proliferation of technology, the internet, beepers and cell phones have become social lifelines for this generation. They are technology savvy, independent and resourceful. Conditioned to expect immediate gratification, these youth have shorter attention spans and also a low threshold for boredom. It can be quite a challenge for educators to keep these young people engaged in the classroom. This paper presents an innovative teaching/learning strategy used in a nursing school in Florida that accommodates the unique characteristics of these learners.

  19. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  20. The Unsuccessful Poverty Reduction Strategies in Indonesia and the Alternatives Solutions (The Study on BLT and Jamkesmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Iriani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as the 16th largest economy in the world, the 4th in Asia-after China, Japan and India as well as Southeast Asia’s largest-has the potential to be the seventh biggest by 2030, due to the increasing economic. Indonesia also has many potential natural resources that can be utilized to support development in order to increase the nation welfare. However, the number of poor people still has not been significantly reduced, reaching 28.07 million or 11.37% of the total population in 2013. The Government has tried to reduce poverty with some programs such as BLT (Bantuan Langsung Tunai/Direct Cash Assistance and Jamkesmas (Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat/ Community Health Protection Scheme. However, the programs are considered not effective and do not make poor people become financially independent. Ironically, in inadequate evaluation, the Government continues to runs the programs. By using a qualitative approach, researchers will provide policy alternatives that can be implemented by Government.

  1. Alternative treatment strategies for neuropathic pain: Role of Indian medicinal plants and compounds of plant origin-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hasandeep; Bhushan, Sakshi; Arora, Rohit; Singh Buttar, Harpal; Arora, Saroj; Singh, Balbir

    2017-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state accompanied by tissue injury and nerve damage. This important health issue constitutes a challenge for the modern medicine worldwide. The management of neuropathic pain remains a major clinical challenge, pertaining to an inadequate understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Various classes of drugs have been reported effective for the management of neuropathic pain viz. opiates, tricyclic antidepressants, and antiepileptic agents. However, association of adverse effects with these drugs hinders their confident prescription in people with neuropathic pain. Recently, various medicinal plants have been reported effective for the management of neuropathic pain. So, it may be prudent to look beyond synthetic drugs pertaining to their unprecedented pharmacotherapeutic effects with lesser adverse effects. The extensive literature review has been carried out from databases such as Science direct, Scifinder, Wiley online library, PubMed, Research gate, Google scholar and Chemical Abstracts. The list of Traditional Indian Medicinal plants (TIMPs) and isolated compounds have been compiled which have been reported effective as an alternative therapy for the management of neuropathic pain. This helps the researchers to discover some novel therapeutic agents against neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Distributed and dynamic modelling of hydrology, phosphorus and ecology in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes: evaluating alternative strategies to meet WFD standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Jin, L; Crossman, J; Comber, S; Johnes, P J; Daldorph, P; Flynn, N; Collins, A L; Butterfield, D; Mistry, R; Bardon, R; Pope, L; Willows, R

    2014-05-15

    The issues of diffuse and point source phosphorus (P) pollution in the Hampshire Avon and Blashford Lakes are explored using a catchment model of the river system. A multibranch, process based, dynamic water quality model (INCA-P) has been applied to the whole river system to simulate water fluxes, total phosphorus (TP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations and ecology. The model has been used to assess impacts of both agricultural runoff and point sources from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) on water quality. The results show that agriculture contributes approximately 40% of the phosphorus load and point sources the other 60% of the load in this catchment. A set of scenarios have been investigated to assess the impacts of alternative phosphorus reduction strategies and it is shown that a combined strategy of agricultural phosphorus reduction through either fertiliser reductions or better phosphorus management together with improved treatment at WWTPs would reduce the SRP concentrations in the river to acceptable levels to meet the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements. A seasonal strategy for WWTP phosphorus reductions would achieve significant benefits at reduced cost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Immediate and late analysis of dental pulp stem cells viability after indirect exposition to alternative in-office bleaching strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate human dental pulp stem cell viability and capacity to recover from experimental dental bleaching techniques. Enamel/dentin disks adapted to trans-wells were positioned on previously cultivated dental pulp stem cells. Bleaching gels containing 35, 17.5, 10, and 8 % hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were applied one or three times (each application lasting 15 min) on enamel. Cell viability (MTT assay) and morphology (SEM) were evaluated immediately (T1) or 72 h (T2) post-bleaching. The 35 % H2O2 gel promoted intense reduction in viability (93-97 %) and morphological alterations of the cells at T1, irrespective of frequency of application, with absence or limited capacity for recovery being observed at T2. The other bleaching gels presented significant lower toxicity when compared with the 35 % H2O2 gel, in a time/concentration fashion. In T1, no significant difference was observed between the negative control (without bleaching) and the 8 and 10 % H2O2 gels applied on enamel for 15 min, in which the cells presented elevated viability and morphology similar to the negative control at T2. Bleaching gels with 8 and 10 % H2O2 in their composition cause limited immediate toxic effect on pulp stem cells, which recover their viability 3 days after treatment. This study presents proposals for in-office dental bleaching to be performed with limited aggressive effect on dental pulp stem cells. Therefore, we are able to offer interesting clinical alternatives for bleaching vital teeth, under professional supervision, maintaining the integrity and reparative capacity of pulp-dentin complex.

  4. Modeling the fiscal costs and benefits of alternative treatment strategies in the United Kingdom for chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Kotsopoulos, Nikos; Ustianowski, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) infection causes substantial direct health costs, but also impacts broader societal and governmental costs, such as tax revenue and social protection benefits. This study investigated the broader fiscal costs and benefits of curative interventions for chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) that allow individuals to avoid long-term HCV attributed health conditions. A prospective cohort model, assessing the long-term fiscal consequences of policy decisions, was developed for HCV infected individuals, following the generational accounting analytic framework that combines age-specific lifetime gross taxes paid and governmental transfers received (i.e. healthcare and social support costs). The analysis assessed the burden of a theoretical cohort of untreated HCV infected patients with the alternative of treating these patients with a highly efficacious curative intervention (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir [LDV/SOF]). It also compared treating patients at all fibrosis stages (Stages F0-F4) compared to late treatment (Stage F4). Based on projected lifetime work activity and taxes paid, the treated cohort paid an additional £5,900 per patient compared to the untreated cohort. Lifetime government disability costs of £97,555 and £125,359 per patient for treated cohort vs no treatment cohort were estimated, respectively. Lifetime direct healthcare costs in the treated cohort were £32,235, compared to non-treated cohort of £26,424, with an incremental healthcare costs increase of £5,901 per patient. The benefit cost ratio (BCR) of total government benefits and savings relative to government treatment costs (including LDV/SOF) ranged from 1.8-5.6. Treating patients early resulted in 77% less disability costs, 43% lower healthcare costs, and 33% higher tax revenue. The ability to cure Hepatitis C offers considerable fiscal benefits beyond direct medical costs and savings attributed to reduced disability costs, public allowances, and improved tax revenue. Changes in parameters

  5. Effects of the Tangningtongluo formula as an alternative strategy for diabetics via upregulation of insulin receptor substrate-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Song, Junmei; Li, Geng; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yuming; Meng, Xiangbao; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Tangningtongluo (TNTL), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in clinics for decades in southwest China. Its pharmacological properties and underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The main goal of ethnopharmacology is to identify novel bioactive compounds derived from plants for use in indigenous medical practice. This knowledge can be used to develop novel pharmaceuticals. In the present study, hyperglycemic C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice were used to test the effect of TNTL on microvasculature of the retina and hypoglycemia. Metformin (Met) was selected as a positive control. 26-week-old mice were randomly assigned to receive either the anti-diabetic agent Met [140 mg/kg body weight (BW)], 1.8, 0.9 or 0.45 g/kg BW TNTL, or a placebo. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels were measured. Histopathologic examination of the pancreas was performed to confirm the hypoglycemic effect. Fluorescein angiography was applied to detect diabetes-induced retinal angioma in the db/db mice. TNTL intake significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, TNTL intervention resulted in a significant decrease in the insulin resistance index. Notably, TNTL treatment markedly reduced the speed of retinal degeneration and mildly reversed microvascular caliber degeneration. Western blot analysis indicated that upregulation of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 (p-IRS-1) by the administration of TNTL may be strongly involved in the improvement of insulin resistance. In conclusion, TNTL exerted a strong hypoglycemic effect and reversed retinal degeneration via upregulation of ISR-1. The present findings provide important scientific evidence supporting TNTL as an effective alternative approach for the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:28586073

  6. Unenhanced breast MRI (STIR, T2-weighted TSE, DWIBS): An accurate and alternative strategy for detecting and differentiating breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Marco

    2015-10-01

    To assess the role of STIR, T2-weighted TSE and DWIBS sequences for detecting and characterizing breast lesions and to compare unenhanced (UE)-MRI results with contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRI and histological findings, having the latter as the reference standard. Two hundred eighty consecutive patients (age range, 27-73 years; mean age±standard deviation (SD), 48.8±9.8years) underwent MR examination with a diagnostic protocol including STIR, T2-weighted TSE, THRIVE and DWIBS sequences. Two radiologists blinded to both dynamic sequences and histological findings evaluated in consensus STIR, T2-weighted TSE and DWIBS sequences and after two weeks CE-MRI images searching for breast lesions. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy for UE-MRI and CE-MRI were calculated. UE-MRI results were also compared with CE- MRI. UE-MRI sequences obtained sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV values of 94%, 79%, 86%, 79% and 94%, respectively. CE-MRI sequences obtained sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV values of 98%, 83%, 90%, 84% and 98%, respectively. No statistically significant difference between UE-MRI and CE-MRI was found. Breast UE-MRI could represent an accurate diagnostic tool and a valid alternative to CE-MRI for evaluating breast lesions. STIR and DWIBS sequences allow to detect breast lesions while T2-weighted TSE sequences and ADC values could be useful for lesion characterization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. IDegLira Versus Alternative Intensification Strategies in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Basal Insulin Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freemantle, Nick; Mamdani, Muhammad; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2015-01-01

    glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other outcomes. METHODS: A pooled analysis of five completed Novo Nordisk randomized clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on basal insulin was used to compare indirectly IDegLira (N = 199) with: addition of liraglutide to basal insulin (N...... = 225) [glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) add-on strategy]; basal-bolus (BB) insulin [insulin glargine (IGlar) + insulin aspart] (N = 56); or up-titration of IGlar (N = 329). A supplementary analysis was performed with the BB arm including patients who received IGlar or IDeg as basal...... of study, differences between IDegLira and BB or up-titrated IGlar, respectively, were as follows: reduction in HbA1c -0.30%, 95% confidence interval (-0.58; -0.01) and -0.65% (-0.83; -0.47); change in body weight -6.89 kg (-7.92; -5.86) and -4.04 kg (-4.69; -3.40) all in favor of IDegLira. Confirmed...

  8. Natural genetic and induced plant resistance, as a control strategy to plant-parasitic nematodes alternative to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are pests of a wide range of economically important crops, causing severe losses to agriculture. Natural genetic resistance of plants is expected to be a valid solution of the many problems nematodes cause all over the world. Progress in resistance applications is particularly important for the less-developed countries of tropical and subtropical regions, since use of resistant cultivars may be the only possible and economically feasible control strategy in those farming systems. Resistance is being considered of particular importance also in modern high-input production systems of developed countries, as the customary reliance on chemical nematicides has been restricted or has come to an end. This review briefly describes the genetic bases of resistance to nematodes in plants and focuses on the chances and problems of its exploitation as a key element in an integrated management program. Much space is dedicated to the major problem of resistance durability, in that the intensive use of resistant cultivars is likely to increasingly induce the selection of virulent populations able to "break" the resistance. Protocols of pest-host suitability are described, as bioassays are being used to evaluate local nematode populations in their potential to be selected on resistant germplasm and endanger resistant crops. The recent progress in using robust and durable resistances against nematodes as an efficient method for growers in vegetable cropping systems is reported, as well as the possible use of chemicals that do not show any unfavorable impact on environment, to induce in plants resistance against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  9. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  10. Computational strategies for alternative single-step Bayesian regression models with large numbers of genotyped and non-genotyped animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Rohan L; Cheng, Hao; Golden, Bruce L; Garrick, Dorian J

    2016-12-08

    Two types of models have been used for single-step genomic prediction and genome-wide association studies that include phenotypes from both genotyped animals and their non-genotyped relatives. The two types are breeding value models (BVM) that fit breeding values explicitly and marker effects models (MEM) that express the breeding values in terms of the effects of observed or imputed genotypes. MEM can accommodate a wider class of analyses, including variable selection or mixture model analyses. The order of the equations that need to be solved and the inverses required in their construction vary widely, and thus the computational effort required depends upon the size of the pedigree, the number of genotyped animals and the number of loci. We present computational strategies to avoid storing large, dense blocks of the MME that involve imputed genotypes. Furthermore, we present a hybrid model that fits a MEM for animals with observed genotypes and a BVM for those without genotypes. The hybrid model is computationally attractive for pedigree files containing millions of animals with a large proportion of those being genotyped. We demonstrate the practicality on both the original MEM and the hybrid model using real data with 6,179,960 animals in the pedigree with 4,934,101 phenotypes and 31,453 animals genotyped at 40,214 informative loci. To complete a single-trait analysis on a desk-top computer with four graphics cards required about 3 h using the hybrid model to obtain both preconditioned conjugate gradient solutions and 42,000 Markov chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) samples of breeding values, which allowed making inferences from posterior means, variances and covariances. The MCMC sampling required one quarter of the effort when the hybrid model was used compared to the published MEM. We present a hybrid model that fits a MEM for animals with genotypes and a BVM for those without genotypes. Its practicality and considerable reduction in computing effort was

  11. Targeting COX-2 expression by natural compounds: a promising alternative strategy to synthetic COX-2 inhibitors for cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerella, Claudia; Sobolewski, Cyril; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2010-12-15

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is a pro-inflammatory immediate early response protein, chronically up-regulated in many pathological conditions. In autoimmune diseases, it is responsible for degenerative effects whereas in cancer, it correlates with poor prognosis. A constitutive expression of COX-2 is triggered since the earliest steps of carcinogenesis. Consequently, strategies aimed at inhibiting COX-2 enzymatic activity have been clinically applied for the treatment of autoimmune disorders; in addition, the same approaches are currently investigated for anti-cancer purposes. However, COX-2 protein inhibitors (i.e., NSAIDs and COXIBs) are not amenable to prolonged administration since they may cause severe side effects, and efforts are underway to identify alternative approaches for chemoprevention/therapy. COX-2 expression is a multi-step process, highly regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Defects in the modulation of one or both of these steps may be found in pathological conditions. Targeting COX-2 expression may therefore represent a promising strategy, by which the same preventive and therapeutic benefits may be gained while avoiding the severe side effects of COX-2 enzymatic inhibition. Naturally occurring compounds derived from plants/organisms represent a huge source of biologically active molecules, that remains largely unexplored. Derived from plants/organisms used in traditional forms of medicine or as dietary supplements, these compounds have been experimentally investigated for their anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer potential. In this review, we will analyze how natural compounds may modulate the multistep regulation of COX-2 gene expression and discuss their potential as a new generation of COX-2 targeting agents alternative to the synthetic COX-2 inhibitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing Viable Business Models for Living Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard R. Katzy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 300 regions have integrated the concept of living labs into their economic development strategy since 2006, when the former Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho launched the living lab innovation policy initiative during his term of European presidency. Despite motivating initial results, however, success cases of turning research into usable new products and services remain few and uncertainty remains on what living labs actually do and contribute. This practitioner-oriented article presents a business excellence model that shows processes of idea creation and team mobilization, new product development, user involvement, and entrepreneurship through which living labs deliver high-potential investment opportunities. Customers of living labs are identified as investors such as venture capitalists or industrial firms because living labs can generate revenue from them to create their own sustainable business model. The article concludes that living labs provide extensive support “lab” infrastructure and that it remains a formidable challenge to finance it, which calls for a more intensive debate.

  13. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    -viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...... of viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the PCA of each cultivar and the pooled samples. However, the PCA did not exhibit a pattern of separation among the early, normal and late germinated tomato seeds. The NIR spectral regions of 1160–1170, 1383–1397, 1647–1666, 1860–1884 and 1915–1940 nm were...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable...

  14. Localizing seizure-onset zones in presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy by electroencephalography/fMRI: effectiveness of alternative thresholding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauf, M; Jann, K; Schindler, K; Scheidegger, O; Meyer, K; Rummel, C; Mariani, L; Koenig, T; Wiest, R

    2012-10-01

    Simultaneous EEG/fMRI is an effective noninvasive tool for identifying and localizing the SOZ in patients with focal epilepsy. In this study, we evaluated different thresholding strategies in EEG/fMRI for the assessment of hemodynamic responses to IEDs in the SOZ of drug-resistant epilepsy. Sixteen patients with focal epilepsy were examined by using simultaneous 92-channel EEG and BOLD fMRI. The temporal fluctuation of epileptiform signals on the EEG was extracted by independent component analysis to predict the hemodynamic responses to the IEDs. We applied 3 different threshold criteria to detect hemodynamic responses within the SOZ: 1) PA, 2) a fixed threshold at P signal correlates in 11 of 16, and FAV in 13 of 16 patients. Hemodynamic responses were detected within the resected areas in 5 (PA), 6 (FWE), and 8 (FAV) of 10 patients who remained seizure-free after surgery. EEG/fMRI is a noninvasive tool for the presurgical work-up of patients with epilepsy, which can be performed during seizure-free periods and is complementary to the ictal electroclinical assessment. Our findings suggest that the effectiveness of EEG/fMRI in delineating the SOZ may be further improved by the additional use of alternative analysis strategies such as FAV.

