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Sample records for viable alternative method

  1. Alternative Dispute Resolution : A Viable Method for Settling Government Contract Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Estoppel : Using Preclusion to Shape Procedural Choices," 63 Tulane Law Review 20, 1988. Murray, "Lawyers and Alternative Dispute Resolution Success," 14...1988. Shell, "Res Judicata and Collateral Estoppel Effects of Commercial Arbitration," 35 UCLA Law Review 623, 1988. Shell, "The Role of Public Law in

  2. Projects: viable alternatives in the Environmental Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Jose Terossi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we are going to develop the reflection about the projects, its genesis, its use in education and environmental education.To this end, we will promote the discussion about the so-called "method of projects" and "projects pedagogy", with a comparison between them and outlining the approach that we consider most appropriate to EA, its limits and possibilities within the critical perspective, manufacturing and emancipatory education.

  3. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  4. Contracting of energy services: often a viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, M.; Bruendler, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the outsourcing of energy services as a viable alternative to the operation of own energy facilities. The advantages of contracting for enterprises wanting to focus on their core competencies and have their energy infrastructure financed, built, maintained and operated by a third party are discussed. Financial aspects are looked at and examples in connection with the calculation of actual energy costs are given. The article is concluded with tips on the evaluation of offers for contracting services and on the definition of ownership aspects and property boundaries

  5. An economically viable alternative to coastal discharge of produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Unger, C.V.; Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The discharge of produced waters to coastal estuaries has been common practice on the Texas coast for many years as these discharges are currently exempt from NPDES permitting. A study of the active produced water discharges in Nueces Bay, Texas revealed that all eight effluents were highly toxic as determined by the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development assays. An alternative to discharging produced water into coastal estuaries is the use of disposal wells. Inactive wells can be converted to produced water disposal wells. Production records for the Nueces Bay, Texas area reveal that 52% of the gas wells produce less than 100 mcf/d and 50% of the oil wells produce less than 10 b/d. Using conservative estimates, the cost of converting an inactive well to a disposal well was calculated to be $31,500 which could be paid out by a gas well producing as little as 100 mcf/d in 26 months using only 50% of the well's profit. Combining multiple leases to a single disposal well would reduce proportionately the cost to each operation. This study has demonstrated that economically viable disposal options could be achieved in the Nueces Bay area through the imaginative and cooperative formation of produced water disposal ventures. This same model could be applied to produced water discharges in other coastal areas

  6. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The paper presents a brief review of palatogingival groove and highlights an easy and predictable alternative for its management.

  7. Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretu, Ileana; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Ionila, Maria; Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NO x and CO 2 , and about 90% from SO 2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy

  8. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar; Ajay Logani; Naseem Shah

    2013-01-01

    Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The ...

  9. Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO

  10. Rural and Renewable Energy Project: Renewable and Alternative Energy Devices and Viable Alternatives to Fuelwood and Kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The need for conservation of the nation's trees and other forestry resources so as to make the Government's reafforestation, soil erosion and desertification control programs successful, is a matter that requires serious attention. This is because the bulk of the people of this country, who are in the rural areas, depend massively on fuelwood as their source of energy for cooking. For a large percentage of the urban dwellers, the situation is not much different since the recent increases in the prices of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas has forced many to opt for fuelwood for cooking. Viable renewable and alternative energy systems like solar cookers, biogas plants, improved wood burning stoves, briquetted biomass and smokeless coal briquettes and stoves are essential for the provision of alternative cooking fuels and methodologies. Furthermore, the inefficient open-to-sun drying method is prevalent, while the rural areas are particularly starved of petroleum products and grid electricity. Modern solar dryers, solar-PV, wind and hydropower can be used to meet some of the energy needs of the rural population. This paper discusses these renewable and alternative devices and how they can be integrated into the Nigerian rural energy system. (author)

  11. On-Farm, Almond Orchard Flooding as a Viable Aquifer Recharge Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, C.; Nico, P. S.; Wu, Y.; Newman, G. A.; Conrad, M. E.; Dahlke, H. E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2014, California legislators passed the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA), which requires groundwater sustainability agencies (areas) to identify/prioritize water basins, develop current and projected water use/needs, develop a groundwater management plan, develop fees, etc. One of the challenges for implementing SGMA is the lack of data that can support alternative groundwater recharge methods such as on-farm flooding. Prior to anthropogenic river control, river floodplains captured excess water during overbank flow in the rainy season in the CA central valley. Today levees and canals strategically route rainy season high flows to the delta/ocean when irrigation water is not needed. Utilizing farmland once again as infiltration basins for groundwater banking and aquifer recharge could be a viable answer to California's depleted central valley aquifers. Prior to 2017, U.C. Davis had partnered with the Almond Board of California (ABC) and local growers to study the efficacy of agricultural flooding and the effects on annual almond crops (. LBNL joined this team to help understand the conveyance of recharge water, using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), into the subsurface (i.e. localized fast paths, depth of infiltration, etc.) during flooding events. The fate of the recharge water is what is significant to understanding the viability of on-farm flooding as an aquifer recharge option. In this study two orchards (in Delhi and Modesto, CA), each approximately 2 acres, were flooded during the almond tree dormant period (January), to recharge 2 acre/ft of water into the local aquifers. ERT was used to characterize (soil structure) and monitor water infiltration over a single flooding event to investigate the fate of applied water. Data were collected every hour prior to flooding (baseline), during, and after all flood water had infiltrated (about 5 days total). Our time-lapse ERT results show a heterogeneous soil structure that leads to non

  12. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion – viable alternative options for terrestrial weed management – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Saha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of terrestrial weed is of great concern for the scientific community as these weeds cause adverse effect in different ecosystems like forest, agriculture and urban. The widespread of these weeds by their adaptive capability and morphological advancement is difficult to control. Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantana camara, Saccharum spontaneum, Ageratum conyzoides are the weeds that spread all over the world. There are various management practices employed for the control of this weeds. But all of these practices have some drawbacks those are neither environment friendly nor economical. In this paper a review has been done to evaluate various alternative management practices for these terrestrial weeds and to analyze their feasibility. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion can be viable alternative option which is cost effective as well. There are few studies regarding vermicomposting and anaerobic digestions of terrestrial weeds are done.

  13. Inferior gluteal artery perforator flap: a viable alternative for ischial pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Seok; Lew, Dae Hyun; Roh, Tai Suk; Yoo, Won Min; Lee, Won Jai; Tark, Kwan Chul

    2009-10-01

    after surgery due to tissue deficit and these were treated with bursectomy and muscle transposition flap to fill the dead space. We propose that the IGAP flap should be considered a viable alternative to other methods of ischial pressure sore surgery owing to its many advantages, which include the ability to preserve peripheral muscle tissue, the variability of flap designs, relatively good durability, and the low donor site morbidity rate.

  14. Waste association in mass for coating formulations: a viable alternative to dispose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.A.C.; Soares Filho, J.E.; Souza, F.J.P.; Almeida, V.S. de; Oliveira, T.M. de

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic coatings industries are able to use in their formulations whose waste Eco disposal make the costly disposal, being able to reduce production costs by replacing traditional inputs for mining and industrial waste. Their raw materials are classified as plasticizers, fluxes and structural according to their physicochemical characteristics. Since waste falls within these classifications, their use in formulations becomes a viable and attractive alternative from an ecological point of view and marketing. Several studies have attested to waste incorporating viability porcelains formulations, however, is not common to find studies evaluating the addition of more than one simultaneously in formulations. It is the objective of the study, to examine whether fine waste rock and kaolin together with traditional raw materials are able to produce porcelain wet as technological properties defined by the NBR-13818. (author)

  15. Microdose follicular flare: a viable alternative for normal responding patients undergoing in vitro fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Eric D.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Kort, Jonathan D.; Materia-Hoover, Donna; Larsen, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare cycle outcomes among normal responding patients ≤30 years receiving microdose follicular flare (MDF) and long-luteal agonist (LL). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Military-based ART center. Patients First, autologous ART cycles among 499 women ≤30 years old from 01/1999 to 12/2005. Interventions Following OCP administration prior to cycle start, patients were non-randomly assigned to either LL or MDF for LH surge suppression. LL received 1 mg/d leuprolide acetate (LA) on cycle day 21, which was reduced to 0.25 mg/day 10–14 days later. MDF received LA (40 μg BID) beginning 3 days after discontinuing OCPs. Both groups received a combination of hMG and rFSH. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates; in cycle variables included peak E2, oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, and fertilization rate. Results Multivariable models controlling for confounding by treatment indication found no significant differences between groups in implantation (MDF:36%; LL:38%), clinical pregnancy (MDF:53%; LL:56%), and live birth rates (MDF:47%; LL:50%). No differences were observed in peak E2, oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity, fertilization rate, or embryos transferred. Conclusions MDF use among normal responding ART patients produced no differences in cycle outcome when compared to LL. Resultantly, MDF may be a viable alternative for normal responding patients. PMID:18249365

  16. Koranic Education Centres: A viable educational alternative for the disadvantaged learner in Sahel Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah-Lalya, Ibrahima

    2015-08-01

    Within the international momentum for achieving Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), many African countries have made considerable progress during the last decade in terms of access to basic education. However, a significant number of children enrolled in the early grades of primary schools either repeat classes or drop out and never graduate. Moreover, there are currently about 30 million school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa who have never attended any form of schooling. In view of this situation, sub-Saharan African countries have been looking for alternative options to educate those who have not been accounted for in the formal school system. This note considers informal Koranic Education Centres (KECs) which are trying to fill the gap of schooling in the Sahel-Saharan strip. The author looks at the challenges this form of schooling faces and at how to meet them efficiently. He sounds out the possibility of using KECs to cater for those who have been left aside by formal schooling. Based on existing studies, data compiled by educational systems and a study conducted by the Working Group on Non-Formal Education (WGNFE) of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) in four West African countries (Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal) in 2013, the author of this research note came to the conclusion that a holistic approach, where the two systems (the Koranic and the formal) collaborate and support one another, could effectively contribute to alleviating the dropout predicament and to reducing the number of unschooled children. It could offer a second-chance opportunity to dropout and unschooled children in the Sahel and Saharan zone. However, before this can become a viable alternative, a number of major challenges need to be addressed. Through its WGNFE, ADEA intends to further investigate the holistic approach of combining formal "modern" and informal "Koranic" schooling to come up with tangible

  17. Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture, a viable alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedraza, V.; Perea, F.; Saavedra, M.; Fuentes, C.; Alcántara, C.

    2017-07-01

    The demand of vegetable protein for animal feed and the need to diversify the crop rotation in rainfed Mediterranean climates has led to study the viability as new forage crop of the Vicia narbonensis-Avena strigosa mixture. Therefore, a 3-year field trial was conducted at two different and representative locations of the area to evaluate the capacity of both species to form a balanced mixture and to define its potential for high yield and forage quality. Different seeding ratios (65:35, 50:50 and 35:65) were compared with their pure stands and the standard mixture Avena sativa-Vicia sativa (65:35). Forage mixtures establishment and growth varied according to the environmental conditions with a negative influence of a dry year 1 for legumes (<300 mm) and a wet year 2 for oats (>630 mm). However, competition ratio indicated that there were not significant differences between mixed treatments, displaying intermediate ground coverage values, dry matter yield and crude protein regarding pure stands. Higher dry matter yield than control mixture in addition to similar crude protein, acid-detergent fibre, neutral-detergent fibre and digestible dry matter values, were produced at 35:65 in dry years and 65:35 and 50:50 in rainy years with loamy and clay soils, respectively. The appropriate development of both species in the mixture at different soil and rainfall conditions, as well as a good yield often higher than control mixture and a great forage quality, confirm to the narbon bean-black oat mixture as a viable and profitable crop alternative in rainfed cropping systems under Mediterranean conditions.

  18. ¡VAMOS! (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System) - a 'Horizon 2020' project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Cameron; Bodo, Balazs; Kapusniak, Stef; Bosman, Frank; Rainbird, Jenny; Silva, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    The 42-month ¡VAMOS! project (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System, Grant Agreement 642477, www.vamos-project.eu), funded by the EC H2020 Programme, will enable access to high-grade EU reserves of mineral ore-bodies by developing an innovative clean and low visibility mining technique. The project will demonstrate the technological and economic viability of the underwater extraction of metallic mineral deposits which are currently technologically, economically, and environmentally unobtainable. In doing so, ¡VAMOS! hopes to encourage investment in abandoned open-pit mines and prospective mines, helping to put the EU back on a level playing field with the rest of the world in terms of access to strategically important minerals. The ¡VAMOS! concept is defined by a remotely-operated underwater mining vehicle, adapted and improved from existing subsea mining technology. Operating in tandem with an HROV, the mining vehicle will connect to a flexible riser through which slurried mined material will be pumped from the mudline to onshore dewatering facilities via a floating mobile deployment-module, on which will be fitted a bypass system linked to an LIBS, allowing real-time grade-control. Analysis of European and national regulation and stakeholder assessments found there is significant support for developing the technology among local communities and governments. An initial environmental assessment of the potential impact of the innovative mining operation concluded the project has a smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining operations: this is due to factors including the quieter operation and absence of blasting, zero water-table flux, and the higher stripping ratio enabled by higher fluid pressure acting on the sidewalls of the mine. The prototypes are currently in their construction phase following a final design freeze in October 2016. Work is now underway on the foresight visioning, economic evaluation and policy guidelines for the

  19. On the trace-free Einstein equations as a viable alternative to general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, George F R; Van Elst, Henk; Murugan, Jeff; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The quantum field theoretical prediction for the vacuum energy density leads to a value for the effective cosmological constant that is incorrect by between 60 and 120 orders of magnitude. We review an old proposal of replacing Einstein's field equations by their trace-free part (the trace-free Einstein equations), together with an independent assumption of energy-momentum conservation by matter fields. While this does not solve the fundamental issue of why the cosmological constant has the value that is observed cosmologically, it is indeed a viable theory that resolves the problem of the discrepancy between the vacuum energy density and the observed value of the cosmological constant. However, one has to check that, as well as preserving the standard cosmological equations, this does not destroy other predictions, such as the junction conditions that underlie the use of standard stellar models. We confirm that no problems arise here: hence, the trace-free Einstein equations are indeed viable for cosmological and astrophysical applications. (papers)

  20. Alternative Pathways into University: Are Tertiary Preparation Programs a Viable Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, Jenny; Rutter, Kerry; Nelson, Karen; Watson, Louis

    2018-01-01

    During the past three decades, the student populations of Australian universities have become more heterogeneous as the higher education sector expanded and new alternative entry pathways were established. Broadening access to university study and, therefore, to professional and semi-professional occupations, provides avenues for social mobility.…

  1. Alternative methods in criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedicini, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis two new methods of calculating the criticality of a nuclear system are introduced and verified. Most methods of determining the criticality of a nuclear system depend implicitly upon knowledge of the angular flux, net currents, or moments of the angular flux, on the system surface in order to know the leakage. For small systems, leakage is the predominant element in criticality calculations. Unfortunately, in these methods the least accurate fluxes, currents, or moments are those occurring near system surfaces or interfaces. This is due to a mathematical inability to satisfy rigorously with a finite order angular polynomial expansion or angular difference technique the physical boundary conditions which occur on these surfaces. Consequently, one must accept large computational effort or less precise criticality calculations. The methods introduced in this thesis, including a direct leakage operator and an indirect multiple scattering leakage operator, obviate the need to know angular fluxes accurately at system boundaries. Instead, the system wide scalar flux, an integral quantity which is substantially easier to obtain with good precision is sufficient to obtain production, absorption, scattering, and leakage rates

  2. Alternative methods in criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedicini, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Two new methods of calculating the criticality of a nuclear system are introduced and verified. Most methods of determining the criticality of a nuclear system depend implicitly upon knowledge of the angular flux, net currents, or moments of the angular flux, on the system surface in order to know the leakage. For small systems, leakage is the predominant element in criticality calculations. Unfortunately, in these methods the least accurate fluxes, currents, or moments are those occuring near system surfaces or interfaces. This is due to a mathematical inability to satisfy rigorously with a finite order angular polynomial expansion or angular difference technique the physical boundary conditions which occur on these surfaces. Consequently, one must accept large computational effort or less precise criticality calculations. The methods introduced in this thesis, including a direct leakage operator and an indirect multiple scattering leakage operator, obviate the need to know angular fluxes accurately at system boundaries. Instead, the system wide scalar flux, an integral quantity which is substantially easier to obtain with good precision, is sufficient to obtain production, absorption, scattering, and leakage rates

  3. Solar energy as a viable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, F.L.; Ewansiha, K.; Enyeribe, E.

    2007-01-01

    A lot of human and natural resources have been put in the energy sector, but the quantity of supply to consumers is quite inadequate. To sustain industrial output and ensure rapid growth, there is a need for a reliable and efficient supply of energy. A survey was carried out to find out the knowledge of consumers on the use of solar energy as an alternative source of energy.The result indicated that although people are aware of existence, the product is not readily available for man

  4. Alternative Methods of Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Birkes, David

    2011-01-01

    Of related interest. Nonlinear Regression Analysis and its Applications Douglas M. Bates and Donald G. Watts ".an extraordinary presentation of concepts and methods concerning the use and analysis of nonlinear regression models.highly recommend[ed].for anyone needing to use and/or understand issues concerning the analysis of nonlinear regression models." --Technometrics This book provides a balance between theory and practice supported by extensive displays of instructive geometrical constructs. Numerous in-depth case studies illustrate the use of nonlinear regression analysis--with all data s

  5. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  6. The Independent Evolution Method Is Not a Viable Phylogenetic Comparative Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi H Griffin

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs use data on species traits and phylogenetic relationships to shed light on evolutionary questions. Recently, Smaers and Vinicius suggested a new PCM, Independent Evolution (IE, which purportedly employs a novel model of evolution based on Felsenstein's Adaptive Peak Model. The authors found that IE improves upon previous PCMs by producing more accurate estimates of ancestral states, as well as separate estimates of evolutionary rates for each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Here, we document substantial theoretical and computational issues with IE. When data are simulated under a simple Brownian motion model of evolution, IE produces severely biased estimates of ancestral states and changes along individual branches. We show that these branch-specific changes are essentially ancestor-descendant or "directional" contrasts, and draw parallels between IE and previous PCMs such as "minimum evolution". Additionally, while comparisons of branch-specific changes between variables have been interpreted as reflecting the relative strength of selection on those traits, we demonstrate through simulations that regressing IE estimated branch-specific changes against one another gives a biased estimate of the scaling relationship between these variables, and provides no advantages or insights beyond established PCMs such as phylogenetically independent contrasts. In light of our findings, we discuss the results of previous papers that employed IE. We conclude that Independent Evolution is not a viable PCM, and should not be used in comparative analyses.

  7. Agrofood chains: a viable alternative for sustainable rural development or consolidation of big business?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Yumbla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in the 90s, following patterns that responded to the global corporate food regime, the government of Ecuador encouraged the formation of agro-food chains, among them, the chain of corn-animal feed- poultry. The food chain includes two service links (SL and four productive links (PL controlled by companies such as Pronaca, Agripac, Ecuaquímica and Supermaxi. These companies implemented horizontal, vertical, financial, and brand integrations, as strategies to consolidate market power and something even more prejudicial –the shaping of decisions regarding what and how to plant, and the available choices of what and how to consume– progressively creating a gap between producers and consumers.This model promotes corn monoculture through contract farming, encourages the use of agrochemicals, and endorses large poultry and swine processing factories which cause air, soil and water pollution from the ‘by products’, gas, feces and urine produced by the animals. Additionally, it promotes, supports an increases the consumption of animal protein, which is energy inefficient.The article discusses the consolidation of the agro-food chain, corn –processed food– poultry, and their links in order to determine if the integration of producers and consumers in this chain is an alternative to equitable development. Or are they part of the business strategies that respond to global food systems?

  8. Concentrating solar thermal power as a viable alternative in China's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung-Ling Chien, John; Lior, Noam

    2011-01-01

    Study of low-carbon and pollution renewable alternatives for China revealed that concentrating solar thermal (CST) electric power generation was underemphasized in China's renewable energy plan. The analysis shows the competitive viability of CST: (1) China has the key prerequisites to make CST power generation economical including high-quality insolation and appropriate land, (2) CST's proven history, scale, and dispatchability makes it a good utility-scale power option, especially in the economically underdeveloped Western regions, (3) while CST power is currently more expensive than coal-fired electricity on a nominal basis, when costs of externalities are accounted for, CST, at 11.4 US cents/kWh, can become 57% cheaper than scrubbed coal and 29% cheaper than nuclear power, (4) CST power continues dropping in cost due to economies of scale and technological improvements and can potentially realize a levelized electricity cost of around 4 cents/kWh within ten years, (5) it would significantly rise in competitiveness if and when China completes the extensive smart grid for connecting its solar-abundant western regions with the high-demand eastern regions, (6) CST has the potential to positively impact Western China's economy, but proper policy and deal structure must be in place to ensure that the local community shares the benefit. - Highlights: ► We analyze inclusion of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power in China. ► We find that CST needs emphasis in China's renewable energy plan. ► The analysis shows that CST is competitive with coal if externalities are considered. ► We recommend a policy that would develop CST power generation in western regions. ► This would be of significant benefit to Western China's economy and to China.

  9. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients.

  10. NRC perspective on alternative disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L.; Tokar, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper is discussed an NRC staff strategy for the development of technical criteria and procedures for the licensing of various alternatives for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Steps taken by the staff to identify viable alternative disposal methods and to comply with the requirements of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (LLRWPAA) of 1985 are also discussed. The strategy proposed by the NRC staff is to focus efforts in FY 87 on alternative concepts that incorporate concrete materials with soil or rock cover (e.g., below ground vaults and earth-mounded concrete bunkers), which several State and State Compacts have identified as preferred disposal options. While the NRC staff believes that other options, such as above ground vaults and mined cavities, are workable and licensable, the staff also believes, for reasons addressed in the paper, that it is in the best interest of the industry and the public to encourage standardization and to focus limited resources on a manageable number of alternative options. Therefore, guidance on above ground vaults, which are susceptible to long-term materials degradation due to climatological effects, and mined cavities, which represent a significant departure from the current experience base for low-level radioactive waste disposal, will receive minimal attention. 6 references

  11. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  12. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  13. A remedial alternative prioritization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites

  14. Is magnetic resonance imaging a viable alternative to ultrasound as the primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of paediatric appendicitis? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunmefun, G.; Hardy, M.; Boynes, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention in paediatric patients. Ultrasound is generally the diagnostic imaging modality of choice, followed by CT, where paediatric appendicitis is suspected. However, high operator dependency and diagnostic restrictions related to anatomical and clinical presentation may limit consistency of application. This paper explores whether MRI is a viable alternative to ultrasound as the primary imaging modality. Method: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. A search of Medline, Cinahl, PubMed Central and Google Scholar was undertaken supplemented by a review of reference lists, author searching and review of NICE evidence base for existing guidelines. Included studies were assessed for bias using the QUADAS-2 quality assessment tool and data were extracted systematically using a purposefully designed electronic data extraction proforma. Results: Seven studies were included in final review. The age range of participants extended from 0 to 19 years. Only one study with a patient age range of 0–14 used sedation. Sensitivity estimates from the included studies ranged from 92% to 100% while specificity ranged from 89% to 100%. A significant variation in the number and type of sequences was noted between the studies. Conclusion: MRI offers high sensitivity and specificity comparable to contrast enhanced CT and greater than ultrasound as reported in the literature. Where accessibility is not a restriction, MRI is a viable alternative to ultrasound in the assessment and diagnosis of paediatric appendicitis. Clinical practice recommendations have been provided to facilitate the translation of evidence into practice. - Highlights: • MRI may be used as the primary imaging tool to investigate paediatric appendicitis. • Gadolinium is not necessary for MRI evaluation of appendicitis in children. • Sedation for MRI evaluation of appendicitis is not required

  15. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  16. Passive superconductor: A viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-02-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Passive superconductor a viable method of controlling magnetization multipoles in the SSC dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    At injection, the magnetization of the superconductor produces the dominant field error in the SSC dipole magnets. The field generated by magnetization currents in the superconductor is rich in higher symmetric multipoles (normal sextupole, normal decapole, and so on). Pieces of passive superconductor properly located within the bore of the dipole magnet can cancel the higher multipoles generated by the SSC dipole coils. The multipoles generated by the passive superconductor (predominantly sextupole and decapole) are controlled by the angular and radial location of the superconductor, the volume of superconductor, and the size of the superconducting filaments within the passive conductor. This paper will present the tolerances on each of these factors. The paper will show that multipole correction using passive superconductor is in general immune to the effects of temperature and magnetization decay due to flux creep, provided that dipole superconductor and the passive correction superconductor are properly specified. When combined with a lumped correction system, the passive superconductor can be a viable alternative to continuous correction coils within the SSC dipoles. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  18. A Rapid Method for Quantifying Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Cellular Infection Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Hannah B.; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C.; Begg, Douglas J.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determining the viability of bacteria is a key outcome of in vitro cellular infection assays. Currently, this is done by culture, which is problematic for fastidious slow-growing bacteria such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, where it can take up to 4 months to confirm growth. This study aimed to identify an assay that can rapidly quantify the number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in a cellular sample. Three commercially available bacterial viability assays along with a modified liquid culture method coupled with high-throughput quantitative PCR growth detection were assessed. Criteria for assessment included the ability of each assay to differentiate live and dead M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis organisms and their accuracy at low bacterial concentrations. Using the culture-based method, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth was reliably detected and quantified within 2 weeks. There was a strong linear association between the 2-week growth rate and the initial inoculum concentration. The number of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells in an unknown sample was quantified based on the growth rate, by using growth standards. In contrast, none of the commercially available viability assays were suitable for use with samples from in vitro cellular infection assays. IMPORTANCE Rapid quantification of the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in samples from in vitro cellular infection assays is important, as it allows these assays to be carried out on a large scale. In vitro cellular infection assays can function as a preliminary screening tool, for vaccine development or antimicrobial screening, and also to extend findings derived from experimental animal trials. Currently, by using culture, it takes up to 4 months to obtain quantifiable results regarding M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis viability after an in vitro infection assay; however, with the quantitative PCR and liquid culture method

  19. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action proposes to allow for an additional alternative test method for olefins in gasoline, ASTM D6550-05. The allowance of this additional alternative test method will provide more flexibility to the regulated industry.

  20. An alternative plutonium disposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a feasibility study on vitrification of plutonium with high active waste concentrate, and fabrication of MOX fuel rods for direct final disposal. These are potential alternatives to the direct use of MOX fuel in a reactor. (author)

  1. A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Banfield, Laura E; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-12-01

    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

  2. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J; MacIntyre, Hugh L

    2016-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water. In principle, the serial dilution culture-most probable number (SDC-MPN) method provides the appropriate measure for phytoplankton. But, the method has been criticized, particularly because it is thought that many phytoplankton species cannot be cultured. A review of the literature shows that although SDC-MPN has been used for more than 50 years-generally to identify and count phytoplankton species that cannot be preserved-its application to enumerate total viable phytoplankton seems to be new, putting past criticisms of the method in a different light. Importantly, viable cells need to grow only enough to be detected, not to be brought into sustained culture, and competition between species in a dilution tube is irrelevant as long as the winner is detectable. Thorough consideration of sources of error leads to recommendations for minimizing and quantifying uncertainties by optimizing growth conditions and conducting systematic comparisons. We conclude that with careful evaluation, SDC-MPN is potentially an effective method for assessing the viability of phytoplankton after BWT.

  3. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Haque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro’s limit (that is, above a potency of 12C has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. Methods: The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient’s family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. Results: The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Conclusion: Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases.

  4. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  5. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Chest ultrasound in the evaluation of complicated pneumonia in the ICU patients: Can be viable alternative to CT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham El Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Chest US provides an accurate evaluation of the pleural and parenchymal abnormalities associated with complicated pneumonia in the ICU patients. Considering that chest US is a bedside and avoids transportation of the patient outside ICU, free of radiation exposure and easily repeatable, chest US appears to be an attractive alternative to CT.

  7. Cutting out the middleman: physicians can contract directly with employers--a viable alternative to adversarial managed care agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Howard

    2002-01-01

    HMOs, PPOs, and other managed care "middlemen" control the means by which most physicians do business with employers. As physicians face dwindling reimbursements, greater practice restrictions, and increased pressure to sign adversarial middleman contracts, interest in direct contracting has grown. This article introduces direct contracting as an important alternative to commercial managed care agreements; cites the key advantages and process of direct contracting; and offers practical recommendations for helping physician practices successfully negotiate direct physician/employer agreements.

  8. A Novel Reverse-Transcriptase Real-Time PCR Method for Quantification of Viable Vibrio Parahemolyticus in Raw Shrimp Based on a Rapid Construction of Standard Curve Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mengtong Jin; Haiquan Liu; Wenshuo Sun; Qin Li; Zhaohuan Zhang; Jibing Li; Yingjie Pan; Yong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus is an important pathogen that leads to food illness associated seafood. Therefore, rapid and reliable methods to detect and quantify the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in seafood are needed. In this assay, a RNA-based real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) without an enrichment step has been developed for detection and quantification of the total viable V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp. RNA standards with the target segments were synthesized in vitro with T7 RNA p...

  9. Alternate methods of teaching psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisook, Sidney; Benjamin, Sheldon; Balon, Richard; Glick, Ira; Louie, Alan; Moutier, Christine; Moyer, Trenton; Santos, Cynthia; Servis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews methods used to teach psychopharmacology to psychiatry residents that utilize principles of adult learning, enlist active participation of residents, and provide faculty with skills to seek, analyze, and use new information over the course of their careers. The pros and cons of five "nonlecture" methods of teaching are reviewed: 1) journal clubs, 2) problem-based learning, 3) formalized patient-centered training, 4) games, and 5) the use of modern technology. Several programs are beginning to find novel methods of teaching psychopharmacology that are effective and well received by trainees and faculty. Programs need to go beyond the traditional lecture and apprenticeship model of psychopharmacology education to help make learning more fun, useful, relevant and self-sustaining.

  10. 76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... EERE-2011-BP-TP-00024] RIN 1904-AC46 Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... and data related to the use of computer simulations, mathematical methods, and other alternative...

  11. Comparison of culture-based, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2017-06-01

    Accurate quantitative measurement of viable hookworm ova from environmental samples is the key to controlling hookworm re-infections in the endemic regions. In this study, the accuracy of three quantitative detection methods [culture-based, vital stain and propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR)] was evaluated by enumerating 1,000 ± 50 Ancylostoma caninum ova in the laboratory. The culture-based method was able to quantify an average of 397 ± 59 viable hookworm ova. Similarly, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods quantified 644 ± 87 and 587 ± 91 viable ova, respectively. The numbers of viable ova estimated by the culture-based method were significantly (P methods. Therefore, both PMA-qPCR and vital stain methods appear to be suitable for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova. However, PMA-qPCR would be preferable over the vital stain method in scenarios where ova speciation is needed.

  12. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...

  13. Community Perspective of Alternative Methods of keeping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    methods of keeping childhood immunization records based on community's .... An alternative home-based record keeping ... coded before computer entry. Data was managed using the Statistical ..... encounter and also work to ensure accurate.

  14. Waste association in mass for coating formulations: a viable alternative to dispose; Associacao de residuos em formulacoes de massas para revestimentos: uma alternativa viavel ao descarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.A.C.; Soares Filho, J.E.; Souza, F.J.P.; Almeida, V.S. de; Oliveira, T.M. de, E-mail: erikcferreira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The ceramic coatings industries are able to use in their formulations whose waste Eco disposal make the costly disposal, being able to reduce production costs by replacing traditional inputs for mining and industrial waste. Their raw materials are classified as plasticizers, fluxes and structural according to their physicochemical characteristics. Since waste falls within these classifications, their use in formulations becomes a viable and attractive alternative from an ecological point of view and marketing. Several studies have attested to waste incorporating viability porcelains formulations, however, is not common to find studies evaluating the addition of more than one simultaneously in formulations. It is the objective of the study, to examine whether fine waste rock and kaolin together with traditional raw materials are able to produce porcelain wet as technological properties defined by the NBR-13818. (author)

  15. Electrochemically deposited sol-gel-derived silicate films as a viable alternative in thin-film design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, P N; Kanungo, Mandakini; Claycomb, Greg; Sherwood, Peter M A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2003-10-15

    Sol-gel-derived silicate films were electrochemically deposited on conducting surfaces from a sol consisting of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). In this method, a sufficiently negative potential is applied to the electrode surface to reduce oxygen to hydroxyl ions, which serves as the catalyst for the hydrolysis and condensation of TMOS. The electrodeposition process was followed by the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetry. The electrodeposited films were characterized for their surface morphology, porosity, and film thickness using atomic force microscopy, electrochemical probe techniques, surface area and pore size analysis, and profilometry. The electrodeposited films were found to have a completely different surface structure and to be significantly rougher relative to spin-coated films. This is likely due in part to the separation of the gelation and evaporation stages of film formation. The electrodeposited films were found to be permeable to simple redox molecules, such as ruthenium(III) hexaammine and ferrocene methanol. Film thickness can be easily varied from 15 microm by varying the electrode potential from -600 mV to more than -1000 mV, respectively. The electrodeposition process was further applied for the electroencapsulation of redox molecules and organic dyes within the silicate network. Cyclic voltammograms for the gel-entrapped ferrocene methanol (FcCH2OH) and ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) exhibited the characteristic redox behavior of the molecules. The electroencapsulation of organic dyes in their "native" form proved to be more difficult because these species typically contain reducible functionalities that change the structure of the dye.

  16. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  17. Wind energy: A viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soin, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the economic feasibility of wind energy in the current economic and political environment. The article specifically addresses the wind farm application to India, with asides to Europe and the US. Topics discussed include cost of energy generation for a 10 MW wind farm, cost comparison for captive energy options (diesel, coal, wind), environmental impacts, and social benefits

  18. Development of an Immunomagnetic Separation Method for Viable Salmonella Typhimurium Detected by Flow Cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shakil; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Erdmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    for detection of food-related bacteria. In this study, a flow cytometry based immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method for the isolation and enrichment of Salmonella Typhimurium from liquid samples was developed and optimized. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used to couple with 1 micron sized...... and bacteria, immunocapture time, staining and buffering conditions for the viability assays were optimized. The capture efficiency of IMS was>98% for a range of Salmonella Typhimurium cell concentrations from 103 to 105/mL using 108/mL bead concentration. The method proved to have high (98%) specificity...

  19. Three methods for isolating viable anthozoan endoderm cells with their intracellular symbiotic dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. D.; Muscatine, L.

    1992-09-01

    Three maceration methods are described for the isolation of single endoderm cells from marine cnidarians. Two are enzymatic treatments suitable for fleshy anthozoans such as sea anemones and zoanthids. The third employs calcium free sea water and is suitable for stony corals. The viability and morphology of the endoderm cells is described using fluorogenic dyes and scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Identification of viable myocardium by 201Tl scintigraphy: a comparison of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondi, M.; Tartagni, F.; Osele, L.; Fanti, S.; Monetti, N.; Antonioli, P.; De Tommaso, I.; Franchi, R.; Di Niro, M.R.; Magnani, B.; Zheng, Q.F.

    1993-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare four different imaging approaches to evaluate uptake defect reversibility. 24 infracted patients underwent standard stress/redistribution 201 Tl imaging (R1). Then, after (R2) 24 h later (R3). A separate rest study (R4) following a new tracer injection was done within 2-3 days. Planar images were obtained in the standard three views and subdivided into 216 segments for qualitative analysis based on a visual score. A semiquantitative analysis based upon circumferential profiles was also applied. A stress defect was found in 127 sements (58.7%). By visual inspection reperfusion was considered to occur in 32.3%, 41.7%, 33.0% and 49.6% of the cases with R1, R2, R3, and R4, respectively. The semiquantitative method showed a high reperfusion only with R1 (62%), while the other procedures proved less effective. No improvement was found with R4. Six patients (25%) showed myocardial viability that was not detected with the early reinjection technique. (orig.) [de

  1. Web-conferencing as a viable method for group decision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J. J. Handgraaf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying group decision-making is challenging for multiple reasons. An important logistic difficulty is studying a sufficiently large number of groups, each with multiple participants. Assembling groups online could make this process easier and also provide access to group members more representative of real-world work groups than the sample of college students that typically comprise lab Face-to-Face (FtF groups. The main goal of this paper is to compare the decisions of online groups to those of FtF groups. We did so in a study that manipulated gain/loss framing of a risky decision between groups and examined the decisions of both individual group members and groups. All of these dependent measures are compared for an online and an FtF sample. Our results suggest that web-conferencing can be a substitute for FtF interaction in group decision-making research, as we found no moderation effects of communication medium on individual or group decision outcome variables. The effects of medium that were found suggest that the use of online groups may be the preferred method for group research. To wit, discussions among the online groups were shorter, but generated a greater number of thought units, i.e., they made more efficient use of time.

  2. Alternative methods of ophthalmic treatment in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, L

    1994-04-01

    Russian ophthalmic nurses and physicians are using alternative methods of treatment to supplement traditional eye care. As acupuncture and iridology become more popular in the United States, ophthalmic nurses need to be more knowledgeable about these treatments and the implications for patients.

  3. An alternative method for Plasmodium culture synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, J; Berry, A; Benoit-Vical, F

    2005-03-01

    Since the synchronization of Plasmodium falciparum has become an essential tool in research, we have investigated the use of a commercial gelatine solution, Plasmion, to replace Plasmagel, which is now difficult to obtain. This method also avoids the use of techniques based on Percoll-glucose gradients. The Plasmion-based technique proved to be a good method and could become an alternative to Plasmagel.

  4. Alternative Polyadenylation: Methods, Findings, and Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternative polyadenylation (APA, a phenomenon that RNA molecules with different 3′ ends originate from distinct polyadenylation sites of a single gene, is emerging as a mechanism widely used to regulate gene expression. In the present review, we first summarized various methods prevalently adopted in APA study, mainly focused on the next-generation sequencing (NGS-based techniques specially designed for APA identification, the related bioinformatics methods, and the strategies for APA study in single cells. Then we summarized the main findings and advances so far based on these methods, including the preferences of alternative polyA (pA site, the biological processes involved, and the corresponding consequences. We especially categorized the APA changes discovered so far and discussed their potential functions under given conditions, along with the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. With more in-depth studies on extensive samples, more signatures and functions of APA will be revealed, and its diverse roles will gradually heave in sight. Keywords: Alternative polyadenylation, Next-generation sequencing, 3′UTR, Alternative splicing, Gene regulation

  5. Screening of alternative methods for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, P.J.; Thamer, B.J.; Christensen, D.E.; Wehmann, G.

