Sample records for viable alternative energy

  1. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy. (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G


    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  2. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul


    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  3. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.


    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  4. Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R


    As clusters are widely accepted as cost-effective infrastructures for many scientific and commercial applications, improving the deliverable performance and reducing the energy consumption of such systems has become a pressing issue. In this paper, we exploit the feasibility of achieving these objectives through efficiently scheduling the communicating processes of parallel applications. In this context, we conduct an in-depth evaluation of a broad spectrum of scheduling alternatives for clusters. These include the widely used batch scheduling, local scheduling, gang scheduling, all prior communication-driven coscheduling algorithms, and a newly proposed HYBRID coscheduling algorithm. In order to provide ease of implementation and portability across many cluster platforms, we propose a generic framework for deploying any coscheduling algorithm. We have implemented four prior coscheduling algorithms (Dynamic Coscheduling (DCS), Spin Block (SB), Periodic Boost (PB), and Co-ordinated Coscheduling (CC)) and the HYBRID coscheduling using this framework on a 16-node, Myrinet connected Linux cluster that uses GM as the communication layer. In addition, we use PBS as the batch scheduler and a previously proposed gang scheduler (SCore) to analyze all classes of scheduling techniques. Performance and energy measurements using several NAS and LLNL benchmarks on the Linux cluster provide several interesting conclusions. First, although batch scheduling is currently used in most clusters, all blocking-based coscheduling techniques such as SB, CC and HYBRID and the gang scheduling can provide much better performance even in a dedicated cluster platform. Under high system load, these coscheduling schemes can provide orders of magnitude reduction in average response time and much better performance-energy behavior compared to the PBS scheme. Second, in contrast to some of the prior studies, we observe that blocking-based schemes like SB and HYBRID can provide better performance

  5. Intentional replantation: A viable alternative for management of palatogingival groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar


    Full Text Available Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often leads to combined endodontic-periodontic lesions. Treatment of complex groove presents a clinical challenge to the operator. A case of type III palatogingival groove is successfully treated with intentional replantation. With the understanding of the procedure and strict adherence to guidelines improves, practitioners can use intentional replantation as an easy and cost-effective alternative for the management of radicular groove. The paper presents a brief review of palatogingival groove and highlights an easy and predictable alternative for its management.

  6. Case-based anatomy teaching: a viable alternative? (United States)

    Eseonu, Onyedikachi; Carachi, Robert; Brindley, Nicola


    Over the last two decades, there has been a decline in the amount of time available for anatomy teaching in the medical undergraduate curriculum, and new methods of anatomy teaching have been adopted for pragmatic reasons, with little evidence base to support their proposed educational benefits. This study seeks to establish the effect of a case-based teaching method on students' confidence in anatomy. Forty-three student volunteers in the clinical phase of the Glasgow medical course were given weekly anatomy teaching sessions based on clinical case presentations over 4 weeks. The students were given an anatomy test, and were asked to rate their confidence in their anatomy knowledge before and after the teaching sessions. There was a two-point increase in students' self-rated confidence, and a 10.9 per cent increase in average test score after the case-based anatomy teaching sessions. Both of these increases were statistically significant (p teaching was also highly rated by students, which may make it a viable option for the teaching of anatomy in the modern medical curriculum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

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    Sandeep Guleria


    Full Text Available Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excellent alternative, has no learning curve and is ideally suited for donors in India who have a low BMI. The procedure is also relatively inexpensive. We are in need of a donor registry rather than reports from single institutions to fully evaluate the risks and benefits of both procedures.

  8. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives (United States)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing

  9. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)


    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  10. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server


    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  11. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.


    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  12. Economics of alternative energy sources. (United States)

    Ryle, M


    An important part of the oil and natural gas at present consumed in the UK is used for the heating of buildings, a demand which shows large diurnal, day-to-day and annual fluctuations. The replacement of this energy by nuclear-generated electricity, as at present envisaged, would require the construction of some 250 GW of additional capacity by the end of the century, a progamme which does not seem feasible. By incorporating relatively cheap, short term storage in the form of low-grade heat, the generating capacity required to fulfil peak demand could be reduced by more than 50%. As soon as such storage is provided, however, other sources of energy become viable and attractive alternatives, and the UK is well situated to make use of wind, wave, and tidal power. It seems likely that the value of North Sea oil/gas reserves as feedstock to the chemical industry will rise sufficiently to make an early reduction in their consumption as fuel of great economic importance.

  13. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits


    Gomiero, Tiziano


    In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the ma...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Lúcio Caetano Villela


    Full Text Available The teaching of Computer Aided Translation (CAT tools is essential to all courses aimed at preparing students for the effective exercise of this profession, in particular those students who will translate technical texts, especially in the field of localization. As an alternative to the paid commercial software which dominate the translation industry (such as SDL Trados Studio, Wordfast Pro and MemoQ, there are free proprietary softwares (such as Wordfast Anywhere and Google Translator Toolkit, and free open source ones (such as OmegaT and Anaphraseus. Starting from a description of CAT types and main functions, the purpose of this article is to point out, through an evaluative-comparative analysis based on a research and on a comparison between OmegaT, free proprietary softwares and others open source softwares, why and for which situations OmegaT is a viable alternative for the teaching of CAT tools in higher education.

  15. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David


    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  16. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)


    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania


    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  18. Alternate Propulsion Energy Sources (United States)


    ion drive solar heat collector prime power antigravity inertia cancellation drive flywheels inertia redistribution drive fusion ramjet microwave phase...antihydrogen "fuel" are then transferred to the using vehicle . When propulsive energy is desired, the antiprotons are extracted from the antihydrogen ice...environments with minimum energy input to the antihydrogen ice. The "fuel tanks" with their antihydrogen ice "fuel" will be transferred to the using vehicle

  19. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.


    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  20. Alternative Energy Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, David E.; Berman, Marc J.; Breinlinger, Helmut; Gilly, Ladina; Graves, Sam; Kovatch, Patricia; Kulesza, Pete; Martinez, Dave; Minyard, Tommy; Prucnal, Dave; Seager, Mark; Vadgama, Ash


    How can HPC centers reduce cost and environmental impact by making creative use of local natural resources? Energy efficiency inside the data center is only part of the story. In keeping with the principle of reduce, reuse, recycle, we should be able to take advantage of local resources to increase efficiency either at new or existing locations. Are there creative ways to reduce PUE below 1? Is a more meaningful way needed to express and measure the environmental effects of operating HPC centers? We will explore approaches such as sustainable energy sources, use of ambient external air or water temperatures, and reuse of "waste" heat.

  1. Alternative energies updates on progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Germán


    This book examines the key pillars of alternative energy, including biomass, hydrogen, solar and geothermal. It features life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects.

  2. Alternate models to dark energy (United States)

    Arun, Kenath; Gudennavar, S. B.; Prasad, A.; Sivaram, C.


    One of the unresolved questions currently in cosmology is that of the non-linear accelerated expansion of the universe. This has been attributed to the so called Dark Energy (DE). The accelerated expansion of the universe is deduced from measurements of Type Ia supernovae. Here we propose alternate models to account for the Type Ia supernovae measurements without invoking dark energy.

  3. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland. (United States)

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  4. ¡VAMOS! (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System) - a 'Horizon 2020' project (United States)

    Sword, Cameron; Bodo, Balazs; Kapusniak, Stef; Bosman, Frank; Rainbird, Jenny; Silva, Eduardo


    The 42-month ¡VAMOS! project (Viable Alternative Mine Operating System, Grant Agreement 642477,, funded by the EC H2020 Programme, will enable access to high-grade EU reserves of mineral ore-bodies by developing an innovative clean and low visibility mining technique. The project will demonstrate the technological and economic viability of the underwater extraction of metallic mineral deposits which are currently technologically, economically, and environmentally unobtainable. In doing so, ¡VAMOS! hopes to encourage investment in abandoned open-pit mines and prospective mines, helping to put the EU back on a level playing field with the rest of the world in terms of access to strategically important minerals. The ¡VAMOS! concept is defined by a remotely-operated underwater mining vehicle, adapted and improved from existing subsea mining technology. Operating in tandem with an HROV, the mining vehicle will connect to a flexible riser through which slurried mined material will be pumped from the mudline to onshore dewatering facilities via a floating mobile deployment-module, on which will be fitted a bypass system linked to an LIBS, allowing real-time grade-control. Analysis of European and national regulation and stakeholder assessments found there is significant support for developing the technology among local communities and governments. An initial environmental assessment of the potential impact of the innovative mining operation concluded the project has a smaller environmental footprint than conventional mining operations: this is due to factors including the quieter operation and absence of blasting, zero water-table flux, and the higher stripping ratio enabled by higher fluid pressure acting on the sidewalls of the mine. The prototypes are currently in their construction phase following a final design freeze in October 2016. Work is now underway on the foresight visioning, economic evaluation and policy guidelines for the

  5. Looking for alternative energy sources. (United States)

    Gross, Michael


    With unrest in oil-exporting countries, backlashes against biofuels and photovoltaics, and a nuclear incident in Japan, the year 2011 rattled confidence in future energy supplies. The search for alternatives is all the more urgent, but some of the solutions investigated hark back to fossil fuels that we can't afford to burn.

  6. Agrofood chains: a viable alternative for sustainable rural development or consolidation of big business?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Yumbla


    Full Text Available Beginning in the 90s, following patterns that responded to the global corporate food regime, the government of Ecuador encouraged the formation of agro-food chains, among them, the chain of corn-animal feed- poultry. The food chain includes two service links (SL and four productive links (PL controlled by companies such as Pronaca, Agripac, Ecuaquímica and Supermaxi. These companies implemented horizontal, vertical, financial, and brand integrations, as strategies to consolidate market power and something even more prejudicial –the shaping of decisions regarding what and how to plant, and the available choices of what and how to consume– progressively creating a gap between producers and consumers.This model promotes corn monoculture through contract farming, encourages the use of agrochemicals, and endorses large poultry and swine processing factories which cause air, soil and water pollution from the ‘by products’, gas, feces and urine produced by the animals. Additionally, it promotes, supports an increases the consumption of animal protein, which is energy inefficient.The article discusses the consolidation of the agro-food chain, corn –processed food– poultry, and their links in order to determine if the integration of producers and consumers in this chain is an alternative to equitable development. Or are they part of the business strategies that respond to global food systems?

  7. Bioethanol from poplar clone Imola: an environmentally viable alternative to fossil fuel? (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Li, Changsheng; Facciotto, Gianni; Bergante, Sara; Bhatia, Rakesh; Comolli, Roberto; Ferré, Chiara; Murphy, Richard


    Environmental issues, e.g. climate change, fossil resource depletion have triggered ambitious national/regional policies to develop biofuel and bioenergy roles within the overall energy portfolio to achieve decarbonising the global economy and increase energy security. With the 10 % binding target for the transport sector, the Renewable Energy Directive confirms the EU's commitment to renewable transport fuels especially advanced biofuels. Imola is an elite poplar clone crossed from Populus deltoides Bartr. and Populus nigra L. by Research Units for Intensive Wood Production, Agriculture Research Council in Italy. This study examines its suitability for plantation cultivation under short or very short rotation coppice regimes as a potential lignocellulosic feedstock for the production of ethanol as a transport biofuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to model the cradle-to-gate environmental profile of Imola-derived biofuel benchmarked against conventional fossil gasoline. Specific attention was given to analysing the agroecosystem fluxes of carbon and nitrogen occurring in the cultivation of the Imola biomass in the biofuel life cycle using a process-oriented biogeochemistry model (DeNitrification-DeComposition) specifically modified for application to 2G perennial bioenergy crops and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Our results demonstrate that carbon and nitrogen cycling in perennial crop-soil ecosystems such as this example can be expected to have significant effects on the overall environmental profiles of 2G biofuels. In particular, soil carbon accumulation in perennial biomass plantations is likely to be a significant component in the overall greenhouse gas balance of future biofuel and other biorefinery products and warrants ongoing research and data collection for LCA models. We conclude that bioethanol produced from Imola represents a promising alternative transport fuel offering some savings ranging from 35 to 100 % over petrol in global

  8. Is Telemental Health Services a Viable Alternative to Traditional Psychotherapy for Deaf Individuals? (United States)

    Crowe, Teresa V


    Access to mental health treatment is a vital part of a comprehensive health care plan. Deaf individuals often have difficulty accessing mental health services. Four-hundred twenty-two participants completed an anonymous questionnaire about their perspectives of telemental health services for deaf individuals. Results showed that several variables, such as if the participant was unable to receive another type of psychotherapy and whether the therapist was ASL-fluent, were significantly related to whether the respondent would use TMH. The participants reported that TMH services are a viable option for treating a variety of mental health issues. Telemental health services can act as a bridge between consumers of mental health care and their providers allowing accessible and equitable healthcare opportunities.

  9. Are Biofuels an Effective and Viable Energy Strategy for Industrialized Societies? A Reasoned Overview of Potentials and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero


    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the constraints that limit biomass from becoming an alternative, sustainable and efficient energy source, at least in relation to the current metabolism of developed countries. In order to be termed sustainable, the use of an energy source should be technically feasible, economically affordable and environmentally and socially viable, considering society as a whole. Above all, it should meet society’s “metabolic needs,” a fundamental issue that is overlooked in the mainstream biofuels narrative. The EROI (Energy Return on Investment of biofuels reaches a few units, while the EROI of fossil fuels is 20–30 or higher and has a power density (W/m2 thousands of times higher than the best biofuels, such as sugarcane in Brazil. When metabolic approaches are used it becomes clear that biomass cannot represent an energy carrier able to meet the metabolism of industrialized societies. For our industrial society to rely on “sustainable biofuels” for an important fraction of its energy, most of the agricultural and non-agricultural land would need to be used for crops, and at the same time a radical cut to our pattern of energy consumption would need to be implemented, whilst also achieving a significant population reduction.

  10. Extended-wear RGP contact lenses: a viable alternative to refractive surgery. (United States)

    Schnider, C M


    The rigid gas-permeable (RGP) extended-wear lens offers a unique alternative to the hydrogel extended-wear lens as well as to refractive surgery. In suitable patients it can provide almost maintenance-free visual correction for a wide variety of refractive errors. With prudent patient selection, use of high-permeability RGP materials, sound lens design and fitting principles, and conservative follow-up procedures, RGP extended-wear lenses can have success rates exceeding those of either hydrogel extended-wear lenses or refractive surgery, with fewer complications. The complications that do occur are often predictable after a short period of daily wear, and the remainder can often be managed with small changes to lens design.

  11. Cataract surgery in mobile eye surgical unit: Safe and viable alternative

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    Rajesh Pioneer Sangameswaran


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility and safety of a mobile eye surgical unit (MESU in providing quality cataract surgery for the indigent rural population with poor access to quality eye care. Materials and Methods: Two buses connected by a vestibule were built to meet the requirements for a self-sufficient operation theater (OT. In every camp, safe transportation of units, good alignment of buses, safe water, and maintenance of sterile environment were achieved with optimal utilization of OT. Results: Two thousand and twenty-one patients in 21 remote locations underwent cataract surgery in MESU between 2012 and 2015. Visual outcome was 6/9 or better in 79.3%, posterior capsular rupture in 0.91%, zonulardialysis in 0.3%, aphakia in 0.2%, iridodialysis in 0.2%, and there was no incidence of endophthalmitis. Conclusion: MESU is a safe alternative in combating preventable blindness due to cataract in far-off villages and tribal areas by providing quality eye care at the patient′s doorstep. This model has a great potential for duplication in other parts of India.

  12. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland (United States)

    Boyle, Julie


    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific ( The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  13. Basilic vein transposition: A viable alternative for multiple failed arteriovenous fistulas - A single center experience

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    Saurabh Sudhir Chipde


    Full Text Available Primary use of the autogenous arteriovenous access is recommended by the National Kidney Foundation-Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. In spite of troublesome comorbidities associated with basilic vein transposition (BVT, it is still the most preferred technique when autologous veins are not suitable to construct radio-cephalic fistula (RCF and brachiocephalic fistula (BCF, arteriovenous fistula (AVF. The present study highlights our experience with BVT, with small incision technique, over a period of two years with excellent outcome. This retrospective study included all the patients who underwent BVT at our tertiary care center between March 2013 and March 2015. It was performed in patients with failed previous RCF or BCF or who had small caliber or thrombosed cephalic veins. The patients with minimum 3 mm basilic vein diameter on Doppler were only included in the study. A 3-cm horizontal incision was made in antecubital fossa to expose brachial artery and basilic vein. Multiple longitudinal separate second skin incisions (2–3 cm were made to explore proximal part of basilic vein. Side branches of the vein were isolated and ligated. The divided basilic vein in antecubital fossa was brought over fascia through newly created subcutaneous tunnel followed by end-to-side anastomosis. A total of 18 (12 males and 6 females underwent BVT in the two years period. The mean fistula maturation time was 42 ± 10 days. Maturation rate was 100%, and the postoperative flow rate was 290 ± 22 (mL/min. No bleeding, thrombosis, failure, pseudo aneurysm, or rupture occurred in our patients. Arm edema occurred in ix (33% patients, infection in three (17%, and lymphorrhea in five (28%. The mean follow-up was six months. BVT is an alternative method with excellent initial maturation and functional patency rates requiring less extensive skin incision and surgical dissection. It is the most durable hemodialysis access procedure for those patients

  14. Viable short-term directed energy weapon naval solutions: a systems analysis of current prototypes


    Ciullo, Dan; deLongpre, Jeff; Mcarthur, Sim; Nowakowski, Jake; Shene, Rich; Taylor, Earvin; White, Roosevelt; Cheng, Po-Yu; Heng, Yinghui; Wong, Chia Sern; Wong, Wai Keat; Phua, Yee Ling; Zlatsin, Philip; Choon, Junwei; Neo, Yong Shern


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With conventional weapons nearing their peak capability, the need to identify alternative war fighting solutions suggests a look at Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs). The goal is to change the means by which warfare is conducted to improve operational efficiencies and overall effectiveness. The Naval Postgraduate School Systems Engineering and Analysis (SEA-19B) Capstone project team examined how existing directed energy technologies can ...

  15. Pre-feasibility MCDM tools to aid communities in prioritising local viable renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigim, K. [Waterloo Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Munier, N. [TEAMIC International-Canada, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Green, J. [Community Renewable Energy Works, Kitchener, Ont. (Canada)


    Integrating use of renewable energy sources (RESs) with conventional fuel sources increases energy security by minimizing dependence on imported energy sources. It also minimizes the negative environmental impact of generating energy, and the related health implications. Several RES alternatives can be identified in typical applications with various benefits and constraints. This makes the process of deciding which type of RES to implement at a specific site a multi-dimensional problem. Decision-making tools can be used to assist communities, in particular, in prioritizing their RES alternatives. Two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) tools are discussed in this work. The first tool is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the second is the sequential interactive model for urban sustainability (SIMUS). AHP is based on community participation in the decision-making process through data collection and elicitation of expert opinions in which data are subjectively weighted to come to a cardinal ranking of alternatives. SIMUS, on the other hand, uses mathematical linear programming manipulation, which also and primarily relies on elicitation of expert opinions, but in a less subjective and more objective manner. The article discusses the application of the MCDM tools to assist communities in pre-feasibility ranking of the alternative local RESs. Both MCDM tools proved to be effective and to facilitate group decision-making in transparent and scientific procedures that enabled communities to get support for their initiative. (author)

  16. Views on Finnish energy technology programmes. Environmentally viable results for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannus, S.; Alakangas, E. [ed.


    Finland`s exports of energy technology have been growing dynamically over the past few years and they have now exceeded net imports of oil. Highly efficient technology has not only been applied to the national energy economy but also exported to more than 140 other countries. Finnish skills in this field are the result of many traditional factors: the cold climate, long distances between towns, energy-intensivity industry and the lack of fossil fuels in Finland. In addition to these geographical and natural factors, Finnish expertise in energy has been radically influenced by especially favourable organizational and institutional conditions: the mechanisms for competition in the domestic marketplace ant strong networking both in Finland and abroad. The small home market has also been a stimulus for exports. Finland`s potential new subdivisions of energy fields include automation and IT for energy production systems, which is based on strong Finnish expertise and success in information technology. Another new field with potential is photoelectric systems, an area in which Finland is already well placed on the market. The extensive utilization of solar energy in northern latitudes calls for the seasonal storage of energy. The use of hydrogen as a means of storing solar power has been studied with good results in the NEMO 2 Technology Programme. In addition Finland put great emphasis on renewable energy sources like biomass, combustion processes and environmental technologies related to the energy sector. Harvesting and utilisation of biomass has been studied in the national BIOENERGIA programme. Combustion processes have been studied in the LIEKKI 2 programme. A variety of different energy related environmental technologies have been studied in the S1HTI 2 programme

  17. Bioethanol from poplar: a commercially viable alternative to fossil fuel in the European Union. (United States)

    Littlewood, Jade; Guo, Miao; Boerjan, Wout; Murphy, Richard J


    The European Union has made it a strategic objective to develop its biofuels market in order to minimize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, to help mitigate climate change and to address energy insecurity within the transport sector. Despite targets set at national and supranational levels, lignocellulosic bioethanol production has yet to be widely commercialized in the European Union. Here, we use techno-economic modeling to compare the price of bioethanol produced from short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar feedstocks under two leading processing technologies in five European countries. Our evaluation shows that the type of processing technology and varying national costs between countries results in a wide range of bioethanol production prices (€0.275 to 0.727/l). The lowest production prices for bioethanol were found in countries that had cheap feedstock costs and high prices for renewable electricity. Taxes and other costs had a significant influence on fuel prices at the petrol station, and therefore the presence and amount of government support for bioethanol was a major factor determining the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel. In a forward-looking scenario, genetically engineering poplar with a reduced lignin content showed potential to enhance the competitiveness of bioethanol with conventional fuel by reducing overall costs by approximately 41% in four out of the five countries modeled. However, the possible wider phenotypic traits of advanced poplars needs to be fully investigated to ensure that these do not unintentionally negate the cost savings indicated. Through these evaluations, we highlight the key bottlenecks within the bioethanol supply chain from the standpoint of various stakeholders. For producers, technologies that are best suited to the specific feedstock composition and national policies should be optimized. For policymakers, support schemes that benefit emerging bioethanol producers and allow renewable fuel to be

  18. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cherney, PhD


    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  19. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design. (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  20. Renewable energies, alternative or complement?; Energie renouvelables, alternative ou complement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This meeting deals with the place of the renewable energies in the future. Many subjects were discussed during this meeting: the renewable energies part in in the heating systems and in the bio-fuels, the development of the solar and the wind power energies, the choice of a sector to assist, the renewable energies and the economic development. The full texts of the presentations are provided. (A.L.B.)

  1. Wormholes in viable f(R) modified theories of gravity and weak energy condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Petar [Universitaet Hamburg, II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany); Sossich, Marko [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb (Croatia)


    In this work wormholes in viable f(R) gravity models are analyzed. We are interested in exact solutions for stress-energy tensor components depending on different shape and redshift functions. Several solutions of gravitational equations for different f(R) models are examined. The solutions found imply no need for exotic material, while this need is implied in the standard general theory of relativity. A simple expression for weak energy condition (WEC) violation near the throat is derived and analyzed. High curvature regime is also discussed, as well as the question of the highest possible values of the Ricci scalar for which the WEC is not violated near the throat, and corresponding functions are calculated for several models. The approach here differs from the one that has been common since no additional assumptions to simplify the equations have been made, and the functions in f(R) models are not considered to be arbitrary functions, but rather a feature of the theory that has to be evaluated on the basis of consistency with observations for the Solar System and cosmological evolution. Therefore in this work we show that the existence of wormholes without exotic matter is not only possible in simple arbitrary f(R) models, but also in models that are in accordance with empirical data. (orig.)

  2. Alternative energy. Southern Italy. Alternativ energi. Syditalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report about Southern Italy is part of a larger project, for which the Minstry of Energy has had reports made, examining the possibilities of especially renewable energy sources for the less developed areas of the European Communities: Southern Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece and Ireland. A number of programmes supported by the EC are mentioned, where money is granted for projects within the energy sector. That is the Valoren programme, which is directed towards the energy sector and the European Fund for Regional Development (EFRU) including integrated Mediterrenean programmes. The report is made in Denmark as desk research with the limitations that makes. Italy is very dependent on imported oil, their production of electricity is primarily based on oil. The energy planning aims at reducing the denpence of imported fuel and spreading the comsumption on several energy sources. Coal is to play a more prominent role in the supply, since it is planned to double the consumption from 1985 to 1995. It was planned that nuclear power was to be more important, but a popular vote said no. The use of internal energy sources will get a higher priority - that is hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, lignite, a small oil and gas production, and renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind energy and biomass. There should be possibilities for Danish export of technology in renewable energy, which is ahead of the Italian. The country itself has great knowhow within the fields of traditional energy technology, geothermal energy, nuclear power and solar energy. The EC has granted large sums of money for the development in Southern Italy, especially the Valoren programme. (SM).

  3. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU


    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  5. Harvesting alternate energies from our planet (United States)

    Rath, Bhakta B.


    Recent price fluctuations have focused attention on the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. We have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60% between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the United States, nearly 40% of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. This article will review national and international perspectives on the exploration of alternate energies with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО


    Full Text Available The problem of risk analysis alternative energy projects and issues of classification. A quantitative risk assessment of alternative energy projects and suggests the application of methods to reduce the effects of risk events in alternative energy.

  7. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source (United States)

    Goerz, D. A.


    Fusion, the process that powers our Sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on Earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the Moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical.

  8. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerz, D.A.


    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala


    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  10. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels (United States)

    Card, M. E.


    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  11. Alternatives for energy conservation in a baghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, P.J.; Horney, F.A.


    This paper presents a comparison of alternate cases and how to achieve optimum energy consumption and economic benefits from baghouses or fabric filters for particulate control on coal fired boilers. Various components of baghouses are reviewed with an evaluation of fan efficiencies, duct routing, duct turning vanes, insulation, lagging, types of dampers and damper installations. Also discussed are cleaning cycle modes, ways to reduce baghouse pressure drop and dust reentrainment. A computer model to optimize the cleaning cycle is also discussed.

  12. Modular Energy Storage System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Ervin, Frank [Magna Electronics Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)


    An electrical vehicle environment was established to promote research and technology development in the area of high power energy management. The project incorporates a topology that permits parallel development of an alternative energy delivery system and an energy storage system. The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plugin electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. In order to meet the project objectives, the Vehicle Energy Management System (VEMS) was defined and subsystem requirements were obtained. Afterwards, power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls were designed. Finally, these subsystems were built, tested individually, and integrated into an electric vehicle system to evaluate and optimize the subsystems performance. Phase 1 of the program established the fundamental test bed to support development of an electrical environment ideal for fuel cell application and the mitigation of many shortcomings of current fuel cell technology. Phase 2, continued development from Phase 1, focusing on implementing subsystem requirements, design and construction of the energy management subsystem, and the integration of this subsystem into the surrogate electric vehicle. Phase 2 also required the development of an Alternative Energy System (AES) capable of emulating electrical characteristics of fuel cells, battery, gen set, etc. Under the scope of the project, a boost converter that couples the alternate energy delivery system to the energy storage system was developed, constructed and tested. Modeling tools were utilized during the design process to optimize both component and system design. This model driven design process enabled an iterative process to track and evaluate the impact

  13. Small-scale automated biomass energy heating systems: a viable option for remote Canadian communities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallum, B. [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Industry, Economics and Programs Branch


    The potential benefits of wood energy (forest biomass) for space heating in Canada`s remote communities was discussed. Diesel fuel and heating oil must be transported into these communities to produce electricity and to heat large public buildings. Below the treeline, roundwood is often used to heat private homes. The move toward environmentally sustainable development has focussed much attention on renewable energy technologies such as biomass energy, (i.e. any form of energy derived from plant or animal materials). Wood is the most readily available biomass fuel in remote communities. Woodchips and sawmill waste can be burned in automated biomass heating systems which provide a convenient way to use low-grade wood to heat large buildings or groups of buildings which would not be feasible to heat with roundwood. It was shown that one cord of spruce can produce 1.5 tonnes of woodchips to ultimately displace 300 litres of heating oil. A description of a small-commercial and small-industrial biomass system was presented. The benefits of biomass were described as: (1) direct savings compared to high-cost oil heat, (2) increased circulation of energy dollars inside the community, and (3) employment opportunities in harvesting, processing and operating biomass systems. A steady supply of good quality woodchips to the heating plant must be ensured. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  14. Chest ultrasound in the evaluation of complicated pneumonia in the ICU patients: Can be viable alternative to CT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham El Sheikh


    Conclusion: Chest US provides an accurate evaluation of the pleural and parenchymal abnormalities associated with complicated pneumonia in the ICU patients. Considering that chest US is a bedside and avoids transportation of the patient outside ICU, free of radiation exposure and easily repeatable, chest US appears to be an attractive alternative to CT.

  15. Viable Short-Term Directed Energy Weapon Naval Solutions: A Systems Analysis of Current Prototypes (United States)


    him with constructing the first primitive “death ray” in 212 BC during the siege of Syracuse (MIT 2.009ers 2005). More recently, Nikola Tesla spent...directed energy in 1934 ( Tesla Invents Peace Ray 2011). Years later, during the height of the Cold War, the Soviet Union conducted experiments on the...Testing Developmental Laser Against Small Surface Vessels.” Inside the Navy, June 7, 2010. Tesla Invents Peace Ray. 2011.



    Victor Lewis; Maryam Davodi-Far


    Local communities are suffering extreme financial and economic hardships due to falling revenues and increased expenditures and therefore must seek alternate means to balance their budgets. A very large expenditure that must be borne by every community is the administration of the Criminal Justice System. As a result, many communities are trying to develop a more proactive approach to fighting crime by undertaking new and innovative approaches to solving their worsening crime problems and at ...