  15. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu

    2018-02-15

    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  17. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement: Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatkin, J. A. [Vireo Advisors, Boston MA USA; Ong, Kimberly J. [Vireo Advisors, Boston MA USA; Beaudrie, Christian [Compass RM, Vancouver CA USA; Clippinger, Amy J. [PETA International Science Consortium Ltd, London UK; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham NC USA; Haber, Lynne T. [TERA, Cincinnati OH USA; Hill, Myriam [Health Canada, Ottawa Canada; Holden, Patricia [UC Santa Barbara, Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, ERI, and UC CEIN, University of California, Santa Barbara CA USA; Kennedy, Alan J. [U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg MS USA; Kim, Baram [Independent, Somerville MA USA; MacDonell, Margaret [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, Argonne IL USA; Powers, Christina M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Ann Arbor MI USA; Sharma, Monita [PETA International Science Consortium Ltd, London UK; Sheremeta, Lorraine [Alberta Ingenuity Labs, Edmonton Alberta Canada; Stone, Vicki [John Muir Building Gait 1 Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh Scotland UK; Sultan, Yasir [Environment Canada, Gatineau QC Canada; Turley, Audrey [ICF International, Durham NC USA; White, Ronald H. [RH White Consultants, Silver Spring MD USA

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article.

  18. Korean Unification. Alternative Economics Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Iron ore Coal Chemical fertilizers Cement Steel Textiles Mt Mt Mt Mt Mt Gm 8.3 70.0 3.5 10.8 5.5 0.7 7.0 30.1 1.4 5.0 2.5 0.2...Korea North/South Magnesite Mt 6500.0 0.0 na Zinc Mt 12.0 0.0 na Bituminous coal Mt 3000.0 5.0 600.0 Limestone Gt 100.0 1.5 67.1 Lead Mt 12.0 0.6...example, electricity generation makes use of the north’s coal deposits and especially its hydroelectric potential.7 The major exception is fertilizer

  19. Certified Organic Agriculture as an Alternative Livelihood Strategy for Small-scale Farmers in China: A Case Study in Wanzai County, Jiangxi Province

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Yuhui; Martin, Friederike; Cook, Seth

    2018-01-01

    Organic agriculture can sustain rural development and ease poverty. However, whether it could be a viable pathway to improve the livelihoods of small-scale farmers in the context of urbanisation and demographic change has been less studied. To understand this, household surveys were conducted...

  20. Exploring Alternative Radiolabeling Strategies for Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-Like Lectin 9 Peptide: [68Ga]Ga- and [18F]AlF-NOTA-Siglec-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Moisio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid residues 283–297 from sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9 form a cyclic peptide ligand targeting vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1. VAP-1 is associated with the transfer of leukocytes from blood to tissues upon inflammation. Therefore, analogs of Siglec-9 peptide are good candidates for visualizing inflammation non-invasively using positron emission tomography (PET. Gallium-68-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid (DOTA-conjugated Siglec-9 has been evaluated extensively for this purpose. Here, we explored two alternative strategies for radiolabeling Siglec-9 peptide using a 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA-chelator to bind [68Ga]Ga or [18F]AlF. The radioligands were evaluated by in vivo PET imaging and ex vivo γ-counting of turpentine-induced sterile skin/muscle inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Both tracers showed clear accumulation in the inflamed tissues. The whole-body biodistribution patterns of the tracers were similar.

  1. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  2. High resolution melt analysis (HRMA); a viable alternative to agarose gel electrophoresis for mouse genotyping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomsen, Nicole; Ali, Radiya G; Ahmed, Jehangir N; Arkell, Ruth M

    2012-01-01

    .... In contrast to the range of new technologies for mouse mutagenesis, genotyping methods have remained relatively static with alleles typically discriminated by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products...

  3. The Web-Lecture - a viable alternative to the traditional lecture format?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, S.

    2004-12-01

    Educational research shows that students learn best in an environment with emphasis on teamwork, problem-solving, and hands-on experience. Still professors spend the majority of their time with students in the traditional lecture-hall setting where the combination of large classes and limited time prevents sufficient student-teacher interaction to foster an active learning environment. Can modern computer technology be used to provide "lecture-type" information to students via the World Wide Web? If so, will that help professors make better and/or different use of their scheduled time with the students? Answering these questions was the main motivation for the Extra-Solar Planet Project. The Extra-Solar Planet Project was designed to test the effectiveness of a lecture available to the student on the World Wide Web (Web-Lecture) and to engage the students in an active learning environment were their use the information presented in the Web-Lecture. The topic of the Web-Lecture was detection of extra-solar planets and the project was implemented into an introductory astronomy course at University of Wisconsin Madison in the spring of 2004. The Web-Lecture was designed to give an interactive presentation of synchronized video, audio and lecture notes. It was created using the eTEACH software developed at the University of Wisconsin Madison School of Engineering. In my talk, I will describe the project, show excerpts of the Web-Lecture, and present assessments of student learning and results of student evaluations of the web-lecture format.

  4. Peer-led prenatal breast-feeding education: a viable alternative to nurse-led education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A; Moore, Katrina C J

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate a prenatal breast-feeding class developed and facilitated by peer Breast-feeding Buddies. Non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study comparing participants of the peer-led class (PLC) to those attending an established hospital-based breast-feeding nurse-led class (NLC). A brief questionnaire was completed immediately prior to the class, and telephone interviews were conducted approximately one week following the class, and one and six months post partum. 54 expectant mothers who registered for the community PLC and 55 expectant mothers who registered for the NLC. Breast-feeding intentions were measured at all time-points. Class evaluations, breast-feeding experiences, and breast-feeding support were measured at all post-class interviews. Both classes were considered worthwhile, but the PLC class was rated as more helpful and participants appreciated learning from the peers' personal experiences. Mothers taught by peers were more likely to access peer breast-feeding support. PLC participants initially decreased their prenatal breast-feeding duration intentions but had significantly stronger intentions to continue breast feeding at six months than did NLC mothers. A peer-led prenatal breast-feeding class is as effective as a traditional model of breast-feeding education and is a valuable tool to promote and support successful breast feeding. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Peer-led breast-feeding classes should be provided to enhance the accessibility of breast-feeding education and support for expectant mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biofiltration as a Viable Alternative for Air Pollution Control at Department of Defense Surface Coating Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    their own, however, they have been labeled by the EPA as “ozone precursors” due to their proclivity to react with sunlight, heat and nitrogen oxide...authorized to perform major structural aircraft repairs, install aircraft modifications, and completely strip and paint entire aircraft (DoN, 2005a...effectiveness of cow and pig manure , wheat bran, and bagasse (fibrous material extracted from the juice of crushed stalks of sugar cane) (Chou and

  6. SYNTHESIS OF CANCRINITE ZEOLITE DERIVATED FROM KAOLIN:A Viable Alternative to Reduce Environmetal Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Joel Schwanke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of cancrinite zeolite was accomplished by three types of kaolins called AD44, Mina and Reagen. These materials were used as aluminium and silicon sources in substitution of expensive reactants. The first two types are natural kaolin and the last one is a commercial. These clays were used in natural and calcinated (900ºC forms. The clays and the obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD specific superficial area (BET and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. The results showed that calcinated clays lead to cancrinite phases with higher cristallinity when compared with the natural clays. Different phases such as sodalite and mesophases between sodalite and cancrinite were formed too.

  7. Virtual shopping: A viable alternative to direct assessment of real life function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Kathryn E; Morris, Robin; Smith, Vanessa; Jones, Anna-Marie; Pearman, Douglas; Wykes, Til

    2016-04-01

    Real-life function is markedly impaired in schizophrenia and is an important outcome for interventions, but direct assessment is time consuming and resource intensive. Virtual reality (VR) enables assessment using simulation, akin to real life (RL), but allowing greater experimental control, reliability, and a more timely assessment. This study explores whether VR simulation predicts RL performance in supermarket shopping and how both relate to underlying cognitive abilities. Forty three people with DSM-IV schizophrenia were included in the study. Participants were required to shop for items using a self-directed search in both RL and VR. In each task, accuracy (number of correct items) and efficiency (time taken and number of aisles entered) were measured. IQ, executive function, working memory, spatial memory and social cognition were also assessed. Specific correlations were found between RL accuracy and VR accuracy, and between RL and VR efficiency measures. Multiple regression analyses indicated that VR efficiency measures contributed significant unique variance to RL efficiency outcomes, in addition to that explained by background cognitive measures, with a final model predicting 58% of variance in RL efficiency. VR functional shopping measures may enhance predictions of real life performance, over and above existing cognitive test procedures, and provide a more time-efficient method for evaluating real life outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Blended Learning Environment: A Viable Alternative for Special Needs Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jennifer Hall

    2017-01-01

    The traditional classroom provides a classical medium for educating students by allowing an open forum of communication between the pupil and teacher. The last twenty-five years have opened a new realm of possibilities in education through the use of technology and virtual supplemental resources, designed to engage learners in all academic levels.…

  9. Peer mentoring – is a virtual form of support a viable alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Gannon-Leary

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Support systems are vital for university entrants and one established means of support is peer mentoring, which has the potential to improve student engagement and retention. Peer mentoring models are generally based on face-to-face contact. However, given the increasing number of higher education institutions using social media, might online models be beneficial in a peer mentoring context? This article describes a literature review and case study that considers the advantages and disadvantages of three potential virtual models to facilitate a peer mentoring scheme. The case study, undertaken at Northumbria University, UK, involved an investigation of mentoring needs and current usage of electronic media where special attention is afforded to a diverse student body. The three models discussed are virtual learning environments (VLE, social networking sites and virtual worlds. We find that the VLE is established within institutions but lacks excitement; social networking is popular particularly with younger students but there may be resentment if this appears to be appropriated by the institution; whilst virtual worlds are unfamiliar to many students and require advanced skills to use successfully. Based on these findings the social networking model is now being run as a pilot study by business programmes at Northumbria University.

  10. Giant cervical lipoma excision under cervical epidural anesthesia: A viable alternative to general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Pal; Shukla, Aparna; Verma, Satyajeet

    2011-01-01

    The technique of Cervical Epidural Anesthesia (CEA) was first described by Dogliotti in 1933 for upper thoracic procedures. Administration of local anesthetic into cervical epidural space results in anesthesia of the neck, upper extremity, and upper thoracic region. CEA provides high-quality analgesia and anesthesia of above dermatomes and, at the same time, it has favorable effect on hemodynamic variable by blocking sympathetic innervation of the heart. CEA is not practiced routinely because of its potential complications. We selected this technique of CEA for excision of giant cervical lipoma on the back of the neck in an adult patient, as the patient was unwilling for general anesthesia. CEA was induced with 10 ml of 1% lignocaine-adrenaline mixture administered into C7-T1 space through 18G Tuohy needle. Our patient maintained vital parameters throught the procedure. The added advantage of epidural anesthesia was that the patient was awake and comfortable throughout the procedure.

  11. STRATEGIC ALLIANCES – VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO CREATE A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN A GLOBAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina NICOLAU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, in the light of the economic turbulences all around the world, one of the most important ways to assure a competitive advantage is creating a strategic alliance. Such collaborative ventures between firms were developed as a response to the changes which have been happening to the world economy as increased competition, higher costs of developing new products, accelerated technological changes and, maybe the most important – the recent world economic crises. Being part of a strategic alliance creates competitive advantage for the companies by establishing their presence worldwide, by building up operating experience in overseas markets and gaining access to those national markets that were inaccessible before. At the same time, a strategic alliance means management commitment, special skills and forward planning for each company which takes part to an alliance.

  12. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be economically competitive with petrol should be established. Finally, for researchers, better control over plant genetic engineering and advanced breeding and its consequential economic impact would bring valuable contributions towards developing an economically sustainable bioethanol market within the European Union.

  13. "Back-and-forth" as a viable alternative to the brain drain perspective, with Chinese examples

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, P.; Lee, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Dans la présente contribution, nous exposons les modèles de prise de décision de retourner au pays à l'issue d'études à l'étranger. L'analyse s'appuie sur les données qualitatives et quantitatives obtenues auprès d'étudiants de Taïwan qui ont mené des études aux Etats-Unis en sciences et en ingénierie. Nous passons en revue la littérature existante sur les processus de retour et présentons des examples de cas, enfin nous émettons quelques suggestions pouvant servir de base à de futures études...

  14. Effect of Different Alternate Irrigation Strategies using Saline and Non-Saline Water on Corn Yield, Salinity and Moisture Distribution in Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of water and deterioration in the quality of soil and water resources are considered to be the prime cause of reduced crop yield in arid and semi-arid regions ‘More crop per drop’ by trickle irrigation, deficit irrigation, and uncommon water are the best strategies for mitigating water crises. Different irrigation management strategies are needed to increase production in different areas. In areas where sufficient water is available, a full irrigation strategy could be a suitable option, while in areas where water is limited, deficit irrigation would be an appropriate method, and finally in areas where water resources are saline, management strategies for achieving sustainable production as well as economic yields would be suitable. Maize is the third most important grain crop in the world following wheat and rice and it is the main source of nutrition for humans and animals. Because of the importance of maize in the world, increasing maize production under environmental stresses is a big challenge for agricultural scientists. Different methods of irrigation and the use of saline water that had satisfactory results for increasing agricultural production have been studied by several investigators . The main objective of this study was to establish an efficient use of limited water resources as well as to explore the possibility of replacing saline water with fresh water using different management techniques. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted over two maize cropping seasons (2012–2013 in northern Iran (Gorgan Agricultural Research Station to compare different alternate irrigation scenarios using saline water on corn yield, salinity and soil moisture distribution in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were: T1 and T2 = 100 and 50 % of crop water requirement with non-saline water, respectively; T3 and T4 = variable and fixed full irrigation with saline and non

  15. Cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for the initial medical management of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and decision-analytical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M; Palmer, S; Sculpher, M; Philips, Z; Ginnelly, L; Bowens, A; Golder, S; Alfakih, K; Bakhai, A; Packham, C; Cooper, N; Abrams, K; Eastwood, A; Pearman, A; Flather, M; Gray, D; Hall, A

    2005-07-01

    To identify and prioritise key areas of clinical uncertainty regarding the medical management of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in current UK practice. Electronic databases. Consultations with clinical advisors. Postal survey of cardiologists. Potential areas of important uncertainty were identified and 'decision problems' prioritised. A systematic literature review was carried out using standard methods. The constructed decision model consisted of a short-term phase that applied the results of the systematic review and a long-term phase that included relevant information from a UK observational study to extrapolate estimated costs and effects. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to examine the dependence of the results on baseline parameters, using alternative data sources. Expected value of information analysis was undertaken to estimate the expected value of perfect information associated with the decision problem. This provided an upper bound on the monetary value associated with additional research in the area. Seven current areas of clinical uncertainty (decision problems) in the drug treatment of unstable angina patients were identified. The agents concerned were clopidogrel, low molecular weight heparin, hirudin and intravenous glycoprotein antagonists (GPAs). Twelve published clinical guidelines for unstable angina or non-ST elevation ACS were identified, but few contained recommendations about the specified decision problems. The postal survey of clinicians showed that the greatest disagreement existed for the use of small molecule GPAs, and the greatest uncertainty existed for decisions relating to the use of abciximab (a large molecule GPA). Overall, decision problems concerning the GPA class of drugs were considered to be the highest priority for further study. Selected papers describing the clinical efficacy of treatment were divided into three groups, each representing an alternative strategy. The strategy involving the use of GPAs

  16. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Abd-Ella

    Full Text Available Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low

  17. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  18. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for polymerase chain ...

  19. Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local governments are principally established for development at the grassroots and they must be structured in a manner that makes them viable and capable of achieving this purpose. The objective of this comment is to appraise the current local government structure under the Nigerian constitutional framework with a view ...

  20. Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic Trypanosoma vivax in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic. Trypanosoma vivax in vitro and in vivo. O. A. Idowu, A. B. Idowu, C. F. Mafiana and S. O. Sam-Wobo*. Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Accepted 13 April, 2006. Trypanosoma vivax was ...

  1. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-04-02

    Apr 2, 2003 ... A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for ...

  2. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  3. The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now.