    1978-10-01

    A systematic method for categorizing these disposal alternatives which provides assurance that no viable alternatives are overlooked is reported. Alternatives are categorized by (1) the general media in which disposal occurs, (2) by whether the disposal method can be considered as dispersal, containment or elimination of the wastes, and (3) by the applicability of the disposal method to the possible physical waste forms. A literature survey was performed and pertinent references listed for the various alternatives discussed. A bibliography is given which provides coverage of published information on low-level radioactive waste management options. The extensive list of disposal alternatives identified was screened and the most viable choices were selected for further evaluation. A Technical Advisory Panel met and reviewed the results. Suggestions from that meeting and other comments are discussed. The most viable options selected for further evaluation are: (1) improving present shallow land burial practices; (2) deeper depth burial; (3) disposal in cavities; (4) disposal in exposed or buried structures; and (5) ocean disposal. 42 references

  6. A real-time RT-PCR method to detect viable Giardia lamblia cysts in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Robert H; Gilliam, Amy O; Robles, Liza D; Jakubowski, Walter; Slifko, Theresa R

    2011-05-01

    Currently, USEPA Method 1623 is the standard assay used for simultaneous detection of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in various water matrices. However, the method is unable to distinguish between species, genotype, or to assess viability. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to address the shortcomings of USEPA Method 1623 by developing a novel molecular-based method that can assess viability of Giardia cysts in environmental waters and identify genotypes that pose a human health threat (assemblage groups A and B). Primers and TaqMan(®) probes were designed to target the beta-giardin gene in order to discriminate among species and assemblages. Viability was determined by detection of de-novo mRNA synthesis after heat induction. The beta-giardin primer/probe sets were able to detect and differentiate between Giardia lamblia assemblages A and B, and did not detect Giardia muris (mouse species) or G. lamblia assemblages C, D, E and F (non-human), with the exception of Probe A which did detect G. lamblia assemblage F DNA. Additionally, DNA or cDNA of other waterborne organisms were not detected, suggesting that the method is specific to Giardia assemblages. Assay applicability was demonstrated by detection of viable G. lamblia cysts in spiked (assemblage B) and unspiked (assemblage A and B) reclaimed water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.; Queenan, C.J. III

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  8. Photoacoustic discrimination of viable and thermally coagulated blood using a two-wavelength method for burn injury monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, Robert J; Holan, Scott H; Viator, John A

    2007-01-01

    Discriminating viable from thermally coagulated blood in a burn wound can be used to profile burn depth, thus aiding the removal of necrotic tissue. In this study, we used a two-wavelength photoacoustic imaging method to discriminate coagulated and non-coagulated blood in a dermal burn phantom. Differences in the optical absorption spectra of coagulated and non-coagulated blood produce different values of the ratio of peak photoacoustic amplitude at 543 and 633 nm. The absorption values obtained from spectroscopic measurements indicate that the ratio of photoacoustic pressure for 543 and 633 nm for non-coagulated blood was 15.7:1 and 1.6:1 for coagulated blood. Using planar blood layers, we found the photoacoustic ratios to be 13.5:1 and 1.6:1, respectively. Using the differences in the ratios of coagulated and non-coagulated blood, we propose a scheme using statistical classification analysis to identify the different blood samples. Based upon these distinctly different ratios, we identified the planar blood samples with an error rate of 0%. Using a burn phantom with cylindrical vessels containing coagulated and non-coagulated blood, we achieved an error rate of 11.4%. These results have shown that photoacoustic imaging could prove to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of burns

  9. [Study on modeling method of total viable count of fresh pork meat based on hyperspectral imaging system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Peng, Yan-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Li

    2010-02-01

    Once the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in fresh pork meat exceeds a certain number, it will become pathogenic bacteria. The present paper is to explore the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging technology combined with relevant modeling method for the prediction of TVC in fresh pork meat. For the certain kind of problem that has remarkable nonlinear characteristic and contains few samples, as well as the problem that has large amount of data used to express the information of spectrum and space dimension, it is crucial to choose a logical modeling method in order to achieve good prediction result. Based on the comparative result of partial least-squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and least square support vector machines (LS-SVM), the authors found that the PLSR method was helpless for nonlinear regression problem, and the ANNs method couldn't get approving prediction result for few samples problem, however the prediction models based on LS-SVM can give attention to the little training error and the favorable generalization ability as soon as possible, and can make them well synchronously. Therefore LS-SVM was adopted as the modeling method to predict the TVC of pork meat. Then the TVC prediction model was constructed using all the 512 wavelength data acquired by the hyperspectral imaging system. The determination coefficient between the TVC obtained with the standard plate count for bacterial colonies method and the LS-SVM prediction result was 0.987 2 and 0.942 6 for the samples of calibration set and prediction set respectively, also the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.207 1 and 0.217 6 individually, and the result was considerably better than that of MLR, PLSR and ANNs method. This research demonstrates that using the hyperspectral imaging system coupled with the LS-SVM modeling method is a valid means for quick and nondestructive determination of TVC of pork

  10. Safety relief valve alternate analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.H.; Javid, A.; Khatua, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental test program was started in the United States in 1976 to define and quantify Safety Relief Valve (SRV) phenomena in General Electric Mark I Suppression Chambers. The testing considered several discharged devices and was used to correlate SRV load prediction models. The program was funded by utilities with Mark I containments and has resulted in a detailed SRV load definition as a portion of the Mark I containment program Load Definition Report (LDR). The (USNRC) has reviewed and approved the LDR SRV load definition. In addition, the USNRC has permitted calibration of structural models used for predicting torus response to SRV loads. Model calibration is subject to confirmatory in-plant testing. The SRV methodology given in the LDR requires that transient dynamic pressures be applied to a torus structural model that includes a fluid added mass matrix. Preliminary evaluations of torus response have indicated order of magnitude conservatisms, with respect to test results, which could result in unrealistic containment modifications. In addition, structural response trends observed in full-scale tests between cold pipe, first valve actuation and hot pipe, subsequent valve actuation conditions have not been duplicated using current analysis methods. It was suggested by others that an energy approach using current fluid models be utilized to define loads. An alternate SRV analysis method is defined to correct suppression chamber structural response to a level that permits economical but conservative design. Simple analogs are developed for the purpose of correcting the analytical response obtained from LDR analysis methods. Analogs evaluated considered forced vibration and free vibration structural response. The corrected response correlated well with in-plant test response. The correlation of the analytical model at test conditions permits application of the alternate analysis method at design conditions. (orig./HP)

  11. Evaluation of Alternative Euthanasia Methods of Neonatal Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Gurung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hatched male layer chicks are currently euthanized by maceration in the United States. Public concerns on the use of maceration have led to the search for alternative methods. We hypothesized that gas inhalation and low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS are viable and humane alternatives to instantaneous mechanical destruction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of recently hatched male layer chicks when subjected to carbon dioxide, nitrogen inhalation, or LAPS. The study consisted of seven treatments: breathing air (NEG, 25% carbon dioxide (CO2, 50% CO2, 75% CO2, 90% CO2, 100% nitrogen (N2, or LAPS. Ten day-of-hatch, male layer chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment, and each treatment was replicated on ten different days. A custom-made vacuum system was used to reduce air pressure inside the chamber from 100.12 kPa to 15.3 kPa for the LAPS treatment. Serum corticosterone and serotonin levels were measured using commercially available competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Latencies to loss of posture and motionlessness were determined from video recordings. The 25% and 50% CO2 treatments were discontinued after the first replication, as the majority of the chicks recovered. The chicks in the negative (NEG group had significantly higher levels of corticosterone than the other four euthanasia treatments. On the other hand, the serotonin levels of chicks in the NEG group was significantly lower when compared to the other four euthanasia treatments. The latencies to loss of posture and motionlessness of chicks exposed to 75% and 90% CO2 were significantly shorter than those in the LAPS and N2 inhalation treatments. These data suggest that the stress responses of chicks to the CO2, N2, and LAPS treatments do not differ among each other. However, the CO2 inhalation method was faster in inducing loss of posture and motionlessness in chicks than the LAPS and N2 inhalation

  12. Evaluation of Alternative Euthanasia Methods of Neonatal Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Shailesh; White, Dima; Archer, Gregory; Zhao, Dan; Farnell, Yuhua; Byrd, J Allen; Peebles, E David; Farnell, Morgan

    2018-03-09

    Hatched male layer chicks are currently euthanized by maceration in the United States. Public concerns on the use of maceration have led to the search for alternative methods. We hypothesized that gas inhalation and low atmospheric pressure stunning (LAPS) are viable and humane alternatives to instantaneous mechanical destruction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of recently hatched male layer chicks when subjected to carbon dioxide, nitrogen inhalation, or LAPS. The study consisted of seven treatments: breathing air (NEG), 25% carbon dioxide (CO₂), 50% CO₂, 75% CO₂, 90% CO₂, 100% nitrogen (N₂), or LAPS. Ten day-of-hatch, male layer chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment, and each treatment was replicated on ten different days. A custom-made vacuum system was used to reduce air pressure inside the chamber from 100.12 kPa to 15.3 kPa for the LAPS treatment. Serum corticosterone and serotonin levels were measured using commercially available competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Latencies to loss of posture and motionlessness were determined from video recordings. The 25% and 50% CO₂ treatments were discontinued after the first replication, as the majority of the chicks recovered. The chicks in the negative (NEG) group had significantly higher levels of corticosterone than the other four euthanasia treatments. On the other hand, the serotonin levels of chicks in the NEG group was significantly lower when compared to the other four euthanasia treatments. The latencies to loss of posture and motionlessness of chicks exposed to 75% and 90% CO₂ were significantly shorter than those in the LAPS and N₂ inhalation treatments. These data suggest that the stress responses of chicks to the CO₂, N₂, and LAPS treatments do not differ among each other. However, the CO₂ inhalation method was faster in inducing loss of posture and motionlessness in chicks than the LAPS and N

  13. Maggot debridement: an alternative method for debridement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Debridement is an essential component to promote healing in a problem wound. Several techniques are available including maggot debridement therapy (MDT). To describe the efficacy of MDT for treating problem wound especially diabetic foot ulcers. The topic is elucidated from different points of view: the mode of action, when to use, use in a practice, clinical results, and discussing the problem of creating evidence for the clinical effect. Literature and own results demonstrate that MDT is a safe method with few side effects. Maggot debridement therapy is as good as or better than conventional often surgical debridement, is more selective than surgical debridement, decreases time to healing and stay of patients in the ward, and may decrease the risk of major amputations. However, the evidence of these effects of MDT on the highest level is presently lacking. A detailed description of how to use MDT in practice is provided including a visual demonstration in a video. In spite of lacking clinical evidence, MDT clinical experience strongly suggests that this technique is effective and safe. It can be used for most types of problem wounds, but our indication is primarily diabetic foot ulcers, because of its selectivity for debriding necrotic dead tissue. It may be a valuable alternative surgical/sharp debridement.

  14. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  15. Dynamic phase microscopy, a new method to detect viable and killed spores and to estimate the heterogeneity of spore populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Mulyukin, Andrey L.; Lisovskii, Vitalii V.; Nikolaev, Yury A.; Kretushev, Aleksander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatyana V.; Suzina, Nataliya E.; Duda, Vitalii I.; El-Registan, Galina I.

    One of the challenging tasks in monitoring studies is to estimate heterogeneity of microbial populations by the physiological state and potential viability of individual cells, especially with regard of their ability to withstand various environmental assaults. Previously, we described some approaches based on electron microscopy methods to discriminate vegetative, dormant, and dead cells in both aged microbial cultures and environmental samples, including permafrost. We propose to extend the arsenal of microscopy methods for monitoring studies by a new non-invasive and informative method - dynamic phase microscopy (DPM). The substantial advantage of DPM is that it gives quantitative (digitized) data of undestroyed (living) microscopic objects, exemplified in our work by Bacillus licheniformis spores. Using DPM made it possible to record interference images of objects (spores) and to produce picture of their "phase thickness" (PT) that is the optical path difference in nm. Thus, it was demonstrated the remarkable difference in the PT of spores at different physiological states: dormant, germinating, and heat-killed spores had PT values of 80, 40-50, and 20 nm, respectively. The other found criterion to distinguish between spores was the PT fluctuations. In contrast to dormant and killed spores, the PT of germinating spores oscillated with amplitude of up to 7 nm, with typical frequencies of 1.3 and 3.4 Hz. A combination of the recorded PT values and PT fluctuations gave a key to detect viable and dead cells. Under the conditions that did not support germination (the lack of nutrients), we were able to follow the response of a single dormant spore and a spore population to heating from 25 °C to 70 °C. Thus, a very small temperature change (from 40 °C to 42 °C) under conditions non-favorable for germination, caused a drastic decrease in the spores' PT; the second drop in the PT values was observed during heating from 60 °C to 70 °C. These changes were

  16. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Barbour, Elie K.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.

    2014-08-23

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Alternate methods to teach history of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Manisha S; Desai, Sukumar P

    2014-02-01

    Residency programs in anesthesiology in the United States struggle to balance the conflicting needs of formal didactic sessions, clinical teaching, and clinical service obligations. As a consequence of the explosion in knowledge about basic and applied sciences related to our specialty, residents and fellows are expected to make substantial efforts to supplement formal lectures with self-study. There is strong evidence to suggest that members of the younger generation use nontraditional methods to acquire information. Although training programs are not required to include topics related to history of anesthesia (HOA) in the didactic curriculum, and despite the fact that such knowledge does not directly impact clinical care, many programs include such lectures and discussions. We describe and discuss our experience with 3 alternate modalities of teaching HOA.First, we provide brief descriptions of HOA-related historical narratives and novels within the domain of popular literature, rather than those that might be considered textbooks. Second, we analyze content in movies and videodiscs dealing with HOA and determine their utility as educational resources. Third, we describe HOA tours to sites in close proximity to our institutions, as well as those in locations elsewhere in the United States and abroad.We suggest that informal HOA teaching can be implemented by every residency program without much effort and without taking away from the traditional curriculum. Participating in this unique and enriching experience may be a means of academic advancement. It is our hope and expectation that graduates from programs that incorporate such exposure to HOA become advocates of history and may choose to devote a part of their academic career toward exploration of HOA.

  19. Alternative parameter determination methods for a PMSG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Malz, Elena; Llano, Enrique Muller

    2014-01-01

    standards. In the other hand a new approach for an alternative stator inductance and inertia measurement is analysed. More precisely, the former is obtained through laboratory work based on the locked rotor test, and the latter through a CAD software based on a 3D model. In order to assess and validate...

  20. Cultivation of murine bone marrow macrophages in sponges: a method that permits recovery of viable cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akporiaye, E T; Stewart, S; Stewart, C C

    1984-01-01

    Various investigators have cultured murine bone marrow or peritoneal cells in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces with the ultimate aim of retrieving adherent macrophages for morphologic and functional evaluation. The removal of these adherent macrophages by conventional techniques has been consistently accompanied by low yield and significant cell damage. The authors report here a simple technique for culturing murine bone marrow cells in gelatin sponges (Spongostan and Gelfoam) in growth medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 10% L-cell conditioned medium. Viable cells were retrieved from the sponges in 10 min by digestion with collagenase. The in situ growth kinetics were similar to those found for cells cultured on plastic dishes. The recovered cells were adherent, phagocytic, positive for Fc ..gamma.. receptors, and had esterase activity. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  1. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, P.; Wehmann, G.; Thamer, B.J.; Card, D.H.

    1979-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the most viable alternatives for disposal of solid low-level radioactive wastes is presented to aid in evaluating national waste management options. Four basic alternative methods are analyzed and compared to the present practice of shallow land burial. These include deeper burial, disposal in mined cavities, disposal in engineered structures, and disposal in the oceans. Some variations in the basic methods are also presented. Technical, socio-political, and economic factors are assigened relative importances (weights) and evaluated for the various alternatives. Based on disposal of a constant volume of waste with given nuclear characteristics, the most desirable alternatives to shallow land burial in descending order of desirability appear to be: improving present practices, deeper burial, use of acceptable abandoned mines, new mines, ocean dumping, and structural disposal concepts. It must be emphasized that the evaluations reported here are generic, and use of other weights or different values for specific sites could change the conclusions and ordering of alternatives determined in this study. Impacts and costs associated with transportation over long distances predominate over differences among alternatives, indicating the desireability of establishing regional waste disposal locations. The impacts presented are for generic comparisons among alternatives, and are not intended to be predictive of the performance of any actual waste disposal facility

  2. The Use Of Alternative Methods In Reducing Menopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Millions of women experience menopause every year, therefore the aim of this study is to determine the rates of application of alternative methods applied by women in order to reduce their complaints caused by menopause and alternative application methods. Materials and Methods: This study was carried ...

  3. Cognitive Theory within the Framework of an Information Processing Model and Learning Hierarchy: Viable Alternative to the Bloom-Mager System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Robert J.

    This review of the current status of the human information processing model presents the Stahl Perceptual Information Processing and Operations Model (SPInPrOM) as a model of how thinking, memory, and the processing of information take place within the individual learner. A related system, the Domain of Cognition, is presented as an alternative to…

  4. Feasibility of Incorporating Alternative Teaching Methods into Clinical Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judith; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction, interactive video, and videotapes as alternative methods of instruction in clinical clerkship modules on diabetes and hypertension. The 17 participants were more interested in balancing time between patient contact and alternative teaching methods and had better knowledge,…

  5. Examination of alternative nuclear breeding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyfuss, D.J.; Augenstein, B.W.; Mooz, W.E.; Sher, P.A.

    1978-07-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the economics of using external source neutrons (provided by a DT fusion device or by a high-energy accelerator providing a proton or deuteron particle beam) for breeding fissile fuel, and compares these costs with those of the most intensively investigated reactor breeder (or internal neutron source breeder), the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A simple evaluation model is used that calculates the net present discounted value, using a 10 percent discount rate of the cost to satisfy a specific demand for electricity over the period to 2050. Present discounted values of costs are estimated for four energy technologies: the uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR), the LMFBR, the fusion hybrid breeder, and the accelerator-driven breeder. The latter two technologies produce fissile fuel which is then consumed in ordinary converter reactors. The discounted costs to produce electrical energy using the three breeding technologies to satisfy this demand are calculated and compared to a standard or base case where the LWR satisfies the demand. The cost differences between the base case and the three alternatives are compared to estimate the savings possible over the LWR base case. The conclusion is that the fusion hybrid breeder and the accelerator breeder, given our present information about the various technologies, promise to be competitive with reactor-based breeders such as the LMFBR and offer a number of qualitative advantages as well

  6. Investigating alternative dispute resolution methods and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    provide a clear definition; 69.4% of architectural professionals do not discuss. ADR methods ..... The study used a quantitative research approach, as the research involves .... questions. The findings of the data might also identify possible gaps.

  7. Monopolar Electrocautery, an Alternative Novel Method of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intraoperative bleeding was encountered in 2 patients only and they received blood transfusion. The overall post-operative early (within the fi rst month) complication rate was low (13.3%) and all complications were managed conservatively. Conclusion: Monopolar electrocauterization is a safe method for achieving ...

  8. Creating Alternative Methods for Educational Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nick L.

    1981-01-01

    A project supported by the National Institute of Education is adapting evaluation procedures from such areas as philosophy, geography, operations research, journalism, film criticism, and other areas. The need for such methods is reviewed, as is the context in which they function, and their contributions to evaluation methodology. (Author/GK)

  9. Color profiles and stability of acylated and nonacylated anthocyanins as novel pigment sources in a lipstick model: A viable alternative to synthetic colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Alexandra; Giusti, Mónica

    Cosmetics, such as lipstick, can affect an individual's perception of attractiveness and morale. Consumer concern with the safety of synthetic colorants has made the need for alternative natural color sources increasingly urgent. Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of anthocyanin (ACN) extracts as colorants in lipstick formulations. Lipstick formulations were colored with ACN-rich materials. Accelerated environmental testing typical of the cosmetic industry were used: incubation at 20°, 37°, and 45°C for 12 weeks and temperature abuse cycles between 20°/37°C or -20°/20°C. Color (CIELab) and total monomeric ACN (pH-differential) changes were monitored to determine shelf stability of the product. All formulations exhibited acceptable color for lipsticks. Shelf stability was determined to exceed 2 year based on the accelerated testing conditions. Formulations containing cyanidin as their main ACN were the most stable (elderberry, purple corn, and purple sweet potato). ACNs could be used as suitable alternatives to synthetic colorants in lipid-based topical formulations.

  10. Maggot Debridement: An Alternative Method for Debridement

    OpenAIRE

    Gottrup, Finn; Jørgensen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Debridement is an essential component to promote healing in a problem wound. Several techniques are available including maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Objective: To describe the efficacy of MDT for treating problem wound especially diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: The topic is elucidated from different points of view: the mode of action, when to use, use in a practice, clinical results, and discussing the problem of creating evidence for the clinical effect. Results: Literature and own resul...

  11. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  12. Alternative methods for 85Kr ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.

    Storage by ion implantation is described. Ion implantation (II) involves the penetration and retention of ions accelerated in the keV-MeV energy range in the surface layer of a solid material. Through collisions, the accelerated ions that are to be implanted give off electrical energy to the target material and heat it up. The number of ions implanted, resulting from the entire ion current, depends not on the physical properties of the implantation material but rather is determined by the external system. The gas enclosed in the matrix is in the form of small bubbles. The size of the bubbles depends on the temperature and is in the range of a few hundred Angstrom units. The bubbles are stable at least up to the temperature at which they were produced. Therefore, bombardment of the metal at higher temperatures decreases the danger of the gas being released, even at very high temperatures. Methods of producing noble gas ions are discussed along with embedding capacity, safety, recovery, and advantages and disadvantages of the method

  13. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Method as a Tool To Quantify Viable Photobacterium phosphoreum Bacteria in Salmon (Salmo salar) Steaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Sabrina; Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Chipchakova, Stoyka

    2013-01-01

    A specific real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide sample treatment step was developed to determine quantitatively the viable population of the Photobacterium phosphoreum species group in raw modified-atmosphere-packed salmon. Primers were designed to amplify a 350......-bp fragment of the gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) of P. phosphoreum. The specificity of the two primers was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 81 strains of 52 different bacterial species. When these primers were used for real-time PCR in pure culture, a good correlation (R2 of 0.99) was obtained...... between this method and conventional enumeration on marine agar (MA). Quantification was linear over 5 log units as confirmed by using inoculated salmon samples. On naturally contaminated fresh salmon, the new real-time PCR method performed successfully with a quantification limit of 3 log CFU...

  14. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  15. Efficient and effective implementation of alternative project delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Over the past decade, the Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway : Administration (MDOT SHA) has implemented Alternative Project Delivery (APD) methods : in a number of transportation projects. While these innovative practices have produ...

  16. A Modified Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.

    2002-01-01

    The alternating direction method is an attractive method for solving large-scale variational inequality problems whenever the subproblems can be solved efficiently. However, the subproblems are still variational inequality problems, which are as structurally difficult to solve as the original one. To overcome this disadvantage, in this paper we propose a new alternating direction method for solving a class of nonlinear monotone variational inequality problems. In each iteration the method just makes an orthogonal projection to a simple set and some function evaluations. We report some preliminary computational results to illustrate the efficiency of the method

  17. Verniz vitral incolor 500®: uma alternativa de meio de montagem economicamente viável Verniz vitral incolor 500®: a mounting medium alternative and economically viable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Antunes de Paiva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Há diferentes meios de montagem comercializados a preço relativamente alto para a produção de lâminas permanentes de tecidos vegetais corados. Esses meios endurecem à medida que secam e possibilitam a manutenção do material botânico em boas condições de conservação por tempo indeterminado. Os meios de montagem mais utilizados em anatomia vegetal são: Bálsamo-do-canadá, Euparal®, Entellan® e Permount®. Visando a redução dos custos de produção de lâminas permanentes para anatomia vegetal, foram testados meios alternativos, produzidos por empresas brasileiras, principalmente para uso em artesanato. Entre os diferentes meios sintéticos testados, o verniz vitral incolor 500® demonstrou propriedades compatíveis para o uso eficiente como meio de montagem, em substituição às resinas sintéticas importadas, com custo baixo e sem alteração do processo rotineiro de trabalho. O verniz vitral incolor 500® permitiu a montagem de lâminas permanentes com órgãos seccionados a mão livre ou em micrótomo rotatório, após o emblocamento em parafina ou historresina, mantendo inalteradas as características dos materiais vegetais e da coloração. Os resultados evidenciaram que os meios de montagem tradicionais podem ser substituídos pelo verniz vitral incolor 500®, sem comprometimento da qualidade das lâminas.There are different imported mounting mediuns commercialized at a relative high price for producing permanent slides of stained plant sections. These mounting mediuns become harder as they dry and preserve the good conditions of the plant material for indetermined time. The most used mouting mediuns to plant anatomy are: Canada balsam, Euparal®, Entellan® and Permount®. Aiming to reduce costs of producing permanent plant anatomy slides, alternative mediuns produced by brazilian industries, used mostly in artesanal work, were tested. Among the different synthetic mediuns tested, the verniz vitral incolor 500® showed

  18. Mobile phones are a viable option for surveying young Australian women: a comparison of two telephone survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Methods Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. Results After dialling 5,390 fixed-lines and 3,697 mobile numbers, 140 and 128 women were recruited respectively. Among women contacted and found to be eligible, participation rates were 74% for fixed-lines and 88% for mobiles. Taking into account calls to numbers where eligibility was unknown (e.g. unanswered calls the estimated response rates were 54% and 45% respectively. Of women contacted by fixed-line, 97% reported having a mobile while 61% of those contacted by mobile reported having a fixed-line at home. After adjusting for age, there were no significant differences between mobile-only and fixed-line responders with respect to education, residence, and various health behaviours; however compared to those with fixed-lines, mobile-only women were more likely to identify as Indigenous (OR 4.99, 95%CI 1.52-16.34 and less likely to live at home with their parents (OR 0.09, 95%CI 0.03-0.29. Conclusions Random digit dialling mobile phones to conduct a health survey in young Australian women is feasible, gives a comparable response rate and a more representative sample than dialling fixed-lines only. Telephone surveys of young women should include mobile dialling.

  19. Land management planning: a method of evaluating alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Weintraub; Richard Adams; Linda Yellin

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for developing and evaluating alternatives in land management planning. A structured set of 15 steps provides a framework for such an evaluation. when multiple objectives and uncertainty must be considered in the planning process. The method is consistent with other processes used in organizational evaluation, and allows for the interaction of...

  20. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry to adopt widespread use of fuel cell technologies. 3 figs.

  1. Nuclear energy: the most viable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2006-01-01

    In this article various forms of electric power generation considered clean are discussed. The paper approaches the nuclear, aeolian, solar and fuel cells, and a resume of the vantage and advantage of each one are discussed, emphasizing their impact on the environment

  2. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  3. High School Graduation Rates:Alternative Methods and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Miao

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The No Child Left Behind Act has brought great attention to the high school graduation rate as one of the mandatory accountability measures for public school systems. However, there is no consensus on how to calculate the high school graduation rate given the lack of longitudinal databases that track individual students. This study reviews literature on and practices in reporting high school graduation rates, compares graduation rate estimates yielded from alternative methods, and estimates discrepancies between alternative results at national, state, and state ethnic group levels. Despite the graduation rate method used, results indicate that high school graduation rates in the U.S. have been declining in recent years and that graduation rates for black and Hispanic students lag substantially behind those of white students. As to graduation rate method preferred, this study found no evidence that the conceptually more complex methods yield more accurate or valid graduation rate estimates than the simpler methods.

  4. An alternative method for performing pressurized thermal shock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, B.A.; Meyer, T.A.; Carter, R.G.; Gamble, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes how Probability of Crack Initiation and acceptable Pressurized Thermal Shock frequency were correlated with a c and summarizes several example applications, including evaluation of potential plant modifications. Plans for an industry supported pilot-plant application of the alternative Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics method for RG 1.154 are also discussed. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  5. Identification of alternative method of teaching and learning the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines alternative method of teaching and learning of the concept of diffusion. An improvised U-shape glass tube called ionic mobility tube was used to observed and measure the rate of movement of divalent metal ions in an aqueous medium in the absence of an electric current. The study revealed that the ...

  6. Alternative method for determining the constant offset in lidar signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir A. Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternative method for determining the total offset in lidar signal created by a daytime background-illumination component and electrical or digital offset. Unlike existing techniques, here the signal square-range-correction procedure is initially performed using the total signal recorded by lidar, without subtraction of the offset component. While...

  7. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, R. [Nuclear Crago + Service GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  8. 77 FR 43827 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... recent advances and innovations in science and technology that can be applied to Leptospira vaccine... alternative methods. The workshop is open to the public at no charge with attendance limited only by the... priority. Leptospirosis affects numerous animal species including livestock, pets, and wildlife. Vaccines...

  9. Innovative Teaching Practice: Traditional and Alternative Methods (Challenges and Implications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurutdinova, Aida R.; Perchatkina, Veronika G.; Zinatullina, Liliya M.; Zubkova, Guzel I.; Galeeva, Farida T.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the present issue is caused be the strong need in alternative methods of learning foreign language and the need in language training and retraining for the modern professionals. The aim of the article is to identify the basic techniques and skills in using various modern techniques in the context of modern educational tasks. The…

  10. An alternative method for performing pressurized thermal shock analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B A; Meyer, T A [Westinghouse Energy Systems, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Carter, R G [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States); Gamble, R M [Sartrex Corp., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes how Probability of Crack Initiation and acceptable Pressurized Thermal Shock frequency were correlated with a{sub c} and summarizes several example applications, including evaluation of potential plant modifications. Plans for an industry supported pilot-plant application of the alternative Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics method for RG 1.154 are also discussed. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Inger, Kerry Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative valuation of alternative methods of tax avoidance. Prior studies find that firm value is positively associated with overall measures of tax avoidance; I extend this research by providing evidence that investors distinguish between methods of tax reduction in their valuation of tax avoidance. The impact of tax avoidance on firm value is a function of tax risk, permanence of tax savings, tax planning costs, implicit taxes and contrasts in disclosures of tax re...

  12. Error Parsing: An alternative method of implementing social judgment theory

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal C. Hall; Daniel M. Oppenheimer

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method of judgment analysis called Error Parsing, based upon an alternative method of implementing Social Judgment Theory (SJT). SJT and Error Parsing both posit the same three components of error in human judgment: error due to noise, error due to cue weighting, and error due to inconsistency. In that sense, the broad theory and framework are the same. However, SJT and Error Parsing were developed to answer different questions, and thus use different m...

  13. International Harmonization and Cooperation in the Validation of Alternative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, João; Ahn, Il Young; Caldeira, Cristiane; Carmichael, Paul L; Casey, Warren; Coecke, Sandra; Curren, Rodger; Desprez, Bertrand; Eskes, Chantra; Griesinger, Claudius; Guo, Jiabin; Hill, Erin; Roi, Annett Janusch; Kojima, Hajime; Li, Jin; Lim, Chae Hyung; Moura, Wlamir; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Park, HyeKyung; Peng, Shuangqing; Presgrave, Octavio; Singer, Tim; Sohn, Soo Jung; Westmoreland, Carl; Whelan, Maurice; Yang, Xingfen; Yang, Ying; Zuang, Valérie

    The development and validation of scientific alternatives to animal testing is important not only from an ethical perspective (implementation of 3Rs), but also to improve safety assessment decision making with the use of mechanistic information of higher relevance to humans. To be effective in these efforts, it is however imperative that validation centres, industry, regulatory bodies, academia and other interested parties ensure a strong international cooperation, cross-sector collaboration and intense communication in the design, execution, and peer review of validation studies. Such an approach is critical to achieve harmonized and more transparent approaches to method validation, peer-review and recommendation, which will ultimately expedite the international acceptance of valid alternative methods or strategies by regulatory authorities and their implementation and use by stakeholders. It also allows achieving greater efficiency and effectiveness by avoiding duplication of effort and leveraging limited resources. In view of achieving these goals, the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM) was established in 2009 by validation centres from Europe, USA, Canada and Japan. ICATM was later joined by Korea in 2011 and currently also counts with Brazil and China as observers. This chapter describes the existing differences across world regions and major efforts carried out for achieving consistent international cooperation and harmonization in the validation and adoption of alternative approaches to animal testing.

  14. Some Convergence Strategies for the Alternating Generalized Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricarmen Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the application of the alternating projection algorithm to solve the problem of finding a point in the intersection of $n$ sets ($n\\geq2$, which are not all of them convex sets. Here we term such method as alternating generalized projection (AGP method. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem of avoiding the so-called trap points, which may prevent an algorithm to obtain a feasible solution in two or more sets not all convex. Some strategies that allow us to reach the feasible solution are established and conjectured. Finally, we present simple numerical results that illustrate the efficiency of the iterative methods considered.

  15. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  16. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  17. Evaluation of Forklift Alternatives with KEMIRA-M Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem SARIÇALI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Businesses generally uses forklifts for lifting, stacking and transporting to the desired location of heavy loads in case of human power is not enough. It is important to select suitable forklifts for the physical conditions of the warehouses in order to ensure the active use of them. In storage, the selection of the appropriate forklift for physical conditions of the warehouse is important to use warehouses effectively. In this study, KEMIRA-M (KEmeny Median Indicator Rank Accordance-Modified method, which is a new Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method, was used to evaluate forklift alternatives to be used in storage and to determine the most appropriate forklift for the textile company. This method does not require much initial information, so it can be used to determine the weights of the criteria and to select the most appropriate alternative. As a result of the study, forklift alternative that will best meet the needs of the textile company was determined with KEMIRA-M method, by this way the company has been aided during the decision process.

  18. Alternative containment integrity test methods, an overview of possible techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to develop and analyze alternative methods for testing of containment integrity. The study is focused on techniques for continuously monitoring containment integrity to provide rapid detection of existing leaks, thus providing greater certainty of the integrity of the containment at any time. The study is also intended to develop techniques applicable to the currently required Type A integrated leakage rate tests. A brief discussion of the range of alternative methods currently being considered is presented. The methods include applicability to all major containment types, operating and shutdown plant conditions, and quantitative and qualitative leakage measurements. The techniques are analyzed in accordance with the current state of knowledge of each method. The bulk of the techniques discussed are in the conceptual stage, have not been tested in actual plant conditions, and are presented here as a possible future direction for evaluating containment integrity. Of the methods considered, no single method provides optimum performance for all containment types. Several methods are limited in the types of containment for which they are applicable. The results of the study to date indicate that techniques for continuous monitoring of containment integrity exist for many plants and may be implemented at modest cost

  19. High School Graduation Rates:Alternative Methods and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Miao; Walt Haney

    2004-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has brought great attention to the high school graduation rate as one of the mandatory accountability measures for public school systems. However, there is no consensus on how to calculate the high school graduation rate given the lack of longitudinal databases that track individual students. This study reviews literature on and practices in reporting high school graduation rates, compares graduation rate estimates yielded from alternative methods, and estimates d...

  20. The rate of convergence in the method of alternating projections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badea, C.; Grivaux, S.; Müller, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2012), s. 413-434 ISSN 1061-0022 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473; GA AV ČR IAA100190903 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Friedrichs angle * method of alternating projections * arbitrarily slow convergence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.460, year: 2012 http://www.ams.org/journals/spmj/2012-23-03/S1061-0022-2012-01202-1/home.html

  1. Integrated Parasite Management for Livestock - Alternative control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Paul1

    Full Text Available Internal parasites are considered by some to be one of the most economically important constraints in raising livestock. The growing concern about the resistance of internal parasites to all classes of dewormers has caused people to look for alternatives. As dewormers lose their effectiveness, the livestock community fears increasing economic losses from worms. There is no one thing that can be given or done to replace chemical dewormers. It will take a combination of extremely good management techniques and possibly some alternative therapies. It is not wise to think that one can just stop deworming animals with chemical dewormers. It is something one will need to change gradually, observing and testing animals and soil, in order to monitor the progress. Alternative parasite control is an area that is receiving a lot of interest and attention. Programs and research will continue in the pursuit of parasite control, using alternative and more management-intensive methods. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 431-435

  2. An alternative extragradient projection method for quasi-equilibrium problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Wang, Yiju; Xu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    For the quasi-equilibrium problem where the players' costs and their strategies both depend on the rival's decisions, an alternative extragradient projection method for solving it is designed. Different from the classical extragradient projection method whose generated sequence has the contraction property with respect to the solution set, the newly designed method possesses an expansion property with respect to a given initial point. The global convergence of the method is established under the assumptions of pseudomonotonicity of the equilibrium function and of continuity of the underlying multi-valued mapping. Furthermore, we show that the generated sequence converges to the nearest point in the solution set to the initial point. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of the method.

  3. An alternative green screen keying method for film visual effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a green screen keying method developed especially for film visual effects. There are a series of ways of using existing tools for creating mattes from green or blue screen plates. However, it is still a time-consuming process, and the results vary especially when it comes to retaining tiny details, such as hair and fur. This paper introduces an alternative concept and method for retaining edge details of characters on a green screen plate, also, a number of connected mat...

  4. Hypoplastic thumb type IIIB: An alternative method for surgical repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Onur Basat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoplastic thumb is the second most common congenital deformity of the thumb. Thumb hypoplasia is characterized by diminished thumb size, metacarpal adduction, metacarpophalangeal joint instability, and thenar muscle hypoplasia. In the literature, different classification types of hypoplastic thumb have been used and different treatment methods described. In this case we presented an alternative palliative treatment method for a ten-year-old patient with modified Blauth's classification type IIIB hypoplastic thumb and one-year follow-up results. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(2.000: 59-61

  5. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  6. Alternative methods for measuring obesity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ashley E; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A

    2013-03-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women.

  7. Blind compressed sensing image reconstruction based on alternating direction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinan; Guo, Shuxu

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem of how to reconstruct the original image under the condition of unknown sparse basis, this paper proposes an image reconstruction method based on blind compressed sensing model. In this model, the image signal is regarded as the product of a sparse coefficient matrix and a dictionary matrix. Based on the existing blind compressed sensing theory, the optimal solution is solved by the alternative minimization method. The proposed method solves the problem that the sparse basis in compressed sensing is difficult to represent, which restrains the noise and improves the quality of reconstructed image. This method ensures that the blind compressed sensing theory has a unique solution and can recover the reconstructed original image signal from a complex environment with a stronger self-adaptability. The experimental results show that the image reconstruction algorithm based on blind compressed sensing proposed in this paper can recover high quality image signals under the condition of under-sampling.

  8. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables

  9. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasson, Vicky; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel; Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-09-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant bibliography. Perspectives on future development and the potential of the rapid method for routine application in food diagnostics are discussed. As various alternative "rapid" methods in different formats are available on the market, it can be very difficult for a food business operator or for a control authority to select the most appropriate method which fits its purpose. Validation of a method by a third party, according to international accepted protocol based upon ISO 16140, may increase the confidence in the performance of a method. A list of at the moment validated methods for enumeration of both utility indicators (aerobic plate count) and hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coagulase positive Staphylococcus) as well as for detection of the four major pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157 and Campylobacter spp.) is included with reference to relevant websites to check for updates. In a second part of this study, selection criteria are introduced to underpin the choice of the appropriate method(s) for a defined application. The selection criteria link the definition of the context in which the user of the method functions - and thus the prospective use of the microbial test results - with the technical information on the method and its operational requirements and sustainability. The selection criteria can help the end user of the method to obtain a systematic insight into all relevant factors to be taken into account for selection of a method for microbial analysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Variationally derived coarse mesh methods using an alternative flux representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtowicz, G.; Holloway, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigation of a previously reported variational technique for the solution of the 1-D, 1-group neutron transport equation in reactor lattices has inspired the development of a finite element formulation of the method. Compared to conventional homogenization methods in which node homogenized cross sections are used, the coefficients describing this system take on greater spatial dependence. However, the methods employ an alternative flux representation which allows the transport equation to be cast into a form whose solution has only a slow spatial variation and, hence, requires relatively few variables to describe. This alternative flux representation and the stationary property of a variational principle define a class of coarse mesh discretizations of transport theory capable of achieving order of magnitude reductions of eigenvalue and pointwise scalar flux errors as compared with diffusion theory while retaining diffusion theory's relatively low cost. Initial results of a 1-D spectral element approach are reviewed and used to motivate the finite element implementation which is more efficient and almost as accurate; one and two group results of this method are described

  11. Alternate modal combination methods in response spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.K.; Bezler, P.

    1989-01-01

    In piping analyses using the response spectrum method Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) with clustering between closely spaced modes is the combination procedure most commonly used to combine between the modal response components. This procedure is simple to apply and normally yields conservative estimates of the time history results. The purpose of this study is to investigate alternate methods to combine between the modal response components. These methods are mathematically based to properly account for the combination between rigid and flexible modal responses as well as closely spaced modes. The methods are those advanced by Gupta, Hadjian and Lindley-Yow to address rigid response modes and the Double Sum Combination (DSC) method and the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method to account for closely spaced modes. A direct comparison between these methods as well as the SRSS procedure is made by using them to predict the response of six piping systems. For two piping systems thirty-three earthquake records were considered to account for the impact of variations in the characteristics of the excitation. The results provided by each method are compared to the corresponding time history estimates of results as well as to each other. The degree of conservatism associated with each method is characterized. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Alternate modal combination methods in response spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.; Wang, Y.K.; Gupta, A.K.

    1990-10-01

    In piping analyses using the response spectrum method Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (SRSS) with clustering between closely spaced modes is the combination procedure most commonly used to combine between the modal response components. This procedure is simple to apply and normally yields conservative estimates of the time history results. The purpose of this study is to investigate alternate methods to combine between the modal response components. These methods are mathematically based to properly account for the combination between rigid and flexible modal responses as well as closely spaced modes. The methods are those advanced by Gupta, Hadjian and Lindely-Yow to address rigid response modes and the Double Sum Combination (DSC) method and the Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method to account for closely spaced modes. A direct comparison between these methods as well as the SRSS procedure is made by using them to predict the response of six piping systems. The results provided by each method are compared to the corresponding time history estimates of results as well as to each other. The degree of conservatism associated with each method is characterized. 19 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Phytoestrogens: a viable option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lori; Hicks, G Swink; Low, Annette K; Shepherd, Jinna M; Brown, C Andrew

    2002-10-01

    Estrogen replacement therapy is one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in the United States by traditional medical professionals. Over the past decade, the market for complementary/ alternative therapies for hormone replacement has dramatically increased. Women are seeking more "natural" alternatives to treat menopausal symptoms. Well-designed randomized clinical trials are often lacking, as is the information on efficacy and safety. This article will review several popular herbal therapies for menopausal symptoms including phytoestrogens, black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), chast tree (Vitex agnus-castus), and wild Mexican yam. Their use, mechanism of action, and adverse effects are outlined.

  14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Methods in Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Erdogan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite its long history, use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM methods has increased dramatically only after 1990s. Up to 57% of patients with chronic renal use CAM methods.These patienys use CAM methods to overcome hypertension, fatigue, constipation, leg edema, pain, cramps, anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, to cope with symptoms such as itching, to stop the progression of kidney disease and to improve their quality of life. Methods used are herbal products and food supplements, acupressure, acupuncture, homeopathy, exercise, aromatherapy, yoga and reflexology. Nephrotoxic effect of several CAM therapies used in patients with renal impairment could disturb hemodynamics by reducing the glomerular filtration rate. For this reason, health care providers should question patients about used of CAM, methods. Communication with patients should be clear and should not act judgmental. Health care personnel should learn more about CAM methods in order to avoid unwanted situations that could develop after the application of CAM methods. Patients should be informed correctly and scientifically about these methods to avoid harmful and unnecessary uses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 770-786

  15. Correlation expansion: a powerful alternative multiple scattering calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Wu Ziyu; Sebilleau, Didier

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a powerful alternative expansion method to perform multiple scattering calculations. In contrast to standard MS series expansion, where the scattering contributions are grouped in terms of scattering order and may diverge in the low energy region, this expansion, called correlation expansion, partitions the scattering process into contributions from different small atom groups and converges at all energies. It converges faster than MS series expansion when the latter is convergent. Furthermore, it takes less memory than the full MS method so it can be used in the near edge region without any divergence problem, even for large clusters. The correlation expansion framework we derive here is very general and can serve to calculate all the elements of the scattering path operator matrix. Photoelectron diffraction calculations in a cluster containing 23 atoms are presented to test the method and compare it to full MS and standard MS series expansion

  16. Alternating direction methods for classical and ptychographic phase retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zaiwen; Yang, Chao; Liu, Xin; Marchesini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the augmented Lagrangian alternating direction method (ADM) can be used to solve both the classical and ptychographic phase retrieval problems. We point out the connection between ADM and projection algorithms such as the hybrid input–output algorithm, and compare its performance against standard algorithms for phase retrieval on a number of test images. Our computational experiments show that ADM appears to be less sensitive to the choice of relaxation parameters, and it usually outperforms the existing techniques for both the classical and ptychographic phase retrieval problems. (paper)

  17. ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ON SITE EVALUATION OF THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Janković

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal transmittance or U-value is an indicator of the building envelope thermal properties and a key parameter for evaluation of heat losses through the building elements due to heat transmission. It can be determined by calculation based on thermal characteristics of the building element layers. However, this value does not take into account the effects of irregularities and degradation of certain elements of the envelope caused by aging, which may lead to errors in calculation of the heat losses. An effective and simple method for determination of thermal transmittance is in situ measurement, which is governed by the ISO 9869-1:2014 that defines heat flow meter method. This relatively expensive method leaves marks and damages surface of the building element. Furthermore, the final result is not always reliable, in particular when the building element is light or when the weather conditions are not suitable. In order to avoid the above mentioned problems and to estimate the real thermal transmittance value an alternative experimental method, here referred as the natural convection and radiation method, is proposed in this paper. For determination of thermal transmittance, this method requires only temperatures of inside and outside air, as well as the inner wall surface temperature. A detailed statistical analysis, performed by the software package SPSS ver. 20, shows several more advantages of this method comparing to the standard heat flow meter one, besides economic and non-destructive benefits.