  17. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Pudendal Block is a Viable Alternative to Caudal Block for Hypospadias Surgery: a Single Surgeon Pilot Study. (United States)

    Hecht, Sarah; Piñeda, Jorge; Bayne, Aaron


    To evaluate pudendal nerve block as an alternative to caudal block for hypospadias surgery. Data were obtained by chart review. Children who underwent hypospadias repair between 2012 and 2016 by a single surgeon at an academic institution were included. Patients received ultrasound-guided pudendal block (n=21) or caudal block (n=19) as a regional adjunct to general anesthesia. Primary outcomes included analgesic requirement and postoperative length of stay in the recovery unit. The pudendal block cohort was slightly older (27.6 vs. 18.5 months, p = 0.017) and had more severe hypospadias than the caudal block cohort (53% vs. 35% proximal hypospadias, respectively). We detected no statistically significant difference in intraoperative opioid, postoperative opioid, or nonopioid analgesic requirement (17.9 vs. 12.9 mcg fentanyl, p=0.267; 0.3 vs. 0.3 doses, p = 0.92; 0.2 vs. 0.1 doses, p= 0.46, respectively). Postoperative length of stay was significantly shorter in the pudendal block cohort (96 vs. 128 minutes, p=0.016). We are the first to report the use of ultrasound-guided pudendal block for hypospadias repair. This appears to be a safe, effective alternative to caudal block with no perioperative delays. Pudendal block has several advantages over caudal block. It avoids the risks of urinary retention and lower extremity weakness and can be administered to older patients and children with spinal anomalies. Compared to caudal block, ultrasound-guided pudendal nerve block is safe, provides equivalent pain control for hypospadias repair, and results in a shorter time to discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A concept of cartographic support for alternative energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Агапова


    Internet services. The article presents a list of maps for alternative energy in Ukraine and the algorithm of their compilation. The regional cartographic products system comprises a series of alternative energy resources maps (wind, solar, small hydro, biomass and geothermal energy; map series of natural, social, economic, technical and environmental conditions and factors that affect the placement of objects belonging to different branches of alternative energy; a series of maps showing the level of alternative energy development in Ukraine, including an inventory of existing in Ukraine thermal and power plants that use alternative energy sources, as well as enterprises for the production of alternative fuels. In addition, the cartographic system includes a recommendation and forecast maps showing perspective regions of alternative energy industries development and projected production of energy from alternative sources.

  20. Local alternative energy futures: developing economies/building communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totten, M.; Glass, B.; Freedberg, M.; Webb, L.


    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the three parts of the conference. A sufficient range of information is presented to enable interested parties to explore the viable alternatives for community self-sufficiency. The parts are entitled: Financial Incentives and Funding Sources; Standards, Regulations, Mandates, Ordinances, Covenants; and Community/Economic Development. (MCW)

  1. Functional Reconstruction of a Combined Tendocutaneous Defect of the Achilles Using a Segmental Rectus Femoris Myofascial Construct: A Viable Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vincent DeFazio


    Full Text Available The composite anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata has emerged as a workhorse at our institution for complex Achilles defects requiring both tendon and soft tissue reconstruction. Safe elevation of this flap, however, is occasionally challenged by absent or inadequate perforators supplying the anterolateral thigh. When discovered intraoperatively, alternative options derived from the same vascular network can be pursued. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who underwent composite Achilles defect reconstruction using a segmental rectus femoris myofascial free flap. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient resumed full activity and was able to ambulate on his tip-toes. At 1-year follow-up, active total range of motion of the reconstructed ankle exceeded 85% of the unaffected side, and donor site morbidity was negligible. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores improved by 78.8% and 28.8%, respectively, compared to preoperative baseline assessments. Based on our findings, we advocate for use of the combined rectus femoris myofascial free flap as a rescue option for reconstructing composite Achilles tendon/posterior leg defects in the setting of inadequate anterolateral thigh perforators. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe use of this flap for such an indication.

  2. A scoping review of the psychological responses to interval exercise: is interval exercise a viable alternative to traditional exercise? (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Banfield, Laura E; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A


    While considerable evidence suggests that interval exercise confers numerous physiological adaptations linked to improved health, its psychological consequences and behavioural implications are less clear and the subject of intense debate. The purpose of this scoping review was to catalogue studies investigating the psychological responses to interval exercise in order to identify what psychological outcomes have been assessed, the research methods used, and the results. A secondary objective was to identify research issues and gaps. Forty-two published articles met the review inclusion/exclusion criteria. These studies involved 1258 participants drawn from various active/inactive and healthy/unhealthy populations, and 55 interval exercise protocols (69% high-intensity interval training [HIIT], 27% sprint interval training [SIT], and 4% body-weight interval training [BWIT]). Affect and enjoyment were the most frequently studied psychological outcomes. Post-exercise assessments indicate that overall, enjoyment of, and preferences for interval exercise are equal or greater than for continuous exercise, and participants can hold relatively positive social cognitions regarding interval exercise. Although several methodological issues (e.g., inconsistent use of terminology, measures and protocols) and gaps (e.g., data on adherence and real-world protocols) require attention, from a psychological perspective, the emerging data support the viability of interval exercise as an alternative to continuous exercise.

  3. Oil shale as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepbasli, A. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.


    Oil shale (OS) is one of the world's most important energy resources, and its use can be traced back to ancient times. The objective of this study is to investigate many aspects of OS as an alternative energy source in Turkey, giving Turkey's OS deposits, the history of oil in Turkey, and some studies conducted to evaluate OSs. Research into the utilization of Turkish OSs has been going on since the 1970s, while OSs comprise the second largest solid fuel deposit in Turkey after lignites. OS deposits in Turkey are widely distributed in middle and western Anatolia, with an estimated current reserve of approximately 1,865 million tons. Other potential areas in the north Anatolian fault zone are also under investigation. With the continuing decline of petroleum supplies, accompanied by increasing costs of petroleum-based products, OS may present opportunities for supplying some of Turkey's fossil energy needs in the years ahead. (author)

  4. Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL). (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii; Joos, Karen M; Schwettman, H Alan; Jansen, E Duco


    Investigations with a Mark-III free electron laser, tuned to 6.45 microm in wavelength have demonstrated minimal collateral damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While the use of mid-IR light produced by the free electron laser (FEL) has shown much promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited due the high costs of its use. Further investigation and widespread clinical use of six-micron radiation requires the development of an alternative laser source. In this research, we compared a Mark-III FEL and an Er:YAG pumped ZGP-OPO with respect to the effect of pulse duration on ablation efficiency and thermal damage on porcine cornea. A five by seven grid of craters was made about the center of each cornea. Craters were made with a 60-microm spotsize with a 500-microm spacing. Ablation craters were made using 50 pulses per crater at approximately three times the ablation threshold (for water). Histological analysis was used to determine crater depth and thermal damage. The average zone of thermal damage at 6.1 microm was found to be 4.1 microm for the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and 5.4 microm for the FEL. At 6.45 microm, the damaged zone was 7.2 microm for the OPO and 7.2 microm for the FEL. At 6.73 microm, the damaged zone was 6.3 microm for the OPO and 7.6 microm+/-0.3 microm for the FEL. The OPO caused similar or significantly less thermal damage in porcine cornea when compared with the FEL while generating significantly deeper craters. We determined that the ZGP-OPO has much promise as a bench-top replacement for the FEL for soft tissue ablation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  5. Use of core biopsy in diagnosing cervical lymphadenopathy: a viable alternative to surgical excisional biopsy of lymph nodes? (United States)

    Allin, D; David, S; Jacob, A; Mir, N; Giles, A; Gibbins, N


    OBJECTIVES Lymphoma often presents with a neck mass and while fine-needle aspiration cytology may be suggestive, tissue biopsy is required for reliable diagnosis and classification of a lymphoma that is sufficient to deliver the correct treatment for the patient. Traditionally, excisional biopsy of a lymph node has been the standard method of tissue sampling, providing ample tissue for assessment. However, this requires theatre time, and preceding fine-needle aspiration cytology, which may incur a delay. With careful use of tissue, coupled with advances in immunohistochemical and molecular investigative techniques, core biopsy provides a possible alternative to traditional fine-needle aspiration and excisional biopsy. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of diagnosing neck masses. METHOD A retrospective analysis was performed of patients being investigated for a neck mass who were undergoing ultrasound-guided core biopsies of cervical lymph nodes over a 17-month period. The final histology report was scrutinised to assess whether adequate tissue was obtained to allow for full tissue diagnosis. RESULTS Over the 17-month period analysed, 70 patients with cervical lymphadenopathy underwent core biopsy. Of these, 63 (90%) were diagnostic for either lymphoma or other pathology and did not require further tissue sampling. Overall, 19 patients were diagnosed with lymphoma, of which only 1 required further biopsy due to inconclusive initial core biopsy. CONCLUSIONS Current guidelines for investigating lymphomas require that excisional biopsy be performed to obtain ample tissue to allow full nodal architecture assessment and ancillary investigation to reach an accurate histological classification. Within our head and neck multidisciplinary team, however, it is considered that results from core biopsies can be obtained in a more timely fashion and with histological accuracy equal to those of open biopsy. The results obtained demonstrate that core biopsy is an

  6. The heparin-glutathione test: an alternative to the hypo-osmotic swelling test to select viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (United States)

    Vendrell, F J; Rubio, C; Tarín, J J


    To evaluate the heparin-glutathione test (HEGLUT) for the selection of viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study. Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Valencia and Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Semen samples from healthy donors and patients with infertility. Sperm samples were kept in culture for different periods in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented or not supplemented with heparin, reduced glutathione (GSH), or a heparin-GSH mixture. Control and heparin-GSH-treated spermatozoa were injected into hamster oocytes. The HEGLUT and ICSI were performed. Sperm nuclear decondensation, progressive and nonprogressive motility, and male pronucleus formation. The maximum proportion of sperm nuclear decondensation (28.7%+/-2.1% versus 2.6%+/-0.5% in the control group) was reached after 60 minutes of incubation in the presence of a heparin-GSH mixture. Differences in the percentages of progressive and nonprogressive motility among treatments and times of incubation, although statistically significant, were biologically negligible. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rate of sperm head decondensation (8.2% [4/49] versus 11.1% [6/54]) and male pronucleus formation (18.4% [9/49] versus 22.2% [12/541) after the injection of control and treated spermatozoa into hamster oocytes. The HEGLUT may offer an alternative to the hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of viable sperm for ICSI.

  7. Is the restricted ketogenic diet a viable alternative to the standard of care for managing malignant brain cancer? (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Marsh, Jeremy; Shelton, Laura M; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Mukherjee, Purna


    Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality. The failure to recognize brain cancer as a disease of energy metabolism has contributed in large part to the failure in management. As long as brain tumor cells have access to glucose and glutamine, the disease will progress. The current standard of care provides brain tumors with access to glucose and glutamine. The high fat low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) will target glucose availability and possibly that of glutamine when administered in carefully restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake and circulating levels of glucose. The restricted KD (RKD) targets major signaling pathways associated with glucose and glutamine metabolism including the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt/Hif pathway. The RKD is anti-angiogenic, anti-invasive, anti-inflammatory, and pro-apoptotic when evaluated in mice with malignant brain cancer. The therapeutic efficacy of the restricted KD can be enhanced when combined with drugs that also target glucose and glutamine. Therapeutic efficacy of the RKD was also seen against malignant gliomas in human case reports. Hence, the RKD can be an effective non-toxic therapeutic option to the current standard of care for inhibiting the growth and invasive properties of malignant brain cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Waste association in mass for coating formulations: a viable alternative to dispose; Associacao de residuos em formulacoes de massas para revestimentos: uma alternativa viavel ao descarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.A.C.; Soares Filho, J.E.; Souza, F.J.P.; Almeida, V.S. de; Oliveira, T.M. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal RN (Brazil)


    The ceramic coatings industries are able to use in their formulations whose waste Eco disposal make the costly disposal, being able to reduce production costs by replacing traditional inputs for mining and industrial waste. Their raw materials are classified as plasticizers, fluxes and structural according to their physicochemical characteristics. Since waste falls within these classifications, their use in formulations becomes a viable and attractive alternative from an ecological point of view and marketing. Several studies have attested to waste incorporating viability porcelains formulations, however, is not common to find studies evaluating the addition of more than one simultaneously in formulations. It is the objective of the study, to examine whether fine waste rock and kaolin together with traditional raw materials are able to produce porcelain wet as technological properties defined by the NBR-13818. (author)

  9. Comparing an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative for mid-infrared tissue ablation with a free electron laser (FEL). (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M; Contag, Christopher H; Kozub, John A; Jansen, E Duco


    Beneficial medical laser ablation removes material efficiently with minimal collateral damage. A Mark-III free electron laser (FEL), at a wavelength of 6.45 μm has demonstrated minimal damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While this wavelength has shown promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited by the high overhead for FEL use. Alternative mid-infrared sources are needed for further development. We compared the FEL with a 5-μs pulse duration with a Q-switched ZGP-OPO with a 100-ns pulse duration at mid-infrared wavelengths. There were no differences in the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis with these two sources in spite of the difference in their pulse structures. There was a significant difference in crater depth between the ZGP:OPO and the FEL. At 6.1 μm, the OPO craters are eight times the depth of the FEL craters. The OPO craters at 6.45 and 6.73 μm were six and five times the depth of the FEL craters, respectively. Bright-field (pump-probe) images showed the classic ablation mechanism from formation of a plume through collapse and recoil. The crater formation, ejection, and collapse phases occurred on a faster time-scale with the OPO than with the FEL. This research showed that a ZGP-OPO laser could be a viable alternative to FEL for clinical applications.

  10. What's Next for Alternative Energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal, B.; Paranikas, P.; Rose, J.


    Conventional energy sources will remain the bulk of the world's energy mix for at least the next few decades. Yet there are several alternative-energy technologies that are approaching inflection points in their development and could have an impact on the global energy landscape far sooner than commonly assumed. Other alternative-energy technologies, meanwhile, will remain largely vision and promise for the foreseeable future. This report looks at the prospects for a range of alternative-energy technologies, including wind and solar.

  11. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis. (United States)

    Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Bhattacharya, Saugato; Sarkar, Tathagato; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman


    Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro's limit (that is, above a potency of 12C) has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient's family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases.

  12. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA


    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  13. Analysis of the prospects of solar energy and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine


    Mogylko, O.


    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  14. Sustainable Energy. Alternative proposals to Mercosur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honty, G. [Centro de Estudios Uruguayo de Tecnologias CEUTA, Montevideo (Uruguay)


    After a brief assessment of the Mercosur energy sector (Mercosur is a regional trade agreement subscribed to by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) an overview is given of proposals for a sustainable energy integration in the Mercosur: general proposals by sector, specific proposals for the larger economies (Argentina and Brazil), and means of implementation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Safina


    Full Text Available Consumption of alternative energy resources is conventionally considered as an implement of lean management, main target of which is use of renewable (in terms of exhaustibility energy resources. However, when it comes to actual consumption of alternative energy resources, the contradiction is arisen between , the caused need of economy of non-renewable energy resources and rational environmental management and "providence" which is caused by cost reduction of energy consumption. What is the factual providence, how substantial is the dilemma between environmental friendliness and cost effectiveness in matters of energy savings, what is the significance of alternative energy consumption in countries with different economic types, what should balanced solution in energy mentioned issues are contemplated in current article.

  16. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Haque


    Full Text Available Objectives: Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro’s limit (that is, above a potency of 12C has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. Methods: The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient’s family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. Results: The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Conclusion: Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases.

  17. Homeopathy - A Safe, Much Less Expensive, Non-Invasive, Viable Alternative for the Treatment of Patients Suffering from Loss of Lumbar Lordosis (United States)

    Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Bhattacharya, Saugato; Sarkar, Tathagato; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman


    Objectives: Loss of lumbar lordosis causing pain and curvature of the vertebral skeleton to one side is a relatively uncommon disease. To our knowledge, successful treatment of loss of lumbar lordosis with any potentized homeopathic drug diluted above Avogadro’s limit (that is, above a potency of 12C) has not been documented so far. In this communication, we intend to document a relatively rare case of loss of lumbar lordosis with osteophytic lippings, disc desiccation, and protrusion, causing a narrowing of secondary spinal canal and a bilateral neural foramina, leading to vertebral column curvature with acute pain in an adolescent boy. Methods: The patient had undergone treatment with orthodox Western medicines, but did not get any relief from, or cure of, the ailment; finally, surgery was recommended. The patient’s family brought the patient to the Khuda-Bukhsh Homeopathic Benevolent Foundation where a charitable clinic is run every Friday with the active participation of four qualified homeopathic doctors. A holistic method of homeopathic treatment was adopted by taking into consideration all symptoms and selecting the proper remedy by consulting the homeopathic repertory, mainly of Kent. Results: The symptoms were effectively treated with different potencies of a single homeopathic drug, Calcarea phos. X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) supported recovery and a change in the skeletal curvature that was accompanied by removal of pain and other acute symptoms of the ailment. Conclusion: Homeopathy can be a safe, much less expensive, non-invasive, and viable alternative for the treatment of such cases. PMID:28097045

  18. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications. (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick


    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Energy Efficient Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum-based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are presented. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  20. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey (United States)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.


    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  1. Alternative Energy Resources for Family House


    Němec, David


    Tato bakalářská práce je zaměřena na problematiku dodávky tepelné energie pro rodinné domy z obnovitelných zdrojů. Cílem celé práce je poskytnout souhrn možností dodávek tepelné energie pomocí obnovitelných zdrojů (solární kolektory, tepelná čerpadla), po kterém následuje návrh a ekonomické zhodnocení systémů s jednotlivými těmito zdroji tepelné energie. V úvodní části je popsána energie Slunce, která tvoří převážnou část obnovitelné energie. Na tuto část navazuje rešerše s popisem, rozdělení...

  2. Alternative energy futures: the case for electricity. (United States)

    Colombo, U


    The energy trends of the past and their likely evolution in the next 50 years have been analyzed in the light of technological progress. It is concluded that society will tend to become less centralized than in the past and that it is possible to have future per capita values of energy consumption at the world level similar to those at present, with a substantial redistribution to allow for economic growth of the less developed countries. A condition for this is increasing penetration of electricity. The rationale for the suggested scenario is described, and prospects for electricity for both the industrialized and developing countries are discussed.

  3. Space solar power - An energy alternative (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.


    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  4. Discarded tires: energy conservation through alternative uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Wolsky, A.M.


    Scrap tires that are not recycled through retreading constitute a serious solid-waste problem, but also offer energy-conservation opportunities through their use as: (1) solid fuel (displaced energy = 15,000 Btu/lb or 35 kJ/g); (2) derived fuel and chemical feedstock (11,000 to 23,000 Btu/lb or 25 to 53.5 kJ/g); (3) virgin rubber compound substitute in traditional rubber products (34,000 to 40,000 Btu/lb or 79 to 93 kJ/g); and (4) asphalt additive for paving applications (90,000 Btu/lb or 210 kJ/g). Both the energy of the displaced fuel and material and the energy consumed preparing the tires for the above uses have been included, where possible, in these estimates. Also provided is a summary of the available data on the cost and requisite scale of operation for the various end use processes.

  5. An LCA based indicator for evaluation of alternative energy routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Rodriguez, M.A.; Diaz, P. Roque [Universidad Central ' ' Marta Abreu' ' de Las Villas, Carretera a Camajuani km 5, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba); Ruyck, J. De; Verma, V.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Bram, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Department of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Erasmushogeschool Brussel, Nijverheidskaai 170, 1070 Brussel (Belgium)


    Politicians and policymakers are searching for alternatives for current energy conversion systems in order to reduce environmental pollution whilst preserving scarce natural resources. When defining new alternatives it is important to find out how environmentally friendly and sustainable these alternatives are, and which of them will ensure a major improvement in environmental issue. To answer such questions the present work proposes a new type of indicator based on exergy life cycle data. Alternative energy routes towards different services and commodities are compared in terms of environmental impact and indirect natural resource costs. Two case studies are presented using data from the Ecoinvent database (v2.01 2007) to compare alternatives to petrol transport and fuel oil power generation. The alternative transport routes assessed were methanol and biogas fueled cars, and wind electricity in the case of power generation. (author)

  6. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Koodali, Ranjit; Sereda, Grigoriy; Engebretson, Dan; Fong, Hao; Puszynski, Jan; Shende, Rajesh; Ahrenkiel, Phil


    The South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG) is a collaborative project with mission to develop advanced catalysts for energy conversion with two primary goals: (1) develop photocatalytic systems in which polyfunctionalized TiO2 are the basis for hydrogen/oxygen synthesis from water and sunlight (solar fuels group), (2) develop new materials for hydrogen utilization in fuel cells (fuel cell group). In tandem, these technologies complete a closed chemical cycle with zero emissions.

  7. Perspectives of Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha


    Full Text Available The problem of environmental load is also reflected in air transport. Usage of fossil fuels, which are dominant nowadays, has a negative impact on the environment and also its resources are limited. Therefore, the article focuses on the prospective of use of other energy sources in aviation, such as alternative fuels (synthetic fuels, biofuels, alcohol, methane, hydrogen, solar energy and the use of fuel cells. Also, the paper briefly summarizes the approach of aircraft manufacturers to the use alternative sources.

  8. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Gregory [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering


    This project has been in effect from July 25th, 2008 to July 24th, 2013. It supported 19 graduate students and 6 post-doctoral students and resulted in 23 publications, 7 articles in preparation, 44 presentations, and many other outreach efforts. Two representative recent publications are appended to this report. The project brought in more than $750,000 in cost share from North Carolina State University. The project funds also supported the purchase and installation of approximately 667,000 in equipment supporting solar energy research.

  9. W6 - Alternate Forms of Energy (United States)

    Palmer, Joel


    Build Toys! Learn Science! Is your science program preparing students for success on the Grade 5 and 8 STARR? Put the fun back in physical science and find the ``E'' in STEM with TeacherGeek! Explore a K-12 vertical alignment of physics concepts in energy & motion integrated with engineering practices. Participants design, build and test a Wind Turbine, they will experience engaging, hands-on lessons that can be used in their classroom to teach important physics concepts aligned with the TEKS. FREE materials to take back to your classroom!

  10. Development strategy of alternative energy responding to Climate Change Concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh; Moon, Young Seok; Cho, Gyeong Lyeob [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)


    Since UNICEF (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) has adopted in Brazil, June 1992, there have been four times of COPS taken place to discuss more detailed and realistic international action plan for regulating greenhouse gas emission and reduction scheme. Due to this, the direction of future energy policy has been changed in a large scale. The reduction of greenhouse gas is the most urgent issue at present rather than the stable supply of energy in the past. It is natural that improving energy efficiency and developing clean alternative energy have been a major issue. In case of the advanced countries, the energy policy has been changed to the harmonization of so called 3E, environmental conservation, economic growth, and energy security from the economic growth oriented energy policy and has tried to enhance industrial competition through developing new technology and alternative energy for improving energy efficiency. Alternative energy, called as new renewable energy, does not have to concern about its exhaustion and is the only clean future energy source. Therefore this is an important project that should be implemented with a long-term vision and interest by the people as well as the government. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Alternative Energy Supply Solutions to Public Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas


    Full Text Available The article analyzes energy supply alternatives for modernised public nearly zero energy buildings. The paper examines alternative energy production systems such as heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, adsorption cooling, biomass boiler, solar photovoltaic, wind turbines and combinations of these systems. The simulation of the analysed building energy demand for different energy production alternatives has been performed using TRNSYS modelling software. In order to determine an optimal energy supply variant, the estimated results of energy, environmental, and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi-criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Alternative Energy Center, Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillman, Howard D.; Marshall, JaNice C.


    The Lansing Community College Alternative Energy Center was created with several purposes in mind. The first purpose was the development of educational curricula designed to meet the growing needs of advanced energy companies that would allow students to articulate to other educational institutions or enter this growing workforce. A second purpose was the professional development of faculty and teachers to prepare them to train tomorrow's workforce and scholars. Still another purpose was to design, construct, and equip an alternative energy laboratory that could be used for education, demonstration, and public outreach. Last, the Center was to engage in community outreach and education to enhance industry partnerships, inform decision makers, and increase awareness and general knowledge of hydrogen and other alternative energy technologies and their beneficial impacts on society. This project has enabled us to accomplish all of our goals, including greater faculty understanding of advanced energy concepts, who are now able to convey this knowledge to students through a comprehensive alternative energy curriculum, in a facility well-equipped with advanced technologies, which is also being used to better educate the public on the advantages to society of exploring alternative energy technologies.

  13. Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackin, Thomas


    The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

  14. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation (United States)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf


    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  15. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.


    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various

  16. Transformative research issues and opportunities in alternative energy generation and storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockett, A.; Chung, Y. W.; Blaschek, H.; Butterfield, S.; Chance, R. R.; Ferekides, C.; Robinson, M.; Snyder, S. W; Thackeray, M. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( ES); (Univ. of Illinois); (Northwestern Univ.); (Boulder Wind Power); (Georgia Tech); (Univ. of South Florida); (National Renewable Energy Lab.)


    This article presents a summary of research issues and opportunities in alternative energy source research identified by panels of experts assembled by the Engineering Directorate of the US National Science Foundation. The objective was to identify transformative research issues and opportunities to make alternative energy sources viable. The article presents motivations for energy research, grand challenges, and specific challenges in the research areas covered. The grand challenges identified for the United States include supplying 30% of US electricity from photovoltaics by 2030, supplying 25% of US electricity from wind by 2025, displacing 30% of US hydrocarbon use by 2030 with bio-based products, and providing a practical 250-300 W h/kg energy storage system by 2025. Similar challenges could be outlined along the same lines for the remainder of the world. Examples of specific areas of research focus identified as promising include high performance p-type transparent conductors, multijunction thin-film photovoltaic devices, defects in chalcogenide semiconductors, experimental study and numerical modeling of the fluid mechanics of airflow as applied to wind turbines, improved materials for wind turbines, methods for creating high energy density transportable biological feedstocks, biorefinery processes yielding infrastructure-compatible biofuels and biochemicals directly, and improved electrodes and electrolytes for Li ion batteries. Arguments for each of these as research priorities are given.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Fossil fuel is not practically renewable and therefore the world is at risk of fossil fuel depletion. This gives urgency to investigate alternative energies, especially for industries that rely entirely on energies for operations, such as offshore industry. The use of alternative energies in this industry has been in place for a while now. This paper discusses the application of various alternative energy sources to assist powering the Goodwyn Alpha (A Platform, located on the North West Shelf (NWS of Australia. The three alternative energy sources under discussion are: wind, wave and solar. The extraction devices used are the Horizontal and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines - for wind; Pelamis, PowerBuoy and Wave Dragon - for wave; and the solar parabolic dish of SunBeam and Photovoltaic (PV cells of SunPower - for solar. These types of devices are installed within the same offshore platform area. Technical, environmental and economic aspects are taken into consideration before the best selection is made. The results showed that PowerBuoy used for wave energy, is the best device to be used on offshore platforms where operators could save up to 9% of power; $603,083 of natural gas; and 10,848 tonnes of CO2 per year.

  18. 2016 TSRC Summer School on Fundamental Science for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Victor S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)


    The 2016 TSRC Summer School on Fundamental Science for Alternative Energy introduced principles, methods, and approaches relevant to the design of molecular transformations, energy transduction, and current applications for alternative energy. Energy and environment are likely to be key themes that will dominate the way science and engineering develop over the next few decades. Only an interdisciplinary approach with a team-taught structure as presented at the 2016 TSRC Summer School can be expected to succeed in the face of problems of such difficulty. The course inspired a new generation of 24 graduate students and 2 post-docs to continue work in the field, or at least to have something of an insider's point of view as the field develops in the next few decades.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The key areas that determine the food and nutrition security are: availability, access, consumption and biological utilization. For this reason it is necessary to promote the health of vulnerable groups, in this case, indigenous communities, protecting and establishing conditions to ensure the human right to food. The initial plan focuses ondeveloping facilities for small swine and poultry farms, familiar, non-commercial. The main objective of the pigs raised at the site will be the production of animal waste in order to implement digesters for the production of biogas as an alternative energy source, the production of meat stays in the background, thinking only about the community consumption and helping to ensure their food source, from this perspective, the technologies applied to rural and indigenous progress are environmentally friendly, socially just, economically viable and culturally acceptable. The theme of rural and indigenous Development is focused on their food security and the use of alternative energies, considering that energy is a key element in achieving sustainable development in all sectors, therefore sought from a broad perspective solidarity and actively promote greater and more rational use of energy and the environment in remote communities, through diversification of supply sources and efficient use, thereby contributing toenvironmental conservation and reduction of health problems through the use of appropriate technologies.

  20. Energy saving and use of alternative energy at Kaercher; Energiesparen und alternative Energiekonzepte bei Kaercher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschtar, A. [Kaercher GmbH und Co KG, Winnenden (Germany)


    Summary: In 1996 already the environmental management system of the Kaercher head office in Winnenden was certified under ISO 14001. For its environmental commitment Kaercher was awarded several prizes. The company's activities comprise 1. General environmental activities: planting vegetation on the roof, promotion of environment sound mobility forms, co-operation with the Global Nature Fund, solvent free powder coatings, water recycling, biotope maintenance, continuous environmental training for staff members. 2. Internal measures with focus on energy saving and climate protection: photovoltaic, geothermal energy, solar energy, district heat supply from wood chip-fired heating station, heat recovery, energy saving driving techniques, energy saving competition, conversion to gas building heating, heat insulation. 3. Product-related measures: Kaercher standard 'environmental sound products' and environmental checklist for the development of new equipments. Research co-operation with the Technical University Darmstadt. Numerous technical modifications of Kaercher equipment to reduce environmental impacts. (orig.)

  1. Alternative futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Task Force was asked to propose alternate futures for the Department of Energy laboratories noted in the report. The authors` intensive ten months` study revealed multiple missions and sub-missions--traditional missions and new missions--programs and projects--each with factors of merit. They respectively suggest that the essence of what the Department, and particularly the laboratories, should and do stand for: the energy agenda. Under the overarching energy agenda--the labs serving the energy opportunities--they comment on their national security role, the all important energy role, all related environmental roles, the science and engineering underpinning for all the above, a focused economic role, and conclude with governance/organization change recommendations.

  2. Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, P W; Coleman, J A; Shull, R D; Matheny, R W; Hock, J C


    A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity.

  3. Energy implications of alternative solid waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.L.; Becker, M.B.; Schatzki, S.T.


    This study examines the energy implications of alternative solid waste management systems. As state and local governments move away from a traditional single facility strategies to more integrated waste management systems, energy use and recovery patterns will be substantially altered. The direct and indirect effects of such trends will result in major shifts in the volumes and composition of waste handled at incineration, recycling, composting and landfill facilities. In addition, second order energy savings will result from the substitution of recycled for virgin materials in the manufacturing sector. As such shifts occur, the energy balance -- the difference between energy recovered and energy used -- will undergo major adjustments. Such repercussions will occur at the regional, state, local and facility-specific level. Energy balances defined in this study cover seven use points, three recovery points and, separately, energy saved in production processes. For each of eleven Northeastern states, we estimate current balances based on existing waste management systems. State-specific profiles of recycling, composting, resource recovery and landfill activities provide the starting point for these base year estimates. Using the same estimating procedure, and taking into account each state's policy and planning objectives during the 1990's, we proceed to estimate the energy balances which will result if such objectives are met. By comparing current against future balances, we project the percentage change over a specified planning horizon. 2 figs., 37 tabs.