  4. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  5. Molecular approaches for viable bacterial population and transcriptional analyses in a rodent model of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M I; Scott-Anne, K M; Gregoire, S; Rosalen, P L; Koo, H

    2012-10-01

    Culturing methods are the primary approach for microbiological analysis of plaque biofilms in rodent models of dental caries. In this study, we developed strategies for the isolation of DNA and RNA from plaque biofilms formed in vivo to analyse the viable bacterial population and gene expression. Plaque biofilm samples from rats were treated with propidium monoazide to isolate DNA from viable cells, and the purified DNA was used to quantify total bacteria and the Streptococcus mutans population via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and specific primers; the same samples were also analysed by counting colony-forming units (CFU). In parallel, RNA was isolated from plaque-biofilm samples (from the same animals) and used for transcriptional analyses via reverse transcription-qPCR. The viable populations of both S. mutans and total bacteria assessed by qPCR were positively correlated with the CFU data (P  0.8). However, the qPCR data showed higher bacterial cell counts, particularly for total bacteria (vs. CFU). Moreover, S. mutans proportion in the plaque biofilm determined by qPCR analysis showed strong correlation with incidence of smooth-surface caries (P = 0.0022, r = 0.71). The purified RNAs presented high RNA integrity numbers (> 7), which allowed measurement of the expression of genes that are critical for S. mutans virulence (e.g. gtfB and gtfC). Our data show that the viable microbial population and the gene expression can be analysed simultaneously, providing a global assessment of the infectious aspect of dental caries. Our approach could enhance the value of the current rodent model in further understanding the pathophysiology of this disease and facilitating the exploration of novel anti-caries therapies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Effects of the Helping Early Literacy with Practice Strategies (HELPS) on Reading Fluency with Secondary Level Students Attending an Alternative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Holly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the HELPS Program on the reading fluency skills of secondary level students attending an alternative education program using single case design methodology. Participants in this study included one 8th grade student and two 9th grade students attending an alternative education program in…

  7. Alternate strategies to obtain mass balance without the use of radiolabeled compounds: application of quantitative fluorine (19F) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in metabolism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlib, Abdul; Espina, Robert; Atherton, James; Wang, Jianyao; Talaat, Rasmy; Scatina, JoAnn; Chandrasekaran, Appavu

    2012-03-19

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in the quantitation of small and large molecules. Recently, we demonstrated that (1)H NMR could be used to quantitate drug metabolites isolated in submilligram quantities from biological sources. It was shown that these metabolites, once quantitated by NMR, were suitable to be used as reference standards in quantitative LC/MS-based assays, hence circumventing the need for radiolabeled material or synthetic standards to obtain plasma exposure estimates in humans and preclinical species. The quantitative capabilities of high-field NMR is further demonstrated in the current study by obtaining the mass balance of fluorinated compounds using (19)F-NMR. Two fluorinated compounds which were radio-labeled with carbon-14 on metabolically stable positions were dosed in rats and urine and feces collected. The mass balance of the compounds was obtained initially by counting the radioactivity present in each sample. Subsequently, the same sets of samples were analyzed by (19)F-NMR, and the concentrations determined by this method were compared with data obtained using radioactivity counting. It was shown that the two methods produced comparable values. To demonstrate the value of this analytical technique in drug discovery, a fluorinated compound was dosed intravenously in dogs and feces and urine collected. Initial profiling of samples showed that this compound was excreted mainly unchanged in feces, and hence, an estimate of mass balance was obtained using (19)F-NMR. The data obtained by this method was confirmed by additional quantitative studies using mass spectrometry. Hence cross-validations of the quantitative (19)F-NMR method by radioactivity counting and mass spectrometric analysis were demonstrated in this study. A strategy outlining the use of fluorinated compounds in conjunction with (19)F-NMR to understand their routes of excretion or mass balance in animals is proposed. These

  8. Costruzione di un modello decisionale per valutare la costo/efficacia delle strategie alternative nella terapia della polmonite acquisita in comunità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper was to analyse the cost effectiveness of the main alternative (and complementary strategies in the disease menagement of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP: hospital admission vs home-care, antibiotic parental vs oral therapy, switch vs no-switch therapy, and early discarge vs conventional hospitalization. The cost effectivenessanalysis (CEA has been performed by implementing a general decision tree model wich describes all the main decisional and change nodes encountered in the clinical course from the firm sign and symptoms of CAP (root to the final aoutcomes: full recovery or death (terminal nodes. We assumed the perspectives of three main institutional decision-makers: the society, the italian national healthcare system (NACS, and the hospital. In the perspective of society both the direct (health and non-health costs and the indirect costs have been included, while in the perspective of the NACS only the health-direct costs were considered. In the perspective of the hospital we considered the overall mean expences sustained for each day of staying in the general and in the intensive care unit. Separately, the antibiotic treatement costs to hospital have been accounted. As effectiveness we considered the percentage of recovery for each class of mortality aqccording to fine. Most of the probability data used in the model were obtained or derived from the published literature. The cost were valued according to the Italian NACS charges and prices in use during the year 2000. According to the model structure, the main expenditure factor for the SSN is the hospitalization cost, while the home care is less expensive. The antibiotic parentenal therapy, during hospedalization or home care, is more expensive than the antibiotic oral therapy; but the cost difference between one therapy and the other is clearly lower than the cost difference between the hospitalization and the home care. The optimum expenditure situation for the

  9. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  10. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

  11. A Translational Medicine perspective of the development of torcetrapib: Does the failure of torcetrapib development cast a shadow on future development of lipid modifying agents, HDL elevation strategies or CETP as a viable molecular target for atherosclerosis? A case study of the use of biomarkers and Translational Medicine in atherosclerosis drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Jin, Weijun; Rader, Daniel; Packard, Chris; Feuerstein, Giora

    2009-08-15

    Although the relationship between HDL (high density lipoprotein) function and cardiovascular (CV) risk has been extensively explored, the premise that HDL elevation is linked to reduced CV risks and that high HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) might be a potential surrogate biomarker for reduced CV risk remains controversial. Substantial genetic, molecular, biochemical and preclinical evidence have raised the hope that HDL-C elevation via CETP inhibition might generate clinical benefits. However, four large-scale clinical trials with the CETP inhibitor torcetrapib failed to demonstrate benefits on CV clinical outcomes. Likewise, biomarkers that were supposed to predict vascular risk reduction provided disappointing results. The sad tale of torcetrapib development emphasizes the need for a paradigm shift from the conventional drug development mode to a biomarker-based Translational Medicine (TMed) strategy. Emergence of further CETP inhibitors encourage continued development of such compounds for cardiovascular risk management. However, there is a need to adopt biomarker-driven TMed strategies in target validation, target-compound interaction, pharmacodynamic activities, disease modification and patient selection to guide future drug development efforts. This commentary analyzes the issues surrounding the demise of torcetrapib and proposes a TMed-based road map towards successful development of new CETP inhibitors.

  12. Removal of viable bacteria and endotoxins by Electro Deionization (EDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Norimitsu; Otomo, Teruo; Watabe, Tomoichi; Ase, Tomonobu; Takemura, Takuto; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    Viable bacteria and endotoxins in water sometimes cause problems for human health. Endotoxins are major components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharides). In medical procedures, especially haemodialysis (HD) and related therapies (haemodiafiltration (HDF), haemofiltration (HF)), endotoxins in the water for haemodialysis can permeate through the haemodialysis membrane and cause microinflammation or various haemodialysis-related illnesses. To decrease such a biological risk, RO and UF membranes are generally used. Also, hot water disinfection or the chemical disinfection is regularly executed to kill bacteria which produce endotoxins. However, simple treatment methods and equipment may be able to decrease the biological risk more efficiently. In our experiments, we confirmed that viable bacteria and endotoxins were removed by Electro Deionization (EDI) technology and also clarified the desorption mechanisms.

  13. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López Seuscún

    2013-07-01

    Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  14. Academic Pediatric Dentistry is a Rewarding, Financially Viable Career Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Janice A; Chi, Donald L

    2017-09-15

    Newly graduated pediatric dentists have unprecedented levels of debt. High levels of student debt may be perceived as an obstacle to pursue an academic career. However, opportunities exist through faculty compensation models and loan repayment programs that make an academic career financially viable. The purpose of this paper is to outline the benefits of a career in academic dentistry and provide examples of young pediatric dentistry faculty members who have been able to manage student debt while pursuing meaningful and rewarding careers.

  15. A rapid biosensor for viable B. anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumner, Antje J; Leonard, Barbara; McElwee, John; Montagna, Richard A

    2004-09-01

    A simple membrane-strip-based biosensor assay has been combined with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction for rapid (4 h) detection of a small number (ten) of viable B. anthracis spores. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from one of the anthrax toxin genes, the protective antigen ( pag), encoded on the toxin plasmid, pXO1, and thus provides high specificity toward B. anthracis. Previously, the anthrax toxins activator ( atxA) mRNA had been used in our laboratory for the development of a biosensor for the detection of a single B. anthracis spore within 12 h. Changing the target sequence to the pag mRNA provided the ability to shorten the overall assay time significantly. The vaccine strain of B. anthracis (Sterne strain) was used in all experiments. A 500-microL sample containing as few as ten spores was mixed with 500 microL growth medium and incubated for 30 min for spore germination and mRNA production. Thus, only spores that are viable were detected. Subsequently, RNA was extracted from lysed cells, selectively amplified using NASBA, and rapidly identified by the biosensor. While the biosensor assay requires only 15 min assay time, the overall process takes 4 h for detection of ten viable B. anthracis spores, and is shortened significantly if more spores are present. The biosensor is based on an oligonucleotide sandwich-hybridization assay format. It uses a membrane flow-through system with an immobilized DNA probe that hybridizes with the target sequence. Signal amplification is provided when the target sequence hybridizes to a second DNA probe that has been coupled to liposomes encapsulating the dye sulforhodamine B. The amount of liposomes captured in the detection zone can be read visually or quantified with a hand-held reflectometer. The biosensor can detect as little as 1 fmol target mRNA (1 nmol L(-1)). Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with 11 organisms tested, among them closely

  16. Representing strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijf, Hein; Broersen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall) to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences

  17. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Isolation of viable human hepatic progenitors from adult livers is possible even after 48 hours of cold ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupet, Sophie; Simoné, Gael; Heyd, Bruno; Bachellier, Philippe; Vidal, Isabelle; Richert, Lysiane; Martin, Hélène

    2013-07-01

    Liver transplantation, utilized routinely for end-stage liver disease, has been constrained by the paucity of organ donors, and is being complemented by alternative strategies such as liver cell transplantation. One of the most promising forms of liver cell transplantation is hepatic stem cell therapies, as the number of human hepatic stem cells (hHpSCs) and other early hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are sufficient to provide treatment for multiple patients from a single liver source. In the present study, human adult livers were exposed to cold ischemia and then processed after numbers, albeit somewhat lower, were obtained from those exposed to 48 h of cold ischemia. The yields are similar to those reported from livers with minimal exposure to ischemia. When cultured on plastic dishes and in Kubota's Medium, a serum-free medium designed for early lineage stage HPCs, colonies of rapidly expanding cells formed. They were confirmed to be probable hHpSCs by their ability to survive and expand on plastic and in Kubota's Medium for months, by co-expression of EpCAM and neural cell adhesion molecule, minimal if any albumin expression, with EpCAM found throughout the cells, and no expression of alpha-fetoprotein. The yields of viable EpCAM(+) cells were surprisingly large, and the numbers from a single donor liver are sufficient to treat approximately 50-100 patients given the numbers of EpCAM(+) cells currently used in hepatic stem cell therapies. Thus, cold ischemic livers for up to 48 h are a new source of cells that might be used for liver cell therapies.

  19. Alternative output measurement for the US retail trade sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.P.; Inklaar, R.; van Ark, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental alternative estimate of real output in retail trade, based on double deflated margins might be a viable methodology for measuring retail trade output, but important data issues need to be resolved and further research is necessary.

  20. Pesticide Resistance in Stored-Product Insects and Alternative Biorational Management: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Talukder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional pesticides are being used as the major tools for stored grain and food protection. Many conventional pesticides have created problems including pesticide resistance, toxic residues in the treated products, handling hazards, health hazards to operatives and pest resurgence. Among these, the incidence of pesticide resistance is a growing problem in stored product protection. Problems associated with synthetic pesticides, especially pesticide resistance, have created a worldwide interest in the development of alternative biorational strategies. Plant-derived materials, biological control agents, insect growth regulators, solar disinfestation systems, use of inert dusts and diatomaceous earth, etc., are potential viable alternatives. Most of these alternatives have low toxicity or are not toxic to humans, making them environmentally acceptable and enabling them to be incorporated in stored product protection.

  1. Sharing power? Prospects for a U.S. concert-balance strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Pax Americana and the grand strategy of hegemony (or “Primacy”) that underpins it may be becoming unsustainable. Particularly in the wake of exhausting wars, the Global Financial Crisis, and the shift of wealth from West to East, it may no longer be possible or prudent for the United States to act as the unipolar sheriff or guardian of a world order. But how viable are the alternatives, and what difficulties will these alternatives entail in their design and execution? This analysis offer...

  2. Improved brain uptake of peptide-based CNS drugs via alternative routes of administrations of its nanocarrier delivery systems: a promising strategy for CNS targeting delivery of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Qianwen; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Recently, developing peptide-based drugs to treat CNS diseases has gained increasing attention in both academics and pharmaceutical industry. However, targeting delivery of peptides to brain is one of the most challenging problems faced in the treatment of CNS diseases. After explaining the brain barriers limiting the delivery of peptides, the current review focuses on summarizing the most promising approaches for the enhancement of peptide and brain uptake, including delivery via alternative routes of administrations or using nanocarriers or intranasal administration of nanocarriers loaded with peptide. In addition, the biopharmaceutic, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic details of several successful peptide-based CNS drugs are highlighted. Although using nanocarriers or delivery via alternative routes could improve to a certain extent the brain uptake of peptides, the magnitude of changes remains moderate. Alternatively, intranasal administration of nanocarriers loaded with peptide has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for CNS-targeted delivery of peptides.

  3. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG, progesterone (P4 and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20 was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013, as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant. Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071, but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure

  4. Inkjet printing of viable human dental follicle stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mau Robert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inkjet printing technology has the potential to be used for seeding of viable cells for tissue engineering approaches. For this reason, a piezoelectrically actuated, drop-on-demand inkjet printing system was applied to deliver viable human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSC of sizes of about 15 μm up to 20 μm in diameter. The purpose of these investigations was to verify the stability of the printing process and to evaluate cell viability post printing. Using a Nanoplotter 2.1 (Gesim, Germany equipped with the piezoelectric printhead NanoTip HV (Gesim, Germany, a concentration of 6.6 ×106 cells ml−1 in DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS could be dispensed. The piezoelectric printhead has a nominal droplet volume of ~ 400 pl and was set to a voltage of 75 V and a pulse of 50 μs while dosing 50 000 droplets over a time of 100 seconds. The volume and trajectory of the droplet were checked by a stroboscope test right before and after the printing process. It was found that the droplet volume decreases significantly by 35% during printing process, while the trajectory of the droplets remains stable with only an insignificant number of degrees deviation from the vertical line. It is highly probable that some cell sedimentations or agglomerations affect the printing performance. The cell viability post printing was assessed by using the Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The printing process was found to have no significant influence on cell survival. In conclusion, drop-on-demand inkjet printing can be a potent tool for the seeding of viable cells.

  5. Alternating Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as alternating hemiplegia, with the goals of learning more about these disorders and finding ways to prevent, treat and, ultimately cure them. Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Alternating ...

  6. Molar Pregnancy with a Co-Existing Viable Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Deveer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available     The aim of this study was to report the clinical features, management, and outcome of a case of molar pregnancy with a coexisting viable fetus and to review the literature. In this article, we report a case of pregnancy with diffuse placental molar change and a normal fetus which presented with hyperemesis gravidarum and hyperthyroidism. Genetic amniocentesis showed normal fetal karyotype. A healthy full-term live male infant was delivered by cesarean section. In molar pregnancies with a normal karyotype fetus, with intensive maternal follow-up, continuation of pregnancy can be suggested.

  7. Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing in Mammals and Teleost Fish: A Effective Strategy for the Regulation of Immune Responses Against Pathogen Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming Xian; Zhang, Jie

    2017-07-15

    Pre-mRNA splicing is the process by which introns are removed and the protein coding elements assembled into mature mRNAs. Alternative pre-mRNA splicing provides an important source of transcriptome and proteome complexity through selectively joining different coding elements to form mRNAs, which encode proteins with similar or distinct functions. In mammals, previous studies have shown the role of alternative splicing in regulating the function of the immune system, especially in the regulation of T-cell activation and function. As lower vertebrates, teleost fish mainly rely on a large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from various invading pathogens. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of alternative splicing of piscine PRRs including peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and their downstream signaling molecules, compared to splicing in mammals. We also discuss what is known and unknown about the function of splicing isoforms in the innate immune responses against pathogens infection in mammals and teleost fish. Finally, we highlight the consequences of alternative splicing in the innate immune system and give our view of important directions for future studies.

  8. Heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity, and multiculturalism What is a viable framework for Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thung Ju Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a plural society that consists of several hundred ethnic and sub-ethnic groups. One of its generic characteristics is heterogeneity. In the last ten years after the implementation of regional autonomy, we have witnessed the emergence of strong ethnic and religiously flavoured local identity politics in various places in Indonesia that created open and vicious conflicts. This periodical violence exploded especially during the election of district and provincial heads. The intimate relation multiculturalism, with the actual political praxis of everyday life as an alternative to the existing paradigm of the “homogenization” of nationhood, has not been discussed. I believe it is time to discuss the strategic junctures between heterogeneity, politics of ethnicity (and religion and multiculturalism as well as their possible realization at the local and national levels in order to find a viable framework for a future Indonesia.

  9. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  10. Social Capital: A Neglected Resource to Create Viable and Sustainable Youth Economic Groups in Urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyerere, David J.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an alarming increase in the rate of unemployment among active urban population in Tanzania whereby the youth are severely affected. In this regard Youth Economic Groups (YEGs) program was formed as one among the best alternative strategies to address this perennial problem. Membership in YEGs act as a means to complement youth…

  11. Costs and cost- effectiveness of alternative tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tuberculosis management strategy in Hlabisa with three alternative strategies ... directly observed therapy for tuberculosis, a strategy that is cheap and ..... Historical Perspec;tive and Critical Evaluation of Current Information. Pretoria: Medical ...