  18. Alternating direction transport sweeps for linear discontinuous SN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.; Aykanat, C.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of Alternating Direction Transport Sweep (ADTS) method is investigated for spatially differenced Linear Discontinuous S N (LD-S N ) problems on a MIMD multicomputer, Intel IPSC/2. The method consists of dividing a transport problem spatially into sub-problems, assigning each sub-problem to a separate processor. Then, the problem is solved by performing transport sweeps iterating on the scattering source and interface fluxes between the sub-problems. In each processor, the order of transport sweeps is scheduled such that a processor completing its computation in a quadrant of a transport sweep is able to use the most recent information (exiting fluxes of neighboring processor) as its incoming fluxes to start the next quadrant calculation. Implementation of this method on the Intel IPSC/2 multicomputer displays significant speedups over the one-processor method. Also, the performance of the method is compared with those reported previously for the Diamond Differenced S N (DD-S N ) method. Our experimental experience illustrates that the parallel performance of both the ADTS LD- and DD-S N methods is the same. (orig.)

  19. Pathway analysis for alternate low-level waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.R.; Kozak, M.W.; McCord, J.T.; Olague, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a complete set of environmental pathways for disposal options and conditions that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) may analyze for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) license application. The regulations pertaining In the past, shallow-land burial has been used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. However, with the advent of the State Compact system of LLW disposal, many alternative technologies may be used. The alternative LLW disposal facilities include below- ground vault, tumulus, above-ground vault, shaft, and mine disposal This paper will form the foundation of an update of the previously developed Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/NRC LLW performance assessment methodology. Based on the pathway assessment for alternative disposal methods, a determination will be made about whether the current methodology can satisfactorily analyze the pathways and phenomena likely to be important for the full range of potential disposal options. We have attempted to be conservative in keeping pathways in the lists that may usually be of marginal importance. In this way we can build confidence that we have spanned the range of cases likely to be encountered at a real site. Results of the pathway assessment indicate that disposal methods can be categorized in groupings based on their depth of disposal. For the deep disposal options of shaft and mine disposal, the key pathways are identical. The shallow disposal options, such as tumulus, shallow-land, and below-ground vault disposal also may be grouped together from a pathway analysis perspective. Above-ground vault disposal cannot be grouped with any of the other disposal options. The pathway analysis shows a definite trend concerning depth of disposal. The above-ground option has the largest number of significant pathways. As the waste becomes more isolated, the number of significant pathways is reduced. Similar to shallow-land burial, it was found that for all

  20. DQM: Decentralized Quadratically Approximated Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Aryan; Shi, Wei; Ling, Qing; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers decentralized consensus optimization problems where nodes of a network have access to different summands of a global objective function. Nodes cooperate to minimize the global objective by exchanging information with neighbors only. A decentralized version of the alternating directions method of multipliers (DADMM) is a common method for solving this category of problems. DADMM exhibits linear convergence rate to the optimal objective but its implementation requires solving a convex optimization problem at each iteration. This can be computationally costly and may result in large overall convergence times. The decentralized quadratically approximated ADMM algorithm (DQM), which minimizes a quadratic approximation of the objective function that DADMM minimizes at each iteration, is proposed here. The consequent reduction in computational time is shown to have minimal effect on convergence properties. Convergence still proceeds at a linear rate with a guaranteed constant that is asymptotically equivalent to the DADMM linear convergence rate constant. Numerical results demonstrate advantages of DQM relative to DADMM and other alternatives in a logistic regression problem.

  1. An alternative solver for the nodal expansion method equations - 106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho da Silva, F.; Carlos Marques Alvim, A.; Senra Martinez, A.

    2010-01-01

    An automated procedure for nuclear reactor core design is accomplished by using a quick and accurate 3D nodal code, aiming at solving the diffusion equation, which describes the spatial neutron distribution in the reactor. This paper deals with an alternative solver for nodal expansion method (NEM), with only two inner iterations (mesh sweeps) per outer iteration, thus having the potential to reduce the time required to calculate the power distribution in nuclear reactors, but with accuracy similar to the ones found in conventional NEM. The proposed solver was implemented into a computational system which, besides solving the diffusion equation, also solves the burnup equations governing the gradual changes in material compositions of the core due to fuel depletion. Results confirm the effectiveness of the method for practical purposes. (authors)

  2. A viable axion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.; Wu Taitsun; Yanagida, T.

    1986-02-01

    We discuss whether an axion like excitation can be the source for the monoenergetic positrons observed at GSI. Although a direct extension of the original Peccei Quinn model is experimentally ruled out, it is possible to construct an alternative model which avoids all previous axion bounds, involving quarkonia decays, K decays, nuclear decays and beam dump experiments. The model predicts, at some level, the possibility of flavor changing interactions involving charmed quarks and suggests an appealing regularity for the quark and lepton masses. The expectations of the model for resonant e + e - scattering are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  3. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  4. Debate as an alternative method for medical literature evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Rebecca; Samai, Kathryn; Wargo, Ryan

    2017-05-01

    To determine the student impression of utilizing a debate style journal club as an alternative approach for preceptors to teach medical literature evaluation skills to pharmacy students undergoing Advance Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPE) in both acute care and ambulatory care. Students were asked to debate on a controversial topic or two drugs with similar indications. Each side had to research supporting evidence based medicine and use literature appraisal skills to incorporate the information logically into an oral debate style format. Approximately fifteen minutes were allotted for each debate, allowing five minutes for each opening argument, three minutes for each rebuttal, and two minutes for each closing argument. Students were then asked to complete a post-debate survey using a Likert Scale to evaluate their perception of the debate style journal club. Following implementation of the debate style journal club, students reported being more confident with their ability to find, compare, and retain information from primary literature with a mean of 4.1, 4.2, and 4.4 respectively on a Likert Scale. Students also reported overall enjoyment and satisfaction with a mean of 4.0. Debate style journal clubs have the capability to teach pharmacy students vital literature appraisal skills, and are a well-liked alternative to the traditional style journal club. Incorporating this method improved student interest as well as increased their ability to find, compare, and retain the information gathered from primary literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of alternative methods and price politic of icewine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ostapenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The artificial methods of must concentration were discussed in current study: the microwave vacuum dehydration, reverse osmosis and cryoextraction. The main factor of using of alternative ways is deficiently low temperatures in winter period that are necessary for freezing grapes on vine according to the classical technology. The benefits and disadvantages of using of non-classic processes to obtain sweet musts were shown. The physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of wine made from grapes previously frozen by alternative and natural ways were analyzed. Indicators influencing on price of icewines and dessert wines bottle including agricultural climatic, technological and marketing factors were determined.  Detailed indicators highlight specificity of used technology and represent consumer preferences. Producers of winemaking regions of Argentina, New Zealand, Israel, Ukraine and Australia adhere to provisions that are inconsistent with the standards of Canada and the European countries regarding the icewine output. These instruments determine the processing of grapes and parameters reflect on parameters of the finished product.

  6. An alternative method to achieve metrological confirmation in measurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.

    2012-04-01

    Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.

  7. Alternative methods of synthesizing 99Tcm-labelled ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Choong, K.K.L.; Evans, S.; Olma, T.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: 99 Tc m -labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton) is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. We synthesized Infecton by modifying the procedure described by Keith Britton's group (Lancet 1996; 347: 233-235) and reported our findings at the ANZSNM meeting last year. Since the methodology was cumbersome, we investigated simpler alternative ways of labelling ciprofloxacin with 99 Tc m -pertechnetate for routine imaging. There were several limitations in the previously described method: (1) Need to prepare pure ciprofloxacin which was unstable on storage. (2) Synthetic procedure using formimidine sulphinic acid (FSA) was complicated and required boiling step. (3) The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the product was low (45-50%) requiring purification. (4) Biodistribution studies showed a marked uptake by the liver which could interfere with scan interpretation in this region. The results of our present studies showed that Infecton could be prepared by a simple two-step method: (1) Reduce 99 Tc m -pertechnetate with stannous salt (SnCl 2 or Sn-tartrate). (2) Mix with Ciproxin IV-100. The RCP of the product was up to 98%, which obviates the need for further purification. Infecton synthesized by the above method showed avid localization in abscesses induced with Staphylococcus aureus in rats. The biodistribution studies showed that Infecton was renally excreted with minimal accumulation in the liver or other organs

  8. An alternative method for centrifugal compressor loading factor modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y.; Drozdov, A.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2017-08-01

    The loading factor at design point is calculated by one or other empirical formula in classical design methods. Performance modelling as a whole is out of consideration. Test data of compressor stages demonstrates that loading factor versus flow coefficient at the impeller exit has a linear character independent of compressibility. Known Universal Modelling Method exploits this fact. Two points define the function - loading factor at design point and at zero flow rate. The proper formulae include empirical coefficients. A good modelling result is possible if the choice of coefficients is based on experience and close analogs. Earlier Y. Galerkin and K. Soldatova had proposed to define loading factor performance by the angle of its inclination to the ordinate axis and by the loading factor at zero flow rate. Simple and definite equations with four geometry parameters were proposed for loading factor performance calculated for inviscid flow. The authors of this publication have studied the test performance of thirteen stages of different types. The equations are proposed with universal empirical coefficients. The calculation error lies in the range of plus to minus 1,5%. The alternative model of a loading factor performance modelling is included in new versions of the Universal Modelling Method.

  9. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to

  10. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250... Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use alternative training methods. These methods may include computer-based learning, films, or their equivalents. This training...

  11. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  12. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, Ernie F.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  13. Alternative Chemical Amplification Methods for Peroxy Radical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Peroxy radicals (HO2, CH3O2, etc.) are commonly detected by the chemical amplification technique, in which ambient air is mixed with high concentrations of CO and NO, initiating a chain reaction that produces 30 - 200 NO2 molecules per sampled peroxy radical. The NO2 is then measured by one of several techniques. With the exception of CIMS-based techniques, the chemical amplification method has undergone only incremental improvements since it was first introduced in 1982. The disadvantages of the technique include the need to use high concentrations of CO and the greatly reduced sensitivity of the amplification chain length in the presence of water vapor. We present a new chemical amplification scheme in which either ethane or acetaldehyde is used in place of CO, with the NO2 product detected using Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift spectroscopy (CAPS). Under dry conditions, the amplification factor of the alternative amplifiers are approximately six times lower than the CO-based amplifier. The relative humidity "penalty" is not as severe, however, such that at typical ambient relative humidity (RH) values the amplification factor is within a factor of three of the CO-based amplifier. Combined with the NO2 sensitivity of CAPS and a dual-channel design, the detection limit of the ethane amplifier is less than 2 ppt (1 minute average, signal-to-noise ratio 2). The advantages of these alternative chemical amplification schemes are improved safety, a reduced RH correction, and increased sensitivity to organic peroxy radicals relative to HO2.

  14. Alternative method for intramuscular fat analysis using common laboratory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Calvo, L; Óvilo, C; González-Bulnes, A; Olivares, A; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

    2015-05-01

    A procedure to quantify intramuscular fat was developed using common inexpensive laboratory equipment. Three homogenization methods of lyophilized muscle samples (Ball-mill, Grinder and Mortar) and two extraction methods (Ball-mill or Vortex) were used in turkey meat and pork. Two-hundred mg of lyophilized and homogenized samples were accurately weighed and mixed with 1.5 mL of dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and shaken either in a Mixer Mill (MM400, Retsch Technology) or in a Vortex. The final mixture was separated by centrifugation. Solvent was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Besides, it was checked that the fatty acid profile was not altered by the protocol used. Moreover, the analysis of 4 replicas from the same sample showed different variation coefficients (16-29%) for the new procedures proposed over a wide range of IMF content. The combination of Grinder and Vortex methodologies can be proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to previous ones. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. 77 FR 40358 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ..., revised, and alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP...

  16. An Alternative Method of Intermaxillary Fixation for Simple Pediatric Mandible Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Scott J; Nguyen, Dennis C; Harvey, Alan A; Patel, Kamlesh B

    2016-03-01

    Mandibular fractures represent a substantial portion of facial fractures in the pediatric population. Pediatric mandibles differ from their adult counterparts in the presence of mixed dentition. Avoidance of injury to developing tooth follicles is critical. Simple mandibular fractures can be treated with intermaxillary fixation (IMF) using arch bars or bone screws. This report describes an alternative to these methods using silk sutures and an algorithm to assist in treating simple mandibular fractures in the pediatric population. A retrospective chart review was performed and the records of 1 surgeon were examined. Pediatric patients who underwent treatment for a mandibular fracture in the operating room from 2011 to 2015 were identified using Common Procedural Terminology codes. Data collected included age, gender, type of fracture, type of treatment used, duration of fixation, and presence of complications. Five patients with a mean age of 6.8 years at presentation were identified. Fracture types were unilateral fractures of the condylar neck (n = 3), bilateral fractures of the condylar head (n = 1), and a unilateral fracture of the condylar head with an associated parasymphyseal fracture (n = 1). IMF was performed in 4 patients using silk sutures, and bone screw fixation was performed in the other patient. No post-treatment complications or malocclusion were reported. Average duration of IMF was 18.5 days. An algorithm is presented to assist in the treatment of pediatric mandibular fractures. Silk suture fixation is a viable and safe alternative to arch bars or bone screws for routine mandibular fractures. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phototoxicity: Its Mechanism and Animal Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeonji; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The skin exposure to solar irradiation and photoreactive xenobiotics may produce abnormal skin reaction, phototoxicity. Phototoxicity is an acute light-induced response, which occurs when photoreacive chemicals are activated by solar lights and transformed into products cytotoxic against the skin cells. Multifarious symptoms of phototoxicity are identified, skin irritation, erythema, pruritis, and edema that are similar to those of the exaggerated sunburn. Diverse organic chemicals, especially drugs, are known to induce phototoxicity, which is probably from the common possession of UV-absorbing benzene or heterocyclic rings in their molecular structures. Both UVB (290~320 nm) and UVA (320~400 nm) are responsible for the manifestation of phototoxicity. Absorption of photons and absorbed energy (hv) by photoactive chemicals results in molecular changes or generates reactive oxygen species and depending on the way how endogenous molecules are affected by phototoxicants, mechanisms of phototoxcity is categorized into two modes of action: Direct when unstable species from excited state directly react with the endogenous molecules, and indirect when endogeneous molecules react with secondary photoproducts. In order to identify phototoxic potential of a chemical, various test methods have been introduced. Focus is given to animal alternative test methods, i.e., in vitro, and in chemico assays as well as in vivo. 3T3 neutral red uptake assay, erythrocyte photohemolysis test, and phototoxicity test using human 3-dimensional (3D) epidermis model are examples of in vitro assays. In chemico methods evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species or DNA strand break activity employing plasmid for chemicals, or drugs with phototoxic potential. PMID:26191378

  18. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted for...

  19. 77 FR 8865 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Applicable Alternative Test Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the broadly applicable alternative test method approval decisions... INFORMATION CONTACT: An electronic copy of each alternative test method approval document is available on the...

  20. Overview on recent developments: alternative isotope production methods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.

  1. An Alternative Method for Understanding User-Chosen Passwords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiong Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper an alternative method for understanding user-chosen passwords. In password research, much attention has been given to increasing the security and usability of individual passwords for common users. Few of them focus on the relationships between passwords; therefore we explore the relationships between passwords: modification-based, similarity-based, and probability-based. By regarding passwords as vertices, we shed light on how to transform a dataset of passwords into a password graph. Subsequently, we introduce some novel notions from graph theory and report on a number of inner properties of passwords from the perspective of graph. With the assistance of Python Graph-tool, we are able to visualize our password graph to deliver an intuitive grasp of user-chosen passwords. Five real-world password datasets are used in our experiments to fulfill our thorough experiments. We discover that (1 some passwords in a dataset are tightly connected with each other; (2 they have the tendency to gather together as a cluster like they are in a social network; (3 password graph has logarithmic distribution for its degrees. Top clusters in password graph could be exploited to obtain the effective mangling rules for cracking passwords. Also, password graph can be utilized for a new kind of password strength meter.

  2. The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA): promoting alternative methods in Europe and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozigou, Gwenole; Crozier, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Coenraad; Manou, Irene; Ramirez-Hernandez, Tzutzuy; Weissenhorn, Renate

    2015-03-01

    Here in we introduce the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) and its activities, which are focused on international cooperation toward alternative methods. The EPAA is one of the leading organizations in Europe for the promotion of alternative approaches to animal testing. Its innovative public-private partnership structure enables a consensus-driven dialogue across 7 industry sectors to facilitate interaction between regulators and regulated stakeholders. Through a brief description of EPAA's activities and organizational structure, we first articulate the value of this collaboration; we then focus on 2 key projects driven by EPAA. The first project aims to address research gaps on stem cells for safety testing, whereas the second project strives for an approach toward demonstration of consistency in vaccine batch release testing. We highlight the growing need for harmonization of international acceptance and implementation of alternative approaches and for increased international collaboration to foster progress on nonanimal alternatives.

  3. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (0MB), and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  4. Some thoughts on alternative methods and their scientific implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Reflections upon our agricultural problems cannot be limitated to those problems itself, but should incorporate a reflection upon our social and scientific traditions. An alternative agriculture asks for participating nature research

  5. The Budget Scoring Alternatives Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or "scoring," of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  6. Budget Scoring of Alternative Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or scoring, of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  7. Budget Scoring of Alternative Financing Methods for Defense Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leos, Leonard; Rouleau, Paul; Wadsworth, Mark

    2007-01-01

    ...), the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the congressional Budget Committees. The current scoring policy that has been applied to many initiatives essentially negates the financial advantage for using alternative forms of financing...

  8. An Alternative Method for Identifying Interplanetary Magnetic Cloud Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-Gonzalez, A.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V. [Laboratory of Physics and Astronomy, IP and D/Universidade do Vale do Paraíba—UNIVAP, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Mendes, O. [Division of Space Geophysics, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Calzadilla, A. [Department of Space Geophysics, Institute of Geophysics and Astronomy, Havana (Cuba); Domingues, M. O., E-mail: ojeda.gonzalez.a@gmail.com [Associate Laboratory of Applied Computing and Mathematics, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-10

    Spatio-temporal entropy (STE) analysis is used as an alternative mathematical tool to identify possible magnetic cloud (MC) candidates. We analyze Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) data using a time interval of only 10 days. We select a convenient data interval of 2500 records moving forward by 200 record steps until the end of the time series. For every data segment, the STE is calculated at each step. During an MC event, the STE reaches values close to zero. This extremely low value of STE is due to MC structure features. However, not all of the magnetic components in MCs have STE values close to zero at the same time. For this reason, we create a standardization index (the so-called Interplanetary Entropy, IE, index). This index is a worthwhile effort to develop new tools to help diagnose ICME structures. The IE was calculated using a time window of one year (1999), and it has a success rate of 70% over other identifiers of MCs. The unsuccessful cases (30%) are caused by small and weak MCs. The results show that the IE methodology identified 9 of 13 MCs, and emitted nine false alarm cases. In 1999, a total of 788 windows of 2500 values existed, meaning that the percentage of false alarms was 1.14%, which can be considered a good result. In addition, four time windows, each of 10 days, are studied, where the IE method was effective in finding MC candidates. As a novel result, two new MCs are identified in these time windows.

  9. Active methodologies in Financial Management classes: an alternative to the traditional teaching method for awakening intrinsic motivation and developing autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Muniz Pereira Chaves Urias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a pedagogical experience in Financial Management classes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the educational activity based on active methodologies, applied in the Financial Management classes in an undergraduate course in Business Administration, can offer formative spaces that enhance the development of the students’ intrinsic motivation to the point of being relevant to the development of their autonomy and thus to be characterized as a viable manner of putting the Freirean pedagogy into practice. In order to do so, the adopted teaching strategy aimed at creating opportunities for interpretating problems that simulated real situations. A questionnaire was applied and the Bardinian content analysis was used to verify the students' impressions about the activity itself and its respective contribution to their professional and personal training. The analysis points to the fact that active methodologies are viable alternatives to the traditional method of teaching regarding the awakening of interest, motivation and the development of learning. It also points to their consonance with the Freirian pedagogy.

  10. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 178 - Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods B Appendix... FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. B Appendix B to Part 178—Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods In addition to the method prescribed in § 178.604 of this subchapter, the following leakproofness test methods...

  12. Alternative Methods of Collective Disputes Resolution in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamuľáková Klára

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On 11 June 2013, the Commission issued the Recommendation on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Member States concerning the violations of rights granted under Union law. The main areas where private enforcement of rights granted under Union law in the form of collective redress is of value are consumer protection, competition, environment protection, protection of personal data, financial services legislation and protection of investments. Point 13 of the Recommendation concurrently emphasises that the principles it puts forward relate both to judicial and out-of-court collective redress. The Member States should ensure that judicial collective redress mechanisms are accompanied by appropriate means of collective alternative dispute resolution available to the parties before and throughout the litigation. Point 25 et seq. of the Recommendation then contains special regulations concerning collective alternative dispute resolution and settlements. The purpose of this article is to evaluate if the current legislation on alternative dispute resolution in the Czech Republic meets the principles encompassed in the Recommendation or if radical legal changes need to be adopted.

  13. 48 CFR 6302.30 - Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule 30).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.30 Alternative dispute resolution methods (Rule... Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): Settlement Judges and Mini-Trials. These procedures are designed to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative dispute...

  14. Research methods in complementary and alternative medicine: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Andrade, Fabiana; Schlechta Portella, Caio Fabio

    2018-01-01

    The scientific literature presents a modest amount of evidence in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). On the other hand, in practice, relevant results are common. The debates among CAM practitioners about the quality and execution of scientific research are important. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather, synthesize and describe the differentiated methodological models that encompass the complexity of therapeutic interventions. The process of bringing evidence-based medicine into clinical practice in CAM is essential for the growth and strengthening of complementary medicines worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New methods alternative to methyl bromide in stored product protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, L.; Trematerra, P.

    2003-01-01

    Several tools are available for managing insect pests associated with stored products and processed foods. A effective use of pesticides and alternatives requires a thorough understanding of pest ecology, the application of pesticides only when pest populations exceed acceptable levels and an evaluation of risks, costs and benefits. At this regard, the Integrated Pest Management concept emphasizes the integration of disciplines and control measures including biological enemies, cultural management, sanitation, modified atmospheres, heat and cold, irradiation and pesticides into a total management system [it

  16. Practical methods for generating alternating magnetic fields for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Michael G.; Howe, Christina M.; Bono, David C.; Perreault, David J.; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-08-01

    Alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) cause magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to dissipate heat while leaving surrounding tissue unharmed, a mechanism that serves as the basis for a variety of emerging biomedical technologies. Unfortunately, the challenges and costs of developing experimental setups commonly used to produce AMFs with suitable field amplitudes and frequencies present a barrier to researchers. This paper first presents a simple, cost-effective, and robust alternative for small AMF working volumes that uses soft ferromagnetic cores to focus the flux into a gap. As the experimental length scale increases to accommodate animal models (working volumes of 100s of cm3 or greater), poor thermal conductivity and volumetrically scaled core losses render that strategy ineffective. Comparatively feasible strategies for these larger volumes instead use low loss resonant tank circuits to generate circulating currents of 1 kA or greater in order to produce the comparable field amplitudes. These principles can be extended to the problem of identifying practical routes for scaling AMF setups to humans, an infrequently acknowledged challenge that influences the extent to which many applications of MNPs may ever become clinically relevant.

  17. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasson, V.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Rajkovic, A.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant

  18. Student Perceptions of Instructional Methods towards Alternative Energy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Clayton W.; Edgar, Don W.; Johnson, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of different methods of instruction has been discussed since the early years of formal education systems. Lecture has been deemed the most common method of presenting information to students (Kindsvatter, Wilen, & Ishler, 1992; Waldron & Moore, 1991) and the demonstration method has been symbolized as the most effective…

  19. An Alternative Method to the Classical Partial Fraction Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Chokri

    2007-01-01

    PreCalculus students can use the Completing the Square Method to solve quadratic equations without the need to memorize the quadratic formula since this method naturally leads them to that formula. Calculus students, when studying integration, use various standard methods to compute integrals depending on the type of function to be integrated.…

  20. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  1. An alternating minimization method for blind deconvolution from Poisson data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prato, Marco; La Camera, Andrea; Bonettini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a particularly challenging inverse problem since information on both the desired target and the acquisition system have to be inferred from the measured data. When the collected data are affected by Poisson noise, this problem is typically addressed by the minimization of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, in which the unknowns are sought in particular feasible sets depending on the a priori information provided by the specific application. If these sets are separated, then the resulting constrained minimization problem can be addressed with an inexact alternating strategy. In this paper we apply this optimization tool to the problem of reconstructing astronomical images from adaptive optics systems, and we show that the proposed approach succeeds in providing very good results in the blind deconvolution of nondense stellar clusters

  2. Alternative methods for the seismic analysis of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a review of 12 methods and criteria for the seismic analysis of piping systems. Each of the twelve chapters in this document cover the important technical aspects of a given method. The technical aspects presented are those the Subcommittee on Dynamic Stress Criteria believe important to the application of the method, and should not be considered as a positive or negative endorsement for any of the methods. There are many variables in an analysis of a piping system that can influence the selection of the analysis method and criteria to be applied. These variable include system configuration, technical issues, precedent, licensing considerations, and regulatory acceptance. They must all be considered in selecting the appropriate seismic analysis method and criteria. This is relevant for nuclear power plants

  3. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  4. Assessing Commercial and Alternative Poultry Processing Methods using Microbiome Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing poultry processing methods/strategies has historically used culture-based methods to assess bacterial changes or reductions, both in terms of general microbial communities (e.g. total aerobic bacteria) or zoonotic pathogens of interest (e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter). The advent of next ...

  5. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  6. Nonequilibrium relaxation method – An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One well-established simulation strategy to study the thermal phases and transitions of a given microscopic model system is the so-called equilibrium method, in which one first realizes the equilibrium ensemble of a finite system and then extrapolates the results to infinite system. This equilibrium method traces over the ...

  7. Nonequilibrium relaxation method – An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This equilibrium method traces over the standard theory of the thermal ... The purpose of this article is to give a concise review of the idea of the NER method .... using the NER functions from mixed initial configuration, that is, half of the system.

  8. An alternative method for calibration of narrow band radiometer using a radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, J; Wolfram, E; D' Elia, R [Centro de Investigaciones en Laseres y Aplicaciones, CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET), Juan B. de La Salle 4397 (B1603ALO), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zamorano, F; Casiccia, C [Laboratorio de Ozono y Radiacion UV, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas (Chile) (Chile); Rosales, A [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, UNPSJB, Facultad de Ingenieria, Trelew (Argentina) (Argentina); Quel, E, E-mail: jsalvador@citefa.gov.ar [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, Unidad Academica Rio Gallegos Avda. Lisandro de la Torre 1070 ciudad de Rio Gallegos-Sta Cruz (Argentina) (Argentina)

    2011-01-01

    city of Punta Arenas, Chile using the sun as a source. These results show us that the proposed method is a viable alternative for developing countries that use instrumentation of this type and find it difficult to apply calibration programs on a regular basis.

  9. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This proposed rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... A. Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A...

  10. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative... Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices... participates to promote uniformity among the states in laws, regulations, methods, and testing equipment that...

  11. Alternative implementations of the Monte Carlo power method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    We compare nominal efficiencies, i.e. variances in power shapes for equal running time, of different versions of the Monte Carlo eigenvalue computation, as applied to criticality safety analysis calculations. The two main methods considered here are ''conventional'' Monte Carlo and the superhistory method, and both are used in criticality safety codes. Within each of these major methods, different variants are available for the main steps of the basic Monte Carlo algorithm. Thus, for example, different treatments of the fission process may vary in the extent to which they follow, in analog fashion, the details of real-world fission, or may vary in details of the methods by which they choose next-generation source sites. In general the same options are available in both the superhistory method and conventional Monte Carlo, but there seems not to have been much examination of the special properties of the two major methods and their minor variants. We find, first, that the superhistory method is just as efficient as conventional Monte Carlo and, secondly, that use of different variants of the basic algorithms may, in special cases, have a surprisingly large effect on Monte Carlo computational efficiency

  12. Alternative Implementations of the Monte Carlo Power Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, R.N.; Gelbard, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    We compare nominal efficiencies, i.e., variances in power shapes for equal running time, of different versions of the Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue computation. The two main methods considered here are 'conventional' MC and the superhistory method. Within each of these major methods, different variants are available for the main steps of the basic MC algorithm. Thus, for example, different treatments of the fission process may vary in the extent to which they follow, in analog fashion, the details of real-world fission, or they may vary in details of the methods by which they choose next-generation source sites. In general the same options are available in both the superhistory method and conventional MC, but there seems not to have been much examination of the special properties of the two major methods and their minor variants. We find, first, that the superhistory method is just as efficient as conventional MC and, second, that use of different variants of the basic algorithms may, in special cases, have a surprisingly large effect on MC computational efficiency

  13. The art of alternative risk transfer methods of insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The very basis of insurance is risk assumption. Hence it is the business of insurance to give risk protection. The notion that all ‘risk is risk’ and hence should be treated as such, has become the driving force on the risk landscape. Insurance companies have no room to be selective, as there are competitive threats posed by other financial players who are waiting on the wings to invade the market segment. There has been an emergence of new risks, such as cyber, terrorism as well as liability risks. The insurance cycles have made traditional insurance cover expensive. In this article we sought to interrogate whether Alternative Risk Transfer techniques represent a cost effective way of balancing insurability and the bottom line by analysing global trends. On the basis of the research findings it can be concluded that indeed the ART solutions are a must buy for both corporates and insurance companies, as they result in the organisation using them achieving financial efficiency. The present study also demonstrates that there is a paradigm shift in insurance from that of indemnity to that of value enhancement. Lastly the study reveals that ART solutions are here to stay and are not a fad. Insurance companies cannot afford the luxury of missing any further opportunities, such as happened with Y2K, which proved to be a free lunch.

  14. Kinesiotaping as an alternative treatment method for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geler Külcü, Duygu; Bursali, Canan; Aktaş, İlknur; Bozkurt Alp, Selin; Ünlü Özkan, Feyza; Akpinar, Pınar

    2016-06-23

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy. Conservative treatment choices are not always satisfactory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kinesiotaping (KT) on pain level, grip strength, and functional status compared with that of placebo KT and orthotic device (OD) in patients with CTS. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, participants were allocated into one of three groups: an experimental KT group (Group 1), a placebo KT group (Group 2), and an OD group (Group 3). Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) scores, dynamometric grip strength measures, and the Boston CTS questionnaire (BQ) were the outcome measures. All groups significantly improved in terms of VAS scores (P < 0.05), DN4 scores (P < 0.05), and BQ scores (P < 0.05). Grip strength improved in Group 3 (P = 0.001). There was a significant difference among the groups with respect to BQ scores (P < 0.05). KT application for the treatment of CTS should be an alternative treatment choice.

  15. An alternative safer and cost effective surface sterilization method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... 110 countries and 50% of the production occurs in Brazil and India (FAO, 2008). ... capital formation, agriculture and other industries develop- ment, urbanization and ... Moreover, the method requires large nursery space: one.

  16. Alternative dissolution methods for analysis of niobium containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd. (Necsa), P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. ... Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was applied for ..... Validation of the methods for niobium determination was.

  17. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Andresen , G B; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  18. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C., E-mail: chanpreet.amole@cern.ch [York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Andresen, G. B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Butler, E. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, S. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, R. S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  19. Alternative stitching method for massively parallel e-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Pieter; Tranquillin, Céline; Wieland, Marco; Bayle, Sébastien; Milléquant, Matthieu; Renault, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a stitching method other than soft edge (SE) and smart boundary (SB) is introduced and benchmarked against SE. The method is based on locally enhanced exposure latitude without throughput cost, making use of the fact that the two beams that pass through the stitching region can deposit up to 2× the nominal dose. The method requires a complex proximity effect correction that takes a preset stitching dose profile into account. Although the principle of the presented stitching method can be multibeam (lithography) systems in general, in this study, the MAPPER FLX 1200 tool is specifically considered. For the latter tool at a metal clip at minimum half-pitch of 32 nm, the stitching method effectively mitigates beam-to-beam (B2B) position errors such that they do not induce an increase in critical dimension uniformity (CDU). In other words, the same CDU can be realized inside the stitching region as outside the stitching region. For the SE method, the CDU inside is 0.3 nm higher than outside the stitching region. A 5-nm direct overlay impact from the B2B position errors cannot be reduced by a stitching strategy.

  20. An alternative method for the measurement of the mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, GR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for the measurement of the total mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast due to an explosive charge is presented. The method differs from apparatus that employ a vertically displaced mass (similar in principle...

  1. An Alternative to EPA Method 9 -- Field Validation of the Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasmussen, Steve L; Stone, Daniel A

    2005-01-01

    The Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS) software translates images from a commercial digital camera into visual plume opacity measurements, and is proposed as an alternate reporting method to EPA Method 9...

  2. 76 FR 23323 - Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of toxicological and safety testing methods that... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods (SACATM) AGENCY: National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of...

  3. An alternative method for assessing early mortality in contemporary populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A S; Pike, I L

    1998-11-01

    Biological anthropologists are interested in a population's early mortality rates for a variety of reasons. Early mortality (infant or juvenile) is of obvious importance to those interested in demography, but early mortality statistics are useful for life history analysis, paleodemography, and human adaptability studies, among others. In general, the form of mortality statistics is derived from demography, where chronological age is the gold standard for statistical calculation and comparison. However, there are numerous problems associated with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of early mortality statistics based on age, particularly for anthropological research, which is often conducted in small or non-calendrical-age numerate populations. The infant mortality rate (IMR), for example, is notoriously difficult to determine in populations where accurate accounting of age is not routine, and yet it is widely used in demography, public health, medicine, and social science research. Here we offer an alternative to age-based early mortality statistics that makes use of human biologists' interest in, and skill at, assessing human growth and development. Our proposal is to use developmental stages of juveniles instead of relying exclusively on age as the basis for mortality statistics. Death or survival according to a developmental stage (such as crawling or weaning) may provide more accurate data that are also more closely related to the cause of death. Developmental stages have the added advantage of putting infants and children back at the center of the discussion of early mortality by focusing on their activities in relation to their environment. A case study from the Turkana population of Kenya illustrates the use of developmental stages in describing early mortality.

  4. An alternative scheme of the Bogolyubov's average method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Peralta, T.; Ondarza R, R.; Camps C, E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the average energy and the magnetic moment conservation laws in the Drift Theory of charged particle motion are obtained in a simple way. The approach starts from the energy and magnetic moment conservation laws and afterwards the average is performed. This scheme is more economic from the standpoint of time and algebraic calculations than the usual procedure of Bogolyubov's method. (Author)

  5. A Simple Alternative Method for the Synthesis of Aromatic Dialdehydes

    OpenAIRE

    KOZ, Gamze; ASTLEY, Demet; ASTLEY, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic dialdehydes were synthesized from 5-t-butylsalicylaldehyde and o-vanilline in good yields using paraformaldehyde, hydrobromic acid and catalytic amounts of sulfuric acid in one step which was previously unavailable with present methods. Key Words: aromatic dialdehydes, bromomethylation, 5-t-butylsalicylaldehyde, o-vanilline. 

  6. A Simple Alternative Method for the Synthesis of Aromatic Dialdehydes

    OpenAIRE

    KOZ, Gamze; ASTLEY, Demet; ASTLEY, Stephen Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic dialdehydes were synthesized from 5-t-butylsalicylaldehyde and o-vanilline in good yields using paraformaldehyde, hydrobromic acid and catalytic amounts of sulfuric acid in one step which was previously unavailable with present methods. Key Words: aromatic dialdehydes, bromomethylation, 5-t-butylsalicylaldehyde, o-vanilline. 

  7. An alternative method for the measurement of neutron flux

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple and easy method for measuring the neutron flux is presented. This paper deals with the experimental verification of neutron dose rate–flux relationship for a non-dissipative medium. Though the neutron flux cannot be obtained from the dose rate in a dissipative medium, experimental result shows that for ...

  8. Calculation of mixed mode stress intensity factors using an alternating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takayuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, mixed mode stress intensity factors (K I and K II ) of a square plate with a notch were calculated using a finite element alternating method. The obtained results were compared with the ones by a finite element method, and it was shown that the finite element alternating method can accurately estimate mixed mode stress intensity factors. Then, using this finite element alternating method, mixed mode stress intensity factors were calculated as changing the size and position of the notch, and its simplified equations were proposed. (author)

  9. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.

  10. Delayed hydride cracking: alternative pre-cracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieza, Juan I.; Ponzoni, Lucio M.E.; Vigna, Gustavo L.; Domizzi, Gladys

    2009-01-01

    The internal components of nuclear reactors built-in Zr alloys are prone to a failure mechanism known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC). This situation has triggered numerous scientific studies in order to measure the crack propagation velocity and the threshold stress intensity factor associated to DHC. Tests are carried out on fatigued pre-crack samples to ensure similar test conditions and comparable results. Due to difficulties in implementing the fatigue pre-crack method it would be desirable to replace it with a pre-crack produced by the same process of DHC, for which is necessary to demonstrate equivalence of this two methods. In this work tests on samples extracted from two Zr-2.5 Nb tubes were conducted. Some of the samples were heat treated to obtain a range in their metallurgical properties as well as different DHC velocities. A comparison between velocities measured in test samples pre-cracked by fatigue and RDIH is done, demonstrating that the pre-cracking method does not affect the measured velocity value. In addition, the incubation (t inc ), which is the time between the application of the load and the first signal of crack propagation, in samples pre-cracked by RDIH, was measured. It was found that these times are sufficiently short, even in the worst cases (lower speed) and similar to the ones of fatigued pre-cracked samples. (author)

  11. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, D F; Carvalho, A F U; Oliveira, C C; Sousa, N M; Rocha-Bezerrra, L C B; Ferreira, P M P; Lima, G P G; Hissa, D C

    2010-05-01

    A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 A degrees C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing alpha-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale alpha-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1) in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities.

  12. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Farias

    Full Text Available A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 °C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing α-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale α-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1 in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities.

  13. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  14. An alternative method for smartphone input using AR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Kang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As smartphones came into wide use recently, it has become increasingly popular not only among young people, but among middle-aged people as well. Most smartphones adopt capacitive full touch screen, so touch commands are made by fingers unlike the PDAs in the past that use touch pens. In this case, a significant portion of the smartphone’s screen is blocked by the finger so it is impossible to see the screens around the finger touching the screen; this causes difficulties in making precise inputs. To solve this problem, this research proposes a method of using simple AR markers to improve the interface of smartphones. A marker is placed in front of the smartphone camera. Then, the camera image of the marker is analyzed to determine the position of the marker as the position of the mouse cursor. This method can enable click, double-click, drag-and-drop used in PCs as well as touch, slide, long-touch-input in smartphones. Through this research, smartphone inputs can be made more precise and simple, and show the possibility of the application of a new concept of smartphone interface.

  15. Incorporation of alternating plasticity in the shakedown method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckthorpe, D.E.; White, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Shakedown is the process whereby behaviour becomes wholly or predominantly elastic and in particular no further change in the dimensions of a structure occurs after a few cycles of loading. If the loading is increased progressively, a level is reached where shakedown does not occur and the dimensions of the structure continue to change. This is the condition known as ratcheting. Structural materials and weldments are of limited ductility and therefore ratcheting is not acceptable in plant where large numbers of load applications occur. All successful plant must therefore operate within the shakedown limit. The principles of shakedown have been accepted for many years but their use in design has been hindered by difficulty of performing analysis. The method uses the elastic analysis of a load cycle and requires the estimation of a constant (in time) residual stress field which is used to obtain a reference stress for creep damage estimates and local estimates of fatigue damage. The post-processor ADAPT is the basic special computational tool within the shakedown method for performing this estimation. The emphasis of this paper concerns an improvement to the ADAPT algorithms to give better estimates in cases of overall shakedown where a substantial elastic core is maintained but small regions upto 20% of a section may be beyond yield. The present methodology is based on lower bound shakedown theory and in the case of overall shakedown evaluates an approximate self equilibrating residual stress field which minimises the region of plasticity. The new treatment estimates a representative time independent field through a criterion based on approximate symmetrisation of the local stress cycle. A modification of the ADAPT algorithm within the shakedown design method has been described which is intended to provide a residual stress that gives a more nearly symmetrical stress-trajectory in cases of overall shakedown. The modified algorithm may imply a small penalty in

  16. An alternative method for processing northern blots after capillary transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2015-03-02

    Different laboratories use different methods for the prehybridization, hybridization, and washing steps of the northern blotting procedure. In this protocol, a northern blot is pretreated with Church and Gilbert hybridization buffer to block nonspecific probe-binding sites. The immobilized RNA is then hybridized to a DNA probe specific for the RNA of interest. Finally, the membrane is washed and subjected to autoradiography or phosphorimaging. The solutions and conditions described here may be ideal for those who prefer to use fewer ingredients in their solutions. This protocol is designed to achieve the same goals as other northern blotting approaches. It minimizes background (nonspecific adherence of probe to membrane and nonspecific hybridization) and maximizes specific hybridization to RNAs immobilized on a membrane. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production costing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.; Pang, C.K.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models

  18. Slot technique - an alternative method of scatter reduction in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, W.; Widenmann, L.