  4. The U.S. Department of Education's "Race-Neutral Alternatives in Postsecondary Education: Innovative Approaches to Diversity"--Are They Viable Substitutes for Affirmative Action? (United States)

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    On March 28, 2003 the U.S. Department of Education (ED) issued a report titled "Race-Neutral Alternatives in Postsecondary Education: Innovative Approaches to Diversity." The purpose of this report is to describe a number of race-neutral approaches that postsecondary institutions across the United States are using. This staff assessment by the…

  5. Alternative energy technologies an introduction with computer simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Buxton, Gavin


    Introduction to Alternative Energy SourcesGlobal WarmingPollutionSolar CellsWind PowerBiofuelsHydrogen Production and Fuel CellsIntroduction to Computer ModelingBrief History of Computer SimulationsMotivation and Applications of Computer ModelsUsing Spreadsheets for SimulationsTyping Equations into SpreadsheetsFunctions Available in SpreadsheetsRandom NumbersPlotting DataMacros and ScriptsInterpolation and ExtrapolationNumerical Integration and Diffe

  6. Ecological carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage (WHS): Can it be a viable climate and energy strategy? (United States)

    Zeng, N.; Zaitchik, B. F.; King, A. W.; Wullschleger, S. D.


    A carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forests are sustainably managed to optimal carbon productivity, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition under anaerobic, dry or cold conditions. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. The live trees serve as a `carbon scrubber' or `carbon remover' that provides continuous sequestration (negative emissions). The stored wood is a semi-permanent carbon sink, but also serves as a `biomass/bioenergy reserve' that could be utilized in the future.Based on forest coarse wood production rate, land availability, bioconservation and other practical constraints, we estimate a carbon sequestration potential for wood harvest and storage (WHS) 1-3 GtC y-1. The implementation of such a scheme at our estimated lower value of 1 GtC y-1 would imply a doubling of the current world wood harvest rate. This can be achieved by harvesting wood at a modest harvesting intensity of 1.2 tC ha-1 y-1, over a forest area of 8 Mkm2 (800 Mha). To achieve the higher value of 3 GtC y-1, forests need to be managed this way on half of the world's forested land, or on a smaller area but with higher harvest intensity. However, the actual implementation may face challenges that vary regionally. We propose `carbon sequestration and biomass farms' in the tropical deforestation frontiers with mixed land use for carbon, energy, agriculture, as well as conservation. In another example, the forests damaged by insect infestation could be thinned to reduce fire and harvested for carbon sequestration.We estimate a cost of $10-50/tCO2 for harvest and storage around the landing site. The technique is low tech, distributed and reversible. We compare the potential of WHS with a number of other carbon sequestration methods. We will also show its impact on future land carbon sink

  7. Contextual and psychological factors shaping evaluations and acceptability of energy alternatives : Integrated review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlaviciute, Goda; Steg, Linda

    Sustainable energy transitions will be hampered without sufficient public support. Hence, it is important to understand what drives public acceptability of (sustainable) energy alternatives. Evaluations of specific costs, including risks, and benefits of different energy alternatives have been

  8. Are early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVG) a viable alternative to tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs)? An observational "virtual study" and budget impact analysis. (United States)

    Aitken, Emma; Iqbal, Kashfa; Thomson, Peter; Kasthuri, Ram; Kingsmore, David


    Early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (ecAVGs) are advocated as an alternative to tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVCs). A real-time observational "virtual study" and budget impact model was performed to evaluate a strategy of ecAVG as a replacement to TCVC as a bridge to definitive access creation. Data on complications and access-related bed days was collected prospectively for all TCVCs inserted over a six-month period (n = 101). The feasibility and acceptability of an alternative strategy (ecAVGs) was also evaluated. A budget impact model comparing the two strategies was performed. Autologous access in the form of native fistula was the goal wherever possible. We found 34.7% (n = 35) of TCVCs developed significant complications (including 17 culture-proven bacteraemia and one death from line sepsis). Patients spent an average of 11.9 days/patient/year in hospital as a result of access-related complications. The wait for TCVC insertion delayed discharge in 35 patients (median: 6 days). The ecAVGs were a practical and acceptable alternative to TCVCs in over 80% of patients. Over a 6-month period, total treatment costs per patient wereGBP5882 in the TCVC strategy and GBP4954 in the ecAVG strategy, delivering potential savings ofGBP927 per patient. The ecAVGs had higher procedure and re-intervention costs (GBP3014 vs. GBP1836); however, these were offset by significant reductions in septicaemia treatment costs (GBP1322 vs. GBP2176) and in-patient waiting time bed costs (GBP619 vs. GBP1870). Adopting ecAVGs as an alternative to TCVCs in patients requiring immediate access for haemodialysis may provide better individual patient care and deliver cost savings to the hospital.

  9. Future energy demand in Laos. Scenario alternatives for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkanen, J.; Kouphokham, K.; Panula-Ontto, J. [and others


    Energy production in Laos is still dominated by traditional fuels. Fuelwood in the main source of energy and most of the energy is consumed at households for cooking. Increase in the number of cars and motorbikes is rapidly increasing the use of imported petroleum products. Electrification is one of the central targets of the Lao government. The electrification rate has increased fast in Laos and in the year 2010 over 70 % households had electricity supply. The target is to have 90 % access to electricity by the year 2020. The World Bank regards the electrification of Lao PDR to be a success story. This paper deals with the present and future energy consumption in Laos. First the historical trends of energy use in different sectors are analysed. The future scenarios are constructed using LaoLinda model. Four different future alternative development paths are analysed using the model results. The energy use data source for the analysis is from the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Lao PDR. Economic and other data is from the Department of Statistics of Lao PDR.

  10. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Tawil, J.J.


    Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) were mandated by the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 (Title III of Energy Conservation and Production Act) to promote energy efficiency and the use of renewable resources in new buildings. The report analyzes alternative Federal strategies and their component policy instruments and recommends a strategy for achieving the goals of the Act. The concern is limited to space conditioning (heating, cooling, and lighting) and water heating. The policy instruments considered include greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are then described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) BEPS with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings. (MCW)

  11. Foster care as a viable alternative to institutional care in the Middle East: community acceptance and stigma across type of placement in Jordan. (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Brewer, Kathryne B; Schwalbe, Craig S J; Gearing, Robin E; Ibrahim, Rawan W; Batayneh, Jude; Darwish, Dua'a M; Al-Kharabsheh, Jihad; Al-Zu'bi, Mu'ayad H


    Utilizing an experimental vignette design, this study assessed attitudes in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan toward the implementation of foster care as an alternative to institutions for children in need of care and protection. A sample of 111 adults were surveyed in Amman and presented with a vignette describing a 14-year-old boy who came into the care of the Ministry of Social Development when he was a baby after being placed by the grandfather because of shame surrounding the mother being unwed. The vignettes systematically varied as to whether the child was described as raised in an orphanage, with a relative in a kinship foster placement, or with a nonkin foster family. Participants were then asked a series of questions about their acceptance of the child, stigma that the community might attach to the child, and potential outcomes for the child. We found no differences across the acceptance and stigma questions between the kinship and non-kin foster conditions. The 2 foster care options were at least as acceptable as current institutional models across all domains, and participants were more likely to accept the child going to school with or being friends with their child if they were in foster care rather than an institution. These results represent the first evidence of public acceptance of foster care as a model of care in Jordan and may inform the process of local stakeholders implementing alternatives to institutional care on a meaningful and sustainable scale in the Kingdom and regionally.

  12. Determination of the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro: MGIT 960 as a viable alternative for BACTEC 460

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Singh Jhamb

    Full Text Available BACTEC 460 has now been phased out, so the search for an alternative is imperative. We have determined the activity of standard anti-tuberculosis drugs against intramacrophage Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in vitro, by using BACTEC 460 and MGIT 960 methods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv were found to be 0.2, 0.8, 8.0, and 5.0 µg/mL, respectively, by both methods. These results show a significant (p < 0.001 concordance between minimum inhibitory concentrations obtained by these two different methods. MGIT 960 system uses a robust florescence quenching-based oxygen sensor, requires no radioisotope, is safe, and relatively easy to operate. Apparently, this is the first report wherein MGIT 960 has been validated for anti-tubercular susceptibility testing against intracellular M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Our preliminary data thus clearly demonstrate that the MGIT 960 method can be considered as a promising alternative to BACTEC 460 method.

  13. Alternative World Energy Outlook (AWEO) and the role of hydrogen in a changing energy landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerta, Martin; Schmidt, Patrick R.; Stiller, Christoph; Landinger, Hubert [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH (LBST), Daimlerstrasse 15, D-85521 Ottobrunn (Germany)


    The global energy situation is about to change at an accelerating pace and society is largely unprepared. Common energy analyses, such as the International Energy Agency's 'World Energy Outlook', do not take into account foreseeable supply mismatches from conventional primary energy sources. It is thus the purpose of this paper to provide a progressive view based on an accelerated transition to renewable energies in the framework of LBST's 'Alternative World Energy Outlook'. A transition to renewable energies appears feasible; however, with an intermediate period with limited supplies between 2015 and 2025. Furthermore, the potential role of hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier is reflected in this context. Hydrogen used for transportation can increase the penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources through offering the ability to convert electricity to fuel. (author)

  14. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  15. Alternative Energetics DC Microgrid With Hydrogen Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaļeskis Genadijs


    Full Text Available This paper is related to an alternative energetics microgrid with a wind generator and a hydrogen energy storage system. The main aim of this research is the development of solutions for effective use of the wind generators in alternative energetics devices, at the same time providing uninterrupted power supply of the critical loads. In this research, it was accepted that the alternative energetics microgrid operates in an autonomous mode and the connection to the conventional power grid is not used. In the case when wind speed is low, the necessary power is provided by the energy storage system, which includes a fuel cell and a tank with stored hydrogen. The theoretical analysis of the storage system operation is made. The possible usage time of the stored hydrogen depends on the available amount of hydrogen and the consumption of the hydrogen by the fuel cell. The consumption, in turn, depends on used fuel cell power. The experimental results suggest that if the wind generator can provide only a part of the needed power, the abiding power can be provided by the fuel cell. In this case, a load filter is necessary to decrease the fuel cell current pulsations.

  16. Use of alternative energy and energy conservation in higher-education institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gette, G.R.


    The problem was to ascertain the applicability of alternative-energy technology and energy management and conservation principles and techniques to higher-education institutions and to suggest the probable effects of such technology, principles, and techniques on higher education institutions in general and on their organization and administration. Procedures involved study of related literature on the energy crisis with particular emphasis on fossil-fuel status, identification of alternative energy sources and the probability of their availability in years immediately ahead. There was also emphasis on the study of conservation techniques. Also utilized were questionnaires to higher-education institutions identified as being deeply involved in conservation or uses of alternative energy resources or both. While there has been considerable research about and development of alternative energy sources, energy-conservation techniques constitute the most-important process currently available. Those in use range from simple conservation techniques to the use of advanced computer systems. The most important deal with the improvement of the efficiency of existing systems. Educating the college community about the whole area of study was considered important. The physical plant director was found to be the key person in most situations. Continued concern on the part of administrators is necessary. The problem of the energy crisis will continue despite what appears to be a current easing of the situation.

  17. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.


    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  18. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment


    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  19. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.


    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  20. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati


    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  1. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota


    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  2. USU Alternative and Unconventional Energy Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behunin, Robert [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Wood, Byard [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Heaslip, Kevin [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Zane, Regan [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Lyman, Seth [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Simmons, Randy [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Christensen, David [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)


    The purpose and rationale of this project has been to develop enduring research capabilities at Utah State University (USU) and the Utah State University Research Foundation (USURF) in a number of energy efficient and renewable energy areas including primarily a) algae energy systems, b) solar lighting, c) intuitive buildings, d) electric transportation, 3) unconventional energy environmental monitoring and beneficial reuse technologies (water and CO2), f) wind energy profiling, and g) land use impacts. The long-term goal of this initiative has been to create high-wage jobs in Utah and a platform for sustained faculty and student engagement in energy research. The program’s objective has been to provide a balanced portfolio of R&D conducted by faculty, students, and permanent staff. This objective has been met. While some of the project’s tasks met with more success than others, as with any research project of this scope, overall the research has contributed valuable technical insight and broader understanding in key energy related areas. The algae energy systems research resulted in a highly productive workforce development enterprise as it graduated a large number of well prepared students entering alternative energy development fields and scholarship. Moreover, research in this area has demonstrated both the technological and economic limitations and tremendous potential of algae feedstock-based energy and co-products. Research conducted in electric transportation, specifically in both stationary and dynamic wireless inductive coupling charging technologies, has resulted in impactful advances. The project initiated the annual Conference on Electric Roads and Vehicles (, which is growing and attracts more than 100 industry experts and scholars. As a direct result of the research, the USU/USURF spin-out startup, WAVE (Wireless Advanced Vehicle Electrification), continues work in wirelessly charged bus transit systems

  3. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program, Erie County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswanger, Robert C. [Daemen College, Amherst, NY (United States)


    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings that are quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center

  4. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program Erie County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswanger, Jr, Robert C


    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center, Daemen will

  5. Of energy and survival incognito: a relationship between viable but non-culturable cells formation and inorganic polyphosphate and formate metabolism in Campylobacter jejuni. (United States)

    Kassem, Issmat I; Chandrashekhar, Kshipra; Rajashekara, Gireesh


    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative food-borne bacterium that can cause mild to serious diseases in humans. A variety of stress conditions including exposure to formic acid, a weak organic acid, can cause C. jejuni to form viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC), which was proposed as a potential survival mechanism. The inability to detect C. jejuni VBNC using standard culturing techniques may increase the risk of exposure to foods contaminated with this pathogen. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms and triggers governing VBNC formation. Here, we discuss novel mechanisms that potentially affect VBNC formation in C. jejuni and emphasize the impact of formic acid on this process. Specifically, we highlight findings that show that impairing inorganic polyphosphate (poly-P) metabolism reduces the ability of C. jejuni to form VBNC in a medium containing formic acid. We also discuss the potential effect of poly-P and formate metabolism on energy homeostasis and cognate VBNC formation. The relationship between poly-P metabolism and VBNC formation under acid stress has only recently been identified and may represent a breakthrough in understanding this phenomenon and its impact on food safety.

  6. Verniz vitral incolor 500®: uma alternativa de meio de montagem economicamente viável Verniz vitral incolor 500®: a mounting medium alternative and economically viable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Antunes de Paiva


    Full Text Available Há diferentes meios de montagem comercializados a preço relativamente alto para a produção de lâminas permanentes de tecidos vegetais corados. Esses meios endurecem à medida que secam e possibilitam a manutenção do material botânico em boas condições de conservação por tempo indeterminado. Os meios de montagem mais utilizados em anatomia vegetal são: Bálsamo-do-canadá, Euparal®, Entellan® e Permount®. Visando a redução dos custos de produção de lâminas permanentes para anatomia vegetal, foram testados meios alternativos, produzidos por empresas brasileiras, principalmente para uso em artesanato. Entre os diferentes meios sintéticos testados, o verniz vitral incolor 500® demonstrou propriedades compatíveis para o uso eficiente como meio de montagem, em substituição às resinas sintéticas importadas, com custo baixo e sem alteração do processo rotineiro de trabalho. O verniz vitral incolor 500® permitiu a montagem de lâminas permanentes com órgãos seccionados a mão livre ou em micrótomo rotatório, após o emblocamento em parafina ou historresina, mantendo inalteradas as características dos materiais vegetais e da coloração. Os resultados evidenciaram que os meios de montagem tradicionais podem ser substituídos pelo verniz vitral incolor 500®, sem comprometimento da qualidade das lâminas.There are different imported mounting mediuns commercialized at a relative high price for producing permanent slides of stained plant sections. These mounting mediuns become harder as they dry and preserve the good conditions of the plant material for indetermined time. The most used mouting mediuns to plant anatomy are: Canada balsam, Euparal®, Entellan® and Permount®. Aiming to reduce costs of producing permanent plant anatomy slides, alternative mediuns produced by brazilian industries, used mostly in artesanal work, were tested. Among the different synthetic mediuns tested, the verniz vitral incolor 500® showed

  7. An alternative energy scenario for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M. [Sustainable Environment Consultants Ltd. (SENCO), Colchester (United Kingdom)


    The proposed National Emissions Ceiling directive to control acidification and ozone will mean EU emissions of carbon dioxide will rise by 9%, contradictory to Kyoto commitments. Alternative energy strategies including demand management, energy efficiency and low carbon fuels are explored in this report. In addition to abating greenhouse gas emissions, these strategies can facilitate cheaper and greater abatement of other atmospheric pollutants as compared to 'official' scenarios. The given objective was to produce scenarios in which the total emission of carbon dioxide from the fifteen countries of the European Union is reduced by 15% over the period 1990 to 2010. To this end scenarios, called Carbon 15, have been produced for each of the fifteen EU countries taking into account recent historical data and assumed economic and population growth. It is concluded that the Carbon 15 scenarios are technically feasible. The level of demand management is such that, even though natural gas increases its market share, the total European Union consumption of natural gas does not increase very much. It is argued that the Carbon 15 scenarios are economically feasible in that the end use measures are cost effective as against conventional energy supply, and there is no requirement for a large expansion of the supply of any conventional primary fuel. 20 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Modified Gravity As An Alternative To Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Duvvuri, V


    We consider general curvature-invariant modifications of the Einstein-Hilbert action that become important only in regions of extremely low space-time curvature. We investigate the late-time evolution of the universe in such models, examining the possibilities for cosmic acceleration and other ultimate destinies. The models generically possess de Sitter space as an unstable solution and exhibit an interesting set of attractor solutions which, in some cases, provide alternatives to dark energy models. We show that modifications of the form f( R) are ruled out by solar system tests of gravitation. In addition, we also review the Palatini method of variation for such theories and contrast it with the metric variation approach.

  9. Alternative Main Linac BNS Configuration for Reduced IP Energy Spread (LCC-0139)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, P


    We present a series of alternate BNS phase configurations for the 500 GeV CM NLC main linac in which the energy spread at the end of the linac is reduced from its nominal 0.25% value. The energy spectrum, achievable IP beam energy, energy bias, and linac stability are evaluated for the alternate cases. We conclude that the RMS energy spread and energy bias in the NLC can easily be reduced but that modest reductions in CM energy are required.

  10. Managing Viable Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Vriens, D.J.


    In this paper, Beer's Viable System Model (VSM) is applied to knowledge management. Based on the VSM, domains of knowledge are identified that an organization should possess to maintain its viability. The logic of the VSM is also used to support the diagnosis, design and implementation of the

  11. Beyond prometheus and Bakasura: Elements of an alternative to nuclear power in India's response to the energy-environment crisis (United States)

    Mathai, Manu Verghese

    In India, as elsewhere, modern energy-society relations and economic development, metaphorically, Prometheus and the insatiable demon Bakasura, respectively, have produced unprecedented economic growth even as they have ushered in the "energy-environment crisis." Government efforts interpret the crisis as insufficiently advanced modernity. Resulting efforts to redress this crisis reaffirm more economic growth through modern energy-society relations and economic development. The civilian nuclear power renaissance in India, amidst rapidly accelerating economic growth and global climate change, is indicative. It presents the prospect of producing "abundant energy" and being "green" at the same time. This confidence in civilian nuclear power is questioned. It is investigated as proceeding from the modern discourse of "Cornucopianism" and its institutionalization as "modern megamachine organization of society." It is found that civilian nuclear power as energy policy is based on a presumption of overabundance as imperative for viable social and economic development; is predisposed to centralization and secrecy; its institutionalization limits deliberation on energy-society relations to technocratic terms; such deliberation is restrained to venues accessible only to the highest political office and technocratic elite; it fails to redress entrenched "energy injustice;" it embodies "modern technique" fostering the "displaced person" while eclipsing the "complete human personality." Overall, despite its green rhetoric, civilian nuclear power reaffirms the "politics of commodification" and refutes social and political arrangements for sustainability and equity. Alternatives are surveyed as strategies for resistance. They include the DEFENDUS approach for energy planning, the "Human Development and Capability Approach" and the "Sustainable Energy Utility." These alternatives and the synergy between them are offered as avenues to resist nuclear power as a response to the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tcvetkov


    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to find ecologically and economically reasonable method of biomass processing to produce electricity and thermal energy. The major causes of the annual increase in the volume of consumed electricity and thermal energy are the current pace of scientific and technological progress, the overcrowding of cities and industrial agglomeration. Traditional energy sources (coal, oil, gas have a significant negative impact on the environment, which leads to the deterioration of sanitary-hygienic indicators of the human environment. Besides, prices for traditional energy resources are increasing due to the decline of easy produced stocks. The goal of this article is the investigation and evaluation of environmental and economic efficiency of biomass fast pyrolysis methods for as modern energy resources. The result of the review is the choice of biomass fast pyrolysis as the most environmentally reasonable and economically viable local method of producing electricity and thermal energy in Russia. This method is more eco-friendly, compared to other alternative energy sources, for example using peat as solid fuel.

  13. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. SWAFEA. Sustainable Way for Alternative Fuels and Energy in Aviation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; Joubert, E.; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.; Prieur, A.; Starck, L.; Jeuland, N.; Bogers, P.; Midgley, R.; Bauldreay, J.; Rollin, G.; Rye, L.; Wilson, C.


    Currently, the aviation sector uses petroleum derived liquid fuels as the energy carrier of choice for flight. In light the present environmental, economical and political concerns as to the sustainability of this energy source, the question of which alternatives the aviation sector should pursue in

  14. Alternative approach for Article 5. Energie Efficiency Directive; Alternatieve aanpak artikel 5. Energy Efficiency Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)


    Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.

  15. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))


    As well as summarising the possible alternatives, environmental aspects and uses of LNG, this study aims to investigate the cost involved in the import of LNG to Sweden, from well to user. In Sweden, Natural Gas is used to cover 2 % of the total energy input. The pipeline network stretches from Malmoe to Stenungsund and Gnosjoe, which means some of the most densely populated areas are covered, but there is still 1200 km of the country left, including larger cities such as Stockholm, Uppsala and Linkoeping as well as areas that host some of the most energy demanding industries, e.g. Sundsvall, Umeaa, Luleaa and Kiruna. The absence of Natural Gas typically causes these regions to rely on fuel oil, coke or coal. If these sources of energy could be replaced by Natural Gas, great environmental benefits could be achieved. Research shows that the use of Natural Gas adds 20 % less CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than oil and also mean lower emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particles, making it the better alternative from both local and global perspectives. LNG is potentially a fire and an explosion hazard, but in the last 45 years of usage, no major accidents have occurred. Major exporters of LNG are Indonesia, Quatar, Australia and Algeria. Some of the largest importers are Japan, USA, France and Spain. Japan imports nearly 100 % of their Natural Gas as LNG. The available LNG liquefaction capacity increased by 60 % between 2002 and 2007. The total import cost for LNG includes the purchase cost from the producer, the transport cost, be it sea, railroad or road transport, and the cost for the terminal which receives and stores LNG. The study of different routes, volumes and means of transport creates a picture of how the total cost varies in proportion to these parameters. In the calculation of these costs, sources from the industry or estimations of purchase prices, transport costs and terminal costs are used. The uncertainties in this study are especially high when it

  16. Wind energy as alternative to isolated communities in Northern Brazil; A energia eolica como alternativa para comunidades isoladas na regiao Norte do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.F.; Zukowski Junior, J.C.; Nobrega, S.L. de; Marcon, R.O. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil). Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas. Curso de Engenharia Agricola], Emails:,,


    Bring energy to isolated communities is not easy. Among the possibilities there are the sizes of small wind systems. Within the government policy to serve the isolated communities and maroon many alternatives are being tested. The use of wind power in places where there is availability of wind is a very attractive alternative. This paper presents a small central generation of hydropower and solar wind, installed in the Boa Esperanca community, with maximum capacity to generate 3kW. The system consists of three turbines of domestic manufacturing, which generate at 48 V. The energy is used in the 'Community Workshop'. The energy in the workshop is available in 220V. The partial results show that the system can be technically and economically viable, or sustainable, provided there is the involvement of the community as a whole in the proper use of energy, maintenance and operation of micro-central generation. (author)

  17. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.


    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  18. An evaluation of alternate energy sources for the Guyana energy crisis (United States)

    Sankies, M.

    Hydropower, tidal power, and Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) are evaluated as energy sources for the economic development of Guyana. The realization of a 3000 MW hydropower scheme is expected to promote industries such as an aluminum smelting plant and an ammonium nitrate plant in the hinterland. A proposal is made for a tidal power plant on the Saint John River with a million kW capacity. Although Guyana's geological location and atmospheric conditions make it a favorable site for solar seapower, OTEC cannot be considered as a current alternative. It is concluded that hydropower will play an important role as an inexpensive source of energy for industry, and that tidal power will supply coastal areas and function as part of the sea-defense system.

  19. Fusion energy: the agony, the ecstacy and the alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The desirability of achieving commercially viable fusion power generations is argued on environmental, fuel availability and radioactive waste management grounds. The author describes some of the technical aspects of the two main types of device being used to aim for fusion ignition, tokamaks and stellerators, giving brief details of current and future research initiative based on each type of device. He argues for continued diversity in research methods as a safety catch-all to ensure no possible options for commercial fusion power are missed. (UK).

  20. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  1. Alternative Energy: A Guide to Free Information for Educators. (United States)

    White, Janet A.

    This guide was compiled to help teachers and students locate free educational materials (both lessons and nontechnical background references) on renewable energy resources and energy conservation. The 214 entries are arranged by these topic areas: (1) energy efficiency and renewables; (2) biomass; (3) hydropower; (4) solar thermal energy; (5)…

  2. Alternative energy sources in France; Alternatieve energiebronnen in Frankrijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leniger, H.D.F. [Bureau du Conseiller Scientifique et Technique, Ambassade des Pays-Bas, Paris (France)


    France depends on nuclear energy to a high extent where it concerns the energy supply and generation of power. However, there is a growing interest in other techniques to produce energy. Next to solar energy, hydroelectric power plants, including a tidal power plant, the French are studying the possibilities of geothermal energy and cogeneration. A brief overview is given of the activities with respect to the two last-mentioned options. 3 figs.

  3. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David


    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  4. Nanoscale heat transfer and thermoelectrics for alternative energy (United States)

    Robinson, Richard


    In the area of alternative energy, thermoelectrics have experienced an unprecedented growth in popularity because of their ability to convert waste heat into electricity. Wired in reverse, thermoelectrics can act as refrigeration devices, where they are promising because they are small in size and lightweight, have no moving parts, and have rapid on/off cycles. However, due to their low efficiencies bulk thermoelectrics have historically been a niche market. Only in the last decade has thermoelectric efficiency exceeded ~ 20 % due to fabrication of nanostructured materials. Nanoscale materials have this advantage because electronic and acoustic confinement effects can greatly increase thermoelectric efficiency beyond bulk values. In this talk, I will introduce our work in the area of nanoscale heat transfer with the goal of more efficient thermoelectrics. I will discuss our experiments and methods to study acoustic confinement in nanostructures and present some of our new nanostructured thermoelectric materials. To study acoustic confinement we are building a nanoscale phonon spectrometer. The instrument can excite phonon modes in nanostructures in the ~ 100 s of GHz. Ballistic phonons from the generator are used to probe acoustic confinement and surface scattering effects. Transmission studies using this device will help optimize materials and morphologies for more efficient nanomaterial-based thermoelectrics. For materials, our group has synthesized nano-layer superlattices of Na x Co O2 . Sodium cobaltate was recently discovered to have a high Seebeck coeficent and is being studied as an oxide thermoelectric material. The thickness of our nano-layers ranges from 5 nm to 300 nm while the lengths can be varied between 10 μ m and 4 mm. Typical aspect ratios are 40 nm: 4 mm, or 1:100,000. Thermoelectric characterization of samples with tilted multiple-grains along the measurement axis indicate a thermoelectric efficiency on par with current polycrystalline samples

  5. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility (United States)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  6. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... (United States)


    ... reasonably accurate means to predict the energy usage or efficiency characteristics of a basic model of a... certify their basic models by using the projected energy use or energy efficiency results derived from... active models. Public Participation A. Attendance at Public Meeting The time, date, and location of the...

  7. Study on storage energy devices: supercapacitors, a green alternative


    Rancaño Fernandez, Ariadna


    Nowadays, it is increasingly common to hear about environmental issues. This fact keep us to continually try to improve energy optimization, either through new storage devices that pollute less or improvements in the environmental energy generation systems. Recent new types of devices under study are those called supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electronic devices able to store charge in form of electrical energy. This energy is stored as an electric field, so supercapacitors are less pol...

  8. 77 FR 41873 - In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc. because it...

  9. Solid waste as an alternative energy source and a means of solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and also providing alternative energy source to supplement the high cost and fast depleting conventional sources of energy. It also discussed the conventional incineration, gasification and pyrolysis processes in which energy may be recovered from solid wastes and put to useful purposes. Keywords: solid waste, energy, ...

  10. MRI device – alternative for electrical energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molokáč, Š.


    Full Text Available It is well known, that the electrical energy storage in the large scale is basically difficult process. Such a process is marked by the energy losses, as the conversion of electrical energy into another form, is most frequently for example mechanical, and then back to the primary electrical form. Though, the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES technology offers the energy storage in an unchanged form, which is advantageous primarily in the achieved efficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI devices, commonly used in the medical facilities are based on the application of superconducting magnet. After its rejection from operation, there is possibility of using such devices for energy storage purposes. Additionally, such a technology of storage is also ecological.

  11. Proceedings of condensed papers on alternate energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziroglu, T.N. (ed.)


    The conference covers the results of research and developments which have taken place during the last 2 years. It includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or waste, hydrogen production and uses. The volume of the Proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by their subjects under 40 technical sessions. Condensed papers are presented for the 336 presentations; abstracts have previously appeared in the DOE Energy Data Base for 33 of the full-length papers.

  12. Energies alternatives, énergies renouvelables, énergies vertes


    André Fontana


    Après avoir brossé le paysage énergétique du monde et de l’Europe, et compte tenu de la volonté de nombreux états de voter un moratoire pour la poursuite du nucléaire, les atouts des énergies alternatives et renouvelables sont passées en revue.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Lower-Energy Energy Storage Alternatives for Full-Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Pesaran, A.


    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle fuel use. However, the incremental cost of HEVs such as the Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The b b b b battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can correspondingly improve the vehicle-level cost/benefit relationship. Such an improvement would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Program managers asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collaborate with a USABC Workgroup and analyze the trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the decade-old minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL’s analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than the previous targets, which prompted USABC to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform, and laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results with alternate energy storage configurations as compared to the production battery system. The alternate energy storage technologies considered include lithium-ion capacitors -- i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery

  14. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To meet the rising demand for energy and to address environmental concerns, a conversion from conventional energy systems to renewable resources is essential. For the sustainability of human civilization, an environmentally techno – economically feasible waste treatment method is very important to treat waste. Several ...