  12. Mobilization of Viable Tumor Cells Into the Circulation During Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Olga A. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Anderson, Robin L. [The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Metastasis Research Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Russell, Prudence A. [Department of Anatomical Pathology, St. Vincent Hospital, Fitzroy, VIC (Australia); Ashley Cox, R. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ivashkevich, Alesia [Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Laboratory of DNA Repair and Genomics, Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Disease, Monash Institute for Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Swierczak, Agnieszka; Doherty, Judy P. [Metastasis Research Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Jacobs, Daphne H.M. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Smith, Jai [Molecular Radiation Biology Laboratory, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Siva, Shankar; Daly, Patricia E. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Ball, David L. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); and others

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy (RT) could mobilize viable tumor cells into the circulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: We enumerated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by fluorescence microscopy of blood samples immunostained with conventional CTC markers. We measured their DNA damage levels using γ-H2AX, a biomarker for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks, either by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: Twenty-seven RT-treated NSCLC patients had blood samples analyzed by 1 or more methods. We identified increased CTC numbers after commencement of RT in 7 of 9 patients treated with palliative RT, and in 4 of 8 patients treated with curative-intent RT. Circulating tumor cells were also identified, singly and in clumps in large numbers, during RT by cytopathologic examination (in all 5 cases studied). Elevated γ-H2AX signal in post-RT blood samples signified the presence of CTCs derived from irradiated tumors. Blood taken after the commencement of RT contained tumor cells that proliferated extensively in vitro (in all 6 cases studied). Circulating tumor cells formed γ-H2AX foci in response to ex vivo irradiation, providing further evidence of their viability. Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of strategies to reduce the concentration of viable CTCs by modulating RT fractionation or by coadministering systemic therapies.

  13. Attitudes and perceptions of three groups of family farmers in Brazil on problems they perceive in raising broilers and alternative feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Figueiredo, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    . In addition, farmers producing AF broilers highlighted subclinical coccidiosis as of high economic importance. Production of slow-growing broilers in free-range systems would benefit from local resources for the finishing period. Novel feeding strategies for broilers are suggested based on the farmers’ report...

  14. Statement of the Problem: Health Reform, Value-Based Purchasing, Alternative Payment Strategies, and Children and Youth With Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Sara S; Comeau, Meg; Long, Thomas F

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing interest in maximizing health care purchasing value by emphasizing strategies that promote cost-effectiveness while achieving optimal health outcomes. These value-based purchasing (VBP) strategies have largely focused on adult health, and little is known about the impact of VBP program development and implementation on children, especially children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). With the increasing emphasis on VBP, policymakers must critically analyze the potential impact of VBP for CYSCHN, because this group of children, by definition, uses more health care services than other children and inevitably incurs higher per person costs. We provide a history and definition of VBP and insurance design, noting its origin in employer-sponsored health insurance, and discuss various financing and payment strategies that may be pursued under a VBP framework. The relevance of these approaches for CYSHCN is discussed, and recommendations for next steps are provided. There is considerable work to be done if VBP strategies are to be applied to CYSHCN. Issues include the low prevalence of specific special health care need conditions, how to factor in a life course perspective, in which investments in children's health pay off over a long period of time, the marginal savings that may or may not accrue, the increased risk of family financial hardship, and the potential to exacerbate existing inequities across race, class, ethnicity, functional status, and other social determinants of health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Dissolvable tattoo sensors: from science fiction to a viable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huanyu; Yi, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Early surrealistic painting and science fiction movies have envisioned dissolvable tattoo electronic devices. In this paper, we will review the recent advances that transform that vision into a viable technology, with extended capabilities even beyond the early vision. Specifically, we focus on the discussion of a stretchable design for tattoo sensors and degradable materials for dissolvable sensors, in the form of inorganic devices with a performance comparable to modern electronics. Integration of these two technologies as well as the future developments of bio-integrated devices is also discussed. Many of the appealing ideas behind developments of these devices are drawn from nature and especially biological systems. Thus, bio-inspiration is believed to continue playing a key role in future devices for bio-integration and beyond.

  16. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, M.; Khalil, S. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Salah, M. [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology,6 October City, Giza (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University,Giza (Egypt)

    2016-08-18

    Inflation in the framework of f(R) modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that f(R) should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for f(R) theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from Planck satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index 0.9615

  17. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Risso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with dopaminergic agonist (cabergoline. A second ultrasound scan revealed the presence of two gestational vesicles in the right uterine horn that were successfully carried to term. Unusually, while pyometra persisted in the left uterine horn, two viable puppies were delivered by caesarean section from the right uterine horn.

  18. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  19. MANAGEMENT OF ICT – VIABLE BUSINESS STRATEGY FOR THE ROMANIAN TOURISM MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea MANOLIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian tourism industry has an increasing importance over the economic growth and it currently represents one of the best opportunities to create revenues and workplaces for the country. However, the competitive advantage no longer relies on the natural potential; it is gradually replaced by the anthropical one, represented mainly by science and the information and communication technology (ICT. Therefore, an important topic in relation to changing and renewing the tourism industry regards the use of the information and communication technology. What seems to be necessary for tourism is an intense familiarization with the consumers’ needs and preferences, as well as a quick and fictional approach of the way in which these needs could be met in a more efficient, more attractive way. The use of ICT among the specialized economy agents becomes a strategic priority for the Romanian market, its extremely beneficial effects being well-known for the performance of the sector.

  20. Alternative methods and strategies to reduce, refine, and replace animal use for veterinary vaccine post-licensing safety testing: state of the science and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    KULPA-EDDY Jodie; SRINIVAS Geetha; HALDER Maria; BROWN Karen; DRAAYER Hans; GALVIN Jeffrey; CLAASEN Ivo; WOODLAND Ralph; DOELLING Vivian; JONES Brett; STOKES William

    2011-01-01

    NICEATM and ICCVAM convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing methods and to identify opportunities to advance new and improved methods that can further reduce, refine, and replace animal use. Six topics were addressed in detail by speakers and workshop participants and are reported in a series of six reports. This workshop report, the last in the series, addresses methods and strategies for veterinary vacci...

  1. Comparison of fracture risk prediction by the US Preventive Services Task Force strategy and two alternative strategies in women 50-64 years old in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Carolyn J; Larson, Joseph C; Watts, Nelson B; Gourlay, Margaret L; Donaldson, Meghan G; LaCroix, Andrea; Cauley, Jane A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Gass, Margery L; Robbins, John A; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends osteoporosis screening for women younger than 65 years whose 10-year predicted risk of major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) is at least 9.3% using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool. In postmenopausal women age 50-64 years old, it is uncertain how the USPSTF screening strategy compares with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool and the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimate (SCORE) in discriminating women who will and will not experience MOF. This study aimed to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the three strategies for discrimination of incident MOF over 10 years of follow-up among postmenopausal women age 50-64 years. This was a prospective study conducted between 1993-2008 at 40 US Centers. We analyzed data from participants of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials, age 50-64 years, not taking osteoporosis medication (n = 62 492). The main outcome was 10-year (observed) incidence of MOF. For identifying women with incident MOF, sensitivity of the strategies ranged from 25.8-39.8%, specificity ranged from 60.7-65.8%, and AUC values ranged from 0.52-0.56. The sensitivity of the USPSTF strategy for identifying incident MOF ranged from 4.7% (3.3-6.0) among women age 50-54 years to 37.3% (35.4-39.1) for women age 60-64 years. Adjusting the thresholds to improve sensitivity resulted in decreased specificity. Our findings do not support use of the USPSTF strategy, Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, or SCORE to identify younger postmenopausal women who are at higher risk of fracture. Our findings suggest that fracture prediction in younger postmenopausal women requires assessment of risk factors not included in currently available strategies.

  2. The alternative strategy for designing covalent drugs through kinetic effects of pi-stacking on the self-assembled nanoparticles: a model study with antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Libo; Suo, Siqingaowa; Zhang, Han; Jia, Hongying; Liu, Ke Jian; Zhang, Xue Ji; Liu, Yang

    2016-11-01

    It is still a huge challenge to find a new strategy for rationally designing covalent drugs because most of them are discovered by serendipity. Considering that the effect of covalent drugs is closely associated with the kinetics of the reaction between drug molecule and its target protein, here we first demonstrate an example of the kinetic effect of pi-stacking of drug molecules on covalent antimicrobial drug design. When PEGylated 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (PEG-ACA) is used as a substrate drug, pi-stacking of the ACA group via the self-assembly of PEG-ACA on the surface of gold nanoparticles (i.e. Au@ACA) exhibits antibacterial activity against E. coli fourfold higher than a PEG-ACA monomer does. The reason can be reasonably attributed to the kinetic rate enhancement for the covalent reaction between Au@ACA and penicillin binding proteins. We believe that the self-assembly of functional groups onto the surface of gold nanoparticles represents a new strategy for covalent drug design.

  3. Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mammography is an established screening tool for breast cancer in high-income countries but may not be feasible for most resource poor nations. Alternative modalities are needed to mitigate the impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. This may require the development of new ...

  4. An alternative strategy for universal infant hearing screening in tertiary hospitals with a high delivery rate, within a developing country, using transient evoked oto-acoustic emissions and brainstem evoked response audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, N N; Dhawan, R

    2007-07-01

    To formulate an alternative strategy for universal infants hearing screening in an Indian tertiary referral hospital with a high delivery rate, which could be extended to similar situations in other developing countries. The system should be able to diagnose, in a timely fashion, all infants with severe and profound hearing losses. One thousand newborn were randomly selected. All underwent testing with transient evoked oto-acoustic emissions (TEOAE) in the first 48 hours of life. All TEOAE failures were followed up and repeat tests were performed at three weeks, three months and six months of age. Infants with acceptable TEOAE results at any of the four ages were discharged from the study. Infants with unacceptable TEOAE results at all the four ages underwent brainstem evoked response audiometry and oto-endoscopy. The 'pass rate' for TEOAE testing was calculated for all four ages. The time taken to perform TEOAE and brainstem evoked response audiometry was recorded for all subjects. These recordings were statistically analysed to find the most suitable strategy for universal hearing screening in our hospital. The pass rate for TEOAE was 79.0 per cent at audiometry. Obstructed and collapsed external auditory canals were the two factors that significantly affected the specificity of TEOAE in infants results are generated, such that a larger number must undergo brainstem evoked response audiometry, wasting time and resources. This can easily be avoided by delaying TEOAE screening until three months of age, when it has a substantially lower false positive outcome. We expect that implementation of this alternative strategy in our hospital will maximise the benefits of such a programme.

  5. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  6. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good.

  7. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  8. Is Greenberg’s “Macro-Carib” viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg’s primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib ‘etymologies’ and another 64 Amerind ‘etymologies’. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg’s Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg’s morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg’s 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable.

  9. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  10. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  11. SMA actuators: a viable practical technology (Presentation Video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Alan L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Hodgson, Darel E.

    2015-04-01

    Diverse products either based solely on or incorporating Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have and are being made in a wide range of industries, and IP is being captured. Why then compared to SE (superelastic) Nitinol, and especially conventional technology, do so few ideas reach production? This presentation delves deeply into this topic in reaching the final assessment that SMA actuators are indeed now a viable practical technology. The presentation begins with an introduction to and description of the fundamental basis of SMA actuator technology. Examples of multiple commercially available geometric forms of SMA actuators are given and the functionalities that they provide are described. This is followed by examples of multiple commercial products incorporating such SMA actuators. Given that there are literally millions of commercial products incorporating conventional actuator technologies, indications are given as to why there are their less than 1000 that utilize SMA. Experience based challenges to the commercial use of SMA actuators are described. Besides having to compete with existing non-SMA technology which is quite mature additional challenges that are unique to SM actuators are indicated these including a wider than expected set of technical engineering problems and challenges and that a broader scope of dynamics is required.

  12. New religious movements and alternative religions in France: the use of digital media as a counter-strategy against social and legal exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Königstedt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The internet is widely used internationally by individuals and groups who otherwise perceive and experience a lack of influence and even repression by authorities and whose opinions remain invisible in or are ignored by the mass media. The new media are a frequently-used means of expression in the political struggles of social and religious movements, especially as part of attempts to increase the number of supporters and to mobilise public opinion. The extent, of the usage as well as its degree of success, does vary and because of this variety, a comparative analysis can illuminate parts of the whole conflictuous configuration as well as the chances and limits of resistance and opposition via these media channels. Organisations which were chosen to be investigated here were the so-called ‘new religious movements’, or more precisely, the many forms of alternative religion in France who face significant levels of social and legal exclusion, while most of their members are themselves usually strongly committed to democracy and their identities as equal French citizens. Therefore, they choose to perform counter-actions which are within the law and act strategically, which makes them a special case compared to revolutionary political movements which may question the social order of the state as a whole. France, with its ‘anti-cult’ policy, has come to a unique standing within the Western world in this respect. Though religious freedom and state neutrality in relation to religious issues are constitutionally granted, a differentiation is made – and partially even legally enforced – between good religions and harmful ones which attempt to manipulate their adepts mentally. The debates are held in a constant dynamic between the struggling parties of ‘anti-cult’ movements and alternative religions. The exclusion of the latter from the mass media is revealed be one central means of hindering them from gaining approval within society

  13. Two alternate strategies for innate immunity to Epstein-Barr virus: One using NK cells and the other NK cells and γδ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaoud, Zakia; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Horowitz, Amir; Azzi, Tarik; Nemat-Gorgani, Neda; Olive, Daniel; Nadal, David; Norman, Paul J; Münz, Christian; Parham, Peter

    2017-06-05

    Most humans become infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which then persists for life. Infrequently, EBV infection causes infectious mononucleosis (IM) or Burkitt lymphoma (BL). Type I EBV infection, particularly type I BL, stimulates strong responses of innate immune cells. Humans respond to EBV in two alternative ways. Of 24 individuals studied, 13 made strong NK and γδ T cell responses, whereas 11 made feeble γδ T cell responses but stronger NK cell responses. The difference does not correlate with sex, HLA type, or previous exposure to EBV or cytomegalovirus. Cohorts of EBV+ children and pediatric IM patients include both group 1 individuals, with high numbers of γδ T cells, and group 2 individuals, with low numbers. The even balance of groups 1 and 2 in the human population points to both forms of innate immune response to EBV having benefit for human survival. Correlating these distinctive responses with the progress of EBV infection might facilitate the management of EBV-mediated disease. © 2017 Djaoud et al.

  14. Impact of alternative reimbursement strategies in the new cooperative medical scheme on caesarean delivery rates: a mixed-method study in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao; Bogg, Lennart; Tang, Shenglan

    2012-07-24

    The rate of caesarean delivery (CD) in rural China has been rapidly increasing in recent decades. Due to the exorbitant costs associated with CD, paying for this expensive procedure is often a great challenge for the majority of rural families. Since 2003, the Chinese government has re-established the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), aimed to improve the access of essential healthcare to rural residents and reduce financial burden owing to high out of pocket payments. This paper seeks to test the hypothesis that NCMS may provide service users and providers with financial incentives to select CD. It also assesses the effect of different health insurance reimbursement strategies of NCMS on CD rates in rural China. Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for data collection. Two cross-sectional household surveys were conducted with women having babies delivered in 2006 and 2009; 2326 and 1515 women, respectively, from the study sites were interviewed using structured questionnaires, to collect demographic and socio-economic data, maternal and child care characteristics and health-related expenditures. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth key informant interviews (KIIs) were undertaken with policy makers, health managers, providers and mothers to understand their perceptions of the influence of NCMS on the choices of delivery mode. The CD rates in the two study counties were 46.0 percent and 64.7 percent in 2006, increasing to 63.6 percent and 82.1 percent, respectively, in 2009. The study found that decisions on the selection of CD largely came from the pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for socio-economic, maternal and fetal characteristics, did not indicate a significant effect of either proportional reimbursement or fixed amount reimbursement on the choice of CD for both study years. Interviews with stakeholders reflected that different reimbursable rates for CD and vaginal deliveries did not have a

  15. Impact of alternative reimbursement strategies in the new cooperative medical scheme on caesarean delivery rates: a mixed-method study in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Kun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of caesarean delivery (CD in rural China has been rapidly increasing in recent decades. Due to the exorbitant costs associated with CD, paying for this expensive procedure is often a great challenge for the majority of rural families. Since 2003, the Chinese government has re-established the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS, aimed to improve the access of essential healthcare to rural residents and reduce financial burden owing to high out of pocket payments. This paper seeks to test the hypothesis that NCMS may provide service users and providers with financial incentives to select CD. It also assesses the effect of different health insurance reimbursement strategies of NCMS on CD rates in rural China. Methods Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for data collection. Two cross-sectional household surveys were conducted with women having babies delivered in 2006 and 2009; 2326 and 1515 women, respectively, from the study sites were interviewed using structured questionnaires, to collect demographic and socio-economic data, maternal and child care characteristics and health-related expenditures. Focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth key informant interviews (KIIs were undertaken with policy makers, health managers, providers and mothers to understand their perceptions of the influence of NCMS on the choices of delivery mode. Results The CD rates in the two study counties were 46.0 percent and 64.7 percent in 2006, increasing to 63.6 percent and 82.1 percent, respectively, in 2009. The study found that decisions on the selection of CD largely came from the pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for socio-economic, maternal and fetal characteristics, did not indicate a significant effect of either proportional reimbursement or fixed amount reimbursement on the choice of CD for both study years. Interviews with stakeholders reflected that different reimbursable rates for

  16. Treatment of Acute Seizures: Is Intranasal Midazolam a Viable Option?

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, Lesley K.; Eiland, Lea S.

    2013-01-01

    Seizures in the pediatric population commonly occur, and when proper rescue medication is not administered quickly, the risk of neurologic compromise emerges. For many years, rectal diazepam has been the standard of care, but recent interest in a more cost-effective, safe alternative has led to the investigation of intranasal midazolam for this indication. Although midazolam and diazepam are both members of the benzodiazepine class, the kinetic properties of these 2 anticonvulsants vary. This...