    1983-01-01

    The most common method of scatter reduction in radiography is the use of an antiscatter grid. Its disadvantage is the absorption of a certain percentage of primary radiation in the lead strips of the grid and the fact that due to the limited thickness of the lead strips their scatter absorption is also limited. A possibility for avoiding this disadvantage is offered by the so-called slot technique, ie, the successive exposure of the subject with a narrow fan beam provided by slots in rather thick lead plates. The results of a comparison between grid and slot technique regarding dose to the patient, scatter reduction, image quality and the effect of automatic exposure control are reported. (author)

  19. Alternative method for determining anaerobic threshold in rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani dos Santos Cunha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In rowing, the standard breathing that athletes are trained to use makes it difficult, or even impossible, to detectventilatory limits, due to the coupling of the breath with the technical movement. For this reason, some authors have proposeddetermining the anaerobic threshold from the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, but there is not yet consensus on what valueof RER should be used. The objective of this study was to test what value of RER corresponds to the anaerobic thresholdand whether this value can be used as an independent parameter for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers. Thesample comprised 23 male rowers. They were submitted to a maximal cardiorespiratory test on a rowing ergometer withconcurrent ergospirometry in order to determine VO2máx and the physiological variables corresponding to their anaerobicthreshold. The anaerobic threshold was determined using the Dmax (maximal distance method. The physiological variableswere classified into maximum values and anaerobic threshold values. The maximal state of these rowers reached VO2(58.2±4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (8.2±2.1 mmol.L-1, power (384±54.3 W and RER (1.26±0.1. At the anaerobic thresholdthey reached VO2 (46.9±7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (4.6±1.3 mmol.L-1, power (300± 37.8 W and RER (0.99±0.1. Conclusions- the RER can be used as an independent method for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers, adopting a value of0.99, however, RER should exhibit a non-linear increase above this figure.

  20. Alternative method for determining anaerobic threshold in rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Dos Santos Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n4p367 In rowing, the standard breathing that athletes are trained to use makes it difficult, or even impossible, to detect ventilatory limits, due to the coupling of the breath with the technical movement. For this reason, some authors have proposed determining the anaerobic threshold from the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, but there is not yet consensus on what value of RER should be used. The objective of this study was to test what value of RER corresponds to the anaerobic threshold and whether this value can be used as an independent parameter for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers. The sample comprised 23 male rowers. They were submitted to a maximal cardiorespiratory test on a rowing ergometer with concurrent ergospirometry in order to determine VO2máx and the physiological variables corresponding to their anaerobic threshold. The anaerobic threshold was determined using the Dmax (maximal distance method. The physiological variables were classified into maximum values and anaerobic threshold values. The maximal state of these rowers reached VO2 (58.2±4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (8.2±2.1 mmol.L-1, power (384±54.3 W and RER (1.26±0.1. At the anaerobic threshold they reached VO2 (46.9±7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (4.6±1.3 mmol.L-1, power (300± 37.8 W and RER (0.99±0.1. Conclusions - the RER can be used as an independent method for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers, adopting a value of 0.99, however, RER should exhibit a non-linear increase above this figure.

  1. Senior health clinics: are they financially viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Robin E; Crandall, Debra; Wright, Larry D; Beverly, Claudia J

    2009-07-01

    Are hospital-based outpatient interdisciplinary clinics a financially viable alternative for caring for our burgeoning population of older adults in America? Although highly popular, with high patient satisfaction rates among older adults and their families, senior health clinics (SHCs) can be expensive to operate, with limited quantifiable health outcomes. This study analyzed three geriatric hospital-based interdisciplinary clinics in rural Arkansas by examining their patient profiles, revenues, and expenses. It closely examined the effects of the downstream revenue using the multiplier effect and acknowledged other factors that weigh heavily on the success of SHCs and the care of older adults. The findings highlight the similarities and differences in the three clinics' operating and financial structures in addition to the clinics' and providers' productivity. The analysis presents an evidence-based illustration that SHCs can break even or lose large amounts of money.

  2. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  3. An Alternative Method for Computing Unit Costs and Productivity Ratios. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstead, Wayland H.; And Others

    An alternative measure for evaluating the performance of academic departments was studied. A comparison was made with the traditional manner for computing unit costs and productivity ratios: prorating the salary and effort of each faculty member to each course level based on the personal mix of course taught. The alternative method used averaging…

  4. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niittynen, J.; Abbel, R.; Mäntysalo, M.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.; Lupo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative

  5. Alternative method for determination of contaminated heparin using chiral recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, J; Collins, M; Currie, C A

    2014-05-15

    Since 2008 a significant amount of work has focused on the development of methods to analyze contaminated heparin. This work focuses on utilizing heparin's ability to serve as a chiral selector as a means for determining contamination. Specifically, the effect of contamination on the separation of pheniramine and chloroquine enantiomers was explored. Separations were conducted using heparin contaminated with chondroitin sulfate at varying levels. For each pair of enantiomers, electrophoretic mobility and resolution were calculated. For pheniramine enantiomers, an increase in contamination leads to a decrease in the electrophoretic mobility and resolution. A linear relationship between contamination level and electrophoretic mobility of the pheniramine enantiomers was observed for the entire contamination range. A linear relationship was also found between contamination level and resolution of the enantiomers between 0 and 70 percent contamination. For the separation of chloroquine enantiomers, it was found that at low levels of contamination, the resolution of enantiomers was increased due to the secondary interaction between the chloroquine enantiomers and the chondroitin sulfate. Results of this study illustrate the potential of using chiral recognition as a means to determine heparin contamination as well as the improvement of the chiral resolution of chloroquine with the additional of low levels of chondroitin sulfate A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen Lin; Yang, Shu Hui; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan Chun; Ma, Jian Hua; Xu, Jian Feng; Zhang, Xian Guang

    2011-01-01

    Flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. Currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. Surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. Non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stiffness. We observed microstructure of primary feathers of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and found that the width of barbs is a determinative factor influencing vane stiffness and geometric parameters. We hypothesized that partial longitudinal excision of barbs on the ventral surface of the primary feathers would reduce the stiffness of the vane and render the feathers unable to support the crane's body weight during flight. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this modification of barbs would also change the aerodynamic performance of feathers such that they could not generate sufficient lift and thrust during flapping to enable the bird to fly. We tested this hypothesis on a red-crowned crane that had normal flight capability by excising the ventral margin of barbs on all 10 primaries on the left wing. The bird was unable to take off until the modified feathers were replaced by new ones. Removal of barbs proved to be a simple, non-invasive, low-cost and reversible method for flight restraint. It is potentially applicable to other large birds with similar structural characteristics of primary feathers. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A comparison of alternative methods for measuring cigarette prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Tauras, John A; Strasser, Julia H; Willis, Gordon; Gibson, James T; Hartman, Anne M

    2015-05-01

    Government agencies, public health organisations and tobacco control researchers rely on accurate estimates of cigarette prices for a variety of purposes. Since the 1950s, the Tax Burden on Tobacco (TBOT) has served as the most widely used source of this price data despite its limitations. This paper compares the prices and collection methods of the TBOT retail-based data and the 2003 and 2006/2007 waves of the population-based Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). From the TUS-CPS, we constructed multiple state-level measures of cigarette prices, including weighted average prices per pack (based on average prices for single-pack purchases and average prices for carton purchases) and compared these with the weighted average price data reported in the TBOT. We also constructed several measures of tax avoidance from the TUS-CPS self-reported data. For the 2003 wave, the average TUS-CPS price was 71 cents per pack less than the average TBOT price; for the 2006/2007 wave, the difference was 47 cents. TUS-CPS and TBOT prices were also significantly different at the state level. However, these differences varied widely by state due to tax avoidance opportunities, such as cross-border purchasing. The TUS-CPS can be used to construct valid measures of cigarette prices. Unlike the TBOT, the TUS-CPS captures the effect of price-reducing marketing strategies, as well as tax avoidance practices and non-traditional types of purchasing. Thus, self-reported data like TUS-CPS appear to have advantages over TBOT in estimating the 'real' price that smokers face. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Single, community-based blood glucose readings may be a viable alternative for community surveillance of HbA1c and poor glycaemic control in people with known diabetes in resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin is commonly used in relation to diabetes mellitus. The measure gives an indication of the average blood sugar levels over a period of weeks or months prior to testing. For most low- and middle-income countries HbA1c measurement in community surveillance is prohibitively expensive. A question arises about the possibility of using a single blood glucose measure for estimating HbA1c and therefore identifying poor glycaemic control in resource-poor settings. Design: Using data from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we examined the relationship between HbA1c and a single fasting measure of blood glucose in a non-clinical population of people with known diabetes (n=333. A linear equation for estimating HbA1c from blood glucose was developed. Appropriate blood glucose cut-off values were set for poor glycaemic control (HbA1c≥69.4 mmol/mol. Results: The HbA1c and blood glucose measures were well correlated (r=0.7. Three blood glucose cut-off values were considered for classifying poor glycaemic control: 8.0, 8.9, and 11.4 mmol/L. A blood glucose of 11.4 had a specificity of 1, but poor sensitivity (0.37; 8.9 had high specificity (0.94 and moderate sensitivity (0.7; 8.0 was associated with good specificity (0.81 and sensitivity (0.75. Conclusions: Where HbA1c measurement is too expensive for community surveillance, a single blood glucose measure may be a reasonable alternative. Generalising the specific results from these US data to low resource settings may not be appropriate, but the general approach is worthy of further investigation.

  9. Final Rule: NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: Alternative Monitoring Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is extending its approval for the use of an alternative method to show compliance with hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions limits in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry

  10. Notification: Notification Memo for Evaluation of Management Controls for Alternative Asbestos Control Method Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY12-0011, February 27, 2012. This memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is initiating an evaluation on the Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) experiments.

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  12. Methods of reconstruction for bone defect after tumor excision: a review of alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Jun; Shimamura, Tadashi

    2008-08-01

    Bone defect is a common problem encountered in the treatment of musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Allograft is a commonly used technique to reconstruct a large osseous defect following tumor excision in the United States and some European countries, and relatively good results have been reported because of its biologic nature. However, with the use of an allograft, there are concerns of transmission of infectious diseases, immunological reactions, and social or religious refusal in some regions in the world. Under these circumstances, vascularized autogenous fibular or iliac bone grafts are commonly used techniques and bone lengthening techniques using external fixation have been reported recently. These procedures utilize viable bone. In addition to these procedures, some biological reconstructive techniques utilizing nonviable bone have been performed as surgical alternatives for allografts using treated recycling bone including irradiated or pasteurized resected bone graft and reconstruction using an autograft containing tumor treated by liquid nitrogen. Although each technique has its proper advantages and disadvantages, the clinical results are similar to the allograft, and numerous techniques are now available as reasonable alternatives for allografts.

  13. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria

  14. The implicit restarted Arnoldi method, an efficient alternative to solve the neutron diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G.; Miro, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Ginestar, D. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Vidal, V. [Departamento de Sistemas Informaticos y Computacion, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    To calculate the neutronic steady state of a nuclear power reactor core and its subcritical modes, it is necessary to solve a partial eigenvalue problem. In this paper, an implicit restarted Arnoldi method is presented as an advantageous alternative to classical methods as the Power Iteration method and the Subspace Iteration method. The efficiency of these methods, has been compared calculating the dominant Lambda modes of several configurations of the Three Mile Island reactor core.

  15. Aiding alternatives assessment with an uncertainty-tolerant hazard scoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faludi, Jeremy; Hoang, Tina; Gorman, Patrick; Mulvihill, Martin

    2016-11-01

    This research developed a single-score system to simplify and clarify decision-making in chemical alternatives assessment, accounting for uncertainty. Today, assessing alternatives to hazardous constituent chemicals is a difficult task-rather than comparing alternatives by a single definitive score, many independent toxicological variables must be considered at once, and data gaps are rampant. Thus, most hazard assessments are only comprehensible to toxicologists, but business leaders and politicians need simple scores to make decisions. In addition, they must balance hazard against other considerations, such as product functionality, and they must be aware of the high degrees of uncertainty in chemical hazard data. This research proposes a transparent, reproducible method to translate eighteen hazard endpoints into a simple numeric score with quantified uncertainty, alongside a similar product functionality score, to aid decisions between alternative products. The scoring method uses Clean Production Action's GreenScreen as a guide, but with a different method of score aggregation. It provides finer differentiation between scores than GreenScreen's four-point scale, and it displays uncertainty quantitatively in the final score. Displaying uncertainty also illustrates which alternatives are early in product development versus well-defined commercial products. This paper tested the proposed assessment method through a case study in the building industry, assessing alternatives to spray polyurethane foam insulation containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The new hazard scoring method successfully identified trade-offs between different alternatives, showing finer resolution than GreenScreen Benchmarking. Sensitivity analysis showed that different weighting schemes in hazard scores had almost no effect on alternatives ranking, compared to uncertainty from data gaps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  17. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a d...

  18. Alternative prediction methods of protein and energy evaluation of pig feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Święch, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the actual nutritional value of individual feedstuffs and complete diets for pigs is important for efficient livestock production. Methods of assessment of protein and energy values in pig feeds have been briefly described. In vivo determination of protein and energy values of feeds in pigs are time-consuming, expensive and very often require the use of surgically-modified animals. There is a need for more simple, rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methods for routine feed evaluation. Protein and energy values of pig feeds can be estimated using the following alternative methods: 1) prediction equations based on chemical composition; 2) animal models as rats, cockerels and growing pigs for adult animals; 3) rapid methods, such as the mobile nylon bag technique and in vitro methods. Alternative methods developed for predicting the total tract and ileal digestibility of nutrients including amino acids in feedstuffs and diets for pigs have been reviewed. This article focuses on two in vitro methods that can be used for the routine evaluation of amino acid ileal digestibility and energy value of pig feeds and on factors affecting digestibility determined in vivo in pigs and by alternative methods. Validation of alternative methods has been carried out by comparing the results obtained using these methods with those acquired in vivo in pigs. In conclusion, energy and protein values of pig feeds may be estimated with satisfactory precision in rats and by the two- or three-step in vitro methods providing equations for the calculation of standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids and metabolizable energy content. The use of alternative methods of feed evaluation is an important way for reduction of stressful animal experiments.

  19. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Photocatalysis: A viable alternative for the elimination of organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Pavas, Edison

    2002-01-01

    The basic idea of this project is to present photo catalysis as a simple, economic, effective and innovative technology, for the treatment of phenolic waters found in the effluents from several industrial processes, by determining the optimum conditions of operation and by identifying the parameters that govern the process. The attractiveness of this technology is based on its profitability, easy of implementation and use. The required capital investment is minimal in comparison with other technologies. The UV radiation from the sun or artificial sources (lamps) is used to activate the catalyst (TiO) to destroy the organic pollutants present in liquids effluent. The process was carried out continuously with using ph, catalyst (TiO 2 ) concentration and recirculation time as variables

  1. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  2. The Short Saphenous Vein: A Viable Alternative Conduit for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This novel position allowed for two members of the surgical team to operate at the same time, thus ... along the ultrasound-marked vein positions similar to when harvesting the LSV. Once the veins were harvested and ... occlusion compared to LSV grafts utilized in the same procedure,[8] it was brought back to prominence ...

  3. Providing Homes For The Homeless - The Viable Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Guinea pig Cavia porcellus farming for meat production remains a marginalised activity in Cameroon in spite of the advantages this specie offers. With the view to promote its production, a national countrywide survey was carried out in order to evaluate the production systems and constraints. Traditional guinea pig farming appears to be a secondary household activity undertaken by small farmers basically women. The extensive production system which reveals no management practices, integrates very well in the agricultural systems (small livestock, food crops and natural forages production of the western highlands and southern forest zones of Cameroon. Guinea pig productivity remains low due to many constraints such as predation, uncontrolled breeding, inbreeding, poor feeding, negative selection and lack of veterinary care. Nevertheless, guinea pig farming plays an important role in the well being of low income village dwellers as food security, cash savings and socio-cultural values within the populations of South Cameroon. The promotion of its production requires an awareness of animal scientists, development authorities, as well as on station research if improved raising conditions.

  4. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline AGENCY: Environmental... gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the regulated community by allowing an additional... Method for Olefins in Gasoline III. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews A. Executive Order 12866...

  5. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: No electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Hiromu; Mueller, Rebecca J.; Lambert, Susan B.; Rao, Govind R.

    2016-01-01

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. Lastly, it provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily.

  6. An Alternative Method to Gauss-Jordan Elimination: Minimizing Fraction Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Luke; Powell, Joan

    2011-01-01

    When solving systems of equations by using matrices, many teachers present a Gauss-Jordan elimination approach to row reducing matrices that can involve painfully tedious operations with fractions (which I will call the traditional method). In this essay, I present an alternative method to row reduce matrices that does not introduce additional…

  7. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: no electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromu Kurosaki; Lambert, S.B.; Rao, G.R.; Mueller, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. It provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily. (author)

  8. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  9. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  10. Analysis of Elastic-Plastic J Integrals for 3-Dimensional Cracks Using Finite Element Alternating Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jai Hak

    2009-01-01

    SGBEM(Symmetric Galerkin Boundary Element Method)-FEM alternating method has been proposed by Nikishkov, Park and Atluri. In the proposed method, arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional crack problems can be solved by alternating between the crack solution in an infinite body and the finite element solution without a crack. In the previous study, the SGBEM-FEM alternating method was extended further in order to solve elastic-plastic crack problems and to obtain elastic-plastic stress fields. For the elastic-plastic analysis the algorithm developed by Nikishkov et al. is used after modification. In the algorithm, the initial stress method is used to obtain elastic-plastic stress and strain fields. In this paper, elastic-plastic J integrals for three-dimensional cracks are obtained using the method. For that purpose, accurate values of displacement gradients and stresses are necessary on an integration path. In order to improve the accuracy of stress near crack surfaces, coordinate transformation and partitioning of integration domain are used. The coordinate transformation produces a transformation Jacobian, which cancels the singularity of the integrand. Using the developed program, simple three-dimensional crack problems are solved and elastic and elastic-plastic J integrals are obtained. The obtained J integrals are compared with the values obtained using a handbook solution. It is noted that J integrals obtained from the alternating method are close to the values from the handbook

  11. Methods and Algorythms of Alternatives Ranging in Managing the Telecommunication Services Guality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Quang Hiep

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methods of solving the problem of ranging of alternatives in information-analytical system of managing the quality of telecommunication services rendering process. Tasks of choice are determined, in which the alternatives are as follows: states of quality of different objects in the structure of telecommunication company management. An algorithm of ranging of objects is elaborated for the case of using unstructured set of indices. The algorithm enables to determine the objects priorities and to select the best ones among them. The suggested methods may be used while elaborating the programs of improvement of telecommunication companies competitiveness.

  12. Evaluating clean energy alternatives for Jiangsu, China: An improved multi-criteria decision making method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Peng; Newton, Sidney; Fang, Jian-xin; Zhou, De-qun; Zhang, Lu-ping

    2015-01-01

    Promoting the utilization of clean energy has been identified as one potential solution to addressing environmental pollution and achieving sustainable development in many countries around the world. Evaluating clean energy alternatives includes a requirement to balance multiple conflict criteria, including technology, environment, economy and society, all of which are incommensurate and interdependent. Traditional MCDM (multi-criteria decision making) methods, such as the weighted average method, often fail to aggregate such criteria consistently. In this paper, an improved MCDM method based on fuzzy measure and integral is developed and applied to evaluate four primary clean energy options for Jiangsu Province, China. The results confirm that the preferred clean energy option for Jiangsu is solar photovoltaic, followed by wind, biomass and finally nuclear. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to evaluate the values of clean energy resources for Jiangsu. The ordered weighted average method is also applied to compare the method mentioned above in our empirical study. The results show that the improved MCDM method provides higher discrimination between alternative clean energy alternatives. - Highlights: • Interactions among evaluation criteria of clean energy resources are taken into account. • An improved multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method is proposed based on entropy weight method, fuzzy measure and integral. • Clean energy resources of Jiangsu are evaluated with the improved MCDM method, and their ranks are identified.

  13. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  14. Screening of groundwater remedial alternatives for brownfield sites: a comprehensive method integrated MCDA with numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Min; Wang, Mingyu; Han, Zhantao; Liu, Jiankai; Chen, Zhezhou; Liu, Bo; Yan, Yan; Liu, Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Brownfield sites pollution and remediation is an urgent environmental issue worldwide. The screening and assessment of remedial alternatives is especially complex owing to its multiple criteria that involves technique, economy, and policy. To help the decision-makers selecting the remedial alternatives efficiently, the criteria framework conducted by the U.S. EPA is improved and a comprehensive method that integrates multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with numerical simulation is conducted in this paper. The criteria framework is modified and classified into three categories: qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative criteria, MCDA method, AHP-PROMETHEE (analytical hierarchy process-preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation) is used to determine the priority ranking of the remedial alternatives and the solute transport simulation is conducted to assess the remedial efficiency. A case study was present to demonstrate the screening method in a brownfield site in Cangzhou, northern China. The results show that the systematic method provides a reliable way to quantify the priority of the remedial alternatives.

  15. An Alternative Method to Compute the Bit Error Probability of Modulation Schemes Subject to Nakagami- Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeiro Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an alternative method for determining exact expressions for the bit error probability (BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In this method, the Nakagami- fading channel is seen as an additive noise channel whose noise is modeled as the ratio between Gaussian and Nakagami- random variables. The method consists of using the cumulative density function of the resulting noise to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In particular, the proposed method is used to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM, -ary pulse amplitude modulation ( -PAM, and rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM under Nakagami- fading. The main contribution of this paper is to show that this alternative method can be used to reduce the computational complexity for detecting signals in the presence of fading.

  16. Introduce of Viable But Nonculturable Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Viable-But-Nonculturable-State (VBNC is the condition in which bacteria fail to grow on their routine bacteriological media where they would normally grow and develop into colonies, but are still alive and capable of renewed metabolic activity. VBNC state is useful for evaluating public health and for ascertaining the sterility of drinking water, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuff. A number of bacteria, mostly pathogenic to humans, have been proved to enter into this state in response to natural stresses such as starvation, incubation out of optimum growth temperature, increased osmotic pressure, etc. Once in the VBNC state, they undergo various physiological, structural, and genetic alterations. These alterations result in reduced cell size, conversion from bacilli to coccid, thickened cell walls, and peptidoglycan gaining many cross links. Metabolic changes also occur that include reductions in growth, nutrient transport, and respiratory rate; biosynthesis of new protein, and ATP remaining at a constant level. It has been shown that in the VBNC state, some pathogens conserve their virulence properties. Gene expression continues in the VBNC cell. Nucleic acids remain intact in the early VBNC phase but they gradually undergo degradation with prolonged VBNC. Cytological methods such as direct viable count and reduction of tetrazolium salts, and molecular methods such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and green fluorescent protein have been used for the study of VBNC. Resuscitation from VBNC state starts when the inducing factor(s is/are lifted. Factors that help the resuscitation of VBNC bacteria include addition of certain nutrients and chemicals, introduction of a few culturable cells into the VBNC cell population, and passage through the animal host. As virulence properties are sustained during the VBNC phase, special care must be paid when evaluating sterility of drinking water.

  17. Using a Forensic Research Method for Establishing an Alternative Method for Audience Measurement in Print Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2012-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the survey approach are discussed. It is hypothesized that observational methods sometimes constitute reasonable and powerful substitute to traditional survey methods. Under certain circumstances, unobtrusive methods may even outperform traditional techniques. Non...... amount of pages, the method appears applicable for flyers with multiple pages....

  18. Ruffed grouse (Bonasa Umbellus) use of stands harvested via alternative regeneration methods in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Jones; Craig A. Harper

    2007-01-01

    Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus L.) habitat use was studied in the mountains of western North Carolina. In 1997, 9 stands on the study site were harvested via alternative regeneration methods, including shelterwood, irregular shelterwood, and group selection. From 1999–2004, 276 grouse were radio tagged and monitored, resulting in over 7,000 location...

  19. Alternative Assessment Methods Based on Categorizations, Supporting Technologies, and a Model for Betterment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Marion G.; Ben-Jacob, Tyler E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores alternative assessment methods from the perspective of categorizations. It addresses the technologies that support assessment. It discusses initial, formative, and summative assessment, as well as objective and subjective assessment, and formal and informal assessment. It approaches each category of assessment from the…

  20. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Toxicology Program... Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of... Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR Doc. 2013-17919 Filed 7-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  1. Report to the Congress on alternative methods for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to fulfill the requirements of Public Law No. 101-46, approved June 30, 1989. The study describes and evaluates alternative methods for financing the future expansion of the Strategic petroleum Reserve (SPR), both to the current target level of 750 million barrels and to potential future levels of up to one billion barrels.

  2. 29 CFR 4010.12 - Alternative method of compliance for certain sponsors of multiple employer plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.12 Alternative method of compliance for certain sponsors of multiple employer... part for an information year if any contributing sponsor of the multiple employer plan provides a...

  3. 76 FR 50221 - International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the Science and Planning the Way Forward AGENCY... (NICEATM) announces an ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies... rabies vaccine potency testing, and to develop an implementation strategy to achieve global acceptance...

  4. Record-keeping as an Alternative Method οf Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Androniki Kouvdou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic topic of this chapter is the description of an alternative method of assessment which supplements traditional objective techniques (i.e. testing, while counterbalancing their limitations. This alternative method, known as ‘record-keeping’, involves the systematic collection and recording of information about learner progress and aims at providing a more complete and valid formative assessment of their developmental abilities in specified areas. More particularly, this chapter presents a small-scale case study, which was carried out in the sixth grade of a primary school and lasted three months. The subjects of this case study were four twelve-year-old learners and its purpose was to investigate the potential of ‘record-keeping’ as an alternative method of assessing oracy skills in the foreign language. The data that derived from the case study reinforce the usefulness and validity of the particular method of assessment. The goals of the experimental assessment design, which entailed the recording and gradual development of learner oracy skills as well as the enhancement of motivation and awareness of their relevant sub-skills, were accomplished to a considerable degree. Additionally, the learners responded positively to the implemented assessment project, while being actively involved in it, which further substantiates its effectiveness. Alternative assessment, however, is a large area, whose full potential of implementation calls for further investigation.

  5. 29 CFR 2520.104-4 - Alternative method of compliance for certain successor pension plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pension plans. 2520.104-4 Section 2520.104-4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE... certain successor pension plans. (a) General. Under the authority of section 110 of the Act, this section sets forth an alternative method of compliance for certain successor pension plans in which some...

  6. Method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on an alternating current power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Alexander; Hofmann, Ronald

    2017-04-11

    A method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on remotely-operable elements of an alternating current distribution grid. Two state estimates of the distribution grid are prepared, one of which uses micro-synchrophasors. A difference between the two state estimates indicates a possible cyber attack.

  7. A method for quantifying and comparing the costs and benefits of alternative riparian zone buffer widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Ethel Wilkerson

    2008-01-01

    We developed a method that can be used to quantify the opportunity costs and ecological benefits of implementing alternative streamside management zones/buffer zone widths. The opportunity costs are computed based on the net value of the timber left behind in the buffer zone, the stump-to-mill logging costs for the logging technology that would have been used to...

  8. Expert opinions on the acceptance of alternative methods in food safety evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Ans; Bouwmeester, Hans; Schiffelers, Marie Jeanne W.A.; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Inclusion of alternative methods that replace, reduce, or refine (3R) animal testing within regulatory safety evaluations of chemicals generally faces many hurdles. The goal of the current work is to i) collect responses from key stakeholders involved in food safety evaluations on what they consider

  9. Surveying immigrants without sampling frames - evaluating the success of alternative field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, David; Morales, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the sampling methods of an international survey, the Immigrant Citizens Survey, which aimed at surveying immigrants from outside the European Union (EU) in 15 cities in seven EU countries. In five countries, no sample frame was available for the target population. Consequently, alternative ways to obtain a representative sample had to be found. In three countries 'location sampling' was employed, while in two countries traditional methods were used with adaptations to reach the target population. The paper assesses the main methodological challenges of carrying out a survey among a group of immigrants for whom no sampling frame exists. The samples of the survey in these five countries are compared to results of official statistics in order to assess the accuracy of the samples obtained through the different sampling methods. It can be shown that alternative sampling methods can provide meaningful results in terms of core demographic characteristics although some estimates differ to some extent from the census results.

  10. Reducing the ordering temperature of FePt nanoparticles by Cu additive and alternate reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available (FePt85Cu15 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by alternate reduction of metal salts in aqueous medium. Detailed investigations on the correlation between the magnetic and structural properties of these nanoparticles are presented as a function of annealing temperature. Both the X-ray diffraction patterns and the magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show the existence of L10-FePt phase at a relative low annealing temperature. It is proved that the Cu additive and alternate reduction are very effective methods in reducing the ordering temperature of FePt nanoparticles.

  11. Radiation disinfestation: A viable technology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing food production in many countries is often offset by spoilage losses that occur at different stages after harvesting, slaughtering, or catching. The situation becomes critical in developing countries as more food is needed to feed the ever-increasing population. One of the major problems of losses of food and agricultural products during storage is insect infestation. This paper reviews some insect infestation problems of valuable crops in developing countries such as cereals, pulses, dried fish and meat, fresh and dried fruits, coffee and cocoa beans, spices, and cured tobacco leaves. Present practices of chemical fumigation to eliminate insect problems in these crops give rise to concern from the points of view of both public health and occupational safety. Irradiation technology has been shown to be as effective as other insect disinfestation methods and could provide a viable alternative for this purpose. Insects do not develop resistance to physical techniques such as heat or irradiation as they do to chemical treatments. Applications of radiation for disinfestation of food and agricultural products of importance to developing countries are discussed. The economics of radiation disinfestation of cereals and pulses, dried fish, and fresh fruits are also discussed

  12. Patient-as-observer approach: an alternative method for hand hygiene auditing in an ambulatory care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Abuyen, Sheila; Ng, Jessica; Kim, Susie; De La Franier, Anne; Khan, Bibi; Mosley, Jane; Gardam, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A survey pilot asked patients to observe the hand hygiene compliance of their health care providers. Patients returned 75.1% of the survey cards distributed, and the overall hand hygiene compliance was 96.8%. Survey results and patient commentary were used to motivate hand hygiene compliance. The patient-as-observer approach appeared to be a viable alternative for hand hygiene auditing in an ambulatory care setting because it educated, engaged, and empowered patients to play a more active role in their own health care. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunetti Monica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells and under five percent (viable cells. The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a

  14. Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Botana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other toxins (yessotoxin, saxitoxin and analogs, okadaic acid and analogs, pectenotoxins and azaspiracids in seafood to be controlled by bioassay, but other toxins, such as palytoxin, cyclic imines, ciguatera and tetrodotoxin are potentially present in European food and there are no legal requirements or technical approaches available to identify their presence. The need for alternative methods to the bioassay is clearly important, and biosensors have become in recent years a feasible alternative to animal sacrifice. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using biosensors as alternatives to animal assays for marine toxins, with particular focus on surface plasmon resonance (SPR technology.

  15. Method for exploiting bias in factor analysis using constrained alternating least squares algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-12-30

    Bias plays an important role in factor analysis and is often implicitly made use of, for example, to constrain solutions to factors that conform to physical reality. However, when components are collinear, a large range of solutions may exist that satisfy the basic constraints and fit the data equally well. In such cases, the introduction of mathematical bias through the application of constraints may select solutions that are less than optimal. The biased alternating least squares algorithm of the present invention can offset mathematical bias introduced by constraints in the standard alternating least squares analysis to achieve factor solutions that are most consistent with physical reality. In addition, these methods can be used to explicitly exploit bias to provide alternative views and provide additional insights into spectral data sets.

  16. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunetti, Monica; Castiglia, Sara; Rustichelli, Deborah; Mareschi, Katia; Sanavio, Fiorella; Muraro, Michela; Signorino, Elena; Castello, Laura; Ferrero, Ivana; Fagioli, Franca

    2012-05-31

    The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests' accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells) and under five percent (viable cells). The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a Cell Factory. In a good manufacturing practice setting the disposable

  17. Fast acquisition of multidimensional NMR spectra of solids and mesophases using alternative sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesot, Philippe; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Trébosc, Julien; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Lafon, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Unique information about the atom-level structure and dynamics of solids and mesophases can be obtained by the use of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Nevertheless, the acquisition of these experiments often requires long acquisition times. We review here alternative sampling methods, which have been proposed to circumvent this issue in the case of solids and mesophases. Compared to the spectra of solutions, those of solids and mesophases present some specificities because they usually display lower signal-to-noise ratios, non-Lorentzian line shapes, lower spectral resolutions and wider spectral widths. We highlight herein the advantages and limitations of these alternative sampling methods. A first route to accelerate the acquisition time of multidimensional NMR spectra consists in the use of sparse sampling schemes, such as truncated, radial or random sampling ones. These sparsely sampled datasets are generally processed by reconstruction methods differing from the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). A host of non-DFT methods have been applied for solids and mesophases, including the G-matrix Fourier transform, the linear least-square procedures, the covariance transform, the maximum entropy and the compressed sensing. A second class of alternative sampling consists in departing from the Jeener paradigm for multidimensional NMR experiments. These non-Jeener methods include Hadamard spectroscopy as well as spatial or orientational encoding of the evolution frequencies. The increasing number of high field NMR magnets and the development of techniques to enhance NMR sensitivity will contribute to widen the use of these alternative sampling methods for the study of solids and mesophases in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Alternative methods for determination of composition and porosity in abradable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejicek, Jiri; Kolman, Blahoslav; Dubsky, Jiri; Neufuss, Karel; Hopkins, Noel; Zwick, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Materials properties and performance are governed by their composition and structure. These are commonly characterized using materialography and image analysis. However, in abradable materials, obtaining a reliable and representative sample (polished section) for this widespread technique is complicated by their abradable nature and heterogeneity. Therefore, alternative methods are also considered in this paper. They are namely X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis to determine the composition, and mercury intrusion porosimetry, Archimedean porosimetry and helium pycnometry to determine the porosity. These methods, including materialography, were applied on representative abradable materials produced by plasma spraying; their results are compared and the advantages and drawbacks of each method are discussed

  19. Determination of the oxidizing property: proposal of an alternative method based on differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigante, L.; Dellavedova, M.; Pasturenzi, C.; Lunghi, A.; Mattarella, M.; Cardillo, P.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of chemical-physical and hazardous properties of substances is a very important matter in the chemical industry, considering the growing attention of public opinion regarding safety and eco-compatibility aspects of products. In the present work, attention was focused on characterization of oxidizing properties. In case of solid compounds, the current method (Dir 84/449/CEE 6) compares the maximum combustion rate of the examined substance to the maximum combustion rate of a reference mixture. This method shows a lot of disvantages and does not provide a quantitative result. In the following work an alternative method, based on DSC measurements, is proposed for the determination of oxidizing properties. [it

  20. Methods for the assay of plutonium in vivo: what are the alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Strauss, M.G.; Sherman, I.S.; Brenner, R.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of estimating the amount of plutonium in the human body in vivo is of considerable importance in view of the major role Pu may play in the future nuclear power program. It is a particularly difficult one because the 238 Pu and 239 Pu present in reactor-grade material emit virtually no penetrating radiation, so that conventional methods of body radioactivity measurement are useless. The existing methods of estimating Pu body burdens are reviewed and alternatives are suggested. Emphasis is placed on Pu in lung, the major problem, but reference is also made to systemically deposited Pu. Both indirect and direct methods are discussed

  1. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Circling motion and screen edges as an alternative input method for on-screen target manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Hyun W; Simpson, Richard C

    2017-04-01

    To investigate a new alternative interaction method, called circling interface, for manipulating on-screen objects. To specify a target, the user makes a circling motion around the target. To specify a desired pointing command with the circling interface, each edge of the screen is used. The user selects a command before circling the target. To evaluate the circling interface, we conducted an experiment with 16 participants, comparing the performance on pointing tasks with different combinations of selection method (circling interface, physical mouse and dwelling interface) and input device (normal computer mouse, head pointer and joystick mouse emulator). A circling interface is compatible with many types of pointing devices, not requiring physical activation of mouse buttons, and is more efficient than dwell-clicking. Across all common pointing operations, the circling interface had a tendency to produce faster performance with a head-mounted mouse emulator than with a joystick mouse. The performance accuracy of the circling interface outperformed the dwelling interface. It was demonstrated that the circling interface has the potential as another alternative pointing method for selecting and manipulating objects in a graphical user interface. Implications for Rehabilitation A circling interface will improve clinical practice by providing an alternative pointing method that does not require physically activating mouse buttons and is more efficient than dwell-clicking. The Circling interface can also work with AAC devices.

  3. Ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance: drug resistance and the need for alternative control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Despite multiple attempts at eradication, many ectoparasites of humans and domestic livestock remain a persistent problem in the modern world. For many years, a range of pesticide drugs including organophosphates, organochlorides and synthetic pyrethroids provided effective control of these parasites; but intensive use of these drugs has led to the evolution of resistance in many target species. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of current control methods and discuss potential alternatives for the long term sustainable control of ectoparasites. Important medical ectoparasites such as scabies mites, head lice and bed bugs present a significant public health problem, and so adequate control methods are essential. Ectoparasites of domestic livestock and farmed fish (for example sheep scab mites, poultry mites and sea lice) are also of concern given the increasing strain on the world's food supply. These parasites have become resistant to several classes of pesticide, making control very difficult. Recently, an increasing amount of research has focussed on alternative control methods such as insect growth regulators, biological control using essential oils or fungi, as well as vaccine development against some ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance. Drug resistance is prevalent in all of the ectoparasites discussed in this review. A wide variety of alternative control methods have been identified, however further research is necessary in order for these to be used to successfully control ectoparasitic diseases in the future. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. NordVal: A Nordic system for validation of alternative microbiological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Sven

    2007-01-01

    NordVal was created in 1999 by the Nordic Committee of Senior Officials for Food Issues under the Nordic Council of Ministers. The Committee adopted the following objective for NordVal: NordVal evaluates the performance and field of application of alternative microbiological methods. This includes...... analyses of food, water, feed, animal faeces and food environmental samples in the Nordic countries. NordVal is managed by a steering group, which is appointed by the National Food Administrations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The background for creation of NordVal was a Danish...... validation system (DanVal) established in 1995 to cope with a need to validate alternative methods to be used in the Danish Salmonella Action Program. The program attracted considerable attention in the other Nordic countries. NordVal has elaborated a number of documents, which describe the requirements...

  5. Input-constrained model predictive control via the alternating direction method of multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Andersen, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers, for the convex optimal control problem arising in input-constrained model predictive control. We develop an efficient implementation of the algorithm for the extended linear quadratic control problem (LQCP......) with input and input-rate limits. The algorithm alternates between solving an extended LQCP and a highly structured quadratic program. These quadratic programs are solved using a Riccati iteration procedure, and a structure-exploiting interior-point method, respectively. The computational cost per iteration...... is quadratic in the dimensions of the controlled system, and linear in the length of the prediction horizon. Simulations show that the approach proposed in this paper is more than an order of magnitude faster than several state-of-the-art quadratic programming algorithms, and that the difference in computation...

  6. Measurement of the resistivity of porous materials with an alternating air-flow method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Ianniello, Carmine; Romano, Rosario A

    2011-02-01

    Air-flow resistivity is a main parameter governing the acoustic behavior of porous materials for sound absorption. The international standard ISO 9053 specifies two different methods to measure the air-flow resistivity, namely a steady-state air-flow method and an alternating air-flow method. The latter is realized by the measurement of the sound pressure at 2 Hz in a small rigid volume closed partially by the test sample. This cavity is excited with a known volume-velocity sound source implemented often with a motor-driven piston oscillating with prescribed area and displacement magnitude. Measurements at 2 Hz require special instrumentation and care. The authors suggest an alternating air-flow method based on the ratio of sound pressures measured at frequencies higher than 2 Hz inside two cavities coupled through a conventional loudspeaker. The basic method showed that the imaginary part of the sound pressure ratio is useful for the evaluation of the air-flow resistance. Criteria are discussed about the choice of a frequency range suitable to perform simplified calculations with respect to the basic method. These criteria depend on the sample thickness, its nonacoustic parameters, and the measurement apparatus as well. The proposed measurement method was tested successfully with various types of acoustic materials.

  7. A Conservative Method for Treating Severely Displaced Pediatric Mandibular Fractures: An Effective Alternative Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sahand Samieirad; Saeedeh khajehahmadi; Elahe Tohidi; Meysam Pakravan

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric mandibular fractures have been successfully managed in various ways. The use of a lingual splint is an option. This article presents a 4-year old boy who was treated by an alternative conservative method with a combination of an arch bar plus a lingual splint, circum-mandibular wiring and IMF for the reduction, stabilization and fixation of a severely displaced bilateral man‌dibular body fracture. This technique is a reliable, noninvasive procedure; it also limits the discomfort and...