  15. A Pluriatividade na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco: o turismo rural como uma viável alternativa econômicaThe pluriactivity of the Zona da Mata in Pernanbuco: rural tourism as a viable economic alternativeLa Pluriactividad en la Zona da Mata de Pernambuco: el turismo rural como una viable alternativa económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LISBOA FILHO, Waldeck


    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo tem como objetivo analisar se o turismo rural pode ser apontado como uma alternativa de diversificação econômica para a Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco. A principal fonte econômica desta região é a agroindústria canavieira. No entanto, esta atividade vem perdendo dinamismo com o encerramento das atividades de um grande número de unidades produtoras de açúcar e álcool, agravando a situação de pobreza de milhares de pessoas que vivem nesta região. O meio rural está passando por um processo de grandes transformações, tais alterações vão desde a inversão radical das correntes migratórias até o surgimento de novas atividades econômicas não precisamente agrícolas. O Turismo Rural, uma atividade pluriativa, vem sendo apontado como uma viável alternativa de diversificação econômica para a Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco, diante da crise da agroindústria canavieira. Caracterizada pelas belezas naturais, históricas e arquitetônicas, esta região vem registrando o crescimento de tal atividade.ABSTRACTThis article aims to analyze whether the rural tourism can be indicated as an option for economic diversification of Zona da Mata of the State of Pernambuco. The main economic source of this region is sugar-cane agricultural industry. However, this activity is losing dynamism with the end of activities of a large number of sugar and alcohol producing plants, thereby aggravating the poverty condition of thousands of people who live in that region. At the present, rural environment goes through a process of great changes, from the radical inversion of migratory currents to the appearance of new economic activities, which are not necessarily agricultural. Rural tourism, a pluri-active activity, is presently considered as a feasible alternative of economic diversification for "Zona da Mata" of the State of Pernambuco against the crisis experienced by sugar-cane agricultural industry. Characterized by the

  16. Evaluation of renewable energy alternatives for highway maintenance facilities. (United States)


    A considerable annual energy budget is used for heating, lighting, cooling and operating ODOT : maintenance facilities. Such facilities contain vehicle repair and garage bays, which are large open : spaces with high heating demand in winter. The main...

  17. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.


    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  18. 1976 Energy Resource Alternatives II Competition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R.A.; Iannucilli, M.; Marshal, J.; Sununu, J.H.; Eschbach, J.E.; Anson, J.; Wark, D.; Stock, D.E.


    Descriptions of all the entries in the competition are presented. Competition rules and judging procedures are described. Entries consisted of team efforts from colleges and universities. The competition called for the student teams to develop means for producing electrical power sufficient to meet the needs of a single family home, using an energy source other than oil or natural gas. The electric power produced had to be economically realistic when compared to present energy sources.

  19. Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.


    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Authority Areas (BAAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive loads has resulted in a proposal for an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM). This paper extends prior work to estimate the reserve requirements for regulation, spinning, and non-spinning reserves with and without the EIM. We also discuss alternative approaches to allocating reserve requirements and show that some apparently attractive allocation methods have undesired consequences.

  20. Development of other oil-alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Development efforts are being given on a large wind power generation system which has high reliability and economy and suits the actual situations in Japan. Verification tests will be conducted to establish control systems to realize load leveling against the increase in maximum power demand and the differences in demands between seasons, days and nights. Development will also be made on technologies for systems to operate devices optimally using nighttime power for household use. Solar light and heat energies will be introduced and used widely in housing to achieve efficient comprehensive energy utilization. Wastes, waste heat and unused energies locally available will be utilized to promote forming environment harmonious type energy communities. Photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation facilities will be installed on a trial basis to promote building a groundwork for full-scale installations. Photovoltaic power generation systems will be installed on actual houses to establish technologies to assess and optimize the load leveling effect. Attempts will be made on practical application of high-efficiency regional heat supply systems which utilize such unutilized energies as those from sea water and river water. Assistance will be given through preparing manuals on introduction of wastes power generation systems by local governments, and introduction of regional energy systems by using new discrete type power generation technologies and consumer-use cogeneration systems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Solid waste as an alternative energy source and a means of solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents practical ways of generating energy from solid waste as a means of solving the problem of solid waste disposal which is confronting the major cities in Nigeria and also providing alternative energy source to supplement the high cost and fast depleting conventional sources of energy. It also discussed the ...

  2. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.


    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  3. The nuclear energy option an alternative for the 90s

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Bernard L


    University of Pittsburgh physicist Cohen provides accessible, scientifically sound risk analyses of the energy options that he believes must be exercised in the next 10 years. This update of his work on public energy policy stands opposed to the stack of recent greenhouse effect-oriented titles by proposing more nuclear power plants (including fuel reprocessing plants) as statistically the safest, most environmentally sound solution. Cohen advances the debate on energy policy for all sides by first quantifying the human health costs of coal- and oil-generated electricity, and by debunking solar technology's deus ex machina role. In this context, Cohen looks at issues surrounding nuclear power since Three Mile Island, such as the "unsolved problem" of nuclear waste disposal and the "China Syndrome." Media people especially are urged to re-examine "nuclear hysteria" (no one ever writes about " deadly natural gas," Cohen notes), and even anti-nuclear activists will find the study's appendices and notes a sourceb...

  4. Evaporation/Antievaporation and energy conditions in alternative gravity (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea


    We discuss the evaporation and antievaporation instabilities of Nariai solution in extended theories of gravity. These phenomena were explicitly shown in several different extensions of General Relativity, suggesting that a universal cause is behind them. We show that evaporation and antievaporation are originated from deformations of energy conditions on the Nariai horizon. Energy conditions get new contributions from the extra propagating degrees of freedom, which can provide extra focalizing or antifocalizing terms in the Raychaudhuri equation. We show the two explicit cases of f(R)-gravity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity.

  5. The Energy Crisis in the Public Schools; Alternative Solutions. (United States)

    Grossbach, Wilmar; Shaffer, William

    One hundred and eighty school personnel held a workshop with representatives of the petroleum, natural gas, and electrical power industries. The objectives of the workshop were (1) to provide participants with a common body of knowledge and a common understanding of the energy crisis and its implications for the public schools, (2) to delineate…

  6. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth


    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  7. Alternative Energy Saving Technology Analysis Report for Richland High School Renovation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing


    On July 8, 2004, L&S Engineering, Inc. submitted a technical assistance request to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to help estimate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of the solar energy and daylighting design alternatives for Richland High School Renovation Project in Richland, WA. L&S Engineering expected PNNL to evaluate the potential energy savings and energy cost savings, the probable installation costs, incentives or grants to reduce the installed costs and simple payback for the following alternative measures: (1) Daylighting in New Gym; (2) Solar Photovoltaics; (3) Solar Domestic Hot Water Pre-Heat; and (4) Solar Outside Air Pre-Heat Following are the findings of the energy savings and cost-effectiveness analysis of above alternative energy saving technologies.

  8. Research Capabilities Directed to all Electric Engineering Teachers, from an Alternative Energy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ordóñez Navea


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to contemplate research capabilities directed to all electric engineering teachers from an alternative energy model intro the explanation of a semiconductor in the National Training Program in Electricity. Some authors, such as. Vidal (2016, Atencio (2014 y Camilo (2012 point out to technological applications with semiconductor electrical devices. In this way; a diagnostic phase is presented, held on this field research as a descriptive type about: a how to identify the necessities of alternative energies, and b The research competences in the alternatives energies of researcher from a solar cell model, to boost and innovate the academic praxis and technologic ingenuity. Themselves was applied a survey for a group of 15 teachers in the National Program of Formation in electricity to diagnose the deficiencies in the research area of alternatives energies. The process of data analysis was carried out through descriptive statistic. Later the conclusions are presented the need to generate strategies for stimulate and propose exploration of alternatives energies to the development of research competences directed to the teachers of electrical engineering for develop the research competences in the enforcement of the teachers exercise for the electric engineering, from an alternative energy model and boost the technologic research in the renewal energies field.

  9. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV


    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents

  10. Diagnosing alternative conceptions of Fermi energy among undergraduate students (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Ahluwalia, Pardeep Kumar


    Physics education researchers have scientifically established the fact that the understanding of new concepts and interpretation of incoming information are strongly influenced by the preexisting knowledge and beliefs of students, called epistemological beliefs. This can lead to a gap between what students actually learn and what the teacher expects them to learn. In a classroom, as a teacher, it is desirable that one tries to bridge this gap at least on the key concepts of a particular field which is being taught. One such key concept which crops up in statistical physics/solid-state physics courses, and around which the behaviour of materials is described, is Fermi energy (εF). In this paper, we present the results which emerged about misconceptions on Fermi energy in the process of administering a diagnostic tool called the Statistical Physics Concept Survey developed by the authors. It deals with eight themes of basic importance in learning undergraduate solid-state physics and statistical physics. The question items of the tool were put through well-established sequential processes: definition of themes, Delphi study, interview with students, drafting questions, administration, validity and reliability of the tool. The tool was administered to a group of undergraduate students and postgraduate students, in a pre-test and post-test design. In this paper, we have taken one of the themes i.e. Fermi energy of the diagnostic tool for our analysis and discussion. Students’ responses and reasoning comments given during interview were analysed. This analysis helped us to identify prevailing misconceptions/learning gaps among students on this topic. How spreadsheets can be effectively used to remove the identified misconceptions and help appreciate the finer nuances while visualizing the behaviour of the system around Fermi energy, normally sidestepped both by the teachers and learners, is also presented in this paper.

  11. Dark goo: Bulk viscosity as an alternative to dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gagnon, Jean-Sebastien


    We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an "effective" pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local eq...

  12. Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding (United States)

    Paul Hill d/b/a Alternative Energy Windows and Siding (the Company) is located in Concord, New Hampshire. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Concord, New Hampshire.

  13. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James


    I. Project Summary Catalytic processes are a major technological underpinning of modern society, and are essential to the energy sector in the processing of chemical fuels from natural resources, fine chemicals synthesis, and energy conversion. Advances in catalyst technology are enormously valuable since these lead to reduced chemical waste, reduced energy loss, and reduced costs. New energy technologies, which are critical to future economic growth, are also heavily reliant on catalysts, including fuel cells and photo-electrochemical cells. Currently, the state of South Dakota is underdeveloped in terms of research infrastructure related to catalysis. If South Dakota intends to participate in significant economic growth opportunities that result from advances in catalyst technology, then this area of research needs to be made a high priority for investment. To this end, a focused research effort is proposed in which investigators from The University of South Dakota (USD) and The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) will contribute to form the South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG). The multidisciplinary team of the (SDCG) include: (USD) Dan Engebretson, James Hoefelmeyer, Ranjit Koodali, and Grigoriy Sereda; (SDSMT) Phil Scott Ahrenkiel, Hao Fong, Jan Puszynski, Rajesh Shende, and Jacek Swiatkiewicz. The group is well suited to engage in a collaborative project due to the resources available within the existing programs. Activities within the SDCG will be monitored through an external committee consisting of three distinguished professors in chemistry. The committee will provide expert advice and recommendations to the SDCG. Advisory meetings in which committee members interact with South Dakota investigators will be accompanied by individual oral and poster presentations in a materials and catalysis symposium. The symposium will attract prominent scientists, and will enhance the visibility of research in the state of South Dakota. The SDCG requests

  14. Consumer engagement in alternative energy. Can the regulators and suppliers be trusted?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumford, John [Senior Visiting Fellow, School of Management, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Gray, David [Professor of Management Learning, School of Management, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)


    The introduction of alternative energy requires collaboration between consumers, energy suppliers and regulators. A fundamental question is, will consumers engage with this agenda and, in particular, will they trust the institutions sufficiently to enable the collaborations that are needed. Present indications suggest that consumers have little trust in the established institutions and tend to reject such collaborations. This article presents two case studies which explore the way consumers, regulators and energy suppliers interact in relation to alternative energy projects. It analyses the inter-group interactions from the perspective of symbolic interactionism and discusses the aspects that undermine trust, leading to suggestions for improved trust. (author)

  15. Consumer engagement in alternative energy-Can the regulators and suppliers be trusted?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumford, John, E-mail: [School of Management, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Gray, David [School of Management, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)


    The introduction of alternative energy requires collaboration between consumers, energy suppliers and regulators. A fundamental question is, will consumers engage with this agenda and, in particular, will they trust the institutions sufficiently to enable the collaborations that are needed. Present indications suggest that consumers have little trust in the established institutions and tend to reject such collaborations. This article presents two case studies which explore the way consumers, regulators and energy suppliers interact in relation to alternative energy projects. It analyses the inter-group interactions from the perspective of symbolic interactionism and discusses the aspects that undermine trust, leading to suggestions for improved trust.

  16. Modified Gravity Theories: Alternatives To The Missing Mass And Missing Energy Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Soussa, M E


    Modified theories of gravity are examined and shown to be alternative possibilities to the standard paradigms of dark matter and dark energy in explaining the currently observed cosmological phenomenology. Special consideration is given to the relativistic extension of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) in supplanting the need for dark matter. A specific modification of the Einstein-Hilbert action (whereby an inverse power of the Ricci scalar is added) is shown to serve as an alternative to dark energy.

  17. The CEA and the alternative energies. Press tour 25 and 26 november 1999; Le CEA et les energies alternatives. Voyage de presse les 25 et 26 novembre 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carola, G. [CEA/Grenoble, 38 (France); Ngo, Ch. [CEA, Dir. de la Strategie et de l' Evaluation, 75 - Paris (France); Mermilliod, N.; Serre-Combe, P. [CEA/Grenoble, Dir. des Technologies Avancees, DTA, 38 (France); Sanglan, P. [Air Liquide, 38 - Sassenage (France); De La Graviere, M. [CEA/Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dieudonne, O.; Malbranche, Ph. [CEA/Cadarache, Dir. des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    In the framework of the public information on the CEA center of Cadarache and Grenoble, a presentation of the researches concerning the alternative energies is proposed. The Cea is commissioned by the Public Authorities, to keep the nuclear option open and for the long-dated, to develop renewable energies. In this domain researches on fuel cells and photovoltaic solar energy are performed. The principle and the applications of the fuel cell and the photovoltaic are recalled to introduce the research programs and the partners. (A.L.B.)

  18. Alternatives - talk about energy differently. Radioactive waste a societal issue; Alternatives - parler autrement de l'energie. Dechets radioactifs un enjeu de societe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    ''Alternatives'' is an information magazine proposed by the Areva Group, a world nuclear energy leader. It is devoted to the public information on topics of the Group activities. This issue deals with the fusion technology, the strengths and weaknesses of interconnected networks, the undersea tidal power farms, the danish paradox which has the highest levels of CO{sub 2} emissions despite the use of wind energy, the international community renewed commitment to renewable energy, the hydrogen, the low speed wind turbines and the future miniature fuel cells. A special interest is given to the radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  19. Regenerative Fuel Cell System As Alternative Energy Storage For Space (United States)

    Lucas, J.; Bockstahler, K.; Funke, H.; Jehle, W.; Markgraf, S.; Henn, N.; Schautz, M.


    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand more power. Power levels of 20 to 30kW are foreseen for the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes (equals amount of stored energy of 36kWh) will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with Li-ion battery technologies, which are estimated to reach an energy density of 250Wh/kg (begin of life) on cell level i.e. 150Wh/kg on subsystem level in 10 years. For the high power level another technology is needed to reach the next goal of 300 - 350Wh/kg on subsystem level. One candidate is the Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) technology which proves to be superior to batteries with increasing power demand and increasing discharge time. Such an RFC system based on hydrogen and oxygen technology consists of storage for the reactants (H2, O2 and H2O), a fuel cell (FC) and an electrolyser (ELY). In charge mode, the electrolyser splits water in hydrogen and oxygen using electrical power from solar cells. The gases are stored in appropriate tanks. In discharge mode, during time intervals of power demand, O2 and H2 are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under formation of water as by-product. The water is stored in tanks and during charge mode rerouted to the electrolyser thus creating a closed-loop process. Today Astrium is developing an RFCS as energy storage and supply unit for some future ESA missions. A complete RFCS breadboard has been established and the operational behaviour of the system is being tested. First test results, dedicated experience gained from system testing and a comparison with the analytical prediction will be discussed and presented.

  20. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: technical section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Eighteen different alternative fuels were considered in the preliminary screening, from three basic resource bases. Coal can be used to provide 13 of the fuels; oil shale was the source for three of the fuels; and biomass provided the resource base for two fuels not provided from coal. In the case of biomass, six different fuels were considered. Nuclear power and direct solar radiation were also considered. The eight prime movers that were considered in the preliminary screening are boiler/steam turbine; open and closed cycle gas turbines; low and medium speed diesels; spark ignited and stratified charge Otto cycles; electric motor; Stirling engine; free piston; and fuel cell/electric motor. Modes of transport considered are pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft. Section 2 gives the overall summary and conclusions, the future outlook for each mode of transportation, and the R and D suggestions by mode of transportation. Section 3 covers the preliminary screening phase and includes a summary of the data base used. Section 4 presents the methodology used to select the fuels and prime movers for the detailed study. Sections 5 through 8 cover the detailed evaluation of the pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft modes of transportation. Section 9 covers the demand related issues.

  1. A bioelectrolyte cell - an alternate source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.S. [University College of Technology, Osmania Univ., Andhra Pradesh (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kolli, N. [University College of Technology, Osmania Univ., Andhra Pradesh (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    An electrochemical cell is fabricated using an extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica from the family Convolvulaceae as the electrolyte. To obtain a close value to the available energy density, the cell is discharged at a current drain of 1 {mu}A and is calculated to be 1.1 Wh/kg of electrolyte. A second cell is fabricated with a paste of the leaves as the electrolyte. The initial open-circuit voltage is 1.16 V. An observation is made regarding the variation of current under short-circuit condition with respect to time, which is unlike the variation observed for any other electrochemical cell. The curve features are discussed and interpreted. This observation opens a new field of interest for electrochemists, molecular biologists, botanists, etc. It is expected to signify the electrical activity associated with the majority of processes in plant metabolism. The promising feature lies in supporting devices with high voltage and low current requirements. With proper design, the cell can be employed on a larger scale to meet energy requirements. (orig.)

  2. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa


    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ~0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ~10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  3. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa


    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ∼10%, which is accompanied by 10–50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy. PMID:28211467

  4. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China. (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa


    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ∼10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  5. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector (United States)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  6. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.


    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  7. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  8. Solar Panels and Alternative Energy in the Eighth-Grade Classroom (United States)

    Buck, Laura


    In this solar panels and alternative energy project, students were challenged to develop a researchable question about solar energy and electronics and devise a means of answering it. Students worked cooperatively, with specific roles for each member, conducting research, conducting experiments, analyzing results, and writing the final…

  9. Land-Rich Colleges Explore Opportunities to Create Alternative-Energy Sources (United States)

    Carlson, Scott


    In a time of expensive energy and concerns about climate change, land may be a major asset for colleges, providing a vastly different opportunity than it did in the past, when it was merely a place to set down new buildings, new campuses, or research parks. Since new alternative-energy technologies like wind and solar demand a lot of land--along…

  10. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the

  11. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science. (United States)

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  12. What Do You Know about Alternative Energy? Development and Use of a Diagnostic Instrument for Upper Secondary School Science (United States)

    Poh-Ai Cheong, Irene; Johari, Marliza; Said, Hardimah; Treagust, David F.


    The need for renewable and non-fossil fuels is now recognised by nations throughout the world. Consequently, an understanding of alternative energy is needed both in schools and in everyday life-long learning situations. This study developed a two-tier instrument to diagnose students' understanding and alternative conceptions about alternative energy in terms of: sources of alternative energy, greenhouse gas emission, as well as advantages, and disadvantages. Results obtained with Years 10 and 11 students (n = 491) using the 12-item two-tier instrument (α = 0.61) showed that students' understanding of alternative energy was low (M = 7.03; SD = 3.90). The 23 alternative conceptions about alternative energy sources that could be identified from the instrument are reported. The implications for teaching and learning about alternative energy and suggestions for further development and improvement of the instrument are presented.

  13. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia. (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia


    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories.

  14. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in range-separated density-functional perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornaton, Y.; Stoyanova, A.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard


    An alternative separation of short-range exchange and correlation energies is used in the framework of second-order range-separated density-functional perturbation theory. This alternative separation was initially proposed by Toulouse and relies on a long-range-interacting wave function instead...... of the noninteracting Kohn-Sham one. When second-order corrections to the density are neglected, the energy expression reduces to a range-separated double-hybrid (RSDH) type of functional, RSDHf, where "f" stands for "full-range integrals" as the regular full-range interaction appears explicitly in the energy...... on the potential energy curves in the equilibrium region, improving the accuracy of binding energies and equilibrium bond distances when second-order perturbation theory is appropriate....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad


    Full Text Available This study offers comprehensive details on the use of bio-fuel as a viable and alternative source of energy. The bio-fuel was prepared from vegetable oil, i.e., mustard oil and tested in a diesel engine in both pure form and as a diesel blend. The mustard oil blend proportions were 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and named as bio-diesel blends B20, B30, B40 and B50. A fuel-testing laboratory determined the properties of the pure mustard oil fuel and its blends, i.e., density, viscosity, dynamic viscosity, carbon residue, flash point, fire point and calorific value. An assessment of engine performance, i.e., brake horsepower (bhp, brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc, brake thermal efficiency (bte and brake mean effective pressure (bmep etc., was carried out for pure diesel, pure mustard and the blends, both in laboratory conditions and under British Standard (BS conditions. Finally, an analysis and comparison was made of the effects of the various fuels on the different engine properties.

  16. Box Energy: rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles; Box-energy. Rental of energy. Storage systems and alternative-fuel. Technologies for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.


    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of study on the rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles. Experience gained in the area of battery-rental is discussed. The aims of the 'Box Energy' project are described, as is its market environment. The 'Box Energy' concept is described and possible customers and partners listed. Logistics aspects are discussed. The organisation of 'Box Energy' is described and the concept's chances and weaknesses are discussed. The launching of a pilot project in Switzerland is discussed. Recommendations on further work to be done are made.

  17. An integrated approach to shaping the future of alternative energy in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D. [EnergyINet Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    EnergyINet Inc. is an energy innovation network that is part of the Alberta Energy Research Institute and the Alberta Government. Its mandate is to link industry, government and academia to facilitate innovation and research in energy. The organization's strategic goals are to maintain a competitive energy supply, take advantage of the shift in energy systems and put Canada at the forefront of integration between energy systems. EnergyINet's value-added approach is to develop an integrated strategy that results in better industry participation and technology transfer while reducing the risk of costly investment in technology. Current innovation programs focus on oil sands upgrading; clean coal technology with carbon sequestration; enhanced recovery; alternate and renewable energy; water management and carbon dioxide management. The organization's cross-cutting initiatives include capacity building; global intelligence; strategic communications and technology commercialization. EnergyINet's objective is develop energy resources that reduce dependence of fossil fuels while better utilizing existing energy sources to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The strategy is to catalyze research and development to achieve an effective and environmentally suitable mix or alternate and renewable energy technologies. This presentation included graphs depicting Canadian energy sector growth from 1985 to the present; conversion of the Canadian economy to impure hydrogen for heating and transportation; an impure hydrogen value hierarchy; impure hydrogen implementation; and, hydrogen option examples such as wind electric power, hydrogen by electrolysis, electric power generation by hydrocarbon gasification, and distributed power generation with combined heat and power. It was noted that regulations and infrastructure are the key challenges facing hydrogen technology options in terms of production, transportation and applications. The action plan is to expand the

  18. The biogas: a future energy alternative; Biogas: a alternativa energetica do futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, Carla Marques [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias, Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Anjos, Jose Angelo Sebastiao Araujo dos [Universidade de Salvador, BA (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa Ambiental e Geotecnologias (LAGEO)]. E-mail:; Mascarenhas, Artur Jose Santos [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    The biogas is one of the principal factors. During the last years the biogas use are intensifying himself which can make the energy alternative of the future. The methane, present in these gas, can be converted into energy, for his combustion generates a large quantity of thermal energy, which can be concerted into electrical ou mechanical energy. Being so, it is important that we aware that the caloric power of the biogas varies between 5000 to 7000 kcal/m{sup 3}, depending on the methane concentrations. Besides, the biogas purification through the removal of the carbonic gas can rising his calorific to values larger than 8700 kcal/m{sup 3}.

  19. Biodiesel and bioethanol production: A sustainable alternative for the energy crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castro Martínez


    Full Text Available The present contribution intends to give an overview of the current -status of the energy crisis and suggest some sustainable alternatives for energy production. In first place, a brief summary of the history about resources for energy production is presented. The high dependency of fossil combustibles it is well known and has been estimated that more than 90% of the used energy comes from non-renewable resources such as oil, gas and carbon. In the same way, here, it is described that oil is, by far, the main source of energy used to date and as a consequence, this resource is, unavoidably,coming to an end and at the same time is causing and increasing environmental pollution problems. Later in this work, it is suggested that in order to achieve the energetic sustainability, the development of alternative sources that will allow the reduction of toxic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions as well as a decrease of water usage along with a decrease in the energy production costs are needed. One of the alternatives that have been proposed is the production of biofuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Here, some of the main properties at the level of the employed raw materials and production systems are cited. Finally, this work suggests some solutions that are under development worldwide in order to face thiscurrent energy situation.

  20. Prospects for bioenergy use in Ghana using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Nygaard, Ivan; Mackenzie, Gordon A.


    that introducing bioenergy to the energy mix could reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions by about 6 million tonnes CO2e by 2030, equivalent to a 14% reduction in a business-as-usual scenario. This paper advocates the use of second generation ethanol for transport, to the extent that it is economically exploitable......As Ghana's economy grows, the choice of future energy paths and policies in the coming years will have a significant influence on its energy security. A Renewable Energy Act approved in 2011 seeks to encourage the influx of renewable energy sources in Ghana's energy mix. The new legal framework...... biomass sources, through the production of biogas, liquid biofuels and electricity. Analysis was based on moderate and high use of bioenergy for transportation, electricity generation and residential fuel using the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) model. Results obtained indicate...

  1. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža


    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices: An Alternative Energy Source for Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action Nechibvute


    Full Text Available The recent advances in ultralow power device integration, communication electronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology have fuelled the emerging technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The spatial distributed nature of WSNs often requires that batteries power the individual sensor nodes. One of the major limitations on performance and lifetime of WSNs is the limited capacity of these finite power sources, which must be manually replaced when they are depleted. Moreover, the embedded nature of some of the sensors and hazardous sensing environment make battery replacement very difficult and costly. The process of harnessing and converting ambient energy sources into usable electrical energy is called energy harvesting. Energy harvesting raises the possibility of self-powered systems which are ubiquitous and truly autonomous, and without human intervention for energy replenishment. Among the ambient energy sources such as solar energy, heat, and wind, mechanical vibrations are an attractive ambient source mainly because they are widely available and are ideal for the use of piezoelectric materials, which have the ability to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical energy. This paper presents a concise review of piezoelectric microgenerators and nanogenerators as a renewable energy resource to power wireless sensors.

  3. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an alternative scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beers, J.R.; Cavanagh, R.C.; Lash, T.R.; Mott, L.


    A strategy is presented for averting the short-term energy supply uncertainties that undermine prospects for stable economic development in the Pacific Northwest. This strategy is based on: an analysis of the present electric power consumption by various end-use sectors; comparison of incentives to promote energy conservation and lower demand growth; analysis of alternatives to current dependency on hydro power; and a study of the cost of planning and implementing future power supply programs. (LCL)

  4. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. Alternative energy sources for the heating and cooling of a building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, JFS


    Full Text Available The objective of two of the studies was to choose the most economical source of heating energy, taking cognizance of the building owner’s particular circumstances; in both cases a suitable alternative to light petroleum oil, which had been used...

  6. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.


    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  7. Solar-powered electrochemical energy storage: an alternative to solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D.; Huang, Zhongjie; Trang, Brittany B.; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Wu, Yiying


    Because of the intermittent nature of solar radiation, being able to simultaneously convert and store solar energy is a significant advance for efficiently harnessing solar energy. Solar fuels have already been recognized as a promising method towards this goal and have attracted tremendous research interest recently. Alternatively, this goal can also be achieved by using the solar-powered electrochemical energy storage (SPEES) strategy, which integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and an electrochemical cell into a single device. The integrated device is able to harvest solar energy and store it in situ within the device via a photocharging process and also distribute the energy as electric power when needed. This essay reviews the past SPEES research and analyzes its future prospects with a special emphasis on chemical design and material choices. We hope that the article will help draw more research attention to this field and stimulate additional exciting investigations toward more efficient solar energy utilization.

  8. Secure oil and alternative energy: the geopolitics of energy paths of China and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Guang, Y.


    While intensive cooperation between China and the EU in the fields of energy use, environmental protection and sustainability is highly needed the question remains unanswered how this cooperation could be organized. This volume puts the geopolitical implementation of China's and the EU's energy

  9. Cost Benefit and Alternatives Analysis of Distribution Systems with Energy Storage Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Tom; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Baggu, Murali; Bialek, Tom


    This paper explores monetized and non-monetized benefits from storage interconnected to distribution system through use cases illustrating potential applications for energy storage in California's electric utility system. This work supports SDG&E in its efforts to quantify, summarize, and compare the cost and benefit streams related to implementation and operation of energy storage on its distribution feeders. This effort develops the cost benefit and alternatives analysis platform, integrated with QSTS feeder simulation capability, and analyzed use cases to explore the cost-benefit of implementation and operation of energy storage for feeder support and market participation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Mukhortova


    Full Text Available The article investigates the prosprcts of U.S. alternative energy industry through analysis of more recent electoral campaigns and electoral rhetoric of presidential nominees. This method seems to be no less effective for displaying possible scenarios of industry development in long-term perspective than that of economic projection, because they are political and ideological factors that primarily constitute a political course of today’s America. In the study the author attempts to prove that the stance of alternative energy sector within the US energy system depends on political situation as well as political affiliation of the US administration, rather than on economic imperatives.Purchase on > Buy nowDOI:

  11. Energy in transition, 1985-2010. Final report of the Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems, National Research Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This exhaustive study, in assessing the roles of nuclear and alternative energy systems in the nation's energy future, focuses on the period between 1985 and 2010. Its intent is to illuminate the kinds of options the nation may wish to keep open in the future and to describe the actions, policies, and R and D programs that may be required to do so. The timing and the context of these decisions depend not only on the technical, social, and economic features of energy-supply technologies, but also on assumptions about future demand for energy and the possibilities for energy conservation through changes in consumption patterns and improved efficiency of the supply and end-use systems. The committee developed a three-tiered functional structure for the project. The first tier was CONAES itself, whose report embodies the ultimate findings, conclusions, and judgments of the study. To provide scientific and engineering data and economic analyses for the committee, a second tier of four panels was appointed by the committee to examine (1) energy demand and conservation, (2) energy supply and delivery systems, (3) risks and impacts of energy supply and use, and (4) various models of possible future energy systems and decision making. Each panel in turn established a number of resource groups - some two dozen in all - to address in detail an array of more particular matters. Briefly stated, recommended strategies are: (1) increased energy conservation; (2) expansion of the nation's balanced coal and nuclear electrical generation base; (3) retention of the breeder option; (4) stimulation of fluid energy development; and (5) immediate increase in research and development of new energy options to ensure availability over the long term.