  17. Invitational rhetoric: Alternative rhetorical strategy for transformation of perception and use of energy in the residential built environment from the Keweenaw to Kerala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, Merle Niemi

    This dissertation explores the viability of invitational rhetoric as a mode of advocacy for sustainable energy use in the residential built environment. The theoretical foundations for this study join ecofeminist concepts and commitments with the conditions and resources of invitational rhetoric, developing in particular the rhetorical potency of the concepts of re-sourcement and enfoldment. The methodological approach is autoethnography using narrative reflection and journaling, both adapted to and developed within the autoethnographic project. Through narrative reflection, the author explores her lived experiences in advocating for energy-responsible residential construction in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan. The analysis reveals the opportunities for cooperative, collaborative advocacy and the struggle against traditional conventions of persuasive advocacy, particularly the centrality of the rhetor. The author also conducted two field trips to India, primarily the state of Kerala. Drawing on autoethnographic journaling, the analysis highlights the importance of sensory relations in lived advocacy and the resonance of everyday Indian culture to invitational principles. Based on field research, the dissertation proposes autoethnography as a critical development in encouraging invitational rhetoric as an alternative mode of effecting change. The invitational force of autoethnography is evidenced in portraying the material advocacy of the built environment itself, specifically the sensual experience of material arrangements and ambience, as well as revealing the corporeality of advocacy, that is, the body as the site of invitational engagement, emotional encounter, and sensory experience. This study concludes that vulnerability of self in autoethnographic work and the vulnerability of rhetoric as invitational constitute the basis for transformation. The dissertation confirms the potential of an ecofeminist invitational advocacy conveyed autoethnographically for

  18. Acupuntura un tratamiento viable para las adicciones en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Suescún

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La acupuntura es una antigua técnica terapéutica desarrollada en China, que ha evidenciado ser efectiva en síntomas como las náuseas, vómito y dolor dentario. A pesar del sustento fisiológico que posibilitaría un uso efectivo en otras patologías, incluyendo el campo de las adicciones, los estudios son contradictorios, posiblemente por la diferencias de visión entre la medicina oriental y la occidental. El consumo de psicoactivos es un problema de salud pública en Colombia y en el mundo que genera grandes costos tangibles e intangibles, los cuales, en países desarrollados, puede llegar hasta el 1,6 % del PIB. En contraste, el beneficio económico del tratamiento de las adicciones, según las Naciones Unidas Contra la Droga y el Delito (UNODC, está entre 1:3 a 1:13; por lo tanto, cualquier esfuerzo que se realice en favor de los consumidores es una ganancia. Con base en estos datos, los organismos internacionales han generado políticas que ayudan a aminorar estos efectos. Colombia, como integrante de estos organismos, ha realizado varios compromisos para llevar a cabo dichas metas. Los tratamientos con auriculoterapia, como el protocolo NADA (National Acupuncture Detoxification Association, son los métodos más usados para las adicciones en el mundo, y aunque no se ha logrado evidenciar su efectividad, por su costo, facilidad y el poco riesgo de efectos adversos se hace viable en un país con pocos recursos económicos como Colombia.

  19. Determining size and dispersion of minimum viable populations for land management planning and species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, John F.

    1984-03-01

    The concept of minimum populations of wildlife and plants has only recently been discussed in the literature. Population genetics has emerged as a basic underlying criterion for determining minimum population size. This paper presents a genetic framework and procedure for determining minimum viable population size and dispersion strategies in the context of multiple-use land management planning. A procedure is presented for determining minimum population size based on maintenance of genetic heterozygosity and reduction of inbreeding. A minimum effective population size ( N e ) of 50 breeding animals is taken from the literature as the minimum shortterm size to keep inbreeding below 1% per generation. Steps in the procedure adjust N e to account for variance in progeny number, unequal sex ratios, overlapping generations, population fluctuations, and period of habitat/population constraint. The result is an approximate census number that falls within a range of effective population size of 50 500 individuals. This population range defines the time range of short- to long-term population fitness and evolutionary potential. The length of the term is a relative function of the species generation time. Two population dispersion strategies are proposed: core population and dispersed population.

  20. Remote sensing is a viable tool for mapping soil salinity in agricultural lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Scudiero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity negatively impacts the productivity and profitability of western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV farmland. Many factors, including drought, climate change, reduced water allocations, and land-use changes could worsen salinity conditions there, and in other agricultural lands in the state. Mapping soil salinity at regional and state levels is essential for identifying drivers and trends in agricultural soil salinity, and for developing mitigation strategies, but traditional soil sampling for salinity does not allow for accurate large-scale mapping. We tested remote-sensing modeling to map root zone soil salinity for farmland in the WSJV. According to our map, 0.78 million acres are salt affected (i.e., ECe > 4 dS/m, which represents 45% of the mapped farmland; 30% of that acreage is strongly or extremely saline. Independent validations of the remote-sensing estimations indicated acceptable to excellent correspondences, except in areas of low salinity and high soil heterogeneity. Remote sensing is a viable tool for helping landowners make decisions about land use and also for helping water districts and state agencies develop salinity mitigation strategies.

  1. Strategy Development in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    " as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented.......There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy...

  2. Poverty alleviation in Uganda: the case for a viable optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation is a long and painstaking process. It involves knowing what poverty is, its causes and means of alleviating it. Poverty is one of the scourges including disease and ignorance a combination of which deprives humanity of the basic needs for living. Among the strategies to alleviate poverty is effective ...

  3. Social Enterprise in Higher Education: A Viable Venture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Richard A.; Sliva, Shannon M.

    2016-01-01

    Social enterprise is a burgeoning, although nebulously defined, strategy for linking market-based revenues with social good in nonprofit, for-profit, and public organizations. This article offers a unifying definition of social enterprise, tracks its development throughout traditional sectors, and takes a first step in extending the concepts of…

  4. Promoting Women Participation in Aquaculture as a Viable Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore review the potential of aquaculture in reducing poverty by enhancing food security and as a source of income, also the paper focus on the roles of women in aquaculture, factors limiting their participation in fish farming and the strategies for promoting women participation in aquaculture as a veritable ...

  5. Metabolomic Profiling of Extracellular Vesicles and Alternative Normalization Methods Reveal Enriched Metabolites and Strategies to Study Prostate Cancer-Related Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhka, Maija; Takatalo, Maarit; Nordberg, Maria-Elisa; Valkonen, Sami; Nandania, Jatin; Aatonen, Maria; Yliperttula, Marjo; Laitinen, Saara; Velagapudi, Vidya; Mirtti, Tuomas; Kallioniemi, Olli; Rannikko, Antti; Siljander, Pia R-M; Af Hällström, Taija Maria

    2017-01-01

    Body fluids are a rich source of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which carry cargo derived from the secreting cells. So far, biomarkers for pathological conditions have been mainly searched from their protein, (mi)RNA, DNA and lipid cargo. Here, we explored the small molecule metabolites from urinary and platelet EVs relative to their matched source samples. As a proof-of-concept study of intra-EV metabolites, we compared alternative normalization methods to profile urinary EVs from prostate cancer patients before and after prostatectomy and from healthy controls. We employed targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to profile over 100 metabolites in the isolated EVs, original urine samples and platelets. We determined the enrichment of the metabolites in the EVs and analyzed their subcellular origin, pathways and relevant enzymes or transporters through data base searches. EV- and urine-derived factors and ratios between metabolites were tested for normalization of the metabolomics data. Approximately 1 x 1010 EVs were sufficient for detection of metabolite profiles from EVs. The profiles of the urinary and platelet EVs overlapped with each other and with those of the source materials, but they also contained unique metabolites. The EVs enriched a selection of cytosolic metabolites including members from the nucleotide and spermidine pathways, which linked to a number of EV-resident enzymes or transporters. Analysis of the urinary EVs from the patients indicated that the levels of glucuronate, D-ribose 5-phosphate and isobutyryl-L-carnitine were 2-26-fold lower in all pre-prostatectomy samples compared to the healthy control and post-prostatectomy samples (p < 0.05). These changes were only detected from EVs by normalization to EV-derived factors or with metabolite ratios, and not from the original urine samples. Our results suggest that metabolite analysis of EVs from different samples is feasible using a high-throughput platform

  6. Development of a decision support system for the introduction of alternative methods into local irritancy/corrosivity testing strategies. Creation of fundamental rules for a decision support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, I; Zinke, S; Graetschel, G; Schlede, E

    2000-01-01

    groups were categorised on the basis of their empirical formulae, and rules were defined of the type IF (physicochemical property) A, THEN not (toxic) effect B, based on correlations between specific local effects and measured physicochemical values. Other rules of the type IF substructure A, THEN effect B were developed based on correlations between specific local effects and the submitted structural formulae. Reactive chemical substructures relevant to the formation of local lesions and rules for the prediction of the absence of any skin irritation potential were identified. Proposals are made relating to the development of alternatives to eye irritation testing with rabbits.

  7. Longitudinal changes in ultrasonic measurements of body composition during growth in Suffolk ram lambs and evaluation of alternative adjustment strategies for ultrasonic scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenheiser, J C; Greiner, S P; Lewis, R M; Notter, D R

    2010-04-01

    Four equations were used to compare alternative procedures to adjust ultrasonic estimates (y) of backfat thickness (BF) and LM area (LMA) for BW using data from a series of 7 scans on 24 Suffolk ram lambs born in 2007. Equations were linear, linear + quadratic, allometric (y = alphaBW(beta)), and allometric + BW (ABW; y = alphaBW(beta)e(gammaW)). Goodness of fit was very similar between equations over the range of the data. Resulting adjustment equations were tested using 3 serial scans on winter-born Suffolk (n = 150), Hampshire (n = 36), and Dorset (n = 43) rams and 52 fall-born Dorset rams tested at the Virginia Ram Test in 1999 through 2002. Partial correlations (accounting for the effect of year) between predicted and actual measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.87 for BF and 0.66 to 0.93 for LMA in winter-born rams and from 0.70 to 0.71 for BF and 0.72 to 0.78 for LMA in fall-born rams. No significant differences in predictive ability existed between equations for BF or LMA (P > 0.05), and there was no indication that the allometric equation was a better predictor than linear within the range of the data. Adjustment equations were also tested using serial scan data from 37 Suffolk ewe lambs born in the same contemporary group as the rams used to derive the prediction equations but fed for a substantially slower rate of BW gain. Correlations between predicted and actual values of BF and LMA indicated lambs were too young and small at the first scan (77 d, 32.4 kg) to reliably predict carcass measures at typical slaughter weights. For prediction using data from the 2 subsequent scans, at mean ages >96 d and mean BW >39 kg, correlations between predicted and actual values were 0.72 to 0.74 for BF and 0.54 to 0.76 for LMA. Little difference existed between equations for predicting BF. For LMA, the ABW form was a weaker predictor than the others, and the linear equation was slightly superior to allometric. Therefore, it appears the linear and allometric forms are both

  8. Alternative reproductive strategies of Hypocrea orientalis and genetically close but clonal Trichoderma longibrachiatum, both capable of causing invasive mycoses of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinina, Irina S; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kredics, László; Hatvani, Lóránt; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Belayneh, Temesgen; Kubicek, Christian P

    2008-11-01

    The common soil fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota) shows increasing medical importance as an opportunistic human pathogen, particularly in immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. Regardless of the disease type and the therapy used, the prognosis for Trichoderma infection is usually poor. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has been identified as the causal agent in the majority of reported Trichoderma mycoses. As T. longibrachiatum is very common in environmental samples from all over the world, the relationship between its clinical and wild strains remains unclear. Here we performed a multilocus (ITS1 and 2, tef1, cal1 and chit18-5) phylogenetic analysis of all available clinical isolates (15) and 36 wild-type strains of the fungus including several cultures of its putative teleomorph Hypocrea orientalis. The concordance of gene genealogies recognized T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis to be different phylogenetic species, which are reproductively isolated from each other. The majority of clinical strains (12) were attributed to T. longibrachiatum but three isolates belonged to H. orientalis, which broadens the phylogenetic span of human opportunists in the genus. Despite their genetic isolation, T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis were shown to be cosmopolitan sympatric species with no bias towards certain geographical locations. The analysis of haplotype association, incongruence of tree topologies and the split decomposition method supported the conclusion that H. orientalis is sexually recombining whereas strict clonality prevails in T. longibrachiatum. This is a rare case of occurrence of sexual reproduction in opportunistic pathogenic fungi. The discovery of the different reproduction strategies in these two closely related species is medically relevant because it is likely that they would also differ in virulence and/or drug resistance. Genetic identity of environmental and clinical isolates of T. longibrachiatum and H. orientalis

  9. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  10. Viable business models for public utilities; Zukunftsfaehige Geschaeftsmodelle fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Andreas; Weiss, Claudia [Buelow und Consorten GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Small suppliers are faced with mounting pressures from an increasingly complex regulatory regime and a market that rewards size. Many have been able to adapt to the new framework conditions by successively optimizing existing activities. However, when change takes hold of all stages of the value chain it is no longer enough to merely modify one's previous strategies. It rather becomes necessary to review one's business model for its sustainability, take stock of the company's competencies and set priorities along the value chain. This is where a network-oriented focussing strategy can assist in ensuring efficient delivery of services in core areas while enabling the company to present itself on the market with a full range of services.

  11. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  12. Third-Party Incentive Strategies and Conflict Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nikolas Emmanuel's examines the use of an incentives approach in managing intrastate conflict in Africa because in many cases, risks and costs make applications of hard power alone unfeasible. Furthermore, simply ignoring episodes of civil conflict in the hope that they will "burn themselves...... out"� does not appear to be a viable alternative. That said, both noncoercive and coercive incentive strategies exist and have been deployed by third parties in a variety of conflict situations. Such incentives seek to manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. The clear intention...... parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available incentive strategies, classifying them along noncoercive and coercive lines. Thus, the article outlines the possibilities offered by an incentives approach, focusing on examples drawn from recent African cases....

  13. Effect of myocardial revascularisation on left ventricular systolic function in patients with and without viable myocardium: should non-viable segments be revascularised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipac, Alja Vlahovic; Stankovic, Ivan; Vidakovic, Radosav; Putnikovic, Biljana; Ilic, Ivan; Milicic, Biljana; Neskovic, Aleksandar N

    2013-12-01

    To assess the effect of surgical revascularisation on left ventricular (LV) systolic function in patients with viable and non-viable dysfunctional LV segments determined by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Prospective observational cohort study. Single tertiary care centre. Consecutive patients referred to surgical revascularisation (n=115). DSE and surgical revascularisation. Functional recovery defined as increase in ejection fraction ≥ 5% 1 year after revascularisation in patients with and without viable myocardium (viability defined as improvement of contractility in ≥ 4 LV segments on DSE). The mean age, ejection fraction and wall motion score index (WMSi) of patients were 59 ± 9 years, 44 ± 9% and 1.82 ± 0.31, respectively. There was no difference between DSE positive and DSE negative patients for any of those parameters at baseline study (p>0.05 for all). After 12 months, the ejection fraction increased 11 ± 1% in patients with viable myocardium vs 7 ± 1% in patients without viable myocardium (p=0.002). Moreover, in patients with viable myocardium, the greatest increase of ejection fraction occurred 1 month after surgery (9 ± 1%), whereas in those patients with negative DSE the ejection fraction increased more gradually (2±1% after 1 month, p=0.002 between groups for 1 month vs preoperative value), but still improved after 12 months follow-up (pmyocardial revascularisation. Functional recovery continuously occurs throughout the first year after surgical treatment.

  14. Study Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Kirketerp; Noer, Vibeke Røn

    ID: 1277 / 22 SES 06 B: 2 22. Research in Higher Education Format of Presentation: Paper Alternative EERA Network: 19. Ethnography Topics: NW 22: Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education Keywords: Profession-oriented learning, study strategies, professionalisation processes, comparat......ID: 1277 / 22 SES 06 B: 2 22. Research in Higher Education Format of Presentation: Paper Alternative EERA Network: 19. Ethnography Topics: NW 22: Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education Keywords: Profession-oriented learning, study strategies, professionalisation processes......, comparative cross-disciplinary ethnography Study Strategies – Crossing Contexts Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen 1, Vibeke Røn Noer 2,1 1 University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 2 VIA University College Presenting Author: Kirketerp Nielsen, Camilla; Røn Noer, Vibeke This paper provides comparative cross...... module”. The projects differ in terms of both starting point and main focus of research (an alternative educational model and profession-orientated Game-based learning). However, in the on-going process of research, an empirical ´harmony´ on common recurrent themes related to students `study strategies...