  8. Linearized Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers for Constrained Nonconvex Regularized Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    structure of the graph, we replace the ℓ1- norm by the nonconvex Capped -ℓ1 norm , and obtain the Generalized Capped -ℓ1 regularized logistic regression...X. M. Yuan. Linearized augmented lagrangian and alternating direction methods for nuclear norm minimization. Mathematics of Computation, 82(281):301...better approximations of ℓ0- norm theoretically and computationally beyond ℓ1- norm , for example, the compressive sensing (Xiao et al., 2011). The

  9. Facile fabrication of controllable zinc oxide nanorod clusters on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via repeatedly alternating immersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xia; Yu, Hou-Yong, E-mail: phdyu@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles (China); Hu, Guo-Liang; Yao, Ju-Ming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology (China)

    2016-12-15

    Polyacrylonitrile/zinc oxide (PAN/ZnO) composite nanofiber membranes with different ZnO morphologies were fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot–cold immersion and single alternating hot–cold immersion methods. The influence of the PAN/ZnCl{sub 2} ratio and different immersion methods on the morphology, microstructure, and properties of the nanofiber membranes was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. A possible mechanism for different morphologies of PAN/ZnO nanofiber membranes with different PAN/ZnCl{sub 2} ratio through different immersion processes was presented, and well-dispersed ZnO nanorod clusters with smallest average dimeter of 115 nm and hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully anchored onto the PAN nanofiber surface for R-7/1 nanofiber membrane. Compared to S-5/1 prepared by single alternating hot–cold immersion method, the PAN/ZnO nanofiber membrane fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot–cold immersion method (especially for R-7/1) showed improved thermal stability and high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB). Compared to S-5/1, decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss (T{sub 5%}) was increased by 43 °C from 282 to 325 °C for R-7/1; meanwhile, R-7/1 showed higher photocatalytic degradation ratio of approximately 100% (after UV light irradiation for 8 h) than 65% for S-5/1 even after irradiation for 14 h. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of R-7/1 with good reuse stability remained above 94% after 3 cycles.

  10. How Many Alternatives Can Be Ranked? A Comparison of the Paired Comparison and Ranking Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, Minsu; Yi, Nari; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of converting ranking data into paired comparison (PC) data and suggest the number of alternatives that can be ranked by comparing a PC and a ranking method. Using a total of 222 health states, a household survey was conducted in a sample of 300 individuals from the general population. Each respondent performed a PC 15 times and a ranking method 6 times (two attempts of ranking three, four, and five health states, respectively). The health states of the PC and the ranking method were constructed to overlap each other. We converted the ranked data into PC data and examined the consistency of the response rate. Applying probit regression, we obtained the predicted probability of each method. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined between the predicted probabilities of those methods. The mean absolute error was also assessed between the observed and the predicted values. The overall consistency of the response rate was 82.8%. The Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.789, 0.852, and 0.893 for ranking three, four, and five health states, respectively. The lowest mean absolute error was 0.082 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.090) in ranking five health states, followed by 0.123 (95% CI 0.111-0.135) in ranking four health states and 0.126 (95% CI 0.113-0.138) in ranking three health states. After empirically examining the consistency of the response rate between a PC and a ranking method, we suggest that using five alternatives in the ranking method may be superior to using three or four alternatives. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A molecular method for typing Herpes simplex virus isolates as an alternative to immunofluorescence methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Typing of Herpes simplex virus (HSV isolates is required to identify the virus isolated in culture. The methods available for this include antigen detection by immunofluorescence (IF assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. This study was undertaken to standardize a molecular method for typing of HSV and compare it with a commercial IF reagent for typing. Objectives: To compare a molecular method for typing HSV isolates with a monoclonal antibody (MAb based IF test. Study design : This cross-sectional study utilized four reference strains and 42 HSV isolates obtained from patients between September 1998 and September 2004. These were subjected to testing using an MAb-based IF test and a PCR that detects the polymerase ( pol gene of HSV isolates. Results: The observed agreement of the MAb IF assay with the pol PCR was 95.7%. Fifty four point eight percent (23/42 of isolates tested by IF typing were found to be HSV-1, 40.5% (17/42 were HSV-2, and two (4.8% were untypable using the MAb IF assay. The two untypable isolates were found to be HSV-2 using the pol PCR. In addition, the cost per PCR test for typing is estimated to be around Rs 1,300 (USD 30, whereas the cost per MAb IF test is about Rs 1,500 (USD 35 including all overheads (reagents, instruments, personnel time, and consumables. Conclusion: The pol PCR is a cheaper and more easily reproducible method for typing HSV isolates as compared to the IF test. It could replace the IF-based method for routine typing of HSV isolates as availability of PCR machines (thermal cyclers is now more widespread than fluorescence microscopes in a country like India.

  12. Low rank alternating direction method of multipliers reconstruction for MR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assländer, Jakob; Cloos, Martijn A; Knoll, Florian; Sodickson, Daniel K; Hennig, Jürgen; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    The proposed reconstruction framework addresses the reconstruction accuracy, noise propagation and computation time for magnetic resonance fingerprinting. Based on a singular value decomposition of the signal evolution, magnetic resonance fingerprinting is formulated as a low rank (LR) inverse problem in which one image is reconstructed for each singular value under consideration. This LR approximation of the signal evolution reduces the computational burden by reducing the number of Fourier transformations. Also, the LR approximation improves the conditioning of the problem, which is further improved by extending the LR inverse problem to an augmented Lagrangian that is solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers. The root mean square error and the noise propagation are analyzed in simulations. For verification, in vivo examples are provided. The proposed LR alternating direction method of multipliers approach shows a reduced root mean square error compared to the original fingerprinting reconstruction, to a LR approximation alone and to an alternating direction method of multipliers approach without a LR approximation. Incorporating sensitivity encoding allows for further artifact reduction. The proposed reconstruction provides robust convergence, reduced computational burden and improved image quality compared to other magnetic resonance fingerprinting reconstruction approaches evaluated in this study. Magn Reson Med 79:83-96, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  14. Self-supporting method; an alternative method for steel truss bridge element replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Sangadji, Senot; As'ad, Sholihin

    2017-11-01

    Steel truss bridge often requires replacement of its element due to serious damage caused by traffic accidents. This replacement is carried out using temporary supporting structure. It would be difficult when the available space for the temporary structure is quite limited and or the position of work is at a high elevation. The self-supporting method is proposed instead of temporary supporting structure. This paper will discuss an innovative method of bridge rehabilitation by utilizing the existing bridge structure. It requires such temporary connecting structure that installed on the existing bridge element, therefore, the forces during replacement process could be transferred to the bridge foundation directly. By taking the case on a steel truss bridge Jetis Salatiga which requires element replacement due to its damages on two main diagonals, a modeling is carried out to get a proper repair method. Structural analysis is conducted for three temporary connecting structure models: “I,” “V,” and triangular model. Stresses and translations that occur in the structure are used as constraints. Bridge bearings are modeled in two different modes: fixed-fixed system and fixed-free one. Temperature load is given in each condition to obtain the appropriate time for execution. The triangular model is chosen as the best one. In the fixed-fixed mode, this method can be carried out in a temperature range 27-28.8° C, while in fixed-free one, the temperature it is allowed between 27-43.4 °C. The D4 is dismantled first by cutting the D4 leaving an area of 1140.2 mm2 or 127 mm web length to enable plastic condition until the D4 collapses. At the beginning of elongation occurs, immediately performed a slowly jacking on a temporary connecting structure so that the force on D4 is gradually transferred to the temporary connecting structure then the D4 and D5 are set in their place.

  15. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated

  16. A Policy Alternative Analysis and Simplified Scoring Method to Assess Policy Options for Marine Conservation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharuga, S. M.; Reams, M.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to marine conservation and management are increasingly being found as inadequate; and, consequently, more complex ecosystem-based approaches to protecting marine ecosystems are growing in popularity. Ecosystem-based approaches, however, can be particularly challenging at a local level where resources and knowledge of specific marine conservation components may be limited. Marine conservation areas are known by a variety of names globally, but can be divided into four general types: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), Marine Reserves, Fishery Reserves, and Ecological Reserves (i.e. "no take zones"). Each type of conservation area involves specific objectives, program elements and likely socioeconomic consequences. As an aid to community stakeholders and decision makers considering establishment of a marine conservation area, a simple method to compare and score the objectives and attributes of these four approaches is presented. A range of evaluation criteria are considered, including conservation of biodiversity and habitat, effective fishery management, overall cost-effectiveness, fairness to current users, enhancement of recreational activities, fairness to taxpayers, and conservation of genetic diversity. Environmental and socioeconomic costs and benefits of each type of conservation area are also considered. When exploring options for managing the marine environment, particular resource conservation needs must be evaluated individually on a case-by-case basis and the type of conservation area established must be tailored accordingly. However, MPAs are often more successful than other conservation areas because they offer a compromise between the needs of society and the environment, and therefore represent a viable option for ecosystem-based management.

  17. Radiological consequence evaluation of DBAs with alternative source term method for a Chinese PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.X.; Cao, X.W.; Tong, L.L.; Huang, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Radiological consequence evaluation of DBAs with alternative source term method for a Chinese 900 MWe PWR has been investigated. ► Six typical DBA sequences are analyzed. ► The doses of control room, EAB and outer boundary of LPZ are acceptable. ► The differences between AST method and TID-14844 method are investigated. - Abstract: Since a large amount of fission products may releases into the environment, during the accident progression in nuclear power plants (NPPs), which is a potential hazard to public risk, the radiological consequence should be evaluated for alleviating the hazard. In most Chinese NPPs the method of TID-14844, in which the whole body and thyroid dose criteria is employed as dose criteria, is currently adopted to evaluate the radiological consequences for design-basis accidents (DBAs), but, due to the total effective dose equivalent is employed as dose criteria in alternative radiological source terms (AST) method, it is necessary to evaluate the radiological consequences for DBAs with AST method and to discuss the difference between two methods. By using an integral safety analysis code, an analytical model of the 900 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) is built and the radiological consequences in DBAs at control room (CR), exclusion area boundary (EAB), low population zone (LPZ) are analyzed, which includes LOCA and non-LOCA DBAs, such as fuel handling accident (FHA), rod ejection accident (REA), main steam line break (MSLB), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), locked rotor accident (LRA) by using the guidance of the RG 1.183. The results show that the doses in CR, EAB and LPZ are acceptable compared with dose criteria in RG 1.183 and the differences between AST method and TID-14844 method are also discussed.

  18. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  19. Alternative normalization methods demonstrate widespread cortical hypometabolism in untreated de novo Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, Valentina; Polito, C; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    , recent studies suggested that conventional data normalization procedures may not always be valid, and demonstrated that alternative normalization strategies better allow detection of low magnitude changes. We hypothesized that these alternative normalization procedures would disclose more widespread...... metabolic alterations in de novo PD. METHODS: [18F]FDG PET scans of 26 untreated de novo PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II) and 21 age-matched controls were compared using voxel-based analysis. Normalization was performed using gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) reference regions and Yakushev...... normalization. RESULTS: Compared to GM normalization, WM and Yakushev normalization procedures disclosed much larger cortical regions of relative hypometabolism in the PD group with extensive involvement of frontal and parieto-temporal-occipital cortices, and several subcortical structures. Furthermore...

  20. On solution to the problem of criticality by alternative Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyncl, J.

    2005-03-01

    The problem of criticality for the neutron transport equation is analyzed. The problem is transformed into an equivalent problem in a suitable set of complex functions, and the existence and uniqueness of its solution is demonstrated. The source iteration method is discussed. It is shown that the final result of the iterative process is strongly affected by the insufficient accuracy of the individual iterations. A modified method is suggested to circumvent this problem based on the theory of positive operators; the criticality problem is solved by the Monte Carlo method constructing special random process and variable so that the difference between the result and the true value can be arbitrarily small. The efficiency of this alternative method is analysed

  1. Preconditioned alternating direction method of multipliers for inverse problems with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Yuling; Jin, Qinian; Lu, Xiliang; Wang, Weijie

    2017-01-01

    We propose a preconditioned alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve linear inverse problems in Hilbert spaces with constraints, where the feature of the sought solution under a linear transformation is captured by a possibly non-smooth convex function. During each iteration step, our method avoids solving large linear systems by choosing a suitable preconditioning operator. In case the data is given exactly, we prove the convergence of our preconditioned ADMM without assuming the existence of a Lagrange multiplier. In case the data is corrupted by noise, we propose a stopping rule using information on noise level and show that our preconditioned ADMM is a regularization method; we also propose a heuristic rule when the information on noise level is unavailable or unreliable and give its detailed analysis. Numerical examples are presented to test the performance of the proposed method. (paper)

  2. 14 CFR 39.21 - Where can I get information about FAA-approved alternative methods of compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where can I get information about FAA-approved alternative methods of compliance? 39.21 Section 39.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... information about FAA-approved alternative methods of compliance? Each airworthiness directive identifies the...

  3. 77 FR 2064 - Availability of the Report on the International Workshop on Alternative Methods To Reduce, Refine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Validation of Alternative Methods, and Health Canada. The workshop was co-sponsored by the Society of... Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), an interagency committee of the... prioritize research, development, and validation efforts needed to address these knowledge and data gaps in...

  4. Methods to Improve Survival and Growth of Planted Alternative Species Seedlings in Black Ash Ecosystems Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Bolton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerald ash borer (EAB continues to spread across North America, infesting native ash trees and changing the forested landscape. Black ash wetland forests are severely affected by EAB. As black ash wetland forests provide integral ecosystem services, alternative approaches to maintain forest cover on the landscape are needed. We implemented simulated EAB infestations in depressional black ash wetlands in the Ottawa National Forest in Michigan to mimic the short-term and long-term effects of EAB. These wetlands were planted with 10 alternative tree species in 2013. Based on initial results in the Michigan sites, a riparian corridor in the Superior Municipal Forest in Wisconsin was planted with three alternative tree species in 2015. Results across both locations indicate that silver maple (Acer saccharinum L., red maple (Acer rubrum L., American elm (Ulmus americana L., and northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L. are viable alternative species to plant in black ash-dominated wetlands. Additionally, selectively planting on natural or created hummocks resulted in two times greater survival than in adjacent lowland sites, and this suggests that planting should be implemented with microsite selection or creation as a primary control. Regional landowners and forest managers can use these results to help mitigate the canopy and structure losses from EAB and maintain forest cover and hydrologic function in black ash-dominated wetlands after infestation.

  5. Tunnel boring an alternative method in construction of spent fuel repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Jukka

    1984-05-01

    In projecting of the final disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations a great importance should be paid to the selection of the tunneling method. The environment of the chosen repository area should not be exposed to any but as minor disturbances as possible by the excavation method applied. This study approaches full face tunneling methods as an alternative to conventional drill-and-blast methods in the construction of spent fuel repository tunnels. According to experiences up till now it is obvious, that tunnelboring today is fully capable technically competing with conventional tunneling methods, even in the hardest granitic rocks. The most important advantages, it provides for the construction of repositories, are: The methods does not produce any damage in the surrounding rock. Possibility to use placement techniques, which do not require preparing of additive repository holes for the fuel elements. Saving in the use of expensive filling material. The fact, that tunnel boring in hard rock is an expensive alternative, is still valid. Constuction of straight lined tunnels in unfractured rocks by tunnel boring would cost about 30-40% more than by conventional methods. The lay out arrangement of bored tunnels still have a great influence on tunnel boring machine's economy. Due to this it would be round 40-70% more expensive method in the construction of spent fuel repositories. However intensive development w is being carried out to eliminate these limitations and to make machines more flexible. Future trends in tunnel boring look good at the moment. The number of sold units has been increasing and new applications have widen out during last ten years. Harder and more abrasive rocks can now be bored than ever before and the trend seems to continue. It also looks like the cost difference in the hardest rocks is firmly getting smaller and smaller all the time. (author)

  6. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  7. Greening Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Methods Using Alternative Solvents for Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Yabré

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The greening of analytical methods has gained increasing interest in the field of pharmaceutical analysis to reduce environmental impacts and improve the health safety of analysts. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC is the most widely used analytical technique involved in pharmaceutical drug development and manufacturing, such as the quality control of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations, as well as the analysis of drugs in biological samples. However, RP-HPLC methods commonly use large amounts of organic solvents and generate high quantities of waste to be disposed, leading to some issues in terms of ecological impact and operator safety. In this context, greening HPLC methods is becoming highly desirable. One strategy to reduce the impact of hazardous solvents is to replace classically used organic solvents (i.e., acetonitrile and methanol with greener ones. So far, ethanol has been the most often used alternative organic solvent. Others strategies have followed, such as the use of totally aqueous mobile phases, micellar liquid chromatography, and ionic liquids. These approaches have been well developed, as they do not require equipment investments and are rather economical. This review describes and critically discusses the recent advances in greening RP-HPLC methods dedicated to pharmaceutical analysis based on the use of alternative solvents.

  8. Evaluation of Alternative Methods for Testing the Bioefficacy of Household Ambient Insecticide Products Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini, Rudi; Scremin, Mara; Contiero, Barbara; Drago, Andrea; Vettorato, Christian; Marcer, Federica; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane

    2016-06-01

    Ambient insecticides are receiving increasing attention in many developed countries because of their value in reducing mosquito nuisance. As required by the European Union Biocidal Products Regulation 528/2012, these devices require appropriate testing of their efficacy, which is based on estimating the knockdown and mortality rates of free-flying (free) mosquitoes in a test room. However, evaluations using free mosquitoes present many complexities. The performances of 6 alternative methods with mosquitoes held in 2 different cage designs (steel wire and gauze/plastic) with and without an operating fan for air circulation were monitored in a test room through a closed-circuit television system and were compared with the currently recommended method using free mosquitoes. Results for caged mosquitoes without a fan showed a clearly delayed knockdown effect, whereas outcomes for caged mosquitoes with a fan recorded higher mortality at 24 h, compared to free mosquitoes. Among the 6 methods, cages made of gauze and plastic operating with fan wind speed at 2.5-2.8 m/sec was the only method without a significant difference in results for free mosquitoes, and therefore appears as the best alternative to assess knockdown by ambient insecticides accurately.

  9. Synthesis of Pt nanoparticles on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide by potentiostatic and alternate current methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J.; Fernández, J.; Río, A.I. del; Bonastre, J.; Cases, F., E-mail: fjcases@txp.upv.es

    2014-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been synthesized on Pt wires by means of a potentiodynamic method between + 0.6 V and − 1.4 V for 20 scans. Cyclic voltammetry characterization of the coatings showed the typical capacitative behavior of graphene. Pt nanoparticles were synthesized on Pt–RGO electrodes by means of potentiostatic methods and a comparison between different synthesis potentials (− 0.16, 0, + 0.2 and + 0.4 V) for the same synthesis charge (mC·cm{sup −2}) was established. The electrodes obtained were characterized in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution to observe the characteristic oxidation and reduction processes of the Pt surface. A 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/0.5 M CH{sub 3}OH solution was used to measure the catalytic properties of the deposits against methanol oxidation. The most appropriate potential to perform the synthesis was 0 V followed by − 0.16 V and + 0.2 V. The morphology of the coatings varied depending on the potential applied as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Alternate current methods were also used to synthesize Pt nanoparticles and compare the results with the traditional potentiostatic method. Different frequencies were used: 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 Hz. Alternate current synthesis is more efficient than traditional potentiostatic methods, obtaining more electroactive coatings with less effective synthesis time. - Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide has been obtained by electrochemical reduction on Pt wires. • Pt nanoparticles have been obtained potentiostatically at different potentials. • Pt nanoparticles have been obtained by ac methods with different frequencies. • ac synthesis is a better synthesis method than potentiostatic synthesis.

  10. Synthesis of Pt nanoparticles on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide by potentiostatic and alternate current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.; Fernández, J.; Río, A.I. del; Bonastre, J.; Cases, F.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been synthesized on Pt wires by means of a potentiodynamic method between + 0.6 V and − 1.4 V for 20 scans. Cyclic voltammetry characterization of the coatings showed the typical capacitative behavior of graphene. Pt nanoparticles were synthesized on Pt–RGO electrodes by means of potentiostatic methods and a comparison between different synthesis potentials (− 0.16, 0, + 0.2 and + 0.4 V) for the same synthesis charge (mC·cm −2 ) was established. The electrodes obtained were characterized in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution to observe the characteristic oxidation and reduction processes of the Pt surface. A 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 /0.5 M CH 3 OH solution was used to measure the catalytic properties of the deposits against methanol oxidation. The most appropriate potential to perform the synthesis was 0 V followed by − 0.16 V and + 0.2 V. The morphology of the coatings varied depending on the potential applied as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Alternate current methods were also used to synthesize Pt nanoparticles and compare the results with the traditional potentiostatic method. Different frequencies were used: 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 Hz. Alternate current synthesis is more efficient than traditional potentiostatic methods, obtaining more electroactive coatings with less effective synthesis time. - Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide has been obtained by electrochemical reduction on Pt wires. • Pt nanoparticles have been obtained potentiostatically at different potentials. • Pt nanoparticles have been obtained by ac methods with different frequencies. • ac synthesis is a better synthesis method than potentiostatic synthesis

  11. Nuclear waste. Which alternatives for method and siting should be accounted for?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    At a seminar in february 2006, KASAM discussed the Swedish legislation concerning how the alternatives for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes should be treated in the application for constructing a repository. Such an application is due in 2008 by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. Some of the important conclusions from the seminar are: The EIS must include a thorough description of the reasoning behind the decisions not to continue investigating alternative methods and sites, and the motives for the decisions for the choices made. The considerations that will be made by the environmental court of law and the regulatory authorities will be marked by a 'court of law perspective' and an 'government authority perspective' resp. The government, on the other hand, has the possibility, and obligation, to look from other points of view, e.g. employment policy and energy policy in its decision to approve a certain type of repository or not. The term 'best possible site' is devoid of meaning without clear definitions and descriptions under what circumstances the terms should be applied. Further clarification is needed on the interaction between stipulations on reports of alternatives in the environmental code and in the legislation in 'Act on nuclear activities'

  12. Evaluation of alternative public transportation systems in Izmit urban transportation via axiomatic design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen AKMAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world and in our country, most of urban transportation is performed by public transportation. Public transportation is a system which provides transportation easiness and opportunity to people, not to vehicles. Therefore, giving priority to public transportation system is necessary in organizing urban transportation. In this study, in order to reduce traffic intensity and to facilitate passenger transportation in Izmit urban transportation, It is tried to determine appropriate public transportation system. For this, firstly, alternatives which could be used for public transportation were determined. These alternatives are metro, metrobus, tram, light rail system and monorail. Afterwards, the variables affecting decision making about public transportation were determined. These variables are cost, transportation line features, vehicle characteristics, sensitivity to environment and customer satisfaction. Lastly, most appropriate public transportation system is proposed by using the axiomatic design method. As a result, light trail system and metrobus are determined as the most appropriate alternatives for Izmit public transportation system.Keywords: Urban transportation, Multi criteria decision making, Axiomatic design

  13. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamic, M.L., E-mail: Mary.Adamic@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Lister, T.E.; Dufek, E.J.; Jenson, D.D.; Olson, J.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Vockenhuber, C. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Watrous, M.G. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for {sup 129}I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powder prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.

  14. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamic, M.L.; Lister, T.E.; Dufek, E.J.; Jenson, D.D.; Olson, J.E.; Vockenhuber, C.; Watrous, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for "1"2"9I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powder prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.

  15. A pre-heating method based on sinusoidal alternating current for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wentao; Sun, Fengchun; Guo, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a method of low temperature pre-heating of sinusoidal alternating current (SAC) is proposed. Generally, the lower the frequency of the AC current, the higher the heat generation rate. Yet at low frequency, there is a risk of lithium-ion deposition during the half cycle of charging. This study develops a temperature-adaptive, deposition-free AC pre-heating method. a equivalent electric circuit(EEC) model is established to predict the heat generation rate and temperature status, whose parameters are calibrated from the EIS impedance measurements. The effects of current frequency and amplitude on the heating effect are investigated respectively. A multistep temperature-adaptive amplitude strategy is proposed and the cell can be heated from -20°C to 5°C within 509s at 100Hz frequency with this method.

  16. Wide-angle full-vector beam propagation method based on an alternating direction implicit preconditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Siu Lit; Lu, Ya Yan

    2004-03-01

    Wide-angle full-vector beam propagation methods (BPMs) for three-dimensional wave-guiding structures can be derived on the basis of rational approximants of a square root operator or its exponential (i.e., the one-way propagator). While the less accurate BPM based on the slowly varying envelope approximation can be efficiently solved by the alternating direction implicit (ADI) method, the wide-angle variants involve linear systems that are more difficult to handle. We present an efficient solver for these linear systems that is based on a Krylov subspace method with an ADI preconditioner. The resulting wide-angle full-vector BPM is used to simulate the propagation of wave fields in a Y branch and a taper.

  17. Alternative test method to assess the energy performance of frost-free refrigerating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermes, Christian J.L.; Melo, Cláudio; Knabben, Fernando T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on–off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. - Highlights: ► An alternative test method to assess the energy consumption of refrigerators is proposed. ► PID-controlled electrical heaters were installed within the compartments. ► Steady-state and ISO energy tests were performed and compared. ► Both proposed and standardized test procedures showed similar trends.

  18. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative methods for ray tracing in uniaxial media. Application to negative refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver-Cebreros, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Danta, Marcelo

    2007-03-01

    In previous papers [C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Eikonal equation, alternative expression of Fresnel's equation and Mohr's construction in optical anisotropic media, Opt. Commun. 189 (2001) 193; C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Internal conical refraction in biaxial media and graphical plane constructions deduced from Mohr's method, Opt. Commun. 212 (2002) 199; C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Refraccion conica externa en medios biaxicos a partir de la construccion de Mohr, Opt. Pura AppliE 36 (2003) 33], the authors have developed a method based on the local properties of dielectric permittivity tensor and on Mohr's plane graphical construction in order to study the behaviour of locally plane light waves in anisotropic media. In this paper, this alternative methodology is compared with the traditional one, by emphasizing the simplicity of the former when studying ray propagation through uniaxial media (comparison is possible since, in this case, traditional construction becomes also plane). An original and simple graphical method is proposed in order to determine the direction of propagation given by the wave vector from the knowledge of the extraordinary ray direction (given by Poynting vector). Some properties of light rays in these media not described in the literature are obtained. Finally, two applications are considered: a description of optical birefringence under normal incidence and the study of negative refraction in uniaxial media.

  20. A Conservative Method for Treating Severely Displaced Pediatric Mandibular Fractures: An Effective Alternative Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahand Samieirad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric mandibular fractures have been successfully managed in various ways. The use of a lingual splint is an option. This article presents a 4-year old boy who was treated by an alternative conservative method with a combination of an arch bar plus a lingual splint, circum-mandibular wiring and IMF for the reduction, stabilization and fixation of a severely displaced bilateral man‌dibular body fracture. This technique is a reliable, noninvasive procedure; it also limits the discomfort and morbidity associated with maxillomandibular fixation or open reduction and internal fixation in pediatric patients

  1. Potential Use of Lime as Nitric Acid Source for Alternative Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianto, V.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find `natural plantation' which have no direct link to `food chain' (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc.).

  2. The application of seasonal latent variable in forecasting electricity demand as an alternative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumer, Kutluk Kagan; Goktas, Ozlem; Hepsag, Aycan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we used ARIMA, seasonal ARIMA (SARIMA) and alternatively the regression model with seasonal latent variable in forecasting electricity demand by using data that belongs to 'Kayseri and Vicinity Electricity Joint-Stock Company' over the 1997:1-2005:12 periods. This study tries to examine the advantages of forecasting with ARIMA, SARIMA methods and with the model has seasonal latent variable to each other. The results support that ARIMA and SARIMA models are unsuccessful in forecasting electricity demand. The regression model with seasonal latent variable used in this study gives more successful results than ARIMA and SARIMA models because also this model can consider seasonal fluctuations and structural breaks

  3. Acoustic rhinometry (AR): An Alternative Method to Image Nasal Airway Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.

      ACOUSTIC RHINOMETRY (AR): AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO IMAGE NASAL AIRWAY GEOMETRY.  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND:  In human studies the acoustic reflection technique was first applied to describe the area-distance relationship of the lower airways, but later the acoustic reflection technique appeared...... to be of more use in the description of nasal cavity geometry. Applied to human subjects AR has been applied to monitor the effect of corrective surgery and mucosal effects of pharmacological interventions. In recent years, however, AR has found use also in pharmacological studies in animals ranging in size...

  4. Non-local currents in 2D QFT: an alternative To - the quantum inverse scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, D.; Leclair, A.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1990-01-01

    The formalism based on non-local charges that we propose provides an alternative to the quantum inverse scattering method for solving integrable quantum field theories in 2D. The content of the paper is: 1. Introduction: historical background. 2. The NLC approach to 2D QFT: a summary. 3 Exchange algebras and on-shell conservation laws: why non-local charges are useful. 4. The lattice construction: the geometrical origin of non-local conserved currents. 5. The continuum construction: how to deal with non-local conserved currents. 6. Examples: Yangian and quantum group currents. 7 Conclusions: open problems. 22 refs., 4 figs

  5. Evaluation of alternative methods for coronary calcium scoring in multi-detector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, Z.; Lasek, W.; Laskowska, K.; Marzec, M.

    2005-01-01

    Determining coronary artery calcifications is one of the methods of coronary heart disease screening. However, the traditional Agatston Calcium Score (CS) shows low interexamination reproducibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interscan variability coefficients of calcium measures based on three modifications of the original Agatston equation. Fifty adults (37 men and 13 women; mean age 46.2 ± 9.2 years) were included in the study. Each patient was examined with two consecutive, prospectively electrocardiographically triggered, multi-detector-row CT acquisitions to detect and quantify coronary artery calcifications. CS was calculated according to the method by Agatston et al. Alternative scores were calculated using a continuous weighting factor (CS-CM), the average lesion attenuation value (CS-SA), or both (CS-CA). The mean and median interscan percent variabilities of the methods were evaluated using nonparametric analysis of variance. In the 50 patients, 1315 calcified lesions were found. The alternative scores correlated well with CS (for CS vs. CS-SA, CS-CM, and CS-CA, r = 0.990, 0.840, and 0.946, respectively, P < 0.0001). The mean and median percent variabilities did not differ significantly among the methods tested (P = 0.370). For CS, CS-SA, CS-CM, and CS-CA the mean variabilities were 13.24%, 13.36%, 16.00%, and 13.62%, respectively. Except for CS-CM, the methods showed similar distributions of variability vs. score on Bland and Altman plots. None of the tested modifications of the Agatston method brought improvement in the interscan reproducibility of coronary calcium scoring. In our opinion, a significant reduction in variability may be achieved by a standardization of image acquisition and reconstruction. (author)

  6. Evaluation of SKB/Posiva's report on the horizontal alternative of the KBS-3 method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, Michael J.; Bennet, David G.; Saario, Timtetr; Savage, David

    2009-10-01

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. The method has two design alternatives: the vertical (KBS-3V) and the horizontal (KBS-3H). In the KBS-3H concept, copper canisters loaded with spen nuclear fuel are encased in a compacted bentonite buffer with an outer supporting supercontainer composed of a mild steel basket, and the entire supercontainer is emplaced horizontally in long emplacement drifts. SKB and Posiva have conducted a joint research, development and demonstration (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether the KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The objectives have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirement as the KBS-3V. Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) considers that it is a proper time to evaluate the work carried by SKB and Posiva when this period of joint research is ended and a relatively complete set of reporting is available. SSM therefore required its external expert group BRITE (the Barrier Review, Integration, Tracking and Evaluation) to evaluate the reporting. The aims of the evaluation are to investigate the differences between the horizontal and vertical design alternatives with respect to: Completeness: has SKB/Posiva identified the full set of key topics, and if not, what additional specific key topics should be evaluated; Depth-of-treatment: has SKB/Posiva analysed the key topics in sufficient depth, and if not, on what specific aspects in more detailed consideration required; Status of information: has SKB/ Posiva provided enough information on the current status of knowledge and uncertainties that impact the understanding of each key topic, and if not, what further information should be cited; Feasibility and practicality: for key issues related to the fabrication and

  7. Google Street View as an alternative method to car surveys in large-scale vegetation assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Ernesto; Silva, Joaquim S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Miguel; Moreira, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands. Georeferenced points gathered along CS were used to create road transects visible as lines overlapping the road in GSV environment, allowing surveying the same sampling areas using both methods. This paper presents the results of the comparison between the two methods. Both methods produced similar models of plant abundance, selecting the same explanatory variables, in the same hierarchical order of importance and depicting a similar influence on plant abundance. Even though the GSV model had a lower performance and the GSV survey detected fewer plants, additional variables collected exclusively with GSV improved model performance and provided a new insight into additional factors influencing plant abundance. The survey using GSV required ca. 9 % of the funds and 62 % of the time needed to accomplish the CS. We conclude that GSV may be a cost-effective alternative to CS. We discuss some advantages and limitations of GSV as a survey method. We forecast that GSV may become a widespread tool in road ecology, particularly in large-scale vegetation assessments.

  8. A Dual Filtration-Based Multiplex PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on Fresh-Cut Cantaloupe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Feng

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut cantaloupe is particularly susceptible to contamination with pathogenic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, development of rapid, yet accurate detection techniques is necessary to ensure food safety. In this study, a multiplex PCR system and propidium monoazide (PMA concentration were optimized to detect all viable pathogens in a single tube. A dual filtration system utilized a filtration membrane with different pore sizes to enrich pathogens found on fresh-cut cantaloupe. The results revealed that an optimized multiplex PCR system has the ability to effectively detect three pathogens in the same tube. The viable pathogens were simultaneously detected for PMA concentrations above 10 μg/ml. The combination of a nylon membrane (15 μm and a micro pore filtration membrane (0.22 μm formed the dual filtration system used to enrich pathogens. The achieved sensitivity of PMA-mPCR based on this dual filtration system was 2.6 × 103 cfu/g for L. monocytogenes, 4.3 × 10 cfu/g for E. coli O157:H7, and 3.1 × 102 cfu/g for S. aureus. Fresh-cut cantaloupe was inoculated with the three target pathogens using concentrations of 103, 102, 10, and 1 cfu/g. After 6-h of enrichment culture, assay sensitivity increased to 1 cfu/g for each of these pathogens. Thus, this technique represents an efficient and rapid detection tool for implementation on fresh-cut cantaloupe.

  9. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  10. Alternative method for predicting optimal insertion depth of the laryngeal tube in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J T; Jeon, S Y; Kim, C S; Kim, S D; Kim, H S

    2007-11-01

    Little information is available about the accuracy of the teeth mark on the laryngeal tube (LT) as a guide to correct placement in children. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate three methods for optimal insertion depth of the size (#) 2 tube in children weighing 12-25 kg. In 24 children, the LT #2 was consecutively inserted by three different methods: (A) until the thick teeth mark on the tube was aligned with the upper incisors, (B) until resistance was felt, and (C) by inserting to a depth, previously measured, of the curved distance between the cricoid cartilage and the upper incisor. In each case, the depth of insertion, the degree of effective ventilation, the presence of leakage, and the fibreoptic view were assessed. Insertion based on the teeth mark led to a shorter insertion depth and a greater incidence of inadequate ventilation compared with the other two methods. There was no difference in the adequacy of ventilation between methods B and C. The vocal cords were more easily identified with methods B (62.5%) and C (75%) than with method A (12.5%). Insertion of the LT #2 aligned with the teeth mark can result in a shallow insertion depth and inadequate ventilation. The measured distance from the cricoid cartilage to the upper incisor offers alternative guidance for correct LT insertion.

  11. USAGE OF PICTOGRAMS TO INTRODUCE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS TO EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsu YILMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and investigate the perception ability of musical instruments of educable mentally retarded children with the support of visual elements. The research is conducted for every children individually in a special education and rehabilitation centre. The problematic of this research is the level of perception ability of musical instruments with visual support on mild mentally retarded children. In this research, perception ability of defining pictograms by music is introduced as an alternative method. It is researched that how educable mentally retarded children perceive pictograms by music tools. In this case, it is aimed to introduce musical instruments to educable mentally retarded children by pictograms with music. The research is applied with a qualitative approach. Data were obtained with the recorder, then they were turned into texts and analyzed with content analysis method.

  12. WAG (water-alternating-gas) as a method for petroleum advanced recovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campozana, Fernando P.; Mato, Luiz F.

    2000-01-01

    Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) injection is an oil recovery method that has been more and more applied worldwide. Oil recovery has been increased up to 20 % (over conventional waterflooding) in field-scale WAG projects. This additional recovery has been attributed to improved sweep and areal efficiency as well as microscopic displacement efficiency. Field results have shown that not only WAG method combines the advantages of gas and water injection but also leads to more stable fronts and better mobility control. Moreover, three-phase flow usually leads to a lower residual oil saturation when compared to that of two-phase flow. In this study, we show some theoretical aspects of WAG as well as some results obtained from numerical simulation of a pilot project to be implemented in Aracas field, Bahia, Brazil. (author)

  13. On the rate of convergence of the alternating projection method in finite dimensional spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galántai, A.

    2005-10-01

    Using the results of Smith, Solmon, and Wagner [K. Smith, D. Solomon, S. Wagner, Practical and mathematical aspects of the problem of reconstructing objects from radiographs, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 83 (1977) 1227-1270] and Nelson and Neumann [S. Nelson, M. Neumann, Generalizations of the projection method with application to SOR theory for Hermitian positive semidefinite linear systems, Numer. Math. 51 (1987) 123-141] we derive new estimates for the speed of the alternating projection method and its relaxed version in . These estimates can be computed in at most O(m3) arithmetic operations unlike the estimates in papers mentioned above that require spectral information. The new and old estimates are equivalent in many practical cases. In cases when the new estimates are weaker, the numerical testing indicates that they approximate the original bounds in papers mentioned above quite well.

  14. Quantitative determination of enterococci in water using an alternative chromogenic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Perez, Marilyn; Zhurbenko, Raisa; Lobaina Rodriguez, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Water quality control is essential for the protection of human health and biodiversity in the aquatic environment. For this purpose, several microorganisms are used as indicators of fecal contamination. Among them are enterococci, which are considered to be good indicators, since they survive for a longer time in adverse natural conditions. Water samples were collected from three different sources to determine their quality. The samples were assayed in parallel with the two methodologies (alternative and reference) using the membrane filtration technique. The following parameters were determined to evaluate the performance of the methods: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, percentage of false positives, percentage of false negatives, kappa index. The first three parameters were estimated for both methods before and after confirmation by biochemical testing. Results were analyzed statistically based on the main criteria defined by ISO standards 16140 and 177994

  15. Alternative method of inservice hydraulic testing of difficult to test pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.; Shangari, S.

    1994-01-01

    The pump test codes require that system resistance be varied until the independent variable (either the pump flow rate or differential pressure) equals its reference value. Variance from this fixed reference value is not specifically allowed. However, the design of many systems makes it impractical to set the independent variable to an exact value. Over a limited range of pump operation about the fixed reference value, linear interpolation between two points of pump operation can be used to accurately determine degradation at the reference value without repeating reference test conditions. This paper presents an overview of possible alternatives for hydraulic testing of pumps and a detailed discussion of the linear interpolation method. The approximation error associated with linear interpolation is analyzed. Methods to quantify and minimize approximation error are presented

  16. Ion-Exchange Membrane Chromatography as an Alternative Method of Separation of Potato y Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treder Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedures of separation of virus particles from a plant material are multistage. Furthermore often they are difficult in terms of methodology and require use of expensive, highly specialist equipment and yield of separation is often low. The antigen obtained is often degraded and contains admixtures of other proteins. Therefore, generation of high quality and specificity antibodies based on such antigen is very difficult and quality of the antibodies has impact on reliability, sensitivity and unambiguity of results of immunodiagnostic tests (e.g. ELISA that are currently conventionally used to detect vegetable viruses. In this study three conventionally-performed methods of separation of potato virus Y (PVY were compared and a method of separation based on membrane chromatography, as an alternative separation technique, has been presented. It has been demonstrated that in proper process conditions good quality virus preparation can be obtained.

  17. Alternative of raw material’s suppliers using TOPSIS method in chicken slaughterhouse industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R. M.; Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Anizar; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Chicken slaughterhouse industry is one of the fastest growing industries that depends on the freshness of raw materials. The raw materials quality arrive at the company depends heavily on the suppliers. Fresh chicken and frozen chicken meat are the main raw materials for this industry. Problems occurred by the suppliers are catering the amount of raw material needs that are not appropriate and also delay during delivery process. This condition causes disruption of the production process in the company. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the best suppliers to supply the main raw materials of fresh and frozen chicken meat on the slaughterhouse chicken industry. This study analyze the supplier’s capability by using TOPSIS method. This method use to find out the best supplier. The TOPSIS method is performed using the principle that chosen alternative must have the shortest distance from the positive solution and furthest from the ideal solution of the geometric point by using the Euclidean distance to determine the relative proximity of the optimum solution alternative. TOPSIS method found the rank of best supplier’s order is supplier A followed by supplier D, supplier B, supplier C, supplier E, supplier F, and supplier G. Based on the rank order obtained from each company, it will assist the company in prioritizing the order to the supplier with the best rank. Total supply from All suppliers are 885,994 kg per month. Based on the results of research, the top five suppliers have been sufficient to meet the needs of the company.

  18. Sycamore produces viable seed after six years

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. F. Ike

    1966-01-01

    In the early stages of any tree improvement program it is desirable to know how soon progenies of selected parents can themselves be included in a breeding program. How soon will they produce viable pollen and seed? In the case of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), the information is meager: the Woody- Plant Seed Manual lists the minimum commercial seedbearing age...