  12. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)


    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  13. Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Turchi, C. S.; Burman, K.


    In January 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory delivered to the Department of the Interior the first part of a study on Navajo Generating Station (Navajo GS) and the likely impacts of BART compliance options. That document establishes a comprehensive baseline for the analysis of clean energy alternatives, and their ability to achieve benefits similar to those that Navajo GS currently provides. This analysis is a supplement to NREL's January 2012 study. It provides a high level examination of several clean energy alternatives, based on the previous analysis. Each has particular characteristics affecting its relevance as an alternative to Navajo GS. It is assumed that the development of any alternative resource (or portfolio of resources) to replace all or a portion of Navajo GS would occur at the end of a staged transition plan designed to reduce economic disruption. We assume that replacing the federal government's 24.3% share of Navajo GS would be a cooperative responsibility of both the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD).

  14. Changing the way we work: elevating energy expenditure with workstation alternatives. (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, C; Schuna, J M; Frensham, L J; Proenca, M


    Emerging evidence supports the feasibility of raising daily energy expenditure (EE) by replacing office work-related sedentary behavior with low-intensity non-exercise physical activity (PA) via workstation alternatives to the traditional office chair and desktop computer-based combinations. The purpose of this review article is to introduce a simple taxonomy to facilitate classification and study of workstation alternatives, catalog the diversity of research undertaken to date related to energy balance, and present and summarize the gaps and opportunities for a research agenda for workstation alternatives moving forward. A PubMed search elicited 57 English language articles published since 2000; additional articles were identified by reviewing reference sections and contacting authors. Selection criteria ultimately focused on use of workstation alternatives during simulated or real work tasks. The EE of sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks is comparable to the traditional seated condition (≅1.2 kcal min(-1)). The treadmill and pedal desks (active workstation alternatives) offer the greatest promise in terms of EE (≅2-4 kcal min(-1)). Sitting on a stability ball or using sit-stand/standing desks does not impair task performance relative to the traditional seated condition. Some evidence of typing impairment is inconsistently reported with active workstation alternatives; the finer motor skills required for mouse-related tasks may be more affected. Little is known about learning or adaptation with practice. Users are generally accepting of workstation alternatives; however, there is evidence of less than optimal use. Active workstations (that is, treadmill desks and pedal desks) in particular represent a potential strategy for mitigating the diminished EE inherent to contemporary office-based workplaces, but only if they are scalable. The science supporting active workstations is young and heterogeneous; however, this means that

  15. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jin, Chunlian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leslie, Patrick [Puget Sound Energy, Bellevue, WA (United States); Daitch, Charles [Puget Sound Energy, Bellevue, WA (United States); Marshall, A. [Primus Power, Hayward, CA (United States)


    As part of an ongoing study co-funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, under its Technology Innovation Grant Program, and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed an approach and modeling tool for assessing the net benefits of using energy storage located close to the customer in the distribution grid to manage demand. PNNL in collaboration with PSE and Primus Power has evaluated the net benefits of placing a zinc bromide battery system at two locations in the PSE system (Baker River / Rockport and Bainbridge Island). Energy storage can provide a number of benefits to the utility through the increased flexibility it provides to the grid system. Applications evaluated in the assessment include capacity value, balancing services, arbitrage, distribution deferral and outage mitigation. This report outlines the methodology developed for this study and Phase I results.

  16. Development Of Educational Programs In Renewable And Alternative Energy Processing: The Case Of Russia (United States)

    Svirina, Anna; Shindor, Olga; Tatmyshevsky, Konstantin


    The paper deals with the main problems of Russian energy system development that proves necessary to provide educational programs in the field of renewable and alternative energy. In the paper the process of curricula development and defining teaching techniques on the basis of expert opinion evaluation is defined, and the competence model for renewable and alternative energy processing master students is suggested. On the basis of a distributed questionnaire and in-depth interviews, the data for statistical analysis was obtained. On the basis of this data, an optimization of curricula structure was performed, and three models of a structure for optimizing teaching techniques were developed. The suggested educational program structure which was adopted by employers is presented in the paper. The findings include quantitatively estimated importance of systemic thinking and professional skills and knowledge as basic competences of a masters' program graduate; statistically estimated necessity of practice-based learning approach; and optimization models for structuring curricula in renewable and alternative energy processing. These findings allow the establishment of a platform for the development of educational programs.

  17. Comparing Whole Building Energy Implications of Sidelighting Systems with Alternate Manual Blind Control Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dyke


    Full Text Available Currently, there is no manual blind control guideline used consistently throughout the energy modeling community. This paper identifies and compares five manual blind control algorithms with unique control patterns and reports blind occlusion, rate of change data, and annual building energy consumption. The blind control schemes detailed here represent five reasonable candidates for use in lighting and energy simulation based on difference driving factors. This study was performed on a medium-sized office building using EnergyPlus with the internal daylight harvesting engine. Results show that applying manual blind control algorithms affects the total annual consumption of the building by as much as 12.5% and 11.5% for interior and exterior blinds respectively, compared to the Always Retracted blinds algorithm. Peak demand was also compared showing blind algorithms affected zone load sizing by as much as 9.8%. The alternate algorithms were tested for their impact on American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE Guideline 14 calibration metrics and all models were found to differ from the original calibrated baseline by more than the recommended ±15% for coefficient of variance of the mean square error (CVRMSE and ±5% for normalized mean bias error (NMBE. The paper recommends that energy modelers use one or more manual blind control algorithms during design stages when making decisions about energy efficiency and other design alternatives.

  18. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, D; Singer, G


    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  19. Solar Energy as an Alternative to Energy Saving and Pollutant Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu


    Full Text Available In the paper is analyzed thermal solar systems efficiency from the point of view of energy savings and pollutant emissions concentrations exhausted during these installations operation. For this purpose were taking into account four versions of solar panel systems combined with different types of conventional heating sources, for which were simulated the operation conditions. As a result of the simulation, there were obtained the values of energy savings and pollutant emissions during the four systems operation. By analyzing these values, the combined thermal system optimum solution was selected.

  20. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll


    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  1. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Project Financing Alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. D.; Hail, John C.; Sullivan, Gregory P.


    This document provides findings and recommendations that resulted from an assessment of the Brookhaven National Laboratory by a team from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the site's potential for various alternative financing options as a means to implement energy-efficiency improvements. The assessment looked for life-cycle cost-effective energy-efficiency improvement opportunities, and through a series of staff interviews, evaluated the various methods by which these opportunities may be financed, while considering availability of funds, staff, and available financing options. This report summarizes the findings of the visit and the resulting recommendations.

  2. 77 FR 1019 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management 30 CFR Part 585 RIN 1010-AD79 Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of... for offshore renewable energy projects. DATES: Effective Date: This correction is effective on January..., fax (703) 787-1555, or email [email protected] or Timothy Redding, Renewable Energy, BOEM, at...

  3. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy. (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991


    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  4. High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjipanayis, George C. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); McCallum, William R. [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Sellmyer, David J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Harris, Vincent [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Carpenter, Everett E. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States); Liu, Jinfang [Electron Energy Corporation, Landisville, PA (United States)


    The report summarizes research undertaken by a multidisciplinary team aimed at the development of the next generation high-energy permanent magnets. The principal approach was relied on bottom-up fabrication of anisotropic nanocomposite magnets. Our efforts resulted in further development of the theoretical concept and fabrication principles for the nanocomposites and in synthesis of a range of rare-earth-based hard magnetic nanoparticles. Even though we did not make a breakthrough in the assembly of these hard magnetic particles with separately prepared Fe(Co) nanoparticles and did not obtain a compact nanocomposite magnet, our performed research will help to direct the future efforts, in particular, towards nano-assembly via coating, when the two phases which made the nanocomposite are first organized in core-shell-structured particles. Two other approaches were to synthesize (discover) new materials for the traditional singe-material magnets and the nanocomposite magnets. Integrated theoretical and experimental efforts lead to a significant advance in nanocluster synthesis technique and yielded novel rare-earth-free nanostructured and nanocomposite materials. Examination of fifteen R-Fe-X alloy systems (R = rare earth), which have not been explored earlier due to various synthesis difficulties reveal several new ferromagnetic compounds. The research has made major progress in bottom-up manufacturing of rare-earth-containing nanocomposite magnets with superior energy density and open new directions in development of higher-energy-density magnets that do not contain rare earths. The advance in the scientific knowledge and technology made in the course of the project has been reported in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles and numerous presentations at scientific meetings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the state and prospect of development in the modern world of alternative energy, including wind energy, sun energy, geothermal energy, biogas energy, flood-tide water energy, hydrogen energy and small water energy. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in area of the present state of world energy and ways of its further development. Results. A brief scientific and technical review is resulted about the state and prospects of world development of basic types of alternative energy. It is shown that, in spite of comparatively small stake (to 10 % of this untraditional energy in general world balance of making of electric power, world association taking into account the necessary changing in the nearest 50 years of present oil-gas «foundation» of energy on other with large raw material, potential and ecological possibilities are forced to invest large financial means in development of the indicated directions of alternative energy. Originality. First on the basis of materials of separate magazine publications, scientific monographs and internet-reports on power problem the brief analytical review of the state and prospects of world development of basic types of alternative energy is executed. Practical value. Deepening and spread of the scientific and technical learnings in area of functioning and ways of development of modern energy. Scientific popularization of arising up before society claimed tasks from global and important for all of humanity of power problem.

  6. Teaching physics using project-based engineering curriculum with a theme of alternative energy (United States)

    Tasior, Bryan

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provide a new set of science standards that, if adopted, shift the focus from content knowledge-based to skill-based education. Students will be expected to use science to investigate the natural world and solve problems using the engineering design process. The world also is facing an impending crisis related to climate, energy supply and use, and alternative energy development. Education has an opportunity to help provide the much needed paradigm shift from our current methods of providing the energy needs of society. The purpose of this research was to measure the effectiveness of a unit that accomplishes the following objectives: uses project-based learning to teach the engineering process and standards of the NGSS, addresses required content expectations of energy and electricity from the HSCE's, and provides students with scientific evidence behind issues (both environmental and social/economic) relating to the energy crisis and current dependence of fossil fuels as our primary energy source. The results of the research indicate that a physics unit can be designed to accomplish these objectives. The unit that was designed, implemented and reported here also shows that it was highly effective at improving students' science content knowledge, implementing the engineering design standards of the NGSS, while raising awareness, knowledge and motivations relating to climate and the energy crisis.

  7. Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

  8. Effective Gravitational Wave Stress-energy Tensor in Alternative Theories of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Leo C; Hughes, Scott A


    The inspiral of binary systems in vacuum is controlled by the rate of change of the system's energy, angular momentum and Carter constant. In alternative theories, such a change is induced by the effective stress-energy carried away by gravitational radiation and any other propagating degrees of freedom. We employ perturbation theory and the short-wavelength approximation to compute this stress-energy tensor in a wide class of alternative theories. We find that this tensor is generally a modification of that first computed by Isaacson, where the corrections can dominate over the general relativistic term. In a wide class of theories, however, these corrections identically vanish at asymptotically flat, future, null infinity, reducing the stress-energy tensor to Isaacson's. We exemplify this phenomenon by first considering dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity, which corrects the action via a scalar field and the contraction of the Riemann tensor and its dual. We then consider a wide class of theories with d...

  9. Adipocyte cannabinoid receptor CB1 regulates energy homeostasis and alternatively activated macrophages. (United States)

    Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Mancini, Giacomo; Srivastava, Raj Kamal; Rey, Alejandro Aparisi; Cardinal, Pierre; Tedesco, Laura; Zingaretti, Cristina Maria; Sassmann, Antonia; Quarta, Carmelo; Schwitter, Claudia; Conrad, Andrea; Wettschureck, Nina; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Hartwig, Jens; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Bindila, Laura; Monory, Krisztina; Giordano, Antonio; Cinti, Saverio; Marsicano, Giovanni; Offermanns, Stefan; Nisoli, Enzo; Pagotto, Uberto; Cota, Daniela; Lutz, Beat


    Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care. Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms. In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice. Compared with controls, Ati-CB1-KO mice showed decreased body weight, reduced total adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, enhanced energy expenditure, and fat depot-specific cellular remodeling toward lowered energy storage capacity and browning of white adipocytes. These changes were associated with an increase in alternatively activated macrophages concomitant with enhanced sympathetic tone in adipose tissue. Remarkably, these alterations preceded the appearance of differences in body weight, highlighting the causal relation between the loss of CB1 and the triggering of metabolic reprogramming in adipose tissues. Finally, the lean phenotype of Ati-CB1-KO mice and the increase in alternatively activated macrophages in adipose tissue were also present at thermoneutral conditions. Our data provide compelling evidence for a crosstalk among adipocytes, immune cells, and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), wherein CB1 plays a key regulatory role.

  10. Is kenaf an effective land-use alternative for the energy and industrial sectors in Portugal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, A.; Morais, J.; Mendes, B.; Oliveira, J.F.S. [Grupo de Disciplinas de Ecologia da Hidrosfera, Unidate de Biotecnologia Ambiental, Faculdade de Ciencis e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal)


    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate kenaf as a non-food crop through an integrated approach for alternative land use in Portugal that will provide diversified opportunities for farmers and biological materials for the bio-based industries of the future. Results show that kenaf appears to represent an efficient land-use alternative in Portugal. At the pedoclimatic conditions of South Portugal, high yields can be achieved (28 t dry matter.ha-1.year-1), depending on the applied cultivation techniques. The time of sowing and the level of irrigation are the main crop management factors that affect biomass yields. Benefits of this crop relies not only on the possibility of its use as a renewable raw material for energy and industrial purposes but also on the possibility to make good use of set aside land or even derelict land, limiting erosion risks. Detailed consideration of the energy balances suggests that the use of kenaf-fibres for the production of thermal insulation boards are favored over its use as an energy feedstock, where energy balances may be poor.

  11. Single, community-based blood glucose readings may be a viable alternative for community surveillance of HbA1c and poor glycaemic control in people with known diabetes in resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath


    Full Text Available Background: The term HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin is commonly used in relation to diabetes mellitus. The measure gives an indication of the average blood sugar levels over a period of weeks or months prior to testing. For most low- and middle-income countries HbA1c measurement in community surveillance is prohibitively expensive. A question arises about the possibility of using a single blood glucose measure for estimating HbA1c and therefore identifying poor glycaemic control in resource-poor settings. Design: Using data from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, we examined the relationship between HbA1c and a single fasting measure of blood glucose in a non-clinical population of people with known diabetes (n=333. A linear equation for estimating HbA1c from blood glucose was developed. Appropriate blood glucose cut-off values were set for poor glycaemic control (HbA1c≥69.4 mmol/mol. Results: The HbA1c and blood glucose measures were well correlated (r=0.7. Three blood glucose cut-off values were considered for classifying poor glycaemic control: 8.0, 8.9, and 11.4 mmol/L. A blood glucose of 11.4 had a specificity of 1, but poor sensitivity (0.37; 8.9 had high specificity (0.94 and moderate sensitivity (0.7; 8.0 was associated with good specificity (0.81 and sensitivity (0.75. Conclusions: Where HbA1c measurement is too expensive for community surveillance, a single blood glucose measure may be a reasonable alternative. Generalising the specific results from these US data to low resource settings may not be appropriate, but the general approach is worthy of further investigation.

  12. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an Alternative Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, R.C.; Mott, L.; Beers, J.R.; Lash, T.L.


    An Alternative Scenario for the electric energy future of the Pacific Northwest is presented. The Scenario includes an analysis of each major end use of electricity in the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. This approach affords the most direct means of projecting the likely long-term growth in consumption and the opportunities for increasing the efficiency with which electricity is used in each instance. The total demand for electricity by these end uses then provides a basis for determining whether additional central station generation is required to 1995. A projection of total demand for electricity depends on the combination of many independent variables and assumptions. Thus, the approach is a resilient one; no single assumption or set of linked assumptions dominates the analysis. End-use analysis allows policymakers to visualize the benefits of alternative programs, and to make comparison with the findings of other studies. It differs from the traditional load forecasts for the Pacific Northwest, which until recently were based largely on straightforward extrapolations of historical trends in the growth of electrical demand. The Scenario addresses the supply potential of alternative energy sources. Data are compiled for 1975, 1985, and 1995 in each end-use sector.

  13. Environmental Value Considerations in Public Attitudes About Alternative Energy Development in Oregon and Washington (United States)

    Steel, Brent S.; Pierce, John C.; Warner, Rebecca L.; Lovrich, Nicholas P.


    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  14. Boise, Idaho: Improving Air Quality through Alternative Fuels & Reduced Vehicular Travel (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs


    This fact sheet "Boise, Idaho: Improving Air Quality through Alternative Fuels & Reduced Vehicular Travel" explains how the City of Boise used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  15. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.T.


    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  16. CDM Potential in Palm Solid Waste Cogeneration as an Alternative Energy in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahidin Mahidin


    Full Text Available Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB as a solid waste in Crude Palm Oil (CPO industry does not utilized yet as an alternative energy source to generate electricity. It is well known that use of solid wate (biomass as an energy source is part of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM scheme due to direct reduction of Green House Gases (GHGs emission and provide a direct contribution to sustainable development. Utilization of EFB as a source of energy is very potential to be implemented in Aceh since this province has 25 CPO Mills at the moment which actively produce about 870,000 ton EFB per year. This study is subjected to evaluate the potency of electricity  from EFB theoretically by using primary data (survey data and secondary data. Potency of EFB and number of electricity produced from that EFB are estimated using primary data and direct combustion scenario, respectively. Calculation methods for emission reduction acieved are done by AMS-I.D: Renewable electricity generation to the grid and AMS-III.E: Methane emissions avoided from dumping at a solid waste disposal site. The result of this investigation shows that energy consumption in 25 CPO Mills is 45 GW(eh per year. Evidently, the number of energy/electricity which is potential to be produced by using 75% EFB is 1,047 GWh per year; so that the GHGs emission reduction up to 171,232.21 tCO2e per year.

  17. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.


    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  18. Alternative method for evaluating the pair energy of nucleons in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmukhamedov, A. M., E-mail: [Tashkent Pediatric Medical Institute (Uzbekistan)


    An alternative method for determining the odd–even effect parameter related to special features of the Casimir operator in Wigner’s mass formula for nuclei is proposed. A procedure for calculating this parameter is presented. The proposed method relies on a geometric interpretation of the Casimir operator, experimental data concerning the contribution of spin–orbit interaction to the nuclear mass for even–even and odd–odd nuclei, and systematics of energy gaps in the spectra of excited states of even–even nuclei.

  19. Overview of Alternative Bunching and Current-shaping Techniques for Low-Energy Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.


    Techniques to bunch or shape an electron beam at low energies (E <15 MeV) have important implications toward the realization of table-top radiation sources [1] or to the design of compact multi-user free-electron lasers[2]. This paper provides an overview of alternative methods recently developed including techniques such as wakefield-based bunching, space-charge-driven microbunching via wave-breaking [3], ab-initio shaping of the electron-emission process [4], and phase space exchangers. Practical applications of some of these methods to foreseen free-electron-laser configurations are also briefly discussed [5].

  20. Model of complex integrated use of alternative energy sources for highly urbanized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Elena Ivanovna


    Full Text Available The increase of population and continuous development of highly urbanized territories poses new challenges to experts in the field of energy saving technologies. Only a multifunctional and autonomous system of building engineering equipment formed by the principles of energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness meets the needs of modern urban environment. Alternative energy sources, exploiting the principle of converting thermal energy into electrical power, show lack of efficiency, so it appears to be necessary for reaching a visible progress to skip this middle step. A fuel cell, converting chemical energy straight into electricity, and offering a vast diversity of both fuel types and oxidizing agents, gives a strong base for designing a complex integrated system. Regarding the results of analysis and comparison conducted among the most types of fuel cells proposed by contemporary scholars, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is approved to be able to ensure the smooth operation of such a system. While the advantages of this device meet the requirements of engineering equipment for modern civil and, especially, dwelling architecture, its drawbacks do not contradict with the operating regime of the proposed system. The article introduces a model of a multifunctional system based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and not only covering the energy demand of a particular building, but also providing the opportunity for proper and economical operation of several additional sub-systems. Air heating and water cooling equipment, ventilating and conditioning devices, the circle of water supply and preparation of water discharge for external use (e.g. agricultural needs included into a closed circuit of the integrated system allow evaluating it as a promising model of further implementation of energy saving technologies into architectural and building practice. This, consequently, will positively affect both ecological and economic development of urban environment.

  1. Social issues and energy alternatives: the context of conflict over nuclear waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Perry, R.W.


    The perceived risks and benefits of electric power alternatives were used to explore the context of attitudes toward nuclear power. Supporters and opponents of nuclear power responded to thirty-three items which referred to five categories of energy issue: the production potential of electric, risks of those technologies, power generation technologies, energy conservation, comparisons of risks among technologies and comparisons between risks and benefits of each technology. The results are summarized. The nuclear supporters studied here do favor nuclear power. However, they believe that there are limited prospects for contributions from solar, wind and hydroelectric technologies. They also believe that there are serious disadvantages to conservation. Nuclear opponents, on the other hand, disagree that there are such limited prospects for solar and wind, although they are neutral on the prospects for increased hydro capacity. They also do not believe that conservation necessarily poses serious adverse consequences either for themselves or others.

  2. Satisfying the Energy Demand of a Rural Area by Considering the Investment on Renewable Energy Alternatives and Depreciation Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani


    Full Text Available In this paper, a fuzzy multiobjective model which chooses the best mix of renewable energy options and determines the optimal amount of energy to be transferred from each resource to each end use is proposed. The depreciation of equipment along with time value of money has been taken into account in the first objective function while the second and the third objective functions minimize the greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption, respectively. Also, this study is one of the pioneer works that has considered demand-side management (DSM as a competitive option against supply-side alternatives for making apt energy planning decisions. Moreover, the intrinsic uncertainty of demand parameter is considered and modeled by fuzzy numbers. To convert the proposed fuzzy multiobjective formulation to a crisp single-objective formulation the well-known fuzzy goal programming approach together with Jimenez defuzzifying technique is employed. The model is validated through setting up a diversity of datasets whose data were mostly derived from the literature. The obtained results show that DSM programs have greatly contributed to cost reductions in the network. Also, it is concluded that the model is capable of solving even large-scaled instances of problems in negligible central processing unit (CPU times using Lingo 8.0 software.

  3. What Do You Know about Alternative Energy? Development and Use of a Diagnostic Instrument for Upper Secondary School Science (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Johari, Marliza; Said, Hardimah; Treagust, David F.


    The need for renewable and non-fossil fuels is now recognised by nations throughout the world. Consequently, an understanding of alternative energy is needed both in schools and in everyday life-long learning situations. This study developed a two-tier instrument to diagnose students' understanding and alternative conceptions about alternative…

  4. Evaluation of two different alternatives of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Brazil. (United States)

    Medina Jimenez, Ana Carolina; Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios Bereche, Milagros Cecilia; Bereche, Reynaldo Palacios; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena


    Brazil has a large population with a high waste generation. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generated is deposited mainly in landfills. However, a considerable fraction of the waste is still improperly disposed of in dumpsters. In order to overcome this inadequate deposition, it is necessary to seek alternative routes. Between these alternatives, it is possible to quote gasification and incineration. The objective of this study is to compare, from an energetic and economic point of view, these technologies, aiming at their possible implementation in Brazilian cities. A total of two configurations were evaluated: (i) waste incineration with energy recovery and electricity production in a steam cycle; and (ii) waste gasification, where the syngas produced is used as fuel in a boiler of a steam cycle for electricity production. Simulations were performed assuming the same amount of available waste for both configurations, with a composition corresponding to the MSW from Santo André, Brazil. The thermal efficiencies of the gasification and incineration configurations were 19.3% and 25.1%, respectively. The difference in the efficiencies was caused by the irreversibilities associated with the gasification process, and the additional electricity consumption in the waste treatment step. The economic analysis presented a cost of electrical energy produced of 0.113 (US$ kWh -1 ) and 0.139 (US$ kWh -1 ) for the incineration and gasification plants respectively.

  5. Alternating bursts of low energy ions and electrons near the substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Kozelova


    Full Text Available The substorm associated behavior of the low energy particles (30 eV–28.5 keV near the earthward edge of the plasma sheet is examined using data from CRRES during the late growth and early expansion phases of a substorm on 12 March 1991 and their significance for the substorm onset mechanism is discussed. In this substorm, the CRRES was located on L ~6.3 and ~20° westward of the substorm onset and observed the sequence of the alternating bursts of the low energy ions and electrons. The bursts of the 0.633–9.6 keV ions occurred 1–2 min before the (7.31–21.7 keV electron bursts. The first ion burst happened 2min before the substorm onset, at the moment of weak brightening of the most equatorial pre-breakup arc near the latitude ~62°. The alternation of the ion and electron bursts may be a signature of a drift-Alfvén ballooning instability on the inner edge of the plasma sheet near substorm onset.

  6. Cavitation processes as a preparation technology basis for burning of common and alternative energy fuels (United States)

    Kormilitsyn, V. I.; Ganiev, S. R.; Shmyrkov, O. V.


    The present work contains the results of an experimental research of the flow characteristics and the mechanism occurring in flat passages during liquid flow around of various figures and by formation of the enhanced turbulence stream at the input aimed at improvement of fuel preparation for combustion. Below are implementation ways of non-linear wave mechanics effects and border layer turbulence intensification for formation of finely dispersed emulsions and components of liquid compounds that are non-soluble in each other providing for improvement of technological processes of common and alternative energy fuels preparation for combustion. It is shown that effects of acquiring finely dispersed fuel-water emulsions (high quality energy fuel based on either common or alternative products) are achieved at flow of liquids in shaped passages in a wide range of Re numbers with high pressure falls in a generator with different cavitation booster figures and various arrangement with topping area containing holes in front of cavity zones formation area.

  7. Aqueous hybrid ion batteries - An environmentally friendly alternative for stationary energy storage? (United States)

    Peters, Jens F.; Weil, Marcel


    Aqueous hybrid ion batteries (AHIB) are being promoted as an environmentally friendly alternative to existing stationary battery technologies. However, no quantification of their potential environmental impacts has yet been done. This paper presents a prospective life cycle assessment of an AHIB module and compares its performance with lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries in two different stationary energy storage applications. The findings show that the claim of being an environmentally friendly technology can only be supported with some major limitations. While the AHIB uses abundant and non-toxic materials, it has a very low energy density and requires increased amounts of material for providing a given storage capacity. Per kWh of battery, results comparable to those of the alternative lithium- or sodium-ion batteries are obtained, but significantly higher impacts under global warming and ozone depletion aspects. The comparable high cycle life of the AHIB compensates this partially, requiring less battery replacements over the lifetime of the application. On the other hand, its internal inefficiencies are higher, what becomes the dominating factor when charging majorly fossil based electricity, making AHIB unattractive for this type of applications.

  8. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises. (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha


    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  9. Carbonized mix kerosene and water with cavitation method as an alternative energy (United States)

    Casnan, Irzaman


    The world's population continuously grows at a quarter million people per day. This fast-growing population had raised the world energy consumption up to 474 × 1018 J per year with 80 to 90 percent derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. It is estimated that the fossil energy will be lasted in 42 years. Rice husk is an alternative of non-fossil energy that may be utilized in traditional way of cooking (burning it in a traditional stove). However, burning the husk produces some carbon gasses that may pollute the air. In order to reduce the gas pollution, the gas may be mixed with kerosene and water using sonochemical technique to produce dry steam. This steam is a good fuel for a traditional stove. It is confirmed that 1 liter of water can be boiled in 11 minutes when the temperature of the water is 95°C while the stove is 264°C. the sonochemical technique had successfully increased the efficiency of the energy consumption of the stove up to 17%. The carbonized fuel is also not expensive since its cost is only around 6 C (IDR 570) for boiling 1 liter of water.

  10. Assessment of Energy Performance and Emission Control Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry through a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahman


    Full Text Available Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy intensive processes and is accountable for substantial pollutant emissions. Increasing energy costs compel stakeholders and researchers to search for alternative options to improve energy performance and reduce CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels offer a realistic solution towards the reduction of the usage of fossil fuels and the mitigation of pollutant emissions. This paper developed a process model of a precalciner kiln system in the cement industry using Aspen Plus software to simulate the effect of five alternative fuels on pollutant emissions and energy performance. The alternatives fuels used were tyre, municipal solid waste (MSW, meat and bone meal (MBM, plastic waste and sugarcane bagasse. The model was developed on the basis of energy and mass balance of the system and was validated against data from a reference cement plant. This study also investigated the effect of these alternative fuels on the quality of the clinker. The results indicated that up to a 4.4% reduction in CO2 emissions and up to a 6.4% reduction in thermal energy requirement could be achieved using these alternative fuels with 20% mix in coal. It was also found that the alternative fuels had minimum influence on the clinker quality except in the case of MSW. Overall, MBM was found to be a better option as it is capable on reducing energy requirement and CO2 emissions more than others. The outcomes of the study offer better understanding of the effects of solid alternative fuels to achieve higher energy performance and on mitigating pollutant emissions in cement industry.

  11. Data Transfer Report - 30-mm Enhanced Alternate High-Energy Propellant Program (EAHEP): Test Fixture and Propellant Evaluation (United States)


    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Data Transfer Report - 30-mm Enhanced Alternate High-Energy Propellant Program (EAHEP): Test Fixture and Propellant...21005-5066 ARL-SR-88 January 1999 Data Transfer Report - 30-mm Enhanced Alternate High-Energy Propellant Program (EAHEP): Test Fixture and...blank) 2. REPORT DATE January 1999 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final, Mar 96-Feb 97 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Data Transfer Report - 30-mm

  12. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia (United States)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  13. The Short Saphenous Vein: A Viable Alternative Conduit for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A wide variety of vascular conduits including the. Internal Mammary Artery (IMA), Radial Artery. (RA) and the Long Saphenous Vein (LSV), are available to the Cardiac Surgeon performing Coronary. Artery Bypass Graft procedures. These have demonstrated various successes over the years in both long-term patency.

  14. Providing Homes For The Homeless - The Viable Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbstein, D.


    Full Text Available Guinea pig Cavia porcellus farming for meat production remains a marginalised activity in Cameroon in spite of the advantages this specie offers. With the view to promote its production, a national countrywide survey was carried out in order to evaluate the production systems and constraints. Traditional guinea pig farming appears to be a secondary household activity undertaken by small farmers basically women. The extensive production system which reveals no management practices, integrates very well in the agricultural systems (small livestock, food crops and natural forages production of the western highlands and southern forest zones of Cameroon. Guinea pig productivity remains low due to many constraints such as predation, uncontrolled breeding, inbreeding, poor feeding, negative selection and lack of veterinary care. Nevertheless, guinea pig farming plays an important role in the well being of low income village dwellers as food security, cash savings and socio-cultural values within the populations of South Cameroon. The promotion of its production requires an awareness of animal scientists, development authorities, as well as on station research if improved raising conditions.