  15. Alternative BCG delivery strategies improve protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in non-human primates: Protection associated with mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4 effector memory T-cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, S; White, A; Sarfas, C; Sibley, L; Gleeson, F; McIntyre, A; Basaraba, R; Clark, S; Hall, G; Rayner, E; Williams, A; Marsh, P D; Dennis, M

    2016-12-01

    Intradermal (ID) BCG injection provides incomplete protection against TB in humans and experimental models. Alternative BCG vaccination strategies may improve protection in model species, including rhesus macaques. This study compares the immunogenicity and efficacy of BCG administered by ID and intravenous (IV) injection, or as an intratracheal mucosal boost (ID + IT), against aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman strain. Disease pathology was significantly reduced, and survival improved, by each BCG vaccination strategy, relative to unvaccinated animals. However, IV induced protection surpassed that achieved by all other routes, providing an opportunity to explore protective immunological mechanisms using antigen-specific IFN-γ ELISpot and polychromatic flow cytometry assays. IFN-γ spot forming units and multifunctional CD4 T-cell frequencies increased significantly following each vaccination regimen and were greatest following IV immunisation. Vaccine-induced multifunctional CD4 T-cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α were associated with reduced disease pathology following subsequent M.tb challenge; however, high frequencies of this population following M.tb infection correlated with increased pathology. Cytokine producing T-cells primarily occupied the CD4 transitional effector memory phenotype, implicating this population as central to the mycobacterial response, potentially contributing to the stringent control observed in IV vaccinated animals. This study demonstrates the protective efficacy of IV BCG vaccination in rhesus macaques, offering a valuable tool for the interrogation of immunological mechanisms and potential correlates of protection. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  17. Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

  18. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit

    2017-06-07

    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  19. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, John J.; MacIntyre, Hugh L.

    2015-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the as...

  20. Representing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Duijf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quite some work in the ATL-tradition uses the differences between various types of strategies (positional, uniform, perfect recall to give alternative semantics to the same logical language. This paper contributes to another perspective on strategy types, one where we characterise the differences between them on the syntactic (object language level. This is important for a more traditional knowledge representation view on strategic content. Leaving differences between strategy types implicit in the semantics is a sensible idea if the goal is to use the strategic formalism for model checking. But, for traditional knowledge representation in terms of object language level formulas, we need to extent the language. This paper introduces a strategic STIT syntax with explicit operators for knowledge that allows us to charaterise strategy types. This more expressive strategic language is interpreted on standard ATL-type concurrent epistemic game structures. We introduce rule-based strategies in our language and fruitfully apply them to the representation and characterisation of positional and uniform strategies. Our representations highlight crucial conditions to be met for strategy types. We demonstrate the usefulness of our work by showing that it leads to a critical reexamination of coalitional uniform strategies.

  1. Alternative calcination development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  2. Sensitive and Specific Biomimetic Lipid Coated Microfluidics to Isolate Viable Circulating Tumor Cells and Microemboli for Cancer Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yang Chen

    Full Text Available Here we presented a simple and effective membrane mimetic microfluidic device with antibody conjugated supported lipid bilayer (SLB "smart coating" to capture viable circulating tumor cells (CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM directly from whole blood of all stage clinical cancer patients. The non-covalently bound SLB was able to promote dynamic clustering of lipid-tethered antibodies to CTC antigens and minimized non-specific blood cells retention through its non-fouling nature. A gentle flow further flushed away loosely-bound blood cells to achieve high purity of CTCs, and a stream of air foam injected disintegrate the SLB assemblies to release intact and viable CTCs from the chip. Human blood spiked cancer cell line test showed the ~95% overall efficiency to recover both CTCs and CTMs. Live/dead assay showed that at least 86% of recovered cells maintain viability. By using 2 mL of peripheral blood, the CTCs and CTMs counts of 63 healthy and colorectal cancer donors were positively correlated with the cancer progression. In summary, a simple and effective strategy utilizing biomimetic principle was developed to retrieve viable CTCs for enumeration, molecular analysis, as well as ex vivo culture over weeks. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity, it is the first time to show the high detection rates and quantity of CTCs in non-metastatic cancer patients. This work offers the values in both early cancer detection and prognosis of CTC and provides an accurate non-invasive strategy for routine clinical investigation on CTCs.

  3. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the

  5. Fertility-Sparing Surgery in Early Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Viable Option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Fotopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC continues to represent one of the most lethal conditions in women in the western countries. With the shifting of childbearing towards higher age, EOC increasingly affects women with active childbearing wish, resulting in major impacts on treatment management. Next to the optimal therapeutic treatment strategies, gynecologic oncologists are being asked to incorporate into their decision-making processes the patients' wish for fertility preserving alternatives ideally without compromising oncologic safety. Nowadays, fertility-sparing surgery represents an effective alternative to conventional radical cytoreduction in younger women with early stages of the disease. As such, this paper considers indications for fertility sparing surgery in EOC, reflects on outcomes from the oncologic and reproductive data of the largest and most relevant series outcomes data, reporting on fertility sparing techniques in EOC, reviews medicamentous efforts to prevent chemotherapy induced gonadotoxicity, and discusses future aspects in the gynecologic cancer management.

  6. Significance of Viable but Nonculturable Escherichia coli: Induction, Detection, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tian; Suo, Yuanjie; Xiang, Qisen; Zhao, Xihong; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Liu, Donghong

    2017-03-28

    Diseases caused by foodborne or waterborne pathogens are emerging. Many pathogens can enter into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, which is a survival strategy when exposed to harsh environmental stresses. Pathogens in the VBNC state have the ability to evade conventional microbiological detection methods, posing a significant and potential health risk. Therefore, controlling VBNC bacteria in food processing and the environment is of great importance. As the typical one of the gram-negatives, Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a widespread foodborne and waterborne pathogenic bacterium and is able to enter into a VBNC state in extreme conditions (similar to the other gram-negative bacteria), including inducing factors and resuscitation stimulus. VBNC E. coli has the ability to recover both culturability and pathogenicity, which may bring potential health risk. This review describes the concrete factors (nonthermal treatment, chemical agents, and environmental factors) that induce E. coli into the VBNC state, the condition or stimulus required for resuscitation of VBNC E. coli, and the methods for detecting VBNC E. coli. Furthermore, the mechanism of genes and proteins involved in the VBNC E. coli is also discussed in this review.

  7. Cybernetically sound organizational structures II: Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. - Design/methodology/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design

  8. Cross-protection of newly emerging HPAI H5 viruses by neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies: A viable alternative to oseltamivir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huanhuan; Wang, Guiqin; Wang, Shuangshuang; Chen, Honglin; Chen, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongxing; Cheng, Genhong; Zhou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Newly emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8 and H5N9 viruses have been spreading in poultry and wild birds. The H5N6 viruses have also caused 10 human infections with 4 fatal cases in China. Here, we assessed the cross-neutralization and cross-protection of human and mouse monoclonal antibodies against 2 viruses: a HPAI H5N8 virus, A/chicken/Netherlands/14015526/2014 (NE14) and a HPAI H5N6 virus, A/Sichuan/26221/2014 (SC14). The former was isolated from an infected chicken in Netherlands in 2014 and the latter was isolated from an infected human patient in Sichuan, China. We show that antibodies FLA5.10, FLD21.140, 100F4 and 65C6, but not AVFluIgG01, AVFluIgG03, S139/1 and the VRC01 control, potently cross-neutralize the H5N8 NE14 and H5N6 SC14 viruses. Furthermore, we show that a single injection of >1 mg/kg of antibody 100F4 at 4 hours before, or 20 mg/kg antibody 100F4 at 72 hours after, a lethal dose of H5N8 NE14 enables mice to withstand the infection. Finally, we show that a single injection of 0.5 or 1 mg/kg antibody 100F4 prophylactically or 10 mg/kg 100F4 therapeutically outperforms a 5-day course of 10 mg/kg/day oseltamivir treatment against lethal H5N8 NE14 or H5N6 SC14 infection in mice. Our results suggest that further preclinical evaluation of human monoclonal antibodies against newly emerging H5 viruses is warranted.

  9. High Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA); a Viable Alternative to Agarose Gel Electrophoresis for Mouse Genotyping: e45252

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicole Thomsen; Radiya G Ali; Jehangir N Ahmed; Ruth M Arkell

    2012-01-01

    .... In contrast to the range of new technologies for mouse mutagenesis, genotyping methods have remained relatively static with alleles typically discriminated by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products...

  10. Is the restricted ketogenic diet a viable alternative to the standard of care for managing malignant brain cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Marsh, Jeremy; Shelton, Laura M; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Mukherjee, Purna

    2012-07-01

    Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality. The failure to recognize brain cancer as a disease of energy metabolism has contributed in large part to the failure in management. As long as brain tumor cells have access to glucose and glutamine, the disease will progress. The current standard of care provides brain tumors with access to glucose and glutamine. The high fat low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) will target glucose availability and possibly that of glutamine when administered in carefully restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake and circulating levels of glucose. The restricted KD (RKD) targets major signaling pathways associated with glucose and glutamine metabolism including the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt/Hif pathway. The RKD is anti-angiogenic, anti-invasive, anti-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic when evaluated in mice with malignant brain cancer. The therapeutic efficacy of the restricted KD can be enhanced when combined with drugs that also target glucose and glutamine. Therapeutic efficacy of the RKD was also seen against malignant gliomas in human case reports. Hence, the RKD can be an effective non-toxic therapeutic option to the current standard of care for inhibiting the growth and invasive properties of malignant brain cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Touch Preps of Products of Conception for Rule-Out Ectopic Pregnancy:  A Viable Alternative to Frozen Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Athena L; Tambouret, Rosemary H; Roberts, Drucilla J

    2016-06-01

    Tissue confirmation of the intrauterine location of a pregnancy can be difficult grossly, necessitating a frozen section diagnosis. First-trimester tissue is often scant and can be exhausted by frozen section. We examined 39 endometrial curettings performed for rule-out ectopic pregnancy by touch prep to examine the utility of cytopathology in documenting trophoblast or chorionic villi (products of conception [POC]). First-trimester curettage specimens sent to the Massachusetts General Hospital Pathology Departmentreceived a gross examination followed by a touch prep of the area most suspicious for villi. Touch preps were reviewed blinded to the final diagnosis and then compared. Thirty-three of the 39 touch preps and histology specimens were concordant, including all 11 negative histology specimens and 22 of the 28 positive histology specimens. POC can be diagnosed by touch prep and may offer confirmation of grossly identified villi. Positive predictive value is 100%. Negative touch preps should receive further evaluation. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenn-Chyau Lee

    Full Text Available The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals.

  13. Professional judgment and the interpretation of viable mold air sampling data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Thompson, David; Clinkenbeard, Rodney; Redus, Jason

    2008-10-01

    Although mold air sampling is technically straightforward, interpreting the results to decide if there is an indoor source is not. Applying formal statistical tests to mold sampling data is an error-prone practice due to the extreme data variability. With neither established exposure limits nor useful statistical techniques, indoor air quality investigators often must rely on their professional judgment, but the lack of a consensus "decision strategy" incorporating explicit decision criteria requires professionals to establish their own personal set of criteria when interpreting air sampling data. This study examined the level of agreement among indoor air quality practitioners in their evaluation of airborne mold sampling data and explored differences in inter-evaluator assessments. Eighteen investigators independently judged 30 sets of viable mold air sampling results to indicate: "definite indoor mold source," "likely indoor mold source," "not enough information to decide," "likely no indoor mold source," or "definitely no indoor mold source." Kappa coefficient analysis indicated weak inter-observer reliability, and comparison of evaluator mean scores showed clear inter-evaluator differences in their overall scoring patterns. The responses were modeled on indicator "traits" of the data sets using a generalized, linear mixed model approach and showed several traits to be associated with respondents' ratings, but they also demonstrated distinct and divergent inter-evaluator response patterns. Conclusions were that there was only weak overall agreement in evaluation of the mold sampling data, that particular traits of the data were associated with the conclusions reached, and that there were substantial inter-evaluator differences that were likely due to differences in the personal decision criteria employed by the individual evaluators. The overall conclusion was that there is a need for additional work to rigorously explore the constellation of decision criteria

  14. Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

    1991-04-01

    When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice.

  15. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Wastewater Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    viruses in water and wastewater (Trojan, undated:l). Used properly, ultraviolet light can effectively destroy bacteria, viruses, algae and other...highly effective in disinfecting wastewaters of an industrial nature and viable for medium to large plants, where purified oxygen is readily available or...Alternatives This appendix provides information and cost data obtained from vendors in the wastewater disinfection industry . This data is provided for

  16. Exploring Alternative Assessment Strategies in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stears, Michèle; Gopal, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge children bring to the classroom or construct in the classroom may find expression in a variety of activities and is often not measurable with the traditional assessment instruments used in science classrooms. Different approaches to assessment are required to accommodate the various ways in which learners construct knowledge in…

  17. randomised trial of alternative malaria chemoprophylaxis strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-02-02

    Feb 2, 2000 ... of the new malaria vaccine is accepted for use among pregnant women. Therefore, prevention of malaria among pregnant women is still largely dependent upon chemoprophylaxis until such time that a cheap and effective vaccine will be available for use in poor resource countries like Tanzania.

  18. Exploring alternative assessment strategies in science classrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge children bring to the classroom or construct in the classroom may find expression in a variety of activities and is often not measurable with the traditional assessment instruments used in science classrooms. Different approaches to assessment are required to accommodate the various ways in which learners ...

  19. Randomised trial of alternative malaria chemoprophylaxis strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However the prevalence of anaemia among women in the age group 31-45 years was significantly lower than that observed among women in the age group 14-20 years (2.9% versus 18.9%; crude odds ratio [OR] = 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.55). Sickle cell disease (HbAS) was found in 2.3% (N = 564) of the ...

  20. Biocorrosion control: Current strategies and promising alternatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metal corrosion is an electrochemical reaction between the environment and a metal, in which microbes are thought to play a very important role. The rates at which various types of metals corrode are dependent upon environmental conditions as well as on the type of metals. The most well studied bacteria involved in ...

  1. Two ways to the top: evidence that dominance and prestige are distinct yet viable avenues to social rank and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joey T; Tracy, Jessica L; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The pursuit of social rank is a recurrent and pervasive challenge faced by individuals in all human societies. Yet, the precise means through which individuals compete for social standing remains unclear. In 2 studies, we investigated the impact of 2 fundamental strategies-Dominance (the use of force and intimidation to induce fear) and Prestige (the sharing of expertise or know-how to gain respect)-on the attainment of social rank, which we conceptualized as the acquisition of (a) perceived influence over others (Study 1), (b) actual influence over others' behaviors (Study 1), and (c) others' visual attention (Study 2). Study 1 examined the process of hierarchy formation among a group of previously unacquainted individuals, who provided round-robin judgments of each other after completing a group task. Results indicated that the adoption of either a Dominance or Prestige strategy promoted perceptions of greater influence, by both group members and outside observers, and higher levels of actual influence, based on a behavioral measure. These effects were not driven by popularity; in fact, those who adopted a Prestige strategy were viewed as likable, whereas those who adopted a Dominance strategy were not well liked. In Study 2, participants viewed brief video clips of group interactions from Study 1 while their gaze was monitored with an eye tracker. Dominant and Prestigious targets each received greater visual attention than targets low on either dimension. Together, these findings demonstrate that Dominance and Prestige are distinct yet viable strategies for ascending the social hierarchy, consistent with evolutionary theory.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative strategies for waste management in the military - climate account for five selected localities; Klimagassutslipp fra alternative strategier for avfallsh#Latin Small Letter A With Ring Above#ndtering i Forsvaret #En Dash# et klimaregnskap for fem utvalgte lokaliteter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, Oddvar; Reistad, Trine; Longva, Kjetil

    2011-02-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions emanating from waste management practices in the Norwegian Armed Forces were assessed. Focus was on use of a material recovery facility (MRF) where the initial sorting of waste takes place. The MRF upgrades the waste before it is delivered to other industries to produce new products; alternatively, it undergoes incineration with energy recovery as an alternative to burning fossil fuel. The GHG emissions accounting practices examined in this paper included upstream emissions from fuel consumption of collection and transport of waste, operational activities at the MRF, and downstream processes. The latter means recycling of waste (glass, plastics, paper, ferrous metal, electrical and electronic equipment, and tires) compared to primary production using virgin materials, or the incineration of waste with energy recovery (mixed waste, food waste, wood waste, and infectious waste) compared to energy production from sources of fossil origin. The results show that recycling proves to be beneficial over primary production, and incineration of waste in waste to energy plants is favorable compared to the use of fossil fuel (savings of 0.9 and 0.3 kg Co2-equivalents kg#Minus Sign#1 waste, respectively). Sorting of all the mixed waste at military camp collection sites followed by recycling of the separated fractions at MRF would result in avoided GHG emissions of 44%, compared to the current practice of incineration with energy recovery. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the importance and benefits of increased sorting of mixed waste in the Norwegian Armed Forces seen from a GHG perspective. (author)

  3. Designing viable cropping options for salt-affected lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Sergey; Meinke, Holger

    2017-04-01

    scales and geographic distribution. We then consider different scenarios of land use and link these with international, national and local policy frameworks that govern land and water management. Finally, we discuss the importance of developing modelling approaches that facilitate informed debates about alternative management options and so engender dialogs between scientists, policy makers, communities and end users.

  4. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  5. Real-time detection of viable microorganisms by intracellular phototautomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuren Frank

    2010-06-01

    preservation strategies and membrane permeation and stability. The assay allows for high-throughput applications and has great potential for rapid monitoring of microbial content in air, liquids or on surfaces.