  19. Update and Improve Subsection NH - Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, Tai

    2009-01-01

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  20. Center index method-an alternative for wear measurements with radiostereometry (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jon; Figved, Wender; Snorrason, Finnur; Nordsletten, Lars; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2013-03-01

    Radiostereometry (RSA) is considered to be the most precise and accurate method for wear-measurements in total hip replacement. Post-operative stereoradiographs has so far been necessary for wear measurement. Hence, the use of RSA has been limited to studies planned for RSA measurements. We compared a new RSA method for wear measurements that does not require previous radiographs with conventional RSA. Instead of comparing present stereoradiographs with post-operative ones, we developed a method for calculating the post-operative position of the center of the femoral head on the present examination and using this as the index measurement. We compared this alternative method to conventional RSA in 27 hips in an ongoing RSA study. We found a high degree of agreement between the methods for both mean proximal (1.19 mm vs. 1.14 mm) and mean 3D wear (1.52 mm vs. 1.44 mm) after 10 years. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.958 and 0.955, respectively (pRSA offers comparable results to conventional RSA measurements. It allows precise wear measurements without previous radiological examinations. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  1. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Chau, T. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  2. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L(-1)/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L(-1)/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L(-1)/1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L(-1) free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 μm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  3. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto Bachelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min, peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  4. A combination of direct viable count and fluorescence in situ hybridization for specific enumeration of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J; Moreno, Y; Amorocho, C M; Hernández, M

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a direct viable count (DVC)-FISH procedure for quickly and easily discriminating between viable and nonviable cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains, the traditional yogurt bacteria. direct viable count method has been modified and adapted for Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus analysis by testing different times of incubation and concentrations of DNA-gyrase inhibitors. DVC procedure has been combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the specific detection of viable cells of both bacteria with specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes (DVC-FISH). Of the four antibiotics tested (novobiocin, nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid and ciprofloxacin), novobiocin was the most effective for DVC method and the optimum incubation time was 7 h for both bacteria. The number of viable cells was obtained by the enumeration of specific hybridized cells that were elongated at least twice their original length for Lactobacillus and twice their original size for Streptococcus. This technique was successfully applied to detect viable cells in inoculated faeces. Results showed that this DVC-FISH procedure is a quick and culture-independent useful method to specifically detect viable Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus in different samples, being applied for the first time to lactic acid bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Social Benefits of Energy Conservation in Hungary. An examination of alternative methods of evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H.A.; Aunan, K.; Seip, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    This report compares alternative methods for valuation of the social benefits of less air pollution. One can estimate such benefits by the economic consequences of less damage caused by pollution or by the willingness to pay for less pollution. As a case study, the report examines an energy conservation programme in Hungary, in which 64 PJ of fossil energy was conserved per year. According to the damage cost approach, the benefits corresponds to 75 million USD per year, divided into 41 mill for health and 33 mill in material damage. The willingness to pay approach yielded a value of 1.9 bill. USD. Most of the difference is attributed to different estimates for chronic distresses and early death. One should not regard the results of the different approaches as alternative answers to the same question. Instead, damage cost and willingness to pay assessments can be considered as necessary components of a macro economic study of environmental policy. 23 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional, and cognitive deficits observed in patients with non-communicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favor the idea that the structural, multimodal, and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  7. MUSICAL TRAINING AS AN ALTERNATIVE AND EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR NEURO-EDUCATION AND NEURO-REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eFrançois

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional and cognitive deficits observed in patients with noncommunicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favour the idea that the structural, multimodal and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  8. Study on the alternative mitigation of cement dust spread by capturing the dust with fogging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanta, Jaka; Marnoto, Tjukup; Setyono, Prabang; Handono Ramelan, Ari

    2017-12-01

    The existence of a cement plant impact the lives of people around the factory site. For example the air quality, which is polluted by dust. Cement plant has made various efforts to mitigate the generated dust, but there are still alot of dust fly inground either from the cement factory chimneys or transportation. The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of alternative mitigation of the spread of dust around the cement plant. This study uses research methods such as collecting secondary data which includes data of rain density, the average rains duration, wind speed and direction as well as data of dust intensity quality around PT. Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk.Tuban plant. A soft Wind rose file is used To determine the wind direction propensity models. The impact on the spread of dust into the environment is determined using secondary data monitoring air quality. Results of the study is that the mitigation of dust around the cement plant is influenced by natural factors, such as the tendency of wind direction, rain fall and rainy days, and the rate of dust emission from the chimney. The alternative means proposed is an environmental friendly fogging dust catcher.

  9. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Allnutt

    Full Text Available The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value. The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative

  10. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixue Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L 1 -norm of kernel intensity and the squared L 2 -norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L 1 -norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  11. Alternative Method for the Mass Rearing of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Laboratory Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E F; Fernandes, W S; Oshiro, E T; Oliveira, A G; Galati, E A B

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania spp. Ross as well as the epidemiology and spread of leishmaniasis is related to parasite-vector-host interactions. These interactions can be studied using specimens of a sand fly population reared in the laboratory, exposing individuals to experimental infection for the investigation of vector competence and parameters of the vectorial capacity of the species. The present study sought to describe an alternative method for the implantation of a Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) cruzi colony with wild specimens captured in the municipality of Corumbá, Brazil. With Method 1, engorged females were individualized for oviposition. The eggs were transferred to an acrylic petri dish with a layer of plaster on the bottom, on which food was placed after hatching of the first larvae. With Method 2, females were kept in groups for oviposition in containers, in which soil and food were placed on their bottom for the larvae. In addition, the exposure time of the larvae to light was reduced in comparison with Method 1. With Method 2, a significantly greater number of specimens of Lu. cruzi was obtained. The ratio between the number of emerged adults and the females followed for oviposition was 0.42 with Method 1 and 2.75 with Method 2. The optimization of the rearing conditions for Lu. cruzi will enable the establishment of a colony providing a sufficient number of specimens to develop experimental infection by Leishmania as well as vectorial competence and some parameters of the vectorial capacity of this sand fly. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. An alternative empirical likelihood method in missing response problems and causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kaili; Drummond, Christopher A; Brewster, Pamela S; Haller, Steven T; Tian, Jiang; Cooper, Christopher J; Zhang, Biao

    2016-11-30

    Missing responses are common problems in medical, social, and economic studies. When responses are missing at random, a complete case data analysis may result in biases. A popular debias method is inverse probability weighting proposed by Horvitz and Thompson. To improve efficiency, Robins et al. proposed an augmented inverse probability weighting method. The augmented inverse probability weighting estimator has a double-robustness property and achieves the semiparametric efficiency lower bound when the regression model and propensity score model are both correctly specified. In this paper, we introduce an empirical likelihood-based estimator as an alternative to Qin and Zhang (2007). Our proposed estimator is also doubly robust and locally efficient. Simulation results show that the proposed estimator has better performance when the propensity score is correctly modeled. Moreover, the proposed method can be applied in the estimation of average treatment effect in observational causal inferences. Finally, we apply our method to an observational study of smoking, using data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions clinical trial. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Using Electrocoagulation as an Alternative Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzana Che Sayuti; Abdul Aziz Mohd Azoddein

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a crucial stage to prevent from environmental pollution. An alternative method should be implemented to replace the conventional wastewater treatment method. Concentration required by the Department of Environment (DOE) is 200 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 100 mg/L for total suspended solid (TSS). Electrocoagulation was used to reduce the amount of COD and TSS in POME. The performance of COD and TSS removal using electrocoagulation was scrutinized. Electrocoagulation reactor was used and the optimum operating parameters were determined. The voltage parameter was manipulated in order to identify the effect on the removal efficiency of COD and TSS. The highest removal efficiency obtained were 95.71 % for COD and 99.25 % for TSS in which COD reduced from 4900 mg/L to 210 mg/L meanwhile TSS from 4000 mg/L to 30 mg/L. The final COD almost meets the requirement of DOE of 200 mg/L while TSS fulfil the requirement of 100 mg/L for standard B. The highest efficiency obtained at optimum pH 7.44, electrocoagulation time 25 min and voltage of 100 V by using aluminium electrodes. This method was found to be efficient and capable to reduce time of treatment compared to standard conventional method. (author)

  14. Preliminary assessment of alternative dry storage methods for the storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the (1) state of technology, (2) licensability, (3) implementation schedule, and (4) costs of alternative dry methods for storage of spent fuel at a reactor location when used to supplement reactor pool storage facilities. The methods of storage that were considered included storage in casks, drywells, concrete silos and air-cooled vaults. The impact of disassembly of spent fuel and storage of consolidated fuel rods was also determined. The economic assessments were made based on the current projected storage requirements of Virginia Electric and Power Company's Surry Station for the period 1985 to 2009, which has two operating pressurized water reactors (824 MWe each). It was estimated that the unit cost for storage of spent fuel in casks would amount to $117/kgU and that such costs for storage in drywells would amount to $137/kgU. However, based on the overall assessment it was concluded both storage methods were equal in merit. Modular methods of storage were generally found to be more economic than those requiring all or most of the facilities to be constructed prior to commencement of storage operations

  15. Robust fluence map optimization via alternating direction method of multipliers with empirical parameter optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hao

    2016-01-01

    For the treatment planning during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), beam fluence maps can be first optimized via fluence map optimization (FMO) under the given dose prescriptions and constraints to conformally deliver the radiation dose to the targets while sparing the organs-at-risk, and then segmented into deliverable MLC apertures via leaf or arc sequencing algorithms. This work is to develop an efficient algorithm for FMO based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Here we consider FMO with the least-square cost function and non-negative fluence constraints, and its solution algorithm is based on ADMM, which is efficient and simple-to-implement. In addition, an empirical method for optimizing the ADMM parameter is developed to improve the robustness of the ADMM algorithm. The ADMM based FMO solver was benchmarked with the quadratic programming method based on the interior-point (IP) method using the CORT dataset. The comparison results suggested the ADMM solver had a similar plan quality with slightly smaller total objective function value than IP. A simple-to-implement ADMM based FMO solver with empirical parameter optimization is proposed for IMRT or VMAT. (paper)

  16. An alternative method for determination of oscillator strengths: The example of Sc II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruczkowski, J.; Elantkowska, M.; Dembczyński, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe our method for determining oscillator strengths and hyperfine structure splittings that is an alternative to the commonly used, purely theoretical calculations, or to the semi-empirical approach combined with theoretically calculated transition integrals. We have developed our own computer programs that allow us to determine all attributes of the structure of complex atoms starting from the measured frequencies emitted by the atoms. As an example, we present the results of the calculation of the structure, electric dipole transitions, and hyperfine splittings of Sc II. The angular coefficients of the transition matrix in pure SL coupling were found from straightforward Racah algebra. The transition matrix was transformed into the actual intermediate coupling by the fine structure eigenvectors obtained from the semi-empirical approach. The transition integrals were treated as free parameters in the least squares fit to experimental gf values. For most transitions, the experimental and the calculated gf-values are consistent with the accuracy claimed in the NIST compilation. - Highlights: • The method of simultaneous determination of all the attributes of atomic structure. • The semi-empirical method of parameterization of oscillator strengths. • Illustration of the method application for the example of Sc II data

  17. The strategy of alternate direction adapted to a coarse mesh method for the solution of neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, F.V.

    1982-01-01

    An adaptation of the alternate direction method for coarse mesh calculation, is presented. The algorithm is applicable to two-and three dimensional problems, the last being the more interesting one. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Examination and Improvement of Accuracy of Three-Dimensional Elastic Crack Solutions Obtained Using Finite Element Alternating Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jai Hak; Nikishkov, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    An SGBEM (symmetric Galerkin boundary element method)-FEM alternating method has been proposed by Nikishkov, Park and Atluri. This method can be used to obtain mixed-mode stress intensity factors for planar and nonplanar three-dimensional cracks having an arbitrary shape. For field applications, however, it is necessary to verify the accuracy and consistency of this method. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the effects of several factors on the accuracy of the stress intensity factors obtained using the above mentioned alternating method. The obtained stress intensity factors are compared with the known values provided in handbooks, especially in the case of internal and external circumferential semi-elliptical surface cracks. The results show that the SGBEM-FEM alternating method yields accurate stress intensity factors for three-dimensional cracks, including internal and external circumferential surface cracks and that the method can be used as a robust crack analysis tool for solving field problems

  19. Substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process. Conditions for the correct application of the proposed method in the selection process of preferred alternative of technical objects were worked out. The set of criteria of system effectiveness evalua-tion and the corresponding hierarchical structure in accordance with the developed conditions was proposed.

  20. Designing Alternative Transport Methods for the Distributed Data Collection of ATLAS EventIndex Project

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the key and challenging tasks of the ATLAS EventIndex project is to index and catalog all the produced events not only at CERN but also at hundreds of worldwide grid sites, and convey the data in real time to a central Hadoop instance at CERN. While this distributed data collection is currently operating correctly in production, there are some issues that might impose performance bottlenecks in the future, with an expected rise in the event production and reprocessing rates. In this work, we first describe the current approach based on a messaging system, which conveys the data from the sources to the central catalog, and we identify some weaknesses of this system. Then, we study a promising alternative transport method based on an object store, presenting a performance comparison with the current approach, and the architectural design changes needed to adapt the system to the next run of the ATLAS experiment at CERN.

  1. Shearography: An alternative method of NDE for analysis of corrosion in petroleum pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusnisyam Yusof; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of shearography as an alternative method of NDE for analysis of corrosion in petroleum pipeline. Shearography reveals direct information about defect induced stress which utilized the laser wave front pattern on the inspected object. In this study, the laser shearography technique was used to measure the derivative displacement of 7 mm thickness carbon steel pipe wall surface with simulated corrosion area at internal wall. The wave front pattern of internal wall corrosion in petroleum pipeline will be constructed to 3D image profiles in order to measure the severity and magnitude of material deformation. The process may involve of optical phase stepping procedure and the image processing algorithm for wrapped and unwrapped phase image at the deformation area. The unwrapped phase image can be meshed plot which finally lead to 3D image profiles. The phase stepping procedure in this analysis was selected by utilizing four phase stepping procedure using piezoelectric transducer (PZT) attached with optical mirror. (author)

  2. Alternative method for lancing control of a steam generator in a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper illustrates a methodology for flexible process sequencing using SFC to be applied in teleoperated robotics and remote systems for hazardous and disordered nuclear environments. In this approach SFC is used as a unified framework for representing both: process sequencing and transitions adaptation on a flexible application to the cleaning task of a steam generator tube pack of a pressurised water reactor by means of automatic operated water lancing control. With this approach adaptive control and supervision are instructed and implemented in parallel by exploiting the power of SFC to describe massive parallel problem solving tasks which is an alternative method to the typical installations generally equipped with a main-frame linked to a PLC based network necessary to solve the same task. In this approach SFC is used as a unified framework for representing both the process sequence and transitions adaptation on a flexible application to a supervision control task. (Author)

  3. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  4. Viable Group A Streptococci in Macrophages during Acute Soft Tissue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcal severe soft tissue infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, are rapidly progressive infections associated with high mortality. Group A streptococcus is typically considered an extracellular pathogen, but has been shown to reside intracellularly in host cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized in vivo interactions between group A streptococci (GAS and cells involved in innate immune responses, using human biopsies (n = 70 collected from 17 patients with soft tissue infections. Immunostaining and in situ image analysis revealed high amounts of bacteria in the biopsies, even in those collected after prolonged antibiotic therapy. Viability of the streptococci was assessed by use of a bacterial viability stain, which demonstrated viable bacteria in 74% of the biopsies. GAS were present both extracellularly and intracellularly within phagocytic cells, primarily within macrophages. Intracellular GAS were predominantly noted in biopsies from newly involved tissue characterized by lower inflammation and bacterial load, whereas purely extracellular GAS or a combination of intra- and extracellular GAS dominated in severely inflamed tissue. The latter tissue was also associated with a significantly increased amount of the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin SpeB. In vitro studies confirmed that macrophages serve as reservoirs for viable GAS, and infection with a speB-deletion mutant produced significantly lower frequencies of cells with viable GAS following infection as compared to the wild-type bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that GAS survive intracellularly in macrophages during acute invasive infections. This intracellular presence may have evolved as a mechanism to avoid antibiotic eradication, which may explain our finding that high bacterial load is present even in tissue collected after prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy. This new insight into the pathogenesis

  5. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING TO REDUCE SALT IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Tunieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trends in table salt reduction in meat products contemplate the use of different methods for preservation of taste and consistency in finished products as well as shelf life prolongation. There are several approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in meat products. The paper presents a review of the foreign studies that give evidence of the possibility to maintain quality of traditional meat products produced with the reduced salt content. The studies in the field of salty taste perception established that a decrease in a salt crystal size to 20 µm enabled reducing an amount of added table salt due to an increase in the salty taste intensity in food products. Investigation of the compatibility of different taste directions is also interesting as one of the approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in food products. The use of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsions allows controlling a release of encapsulated ingredients (salt, which enables enhancement of salty taste. The other alternative method of technological processing of meat raw material for reducing salt in meat products is the use of high pressure processing. This method has several advantages and allows not only an increase in the salty taste intensity, but also formation of a stable emulsion, an increase in water binding capacity of minced meat and extension of shelf-life.

  6. Iterative approach as alternative to S-matrix in modal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenikhin, Igor; Zanuccoli, Mauro

    2014-12-01

    The continuously increasing complexity of opto-electronic devices and the rising demands of simulation accuracy lead to the need of solving very large systems of linear equations making iterative methods promising and attractive from the computational point of view with respect to direct methods. In particular, iterative approach potentially enables the reduction of required computational time to solve Maxwell's equations by Eigenmode Expansion algorithms. Regardless of the particular eigenmodes finding method used, the expansion coefficients are computed as a rule by scattering matrix (S-matrix) approach or similar techniques requiring order of M3 operations. In this work we consider alternatives to the S-matrix technique which are based on pure iterative or mixed direct-iterative approaches. The possibility to diminish the impact of M3 -order calculations to overall time and in some cases even to reduce the number of arithmetic operations to M2 by applying iterative techniques are discussed. Numerical results are illustrated to discuss validity and potentiality of the proposed approaches.

  7. Deriving the probability of a linear opinion pooling method being superior to a set of alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolger, Donnacha; Houlding, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Linear opinion pools are a common method for combining a set of distinct opinions into a single succinct opinion, often to be used in a decision making task. In this paper we consider a method, termed the Plug-in approach, for determining the weights to be assigned in this linear pool, in a manner that can be deemed as rational in some sense, while incorporating multiple forms of learning over time into its process. The environment that we consider is one in which every source in the pool is herself a decision maker (DM), in contrast to the more common setting in which expert judgments are amalgamated for use by a single DM. We discuss a simulation study that was conducted to show the merits of our technique, and demonstrate how theoretical probabilistic arguments can be used to exactly quantify the probability of this technique being superior (in terms of a probability density metric) to a set of alternatives. Illustrations are given of simulated proportions converging to these true probabilities in a range of commonly used distributional cases. - Highlights: • A novel context for combination of expert opinion is provided. • A dynamic reliability assessment method is stated, justified by properties and a data study. • The theoretical grounding underlying the data-driven justification is explored. • We conclude with areas for expansion and further relevant research.

  8. Between Contemporary Art and Cultural Analysis: Alternative Methods for Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Ehn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artistic research suggests alternative methods for producing various kinds of knowledge, whether within or without the confines of academe. These methods may involve either the production of investigative artworks or the writing by the artist of a doctoral dissertation about his or her own work. For cultural researchers, the methods employed by artists engaged in these processes are both familiar and challenging, as conventional ethnography is mixed with more unpredictable experiments. This article presents several contemporary artworks, including sculpture, film, dance, installation and performance that explore various aspects of reality. What can be learnt from these works? And what could be achieved by an open exchange between artists and academic researchers? Four methodological approaches are highlighted as being of particular interest. The first relates to artists’ tendency to live experimentally, using themselves both as actors and as research objects. The second arises from the very tangible ways in which contemporary artworks approach the theme of materiality. The third relates to the emotional nature of much of contemporary art – even when it is categorised as conceptual – in its creation, forms of presentation, and influence on the spectator. Finally, many artists are gifted with the ability to find and communicate surprising meanings in ordinary life. How do they do this? Part of the answer seems to be that although artists are open to the implementation of “wild whims”, they exploit their spontaneity in a highly professional manner.

  9. Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%, 8 (50%, and 6 (37% had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10 of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ≥S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this.

  10. Regulation of Viable and Optimal Cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: aubin.jp@gmail.com [VIMADES (Viabilité, Marchés, Automatique, Décisions) (France)

    2015-10-15

    This study deals with the evolution of (scalar) attributes (resources or income in evolutionary demography or economics, position in traffic management, etc.) of a population of “mobiles” (economic agents, vehicles, etc.). The set of mobiles sharing the same attributes is regarded as an instantaneous cohort described by the number of its elements. The union of instantaneous cohorts during a mobile window between two attributes is a cohort. Given a measure defining the number of instantaneous cohorts, the accumulation of the mobile attributes on a evolving mobile window is the measure of the cohort on this temporal mobile window. Imposing accumulation constraints and departure conditions, this study is devoted to the regulation of the evolutions of the attributes which are1.viable in the sense that the accumulations constraints are satisfied at each instant;2.and, among them, optimal, in the sense that both the duration of the temporal mobile window is maximum and that the accumulation on this temporal mobile window is the largest viable one. This value is the “accumulation valuation” function. Viable and optimal evolutions under accumulation constraints are regulated by an “implicit Volterra integro-differential inclusion” built from the accumulation valuation function, solution to an Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman partial differential equation under constraints which is constructed for this purpose.

  11. USING COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD OF STUDENT LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia SAPRIATI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test, Ø conflicting test schedules, and Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades. In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification. Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.

  12. Tsunakawa-Shaw method - an absolute paleointensity technique using alternating field demagnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Shibuya, H.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2015-12-01

    Among geologic materials volcanic rocks have been typically used to deduce an absolute paleointensity. In the last decade, however, there seems a becoming consensus that volcanic rocks are not so ideal materials due to such as magnetic grains other than non-interacting single domain particles. One approach to obtain a good paleointensity estimate from the rocks is to reduce and correct the non-ideality, suppress alterations in laboratory and screen out suspicious results. We have been working on a development and an application of the Tsunakawa-Shaw method, which has been previously called the LTD-DHT Shaw method. This method is an AF(alternating field)-based technique and thus a paleointensity is estimated using coercivity spectra. To reduce the non-ideality, all remanences undergo low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) before any AF demagnetizations to remove multi-domain like component. To correct the non-ideality, anhysteretic remanent magnetizations (ARMs) are imparted with their directions parallel to natural remanent magnetizations and laboratory-imparted thermoremanent magnetizations (TRMs) and measured before and after laboratory heating. These ARMs are used to correct remanence anisotropies, possible interaction effects originated from the non-ideal grains and TRM changes caused by laboratory alterations. TRMs are imparted by heating specimens above their Curie temperatures and then cooling to room temperature at once to simulate nature conditions. These cycles are done in vacuum to suppress alterations in laboratory. Obtained results are judged by selection criteria, including a check for validity of the ARM corrections.It has been demonstrated that successful paleointensities are obtained from historical lavas in Japan and Hawaii, and from baked clay samples from a reconstructed ancient kiln, with the flow-mean precision of 5-10%. In case of old volcanic rocks, however, the method does not necessarily seem to be perfect. We will summarize these points in

  13. Alternative Practice Dental Hygiene in California: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    MERTZ, ELIZABETH; GLASSMAN, PAUL

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the development of the registered dental hygienist in alternative practice in California through an analysis of archival documents, stakeholder interviews, and two surveys of the registered dental hygienist in alternative practice. Designing, testing and implementing a new practice model for dental hygienists took 23 years. Today, registered dental hygienists in alternative practice have developed viable alternative methods for delivering preventive oral health care services in a range of settings with patients who often have no other source of access to care. PMID:21337961

  14. Prosthetic misfit of implant-supported prosthesis obtained by an alternative section method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão-Filho, Hilmo Barreto Leite; de Aguiar, Fábio Afrânio; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; de Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Adequate passive-fitting of one-piece cast 3-element implant-supported frameworks is hard to achieve. This short communication aims to present an alternative method for section of one-piece cast frameworks and for casting implant-supported frameworks. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three-unit implant-supported nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) frameworks were tested for vertical misfit (n = 6). The frameworks were cast as one-piece (Group A) and later transversally sectioned through a diagonal axis (Group B) and compared to frameworks that were cast diagonally separated (Group C). All separated frameworks were laser welded. Only one side of the frameworks was screwed. RESULTS The results on the tightened side were significantly lower in Group C (6.43 ± 3.24 µm) when compared to Groups A (16.50 ± 7.55 µm) and B (16.27 ± 1.71 µm) (Plaser welding showed significant improvement in the levels of misfit of the frameworks (Group A, 58.66±14.30 µm; Group B, 39.48±12.03 µm; Group C, 23.13±8.24 µm) (P<.05). CONCLUSION Casting diagonally sectioned frameworks lowers the misfit levels. Lower misfit levels for the frameworks can be achieved by diagonally sectioning one-piece frameworks. PMID:22737313

  15. Evaluation of Two Statistical Methods Provides Insights into the Complex Patterns of Alternative Polyadenylation Site Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Rui; You, Leiming; Xu, Anlong; Fu, Yonggui; Huang, Shengfeng

    2015-01-01

    Switching between different alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites plays an important role in the fine tuning of gene expression. New technologies for the execution of 3’-end enriched RNA-seq allow genome-wide detection of the genes that exhibit significant APA site switching between different samples. Here, we show that the independence test gives better results than the linear trend test in detecting APA site-switching events. Further examination suggests that the discrepancy between these two statistical methods arises from complex APA site-switching events that cannot be represented by a simple change of average 3’-UTR length. In theory, the linear trend test is only effective in detecting these simple changes. We classify the switching events into four switching patterns: two simple patterns (3’-UTR shortening and lengthening) and two complex patterns. By comparing the results of the two statistical methods, we show that complex patterns account for 1/4 of all observed switching events that happen between normal and cancerous human breast cell lines. Because simple and complex switching patterns may convey different biological meanings, they merit separate study. We therefore propose to combine both the independence test and the linear trend test in practice. First, the independence test should be used to detect APA site switching; second, the linear trend test should be invoked to identify simple switching events; and third, those complex switching events that pass independence testing but fail linear trend testing can be identified. PMID:25875641

  16. Alternative sorptive extraction method for gas chromatography determination of halogenated anisoles in water and wine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, R.; Rodriguez, I.; Rubi, E.; Bollain, M.H.; Cela, R.

    2007-01-01

    An alternative sorptive microextraction method for the determination of five halogenated anisoles in water and wine matrices is proposed. Analytes were concentrated in an inexpensive and disposable piece of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), desorbed with a small volume of organic solvent, and determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) or tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of several factors on the efficiency of extraction and desorption steps was investigated in detail and the observed behaviour justified on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid-phase microextraction technique. Under optimised conditions, analytes were first extracted in the headspace (HS) mode, at room temperature, for 2.5 h and then desorbed with 1 mL of n-pentane. This extract was further evaporated to 50 μL. The overall extraction yield of the procedure ranged from 40 to 55% and the limits of quantification remained between 0.5 and 20 ng L -1 , depending on the compound considered and the detection technique. Precision and linearity of the method were excellent for all species with both GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS detection. Matrix effects were evaluated with different water and wine samples; moreover, the suitability of the PDMS sorbent for storage of analytes, under different conditions, was demonstrated

  17. Alternative sorptive extraction method for gas chromatography determination of halogenated anisoles in water and wine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain); Rodriguez, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)], E-mail: qnisaac@usc.es; Rubi, E.; Bollain, M.H.; Cela, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782 (Spain)

    2007-09-05

    An alternative sorptive microextraction method for the determination of five halogenated anisoles in water and wine matrices is proposed. Analytes were concentrated in an inexpensive and disposable piece of bulk polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), desorbed with a small volume of organic solvent, and determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) or tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The influence of several factors on the efficiency of extraction and desorption steps was investigated in detail and the observed behaviour justified on the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics of the solid-phase microextraction technique. Under optimised conditions, analytes were first extracted in the headspace (HS) mode, at room temperature, for 2.5 h and then desorbed with 1 mL of n-pentane. This extract was further evaporated to 50 {mu}L. The overall extraction yield of the procedure ranged from 40 to 55% and the limits of quantification remained between 0.5 and 20 ng L{sup -1}, depending on the compound considered and the detection technique. Precision and linearity of the method were excellent for all species with both GC-ECD and GC-MS/MS detection. Matrix effects were evaluated with different water and wine samples; moreover, the suitability of the PDMS sorbent for storage of analytes, under different conditions, was demonstrated.

  18. Alternative oil extraction methods from Echium plantagineum L. seeds using advanced techniques and green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    The edible oil processing industry involves large losses of organic solvent into the atmosphere and long extraction times. In this work, fast and environmentally friendly alternatives for the production of echium oil using green solvents are proposed. Advanced extraction techniques such as Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) were evaluated to efficiently extract omega-3 rich oil from Echium plantagineum seeds. Extractions were performed with ethyl acetate, ethanol, water and ethanol:water to develop a hexane-free processing method. Optimal PLE conditions with ethanol at 150 °C during 10 min produced a very similar oil yield (31.2%) to Soxhlet using hexane for 8 h (31.3%). UAE optimized method with ethanol at mild conditions (55 °C) produced a high oil yield (29.1%). Consequently, advanced extraction techniques showed good lipid yields and furthermore, the produced echium oil had the same omega-3 fatty acid composition than traditionally extracted oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  20. Fabrication and formation of bioactive anodic zirconium oxide nanotubes containing presynthesized hydroxyapatite via alternative immersion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luning; Luo Jingli

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating has been widely applied on metallic biomedical implants to enhance their biocompatibility. It has been reported that HA coating can be formed on annealed zirconium with anodic zirconium oxide nanotubular arrays after immersion in simulated biological fluid (SBF) for about 14 days. In the present study, we apply an alternative immersion method (AIM) to form presynthesized HA on ZrO 2 nanotubes. The AIM-treated specimen was then moved to the SBF to evaluate the capability for the formation of HA on it. The HA coating formed after only 2 days immersion and thickened after 5 days in the SBF. The HA coating is the carbonated HA with a ratio of Ca to P of about 1.4, similar to the physiological HA containing other minor elements such as Mg and Na. The results demonstrate that the AIM treatment is indeed suitable for the zirconium oxide nanotubes and highly accelerates the formation of HA coating in comparison with the existing methods, i.e. the annealing of the as-formed zirconium oxide nanotubular arrays.

  1. Irradiation as an alternative environmentally friendly method for microbiological decontamination of herbal raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Rotaru, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of herbal raw materials is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. A good quality of the product, according to the pharmaceutical requirements may be achieved by applying suitable methods of decontamination. The decontamination treatments should be fast and effective against all microorganisms. It should ensure the decontamination of both packaging and the microorganisms present and must not reduce the sensory and technological qualities of the commodities. Decontamination of herbal raw materials by irradiation is a method by choice. It is because chemical methods are recognized recently as not safe to the consumer. Irradiation, in turn, is technically feasible, very effective and friendly enough to environment process. Under the prevailing production and handling conditions, most herbs contain a large number of microorganisms what is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. For several years the most widely used methods for decontamination of herbs was fumigation with ethylene oxide or methyl bromide. Both methods today banned in most countries. Irradiation is an alternative and safe method for effective reducing the microbial contamination of herbal raw materials. The following raw materials have been examined: Folium Cynara, Folium Plantago, Flos Chamomillae, Semen Sylibum Marianum and Folium Farfara. The content of biologically active compounds before and after irradiation of the raw materials did not change in a significant degree after irradiation. The dose of radiation for herbals raw materials was 10 kGy. There are two groups of raw materials: - The raw materials designed for preparing granulates, tablets, dragees, capsules, aqueous extracts, infusions, macerations and preparations for external use; - The raw materials assigned for preparing alcoholic preparations, isolated compounds, oil preparations and essential oils. The medical herbs and herbal raw materials before their

  2. Workshop on acceleration of the validation and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods and implementation of testing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piersma, A. H.; Burgdorf, T.; Louekari, K.

    2018-01-01

    concerning the regulatory acceptance and implementation of alternative test methods and testing strategies, with the aim to develop feasible solutions. Classical validation of alternative methods usually involves one to one comparison with the gold standard animal study. This approach suffers from...... the reductionist nature of an alternative test as compared to the animal study as well as from the animal study being considered as the gold standard. Modern approaches combine individual alternatives into testing strategies, for which integrated and defined approaches are emerging at OECD. Furthermore, progress......-focused hazard and risk assessment of chemicals requires an open mind towards stepping away from the animal study as the gold standard and defining human biologically based regulatory requirements for human hazard and risk assessment....

  3. Raman Microspectrometry: An Alternative Method of Age Estimation from Dentin and Cementum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Kumari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raman spectroscopy is simple, quick, sensitive and non destructive form of tissue examination that provides vital data about the structure, molecular composition and interactions within a sample. The human hard tissues like teeth and bone are able to resist decay for long even after other tissues are lost, thus have valuable forensic importance. Aim: To ascertain the known age of the teeth by analysing dentin and cementum using Raman microspectrometry and assess the accuracy of age estimation by comparison of dentin with cementum. Materials and Methods: The sound permanent extracted tooth specimens (40 of age ranging between 12-74 years were collected and sectioned longitudinally and different dentinal and cemental areas were analysed by Raman microspectrometry. The spectra of dentin and cementum were used as predictors of age estimation. For each sample, ratios were obtained for dentin and cementum areas, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated. Ratios, which had a correlation coefficient greater than 0.40 were used for further statistical analysis. This led to selection of ratios only for dentin areas, and it allowed us to develop a regression formula. Partial Least Square (PLS regression method was used for computing our model. Results: A significant correlation was observed between the actual chronological age and predicted age of the individual using dentinal areas of the tooth. A closest to the estimated result was achieved, with an error of three years between predicted and actual chorological age. Conclusion: Raman microspectrometry may be considered as an alternative to the conventional method of age estimation and contribute to the identification of individuals.

  4. Applications of alternating direction methods to the solution of the heat conduction equation, with source, and in transient state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Barroso, A.C. de; Alvim, A.C.M.; Gebrin, A.N.; Santos, R.S. dos

    1981-01-01

    Various types and variants of alternating direction methods. (ADM), were applied to the solution of the time-dependent heat conduction equation, with source, in regions with axial simmetry. Among the basic ADM's, the alternating direction explicit was the one which performed better. An exponential transformation coupled to the ADE seems to be the variant with greater potential, especially if used with a variable time step scheme. (Author) [pt

  5. Axenic isolation of viable Giardia muris trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, K D; Buret, A; Olson, M E

    1991-06-01

    Large numbers of viable Giardia muris trophozoites were isolated from the duodenum of experimentally infected mice 6 days after inoculation with 1,000 G. muris cysts. A series of shaking, incubation, and washing steps in the presence of the broad-spectrum antibiotic piperacillin readily provided 4.9 +/- 1.5 x 10(5) G. muris trophozoites per mouse, free of detectable contaminant organisms. Anaerobic and microaerophilic culturing and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated axenic status and high purity of the isolates. The viability of trophozoites was 98 +/- 2%. Application of this technique should permit novel immunological and epidemiological analyses of G. muris infection and biochemical investigations of this protozoan parasite.

  6. The effects of alternative electrical and mechanical stunning methods on hemorrhaging and meat quality of broiler breast and thigh muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, S.J.W.; Lambooij, E.; Veerkamp, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    Five trials were conducted to determine the effects of various alternative stunning and restraining methods on the quality of chicken broiler meat. The stunning methods used were electrical whole-body and head-only stunning with different voltages (25 vs 100 V) and frequencies (50 vs 200 Hz), and

  7. Transcervical double-balloon catheter as an alternative and salvage method for medical termination of pregnancy in midtrimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-An Tu

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: There was no significant additional benefit of using a double-balloon catheter in midtrimester termination of pregnancy, although the technique was considered simple and generally well-tolerated. Placing a transcervical double-balloon catheter could be the primary method, or one of the alternative medical methods if the patient and/or obstetrician prefers no operation.

  8. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  9. Application of sensitivity analysis for assessment of de-desertification alternatives in the central Iran by using Triantaphyllou method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Ravesh, Mohammad Hassan; Ahmadi, Hassan; Zehtabian, Gholamreza

    2011-08-01

    Desertification, land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions, is a global environmental problem. With respect to increasing importance of desertification and its complexity, the necessity of attention to the optimal de-desertification alternatives is essential. Therefore, this work presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to objectively select the optimal de-desertification alternatives based on the results of interviews with experts in Khezr Abad region, central Iran as the case study. This model was used in Yazd Khezr Abad region to evaluate the efficiency in presentation of better alternatives related to personal and environmental situations. Obtained results indicate that the criterion "proportion and adaptation to the environment" with the weighted average of 33.6% is the most important criterion from experts viewpoints. While prevention alternatives of land usage unsuitable of reveres and conversion with 22.88% mean weight and vegetation cover development and reclamation with 21.9% mean weight are recognized ordinarily as the most important de-desertification alternatives in region. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed in detail by varying the objective factor decision weight, the priority weight of subjective factors, and the gain factors. After the fulfillment of sensitivity analysis and determination of the most sensitive criteria and alternatives, the former classification and ranking of alternatives does not change so much, and it was observed that unsuitable land use alternative with the preference degree of 22.7% was still in the first order of priority. The final priority of livestock grazing control alternative was replaced with the alternative of modification of ground water harvesting.

  10. The viability of alternative assessment methods in the Greek upper secondary school: the oral portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Daphni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Τhe final examination of the English language subject, in the context of the Greek state upper secondary education, is a traditional paper-and-pencil test which does not include any assessment of oracy skills. This article explores the viability of the oral portfolio as an alternative assessment and pedagogic method that can facilitate the assessment of speaking and listening skills and create a more motivating learning environment. To this effect, three methodological tools were designed, namely, a questionnaire addressing upper secondary English teachers in Greek state schools, a case study involving an oral portfolio implementation and finally, a questionnaire for students to record their experience. The study demonstrates that implementation of the portfolio contributed to a successful assessment of oracy skills and that it was a stimulating experience for students. The results of the study also showed that the pedagogical value of the portfolio counterbalanced its practical constraints. The paper concludes by putting forward recommendations for the future application of this assessment technique in state school education.

  11. Innovations in electrophoretic deposition: Alternating current and pulsed direct current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez-Valdez, Alejandra; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes emerging developments in the field of alternating current (AC) and pulsed direct current (DC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in aqueous or organic media. Numerous applications of AC-EPD are discussed including two major groups of investigations: (i) AC-EPD to suppress water hydrolysis at high voltages in inorganic (ceramic) coatings and (ii) AC-EPD for deposition of biological entities. The deposition, purification and manipulation of carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles by AC-EPD to form specific arrays, for development of sensors and other electronic devices and the application of AC-EPD as method for separation of particles according to their shape or size are also presented. Other applications reviewed relate to the fabrication by AC-EPD of toxic gas sensors from oxides and superconducting layers. The main materials being examined by AC-EPD are inorganic, including carbon nanotubes, TiO 2 nanoparticles, Al 2 O 3 , Si, SnO 2 , ZnO and WO 3 and biological entities, e.g. bacteria cells. For pulsed EPD, the applications reviewed are divided in pulsed current and pulsed voltage EPD. Among the applications of pulsed EPD, the formation of thick films from aqueous suspensions without water decomposition, the fabrication of multilayer and composite materials and the size-selective deposition of ceramic nanoparticles are the most important investigated to date, based on the quality of the coatings and deposits obtained and their relevance for applications.

  12. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips (≤12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 μm thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with [ 3 H]arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 μCi/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36±4% (mean ± SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0±1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 μM calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE 2 , PGF 2 α, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE 2 and PGF 2 α standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium

  13. HRM and SNaPshot as alternative forensic SNP genotyping methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; McNevin, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used in forensics for prediction of identity, biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs). Single base extension (SBE) assays, most notably SNaPshot® (Thermo Fisher Scientific), are commonly used for forensic SNP genotyping as they can be employed on standard instrumentation in forensic laboratories (e.g. capillary electrophoresis). High resolution melt (HRM) analysis is an alternative method and is a simple, fast, single tube assay for low throughput SNP typing. This study compares HRM and SNaPshot®. HRM produced reproducible and concordant genotypes at 500 pg, however, difficulties were encountered when genotyping SNPs with high GC content in flanking regions and differentiating variants of symmetrical SNPs. SNaPshot® was reproducible at 100 pg and is less dependent on SNP choice. HRM has a shorter processing time in comparison to SNaPshot®, avoids post PCR contamination risk and has potential as a screening tool for many forensic applications.

  14. Alternate method for gas measurement to offshore wells producing by plunger lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio Jose Goncalves e [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao; Mota, Francisco das Chagas [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an alternate method for gas measurement to wells producing by conventional plunger lift to a two phase separator in offshore production systems. The principle of the plunger lift is basically the use of a free piston acting as a mechanical interface between the formation gas and the produced liquids, greatly increasing the well's lifting efficiency. However, when the piston reaches the surface a liquid slug is produced through the flowline and it propagates into the separator where the phases are measured. Usually, orifice meter is widely used in separators to measure steady-state gas flow rate, but when intermittent flow is present, the gas causes the signal saturation of the differential pressure element ({delta}P), resulting in measurement distortion. The solution proposed in this work to estimate the gas flow rate during the liquid slug it was obtained through the mathematical modeling of the separator and with the use of System Identification Theory. Applying the ARX model it was possible to get the best fit to the collected data. So, with this model and its recursive variant (RARX) it was possible to prove that, with reasonable forecast degree, the signal of the gas flow rate can be recovered by starting from the signal of the pressure control valve of the separator. (author)

  15. An alternative design method for the double-layer combined die using autofrettage theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The double-layer combined die is used for its longer life in forging. Autofrettage is a well-known elastic–plastic technology that increases the durability of thick-walled cylinders. This study explores an alternative design method of the double-layer combined die using autofrettage theory. An analytical solution for the autofrettage process of the double-layer combined die is obtained based on Lamé's equation. The relationship between the autofrettage pressure and the yield radius of the die insert is obtained, and expressions of residual stresses and displacements, which are directly related to geometric parameters, material properties and internal pressure, are derived. The finite-element simulation of a specific case is performed, and good agreement between theoretical calculations and simulation results is found. Furthermore, the effects of important parameters, including the ratio of the plastic area and yield strength of the die insert and the outer diameters of the die insert and stress ring, on the autofrettage effect are investigated. Compared with the conventional combined die, the autofrettaged die can bear larger working pressure, as expected. The use of the autofrettaged die can reduce the amount of expensive material required for the die insert and the working space of the die set, which would benefit the practical forging process.