  15. Facet joints infiltration: A viable alternative treatment to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: All patients with clinical lower back pain (LBP) and MRI features of FJA were recruited into this prospective study randomly. All the FJI patients had depot methylprednisolone and the physiotherapy patients had McKenzie regimen. Outcome questionnaires comprising Oswentry disability index scores ...

  16. Distance Education at the Graduate Level: A Viable Alternative (United States)

    Jones, Brian M.; Everard, Andrea; McCoy, Scott


    This research extends a previous comparative study that looked at learning outcomes between traditional classroom and web-based education at the graduate level. That research (Jones and Everard, 2008) provided little evidence that there were significant differences between delivery methods. This research looks at employment status, household…

  17. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir


    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  18. A comparative analysis for multiattribute selection among renewable energy alternatives using fuzzy axiomatic design and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Cengiz; Kaya, Ihsan; Cebi, Selcuk [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367, Macka-Istanbul (Turkey)


    Renewable energy is the energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat which are renewable. Energy resources are very important in perspective of economics and politics for all countries. Hence, the selection of the best alternative for any country takes an important role for energy investments. Among decision-making methodologies, axiomatic design (AD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are often used in the literature. The fuzzy set theory is a powerful tool to treat the uncertainty in case of incomplete or vague information. In this paper, fuzzy multicriteria decision- making methodologies are suggested for the selection among renewable energy alternatives. The first methodology is based on the AHP which allows the evaluation scores from experts to be linguistic expressions, crisp, or fuzzy numbers, while the second is based on AD principles under fuzziness which evaluates the alternatives under objective or subjective criteria with respect to the functional requirements obtained from experts. The originality of the paper comes from the fuzzy AD application to the selection of the best renewable energy alternative and the comparison with fuzzy AHP. In the application of the proposed methodologies the most appropriate renewable energy alternative is determined for Turkey. (author)

  19. Energy Efficiency Under Alternative Carbon Policies. Incentives, Measurement, and Interregional Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boyd, Erin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    In this report, we examine and compare how tradable mass-based polices and tradable rate-based policies create different incentives for energy efficiency investments. Through a generalized demonstration and set of examples, we show that as a result of the output subsidy they create, traditional rate-based policies, those that do not credit energy savings from efficiency measures, reduce the incentive for investment in energy efficiency measures relative to an optimally designed mass-based policy or equivalent carbon tax. We then show that this reduced incentive can be partially addressed by modifying the rate-based policy such that electricity savings from energy efficiency measures are treated as a source of zero-carbon generation within the framework of the standard, or equivalently, by assigning avoided emissions credit to the electricity savings at the rate of the intensity target. These approaches result in an extension of the output subsidy to efficiency measures and eliminate the distortion between supply-side and demand-side options for GHG emissions reduction. However, these approaches do not address electricity price distortions resulting from the output subsidy that also impact the value of efficiency measures. Next, we assess alternative approaches for crediting energy efficiency savings within the framework of a rate-based policy. Finally, we identify a number of challenges that arise in implementing a rate-based policy with efficiency crediting, including the requirement to develop robust estimates of electricity savings in order to assess compliance, and the requirement to track the regionality of the generation impacts of efficiency measures to account for their interstate effects.

  20. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli


    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH 4 /gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH 4 /gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Review on the Development of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant as Alternative Renewable Energy Resources (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Tan, J. H.; Fadzlita, M. T.; Khairul Muzammil, A. R. Wan


    Gravitational water vortex power plant is a green technology that generates electricity from alternative or renewable energy source. In the vortex power plant, water is introduced into a circular basin tangentially that creates a free vortex and energy is extracted from the free vortex by using a turbine. The main advantages of this type of power plant is the generation of electricity from ultra-low hydraulic pressure and it is also environmental friendly. Since the hydraulic head requirement is as low as 1m, this type of power plant can be installed at a river or a stream to generate electricity for few houses. It is a new and not well-developed technology to harvest electricity from low pressure water energy sources. There are limited literatures available on the design, fabrication and physical geometry of the vortex turbine and generator. Past researches focus on the optimization of turbine design, inlets, outlets and basin geometry. However, there are still insufficient literatures available for the technology to proceed beyond prototyping stage. The maximum efficiency obtained by the researchers are approximately 30% while the commercial companies claimed about 50% of efficiency with 500W to 20kW of power generated. Hence, the aim of this paper is to determine the gap in the vortex power plant technology development through past works and a set of research recommendations will be developed as efforts to accelerate the development of GWVPP.

  2. The Scenario of the Potential Analysis Alternative Energy in Order to Strengthening District's Energy Resilience (The Case Study in South Sumatera Province) (United States)

    Ferry Muhrom, Muhammad; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita


    The current development of fossil energy, which is the driving force of the economy in Indonesia, is a non-renewable energy and is in need to know when it will be exhausted so it may be replaced with renewable energy. Many powerplant systems in Indonesia are still using conventional system that utilizes fossil energy as the primary energy in the process of electricity generation. The occurrence of electrical energy crisis is marked by several electricity blackout phenomenon in some areas in South Sumatera province rotately, which is the proof that the installed power capacity has exceeded the capacity of generation power. Interconnection among several islands, namely Java Island, Sumatera Island, and Bali Island which has been interconnected with closed loop system through transmission network has not been able to overcome the electrical energy crisis. This paper aims to create alternative energy potential scenarios in the province of South Sumatera in sequence/ranking by using quantitative methods with sequential explanatory model formulated in the determination of alternative energy strategies then analyzed by using Analitycal Hierarchy Process(AHP) method. The simulation results from this research indicate that geothermal energy potentials get the highest value so that it becomes the priority of alternative energy strategy in South Sumatera Province.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman


    Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used

  4. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar


    This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume......Wh of electricity from straw through gasification would lead to a global warming potential of 0.08 kg CO2e, non-renewable energy use of 0.2 MJ primary, acidification of 1.3 g SO2e, respiratory inorganics of 0.08 g PM2.5e and eutrophication potential of -1.9 g NO3e. The production of electricity from straw based...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  5. Investigation of energy losses in low-coercivity resin-bonded magnets in alternating magnetic fields (United States)

    Milov, E. V.; Sipin, I. A.; Milov, V. N.; Andreenko, A. S.; Balan, I. A.


    Energy losses during alternating remagnetization of low-coercitivity resin-bonded magnets and commercially produced electrical steels were studied experimentally. The studies were conducted on several samples of resin-bonded magnets with different manufacturing technologies and samples of electrical steel sheets of various thicknesses. The static and dynamic magnetic properties of the samples were measured on a vibration magnetometer and a specially designed apparatus, respectively. It was found that the studied samples of bonded magnets have a relatively high level of hysteresis losses associated with high coercivity, which reaches a value of 4-5 Oe. At the same time, the remagnetization losses due to the Foucault currents in the bonded magnets are considerably lower than in electrical steels. The measurement results show that bonded magnets at high frequencies of remagnetization, especially in high-rpm motors, can be competitive in comparison with electrical steels.

  6. The vulnerabilities of the power-grid system: renewable microgrids as an alternative source of energy. (United States)

    Meyer, Victor; Myres, Charles; Bakshi, Nitin


    The objective of this paper is to analyse the vulnerabilities of current power-grid systems and to propose alternatives to using fossil fuel power generation and infrastructure solutions in the form of microgrids, particularly those from renewable energy sources. One of the key potential benefits of microgrids, apart from their inherent sustainability and ecological advantages, is increased resilience. The analysis is targeted towards the context of business process outsourcing in India. However, much of the research on vulnerabilities has been derived from the USA and as such many of the examples cite vulnerabilities in the USA and other developed economies. Nevertheless, the vulnerabilities noted are to a degree common to all grid systems, and so the analysis may be more broadly applicable.

  7. Alternating Direction Total Variation Image Reconstruction and Practical Decomposition for Dual-energy Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lei; Wang, Linyuan; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Hanming; Zheng, Zhizhong; Zhang, Wenkun; Lu, Wanli; Hu, Guoen


    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has shown great potential and promising applications in advanced imaging fields for its capabilities of material decomposition. However, image reconstructions and decompositions under sparse views dataset suffers severely from multi factors, such as insufficiencies of data, appearances of noise, and inconsistencies of observations. Under sparse views, conventional filtered back-projection type reconstruction methods fails to provide CT images with satisfying quality. Moreover, direct image decomposition is unstable and meet with noise boost even with full views dataset. This paper proposes an iterative image reconstruction algorithm and a practical image domain decomposition method for DECT. On one hand, the reconstruction algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which containing total variation regularization term and data fidelity term. The alternating direction method is utilized to design the corresponding algorithm which shows faster convergence speed com...

  8. Alternating bursts of low energy ions and electrons near the substorm onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozelova, T.V.; Kozelov, B.V. [Polar Geophysical Institute, Apatity, Murmansk region (Russian Federation); Lazutin, L.L. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Scobeltsyn Insitute for Nuclear Physics, Russia Space Science Laboratory; Meredith, N. [Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Laboratory; Danielides, M.A. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Space Physics Group


    The substorm associated behavior of the low energy particles (30 eV-28.5 keV) near the earthward edge of the plasma sheet is examined using data from CRRES during the late growth and early expansion phases of a substorm on 12 March 1991 and their significance for the substorm onset mechanism is discussed. In this substorm, the CRRES was located on L {proportional_to}6.3 and {proportional_to}20 westward of the substorm onset and observed the sequence of the alternating bursts of the 0.633-9.6 keV ions occured 1-2 min before the (7.31-21.7 keV) electron bursts. The first ion burst happened 2 min before the substorm onset, at the moment of weak brightening of the most equatorial pre-breakup are near the latitude {proportional_to}62 . The alternation of the ion and electron bursts may be a signature of a drift-Alven ballooning instability on the inner edge of the plasma sheet near substorm onset.

  9. Alternative energy sources from plants of Western Ghats (Tamil Nadu, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M. [V.H.N.S.N College, Virudhunagar (India). Research Centre in Botany; Seiler, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)


    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in Dodonaea viscosa (17.1%), Carissa carandas (7.7%), Swietenia mahagoni (6.6%), and Jatropha glandulifera (6.2%). The highest oil content was observed in Aganosma cymosa (10.3%), Carissa carandas (5.8%), and Argemone mexicana (5.0%). Swietenia mahagoni yielded the highest protein content with 8.1%. The gross heat value of 4175.0 cal/g(17.5 MJ/kg) for Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), and 4112.0 cal/g for Dalbergia sissoo were the highest among the species analysed. NMR spectra of the hydrocarbon fractions of Alstonia scholaris, Carissa carandas, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Plumeria rubra, Thevetia neriifolia (white flowered var.), Vallaris solanacea, Lochnera rosea (pink flowered var.), Euphorbia hirta, E. splendens, Artocarpus integrifolia and Ficus religiosa revealed the presence of cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber), whereas Argemone mexicana showed the presence of trans-polyisoprene (gutta). Several new crop species were identified with potentially useful compounds. The potential exists for growing these alternate crops in areas of under-utilized lands, subsequently stimulating industrial and economic growth. (author)

  10. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing (United States)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.


    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  11. Distributed Energy Alternative to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison Service Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute; Kelly, John [Endurant Energy LLC


    The nation's power grid, specifically the New York region, faces burgeoning energy demand and suffers from congested corridors and aging equipment that cost New York consumers millions of dollars. Compounding the problem is high-density buildup in urban areas that limits available space to expand grid capacity. Coincidently, these urban areas are precisely where additional power is required. DER in this study refers to combined heat and power (CHP) technology, which simultaneously generates heat and electricity at or near the point where the energy will be consumed. There are multiple CHP options available that, combined with a portfolio of other building energy efficiency (EE) strategies, can help achieve a more efficient supply-demand balance than what the grid can currently provide. As an alternative to expanding grid capacity, CHP and EE strategies can be deployed in a flexible manner at virtually any point on the grid to relieve load. What's more, utilities and customers can install them in a variety of potentially profitable applications that are more environmentally friendly. Under the auspices of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory representing the Office of Electricity of the U.S. Department of Energy, Gas Technology Institute (GTI) conducted this study in cooperation with Consolidated Edison to help broaden the market penetration of EE and DER. This study provides realistic load models and identifies the impacts that EE and DER can have on the electrical distribution grid; specifically within the current economic and regulatory environment of a high load growth area of New York City called Hudson Yards in Midtown Manhattan. These models can be used to guide new policies that improve market penetration of appropriate CHP and EE technologies in new buildings. The following load modeling scenarios were investigated: (1) Baseline: All buildings are built per the Energy

  12. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste. (United States)

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir


    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg -1 to 16.60 MJ kg -1 depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm -3 at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kW e . The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  13. Emission reductions from woody biomass waste for energy as an alternative to open burning. (United States)

    Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett


    Woody biomass waste is generated throughout California from forest management, hazardous fuel reduction, and agricultural operations. Open pile burning in the vicinity of generation is frequently the only economic disposal option. A framework is developed to quantify air emissions reductions for projects that alternatively utilize biomass waste as fuel for energy production. A demonstration project was conducted involving the grinding and 97-km one-way transport of 6096 bone-dry metric tons (BDT) of mixed conifer forest slash in the Sierra Nevada foothills for use as fuel in a biomass power cogeneration facility. Compared with the traditional open pile burning method of disposal for the forest harvest slash, utilization of the slash for fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions by 98% (6 kg PM/BDT biomass), nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 54% (1.6 kg NOx/BDT), nonmethane volatile organics (NMOCs) by 99% (4.7 kg NMOCs/BDT), carbon monoxide (CO) by 97% (58 kg CO/BDT), and carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) by 17% (0.38 t CO2e/BDT). Emission contributions from biomass processing and transport operations are negligible. CO2e benefits are dependent on the emission characteristics of the displaced marginal electricity supply. Monetization of emissions reductions will assist with fuel sourcing activities and the conduct of biomass energy projects.

  14. United States biomass energy: An assessment of costs and infrastructure for alternative uses of biomass energy crops as an energy feedstock (United States)

    Morrow, William Russell, III

    Reduction of the negative environmental and human health externalities resulting from both the electricity and transportation sectors can be achieved through technologies such as clean coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic technologies for electricity; reformulated gasoline and other fossil fuels, hydrogen, and electrical options for transportation. Negative externalities can also be reduced through demand reductions and efficiency improvements in both sectors. However, most of these options come with cost increases for two primary reasons: (1) most environmental and human health consequences have historically been excluded from energy prices; (2) fossil energy markets have been optimizing costs for over 100 years and thus have achieved dramatic cost savings over time. Comparing the benefits and costs of alternatives requires understanding of the tradeoffs associated with competing technology and lifestyle choices. As bioenergy is proposed as a large-scale feedstock within the United States, a question of "best use" of bioenergy becomes important. Bioenergy advocates propose its use as an alternative energy resource for electricity generation and transportation fuel production, primarily focusing on ethanol. These advocates argue that bioenergy offers environmental and economic benefits over current fossil energy use in each of these two sectors as well as in the U.S. agriculture sector. Unfortunately, bioenergy research has offered very few comparisons of these two alternative uses. This thesis helps fill this gap. This thesis compares the economics of bioenergy utilization by a method for estimating total financial costs for each proposed bioenergy use. Locations for potential feedstocks and bio-processing facilities (co-firing switchgrass and coal in existing coal fired power plants and new ethanol refineries) are estimated and linear programs are developed to estimate large-scale transportation infrastructure costs for each sector

  15. Alternative reproductive tactics in snail shell-brooding cichlids diverge in energy reserve allocation (United States)

    von Kuerthy, Corinna; Tschirren, Linda; Taborsky, Michael


    Life history theory predicts that the amount of resources allocated to reproduction should maximize an individual's lifetime reproductive success. So far, resource allocation in reproduction has been studied mainly in females. Intraspecific variation of endogenous energy storage and utilization patterns of males has received little attention, although these patterns may vary greatly between individuals pursuing alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). ARTs are characterized by systematic variation of behavioral, physiological, and often morphological traits among same-sex conspecifics. Some individuals may rely on previously accumulated reserves, because of limited foraging opportunities during reproduction. Others may be able to continue foraging during reproduction, thus relying on reserves to a lesser extent. We therefore predicted that, if male tactics involve such divergent limitations and trade-offs within a species, ARTs should correspondingly differ in energy reserve allocation and utilization. To test this prediction, we studied short-term and long-term reserve storage patterns of males in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus. In this species, bourgeois males investing in territory defense, courtship, and guarding of broods coexist with two distinct parasitic male tactics: (1) opportunistic sneaker males attempting to fertilize eggs by releasing sperm into the shell opening when a female is spawning; and (2) specialized dwarf males attempting to enter the shell past the spawning female to fertilize eggs from inside the shell. Sneaker males differed from other male types by showing the highest amount of accumulated short-term and long-term fat stores, apparently anticipating their upcoming adoption of the nest male status. In contrast, nest males depleted previously accumulated energy reserves with increasing nest holding period, as they invest heavily into costly reproductive behaviors while not taking up any food. This conforms to a capital

  16. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.


    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  17. A viable dark fluid model (United States)

    Elkhateeb, Esraa


    We consider a cosmological model based on a generalization of the equation of state proposed by Nojiri and Odintsov (2004) and Štefančić (2005, 2006). We argue that this model works as a dark fluid model which can interpolate between dust equation of state and the dark energy equation of state. We show how the asymptotic behavior of the equation of state constrained the parameters of the model. The causality condition for the model is also studied to constrain the parameters and the fixed points are tested to determine different solution classes. Observations of Hubble diagram of SNe Ia supernovae are used to further constrain the model. We present an exact solution of the model and calculate the luminosity distance and the energy density evolution. We also calculate the deceleration parameter to test the state of the universe expansion.

  18. Treatment of PVC using an alternative low energy ion bombardment procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Elidiane C., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Av. Tres de Marco, 511 Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Santos, Nazir M. dos; Bortoleto, Jose Roberto R.; Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Av. Tres de Marco, 511 Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Schreiner, Wido H. [Laboratorio de Interfaces e Filmes Finos, Universidade Federal de Parana (UFPR), C.P. 19044, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Honda, Roberto Y. [Laboratorio de Plasmas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Cassia C Rangel, Rita de; Cruz, Nilson C. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Av. Tres de Marco, 511 Alto da Boa Vista, 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)


    In many applications, polymers have progressively substituted traditional materials such as ceramics, glasses, and metals. Nevertheless, the use of polymeric materials is still limited by their surface properties. Frequently, selective modifications are necessary to suit the surface to a given application. Amongst the most common treatments, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has attracted the attention of many researchers owing to its versatility and practicality. This method, however, requires a power supply to provide high voltage (tens of kV) negative pulses, with a controlled duty cycle, width and frequency. Owing to this, the implementation of PIII on the industrial scale can become economically inviable. In this work, an alternative plasma treatment that enables low energy ion bombardment without the need of a high voltage pulse generator is presented. To evaluate the efficiency of the treatment of polymers, polyvinylchloride, PVC, specimens were exposed to 5 Pa argon plasmas for 3600 s, at excitation powers, P, of between 10 and 125 W. Through contact angle and atomic force microscopy data, the influence of P on the wettability, surface free energy and roughness of the samples was studied. Surface chemical composition was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS. To evaluate the effect of aging under atmospheric conditions, contact angle and XPS measurements were performed one and 1334 days after the treatment. The plasma potential and ion density around the driven electrode were determined from Langmuir probe measurements while the self-bias potential was derived with the aid of an oscilloscope. From these data it was possible to estimate the mean energy of ions bombarding the PVC surface. Chlorine, carbon and oxygen contamination were detected on the surface of the as-received PVC. Upon exposure to the plasma, the proportion of chlorine was observed to decrease while that of oxygen increased. Consequently, the wettability and surface energy

  19. Energy differently - Booklet supplement to 'Alternatives economiques' journal (no. 54, Feb. 2012); L'energie autrement - Alternatives economiques hors-serie (no. 54, Fevrier 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This booklet screens the different renewable energy sources and focusses on their ecological advantage and economical maturity aspects. The book is divided in five parts: 1 - the energy transition: energies of yesterday and tomorrow; France: the end of compulsive consumption?; NegaWatt: a transition scenario for France; 2 - consuming less energy: saving energy; will the building industry revolution take place?; electricity: the constantly seeking more attitude can be avoided; smart grids: can they generate energy saving?; is the electric-powered car really ecological?; waste sorting: more effort is needed; is Internet a source of energy saving?; does tele-working reduce pollution?; how to feed people without impacting environment?; should we stop purchasing imported goods?; how can we get rid of trucks?; Is the carbon compensation system useful?; is innovation capable to save us?; 3 - producing energy differently: renewable energies - the French backwardness; hydro-energy; marine energies; thermal solar energy; photovoltaic energy; solar concentration; terrestrial wind power; offshore wind power; geothermal energy; heat pumps; agro-fuels; biomass and wood fuels; biogas; cogeneration; CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration; adapting the power grid to the renewable energies development; 4 - Initiatives: Enercoop, a 100% renewable power supplier; Le Mene (Brittany, France): towards a positive energy territory; local wind turbines: from Montdidier to Issoudun; the eco-districts revolution; interdependent funds for alternate energies; against fossil fuels extraction; Juneau (Alaska) moves to low-consumption; when solidarity and electricity go together: the example of Nicaragua; 5 - energy in debates: 'it is not too late'; a challenge for democracy; is France ready for nuclear phasing out?; reorganizing consumption; a turn to take today; understanding the photovoltaic crisis; how to finance renewable energy sources?; what impact on employment?; should we have to

  20. Individual characteristics and stated preferences for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles: A discrete choice analysis


    Ziegler, Andreas


    This paper empirically examines the determinants of the demand for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles. The data stem from a stated preference discrete choice experiment with 598 potential car buyers. In order to simulate a realistic automobile purchase situation, seven alternatives were incorporated in each of the six choice sets, i.e. hybrid, gas, biofuel, hydrogen, and electric as well as the common fuels gasoline and diesel. The vehicle types were additional...

  1. Cost benefit indicators associated with the integration of alternative energy sources: A systems approach for Carinthia, Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, N.


    Studies on how to promote the use of alternative energy sources (AES) typically focus on the relative efficiency and effectiveness of alternative subsidising mechanisms. Positive externalities of an increased AES utilisation are in general not explicitly taken into account. This paper analyses...... of AES use. Analysis of two strategies, "Subsidy" and "High Tax", shows that none of these strategies is dominant with respect to all indicators, i.e., there are conflicting objectives. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. SOLPLAN Report: An Assessment of Barriers and Incentives to Conservation and Alternative-Energy Use in the Residential Sector in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulenwider, Claire K.; Weiss, Lonnie S.; Pfefferkorn, Carol; Wiener, Don E.; Feldman, Stephen L.


    The Alternative Energy Policy Project of the Wisconsin Center for Public Policy focused upon two principle objectives: (1) gathering and analyzing new and previously unavailable data on barriers and incentives to greater energy conservation and alternative energy commercialization in the state of Wisconsin; and (2) building consensus around alternative energy policy to develop guidelines for alternative energy policy for the state. Particular attention was paid to public involvement in the policy process and to assessing barriers and incentives from as many key sectors of the energy field as possible. Thus, data were gathered from the general public, alternative energy users, the heating industry generally, the alternative-energy industry specifically, and key decision makers. The report is divided into four principal sections. The first looks at findings and analyses dealing with barriers to greater conservation and alternative energy use. Incentives for accelerating the extent of residential conservation and alternative energy use are discussed in the second section. The decision-making process itself in energy policy has been little analyzed and seldom documented. The role of consensus-building in the alternative-energy field and analysis of the decision-making process are discussed in Section III. Appendices in Section IV provide survey instruments and descriptions, a compendium of energy-related legislation developed within the project, and various reports. The total report reflects the interactive decision-making model as it was applied in SOLPLAN. (MCW)

  3. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik


    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  4. Sorghum - An alternative energy crop for marginal lands and reclamation sites (United States)

    Lukas, Stefan; Theiß, Markus; Jäkel, Kerstin


    The production of biogas and the associated cultivation of energy crops are still of great importance. Considering increasing restrictions for the cultivation of standard biogas crop maize regarding an environmentally friendly production of biomass, a wider range of energy crops is needed. The cultivation of sorghum can contribute to this. As maize, sorghum is a C4-plant and offers a high biomass yield potential. Originated in the semi-arid tropics, sorghum is well adapted to warm and dry climate and particularly noted for its drought tolerance compared to maize. It also makes few demands on soil quality and shows a good capability of nutrient acquisition. Therefore, particularly on marginal areas and reclamation sites with low soil nutrient and water content sorghum can contribute to secure crop yield and income of farmers. The applied research project aims at and reflects on the establishment of sorghum as a profitable and ecological friendly cropping alternative to maize, especially in the face of probable climate change with increasing risks for agriculture. For this purpose, site differentiated growing and cultivar trials with a standardized planting design as well as several practical on-farm field experiments were conducted. The agronomical and economic results will lead to scientifically based procedures and standards for agricultural practice with respect to cultivation methods (drilling, pest-management, fertilization), cropping sequence and technique, cropping period or position in crop rotation. Even by now there is a promising feedback from the agricultural practice linked with an increasing demand for information. Moreover, the specific cropping area is increasing continuously. Therefore, the leading signs for the establishment of sorghum as profitable alternative to maize biogas production are positive. Sorghum cultures perform best as main crops in the warm D locations in the middle and East German dry areas. Here, the contribution margin

  5. Bimetric gravity is cosmologically viable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Akrami


    Full Text Available Bimetric theory describes gravitational interactions in the presence of an extra spin-2 field. Previous work has suggested that its cosmological solutions are generically plagued by instabilities. We show that by taking the Planck mass for the second metric, Mf, to be small, these instabilities can be pushed back to unobservably early times. In this limit, the theory approaches general relativity with an effective cosmological constant which is, remarkably, determined by the spin-2 interaction scale. This provides a late-time expansion history which is extremely close to ΛCDM, but with a technically-natural value for the cosmological constant. We find Mf should be no larger than the electroweak scale in order for cosmological perturbations to be stable by big-bang nucleosynthesis. We further show that in this limit the helicity-0 mode is no longer strongly-coupled at low energy scales.

  6. Alternative Energy and Propulsion Power for Today’s US Military (United States)


    Internal Combustion Engine.................. 17 Biojet/ BioFuels ...13 Table IV. Volumetric and Gravimetric Energies...solid, liquid or gaseous, both gravimetric (energy per unit mass) and volumetric (energy per unit volume) energy densities are important. Figure 238

  7. Performance and energy efficiency of alternative comminution principles: Chipping versus grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Magagnotti, Natascia; Nati, Carla (CNR IVALSA, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)); Cavallo, Eugenio; Facello, Alessio; Paletto, Giuseppe (CNR IMAMOTER, Torino (Italy))


    Comminution is a critical process in biomass supply chains and can be conducted with either chippers or grinders. These machines use different work tools(knives and hammers, respectively) and are applied to different feedstock types, but few studies are available on the inherent differences between the two technologies. A versatile grinder, alternatively equipped with hammers and knives, was studied to investigate the effect of tool type on machine productivity, fuel consumption, and product quality.The machine was powered by an agricultural tractor rigged with a flow meter, a torque meter, and shaft revolution meter for determining fuel consumption, power output, and engine speed. Three different feedstock types were processed: discarded pallets, solid logs, and residues from park maintenance, the latter consisting of branches from ornamental tree and shrub species. Depending on feedstock type, the knife configuration was 30 - 80 % (average 50 %) more productive than the hammer configuration and required 15 - 30 % (average 24 %) less energy per unit of product. Fuel consumption per dry ton was 30 - 75 % (average 52 %) higher for the hammer configuration. That held true for all feedstock types. Product quality was better for the knife configuration, except for park maintenance residues. In general, hammers should be limited to product with severe contamination that prevents the efficient use of knives

  8. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  9. Dilemma in new clean and renewable energy alternatives for Santa Elena and its university. Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreano, Hernan [Universidad Estatal Peninsula de Santa Elena (Ecuador). Inst. de Investigacion Cientifica y Desarrollo Tecnologico (INCYT)


    The fate of finite fossil fuel sources for the coming decades and the need to migrate to renewable energy in a joint effort among governments, academia and private companies which make business in the energy arena are discussed and also the energy balance in Ecuador which shows a strong dependence of fossil fuels to satisfy demand from both: thermoelectric plants and transport, however, Santa Elena, the newly created province at the south western of Ecuador has the chance to turn the country energy situation into an opportunity and face the challenge to be the leader in energy alternatives because of its resources and chances to migrate sooner to environmental friendly fuels and later on to renewable energies, but a number of actions should be taken in a joint effort with its local university (UPSE), government bodies and private companies in order to create the ''Campus of Energy Knowledge'' to carry out the program: Energy Alternatives for Santa Elena, which includes 7 projects to make the province a leader one on the energy issue in Ecuador and in the continent, acting on a cluster initiative scheme. (orig.)

  10. The alternative and renewable energy sources in Mexico; Fuentes alternativas y renovables de energia en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbano C, J. Antonio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Matsumoto K, Yasuhiro; Asomoza P, Rene [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    This paper presents an overview of the efforts that have been made in our Mexico in the area of Alternative and Renewable Sources of Energy, effort performed by different institutions, government agencies and private companies along the last 25 years. Older periods are not contemplated, although significant advances have existed, specifically in the area of small micro-hydraulic power plants, since the end of the past century and in solar collectors, more than 60 years ago, as the most relevant advances have been contemplated in these last two decades. The entire world energy demand is analyzed, making emphasis in our country, the efforts on the installed geothermal power plants, the flat collectors for domestic use, the solar power plants installed by some government agencies are also mentioned, as well as the strong growth in the photo-voltaic field at worldwide level as well as at domestic level (a graph is presented of the multiple applications of the photo-voltaic conversion of the solar energy at world level of which some of these are already operational in our country), including the hybrid systems (wind power photo-voltaic Diesel, the pilot biogas plants, the solar ponds efforts and the recently inaugurated wind-power plant of 1.575 MW installed at La Venta, in the Oaxaca State. [Espanol] El presente articulo, presenta una revision de los esfuerzos que se han desarrollado en nuestro Mexico, en el campo de las Fuentes Alternas y Renovables de Energia, esfuerzos realizados por diferentes instituciones, dependencias y companias a lo largo de los ultimos 25 anos. No se contemplan periodos mas antiguos, aunque han existido adelantos significativos, especificamente, en el campo de pequenas centrales microhidraulicas desde fines del siglo, y de colectores solares desde hace mas de 60 anos, ya que los mas relevantes se contemplan en estas ultimas dos decadas de recopilacion. Se analiza la demanda de energia mundial, haciendo enfasis a nuestro pais, se mencionan los

  11. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China


    Xunmin Ou; Xiliang Zhang


    Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM) has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for natural gas- (NG-) based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1) compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW) fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon c...