  6. Selection of Fusion Levels Using the Fulcrum Bending Radiograph for the Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients with Alternate Level Pedicle Screw Strategy: Clinical Decision-making and Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Samartzis

    Full Text Available Selecting fusion levels based on the Luk et al criteria for operative management of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS with hook and hybrid systems yields acceptable curve correction and balance parameters; however, it is unknown whether utilizing a purely pedicle screw strategy is effective. Utilizing the fulcrum bending radiographic (FBR to assess curve flexibility to select fusion levels, the following study assessed the efficacy of pedicle screw fixation with alternate level screw strategy (ALSS for thoracic AIS.A retrospective study with prospective radiographic data collection/analyses (preoperative, postoperative 1-week and minimum 2-year follow-up of 28 operative thoracic AIS patients undergoing ALSS was performed. Standing coronal/sagittal and FBR Cobb angles, FBR flexibility, fulcrum bending correction index (FBCI, trunkal shift, radiographic shoulder height (RSH, and list were assessed on x-rays. Fusion level selection was based on the Luk et al criteria and compared to conventional techniques.In the primary curve, the mean preoperative and postoperative 1 week and last follow-up standing coronal Cobb angles were 59.9, 17.2 and 20.0 degrees, respectively. Eighteen patients (64.3% had distal levels saved (mean: 1.6 levels in comparison to conventional techniques. Mean immediate and last follow-up FBCIs were 122.6% and 115.0%, respectively. Sagittal alignment did not statistically differ between any assessment intervals (p>0.05. A decrease in trunkal shift was noted from preoperative to last follow-up (p = 0.003. No statistically significant difference from preoperative to last follow-up was noted in RSH and list (p>0.05. No "add-on" of other vertebra or decompensation was noted and all patients achieved fusion.This is the first report to note that using the FBR for decision-making in selecting fusion levels in thoracic AIS patients undergoing management with pedicle screw constructs (e.g. ALSS is a cost-effective strategy

  7. Selection of Fusion Levels Using the Fulcrum Bending Radiograph for the Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients with Alternate Level Pedicle Screw Strategy: Clinical Decision-making and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartzis, Dino; Leung, Yee; Shigematsu, Hideki; Natarajan, Deepa; Stokes, Oliver; Mak, Kin-Cheung; Yao, Guanfeng; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C

    2015-01-01

    Selecting fusion levels based on the Luk et al criteria for operative management of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with hook and hybrid systems yields acceptable curve correction and balance parameters; however, it is unknown whether utilizing a purely pedicle screw strategy is effective. Utilizing the fulcrum bending radiographic (FBR) to assess curve flexibility to select fusion levels, the following study assessed the efficacy of pedicle screw fixation with alternate level screw strategy (ALSS) for thoracic AIS. A retrospective study with prospective radiographic data collection/analyses (preoperative, postoperative 1-week and minimum 2-year follow-up) of 28 operative thoracic AIS patients undergoing ALSS was performed. Standing coronal/sagittal and FBR Cobb angles, FBR flexibility, fulcrum bending correction index (FBCI), trunkal shift, radiographic shoulder height (RSH), and list were assessed on x-rays. Fusion level selection was based on the Luk et al criteria and compared to conventional techniques. In the primary curve, the mean preoperative and postoperative 1 week and last follow-up standing coronal Cobb angles were 59.9, 17.2 and 20.0 degrees, respectively. Eighteen patients (64.3%) had distal levels saved (mean: 1.6 levels) in comparison to conventional techniques. Mean immediate and last follow-up FBCIs were 122.6% and 115.0%, respectively. Sagittal alignment did not statistically differ between any assessment intervals (p>0.05). A decrease in trunkal shift was noted from preoperative to last follow-up (p = 0.003). No statistically significant difference from preoperative to last follow-up was noted in RSH and list (p>0.05). No "add-on" of other vertebra or decompensation was noted and all patients achieved fusion. This is the first report to note that using the FBR for decision-making in selecting fusion levels in thoracic AIS patients undergoing management with pedicle screw constructs (e.g. ALSS) is a cost-effective strategy that

  8. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  9. Non-viable antagonist cells are associated with reduced biocontrol performance by viable cells of the yeast Papiliotrema flavescens against Fusarium head blight of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbially-based plant disease control products have achieved commercial market success, but the efficacy of such biocontrol products is sometimes deemed inconsistent. Improper processing of harvested microbial biomass or long-term storage can reduce the proportion of viable cells and necessitate t...

  10. Immediate natural tooth pontic: A viable yet temporary prosthetic solution: A patient reported outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The concept of immediate pontic placement is surely a viable treatment option and promises an excellent transient esthetic solution for a lost tooth as well as enables good preparation of the extraction site for future prosthetic replacement.

  11. Improved identification of viable myocardium using second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sozzi (Fabiola); D. Poldermans (Don); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); A. Elhendy (Abdou); E.C. Vourvouri (Eleni); R. Valkema (Roelf); J. de Sutter; A.F.L. Schinkel (Arend); A. Borghetti; J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether, compared with fundamental imaging, second harmonic imaging can improve the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for identifying viable myocardium, using nuclear imaging as a reference. PATIENTS: 30 patients with chronic left

  12. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kenkre, V.D.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Direct viable counts (DVC) of bacteria were quantified from polluted and relatively less/non-polluted coastal locations during different seasons to assess whether they can be routinely monitored for an understanding of environmental stress(es...

  13. Combustion aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels as a viable demil technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Davis, K.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J.; Sclippa, G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1996-05-01

    This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2,600 ppm on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen-containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.

  14. Immunization of rodents against Hymenolepis infections using non-viable homologous oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Ito, Akira

    2004-12-01

    Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous non-viable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at -70 degrees C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  15. [Viable myocardium detecting by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Mu, Hu-Yati; He, Peng-Yi; Yang, Yu-Chun; Chou, Ping; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yan-Yi

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and practicability of detecting viable myocardium by CARTO voltage mapping in swine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). MI was induced in 13 anesthetized swines via occluding the distal of left anterior descending coronary arteries by angioplasty balloon for 60-90 minutes. The viable myocardium detection by CARTO voltage mapping was made after reconstruction of the left ventricle using CARTO and the results were compared with TTC staining. The standard of CARTO voltage to detect viable myocardium was 0.5 - 1.5 mV while viable myocardium showed pink color by TTC staining. Eleven out of 13 swines survived the operation and 2 swines died of ventricular fibrillation at 45 and 65 minutes post ischemia. Left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and 176 segments from 11 swines were analyzed. Viable myocardium detected by CARTO voltage mapping was identical as identified by TTC staining (Kappa = 0.816, P < 0.001). Taken the TTC result as standard, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of CARTO voltage mapping are 71.8%, 96.5% and 90.9% respectively. CARTO voltage mapping could be used as a reliable tool to detect viable myocardium in this model.

  16. Emerging microbial biocontrol strategies for plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Ab Rahman, Sharifah Farhana; Singh, Eugenie; Pieterse, Corné M J; Schenk, Peer M

    2018-02-01

    To address food security, agricultural yields must increase to match the growing human population in the near future. There is now a strong push to develop low-input and more sustainable agricultural practices that include alternatives to chemicals for controlling pests and diseases, a major factor of heavy losses in agricultural production. Based on the adverse effects of some chemicals on human health, the environment and living organisms, researchers are focusing on potential biological control microbes as viable alternatives for the management of pests and plant pathogens. There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the potential of leaf and root-associated microbiomes to increase plant efficiency and yield in cropping systems. It is important to understand the role of these microbes in promoting growth and controlling diseases, and their application as biofertilizers and biopesticides whose success in the field is still inconsistent. This review focusses on how biocontrol microbes modulate plant defense mechanisms, deploy biocontrol actions in plants and offer new strategies to control plant pathogens. Apart from simply applying individual biocontrol microbes, there are now efforts to improve, facilitate and maintain long-term plant colonization. In particular, great hopes are associated with the new approaches of using "plant-optimized microbiomes" (microbiome engineering) and establishing the genetic basis of beneficial plant-microbe interactions to enable breeding of "microbe-optimized crops". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Processes Affecting Phosphorus and Copper Concentrations and Their Relation to Algal Growth in Two Supply Reservoirs in the Lower Coastal Plain of Virginia, 2002-2003, and Implications for Alternative Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.; Simon, Nancy S.; Mood-Brown, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated phosphorus concentrations commonly promote excessive growth of algae in waters nationwide. When such waters are used for public supply, the algae can plug filters during treatment and impart tastes and odors to the finished water. This increases treatment costs and results in finished water that may not be of the quality desired for public supply. Consequently, copper sulfate is routinely applied to many reservoirs to control algal growth but only is a 'temporary fix' and must be reapplied at intervals that can range from more than 30 days in the winter to less than 7 days in the summer. Because copper has a maximum allowable concentration in public drinking water and can be toxic to aquatic life, water suppliers commonly seek to develop alternative, long-term strategies for managing reservoirs. Because these are nationwide issues and part of the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to define and protect the quality of the Nation's water resources and better understand the physical, chemical, and biological processes in wetlands, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, investigations into these issues are important to the fulfillment of the mission of the USGS. The City of Newport News, Virginia, provides 50 million gallons per day of treated water for public supply from Lee Hall and Harwoods Mill Reservoirs (terminal reservoirs) to communities on the lower York-James Peninsula. About 3,500 pounds of copper sulfate are applied to each reservoir at 3- to 99-day intervals to control algal growth. Consequently, the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Newport News, investigated the effects of management practices and natural processes on phosphorus (the apparent growth-limiting nutrient), copper, and algal concentrations in the terminal reservoirs to provide information that can be used to develop alternative management strategies for the terminal reservoirs. Initial parts of the research evaluated circulation and stratification in the reservoirs

  18. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.

    1980-12-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  19. Optimal interpretation as an alternative to Gricean pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeevat, H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces an optimality theoretic notion of optimal interpretation based on presupposition theory and shows that it is a viable alternative for Gricean pragmatics. It moreover is directly applicable to presupposition and rhetorical structure and improves the insights in those areas. The

  20. Third-Party Incentive Strategies and Conflict Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nikolas Emmanuel's examines the use of an incentives approach in managing intrastate conflict in Africa because in many cases, risks and costs make applications of hard power alone unfeasible. Furthermore, simply ignoring episodes of civil conflict in the hope that they will "burn themselves...... of this approach is to shift the behavior of targeted actors away from violence and towards more peaceful interaction. Indeed, such incentives offer a good deal of underexplored opportunities to help manage discord. This research has two primary objectives. First, it furthers the discussion of how external third...... out"� does not appear to be a viable alternative. That said, both noncoercive and coercive incentive strategies exist and have been deployed by third parties in a variety of conflict situations. Such incentives seek to manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. The clear intention...

  1. Toward rational design of electrical stimulation strategies for epilepsy control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Sridhar; Gluckman, Bruce; Reato, Davide; Bikson, Marom

    2009-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is emerging as a viable alternative for epilepsy patients whose seizures are not alleviated by drugs or surgery. Its attractions are temporal and spatial specificity of action, flexibility of waveform parameters and timing, and the perception that its effects are reversible unlike resective surgery. However, despite significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of neural electrical stimulation, clinical electrotherapy for seizures relies heavily on empirical tuning of parameters and protocols. We highlight concurrent treatment goals with potentially conflicting design constraints that must be resolved when formulating rational strategies for epilepsy electrotherapy: namely seizure reduction versus cognitive impairment, stimulation efficacy versus tissue safety, and mechanistic insight versus clinical pragmatism. First, treatment markers, objectives, and metrics relevant to electrical stimulation for epilepsy are discussed from a clinical perspective. Then the experimental perspective is presented, with the biophysical mechanisms and modalities of open-loop electrical stimulation, and the potential benefits of closed-loop control for epilepsy. PMID:19926525

  2. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  3. Immunization of Rodents Against Hymenolepis Infections using Non-Viable Homologous Oncospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chin Fan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to Taiwan Taenia infection in pigs can be stimulated using homologous or heterologous nonviable Taenia oncospheres. This study was designed to determine whether homologous non-viable oncospheres could stimulate immunity to Hymenolepis infection in rodents. Hatched oncospheres were prepared from eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Hymenolepis microstoma and kept at −70°C for more than 1 month. A mixture of 500 non-viable oncospheres of each tapeworm and complete Freund's adjuvant was injected subcutaneously in four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats or ICR mice one to four times at an interval of 1 week; controls were not immunized. After immunization, each rodent was orally inoculated with three fresh active cysticercoids of H. diminuta or H. microstoma or 500 fresh eggs of H. nana. The animals were then necropsied for adult tapeworms. No rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta or H. nana were infected by the challenge inoculation. However, 28 of 34 mice immunized with non-viable H. microstoma oncospheres were infected after inoculation with cysticercoids. This study demonstrated complete protection against infection by homologous parasites in rats or mice immunized with non-viable oncospheres of H. diminuta and H. nana, respectively. Repeated immunization may not be required if resistance is stimulated in rodent hosts.

  4. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  5. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter bacteria on chicken carcasses, using real-time PCR and propidium monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Hansen, T B; Christensen, L S; Olsen, J E; Hoorfar, J

    2010-08-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Campylobacter bacteria with an intact membrane. The method's performance was evaluated by assessing the contributions to variability by individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and differences in efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with cycle threshold (C(T)) values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by the chicken rinse matrix or by the species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter bacteria in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter bacteria but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.

  6. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau geothermal assessment is acquiring and interpreting comprehensive field data that can provide quantitative constraints on the recovery of heat from the Columbia River Basalts at depths greater than those currently tested by deep boreholes.

  7. Development of a specific immunomagnetic capture-PCR for rapid detection of viable Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, G; Lecca, V; Foddai, A; Tola, S

    2014-12-01

    To develop an immunomagnetic capture (IMC) to detect viable Mycoplasma agalactiae in routine ovine milk samples. Polyclonal antibodies against two M. agalactiae membrane surface proteins (P80 and P55) were covalently conjugated to magnetic beads (MBs) to form MB-Ab80 and MB-Ab55. Mycoplasma agalactiae cells were captured by a specific antigen-antibody reaction and magnetic separation. Immunomagnetic capture (IMC) was used to isolate and concentrate M. agalactiae in serial decimal dilutions and in artificially contaminated milk to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR. A 375-bp fragment of M. agalactiae was amplified using a pair of M. agalactiae-specific primers in PCR. The limit of detection of IMC-PCR method ranged from 10 to 10(2)  CCU ml(-1) when mycoplasmas were resuspended in PBS and from 10(2) to 10(3)  CCU ml(-1) when mycoplasmas were resuspended in uncontaminated ovine milk. This study also describes the application of IMC-PCR method to test for M. agalactiae in 516 milk samples collected from sheep with suspected contagious agalactia. Its performance was evaluated relative to culture. This report has demonstrated for the first time, the effective use of rapid and reliable IMC combined with PCR assay for the detection of viable M. agalactiae. The method IMC-PCR provides an alternative to conventional microbiological detection, method and it could be applied to quick detection of M. agalactiae in routine sheep milk samples. © 2014 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Complexity Science Applications to Dynamic Trajectory Management: Research Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Bruce; Herriot, James; Holmes, Bruce J.; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The promise of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is strongly tied to the concept of trajectory-based operations in the national airspace system. Existing efforts to develop trajectory management concepts are largely focused on individual trajectories, optimized independently, then de-conflicted among each other, and individually re-optimized, as possible. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time are valuable, though perhaps could be greater through alternative strategies. The concept of agent-based trajectories offers a strategy for automation of simultaneous multiple trajectory management. The anticipated result of the strategy would be dynamic management of multiple trajectories with interacting and interdependent outcomes that satisfy multiple, conflicting constraints. These constraints would include the business case for operators, the capacity case for the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), and the environmental case for noise and emissions. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time might be improved over those possible under individual trajectory management approaches. The proposed approach relies on computational agent-based modeling (ABM), combinatorial mathematics, as well as application of "traffic physics" concepts to the challenge, and modeling and simulation capabilities. The proposed strategy could support transforming air traffic control from managing individual aircraft behaviors to managing systemic behavior of air traffic in the NAS. A system built on the approach could provide the ability to know when regions of airspace approach being "full," that is, having non-viable local solution space for optimizing trajectories in advance.