  16. Alternative method to determine Specific Activity of (177)Lu by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Wouter A P; de Zanger, Rory M S; Chan, Ho Sze; de Blois, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) with (177)Lu-DOTA-peptides requires (177)Lu with high specific activity (SA) and values >740 GBq (177)Lu per mg Lu to maximise the atom% of (177)Lu over total Lu. Vendors provide SA values which are based on activity and mass of the target, whereas due to "burn-up" of target, these SA values are not accurate. For a radiochemist the SA of (177)Lu is of interest prior to radiolabeling. An alternative method to determine SA was developed by HPLC, which includes a metal titration of a known amount of DOTA-peptide with a known amount of activity ((177)Lu), and a unknown amount of metal ((177+nat)Lu). Based on an HPLC separation of radiometal-DOTA-peptide and DOTA-peptide, and the concordant ratio of these components the metal content ((177+nat)Lu) can be calculated, and eventually the SA of (177)Lu can be accurately determined. These experimentally determined SA values exceeded the estimated values provided by vendors by 27 ± 16%, (range 6-73 %). The deviation of SA values for samples from the same Lu batch was <2% (n ≥ 10). the SA of (177)Lu is apparently often higher as stated by vendors in comparison to the experimentally determined actual values. For this reason, the SA of (177)Lu-DOTA-TATE and other Lu-DOTA-peptides could be increased accordingly.

  17. Poorly understood and often miscategorized congenital umbilical cord hernia: an alternative repair method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, E; Temiz, A; Ezer, S S; Gezer, H Ö; Hiçsönmez, A

    2017-06-01

    Umbilical cord hernia is poorly understood and often miscategorized as "omphalocele minor". Careless clamping of the cord leads to iatrogenic gut injury in the situation of umbilical cord hernia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of umbilical cord hernias. We also highlight an alternative repair method for umbilical cord hernias. We recorded 15 cases of umbilical cord hernias over 10 years. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative preparation of the newborn, gestational age, birth weight, other associated malformations, surgical technique used, enteral nutrition, and length of hospitalization were recorded. This study included 15 neonates with umbilical cord hernias. The mean gestational age at the time of referral was 38.2 ± 2.1

  18. Disinfection of sewage sludge by gamma radiation, electron beams and alternative methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessel, T.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage sludges generally contain high concentrations of pathogens, even after digestion or other conventional treatments for stabilization. Disinfection can be effected by irradiation (e.g. gamma or electron beam), by heat treatment (pasteurization or thermophilic stabilization), and by changing the pH (lime treatment). Irradiation is a simple and reliable process for disinfection with special advantages and favorable side-effects. Irradiation can be combined with oxygenation, heat or other treatments, with favorable synergistic effects. The total costs for the irradiation treatment of sewage sludges are comparable to those of alternative disinfection methods. Most of the worldwide practical experience has been obtained at the sewage-sludge irradiation plant in Geiselbullach (10 km west of Munich, Germany), which was continuously in operation from 1973 to 1993. A multidisciplinary research programme was conducted during the first 8 years. In subsequent years, the plant was operated commercially for sewage-sludge disinfection, without public funds. Other demonstration or research plants for sewage-sludge irradiation have been reported in the USA, India, Russia, Japan, Austria, Germany and Hungary. (author)

  19. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Micro-CT image reconstruction based on alternating direction augmented Lagrangian method and total variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, Varun P; Palanisamy, P; Wahid, Khan A; Babyn, Paul; Cooper, David

    2013-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) plays an important role in pre-clinical imaging. The radiation from micro-CT can result in excess radiation exposure to the specimen under test, hence the reduction of radiation from micro-CT is essential. The proposed research focused on analyzing and testing an alternating direction augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) algorithm to recover images from random projections using total variation (TV) regularization. The use of TV regularization in compressed sensing problems makes the recovered image quality sharper by preserving the edges or boundaries more accurately. In this work TV regularization problem is addressed by ADAL which is a variant of the classic augmented Lagrangian method for structured optimization. The per-iteration computational complexity of the algorithm is two fast Fourier transforms, two matrix vector multiplications and a linear time shrinkage operation. Comparison of experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is stable, efficient and competitive with the existing algorithms for solving TV regularization problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An alternant method to the traditional NASA hindlimb unloading model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J Andries; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Brown, Marybeth

    2011-03-10

    The Morey-Holton hindlimb unloading (HU) method is a widely accepted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ground-based model for studying disuse-atrophy in rodents. Our study evaluated an alternant method to the gold-standard Morey-Holton HU tail-traction technique in mice. Fifty-four female mice (4-8 mo.) were HU for 14 days (n=34) or 28 days (n=20). Recovery from HU was assessed after 3 days of normal cage ambulation following HU (n=22). Aged matched mice (n=76) served as weight-bearing controls. Prior to HU a tail ring was formed with a 2-0 sterile surgical steel wire that was passed through the 5(th), 6(th), or 7(th) inter-vertebral disc space and shaped into a ring from which the mice were suspended. Vertebral location for the tail-ring was selected to appropriately balance animal body weight without interfering with defecation. We determined the success of this novel HU technique by assessing body weight before and after HU, degree of soleus atrophy, and adrenal mass following HU. Body weight of the mice prior to HU (24.3 ± 2.9g) did not significantly decline immediately after 14d of HU (22.7 ± 1.9g), 28d of HU (21.3 + 2.1g) or after 3 days recovery (24.0 ± 1.8g). Soleus muscle mass significantly declined (-39.1%, and -46.6%) following HU for 14 days and 28 days respectively (p<0.001). Following 3 days of recovery soleus mass significantly increased to 74% of control values. Adrenal weights of HU mice were not different compared to control mice. The success of our novel HU method is evidenced by the maintenance of animal body weight, comparable adrenal gland weights, and soleus atrophy following HU, corresponding to expected literature values. The primary advantages of this HU method include: 1) ease of tail examination during suspension; 2) decreased likelihood of cyanotic, inflamed, and/or necrotic tails frequently observed with tail-taping and HU; 3) no possibility of mice chewing the traction tape and coming out of the suspension

  2. Measuring decision weights in recognition experiments with multiple response alternatives: comparing the correlation and multinomial-logistic-regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huanping; Micheyl, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    Psychophysical "reverse-correlation" methods allow researchers to gain insight into the perceptual representations and decision weighting strategies of individual subjects in perceptual tasks. Although these methods have gained momentum, until recently their development was limited to experiments involving only two response categories. Recently, two approaches for estimating decision weights in m-alternative experiments have been put forward. One approach extends the two-category correlation method to m > 2 alternatives; the second uses multinomial logistic regression (MLR). In this article, the relative merits of the two methods are discussed, and the issues of convergence and statistical efficiency of the methods are evaluated quantitatively using Monte Carlo simulations. The results indicate that, for a range of values of the number of trials, the estimated weighting patterns are closer to their asymptotic values for the correlation method than for the MLR method. Moreover, for the MLR method, weight estimates for different stimulus components can exhibit strong correlations, making the analysis and interpretation of measured weighting patterns less straightforward than for the correlation method. These and other advantages of the correlation method, which include computational simplicity and a close relationship to other well-established psychophysical reverse-correlation methods, make it an attractive tool to uncover decision strategies in m-alternative experiments.

  3. Economically viable biochemical processes for the advanced rural biorefinery and downstream recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural biorefineries offer an alternative to traditional ethanol production by providing the opportunity to produce fuel on site to reduce costs associated with biomass transportation thus making the fuel economically viable. Widespread installation of rural biorefineries could lead to increased upt...

  4. Mathematical modelling of the viable epidermis: impact of cell shape and vertical arrangement

    KAUST Repository

    Wittum, Rebecca; Naegel, Arne; Heisig, Michael; Wittum, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    In-silico methods are valuable tools for understanding the barrier function of the skin. The key benefit is that mathematical modelling allows the interplay between cell shape and function to be elucidated. This study focuses on the viable (living

  5. Friction stir welding - an alternative method for sealing nuclear waste storage canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.E. [TWI Ltd, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    When welding 50 mm thick copper a very high heat input is required to combat the high thermal diffusivity and only the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) process had this capability when this copper canister concept was conceived. Despite the encouraging results achieved using EBW with thick section copper, SKB felt that it would be prudent to assess other joining methods. This assessment concluded that friction welding, could also provide very high quality welds to satisfy the service life requirements of the SKB canister design. A friction welding variant called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was shown to have the capability of welding 3 mm thick copper sheet with excellent integrity and reproducibility. This later provided sufficient encouragement for SKB to consider the potential of FSW as a method for joining thick section copper, using relatively simple machine tool based technology. It was thought that FSW might provide an alternative or complementary method for welding lids, or bases to canisters. In 1997 an FSW development programme started at TWI, focussed on the feasibility of welding 10 mm thick copper plate. Once this task was successfully completed, work continued to demonstrate that progressively thicker plate, up to 50 mm thick, could be joined. At this stage, with process viability established, a full size experimental FSW canister machine was designed and built. Work with this machine finished in January 2003, when it had been shown that FSW could definitely be used to weld lids to full size canisters. This report summarises the TWI development of FSW for SKB from 1997 to January 2003. It also highlights the important aspects of the process and the project milestones that will help to ensure that SKB has a welding technology that can be used with confidence for production fabrication of copper waste storage canisters in the future. The overall conclusion to this FSW development is that there is no doubt that the FSW process could be used to produce full

  6. Friction stir welding - an alternative method for sealing nuclear waste storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.E.

    2004-12-01

    When welding 50 mm thick copper a very high heat input is required to combat the high thermal diffusivity and only the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) process had this capability when this copper canister concept was conceived. Despite the encouraging results achieved using EBW with thick section copper, SKB felt that it would be prudent to assess other joining methods. This assessment concluded that friction welding, could also provide very high quality welds to satisfy the service life requirements of the SKB canister design. A friction welding variant called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was shown to have the capability of welding 3 mm thick copper sheet with excellent integrity and reproducibility. This later provided sufficient encouragement for SKB to consider the potential of FSW as a method for joining thick section copper, using relatively simple machine tool based technology. It was thought that FSW might provide an alternative or complementary method for welding lids, or bases to canisters. In 1997 an FSW development programme started at TWI, focussed on the feasibility of welding 10 mm thick copper plate. Once this task was successfully completed, work continued to demonstrate that progressively thicker plate, up to 50 mm thick, could be joined. At this stage, with process viability established, a full size experimental FSW canister machine was designed and built. Work with this machine finished in January 2003, when it had been shown that FSW could definitely be used to weld lids to full size canisters. This report summarises the TWI development of FSW for SKB from 1997 to January 2003. It also highlights the important aspects of the process and the project milestones that will help to ensure that SKB has a welding technology that can be used with confidence for production fabrication of copper waste storage canisters in the future. The overall conclusion to this FSW development is that there is no doubt that the FSW process could be used to produce full

  7. An Alternative Method of Evaluating 1540NM Exposure Laser Damage using an Optical Tissue Phantom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jindra, Nichole M; Figueroa, Manuel A; Rockwell, Benjamin A; Chavey, Lucas J; Zohner, Justin J

    2006-01-01

    An optical phantom was designed to physically and optically resemble human tissue, in an effort to provide an alternative for detecting visual damage resulting from inadvertent exposure to infrared lasers...

  8. Greener Syntheses and Chemical Transformations: Sustainable Alternative Methods and Applications of Nano-Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes our sustainable chemical synthesis activity involving benign alternatives, such as the use of supported reagents, and greener reaction medium in aqueous or solvent-free conditions.1 The synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, coupling reactions, and a var...

  9. Evaluation of Scotchbond Multipurpose and maleic acid as alternative methods of bonding orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M E; Bishara, S E; Damon, P; Jakobsen, J R

    1997-05-01

    Damage to the enamel surface during bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets is a clinical concern. Alternative bonding methods that minimize enamel surface damage while maintaining a clinically useful bond strength is an aim of current research. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects on bond strength and bracket failure location of two adhesives (System 1+ and Scotchbond Multipurpose, 3M Dental Products Division) and two enamel conditioners (37% phosphoric acid and 10% maleic acid). Forty-eight freshly extracted human premolars were pumiced and divided into four groups of 12 teeth, and metal orthodontic brackets were attached to the enamel surface by one of four protocols: (1) System 1+ and phosphoric acid, (2) Scotchbond and phosphoric acid, (3) System 1+ and maleic acid, and (4) Scotchbond and maleic acid. After bracket attachment, the teeth were mounted in phenolic rings and stored in deionized water at 37 degrees C for 72 hours. A Zwick universal testing machine (Zwick GmbH & Co.) was used to determine shear bond strengths. The residual adhesive on the enamel surface was evaluated with the Adhesive Remnant Index. The analysis of variance was used to compare the four groups. Significance was predetermined at p adhesives on the enamel surfaces, revealed significant differences among the four groups (mean 2 = 0.005). A Duncan multiple range test revealed the difference occurred between the phosphoric acid and maleic acid groups, with maleic acid having bond failures at the enamel-adhesive interface. In conclusion, the use of Scotchbond Multipurpose and/or maleic acid does not significantly effect bond strength, however, the use of maleic acid resulted in an unfavorable bond failure location.

  10. Peak Velocity as an Alternative Method for Training Prescription in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Carvalho Picoli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the efficiency of an aerobic physical training program prescribed according to either velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max or peak running speed obtained during an incremental treadmill test (Vpeak_K in mice.Methods: Twenty male Swiss mice, 60 days old, were randomly divided into two groups with 10 animals each: 1. group trained by vVO2max (GVO2, 2. group trained by Vpeak_K (GVP. After the adaptation training period, an incremental test was performed at the beginning of each week to adjust training load and to determine the amount of VO2 and VCO2 fluxes consumed, energy expenditure (EE and run distance during the incremental test. Mice were submitted to 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training of moderate intensity (velocity referring to 70% of vVO2max and Vpeak_K in a programmable treadmill. The sessions lasted from 30 to 40 min in the first week, to reach 60 min in the fourth week, in order to provide the mice with a moderate intensity exercise, totaling 20 training sessions.Results: Mice demonstrated increases in VO2max (ml·kg−1·min−1 (GVO2 = 49.1% and GVP = 56.2%, Vpeak_K (cm·s−1 (GVO2 = 50.9% and GVP = 22.3%, EE (ml·kg−0,75·min−1 (GVO2 = 39.9% and GVP = 51.5%, and run distance (cm (GVO2 = 43.5% and GVP = 33.4%, after 4 weeks of aerobic training (time effect, P < 0.05; there were no differences between the groups.Conclusions: Vpeak_K, as well as vVO2max, can be adopted as an alternative test to determine the performance and correct prescription of systemized aerobic protocol training to mice.

  11. Peak Velocity as an Alternative Method for Training Prescription in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Gilio, Gustavo R; Guariglia, Débora A; Tófolo, Laize P; de Moraes, Solange M F; Machado, Fabiana A; Peres, Sidney B

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficiency of an aerobic physical training program prescribed according to either velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO 2max ) or peak running speed obtained during an incremental treadmill test (V peak_K ) in mice. Methods: Twenty male Swiss mice, 60 days old, were randomly divided into two groups with 10 animals each: 1. group trained by vVO 2max (GVO 2 ), 2. group trained by V peak_K (GVP). After the adaptation training period, an incremental test was performed at the beginning of each week to adjust training load and to determine the amount of VO 2 and VCO 2 fluxes consumed, energy expenditure (EE) and run distance during the incremental test. Mice were submitted to 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training of moderate intensity (velocity referring to 70% of vVO 2max and V peak_K ) in a programmable treadmill. The sessions lasted from 30 to 40 min in the first week, to reach 60 min in the fourth week, in order to provide the mice with a moderate intensity exercise, totaling 20 training sessions. Results: Mice demonstrated increases in VO 2max (ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) (GVO 2 = 49.1% and GVP = 56.2%), V peak_K (cm·s -1 ) (GVO 2 = 50.9% and GVP = 22.3%), EE (ml·kg -0,75 ·min -1 ) (GVO 2 = 39.9% and GVP = 51.5%), and run distance (cm) (GVO 2 = 43.5% and GVP = 33.4%), after 4 weeks of aerobic training (time effect, P < 0.05); there were no differences between the groups. Conclusions: V peak_K , as well as vVO 2max , can be adopted as an alternative test to determine the performance and correct prescription of systemized aerobic protocol training to mice.

  12. Impulse oscillometry system as an alternative diagnostic method for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xia; Shi, Zhihong; Cui, Yajuan; Mi, Jiuyun; Ma, Zhengquan; Ren, Jingting; Li, Jie; Xu, Shudi; Guo, Youmin

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to compare impulse oscillation system (IOS) and traditional pulmonary function tests (PFTs) for the assessment of the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to assess the use of IOS parameters to identify patients who were forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)%pred IOS. Diagnostic performance of IOS parameters to determine indication for patients of FEV1%pred operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis.Out of 215 patients, 18, 83, 78, and 36 patients were classified as grade 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) severity grading. On Spearman correlation analysis, FEV1%pred, MMEF 75%-25%, and residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC) correlated with total respiratory impedance (Z5)%pred, resistance at 5 Hz (R5)-resistance at 20 Hz (R20), R5-R20% R5, R5, R5%pred, frequency response (Fres), reactance area (Ax), and reactance at 5 Hz (X5). On ROC curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of X5 absolute value, Fres, Ax, Z5%pred, R5-R20, and R5-R20% R5 were 0.748, 0.755, 0.760, 0.705, 0.715, and 0.735, respectively, for COPD patients who required inhalational glucocorticoid therapy.IOS parameters showed a good correlation with traditional pulmonary function parameters; reactance parameters showed a stronger correlation than that of the resistance parameters. IOS can be used as an alternative method for pulmonary function assessment in patients with COPD with FEV1%pred < 50% who need inhalational glucocorticoid therapy. ChiCTR-OCH-14004904.

  13. Alternative perspectives of safety in home delivered health care: a sequential exploratory mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discover and describe how patients, carers and case management nurses define safety and compare it to the traditional risk reduction and harm avoidance definition of safety. Care services are increasingly being delivered in the home for patients with complex long-term conditions. However, the concept of safety remains largely unexplored. A sequential, exploratory mixed method design. A qualitative case study of the UK National Health Service case management programme in the English UK National Health Service was deployed during 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with patients (n = 9) and carers (n = 6) and three focus groups with nurses (n = 17) from three community care providers. The qualitative element explored the definition of safety. Data were subjected to framework analysis and themes were identified by participant group. Sequentially, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2013 in a fourth community care provider (patient n = 35, carer n = 19, nurse n = 26) as a form of triangulation. Patients and carers describe safety differently to case management nurses, choosing to focus on meeting needs. They use more positive language and recognize the role they have in safety in home-delivered health care. In comparison, case management nurses described safety similarly to the definitions found in the literature. However, when offered the patient and carer definition of safety, they preferentially selected this definition to their own or the literature definition. Patients and carers offer an alternative perspective on patient safety in home-delivered health care that identifies their role in ensuring safety and is more closely aligned with the empowerment philosophy of case management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  15. A new 3D reconstituted human corneal epithelium model as an alternative method for the eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Lee, Su-Hyon; Ryu, Yang-Hwan; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Han, Ju-Hee; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Park, Jae-Hak; Son, Youngsook; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2011-02-01

    Many efforts are being made to develop new alternative in vitro test methods for the eye irritation test. Here we report a new reconstructed human corneal epithelial model (MCTT HCE model) prepared from primary-cultured human limbal epithelial cells as a new alternative in vitro eye irritation test method. In histological and immunohistochemical observation, MCTT HCE model displayed a morphology and biomarker expressions similar to intact human cornea. Moreover, the barrier function was well preserved as measured by high transepithelial electrical resistance, effective time-50 for Triton X-100, and corneal thickness. To employ the model as a new alternative method for eye irritation test, protocol refinement was performed and optimum assay condition was determined including treatment time, treatment volume, post-incubation time and rinsing method. Using the refined protocol, 25 reference chemicals with known eye irritation potentials were tested. With the viability cut-off value at 50%, chemicals were classified to irritant or non-irritant. When compared with GHS classification, the MCTT HCE model showed the accuracy of 88%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 77%. These results suggest that the MCTT HCE model might be useful as a new alternative eye irritation test method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 29 CFR 2520.104-27 - Alternative method of compliance for certain unfunded dues financed pension plans maintained by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financed pension plans maintained by employee organizations. 2520.104-27 Section 2520.104-27 Labor... Alternative method of compliance for certain unfunded dues financed pension plans maintained by employee organizations. (a) Scope. Under the authority of section 110 of the Act, a pension benefit plan that meets the...

  17. 29 CFR 2520.104b-4 - Alternative methods of compliance for furnishing the summary plan description and summaries of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative methods of compliance for furnishing the summary plan description and summaries of material modifications of a pension plan to a retired participant, a separated participant with vested benefits, and a beneficiary receiving benefits. 2520.104b-4 Section 2520.104b-4 Labor Regulations Relating to...

  18. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mainstay of the current approach to treating patients with CDH. Standard, alternative, and auxiliary therapies are identified. The paper describes different types of current auxiliary and alternative therapy used in the world’s leading headache centers and clinics. It describes experience with cerebrolysin used as auxiliary and alternative pharmacotherapies for CDH.

  19. SU-E-J-35: Using CBCT as the Alternative Method of Assessing ITV Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y; Turian, J; Templeton, A; Redler, G; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To study the accuracy of Internal Target Volumes (ITVs) created on cone beam CT (CBCT) by comparing the visible target volume on CBCT to volumes (GTV, ITV, and PTV) outlined on free breathing (FB) CT and 4DCT. Methods A Quasar Cylindrical Motion Phantom with a 3cm diameter ball (14.14 cc) embedded within a cork insert was set up to simulate respiratory motion with a period of 4 seconds and amplitude of 2cm superioinferiorly and 1cm anterioposteriorly. FBCT and 4DCT images were acquired. A PTV-4D was created on the 4DCT by applying a uniform margin of 5mm to the ITV-CT. PTV-FB was created by applying a margin of the motion range plus 5mm, i.e. total of 1.5cm laterally and 2.5cm superioinferiorly to the GTV outlined on the FBCT. A dynamic conformal arc was planned to treat the PTV-FB with 1mm margin. A CBCT was acquired before the treatment, on which the target was delineated. During the treatment, the position of the target was monitored using the EPID in cine mode. Results ITV-CBCT and ITV-CT were measured to be 56.6 and 62.7cc, respectively, with a Dice Coefficient (DC) of 0.94 and disagreement in center of mass (COM) of 0.59 mm. On the other hand, GTV-FB was 11.47cc, 19% less than the known volume of the ball. PTV-FB and PTV-4D were 149 and 116 cc, with a DC of 0.71. Part of the ITV-CT was not enclosed by the PTV-FB despite the large margin. The cine EPID images have confirmed geometrical misses of the target. Similar under-coverage was observed in one clinical case and captured by the CBCT, where the implanted fiducials moved outside PTV-FB. Conclusion ITV-CBCT is in good agreement with ITV-CT. When 4DCT was not available, CBCT can be an effective alternative in determining and verifying the PTV margin.

  20. Implementation of the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, and replacement): validation and regulatory acceptance considerations for alternative toxicological test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechtman, Leonard M

    2002-01-01

    Toxicological testing in the current regulatory environment is steeped in a history of using animals to answer questions about the safety of products to which humans are exposed. That history forms the basis for the testing strategies that have evolved to satisfy the needs of the regulatory bodies that render decisions that affect, for the most part, virtually all phases of premarket product development and evaluation and, to a lesser extent, postmarketing surveillance. Only relatively recently have the levels of awareness of, and responsiveness to, animal welfare issues reached current proportions. That paradigm shift, although sluggish, has nevertheless been progressive. New and alternative toxicological methods for hazard evaluation and risk assessment have now been adopted and are being viewed as a means to address those issues in a manner that considers humane treatment of animals yet maintains scientific credibility and preserves the goal of ensuring human safety. To facilitate this transition, regulatory agencies and regulated industry must work together toward improved approaches. They will need assurance that the methods will be reliable and the results comparable with, or better than, those derived from the current classical methods. That confidence will be a function of the scientific validation and resultant acceptance of any given method. In the United States, to fulfill this need, the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and its operational center, the National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), have been constituted as prescribed in federal law. Under this mandate, ICCVAM has developed a process and established criteria for the scientific validation and regulatory acceptance of new and alternative methods. The role of ICCVAM in the validation and acceptance process and the criteria instituted toward that end are described. Also

  1. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  2. A comparative study of the application of alternative risk transfer methods of insurance in South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative risk transfer techniques represent the crown jewels in the risk management arena. This non-traditional method of insurance has gained prominence over the last few decades. Against this backdrop, the present study seeks to unravel the development of the alternative risk financing insurance segment within a developing country setting. The study specifically sets out to compare and contrast the ART insurance market segments of South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study is documents that the Zimbabwean market is at a nascent stage of development, whilst the South African market is fully developed. Notwithstanding the prospects for the development of this sector looks bright

  3. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  4. 77 FR 61610 - Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods Evaluation Report and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... safety testing procedures that use a maximum of three animals per test substance. This recommendation... international collaborations, scientists from the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal... testing procedures that use a maximum of three animals per test substance. Consistent with ICCVAM's duty...

  5. Study of alternative methods for the management of liquid scintillation counting wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche-Farmer, L.

    1980-02-01

    The Nuclear Engineering Waste Disposal Site in Richland, Washington, is the only radioactive waste disposal facility that will accept liquid scintillation counting wastes (LSCW) for disposal. That site is scheduled to discontinue receiving LSCW by the end of 1982. This document explores alternatives presently available for management of LSCW: evaporation, distillation, solidification, conversion, and combustion

  6. Enzyme-linked immunospot: an alternative method for the detection of interferon gamma in Johne's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumudika; Bosward, Katrina

    2009-01-01

    To date, the sensitivity of the interferon gamma (IFN-) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect Johne's disease (JD) has been poor, especially in the early stages of disease. To improve the sensitivity of IFN- detection in the early stages of infection, an alternate assay needs to be ...

  7. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), and by the industry organization Cosmetics Europe... products. Pesticides and other marketed chemicals, including cosmetic ingredients, are routinely tested for... sensitization. NICEATM collaboration with industry scientists to develop an open-source Bayesian network as an...

  8. Utilizing alternative developmental and neurotoxicity screening methods to prioritize compounds for further mammalian testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are being phased out of commercial use, leading to the increased use of alternative chemicals such as the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). Due to the structural similarity of th...

  9. Sensitivity Analyses of Alternative Methods for Disposition of High-Level Salt Waste: A Position Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.P.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This position paper provides the approach and detail pertaining to a sensitivity analysis for the Phase II definition of weighted evaluation criteria weights and utility function values on the total utility scores for each Initial List alternative due to uncertainty and bias in engineering judgment

  10. An alternative method to predict the S-shaped curve for logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    The S-shaped curve was observed by Yilbas and Bin Mansoor (2013). In this study, an alternative method to predict the S-shaped curve for logistic characteristics of phonon transport in silicon thin film is presented by using an analytical prediction method. This analytical prediction method was introduced by Bejan and Lorente in 2011 and 2012. The Bejan and Lorente method is based on two-mechanism flow of fast “invasion” by convection and slow “consolidation” by diffusion.

  11. State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Rachel; De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Hill, Erin; Krul, Cyrille; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L

    2014-01-01

    Despite changing attitudes towards animal testing and current legislation to protect experimental animals, the rate of animal experiments seems to have changed little in recent years. On May 15-16, 2013, the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) held an open meeting to discuss the state of the art in alternative methods, how companies have, can, and will need to adapt and what drives and hinders regulatory acceptance and use. Several key messages arose from the meeting. First, industry and regulatory bodies should not wait for complete suites of alternative tests to become available, but should begin working with methods available right now (e.g., mining of existing animal data to direct future studies, implementation of alternative tests wherever scientifically valid rather than continuing to rely on animal tests) in non-animal and animal integrated strategies to reduce the numbers of animals tested. Sharing of information (communication), harmonization and standardization (coordination), commitment and collaboration are all required to improve the quality and speed of validation, acceptance, and implementation of tests. Finally, we consider how alternative methods can be used in research and development before formal implementation in regulations. Here we present the conclusions on what can be done already and suggest some solutions and strategies for the future.

  12. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  13. An economically viable space power relay system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  14. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  15. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  16. Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: correlation of 3H-DNA release from labeled bacteria and changes in numbers of viable organisms by mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional methods of assessing antibacterial activities of macrophages by viable counting are limited by the precision of the statistics and are difficult to interpret quantitatively because of unrestrained extracellular growth of bacteria. An alternative technique based on the release of radioactive DNA from labeled bacteria has been offered as overcoming these drawbacks. To assess it for use with macrophages I have made a correlation with the conventional viable counting method using a mathematical model. Opsonized Listeria monocytogenes labeled with 3 H-thymidine were exposed to rat macrophages for periods up to 4 hr. Numbers of viable bacteria determined after sonication increased exponentially in the absence of live cells and this growth rate was progressively inhibited by increasing numbers of macrophages. After a lag period of 30-60 min soluble 3 H appeared in the supernatant, the amount increasing with time and numbers of macrophages. To correlate these data I developed a mathematical model that considered that changes in numbers of viable organisms were due to the difference between rates of 1) growth of extracellular bacteria and 2) killing within the macrophage. On the basis of this model curves of best fit to the viable counts data were used to predict the release of radioactivity, assuming that death of a bacterium led to the total release of its label. These predictions and the experimental data agreed well, the lag period of 30-60 min between death of the bacterium and release of radioactivity being consistent with intracellular digestion. Release of soluble radioactivity appears to be an accurate reflection of the number of bacteria killed within the macrophage

  17. Web-based surveys as an alternative to traditional mail methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Christopher M; Bowden, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Environmental economists have long used surveys to gather information about people's preferences. A recent innovation in survey methodology has been the advent of web-based surveys. While the Internet appears to offer a promising alternative to conventional survey administration modes, concerns exist over potential sampling biases associated with web-based surveys and the effect these may have on valuation estimates. This paper compares results obtained from a travel cost questionnaire of visitors to Fraser Island, Australia, that was conducted using two alternate survey administration modes; conventional mail and web-based. It is found that response rates and the socio-demographic make-up of respondents to the two survey modes are not statistically different. Moreover, both modes yield similar consumer surplus estimates.

  18. Lyme Disease Diagnosed by Alternative Methods: A Phenotype Similar to That of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, David M; Miller, Ruth R; Gardy, Jennifer L; Parker, Shoshana M; Morshed, Muhammad G; Steiner, Theodore S; Singer, Joel; Shojania, Kam; Tang, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    A subset of patients reporting a diagnosis of Lyme disease can be described as having alternatively diagnosed chronic Lyme syndrome (ADCLS), in which diagnosis is based on laboratory results from a nonreference Lyme specialty laboratory using in-house criteria. Patients with ADCLS report symptoms similar to those reported by patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We performed a case-control study comparing patients with ADCLS and CFS to each other and to both healthy controls and controls with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Subjects completed a history, physical exam, screening laboratory tests, 7 functional scales, reference serology for Lyme disease using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, reference serology for other tick-associated pathogens, and cytokine expression studies. The study enrolled 13 patients with ADCLS (12 of whom were diagnosed by 1 alternative US laboratory), 25 patients with CFS, 25 matched healthy controls, and 11 SLE controls. Baseline clinical data and functional scales indicate significant disability among ADCLS and CFS patients and many important differences between these groups and controls, but no significant differences between each other. No ADCLS patient was confirmed as having positive Lyme serology by reference laboratory testing, and there was no difference in distribution of positive serology for other tick-transmitted pathogens or cytokine expression across the groups. In British Columbia, a setting with low Lyme disease incidence, ADCLS patients have a similar phenotype to that of CFS patients. Disagreement between alternative and reference laboratory Lyme testing results in this setting is most likely explained by false-positive results from the alternative laboratory. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Fran?ois, Cl?ment; Grau-S?nchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-bas...

  20. Can Malin's gravitational-field equations be modified to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity to obtain a viable theory of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, L.L.; Prestage, J.

    1976-01-01

    Malin's gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the PPN framework

  1. Recent developments in the way forward for alternative methods: Formation of national consensus platforms in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogiers, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Ecopa, the European Consensus Platform on 3R-Alternatives, is an international not-for-profit organization that wants to stimulate the development of 3R-alternatives, increase awareness among the public, scientists and regulatory bodies, and help their implementation into the different national legislations. This is done by networking and bringing together National Consensus Platforms on 3R-alternatives. Consensus means that all parties concerned are represented, namely, animal welfare, industry, academia, and governmental institutions. Actually, 14 Member State Platforms exist. Fully complying with the criteria, set by ecopa, are the platforms of Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Under development are the platforms of Denmark, Norway, and Poland. To reach its goals, ecopa uses conventional scientific tools such as workshops and meetings but it also makes scientific-political statements. A recent realization in particular is the involvement of ecopa in several European projects of the Sixth Framework Programme, either as coordinator, research partner, or board member

  2. Separation of viable lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Nishino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that provide health benefits to humans. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB are probiotic organisms used in the production of fermented foods, such as yogurt, cheese, and pickles. Given their widespread consumption, it is important to understand the physiological state of LAB in foods such as yogurt. However, this analysis is complicated, as it is difficult to separate the LAB from milk components such as solid curds, which prevent cell separation by dilution or centrifugation. In this study, we successfully separated viable LAB from yogurt by density gradient centrifugation. The recovery rate was >90 %, and separation was performed until the stationary phase. Recovered cells were observable by microscopy, meaning that morphological changes and cell viability could be directly detected at the single-cell level. The results indicate that viable LAB can be easily purified from fermented milk. We expect that this method will be a useful tool for the analysis of various aspects of probiotic cells, including their enzyme activity and protein expression. Keywords: Food analysis, Microbiology

  3. An alternative method to record rising temperatures during dental implant site preparation: a preliminary study using bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Laurito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Overheating is constantly mentioned as a risk factor for bone necrosis that could compromise the dental implant primary stability. Uncontrolled thermal injury can result in a fibrous tissue, interpositioned at the implant-bone interface, compromising the long-term prognosis. The methods used to record temperature rise include either direct recording by thermocouple instruments or indirect estimating by infrared thermography. This preliminary study was carried out using bovine bone and a different method of temperatures rising estimation is presented. Two different types of drills were tested using fluoroptic thermometer and the effectiveness of this alternative temperature recording method was evaluated.

  4. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  5. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    Single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive technology commonly used for predicting lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and water content of agricultural products. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prospects of NIR spectroscopy in classifying viable and non...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable......-viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...

  6. THE MURINE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY: AN ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CHEMICALS TO ELICIT ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTThe process that a new toxicology test method must undergo to attain acceptance and regulatory implementation may seem daunting. As the first test method to undergo Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) review, the local...

  7. Perpendicular distance sampling: an alternative method for sampling downed coarse woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Williams; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2003-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) plays an important role in many forest ecosystem processes. In recent years, a number of new methods have been proposed to sample CWD. These methods select individual logs into the sample using some form of unequal probability sampling. One concern with most of these methods is the difficulty in estimating the volume of each log. A new method...

  8. Evaluation of alternative age-based methods for estimating relative abundance from survey data in relation to assessment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Nielsen, Anders; Kristensen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Indices of abundance from fishery-independent trawl surveys constitute an important source of information for many fish stock assessments. Indices are often calculated using area stratified sample means on age-disaggregated data, and finally treated in stock assessment models as independent...... observations. We evaluate a series of alternative methods for calculating indices of abundance from trawl survey data (delta-lognormal, delta-gamma, and Tweedie using Generalized Additive Models) as well as different error structures for these indices when used as input in an age-based stock assessment model...... the different indices produced. The stratified mean method is found much more imprecise than the alternatives based on GAMs, which are found to be similar. Having time-varying index variances is found to be of minor importance, whereas the independence assumption is not only violated but has significant impact...

  9. New high accuracy super stable alternating direction implicit methods for two and three dimensional hyperbolic damped wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report new three level implicit super stable methods of order two in time and four in space for the solution of hyperbolic damped wave equations in one, two and three space dimensions subject to given appropriate initial and Dirichlet boundary conditions. We use uniform grid points both in time and space directions. Our methods behave like fourth order accurate, when grid size in time-direction is directly proportional to the square of grid size in space-direction. The proposed methods are super stable. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved by the Gauss elimination method. We discuss new alternating direction implicit (ADI methods for two and three dimensional problems. Numerical results and the graphical representation of numerical solution are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed methods.

  10. An alternative sensor fusion method for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Joshua L.

    This thesis develops an alternative sensor fusion approach for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors. The alternative approach focuses on the unique challenges of small UAVs. Such challenges include the vibrational induced noise onto the accelerometer and bias offset errors of the rate gyroscope. To overcome these challenges, a sensor fusion algorithm combines the measured data from the accelerometer and rate gyroscope to achieve a single output free from vibrational noise and bias offset errors. One of the most prevalent sensor fusion algorithms used for orientation estimation is the Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF filter performs the fusion process by first creating the process model using the nonlinear equations of motion and then establishing a measurement model. With the process and measurement models established, the filter operates by propagating the mean and covariance of the states through time. The success of EKF relies on the ability to establish a representative process and measurement model of the system. In most applications, the EKF measurement model utilizes the accelerometer and GPS-derived accelerations to determine an estimate of the orientation. However, if the GPS-derived accelerations are not available then the measurement model becomes less reliable when subjected to harsh vibrational environments. This situation led to the alternative approach, which focuses on the correlation between the rate gyroscope and accelerometer-derived angle. The correlation between the two sensors then determines how much the algorithm will use one sensor over the other. The result is a measurement that does not suffer from the vibrational noise or from bias offset errors.

  11. National Dispute Resolution Chamber – Alternative Method of Conflict Resolution on Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilar Fernandes Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The soccer is still under studied and discussed in academic area, even though it has many mecanisms and singularities. One of the most recent mecanisms created is the National Dispute Resolution Chamber, sort of arbitration chamber created by CBF to solve all kind of conflicts. The NDRC has some particularities and conflicts with the national legal system, but it might be a faster and consensual way to solve the problems. Therefore we present the postive and negative points of the NDRC, make observations of its effects on the Justice and conclude indicating the posible alternatives.

  12. Comparison of alternative weight recalibration methods for diagnosis-related groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, Jeannette Roskamp; Byrne, Daniel J.

    1990-01-01

    In this article, alternative methodologies for recalibration of the diagnosis-related group (DRG) weights are examined. Based on 1984 data, cost and charge-based weights are less congruent than those calculated with 1981 data. Previous studies using 1981 data demonstrated that cost- and charge-based weights were not very different. Charge weights result in higher payments to surgical DRGs and lower payments to medical DRGs, relative to cost weights. At the provider level, charge weights result in higher payments to large urban hospitals and teaching hospitals, relative to cost weights. PMID:10113568

  13. Alternative dispute resolution: methods to address workplace conflict in health services organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, J R

    1998-01-01

    As healthcare organizations become increasingly complex, healthcare administrators and human resource managers face the cost and challenges of employment-related disputes. Litigation and legal costs associated with employment disputes are escalating at a significant rate. Additionally, litigation procedures are drawn out and damage the employer-employee relationship. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) programs such as mediation and arbitration alleviate the burden of litigation and preserve positive employment relationships between the organization and its employees. A proposed ADR program is presented is a guideline for health services organizations considering the adoption of such programs.

  14. Novel Method for Sizing Metallic Bottom Crack Depth Using Multi-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuting; Gan Fangji; Wan Zhengjun; Liao Junbi; Li Wenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Potential drop techniques are of two types: the direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique and alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique, and both of them are used in nondestructive testing. ACPD, as a kind of valid method in sizing metal cracks, has been applied to evaluate metal structures. However, our review of most available approaches revealed that some improvements can be done in measuring depth of metal bottom crack by means of ACPD, such as accuracy and sensitivity of s...

  15. Don't spin the pen: two alternative methods for second-stage sampling in urban cluster surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Angela MC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In two-stage cluster surveys, the traditional method used in second-stage sampling (in which the first household in a cluster is selected is time-consuming and may result in biased estimates of the indicator of interest. Firstly, a random direction from the center of the cluster is selected, usually by spinning a pen. The houses along that direction are then counted out to the boundary of the cluster, and one is then selected at random to be the first household surveyed. This process favors households towards the center of the cluster, but it could easily be improved. During a recent meningitis vaccination coverage survey in Maradi, Niger, we compared this method of first household selection to two alternatives in urban zones: 1 using a superimposed grid on the map of the cluster area and randomly selecting an intersection; and 2 drawing the perimeter of the cluster area using a Global Positioning System (GPS and randomly selecting one point within the perimeter. Although we only compared a limited number of clusters using each method, we found the sampling grid method to be the fastest and easiest for field survey teams, although it does require a map of the area. Selecting a random GPS point was also found to be a good method, once adequate training can be provided. Spinning the pen and counting households to the boundary was the most complicated and time-consuming. The two methods tested here represent simpler, quicker and potentially more robust alternatives to spinning the pen for cluster surveys in urban areas. However, in rural areas, these alternatives would favor initial household selection from lower density (or even potentially empty areas. Bearing in mind these limitations, as well as available resources and feasibility, investigators should choose the most appropriate method for their particular survey context.

  16. Alternative method of manufacture and assembly of concrete reinforcement for cylindrical part of containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalus, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The problems are discussed of the reinforcement for the cylindrical part of the containment of the standard WWER 1000 nuclear power plant in the Temelin locality. Soviet 25 G 2 S bars 40 mm in diameter and Czechoslovak bars 39 mm in diameter of steels 10 216 and 10 425 are to be used. The possible technologies of laying are presented and as an alternative solution the concept of reinforcing cages is discussed. The production of cages is considered as an on-site project. The cages would be manufactured using horizontal or vertical fixtures and stored vertically close together in special stands. Labour consumption for the production of both types of reinforcing cages is discussed and a survey presented of the necessary equipment when using the alternative technologies. Labour consumption for the assembly of the cages is also given, this for the variant when the reinforcement is fixed to the assembled steel lining, i.e., either cages 12 by 12 m in dimension (inner, outer, including transverse reinforcement) or as spatial components, baskets, with regard to the possibility of transporting elements 3 by 12 m in dimension. (B.S.)