  12. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; MNV


    Deze GEO-2000 studie naar alternatief beleid voor Europa en Centraal Azie is gericht op energie als een belangrijke kracht achter milieuproblemen in de hele regio. De studie heeft betrekking op klimaatverandering, verzuring, zomersmog, stedelijke luchtverontreiniging en het risico op dodelijke

  13. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik


    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  14. A Visual Analytics Based Decision Support Methodology For Evaluating Low Energy Building Design Alternatives (United States)

    Dutta, Ranojoy

    The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know the "latitude" or "degrees of freedom" he has in changing certain design variables while achieving preset criteria such as energy performance, life cycle cost, environmental impacts etc. This requirement can be met by a decision support framework based on near-optimal "satisficing" as opposed to purely optimal decision making techniques. Currently, such a comprehensive design framework is lacking, which is the basis for undertaking this research. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate a complementary relationship between designers and computers for Multi-Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) during high performance building design. It is based on the application of Monte Carlo approaches to create a database of solutions using deterministic whole building energy simulations, along with data mining methods to rank variable importance and reduce the multi-dimensionality of the problem. A novel interactive visualization approach is then proposed which uses regression based models to create dynamic interplays of how varying these important variables affect the multiple criteria, while providing a visual range or band of variation of the different design parameters. The MCDM process has been incorporated into an alternative methodology for high performance building design referred to as

  15. Comparative life cycle assessment of alternative strategies for energy recovery from used cooking oil. (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Mendecka, Barbara; Carnevale, Ennio


    The separate collection of Used Cooking Oil (UCO) is gaining popularity through several countries in Europe. An appropriate management of UCO waste stream leads to substantial benefits. In this study, we analyse two different possibilities of UCO energy reuse: the direct feed to a reciprocating internal combustion engine (ICE) for cogeneration purpose, and the processing to generate biodiesel. Concerning biodiesel production, we analyse four among conventional and innovative technologies, characterised by different type and amount of used chemicals, heat and electricity consumptions and yields. We perform a systematic evaluation of environmental benefits and drawbacks by applying life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis to compare the alternatives. For the impact assessment, two methods are selected: the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CExC). Results related only to the processing phases (i.e. not including yet the avoided effects) show that the recovery of UCO in cogeneration plant has in general lower values in terms of environmental impacts than its employment in biodiesel production. When products and co-products substitution are included, the savings obtained by the substitution of conventional diesel production, in the biodiesel cases, are significantly higher than the avoided effects for electricity and heat in the cogeneration case. In particular, by using the UCO in the biodiesel production processes, the savings vary from 41.6 to 54.6 GJ ex per tUCO, and from 2270 to 2860 kg CO 2eq per tUCO for CExC and GWP, respectively. A particular focus is put on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Overall, high uncertainty of final results for process impacts is observed, especially for the supercritical methanol process. Low uncertainty values are evaluated for the avoided effects. Including the uncertain character of the impacts, cogeneration scenario and NaOH catalysed process of biodiesel production result to be the most suitable

  16. Energy management in vehicles with alternative drives; Energiemanagement in Fahrzeugen mit alternativen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S.; Schimanski, M.


    Within the next few years, the automotive industry will be confronted with many challenges, as for example stricter emission standards and increasing oil prices. To meet the challenges, alternative drive concepts are currently being developed and placed in the market. To ensure a secure and efficient operation of the electric components, the introduction of an integrated energy management is required. It comprises all planning, controlling and predictive measures. The first part of this dissertation presents a new system concept, which can make an online prognosis of expected driving situations, such as speed and altitude profiles by means of internal vehicle information during an operating cycle. Based on this the control strategy can calculate the future power requirement of the vehicle and initiate control commands to enable a more efficient driving. The basis of this system concept is the recognition of routes with characteristic steering angle information and the creation of a history database for the routes driven with the respective vehicle speeds and altitudes. On the basis of an extensive analysis of the vehicle's electrical system in the second part of the dissertation, different effects on the development process for dimensioning the electrical system power supply are discussed. From this follows the necessity to develop a tool chain based on simulations. The tool chain consists of commercial simulation tools and the software Avanti (Advanced Analysis Tool and Simulation Interface) which is developed within the scope of the dissertation. Avanti enables an automated and optimal procedure when dimensioning the vehicle's electrical system in consideration of different control algorithms. A substantial part of this tool chain is the integration of a verified VHDL-AMS model library for the electrical system components. (orig.)

  17. Solar energy alternatives for the United States Embassy and for rural development projects within the Republic of Upper Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.


    This report is organized in three sections/: solar cooling options for the new Embassy office building, electrification of Fada N' Gourma using solar photovolatic versus conventional energy systems and an overview of the potential for village solar photovoltaic energy utilization in Upper Volta. The analysis indicates that the least-cost alternative for cooling the new offices is to modify existing plans, which call for standard electric room air conditioning units, and to incorporate energy conservation measures in the building construction and operation.

  18. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.


    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  19. Evaluation of the photochemical production of hydrogen from solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppert, J. A.


    The potential for utilizing solar energy through photochemical storage were investigated. Both water and nitrosyl chloride systems are examined. A comprehensive review of the literature led to the conclusion that many major questions must be answered before photochemical energy storage becomes a viable alternate means of exploiting solar energy.

  20. Mapping alternative energy paths for taiwan to reach a sustainable future: An application of the leap model (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ming

    Energy is the backbone of modern life which is highly related to national security, economic growth, and environmental protection. For Taiwan, a region having limited conventional energy resources but constructing economies and societies with high energy intensity, energy became the throat of national security and development. This dissertation explores energy solutions for Taiwan by constructing a sustainable and comprehensive energy planning framework (SCENE) and by simulating alternative energy pathways on the horizon to 2030. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) is used as a platform for the energy simulation. The study models three scenarios based on the E4 (energy -- environment -- economic -- equity) perspectives. Three scenarios refer to the business-as-usual scenario (BAU), the government target scenario (GOV), and the renewable and efficiency scenario (REEE). The simulation results indicate that the most promising scenario for Taiwan is the REEE scenario, which aims to save 48.7 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) of final energy consumption. It avoids USD 11.1 billion on electricity expenditure in final demand sectors. In addition, the cost of the REEE path is the lowest among all scenarios before 2020 in the electricity generation sector. In terms of global warming potential (GWP), the REEE scenario could reduce 35 percent of the GWP in the demand sectors, the lowest greenhouse gases emission in relation to all other scenarios. Based on lowest energy consumption, competitive cost, and least harm to the environment, the REEE scenario is the best option to achieve intergenerational equity. This dissertation proposes that promoting energy efficiency and utilizing renewable energy is the best strategy for Taiwan. For efficiency improvement, great energy saving potentials do exist in Taiwan so that Taiwan needs more ambitious targets, policies, and implementation mechanisms for energy efficiency enhancement to slow down and decrease

  1. Alternative fuel transit buses: Interim results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.J.; Chandler, K.


    The transit bus program is designed to provide a comprehensive study of the alternative fuels currently used by the transit bus industry. The study focuses on the reliability, fuel economy, operating costs, and emissions of vehicles running on the various fuels and alternative fuel engines. The alternative fuels being tested are methanol, ethanol, biodiesel and natural gas. The alternative fuel buses in this program use the most common alternative fuel engines from the heavy-duty engine manufacturers. Data are collected in four categories: Bus and route descriptions; Bus operating data; Emissions data; and, Capital costs. The goal is to collect 18 months of data on each test bus. This report summarizes the interim results from the project to date. The report addresses performance and reliability, fuel economy, costs, and emissions of the busses in the program.

  2. Influence of global environmental issues on alternative energy policies (Canda). Chikyu kibo kankyo mondai no daitai energy seisaku ni ataeru eikyo (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In the development and introduction of alternative energies for petroleum in Japan, it is important to collect information on the inlfuence of environmental issues in leading countries on their alternative energy policies. In this investigation, information on politics, economical and technical policies in Canada are collected. Canada is the proposer of the Blue Ribbon World Commission on Environment and Development'' in the United Nations, and has been positively supporting the Brunt-land Report'', a report made by the Commission. Though it has not officially approved the World commission {prime} s report, the Canadian Government is now making a study on a framework of energy/environment-associated policies so that energies will be consumed in the applications based on the principle of sus-tainable development. In an interim report prepared by the Task Force on Energies and Environments'', which has been orga-nized to make a study on energy-associated problems in Canada, the Task Force has proposed that a social education should be conducted thoroughly while establishing some energy efficiency standards so as to clean the environments. Particular attention to the possible role of hydro electricity and biomass will be important. 6 figs.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of rice husk and coconut shell charcoal based bio-briquettes as alternative energy source (United States)

    Yuliah, Y.; Kartawidjaja, M.; Suryaningsih, S.; Ulfi, K.


    Rice husk and coconut shell have been disposed or burned as waste. As biomass, both of materials are the potential sources of carbon which can be utilized as alternative energy sources. The energy content can be exploited more intensively when packaged in a brief and convenient. In this work, the mixtures of rice husks and coconut shells charcoal were prepared as briquettes. After going through the carbonization process, several measurements have been taken to find out the factors that determine the value of heat energy contains by each component of the charcoals. The basic ingredients briquettes prepared from rice husk and coconut shell charcoal with varying composition and addition of tapioca starch gradually as adhesive material to obtain briquettes in solid with the maximum heat energy content. After going through pressing and drying process, the briquettes with 50:50 percent of composition and the 6% addition of adhesive was found has the highest heat energy content, equal to 4966 cal/g.

  4. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William


    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  5. Strategic Art and Energy: An Alternative Ends-Ways-Means View (United States)


    the earth, but it is very diffuse and disorganized, and is therefore difficult to concentrate and use. The concept of exergy speaks directly to this...need for assessing the quality of the energy being used. Exergy is the part of an energy stream that can be converted into other forms of energy...and is therefore highly usable.11 Thermal energy has low exergy (i.e., the potential to convert energy into useful work), making it a poor candidate

  6. Geothermal energy: tomorrow's alternative today. A handbook for geothermal-energy development in Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancus, J.; Perrone, E.


    This is a general procedure guide to various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development in Delaware. The following are covered: geothermal as an alternative, resource characteristics, geology, well mechanics and pumping systems, fluid disposal, direct heat utilization-feasibility, environmental and legal issues, permits and regulations, finance and taxation, and steps necessary for geothermal development. (MHR)

  7. Assessment of energy efficiency project financing alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WDM Hunt; JC Hail; GP Sullivan


    Energy reduction goals for Federal agencies were first established in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1988, and directed 10{percent} reduction in facility energy use based on a 1985 baseline. Since that time, Federal sites have been actively seeking and implementing a wide variety of energy-efficiency measures in facilities across the Federal sector. In the intervening years this energy reduction goal has been progressively increased to 20{percent} through legislation (Public Law 102-486, The Energy Policy Act of 1992) and a number of Executive Orders. Executive Order 13123, Greening the Government Through Efficient Energy management (signed June 3, 1999), further increased the facility energy-efficiency improvement goal from 30{percent} in 2005 to 35{percent} by 2010 relative to the 1985 baseline.

  8. Alternative uses of highway rights-of-way : accommodating renewable energy technologies (United States)


    In recent years, the capacity, generation, and consumption of energy derived from renewable sources have grown significantly on a global level. To increase renewable energy production in the near term, state and local transportation agencies have rec...

  9. Photovoltaic panels as an alternative to fossil fuel energy sources in rural areas of India


    Dijkstra, Thijs


    India is the second fastest growing economy in the world. Presently, India is the world’s sixth greatest consumer of energy. The Indian energy consumption accounts for slightly more than 3% of the world’s total annual energy consumption. The need for ener

  10. The Effect of the Japan 2011 Disaster on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Stocks Worldwide: An Event Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferstl


    Full Text Available This event study investigates the impact of the Japanese nuclear disaster in Fukushima-Daiichi on the daily stock prices of French, German, Japanese, and U.S. nuclear utility and alternative energy firms. Hypotheses regarding the (cumulative abnormal returns based on a three-factor model are analyzed through joint tests by multivariate regression models and bootstrapping. Our results show significant abnormal returns for Japanese nuclear utility firms during the one-week event window and the subsequent four-week post-event window. Furthermore, while French and German nuclear utility and alternative energy stocks exhibit significant abnormal returns during the event window, we cannot confirm abnormal returns for U.S. stocks.

  11. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Technical Appendix J: alternatives studies. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollom, M. [ed.


    A comprehensive review of a wide range of alternatives to the proposed action, the commercial demonstration of an industrial cogenerating facility fired with wood fuels is provided. An extensive effort has been devoted to the evaluation of all reasonable alternatives to this project. A number of possible actions were also briefly considered, but, for various reasons, they were found not to be appropriate at present for a commercial-scale demonstration of an alternative energy source. The critical characteristics of the wood-fueled commercial demonstration project at Westbrook are considered to be: industrial cogeneration of power; the production of 510,000 pounds per hour of industrial process steam; the production of approximately twenty-five megawatts of electric generating capacity, some of which would be available to a public utility in southern Maine; and the consumption of 2,000 tons of wood fuel per day. Each of the alternatives examined in this appendix offers a different option for one or several of the characteristics of the project listed above. As a whole, the appendix describes the range of possible actions that the US Department of Energy and its contractors have considered.

  12. Synergetic Effect between Lighting Efficiency Enhancement and Building Energy Reduction Using Alternative Thermal Operating System of Indoor LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Lip Ahn


    Full Text Available We investigated the synergetic effect between light-emitting diode (LED lighting efficiency and building energy savings in heating and cooling using an alternative thermal operating system (ATOS of indoor LED lighting integrated with the ventilation system of a building as an active cooling device. The heat generated from LED lighting and the indoor lighting illuminance were experimentally determined. The indoor heat gains in cooling and heating periods were determined using measurement data; the annual energy savings of an office building in heating and cooling were calculated through simulation. The LED lighting illuminance increased by approximately 40% and the lighting contribution for indoor heat gain was 7.8% in summer, while 69.8% in winter with the ATOS. Consequently, the annual total energy use of the office building could be reduced by 5.9%; the energy use in cooling and heating was reduced by 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of alternate energy carriers, hydrogen and chemical heat pipes (United States)

    Cox, K. E.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Funk, J. E.


    Hydrogen and chemical heat pipes were proposed as methods of transporting energy from a primary energy source (nuclear, solar) to the user. In the chemical heat pipe system, primary energy is transformed into the energy of a reversible chemical reaction; the chemical species are then transmitted or stored until the energy is required. Analysis of thermochemical hydrogen schemes and chemical heat pipe systems on a second law efficiency or available work basis show that hydrogen is superior especially if the end use of the chemical heat pipe is electrical power.

  14. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  15. The role of alternative energy sources in the local government of Umbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasi, L. [Provincia di Perugia, Perugia (Italy)


    Trasimeno Lake is a closed laminar lake characterized by an average depth of 4 to 6 metres and a surface of approximately 125 square kilometres. Its characteristics makes it particularly vulnerable to the hydro-meteorological regime and to pollution. Nowadays, in order to guarantee the water quality, a legislation on navigation was passed, which defines technological revisions of four-stroke engines and bans engines with more than 50 hp (38 KW) as well as two-stroke engines, which currently pollute the water of the lake because of oil spill. Another important factor was the inclusion of the Trasimeno Lake and its Islands in the Regional Part of Trasimeno, which is a natural protected area where the conservation of the nature and the sustainable development is a main asset for the whole area. Since 1960, the public navigation service has been transporting mainly tourists to the two islands in the lake and has been connecting the main ports and marinas. There are seven boats and the transport capacity varies between 100 and 500 passengers. The motorization of the passenger boats are traditionally diesel engines. An important connection among the lakeside villages connected by navigation is the route between the Polvese Island and the mainland (Saint Feliciano). The distance is approximately one nautical mile. Since 1994 the Province of Perugia, owner of the Polvese Island, has been introducing and applying eco- and sustainable management schemes on the island. As far as alternative energy sources are concerned, an electric boat to transport tourists and visitors without noise and emissions to the island was purchased. This boat can only transport 14 persons and it is completely insufficient in the summer period when the flow of tourists towards Polvese Island reaches its maximum peak. Moreover, environmental education activities were carried out on the island and solar collectors panels have been installed to generate hot water. A little photovoltaic panel is going

  16. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space...

  17. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...

  18. Using Generic Examples to Make Viable Arguments (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Ely, Rob; Yopp, David


    The twenty-first century has seen an increased call to train students to craft mathematical arguments. The third of the Common Core's (CCSS) Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP 3) (CCSSI 2010) calls for all mathematically proficient students to "construct viable arguments" to support the truth of their ideas and to "critique…

  19. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  20. Alternatives to linear analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; France, J.; Agnew, R.E.; Yan, T.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Dijkstra, J.; Beever, D.E.; Reynolds, C.K.


    The current energy requirements system used in the United Kingdom for lactating dairy cows utilizes key parameters such as metabolizable energy intake (MEI) at maintenance (MEm), the efficiency of utilization of MEI for 1) maintenance, 2) milk production (k(l)), 3) growth (k(g)), and the efficiency

  1. Banana juice as an alternative energy source for banana in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy sources in tissue culture media are important for plants whose photosynthetic efficiency is insufficient under in vitro conditions. However, the cost of tissue culture grade energy sources is high, thus making tissue culture derived plantlets expensive. The cost of table sugar commonly used in commercial tissue culture ...

  2. EPA RE-Powering Mapper: Alternative Energy Potential at Cleanup Sites (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management??s (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative to demonstrate the enormous potential that contaminated lands, landfills, and mine sites provide for developing renewable energy in the United States. EPA developed national level site screening criteria in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal facilities. While the screening criteria demonstrate the potential to reuse contaminated land for renewable energy facilities, the criteria and data are neither designed to identify the best sites for developing renewable energy nor all-inclusive. Therefore, more detailed, site-specific analysis is necessary to identify or prioritize the best sites for developing renewable energy facilities based on the technical and economic potential. Please note that these sites were only pre-screened for renewable energy potential. The sites were not evaluated for land use constraints or current on the ground conditions. Additional research and site-specific analysis are needed to verify viability for renewable energy potential at a given site.

  3. 78 FR 79579 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition... (United States)


    ... and consumption; all references to energy efficiency include water efficiency) established for certain... Efficiency 5% (0.05) Thermal Efficiency... 5% (0.05) Commercial Water Heaters or Hot Thermal Efficiency... 5... Performance. Btu/h Cooling Capacity. Integrated Energy Efficiency Ratio. Water-Cooled, Split and Packaged...

  4. banana juice as an alternative energy source for banana in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 23, 2015 ... Energy sources in tissue culture media are important for plants whose photosynthetic efficiency is insufficient under in vitro conditions. However, the cost of tissue culture grade energy sources is high, thus making tissue culture derived plantlets expensive. The cost of table sugar commonly used in ...

  5. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute


    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site

  6. Alternative forms of energy transmission from OTEC plants. [Chemical and electrical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, A.; Biederman, N.; Talib, A.; Yudow, B.


    The transmission of OTEC-derived chemical and electrical energy is compared. The chemical energy-carriers considered are the following: gaseous and liquid hydrogen, liquid ammonia, methanol, gasoline, hydrazine hydrate, anhydrous hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), 1,7-Octadiyne, and tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene. The assessment assumes that each of the above energy carriers were transported by barge and/or pipeline. The delivered costs were then compared with transmission of electricity by submarine cables. Because chemical and electrical energy are not equivalent, however, their comparison can only be done after the outputs are converted to a common form. Thus, in addition to presenting the delivered cost and overall energy efficiency of the chemical energy-carriers, we have provided a discussion of the equipment, costs, and efficiencies of converting the hydrogen and ammonia delivered into electricity, and the electricity delivered into hydrogen and ammonia. A concise technical assessment and economic analysis of components associated with the conversion, storage, transportation, and shore-based receiving facilities for the conversion of OTEC mechanical energy to chemical energy is provided and compared to the conversion and transmission of electrical power. Results concerning the hydrogen and ammonia analysis were determined as part of the OTEC program at IGT from May 1975 through May 1976 under Contract No. NSF-C1008 (AER-75-00033) with the National Science Foundation and ERDA. Information concerning carbonaceous fuels and high-energy fuels production was developed as part of the current IGT OTEC program under Contract No. E(49-18)-2426 with ERDA.

  7. Minireview: Central Sirt1 regulates energy balance via the melanocortin system and alternate pathways. (United States)

    Toorie, Anika M; Nillni, Eduardo A


    In developed nations, the prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities continue to prevail despite the availability of numerous treatment strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that multiple inputs from the periphery and within the brain act in concert to maintain energy metabolism at a constant rate. At the central level, the hypothalamus is the primary component of the nervous system that interprets adiposity or nutrient-related inputs; it delivers hormonal and behavioral responses with the ultimate purpose of regulating energy intake and energy consumption. At the molecular level, enzymes called nutrient energy sensors mediate metabolic responses of those tissues involved in energy balance ( 1 ). Two key energy/nutrient sensors, mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated kinase, are involved in the control of food intake in the hypothalamus as well as in peripheral tissues ( 2 , 3 ). The third more recently discovered nutrient sensor, Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase, functions to maintain whole-body energy homeostasis. Several studies have highlighted a role for both peripheral and central Sirt1 in regulating body metabolism, but its central role is still heavily debated. Owing to the opaqueness of central Sirt1's role in energy balance are its cell-specific functions. Because of its robust central expression, targeting cell-specific downstream mediators of Sirt1 signaling may help to combat obesity. However, when placed in the context of a physiologically relevant model, there is compelling evidence that central Sirt1 inhibition in itself is sufficient to promote negative energy balance in both the lean and diet-induced obese state.

  8. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.


    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  9. Alternative treatment of solid waste and energy recovery through burning furnaces: an analysis


    coelho, thaysi castro; Universidade Federal do Tocantins; Serra, Juan Carlos Valdés; Universidade Federal do Tocantins; Lustosa, Jordanna Barreira; Universidade Federal do Tocantins


    Currently a new alternative for the treatment of urban solid waste consisting of a technology that promotes reduction of the volume of the solid residues combined with power generation has been observed. Such technology is the waste burning kilns, which had its greatest expansion in Europe and the United States, currently being introduced in Brazil, yet so timid, lacking large plants in operation. Therefore, from a literature review and identification of plants in operation, the proposal was ...

  10. A research needs assessment: Energy efficient alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Final reprot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum -- based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are present. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  11. Photosynthetic bacteria as alternative energy sources: overview on hydrogen production research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, A.; Ohta, Y.; Frank, J.


    Hydrogen production research towards the application of marine and non-marine species of photosynthetic bacteria is reviewed. Potential use of photosynthetic bacteria as renewable energy resources is discussed.

  12. Energy Optimized Cellular Traffic Scheduling : An alternative approach via OpenVPN


    Saarikoski, Kasperi


    Network-intensive smartphone applications are becoming increasingly popular. Examples of such trending applications are social applications like Facebook that rely on always-on connectivity as well as multimedia streaming applications like YouTube. While the computing power of smartphones is constantly growing, the capacity of smartphone batteries is lagging behind. This imbalance has created an imperative for energy-efficient smartphone applications. One approach to increase the energy effic...

  13. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  14. Two energy storage alternatives for a solar-powered sustainable single floor desert home

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.


    This paper is concerned with the thermodynamic analysis of a totally solarpowered desert home. The home is air-conditioned and provides all modern comforts and facilities. It features closely spaced, roof mounted photovoltaic modules, which collect the solar energy driving the whole energy system. During the day time, the modules form an elevated horizontal surface above the roof, shielding it from direct solar radiation. After sunset, the photovoltaic modules are flipped vertically upwards to expose the roof to the sky, thus enhancing night-time cooling. Two methods of energy storage are proposed and compared, one using solely battery storage of electrical output, and the other employing a combination of cold water storage and battery storage. The analysis is based on detailed dynamic heat transfer calculations for the entire building envelope, coupled with a solar radiation model, and followed by energy balances. The results reveal that indeed it is feasible to employ solar energy as the only source of energy to power the home, and that each storage system has its own merits and shortcomings. © 2010 WIT Press.

  15. Energy efficient school buildings in central-western Argentina: an assessment of alternative typologies for the classroom tier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, C.; Basso, M.; Fernandez, J.C. [Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda, Mendoza (AR)] [and others


    Four energy-efficient demonstration school buildings were built in the western province of Mendoza, Argentina, in 1999, as part of a massive building program required to implement the new Federal Education Plan. The buildings should make medium use of bioclimatic strategies and daylighting. The aspects of typology of the classroom tiers became immediately apparent as one of the main conditioners of the overall scheme. Three different alternative schemes were designed and built. A deeper analysis of these and other possible alternatives were thought essential for future constructions of the type. Four typologies of the classroom tier, using the same, locally available technology, are being comparatively assessed in the aspects of energy efficiently, thermal and luminous comfort, construction and operation costs and environmental impact (LCA). The paper presents the provisional results of the two first items only: energy efficiency and thermal comfort. While all four schemes evaluated are believed to be ''workable'', differences will tend to favour some the other according to context situations. Volumetric Loss Coeff. range from 1.09 to 1.24 W/Km{sup 3}. Solar savings fractions for the school operation hours vary between: 82.83 and 91.58%. Work is being continued to cover all the analysis items in a combined way. (author)

  16. Change in energy metabolism of in vitro produced embryos: an alternative to make them more cryoresistant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Renata Oliveira Dias


    Full Text Available For the development of in vitro produced (IVP as well as in vivo produced bovine embryos, it is extremely important that their energy metabolism works properly because the embryo must be able to metabolize energy substrates that are necessary for producing energy. Lipids play an important role in early embryonic development, acting as source of energy for oocytes and embryos. However, it is known that oocytes and embryos, mainly IVP, accumulate large amounts of lipids in the cytoplasm. Although they are extremely important in embryonic development, lipids have been associated with the reduced survival of bovine embryos following cryopreservation. There is evidence that at least four different categories of lipids affect embryo survival after cryopreservation, including triglycerides (TAG, free fatty acids, cholesterol and phospholipids. Thus, many studies are being conducted to improve the resistance of IVP embryos to the cryopreservation process by reducing the concentration or removing the source of serum from the medium or by reducing oocyte/embryo lipids using mechanical or chemical means. Regarding the use of delipidating agents that reduce the uptake and synthesis of fatty acids (FA by cells, substances such as phenazine ethosulfate (PES, forskolin, L-carnitine and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA have been utilized. This review aims to address important issues related to embryonic energy metabolism, the importance of lipid metabolism and its relation to the cryopreservation of IVP bovine embryos by summarizing the latest research in this field.

  17. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  18. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  19. Grazing of particle-associated bacteria-an elimination of the non-viable fraction. (United States)

    Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Priya, Madasamy Lakshmi; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam Adikesavan

    Quantification of bacteria being grazed by microzooplankton is gaining importance since they serve as energy subsidies for higher trophic levels which consequently influence fish production. Hence, grazing pressure on viable and non-viable fraction of free and particle-associated bacteria in a tropical estuary controlled mainly by protist grazers was estimated using the seawater dilution technique. In vitro incubations over a period of 42h showed that at the end of 24h, growth coefficient (k) of particle-associated bacteria was 9 times higher at 0.546 than that of free forms. Further, 'k' value of viable cells on particles was double that of free forms at 0.016 and 0.007, respectively. While bacteria associated with particles were grazed (coefficient of removal (g)=0.564), the free forms were relatively less grazed indicating that particle-associated bacteria were exposed to grazers in these waters. Among the viable and non-viable forms, 'g' of non-viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.615, Free=0.0086) was much greater than the viable fraction (particle-associated bacteria=0.056, Free=0.068). Thus, grazing on viable cells was relatively low in both the free and attached states. These observations suggest that non-viable forms of particle-associated bacteria were more prone to grazing and were weeded out leaving the viable cells to replenish the bacterial standing stock. Particle colonization could thus be a temporary refuge for the "persistent variants" where the viable fraction multiply and release their progeny. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsien Lee


    Full Text Available This paper researches the abnormal information in the WilderHill Clean Energy Index (ECO and NYSE Arca Technology Index (PSE by using an autoregressive conditional jump intensity model in Skew Generalized Error Distribution (ARJI-SGED. The research period is from 3 January 2001 to 31 January 2011. We also test the diffusion-jump variance on the PSE and ECO. The empirical result indicates that there are jump phenomena in clean energy and technology companies. The oil price impacts on clean energy and technology companies. Moreover, the PSE has higher levels of volatility clustering than the ECO. These results show that the distributions of PSE return are skewed slightly to the left and fat-tailed. These also mean that jump variance plays a crucial role in market volatility indices.

  1. Bounded energy exchange as an alternative to the third law of thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Matthias, E-mail:


    This paper introduces a postulate explicitly forbidding the extraction of an infinite amount of energy from a thermodynamic system. It also introduces the assumption that no measuring equipment is capable of detecting arbitrarily small energy exchanges. The Kelvin formulation of the second law is reinterpreted accordingly. Then statements related to both the unattainability version and the entropic version of the third law are derived. The value of any common thermodynamic potential of a one-component system at absolute zero of temperature is ascertained if some assumptions with regard to the state space can be made. The point of view is the phenomenological, macroscopic and non-statistical one of classical thermodynamics.

  2. System analysis and assessment of technological alternatives for Nordic H{sub 2} energy foresight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Gether, K. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Joergensen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)


    The hydrogen scenarios developed during the Nordic Hydrogen Foresight project was analysed using a energy system model, which was developed during the project. The aim of the systems analysis was to analyse the technical and economical potential of hydrogen society in the Nordic countries in quantitative terms as well as the competitiveness of the selected hydrogen based systems. Visions and scenarios of the future energy systems in the Nordic area were defined in the workshops of the project. As a result of these workshops three scenarios were selected to outline the future of Nordic energy. The scenarios included different energy policies; scenarios for fossil fuel prices; and hydrogen energy demands, which varied from 6% to 18% of the total energy demand in 2030 for transport sector, and from 3% to 9% in heat and power production. In the roadmap workshops, the most important hydrogen based systems were selected, which were also included in the model. These include steam reforming of natural gas, electrolysis with renewable electricity, and biomass gasification for hydrogen production. For stationary applications, fuel cells and gas engines were selected for power and heat production. In our scenario calculations, biomass gasification and steam reforming seem to be the most competitive technologies for hydrogen production. The competitiveness of biomass gasification is greatly affected by the biomass fuel price, which is a local energy source. Electrolysis seems to be most competitive in decentralized systems, if the electricity price is low enough. For stationary applications, CHP fuel cells seem to be the most competitive in the long term, if the technological development and the decrease in investment costs follow the assumed scenario. The approximated Nordic market sizes in 2030 for the base scenarios varied from 1000 ME to 3000 MEuro for hydrogen production, from 1000 to 4000 MEuro for stationary applications and 4000 MEuro to 12.000 MEuro for hydrogen

  3. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou


    Full Text Available Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for natural gas- (NG- based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1 compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon content than petroleum, CNG- and LNG-powered vehicles emit 10–20% and 5–10% less GHGs than gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, respectively; (2 gas-to-liquid- (GTL- powered vehicles involve approximately 50% more WTW fossil energy uses than conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, primarily because of the low efficiency of GTL production. Nevertheless, since NG has a lower carbon content than petroleum, GTL-powered vehicles emit approximately 30% more GHGs than conventional-fuel vehicles; (3 The carbon emission intensity of the LNG energy chain is highly sensitive to the efficiency of NG liquefaction and the form of energy used in that process.