  9. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eSerrano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s, thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s, which phenotypically resemble mutation(s of the encoding gene(s. A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1 a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2 a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3 an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound’s mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  10. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Mario; Kombrink, Erich; Meesters, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s), thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s), which phenotypically resemble mutation(s) of the encoding gene(s). A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1) a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2) a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3) an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound's mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  11. Combining ethidium monoazide treatment with real-time PCR selectively quantifies viable Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Vercammen, Francis; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-02-01

    Detection of the lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis relies on PCR-based techniques. Although highly accurate and sensitive, these methods fail to distinguish between viable and dead cells. In this study a novel approach combining the DNA intercalating dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) and real-time PCR is presented that allows quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis cells without the need for culturing. The developed method is able to suppress real-time PCR signals of heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores by 99.9 % and is able to discriminate viable from heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores in mixed samples. Furthermore, the novel approach was applied to assess the antifungal activity of the veterinary antiseptic F10(®) Antiseptic Solution. This disinfectant killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores effectively within 1 min at concentrations as low as 1:6400. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A multicenter study of viable PCR using propidium monoazide to detect Legionella in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Maria; Fontana, Stefano; Dell'eva, Italo; Helfer, Fabrizia; Marchio, Michele; Stefanetti, Maria Vittoria; Cavallaro, Mario; Miglietta, Marilena; Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cuna, Teresa; Chetti, Leonarda; Sabattini, Maria Antonietta Bucci; Carlotti, Michela; Viggiani, Mariagabriella; Stenico, Alberta; Romanin, Elisa; Bonanni, Emma; Ottaviano, Claudio; Franzin, Laura; Avanzini, Claudio; Demarie, Valerio; Corbella, Marta; Cambieri, Patrizia; Marone, Piero; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Ricci, Maria Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Legionella quantification in environmental samples is overestimated by qPCR. Combination with a viable dye, such as Propidium monoazide (PMA), could make qPCR (named then vPCR) very reliable. In this multicentre study 717 artificial water samples, spiked with fixed concentrations of Legionella and interfering bacterial flora, were analysed by qPCR, vPCR and culture and data were compared by statistical analysis. A heat-treatment at 55 °C for 10 minutes was also performed to obtain viable and not-viable bacteria. When data of vPCR were compared with those of culture and qPCR, statistical analysis showed significant differences (P 0.05). Overall this study provided a good experimental reproducibility of vPCR but also highlighted limits of PMA in the discriminating capability of dead and live bacteria, making vPCR not completely reliable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  14. Evaluation of respiratory route as a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallapura G

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gopala Kallapura,1 Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco,2 Neil R Pumford,1 Lisa R Bielke,1 Billy M Hargis,1 Guillermo Tellez1 1Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, The National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico Abstract: With increasing reports of Salmonella infection, we are forced to question whether the fecal–oral route is the major route of infection and consider the possibility that airborne Salmonella infections might have a major unappreciated role. Today's large-scale poultry production, with densely stocked and enclosed production buildings, is often accompanied by very high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Considering that the upper and lower respiratory lymphoid tissue requires up to 6 weeks to be fully developed, these immune structures seem to have a very minor role in preventing pathogen infection. In addition, the avian respiratory system in commercial poultry has anatomic and physiologic properties that present no challenge to the highly adapted Salmonella. The present review evaluates the hypothesis that transmission by the fecal–respiratory route may theoretically be a viable portal of entry for Salmonella in poultry. First, we update the current knowledge on generation of Salmonella bioaerosols, and the transport and fate of Salmonella at various stages of commercial poultry production. Further, emphasis is placed on survivability of Salmonella in these bioaerosols, as a means to assess the transport and subsequent risk of exposure and infection of poultry. Additionally, the main anatomic structures, physiologic functions, and immunologic defense in the avian respiratory system are discussed to understand the potential entry points inherent in each component that could potentially lead to infection and subsequent systemic infection of poultry by Salmonella. In this context, we also evaluate the role of the mucosal immune

  15. Blogging as a viable research methodology for young people with arthritis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E

    2015-03-05

    The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of the participants. However, the data

  16. Television and Our Children. A Report of the Activities of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainse, David

    Two major objectives of the Alternatives in Children's Broadcasting Project were to determine the extent of the influence of violence in children's television and to determine if children's interest in prosocial programming makes it a viable alternative to violence programming. Both adults and 8-10 year old children were surveyed about their…

  17. El modelo de sistema viable: un instrumento para la organización efectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlando Sánchez Rueda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En este ensayo se presenta una interpretación teórica del denominado Modelo de Sistema Viable (MSV, de Stafford Beer y su Potencial Aplicación en Tareas de Diagnóstico  y diseño empresarial, al igual que para Mejorar las capacidades Organizacionales de Auto- Regulación  y Auto- Organización. Se explica como el Modelo del Sistema Viable permite conocer e interpretar  los mecanismos de estabilidad y adaptabilidad de las organizaciones, pilares para el crecimiento de una verdadera organización Efectiva.

  18. Alternative models for academic family practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarnall Kimberly SH

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Future of Family Medicine Report calls for a fundamental redesign of the American family physician workplace. At the same time, academic family practices are under economic pressure. Most family medicine departments do not have self-supporting practices, but seek support from specialty colleagues or hospital practice plans. Alternative models for academic family practices that are economically viable and consistent with the principles of family medicine are needed. This article presents several "experiments" to address these challenges. Methods The basis of comparison is a traditional academic family medicine center. Apart of the faculty practice plan, our center consistently operated at a deficit despite high productivity. A number of different practice types and alternative models of service delivery were therefore developed and tested. They ranged from a multi-specialty office arrangement, to a community clinic operated as part of a federally-qualified health center, to a team of providers based in and providing care for residents of an elderly public housing project. Financial comparisons using consistent accounting across models are provided. Results Academic family practices can, at least in some settings, operate without subsidy while providing continuity of care to a broad segment of the community. The prerequisites are that the clinicians must see patients efficiently, and be able to bill appropriately for their payer mix. Conclusion Experimenting within academic practice structure and organization is worthwhile, and can result in economically viable alternatives to traditional models.

  19. Alternative models for academic family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, J Lloyd; Østbye, Truls; Kaprielian, Victoria S; Krause, Katrina M; Yarnall, Kimberly S H; Yaggy, Susan D; Gradison, Margaret

    2006-03-20

    The Future of Family Medicine Report calls for a fundamental redesign of the American family physician workplace. At the same time, academic family practices are under economic pressure. Most family medicine departments do not have self-supporting practices, but seek support from specialty colleagues or hospital practice plans. Alternative models for academic family practices that are economically viable and consistent with the principles of family medicine are needed. This article presents several "experiments" to address these challenges. The basis of comparison is a traditional academic family medicine center. Apart of the faculty practice plan, our center consistently operated at a deficit despite high productivity. A number of different practice types and alternative models of service delivery were therefore developed and tested. They ranged from a multi-specialty office arrangement, to a community clinic operated as part of a federally-qualified health center, to a team of providers based in and providing care for residents of an elderly public housing project. Financial comparisons using consistent accounting across models are provided. Academic family practices can, at least in some settings, operate without subsidy while providing continuity of care to a broad segment of the community. The prerequisites are that the clinicians must see patients efficiently, and be able to bill appropriately for their payer mix. Experimenting within academic practice structure and organization is worthwhile, and can result in economically viable alternatives to traditional models.

  20. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J; MacIntyre, Hugh L

    2016-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water. In principle, the serial dilution culture-most probable number (SDC-MPN) method provides the appropriate measure for phytoplankton. But, the method has been criticized, particularly because it is thought that many phytoplankton species cannot be cultured. A review of the literature shows that although SDC-MPN has been used for more than 50 years-generally to identify and count phytoplankton species that cannot be preserved-its application to enumerate total viable phytoplankton seems to be new, putting past criticisms of the method in a different light. Importantly, viable cells need to grow only enough to be detected, not to be brought into sustained culture, and competition between species in a dilution tube is irrelevant as long as the winner is detectable. Thorough consideration of sources of error leads to recommendations for minimizing and quantifying uncertainties by optimizing growth conditions and conducting systematic comparisons. We conclude that with careful evaluation, SDC-MPN is potentially an effective method for assessing the viability of phytoplankton after BWT.

  1. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexia; Yang, Ming; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Wanyi; Suo, Biao

    2015-09-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at -18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA) was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay combining propidium monoazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuexia Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR allows rapid detection of Salmonella in frozen dairy products, but it might cause a false positive detection result because it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. In this study, Salmonella-free frozen ice cream was initially inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at −18°C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified using TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicated that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in frozen ice cream for at least 20 days, and could produce fluorescence signal for real-time PCR as well. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA was combined with real-time PCR. PMA treatment can effectively prevent PCR amplification from heat-killed Salmonella cells in frozen ice cream. The PMA real-time PCR assay can selectively detect viable Salmonella at as low as 103 CFU/mL. Combining 18 hours of pre-enrichment with the assay allows for the detection of viable Salmonella at 100 CFU/mL and avoiding the false-positive result of dead cells. The PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative specifically for detection of viable Salmonella in ice cream. However, when the PMA real-time PCR assay was evaluated in ice cream subjected to frozen storage, it obviously underestimated the contamination situation of viable Salmonella, which might lead to a false negative result. According to this result, the use of enrichment prior to PMA real-time PCR analysis remains as the more appropriate approach.

  3. PASTURE SHADING STRATEGIES: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomaiací de Andrade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes affect animals’ metabolism in a general way, resulting in an increase of heat stress and productivity decrease. Among viable alternatives to ameliote this situation, the most indicated is reforestation of pasture areas due to the great ecological benefit given to animals and the environment as a whole. The intercropping between trees and animals is called silvopastoral system, and represents a promising alternative to current means of production. For a correct deployment of this system it is necessary to consider some characteristics of the land and the environment concerned, to avoid loss and competition between members of the system, in other words, between tree and fodder species.

  4. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.; Jager, V.C. de; Geene, R.T.; Alen-Boerrigter, I.J. van; Hazelwood, L.; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van; Kleerebezem, M; Smid, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem.

  5. Induction of viable 2n pollen in sterile Oriental × Trumpet Lilium hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, J.R.; Arens, P.; Niu, L.X.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to induce viable 2n pollen from highly sterile diploid Oriental × Trumpet (OT) (Lilium), N2O was used to treat flower buds of four sterile diploid OT cultivars (‘Nymph’, ‘Gluhwein’, ‘Yelloween’, and ‘Shocking’) at different stages of meiosis. There was no pollen germination in

  6. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section 113.26 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... in live vaccine. Each serial and subserial of biological product except live vaccines shall be tested...

  7. Oligonucleotide microarrays for the detection and identification of viable beer spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D G; Sahm, K; Polen, T; Wendisch, V F; Antranikian, G

    2008-10-01

    The design and evaluation of an oligonucleotide microarray in order to detect and identify viable bacterial species that play a significant role in beer spoilage. These belong to the species of the genera Lactobacillus, Megasphaera, Pediococcus and Pectinatus. Oligonucleotide probes specific to beer spoilage bacteria were designed. In order to detect viable bacteria, the probes were designed to target the intergenic spacer regions (ISR) between 16S and 23S rRNA. Prior to hybridization the ISR were amplified by combining reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reactions using a designed consenus primer. The developed oligonucleotide microarrays allows the detection of viable beer spoilage bacteria. This method allows the detection and discrimination of single bacterial species in a sample containing complex microbial community. Furthermore, microarrays using oligonucleotide probes targeting the ISR allow the distinction between viable bacteria with the potential to grow and non growing bacteria. The results demonstrate the feasibility of oligonucleotide microarrays as a contamination control in food industry for the detection and identification of spoilage micro-organisms within a mixed population.

  8. Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J.; Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 × 103), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6 mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research.

  9. Viable Techniques, Leontief’s Closed Model, and Sraffa’s Subsistence Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the production techniques employed in economies that reproduce themselves. Special attention is paid to the distinction usually made between those that do not produce a surplus and those that do, which are referred to as first and second class economies, respectively. Based on this, we present a new definition of viable economies and show that every viable economy of the second class can be represented as a viable economy of the first class under two different forms, Leontief‘s closed model and Sraffa’s subsistence economies. This allows us to present some remarks concerning the economic interpretation of the two models. On the one hand, we argue that the participation of each good in the production of every good can be considered as a normal characteristic of the first model and, on the other hand, we provide a justification for the same condition to be considered a characteristic of the second model. Furthermore, we discuss three definitions of viable techniques advanced by other authors and show that they differ from ours because they admit economies that do not reproduce themselves completely.

  10. Modelling the number of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus passing through the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, L.M.; Pielaat, A.; Dufrenne, J.B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Model the number of viable vegetative cells of B. cereus surviving the gastric passage after experiments in simulated gastric conditions. Materials and Methods: The inactivation of stationary and exponential phase vegetative cells of twelve different strains of Bacillus cereus, both mesophilic

  11. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section 113.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise specified by the Administrator or elsewhere exempted... Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

  12. Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable eutrophication ... Microcystis in local eutrophic waters is perceived as a primary major constraint in implementing 'classical' food-web manip- ulation. Intrinsic ... cially in 'shallow' lakes) to dismal failure (often in deep lakes) and a range of ...

  13. Niacin Alternatives for Dyslipidemia: Fool's Gold or Gold Mine? Part II: Novel Niacin Mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Harsh; Dunbar, Richard L

    2016-04-01

    Two cardiovascular outcome trials established niacin 3 g daily prevents hard cardiac events. However, as detailed in part I of this series, an extended-release (ER) alternative at only 2 g nightly demonstrated no comparable benefits in two outcome trials, implying the alternative is not equivalent to the established cardioprotective regimen. Since statins leave a significant treatment gap, this presents a major opportunity for developers. Importantly, the established regimen is cardioprotective, so the pathway is likely beneficial. Moreover, though effective, the established cardioprotective regimen is cumbersome, limiting clinical use. At the same time, the ER alternative has been thoroughly discredited as a viable substitute for the established cardioprotective regimen. Therefore, by exploiting the pathway and skillfully avoiding the problems with the established cardioprotective regimen and the ER alternative, developers could validate cardioprotective variations facing little meaningful competition from their predecessors. Thus, shrewd developers could effectively tap into a gold mine at the grave of the ER alternative. The GPR109A receptor was discovered a decade ago, leading to a large body of evidence commending the niacin pathway to a lower cardiovascular risk beyond statins. While mediating niacin's most prominent adverse effects, GPR109A also seems to mediate anti-lipolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects of niacin. Several developers are investing heavily in novel strategies to exploit niacin's therapeutic pathways. These include selective GPR109A receptor agonists, niacin prodrugs, and a niacin metabolite, with encouraging early phase human data. In part II of this review, we summarize the accumulated results of these early phase studies of emerging niacin mimetics.

  14. Mobile health as a viable strategy to enhance stroke risk factor control: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shimeng; Feng, Wuwei; Chhatbar, Pratik Y; Liu, Yumei; Ji, Xunming; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2017-07-15

    With the rapid growth worldwide in cell-phone use, Internet connectivity, and digital health technology, mobile health (mHealth) technology may offer a promising approach to bridge evidence-treatment gaps in stroke prevention. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mHealth for stroke risk factor control through a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed from January 1, 2000 to May 17, 2016 using the following keywords: mobile health, mHealth, short message, cellular phone, mobile phone, stroke prevention and control, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking cessation. We performed a meta-analysis of all eligible randomized control clinical trials that assessed a sustained (at least 6months) effect of mHealth. Of 78 articles identified, 13 met eligibility criteria (6 for glycemic control and 7 for smoking cessation) and were included for the final meta-analysis. There were no eligible studies for dyslipidemia or hypertension. mHealth resulted in greater Hemoglobin A1c reduction at 6months (6 studies; 663 subjects; SMD: -0.44; 95% CI: [-0.82, -0.06], P=0.02; Mean difference of decrease in HbA1c: -0.39%; 95% CI: [-0.74, -0.04], P=0.03). mHealth also lead to relatively higher smoking abstinence rates at 6months (7 studies; 9514 subjects; OR: 1.54; 95% CI: [1.24, 1.90], P<0.0001). Our meta-analysis supports that use of mHealth improves glycemic control and smoking abstinence rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Centralized Coordination of Decentralized Assistance for Patients with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease in Brazil: A Viable Strategy for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Antonio; Burlá, Marcelo; Freitas, Fernanda; Uberti, Elza; Viggiano, Mauricio; Sun, Sue Yazaki; Maestá, Izildinha; Elias, Kevin M; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2016-01-01

    To report on the Brazilian Association of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease's (GTD) formation of a network of regional care at specialized centers for women with GTD. We developed a questionnaire composed of 15 questions, which was sent by email to the 38 Brazilian GTD Reference Center (BGTDRC) Directors who are members of the Brazilian Association of GTD, in order to characterize the professionals involved in the care of patients with GTD and the type of assistance provided. The Directors of the BGTDRCs are usually specialists in Gynecology and Obstetrics (97%), with a median experience of a decade in treating women with GTD. The BGTDRCs are linked to university hospitals in 75% of centers and provide completely free medical care in 87%. However, 52% of centers do not perform chemotherapy in their reference center, and patients are referred elsewhere for chemotherapy. Despite some difficulties, the rate of patients lost to follow-up before human chorionic gonadotropin remission is 9%, and the GTD mortality rate is 0.9%. Due to large regional disparities, the BGTDRCs are not uniformly organized. However, under the coordination of the Brazilian Association of GTD there is now strong communication and collaboration among reference centers, which has significantly advanced both patient care and research into the management of these diseases.

  16. Transcriptional targeting of acute hypoxia in the tumour stroma is a novel and viable strategy for cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, N; Porter, C D

    2005-07-01

    Deregulated tumour growth and neovascularization result in an inadequate tumour blood supply, leading to areas of chronic hypoxia and necrosis. Irregular vascular structure and abnormal tumour physiology also cause erratic blood flow in tumour vessels. We reasoned that tumour stroma, including vascular endothelial cells, would consequently experience transient hypoxia that may allow transcriptional targeting as part of an antivascular gene therapy approach to cancer. To exploit hypoxia for transcriptional regulation, retroviral vectors were generated with modified LTRs: a 6-mer of hypoxia response elements in place of the viral enhancer produced near wild-type levels of expression in hypoxia but was functionally inert in normoxia. In a tumour xenograft model, expression was mainly around areas of necrosis, which were shown to be hypoxic; no expression was detected in tumour stroma. Time-course experiments in vitro demonstrated that expression was transient in response to a hypoxic episode, such that a reporter gene would be insensitive to acute hypoxia in vivo. In contrast, a significant therapeutic effect was seen upon ganciclovir administration with a vector expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the tumour stroma. Expression of TK was more effective when targeted to acute hypoxia in the stroma compared to chronic hypoxia in the poorly vascularized regions of the tumour cell compartment. The data presented here are evidence that hypoxia in the stromal compartment does occur and that transient hypoxia constitutes a valid therapeutic target.

  17. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  18. The costs of alternative policies

    OpenAIRE

    Bruvoll, Annegrete

    1998-01-01

    After decades with landfill and incineration as the most common waste treatment methods, the current main waste policy strategy has changed toward recycling. Also, most governments declare that source reduction, to reduce the generation of waste, is the best choice, while in practice few steps have been taken in this direction. In order to improve the understanding of optimal policies for paper and plastic waste reductions we compare the costs of the four alternatives recycling, i...

  19. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  20. Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

    2014-03-17

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. Published by Elsevier B.V.