  17. The Davidson Method as an alternative to power iterations for criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.; Van Criekingen, S.; Heuveline, V.; Nataf, F.; Have, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Davidson method is implemented within the neutron transport core solver parafish to solve k-eigenvalue criticality transport problems. The parafish solver is based on domain decomposition, uses spherical harmonics (P_N method) for angular discretization, and nonconforming finite elements for spatial discretization. The Davidson method is compared to the traditional power iteration method in that context. Encouraging numerical results are obtained with both sequential and parallel calculations. (author)

  18. 75 FR 7593 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... quality Isokinetic Method. Pollutants for assurance; Prepare Hazardous Waste calibration standards... flow meter of Stack Gas Velocity 60.18(f)(4). in lieu of Method 2. and Volumetric Flow Rate (Type S Pitot Tube). ALT-055 Method 2A--Direct Flares subject to Use a mass flow meter Measurement of Gas 60.18...

  19. Analysis of alternative transportation methods for radioactive materials shipments including the use of special trains for spent fuel and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.; Taylor, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two studies were completed which evaluate the environmental impact of radioactive material transport. The first was a generic study which evaluated all radioactive materials and all transportation modes; the second addressed spent fuel and fuel-cycle wastes shipped by truck, rail and barge. A portion of each of those studies dealing with the change in impact resulting from alternative shipping methods is presented in this paper. Alternatives evaluated in each study were mode shifts, operational constraints, and, in generic case, changes in material properties and package capabilities. Data for the analyses were obtained from a shipper survey and from projections of shipments that would occur in an equilibrium fuel cycle supporting one hundred 1000-MW(e) reactors. Population exposures were deduced from point source radiation formulae using separation distances derived for scenarios appropriate to each shipping mode and to each exposed population group. Fourteen alternatives were investigated for the generic impact case. All showed relatively minor changes in the overall radiological impact. Since the radioactive material transport is estimated to be fewer than 3 latent cancer fatalities (LCF) for each shipment year (compared to some 300,000 yearly cancer fatalities or 5000 LCF's calculated for background radiation using the same radiological effects model), a 15% decrease caused by shifting from passenger air to cargo air is a relatively small effect. Eleven alternatives were considered for the fuel cycle/special train study, but only one produced a reduction in total special train baseline LCF's (.047) that was larger than 5%

  20. Alternative global goodness metrics and sensitivity analysis: heuristics to check the robustness of conclusions from studies comparing virtual screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Robert P

    2008-02-01

    We introduce two ways of testing the robustness of conclusions from studies comparing virtual screening methods: alternative "global goodness" metrics and sensitivity analysis. While the robustness tests cannot eliminate all biases in virtual screening comparisons, they are useful as a "reality check" for any given study. To illustrate this, we apply them to a set of enrichments published in McGaughey et al. (J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2007, 47, 1504-1519) where 11 target protein/ligand combinations are tested on 2D and 3D similarity methods, plus docking. The major conclusions in that paper, for instance, that ligand-based methods are better than docking methods, hold up. However, some minor conclusions, such as Glide being the best docking method, do not.

  1. Physiology limits commercially viable photoautotrophic production of microalgal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Philip; Flynn, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential. We demonstrate how physiological and operational trade-offs combine to restrict the potential for solar-powered algal-biodiesel production in open ponds to a ceiling of ca. 8000 L ha -1 year -1 . For industrial-scale operations, practical considerations limit production to ca. 6000 L ha -1 year -1 . According to published economic models and life cycle analyses, such production rates cannot support long-term viable commercialisation of solar-powered cultivation of natural microalgae strains exclusively as feedstock for biofuels. The commercial viability of microalgal biofuels depends critically upon limitations in microalgal physiology (primarily in rates of C-fixation); we discuss the scope for addressing this bottleneck concluding that even deployment of genetically modified microalgae with radically enhanced characteristics would leave a very significant logistical if not financial burden.

  2. Summary of EPA's risk assessment results from the analysis of alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.; Hung, C.Y.; Meyer, G.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential health risk and individual exposure from a broad number of disposal alternatives is an important part of EPA's program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The Agency has completed an analysis of the potential population health risks and maximum individual exposures from ten disposal methods under three different hydrogeological and climatic settings. This paper briefly describes the general input and analysis procedures used in the risk assessment for LLW disposal and presents their preliminary results. Some important lessons learned from simulating LLW disposal under a large variety of methods and conditions are identified

  3. Variance component estimation with longitudinal data: a simulation study with alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Inoe Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A pedigree structure distributed in three different places was generated. For each offspring, phenotypicinformation was generated for five different ages (12, 30, 48, 66 and 84 months. The data file was simulated allowing someinformation to be lost (10, 20, 30 and 40% by a random process and by selecting the ones with lower phenotypic values,representing the selection effect. Three alternative analysis were used, the repeatability model, random regression model andmultiple-trait model. Random regression showed to be more adequate to continually describe the covariance structure ofgrowth over time than single-trait and repeatability models, when the assumption of a correlation between successivemeasurements in the same individual was different from one another. Without selection, random regression and multiple-traitmodels were very similar.

  4. TEMS: an alternative method for the repair of benign recto-vaginal fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwood, R J; Borley, N R

    2008-07-01

    The repair of high recto-vaginal fistula can be challenging since access may be limited via the endo-anal approach yet the alternative trans-abdominal route carries significant morbidity. We report the use of TEMS to repair a recto-vaginal fistula following anterior resection and pelvic radiotherapy. The patient was placed prone and a 25 cm rectoscope was inserted. A proximally based mucosal advancement flap was raised to repair the fistula. The patient was discharged 2 days later and a contrast study confirmed closure of the fistula. COMPARISON WITH OTHER TECHNIQUES: TEMS allows excellent visualisation of a rectovaginal fistula compared to standard endo-anal or trans-vaginal techniques. The morbidity is lower than the trans-abdominal route. TEMS is a useful technique for the repair of benign recto-vaginal fistula and has distinct advantages over conventional techniques.

  5. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  6. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Total Viable Vibrio spp. in a NW Mediterranean Coastal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Léa; Peuchet, Sébastien; Servais, Pierre; Henry, Annabelle; Charni-Ben-Tabassi, Nadine; Baudart, Julia

    2017-09-27

    A cellular approach combining Direct Viable Counting and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization using a one-step multiple-probe technique and Solid Phase Cytometry (DVC-FISH-SPC) was developed to monitor total viable vibrios and cover the detection of a large diversity of vibrios. FISH combined three probes in the same assay and targeted sequences located at different positions on the 16S rRNA of Vibrio and Aliivibrio members. We performed a 10-month in situ study to investigate the weekly dynamics of viable vibrios relative to culturable counts at two northwestern Mediterranean coastal sites, and identified the key physicochemical factors for their occurrence in water using a multivariate analysis. Total viable and culturable cell counts showed the same temporal pattern during the warmer season, whereas the ratios between both methods were inverted during the colder seasons (<15°C), indicating that some of the vibrio community had entered into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. We confirmed that Seawater Surface Temperature explained 51-62% of the total variance in culturable counts, and also showed that the occurrence of viable vibrios is controlled by two variables, pheopigment (15%) and phosphate (12%) concentrations, suggesting that other unidentified factors play a role in maintaining viability.

  7. Problematic Methods in teaching Modern History. An alternative or a necessity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohany Peralta Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis from the study of the theoretical research on the use of problematic methods in Teaching Learning Process of Modern H istory course in Rafael Maria de Mendive University of Pinar del Rio. An anal ysis o f the use of problematic methods in the Process of Teaching Modern History course from the definition of method taking into account the theoretical assumptions of scholars of the subject matter and the advantages and disadvantages provided by the use of these methods in the Teaching Learning Process of Modern History course.

  8. An alternative method for noise analysis using pixel variance as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, R; Broeders, M; Van Engen, R; Young, K; Lazzari, B; Ravaglia, V

    2009-01-01

    According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does not discriminate sufficiently between systems with and without additional noise besides quantum noise. This paper attempts to give an alternative and relatively simple method for noise analysis which can divide noise into electronic noise, structured noise and quantum noise. Quantum noise needs to be the dominant noise source in clinical images for optimal performance of a digital mammography system, and therefore the amount of electronic and structured noise should be minimal. For several digital mammography systems, the noise was separated into components based on the measured pixel value, standard deviation (SD) of the image and the detector entrance dose. The results showed that differences between systems exist. Our findings confirm that the proposed method is able to discriminate systems based on their noise performance and is able to detect possible quality problems. Therefore, we suggest to replace the current method for noise analysis as described in the European Guidelines by the alternative method described in this paper.

  9. Comparison of usual and alternative methods to measure height in mechanically ventilated patients: potential impact on protective ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojmehrani, Azadeh; Bergeron-Duchesne, Maude; Bouchard, Carmelle; Simard, Serge; Bouchard, Pierre-Alexandre; Vanderschuren, Abel; L'Her, Erwan; Lellouche, François

    2014-07-01

    Protective ventilation implementation requires the calculation of predicted body weight (PBW), determined by a formula based on gender and height. Consequently, height inaccuracy may be a limiting factor to correctly set tidal volumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods in measuring heights in mechanically ventilated patients. Before cardiac surgery, actual height was measured with a height gauge while subjects were standing upright (reference method); the height was also estimated by alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements. After cardiac surgery, upon ICU admission, a subject's height was visually estimated by a clinician and then measured with a tape measure while the subject was supine and undergoing mechanical ventilation. One hundred subjects (75 men, 25 women) were prospectively included. Mean PBW was 61.0 ± 9.7 kg, and mean actual weight was 30.3% higher. In comparison with the reference method, estimating the height visually and using the tape measure were less accurate than both lower leg and forearm measurements. Errors above 10% in calculating the PBW were present in 25 and 40 subjects when the tape measure or visual estimation of height was used in the formula, respectively. With lower leg and forearm measurements, 15 subjects had errors above 10% (P bedridden patients on mechanical ventilation. Alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements are potentially interesting solutions to facilitate the accurate application of protective ventilation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  11. Sustainability assessment of alternative end-uses for disused areas based on multi-criteria decision-making method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; De Vita, Sabato; Notarnicola, Michele

    2018-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to define and apply a multidisciplinary and multi-criteria approach to sustainability in evaluating alternative end-uses for disused areas. Taking into account the three pillars of sustainability (social, economic and environmental dimension) as well as the need for stakeholders to have new practical instruments, the innovative approach consists of four modules stated (i) sociological, (ii) economic, (iii) environmental and (iv) multi-criteria assessment. By means of a case study on a small Municipality in Southern Italy, three end-uses alternatives, representing three essential services for citizens, were selected: Municipal gym; Market area; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) separate collection centre. The sociological module was useful to select the most socially sound alternative by means of a consultative referendum, simulated with the use of a structured questionnaire administered to a sample of the population. The economic evaluation was conducted defining the bill of quantities with regarding to six main items (soil handling, landfill disposal tax, public services, structure and services, completion work, equipment and furnishings). The environmental evaluation was performed applying the Delphi method with local technicians who were involved in a qualitative-quantitative evaluation of the three alternatives with regarding to eight possible environmental impacts (landscape impact, soil handling, odour, traffic, noise, atmospheric pollution, wastewater, waste). Finally, the Simple Additive Weighting was used as multi-criteria technique to define alternatives priorities. The obtained results showed how the multi-criteria analysis is a useful decision support tool able to identify transparently and efficiently the most sustainable solutions to a complex social problem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Searching for Methods on Evaluation Alternatives and Studying Decision Making System Regarding Enhancing Publicity of Nuclear Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Choi, Seungho; Kim, Hyerim; Song, Jiyeon; Lee, Yoonsup; Sohn, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in order to anticipate the aspect of publicity enhancement on nuclear spent fuel so that it can find the evaluation methods of alternative ways of management which could applied actually and make the decision making system of Publicity Enhancement Committee in advance. In Korea, the nuclear spent fuel is temporarily stored inside of the nuclear facility field, and it is expected that Gori nuclear facility is going to be saturated since 2016 but the solutions are still incomplete. The problem of management of nuclear spent fuel is an important issue in terms of not only the nuclear power policy but also of safe management of the already made nuclear spent fuel. This study has its meaning to draw the evaluation criteria of the management alternatives on nuclear spent fuel which can be applied in Korean case, and to find the necessity of verifying the evaluation of management alternatives through Publicity Enhancement because of different stands according to the interests. As a result, rather than technological engineering safety evaluation, qualitative analysis in terms of social costs, quantitative evaluation in terms of economic costs, this study advises the methods of public hearings and citizen juries which are effective, which makes it meaningful

  13. Alternatives to the gravimetric method for quantification of diesel particulate matter near the lower level of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jacob; Kittelson, David; Pui, David; Watts, Winthrop

    2010-10-01

    This paper is part of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association's 2010 special issue on combustion aerosol measurements. The issue is a combination of papers that synthesize and evaluate ideas and perspectives that were presented by experts at a series of workshops sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council that aimed to evaluate the current and future status of diesel particulate matter (DPM) measurement. Measurement of DPM is a complex issue with many stakeholders, including air quality management and enforcement agencies, engine manufacturers, health experts, and climatologists. Adoption of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2007 heavy-duty engine DPM standards posed a unique challenge to engine manufacturers. The new standards reduced DPM emissions to the point that improvements to the gravimetric method were required to increase the accuracy and the sensitivity of the measurement. Despite these improvements, the method still has shortcomings. The objectives of this paper are to review the physical and chemical properties of DPM that make gravimetric measurement difficult at very low concentrations and to review alternative metrics and methods that are potentially more accurate, sensitive, and specific. Particle volatility, size, surface area, and number metrics are considered, as well as methods to quantify them. Although the authors believe that an alternative method is required to meet the needs of engine manufacturers, the methods reviewed in the paper are applicable to other areas where the gravimetric method detection limit is approached and greater accuracy and sensitivity are required. The paper concludes by suggesting a method to measure active surface area, combined with a method to separate semi-volatile and solid fractions to further increase the specificity of the measurement, has potential for reducing the lower detection limit of DPM and enabling engine manufacturers to reduce DPM emissions in the future.

  14. The impact of alternative pricing methods for drugs in California Workers’ Compensation System: Fee-schedule pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leslie; Turkistani, Fatema A.; Huang, Wei; Tran, Dang M.; Lin, Tracy Kuo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction California’s Workers’ Compensation System (CAWCS) Department of Industrial Relations questioned the adequacy of the current Medi-Cal fee-schedule pricing and requested analysis of alternatives that maximize price availability and maintain budget neutrality. Objectives To compare CAWCS pharmacy-dispensed (PD) drug prices under alternative fee schedules, and identify combinations of alternative benchmarks that have prices available for the largest percentage of PD drugs and that best reach budget neutrality. Methods Claims transaction-level data (2011–2013) from CAWCS were used to estimate total annual PD pharmaceutical payments. Medi-Cal pricing data was from the Workman’s Compensation Insurance System (WCIS). Average Wholesale Prices (AWP), Wholesale Acquisition Costs (WAC), Direct Prices (DP), Federal Upper Limit (FUL) prices, and National Average Drug Acquisition Costs (NADAC) were from Medi-Span. We matched National Drug Codes (NDCs), pricing dates, and drug quantity for comparisons. We report pharmacy-dispensed (PD) claims frequency, reimbursement matching rate, and paid costs by CAWCS as the reference price against all alternative price benchmarks. Results Of 12,529,977 CAWCS claims for pharmaceutical products 11.6% (1,462,814) were for PD drugs. Prescription drug cost for CAWCS was over $152M; $63.9M, $47.9M, and $40.6M in 2011–2013. Ninety seven percent of these CAWCS PD claims had a Medi-Cal price. Alternative mechanisms provided a price for fewer claims; NADAC 94.23%, AWP 90.94%, FUL 73.11%, WAC 66.98%, and DP 14.33%. Among CAWCS drugs with no Medi-Cal price in PD claims, AWP, WAC, NADAC, DP, and FUL provided prices for 96.7%, 63.14%, 24.82%, 20.83%, and 15.08% of claims. Overall CAWCS paid 100.52% of Medi-Cal, 60% of AWP, 97% of WAC, 309.53% of FUL, 103.83% of DP, and 136.27% of NADAC. Conclusions CAWCS current Medi-Cal fee-schedule price list for PD drugs is more complete than all alternative fee-schedules. However, all

  15. Impacts of alternative allowance allocation methods under a cap-and-trade program in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Beibei; He Pan; Zhang Bing; Bi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Emission trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the policy design of an emission trading program has a decisive impact on its performance. Allowance allocation is one of the most important policy design issues in emission trading, not only for equity but also for policy performance. In this research, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission trading was constructed by applying an agent-based model. The performance of the Jiangsu SO 2 emission trading market was examined under different allowance allocation methods and transaction costs. The results showed that the market efficiency of emission trading would be affected by the allocation methods when the transaction costs are positive. The auction allowance allocation method was more efficient and had the lowest total emission control costs than the other three allocation methods examined. However, the use of this method will require that power plants pay for all of their allowance, and doing so will increase the production costs of power plants. On the other hand, output-based allowance allocation is the second best method. - Highlights: ► The impact of allowance allocation methods is examined for a cap-and-trade program. ► The market efficiency would be distinct when the transaction costs are positive. ► The auction method would have lowest total emission control costs.

  16. Acoustic Rhinometry (AR): An alternative method to image nasal airway geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune

    2007-01-01

    with known dimensions, and in humans and´animals where the dimensions were measuredby other methods as well, (CT-scanning, MRI and fluid-displacement). In small animals AR seems to underestimate the cross-sectional areas, probably due to violation of several assumptions for the method. Future studies should...

  17. Development of alternative methods for the determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rodrigues Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three methods are proposed for the quantitative determination of raloxifene hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form: ultraviolet method (UV high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and micellar capillary electrophoresis (MEKC. These methods were developed and validated and showed good linearity, precision and accuracy. Also they demonstrated to be specific and robust. The HPLC and MEKC methods were tested in regards to be stability indicating methods and they showed to have this attribute. The UV method used methanol as solvent and optimal wavelength at 284 nm, obeying Lambert-Beer law in these conditions. The chromatographic conditions for the HPLC method included: NST column C18 (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm, mobile phase water:acetonitrile:triethylamine (67:33:0,3 v/v, pH 3.5, flow rate 1.0 mL min-1, injection volume 20.0 µl, UV detection 287 nm and analysis temperature 30 °C. The MEKC method was performed on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm effective length x 50 µm i.d. using as background electrolyte 35.0 mmol L-1 borate buffer and 50.0 mmol L-1 anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS at pH 8.8. The capillary temperature was 32°C, applied voltage 25 kV, UV detection at 280 nm and injection was perfomed at 45 mBar for 4 s, hydrodimanic mode. In this MEKC method, potassium diclofenac (200.0 µg mL-1 was used as internal standard. All these methods were statistically analyzed and demonstrated to be equivalent for quantitative analysis of RLX in tablets and were successfully applied for the determination of the drug.

  18. A proposal on alternative sampling-based modeling method of spherical particles in stochastic media for Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; KIm, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Chord length sampling method in Monte Carlo simulations is a method used to model spherical particles with random sampling technique in a stochastic media. It has received attention due to the high calculation efficiency as well as user convenience; however, a technical issue regarding boundary effect has been noted. In this study, after analyzing the distribution characteristics of spherical particles using an explicit method, an alternative chord length sampling method is proposed. In addition, for modeling in finite media, a correction method of the boundary effect is proposed. Using the proposed method, sample probability distributions and relative errors were estimated and compared with those calculated by the explicit method. The results show that the reconstruction ability and modeling accuracy of the particle probability distribution with the proposed method were considerably high. Also, from the local packing fraction results, the proposed method can successfully solve the boundary effect problem. It is expected that the proposed method can contribute to the increasing of the modeling accuracy in stochastic media.

  19. A proposal on alternative sampling-based modeling method of spherical particles in stochastic media for Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; KIm, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung; Noh, Jae Man

    2015-01-01

    Chord length sampling method in Monte Carlo simulations is a method used to model spherical particles with random sampling technique in a stochastic media. It has received attention due to the high calculation efficiency as well as user convenience; however, a technical issue regarding boundary effect has been noted. In this study, after analyzing the distribution characteristics of spherical particles using an explicit method, an alternative chord length sampling method is proposed. In addition, for modeling in finite media, a correction method of the boundary effect is proposed. Using the proposed method, sample probability distributions and relative errors were estimated and compared with those calculated by the explicit method. The results show that the reconstruction ability and modeling accuracy of the particle probability distribution with the proposed method were considerably high. Also, from the local packing fraction results, the proposed method can successfully solve the boundary effect problem. It is expected that the proposed method can contribute to the increasing of the modeling accuracy in stochastic media

  20. An alternative method in mandibular fracture treatment: bone graft use instead of a plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagöz, Murat Sahin; Uysal, Ahmet Cagri; Sensoz, Omer

    2008-03-01

    In the treatment of the mandibular fractures, one of the main principles is to use the least amount of foreign material. We present an alternative technique that the bone grafts harvested from the fracture borders or from the iliac crest were used instead of plates and the fixation was done with screws. In the study including 24 mandible fractures, the bone grafts harvested from the fracture borders were used in the 10 favorable fractures and the bone grafts harvested from the iliac crest were used in the 14 unfavorable fractures. In the combined mandible fractures, four fractures were fixated with titanium plates and the other side with the bone graft. The patients, who were followed up for 12 to 20 months, were evaluated with macroscopic occlusion, panoramic graphs, and three-dimensional computerized tomographs. The advantage of this technique of fixation with the autogenous tissue is reduced infection rates and reduced operation costs. In the pediatric patients, the second session operation of plate removal is not necessary.

  1. The development of high hydrostatic pressure processes as an alternative to other pathogen reduction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeau, G; Rivalain, N

    2011-06-01

    In biology, scientist's interest for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has increased over the last 20 years, for both research and industrial developments, mainly because of the low energy associated with its application in liquid phase and its capacity to inactivate pathogens. It is now considered as an interesting alternative to heat treatments for the inactivation of contaminants in many products, from foods to pharmaceutical preparations. This last statement implies different objectives according to the type of product. The therapeutic properties of pharmaceutical preparations or other biological media of physiological importance are in general associated with specific and well-defined molecules such as proteins. Their activity mainly depends on their spatial conformation, maintained by weak chemical bonds that are often pressure sensitive. In this case, the optimization of a HHP process can be more complex than for foods, for which the organoleptic molecules are less pressure sensitive, and the evaluation of their preservation is more subjective and highly dependent on the consumers acceptance. The objective of this review is therefore to underline how, even if the basic concept for the optimization of a pathogen reduction process using HHP is the same whatever the product, major differences arise from the product itself and its final use. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Rainfall estimation in SWAT: An alternative method to simulate orographic precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Izquierdo, T.; Cerón, J. C.; Fernández de Villarán, R.

    2014-02-01

    The input of water from precipitation is one of the most important aspects of a hydrologic model because it controls the basin's water budget. The model should reproduce the amount and distribution of rainfall in the basin, spatially and temporally. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) is one of the most widely used hydrologic models. In this paper the rainfall estimation in SWAT is revised, focusing on the treatment of orographic precipitation. SWAT was applied to the Odiel river basin (SW Spain), with a surface of 2300 km2. Results show that SWAT does not reflect reallisticaly the spatial distribution of rainfall in the basin. In relation to orographic precipitation, SWAT estimates the daily precipitation in elevation bands by adding a constant amount to the recorded precipitation in the rain gauge, which depends on the increase in precipitation with altitude and the difference between the mean elevation of each band and the elevation of the recording gauge. This does not reflect rainfall in the subbasin because the increase in precipitation with altitude actually it is not constant, but depends on the amount of rainfall. An alternative methodology to represent the temporal distribution of orographic precipitation is proposed. After simulation, the deviation of runoff volume using the SWAT elevation bands was appreciably higher than that obtained with the proposed methodology.

  3. Which alternative communication methods are effective for voiceless patients in Intensive Care Units? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen; Astin, Felicity; Munro, Wendy

    2017-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) strategies to enable people who are temporarily voiceless due to medical intervention, to communicate. A systematic review informed by a protocol published on an international register. Ten databases were searched from January 2004 to January 2017. Included studies assessed the effect of using AAC strategies on patient related outcomes and barriers to their use. All included studies were quality appraised. Due to the heterogeneity of interventions and outcome measures findings were narratively reviewed. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review reporting outcomes from 1981 patient and 454 health professional participants. The quality of included studies were moderate to weak. AAC communication strategies increased the number of communication interactions, improved patient satisfaction with communication and reduced communication difficulties. Barriers to usage were device characteristics, the clinical condition of the patient, lack of timeliness in communication and staff constraints. There is preliminary, but inconsistent evidence that AAC strategies are effective in improving patient satisfaction with communication and reducing difficulties in communication. A lack of comparable studies precluded the identification of the most effective AAC strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of alternative methods of simulating asymmetric bulk heating in fusion reactor blanket/shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Wadkins, R.P.; Wessol, D.E.

    1981-10-01

    As a part of Phase O, Test Program Element-II of the Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program, a study was conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to identify, characterize, and recommend alternative approaches for simulating fusion bulk heating in blanket/shield components. This is the report on that effort. Since the usefulness of any simulation approach depends upon the particular experiment considered, classes of problem types (thermal-hydraulic, thermomechanical, etc.) and material types (structure, solid breeder, etc.) are developed. The evaluation of the various simulation approaches is performed for the various significant combinations of problem class and material class. The simulation approaches considered are discrete-source heating, direct resistance, electromagnetic induction, microwave heating, and nuclear heating. From the evaluations performed for each experiment type, discrete - source heating emerges as a good approach for bulk heating simulation in thermal - hydraulics experiments, and nuclear heating appears to be a good approach in experiments addressing thermomechanics and combined thermal-hydraulic/thermomechanics

  5. Silver nanoparticles: an alternative method for sanitization of minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Andrade Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of vegetables basically aims to extend food shelf life, which depends on a number of factors, such as sanitization, that is considered a critical step for food microbiological quality. However, the usual antimicrobial agents reduce the microbial population in a maximum of two logarithmic cycles. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative sanitizers. This study aimed to increase the innocuity of minimally processed cabbage through sanitization with silver nanoparticles. It was observed that the nanoparticles promoted three logarithmic reductions, i.e. a 99.9 % reduction rate, in the Escherichia coli population inoculated on the cabbage surface. When compared to other antimicrobial agents (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and sodium hypochlorite, the nanoparticles were more efficient in sanitizing minimally processed cabbage, showing a lower count of aerobic mesophils. It was also observed that the cabbage surface presents hydrophobic characteristics, resulting in a higher propension for bacterial adhesion, which was confirmed in the thermodynamic evaluation of favorable adhesion for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

  6. Scalp Wound Closure with K wires: An alternative easier method to scalp wound closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S; Ajik, S

    2012-12-01

    Scalp defects and lacerations present a reconstructive challenge to plastic surgeons. Many methods have been described from the use of skin grafting to rotation flaps. Here we present a method of closure of a contaminated scalp wound with the use of Kirschner wires. In our case, closure of scalp laceration was made possible with the use of 1.4 Kirschner wires and cable tie/ zip tie fasteners. The duration to closure of wound was 10 days. In reconstructing the scalp defect, this method was found to adhere to principles of scalp reconstruction. There were no post operative complications found from the procedure. On initial application on the edge of the wound, tension applied caused the K wires to cut through the wound edge. On replacement of K wires 1cm away from wound edge the procedure was not plagued by any further complication. In conclusion we find scalp closure with Kirschner wires are a simple and effective method for scalp wound closure.

  7. Irradiation as an alternative environment friendly method for microbiological decontamination of herbal raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, P.; Kedzia, B.; Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of herbal raw materials is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. A good quality of the product, according to the pharmaceutical requirements may be achieved by applying suitable methods of decontamination. The decontamination treatments should be fast and effective against all microorganisms. It should ensure the decontamination of both packaging and the product in order to act effectively against all the microorganisms present and must not reduce the sensory and technological qualities of the commodities. In the paper, the results of comparative investigations on the microbiological decontamination of herbal raw materials by chemical (ethylene oxide, methyl bromide) and physical method (irradiation) are presented. Decontamination of herbal raw materials by irradiation is a method by choice. It is because chemical methods have been recognized recently as not safe to the consumer. Irradiation, in turn, is technically feasible, very effective and friendly enough to environment process

  8. Inactivation of viable Ascaris eggs by reagents during enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K L; Darby, J L

    2001-12-01

    Various reagents commonly used to enumerate viable helminth eggs from wastewater and sludge were evaluated for their potential to inactivate Ascaris eggs under typical laboratory conditions. Two methods were used to enumerate indigenous Ascaris eggs from sludge samples. All steps in the methods were the same except that in method I a phase extraction step with acid-alcohol (35% ethanol in 0.1 N H(2)SO(4)) and diethyl ether was used whereas in method II the extraction step was avoided by pouring the sample through a 38-microm-mesh stainless steel sieve that retained the eggs. The concentration of eggs and their viability were lower in the samples processed by method I than in the samples processed by method II by an average of 48 and 70%, respectively. A second set of experiments was performed using pure solutions of Ascaris suum eggs to elucidate the effect of the individual reagents and relevant combination of reagents on the eggs. The percentages of viable eggs in samples treated with acid-alcohol alone and in combination with diethyl ether or ethyl acetate were 52, 27, and 4%, respectively, whereas in the rest of the samples the viability was about 80%. Neither the acid nor the diethyl ether alone caused any decrease in egg viability. Thus, the observed inactivation was attributed primarily to the 35% ethanol content of the acid-alcohol solution. Inactivation of the eggs was prevented by limiting the direct exposure to the extraction reagents to 30 min and diluting the residual concentration of acid-alcohol in the sample by a factor of 100 before incubation. Also, the viability of the eggs was maintained if the acid-alcohol solution was replaced with an acetoacetic buffer. None of the reagents used for the flotation step of the sample cleaning procedure (ZnSO(4), MgSO(4), and NaCl) or during incubation (0.1 N H(2)SO(4) and 0.5% formalin) inactivated the Ascaris eggs under the conditions studied.

  9. Alternating optimization method based on nonnegative matrix factorizations for deep neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Imakura, Akira; Inoue, Yuto; Futamura, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    The backpropagation algorithm for calculating gradients has been widely used in computation of weights for deep neural networks (DNNs). This method requires derivatives of objective functions and has some difficulties finding appropriate parameters such as learning rate. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for computing weight matrices of fully-connected DNNs by using two types of semi-nonnegative matrix factorizations (semi-NMFs). In this method, optimization processes are performed b...

  10. Conventional and Alternative Disinfection Methods of Legionella in Water Distribution Systems – Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pūle Daina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Legionella in drinking water distribution systems is a widespread problem. Outbreaks of Legionella caused diseases occur despite various disinfectants are used in order to control Legionella. Conventional methods like thermal disinfection, silver/copper ionization, ultraviolet irradiation or chlorine-based disinfection have not been effective in the long term for control of biofilm bacteria. Therefore, research to develop more effective disinfection methods is still necessary.

  11. Alternative methods of determining phase transition temperatures of phospholipids that constitute liposomes on the example of DPPC and DMPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentak, Danuta, E-mail: danuta.pentak@us.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • New phase transition for DMPC was found. • FT-IR method is an important addition to the DSC studies. • The proposed method for determining the T{sub C} give very consistent results. - Abstract: In this work, alternatives to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a method of determining the main phospholipid phase transition temperature are presented. The bilayer phase transitions from the ripple gel phase (P{sub β{sup ′}}) to the liquid-crystal phase (L{sub α}) of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) methods. In this work, two correlations between the DSC and FT-IR methods, and NMR and EPR methods are shown. The proposed methods allow for determining the T{sub C} temperature with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, a comparison of results obtained using the DSC and FT-IR methods allowed for an observation of a new DMPC phase transition. The liposomes analyzed in this work were obtained by the modified reverse-phase evaporation method (mREV)

  12. Testing an Alternative Method for Estimating the Length of Fungal Hyphae Using Photomicrography and Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinhua; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Hedley, Mike J; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test an unbiased and rapid methodology to estimate the length of external arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in soil. The traditional visual gridline intersection (VGI) method, which consists in a direct visual examination of the intersections of hyphae with gridlines on a microscope eyepiece after aqueous extraction, membrane-filtration, and staining (e.g., with trypan blue), was refined. For this, (i) images of the stained hyphae were taken by using a digital photomicrography technique to avoid the use of the microscope and the method was referred to as "digital gridline intersection" (DGI) method; and (ii), the images taken in (i) were processed and the hyphal length was measured by using ImageJ software, referred to as the "photomicrography-ImageJ processing" (PIP) method. The DGI and PIP methods were tested using known grade lengths of possum fur. Then they were applied to measure the hyphal lengths in soils with contrasting phosphorus (P) fertility status. Linear regressions were obtained between the known lengths (Lknown) of possum fur and the values determined by using either the DGI (LDGI) (LDGI = 0.37 + 0.97 × Lknown, r2 = 0.86) or PIP (LPIP) methods (LPIP = 0.33 + 1.01 × Lknown, r2 = 0.98). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the LDGI and LPIP values. While both methods provided accurate estimation (slope of regression being 1.0), the PIP method was more precise, as reflected by a higher value of r2 and lower coefficients of variation. The average hyphal lengths (6.5-19.4 m g-1) obtained by the use of these methods were in the range of those typically reported in the literature (3-30 m g-1). Roots growing in P-deficient soil developed 2.5 times as many hyphae as roots growing in P-rich soil (17.4 vs 7.2 m g-1). These tests confirmed that the use of digital photomicrography in conjunction with either the grid-line intersection principle or image processing is a suitable method for the

  13. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  14. Alternative methods for evaluation of non-uniformity in nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasaneh, S.; Rajabi, H.; Hajizadeh, E.

    2005-01-01

    Non-uniformity test is the most essential in daily quality control procedures of nuclear medicine equipment's. However, the calculation of non-uniformity is hindered due to high level of noise in nuclear medicine data. Non-uniformity may be considered as a type of systematic error while noise is certainly a random error. The present methods of uniformity evaluation are not able to distinguish between systematic and random error and therefore produce incorrect results when noise is significant. In the present study, two hypothetical methods have been tested for evaluation of non-uniformity in nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods: Using the Monte Carlo method, uniform and non-uniform flood images of different matrix sizes and different counts were generated. The uniformity of the images was calculated using the conventional method and proposed methods. The results were compared with the known non-uniformity data of simulated images. Results: It was observed that the value of integral uniformity never went below the recommended values except in small matrix size of high counts (more than 80 millions counts). The differential uniformity was quite insensitive to the degree of non-uniformity in large matrix size. Matrix size of 64*64 was only found to be suitable for the calculation of differential uniformity. It was observed that in uniform images, a small amount of non-uniformity changes the p-value of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and noise amplitude of fast fourier transformation test significantly while the conventional methods failed to detect the nonuniformity. Conclusion: The conventional methods do not distinguish noise, which is always present in the data and occasional non-uniformity at low count density. In a uniform intact flood image, the difference between maximum and minimum pixel count (the value of integral uniformity) is much more than the recommended values for non-uniformity. After filtration of image, this difference decreases, but remains high

  15. A deterministic alternative to the full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubman, Norm M.; Lee, Joonho; Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Whaley, K. Birgitta [University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Development of exponentially scaling methods has seen great progress in tackling larger systems than previously thought possible. One such technique, full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, is a useful algorithm that allows exact diagonalization through stochastically sampling determinants. The method derives its utility from the information in the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, along with a stochastic projected wave function, to find the important parts of Hilbert space. However, the stochastic representation of the wave function is not required to search Hilbert space efficiently, and here we describe a highly efficient deterministic method that can achieve chemical accuracy for a wide range of systems, including the difficult Cr{sub 2} molecule. We demonstrate for systems like Cr{sub 2} that such calculations can be performed in just a few cpu hours which makes it one of the most efficient and accurate methods that can attain chemical accuracy for strongly correlated systems. In addition our method also allows efficient calculation of excited state energies, which we illustrate with benchmark results for the excited states of C{sub 2}.

  16. Comparison of an alternative and existing binning methods to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didierlaurent, David; Ribes, Sophie; Caselles, Olivier; Jaudet, Cyril; Dierickx, Lawrence O.; Zerdoud, Slimane; Brillouet, Severine; Weits, Kathleen; Batatia, Hadj; Courbon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory motion is a source of artifacts that reduce image quality in PET. Four dimensional (4D) PET/CT is one approach to overcome this problem. Existing techniques to limiting the effects of respiratory motions are based on prospective phase binning which requires a long acquisition duration (15–25 min). This time is uncomfortable for the patients and limits the clinical exploitation of 4D PET/CT. In this work, the authors evaluated an existing method and an alternative retrospective binning method to reduce the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Methods: The authors studied an existing mixed-amplitude binning (MAB) method and an alternative binning method by mixed-phases (MPhB). Before implementing MPhB, they analyzed the regularity of the breathing patterns in patients. They studied the breathing signal drift and missing CT slices that could be challenging for implementing MAB. They compared the performance of MAB and MPhB with current binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. Results: MPhB can be implemented depending on an optimal phase (in average, the exhalation peak phase −4.1% of the entire breathing cycle duration). Signal drift of patients was in average 35% relative to the breathing amplitude. Even after correcting this drift, MAB was feasible in 4D CT for only 64% of patients. No significant differences appeared between the different binning methods to measure the maximum uptake, internal volume, and maximal range of tumor motion. The authors also determined the inaccuracies of MAB and MPhB to measure the maximum amplitude of tumor motion with three bins (less than 3 mm for movement inferior to 12 mm, up to 6.4 mm for a 21 mm movement). Conclusions: The authors proposed an alternative binning method by mixed-phase binning that halves the acquisition duration of 4D PET/CT. Mixed-amplitude binning was challenging because of signal drift and missing CT slices. They showed that more

  17. Aortic blood flow subtraction: an alternative method for measuring total renal blood flow in conscious dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H

    2002-01-01

    We have measured total renal blood flow (TRBF) as the difference between signals from ultrasound flow probes implanted around the aorta above and below the renal arteries. The repeatability of the method was investigated by repeated, continuous infusions of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 seven...... arterial blood pressure by 49% and decreased TRBF by 12%, providing an increase in renal vascular resistance of 69%. Dynamic analysis showed autoregulation of renal blood flow in the frequency range ... of TRBF by aortic blood flow subtraction is a practical and reliable method that allows direct comparison of excretory function and renal blood flow from two kidneys. The method also allows direct comparison between TRBF and flow in the caudal aorta....

  18. Comparison of alternative methods for multiplet deconvolution in the analysis of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, Menno; Keyser, Ronald M.; Fazekas, Bela

    1999-01-01

    Three methods for multiplet deconvolution were tested using the 1995 IAEA reference spectra: Total area determination, iterative fitting and the library-oriented approach. It is concluded that, if statistical control (i.e. the ability to report results that agree with the known, true values to within the reported uncertainties) is required, the total area determination method performs the best. If high deconvolution power is required and a good, internally consistent library is available, the library oriented method yields the best results. Neither Erdtmann and Soyka's gamma-ray catalogue nor Browne and Firestone's Table of Radioactive Isotopes were found to be internally consistent enough in this respect. In the absence of a good library, iterative fitting with restricted peak width variation performs the best. The ultimate approach as yet to be implemented might be library-oriented fitting with allowed peak position variation according to the peak energy uncertainty specified in the library. (author)

  19. Comparison of presbyopic additions determined by the fused cross-cylinder method using alternative target background colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sung-Hyun; Yu, Dong-Sik; Moon, Byeong-Yeon; Cho, Hyun Gug

    2010-11-01

    To compare and contrast standard and alternative versions of refractor head (phoropter)-based charts used to determine reading addition. Forty one presbyopic subjects aged between 42 and 60 years were tested. Tentative additions were determined using a red-green background letter chart, and 4 cross-grid charts (with white, red, green, or red-green backgrounds) which were used with the fused cross cylinder (FCC) method. The final addition for a 40 cm working distance was determined for each subject by subjectively adjusting the tentative additions. There were significant differences in the tentative additions obtained using the 5 methods (repeated measures ANOVA, p FCC method. There were no significant differences between the tentative and final additions for the green background in the FCC method (p > 0.05). The intervals of the 95% limits of agreement were under ±0.50 D, and the narrowest interval (±0.26 D) was for the red-green background. The 3 FCC methods with a white, green, or red-green background provided a tentative addition close to the final addition. Compared with the other methods, the FCC method with the red-green background had a narrow range of error. Further, since this method combines the functions of both the fused cross-cylinder test and the duochrome test, it can be a useful technique for determining presbyopic additions. © 2010 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  20. Novel Method for Sizing Metallic Bottom Crack Depth Using Multi-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuting; Gan, Fangji; Wan, Zhengjun; Liao, Junbi; Li, Wenqiang

    2015-10-01

    Potential drop techniques are of two types: the direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique and alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique, and both of them are used in nondestructive testing. ACPD, as a kind of valid method in sizing metal cracks, has been applied to evaluate metal structures. However, our review of most available approaches revealed that some improvements can be done in measuring depth of metal bottom crack by means of ACPD, such as accuracy and sensitivity of shallow crack. This paper studied a novel method which utilized the slope of voltage ratio-frequency curve to solve bottom crack depth by using a simple mathematic equation based on finite element analysis. It is found that voltage ratio varies linearly with frequency in the range of 5-15 Hz; this range is slightly higher than the equivalent frequency and lower than semi-permeable frequency. Simulation and experiment show that the novel method can measure the bottom crack depth accurately.