  4. Food waste and the food-energy-water nexus: A review of food waste management alternatives. (United States)

    Kibler, Kelly M; Reinhart, Debra; Hawkins, Christopher; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Wright, James


    Throughout the world, much food produced is wasted. The resource impact of producing wasted food is substantial; however, little is known about the energy and water consumed in managing food waste after it has been disposed. Herein, we characterize food waste within the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus and parse the differential FEW effects of producing uneaten food and managing food loss and waste. We find that various food waste management options, such as waste prevention, landfilling, composting, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, present variable pathways for FEW impacts and opportunities. Furthermore, comprehensive sustainable management of food waste will involve varied mechanisms and actors at multiple levels of governance and at the level of individual consumers. To address the complex food waste problem, we therefore propose a "food-waste-systems" approach to optimize resources within the FEW nexus. Such a framework may be applied to devise strategies that, for instance, minimize the amount of edible food that is wasted, foster efficient use of energy and water in the food production process, and simultaneously reduce pollution externalities and create opportunities from recycled energy and nutrients. Characterization of FEW nexus impacts of wasted food, including descriptions of dynamic feedback behaviors, presents a significant research gap and a priority for future work. Large-scale decision making requires more complete understanding of food waste and its management within the FEW nexus, particularly regarding post-disposal impacts related to water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hot dry rock, an alternate geothermal energy resource: a challenge for instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.R.; Horton, E.H.


    The natural internal heat from the Earth is one of the cleanest, nearly inexhaustible energy sources. The hot dry rock that composes most of the Earth's crust has the potential of becoming one of the largest reservoirs of energy economically available in the near future. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, for the past five years, has been working toward exploiting this very abundant, clean energy source. The LASL technique to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of extracting heat from the hot dry rock source depends upon the connection of two deep boreholes drilled into impermeable precambrian granite where the temperature approaches 200/sup 0/C. The boreholes are connected by a system of hydraulic-produced fractures. Cold water flowing down the deeper hole will be heated by the hot rock and will be brought to the surface through the second hole. The hot water will be circulated through a closed-loop heat exchanger. The first phase of operating the 10 MW(t) heat extraction experiment will be conducted to determine the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the reservoir and heat exchange system. Environmental effects will be carefully monitored. For optimum extraction of energy from this man-made geothermal reservoir, it is vital that the absolute location of the fractured system be well established. Fracture mapping techniques include an array of downhole instrumentation that must survive the hostile environment of the deep hot boreholes.

  6. Analysis of market penetration of renewable energy alternatives under uncertain and carbon constrained world (United States)

    Future energy prices and supply, availability and costs can have a significant impact on how fast and cost effectively we could abate carbon emissions. Two-staged decision making methods embedded in U.S. EPA's MARKAL modeling system will be utilized to find the most robust mitig...

  7. Evaluation of alternative phase change materials for energy storage in solar dynamic applications (United States)

    Crane, R. A.; Dustin, M. O.


    The performance of fluoride salt and metallic thermal energy storage materials are compared in terms of basic performance as applied to solar dynamic power generation. Specific performance considerations include uniformity of cycle inlet temperature, peak cavity temperature, TES utilization, and system weights. Also investigated were means of enhancing the thermal conductivity of the salts and its effect on the system performance.

  8. 78 FR 62472 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition... (United States)


    ... forth a variety of provisions designed to improve energy efficiency. Part A of Title III (42 U.S.C. 6291... freezers) through consensus-based negotiations among affected parties. In October 2012, the convener issued... (ACIMs), beverage vending machines (BVMs), and walk-in cooler and freezer (WICF) refrigeration systems...

  9. banana juice as an alternative energy source for banana in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 23, 2015 ... GROWTH MEDIUM. A. SSAMULA, G. ARINAITWE1 and S.B. MUKASA. School of Agricultural Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, ..... multiplication responded similarly at different levels and types of energy sources. It was, therefore, apparent that banana ...

  10. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru (United States)

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna


    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  11. Hydrogen Production from Sea Wave for Alternative Energy Vehicles for Public Transport in Trapani (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Franzitta


    Full Text Available The coupling of renewable energy and hydrogen technologies represents in the mid-term a very interesting way to match the tasks of increasing the reliable exploitation of wind and sea wave energy and introducing clean technologies in the transportation sector. This paper presents two different feasibility studies: the first proposes two plants based on wind and sea wave resource for the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen for public transportation facilities in the West Sicily; the second applies the same approach to Pantelleria (a smaller island, including also some indications about solar resource. In both cases, all buses will be equipped with fuel-cells. A first economic analysis is presented together with the assessment of the avoidable greenhouse gas emissions during the operation phase. The scenarios addressed permit to correlate the demand of urban transport to renewable resources present in the territories and to the modern technologies available for the production of hydrogen from renewable energies. The study focuses on the possibility of tapping the renewable energy potential (wind and sea wave for the hydrogen production by electrolysis. The use of hydrogen would significantly reduce emissions of particulate matter and greenhouse gases in urban districts under analysis. The procedures applied in the present article, as well as the main equations used, are the result of previous applications made in different technical fields that show a good replicability.

  12. Fast neutron incineration in the energy amplifier as alternative to geologic storage the case of Spain

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Rubio, Juan Antonio


    In previous reports [1][2] we have presented the conceptual design of a fast neutron driven sub-critical device (Energy Amplifier) designed both for energy amplification (production) and for the incineration of unwanted ³waste² from Nuclear Light Water Reactors (LWR). The latter scheme is here applied to the specific case of Spain, where 9 large LWR¹s are presently in operation. It is shown that a cluster of 5 EA¹s is a very effective and realistic solution to the elimination (in 37 years) of the present and foreseen (till 2029) LWR-Waste stockpiles of Spain, but with major improvements over Geologic Storage, since: (1) only a Low Level Waste (LLW) surface repository of reasonable size is ultimately required; (2) the large amount of energy stored in the trans-Uranics is recovered, amounting for each of the 37 years of incineration to a saving of about 8% of the present primary energy demand of Spain (100 MTep/y); (3) the slightly enriched (1.1%) Uranium, unburned by LWR¹s, can be recovered for further us...

  13. Fossil Fuels: Factors of Supply Reduction and Use of The Renewable Energy As A Suitable Alternative


    Askari Mohammad Bagher,


    In this article we will review the consumption of fossil fuels in the world. According to the exhaustible resources of fossil fuels, and the damaging effects of these fuels on the environment and nature, we introduce renewable energy sources as perfect replacement for fossil fuels.

  14. Assessment of the use of cassava as alternative energy feedstuff in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ayoade adetoye

    statistics. The result revealed that over one-third (38.35%) of the feedmillers had been in business for over. 20years and 90% majorly produce feed for poultry birds. Out of the four common energy feedstuffs utilized in livestock feeds, maize was considered by the majority (93.55%) as the most preferred while 16.13% of.

  15. Bio-Wastes as an Alternative Household Cooking Energy Source in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudina Terefe Tucho


    Full Text Available Up to the present day, wood has been used to supply the needs for cooking in rural Africa. Due to the ongoing deforestation, households need to change to other energy sources. To cover this need, a large amount of people are using residues from agriculture (straw, manure instead. However, both straw and manure also have a function in agriculture for soil improvement. Using all the straw and manure will seriously affect the food production. In this paper we first determine the amount of energy that households need for cooking (about 7 GJ per year. Then we estimate the amount of residues that can be obtained from the agricultural system and the amount of energy for cooking that can be derived from this amount when different conversion techniques are used. The amount of residues needed is strongly affected by the technology used. The traditional three stone fires require at least two times as much resource than the more advanced technologies. Up to 4 ha of land or 15 cows are needed to provide enough straw and manure to cook on the traditional three stone fires. When more efficient techniques are used (briquetting, biogas this can be reduced to 2 ha and six cows. Due to large variation in resource availability between households, about 80% of the households own less than 2 ha and 70% holds less than four cows. This means that even when modern, energy efficient techniques are used the largest share of the population is not able to generate enough energy for cooking from their own land and/or cattle. Most rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa may share similar resource holding characteristics for which the results from the current findings on Ethiopia can be relevant.

  16. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW


    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  17. Does Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas Represent a Sustainable Alternative Energy Source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Ovando-Medina


    Full Text Available Various government agencies around the world have proposed vegetable oils and their conversion to biodiesel as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Due to its adaptability to marginal soils and environments, the cultivation of Jatropha curcas is frequently mentioned as the best option for producing biodiesel. In the present work the current situation of proven and potential reserves of fossil fuel, and the production and consumption model for the same are analyzed, in order to later review the sustainability of the production process which begins with the cultivation of J. curcas, and culminates with the consumption of biodiesel. A review of the following topics is proposed in order to improve the sustainability of the process: areas destined for cultivation, use of external (chemical inputs in cultivation, processes for converting the vegetable oil to biodiesel, and, above all, the location for ultimate consumption of the biofuel.

  18. Endorse of renewable energy plants, still an alternative investment in Spain?


    Guaita Pradas, Inmaculada; Marí Soucase, Bernabé


    All the academic submissions on SOP are free to all. People can read, copy, distribute and even download the latest research outcome on various devices, including smart phones, notebooks, pads, Kindles, desktop PC, etc. SOP welcomes every individual researcher and institution to submit or read the first-hand scientific information. The development of renewable energy technologies depends on two main factors: progress of the related technologies and incentive policies. Long-term incentive p...

  19. Integration and Penetration Opportunities of Alternative Energy, Fuels, and Technologies within Military Systems, Logistics, and Operations (United States)


    1 JASONS, Reducing DoD Fossil-Fuel Dependence, September 2006 (JSR-06-135). 2 REN21, Renewables Global Status Report 2009 Update . 3...1 Eric Martinot & Janet Sawin, Renewables Global Status Report 2009 Update ,, 9 September 2009. 65...Monaco) Volvo Trucks (UK, Ireland, USA) Zap (USA) UNCLASSIFIED F-5 Table F-3. Portable Power and Battery Company Listinga,b Portable

  20. The use of alternative energies in hatcheries: an application of Life Cycle Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Blasi


    Full Text Available Fish production requires great efforts and energies and causes different impacts/effects on the ecosystems. The development of aquaculture is possible, in the medium and long term, only if this is done responsibly, and if the production is reached from both an economic and environmental point of view. In our study we have worked on fry production using 1.5 g sized Dicentrarchus labrax obtained rearing larvae for 120 days after the hatching of the eggs.

  1. Risks and psychic costs of alternative energy sources for generating electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, M.B.


    Divisive personal issues will continue to impede the formulation of a coherent national energy policy until we come to grips with the disagreements and anxieties behind the issues. Variations in individual anxiety profiles and limited knowledge are the major sources of conflict. A structured approach for analyzing psychic costs in the risk-cost-benefit analyses of energy options focuses on the electric-utility industry. Coupling psychic costs with economic costs requires an understanding of how social values interact to produce either risk acceptance or risk rejection. A review of the literature shows that people experiencing a continuous anxiety state may come to value the focus of their fear as a policy issue more than on loss of life. Public reaction after the Three Mile Island accident illustrates this condition. Personal bias in risk perception is variable partly because of differences in information. Information and personal values, however, can be mutually incompatible and lead to psychic conflicts. Proponents of soft energy technology, for example, are criticized for their lack of information about the associated risks and not credited for the psychic benefits of their goals. 58 references. (DCK)

  2. Evaluation of renewable energy as an alternative source for rural electrification in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusekwa, M.A.; Tzoneva, R. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Belleville (South Africa). Centre for Real-Time Distributed Systems, Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Mohamed, A.Kh. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Belleville (South Africa). Centre for Distributed Power Electronics, Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    An evaluation of renewable energy resources as potential sources of rural electrification in Tanzania was presented. Biomass is currently used as a primary fuel by over 90 per cent of Tanzania's rural population. Only 1 per cent of the rural population has access to electricity. The country has an estimated 4700 MW of hydro-electric power. Biomass resources from wood were estimated at between 50 to 55 million tonnes, while proven natural gas resources were estimated at 45 billion cubic metres. Small-scale hydropower potential was estimated at between 500 and 1000 MW. Wind power studies have suggested that the country's wind power potential ranges between 500 and 1000 MW. Minimum monthly average insolation values of 4.5-5.3 KWh/d have also been estimated. Tidal, wave, and ocean energy resources for the country have not yet been studied. The study indicated that a combination of wood waste bagasse can be used to support widespread electrification using co-generation systems. Technical assistance will be needed to install the necessary technology for solar, wind, and cogeneration systems. It was concluded that developing and promoting environmentally sound energy resources will help to accelerate rural electrification. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 appendix.

  3. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  4. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  5. Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.


    During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

  6. Program of rational energy use and alternative sources; Programa de uso racional de energia e fontes alternativas-PUREFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez; Silva, Orlando Cristiano da; Varkulya Junior, Americo; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO)


    The PUREFA (Program of Rational Energy Use and Alternative Sources), developed by USP - University of Sao Paulo and supported by FINEP - Financial of Studies and Projects, consists of 14 purposes and has three main objectives: to introduce measures of management and energy efficiency proceedings; to increase the distributed generation at USP, employing renewable and not conventional energy resources and to introduce permanent incentive polices of efficient and rational energy use. In this project, the CENBIO - Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass is responsible for purposes 11 and 12 that are related to the biogas use for electricity generation. The first one, the 11th has as main objectives to implant the generation system, to capture and to stock the biogas produced by the biodigestor located at the Technological Hydraulically Center (CTH - USP). The biodigestors type is a UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket), whose outflow of the biogas produced is near to 4m{sup 3}/day and operates 24 hours per day, utilizing sewer from the residential buildings located at Sao Paulo University, inside the campus. Nowadays, this equipment is used for biogas treatment researches, the biogas emitted to the atmosphere. In order to use the biogas, it is necessary to identify its outflow, chemical composition and heat value, parameters that will determinate its real potential for generation and will show the necessity of a previous treatment, as H{sub 2}S removal. Finished this stage will be started the purpose 12, purpose that regards the biogas use as fuel for electricity generation. (author)

  7. Wind power, a clean energy alternative; El viento, una alternativa energetica limpia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Venta (Mexico)


    That a new energy source, renewable and environmentally benign is incorporated into our electric networks, is something really significative. What better contribution for the rational use of the conventional energy sources than substituting an important part of its share for a source of the stated characteristics. The wind is a resource that Nature offers US for free, whose energy can be transformed into electricity utilizing conversion technologies that have reached maturity and are currently available in the marketplace. This document presents the characteristics of the aeolian resource in the Tehuantepec Isthmus region. A description is made of the first pilot project in our country built by Comision Federal de Electricidad at La Venta, Oaxaca. The reasoning that support the development of the projects at a greater scale and investment and production costs are exhibited for the above mentioned project. [Espanol] Que una nueva fuente de energia, renovable y ambientalmente benigna se incorpore a nuestras redes electricas, es algo verdaderamente significativo. Que mejor contribucion para el uso racional de los energeticos convencionales que substituir una parte importante de su aportacion con una fuente de las caracteristicas mencionadas. El viento es un recurso que nos brinda la naturaleza en forma gratuita, cuya energia puede transformarse en electricidad utilizando tecnologias de conversion que han alcanzado madurez y que actualmente se encuentran disponibles en el mercado. En este documento se presentan las caracteristicas del recurso eolico en la region del Istmo de Tehuantepec, se hace una descripcion del primer proyecto piloto de nuestro pais, construido por la Comision Federal de Electricidad en La Venta, Oaxaca, se exponen los argumentos que apoyan al desarrollo de proyectos en mayor escala y se exhiben los costos de inversion y produccion para el proyecto mencionado.

  8. Production of J/$\\Psi$-Particles at RHIC and LHC energies: An Alternative `Psi'-chology


    Guptaroy, P.; Sau, Goutam; Biswas, S. K.; Bhattacharyya, S.


    We attempt here to understand successfully some crucial aspects of $J/\\Psi$-production in some high energy nuclear collisions in the light of a non-standard framework outlined in the text. It is found that the results arrived at with this main working approach here is fairly in good agreement with both the measured data and the results obtained on the basis of some other models of the `standard' variety. Impact and implications of this comparative study have also been precisely highlighted in...

  9. Alternative Sources of Energy for U.S. Air Force Bases (United States)


    Photovoltaic Energy A.4.1 Summary Solar Photovoltaic Systems  Components: PV modules , tracking or fixed mount, inverter  Crystalline, Multi...Crystalline, or Amorphous (thin-film)  Variety of materials (Si, CdTe , GaAs, CuInSe, etc). Record efficiency (40.2%) combines GaInP, Ge, and GaAs  High...photovoltaics was to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, but today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for terrestrial power

  10. Voids as alternatives to dark energy and the propagation of γ rays through the universe. (United States)

    DeLavallaz, Arnaud; Fairbairn, Malcolm


    We test the opacity of a void universe to TeV energy γ rays having obtained the extragalactic background light in that universe using a simple model and the observed constraints on the star formation rate history. We find that the void universe has significantly more opacity than a Λ cold dark matter universe, putting it at odds with observations of BL-Lac objects. We argue that while this method of distinguishing between the two cosmologies contains uncertainties, it circumvents any debates over fine-tuning.

  11. Air-spore in Cartagena, Spain: viable and non-viable sampling methods. (United States)

    Elvira-Rendueles, Belen; Moreno, Jose; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio; Vergara, Nuria; Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jose; Moreno-Grau, Stella


    In the presented study the airborne fungal spores of the semiarid city of Cartagena, Spain, are identified and quantified by means of viable or non-viable sampling methods. Airborne fungal samples were collected simultaneously using a filtration method and a pollen and particle sampler based on the Hirst methodology. This information is very useful for elucidating geographical patterns of hay fever and asthma. The qualitative results showed that when the non-viable methodology was employed, Cladosporium, Ustilago, and Alternaria were the most abundant spores identified in the atmosphere of Cartagena, while the viable methodology showed that the most abundant taxa were: Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. The quantitative results of airborne fungal spores identified by the Hirst-type air sampler (non-viable method), showed that Deuteromycetes represented 74% of total annual spore counts, Cladosporium being the major component of the fungal spectrum (62.2%), followed by Alternaria (5.3%), and Stemphylium (1.3%). The Basidiomycetes group represented 18.9% of total annual spore counts, Ustilago (7.1%) being the most representative taxon of this group and the second most abundant spore type. Ascomycetes accounted for 6.9%, Nectria (2.3%) being the principal taxon. Oomycetes (0.2%) and Zygomycestes and Myxomycestes (0.06%) were scarce. The prevailing species define our bioaerosol as typical of dry air. The viable methodology was better at identifying small hyaline spores and allowed for the discrimination of the genus of some spore types. However, non-viable methods revealed the richness of fungal types present in the bioaerosol. Thus, the use of both methodologies provides a more comprehensive characterization of the spore profile.

  12. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  13. Biomass Briquette Investigation from Pterocarpus Indicus Leaves Waste as an Alternative Renewable Energy (United States)

    Anggono, Willyanto; Sutrisno; Suprianto, Fandi D.; Evander, Jovian


    Indonesia is a tropical country located in Southeast Asia. Indonesia has a lot of variety of plant species which are very useful for life. Pterocarpus indicus are commonly used as greening and easily found everywhere in Surabaya city because of its characteristics that they have dense leaves and rapid growth. Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be a problem for residents of Surabaya and disturbing the cleanliness of the Surabaya city. Therefore, the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be used as biomass briquettes. This research investigated the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the effect of tapioca as an adhesive material to the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the optimum composition for Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste biomass briquette as an alternative renewable fuel and the property of the optimum resulted biomass briquette using ultimate analysis and proximate analysis based on the ASTM standard. The calorific value biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste were performed using an oxygen bomb calorimeter at various composition of Pterocarpus indicus from 50% to 90% rising by 10% for each experiment. The experimental results showed that the 90% raw materials (Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste)-10% adhesive materials (tapioca) mixtures is the optimum composition for biomass briquette Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste. The lower the percentage of the mass of tapioca in the biomass briquettes, the higher calorific value generated.

  14. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo


    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez


    El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión...

  15. Institutional constraints on alternative water for energy: a guidebook for regional assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Basic information is presented about the legal, political, and social constraints faced by energy developers in the acquisition of water from underground, irrigation return flow, municipal waste, and saline sources. It is a guide to those institutional constraints which are general and pronounced enough to be important for regional assessments. First, attention was focused on the acquisition phase of the water use cycle. Second, constraints were analyzed primarily from a regional, rather than state-by-state, perspective. Emphasis was placed generally on the West - particularly the synfuel-rich Rocky Mountain states, the East, and Mid-West, in that order. Alaska and Hawaii were not surveyed. Third, the study focuses on the constraints associated with groundwater, municipal waste, irrigation return flow, and sea water, in that order. The phrase, institutional constraints, as used in the study, means legal, social, economic, and political restrictions, requirements, circumstances, or conditions that must be anticipated or responded to in order to acquire water for energy development. The study focuses primarily on legal constraints and secondarily on political constraints, because they tend to encompass or reflect other forms of institutional constraints.

  16. TANAP Gas Pipeline as an Alternative Route to Ensure Energy Security of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Huseynova


    Full Text Available There is considered the role of TANAP pipeline in the Caspian region, conducted analysis of changing of the forces' balance, as well as geopolitical aspirations of the various international actors in the region in the article. The author points out that Azerbaijani gas reserves are very attractive to the EU which is aspiring to energy security through diversification of fuel supplies. However TANAP has competitors represented by Russian «South Stream» and the European Nabucco. The author concludes that in the frame of present conditions together with penetration of leading international actors to the Caspian region, its importance for the global geopolitics and geoeconomics is increasing and growing.

  17. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives (United States)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.


    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  18. Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thulin, A.J.


    In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ..beta..-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing (/sup 14/C) linoleic acid and (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid or (/sup 14/C) octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny.

  19. Impacts of alternative residential energy standards - Rural Housing Amendments Study, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balistocky, S.; Bohn, A.A.; Heidell, J.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lee, A.D.; Pratt, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.


    This report has examined the role of manufactured housing in the housing market, the energy impacts of three manufactured housing standards and three site-built standards in 13 cities, and the economic impacts of those standards in 6 cities. The three standards applied to manufactured housing are the HUD Title VI standard (Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards, or MHCSS), the Hud Title II-E standard, and the existing FmHA Title V standard. Those applied to site-built homes are the HUD Minimum Property Standards (MPS), the ASHRAE 90A-80 standard, and the FmHA Title V standard. Based on energy consumption alone, these analyses show that the FmHA Title V standard is the most stringent standard for both housing types (a single-section menufactured home and a single-story detached ''ranch house''). The HUD Title VI standard is the least stringent for manufactured homes, while the HUD Minimum Property Standards are the least stringent for site-built homes. Cost-effectiveness comparisons required by the Act were made for the two prototypical homes. Results of this preliminary economic analysis indicate that none of the site-built standards reflect minimum life-cycle cost as a basic criterion of their development. For manufactured homes, both the FmHA standard and the HUD Title II-E standard reduce life-cycle cost and effect positive first-year cash flows in all cities analyzed when electric resistance heating is assumed. When natural gas heating is used, both standards pass the life-cycle cost test in all cities, but the FmHA standard fails the cash flow test in all but one city. However, in the worst case, net monthly expenditures in the first year are increased by less than $9.

  20. The capabilities and constraints of the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System) for development of energy matrix; As potencialidades e restricoes do LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System) para o desenvolvimento de matriz energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Cruz, Ricardo Alexandre Passos da; Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    This paper seeks to introduce and discuss the main features of the LEAP model preparing energy matrixes, in the medium and long term energy planning context. These characteristics are analyzed and compared to other known simulation models used worldwide, checking potentialities and existing barriers of using the LEAP program (author)

  1. Enzymatic isolation of viable human odontoblasts. (United States)

    Cuffaro, H M; Pääkkönen, V; Tjäderhane, L


    To improve an enzymatic method previously used for isolation of rat odontoblasts to isolate viable mature human odontoblasts. Collagenase I, collagenase I/hyaluronidase mixture and hyaluronidase were used to extract mature human odontoblasts from the pulp chamber. Detachment of odontoblasts from dentine was determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and to analyse the significance of differences in tubular diameter, and the t-test was used. MTT-reaction was used to analyse cell viability, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney post hoc tests were used to analyse the data. Immunofluorescent staining of dentine sialoprotein (DSP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) were used to confirm the odontoblastic nature of the cells. MTT-reaction and FESEM demonstrated collagenase I/hyaluronidase resulted in more effective detachment and higher viability than collagenase I alone. Hyaluronidase alone was not able to detach odontoblasts. Immunofluorescence revealed the typical odontoblastic-morphology with one process, and DSP, AQP4 and MMP-20 were detected. Quantitative PCR of DSPP confirmed that the isolated cells expressed this odontoblast-specific gene. The isolation of viable human odontoblasts was successful. The cells demonstrated morphology typical for odontoblasts and expressed characteristic odontoblast-type genes and proteins. This method will enable new approaches, such as apoptosis analysis, for studies using fully differentiated odontoblasts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology (United States)

    Rawat, R. S.


    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  3. Methodology for assessing alternative water-acquisition-and-use strategies for energy facilities in the American West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.J.; Adams, E.E.; Harleman, D.R.F.; Marks, D.H.


    A method for assessing alternative strategies for acquiring and using water at western energy plants was developed. The method was tested in a case study of cooling-water use for a hypothetical steam-electric power plant on the Crazy Woman Creek, an unregulated stream in Wyoming. The results from the case study suggest a careful analysis of reservoir design and water-right purchase strategies can reduce the cost of acquiring and using water at an energy facility. The method uses simulation models to assess the capital and operating costs and expected monthly water-consumption rates for different cooling-system designs. The method also uses reservoir operating algorithms to select, for a fixed cooling-system design, the optimal tradeoff between building a make-up water reservoir and purchasing water rights. These tradeoffs can be used to derive the firm's true demand curve for different sources of water. The analysis also reveals the implicit cost of selecting strategies that minimize conflicts with other water users. Results indicate that: (1) cooling ponds are as good as or preferred to wet towers because their costs already include provisions for storing water for use during the normally dry summer months and during occasional drought years; (2) the energy firm's demand for overall water consumption in the cooling system was found to be inversely proportional to both the cost of installing make-up water reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility; and (3) the firm's willingness to pay for existing rights is proportional to both the cost of installing reservoirs, and the size of the energy facility.

  4. Assessing the quality of alternative energy sources : Energy Return On the Investment (EROI), the metabolic pattern of societies and energy statistics


    Giampietro, Mario


    This paper presents an initial challenge to tackle the every so "tricky" points encountered when dealing with energy accounting, and thereafter illustrates how such a system of accounting can be used when assessing for the metabolic changes in societies. The paper is divided in four main sections. The first three, present a general discussion on the main issues encountered when conducting energy analyses. The last section, subsequently, combines this heuristic approach to the actual formaliza...

  5. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel


    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as

  6. arXiv Cosmologically Viable Low-energy Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Hook, Anson; Murayama, Hitoshi

    A recent cosmological bound on the gravitino mass, $m_{3/2}<4.7$ eV, together with LHC results on the Higgs mass and direct searches, excludes minimal gauge mediation with high reheating temperatures. We discuss a minimal, vector-mediated model which incorporates the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses, allows for thermal leptogenesis, ameliorates the $\\mu$ problem, and achieves the observed Higgs mass and a gravitino as light as $1$-$2$ eV.

  7. Optimization biogas management as alternative energy from communal scale dairy farm (United States)

    Ruhiyat, R.; Siami, L.


    Cow Slurry can be the main pollution source in most villages in Indonesia. In this study, treatment of cow slurry intended to reduce pollution in Citarum river and greenhouse gases effect of CH4 and CO2. As a part of renewable energy, biogas can be one of solution to be implemented in small-scale and remote area. In Pejaten, Tarumajaya Village, the cost-effective reached when 7cattleman united to treat cow slurry in one biodigester. The breed varies cow from calf, veal to adult cattle. The installation of anaerobic-bio digester that produce biogas 28 m3/day equivalent with Rp 168,000 to be consumed for 14 households. In addition, villager also benefitted manure as 42.5 ton monthly. As a whole, the highest profit comes from adult cattle that produce 900 kg/month slurry as Rp 59,919 monthly. Furthermore, this system gives job opportunity for villagers to be biodigester operator is the main beneficial with the higher income compare to mower that only Rp 600.000 monthly as Rp 1.065.000.

  8. The GreenLab Research Facility: A Micro-Grid Integrating Production, Consumption and Storage of Clean Energy (United States)

    McDowell Bomani, Bilal Mark; Elbuluk, Malik; Fain, Henry; Kankam, Mark D.


    There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has initiated a laboratory-pilot study that concentrates on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as, utilizing wind and solar technologies as alternative renewable energy resources, and in addition, the use of pumped water for storage of energy that can be retrieved through hydroelectric generation. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility and its power and energy sources with .recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the concept of such a facility

  9. Energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge from UASB reactors: case study of the Laboreaux wastewater treatment plant. (United States)

    Rosa, A P; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A; Melo, G C B; Borges, J M; Chernicharo, C A L


    This work assessed the energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge generated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at the Laboreaux sewage treatment plant (STP), Brazil. Two scenarios were considered: (i) priority use of biogas for the thermal drying of dehydrated sludge and the use of the excess biogas for electricity generation in an ICE (internal combustion engine); and (ii) priority use of biogas for electricity generation and the use of the heat of the engine exhaust gases for the thermal drying of the sludge. Scenario 1 showed that the electricity generated is able to supply 22.2% of the STP power demand, but the thermal drying process enables a greater reduction or even elimination of the final volume of sludge to be disposed. In Scenario 2, the electricity generated is able to supply 57.6% of the STP power demand; however, the heat in the exhaust gases is not enough to dry the total amount of dehydrated sludge.

  10. Market-Based Decision Guidance Framework for Power and Alternative Energy Collaboration (United States)

    Altaleb, Hesham

    With the introduction of power energy markets deregulation, innovations have transformed once a static network into a more flexible grid. Microgrids have also been deployed to serve various purposes (e.g., reliability, sustainability, etc.). With the rapid deployment of smart grid technologies, it has become possible to measure and record both, the quantity and time of the consumption of electrical power. In addition, capabilities for controlling distributed supply and demand have resulted in complex systems where inefficiencies are possible and where improvements can be made. Electric power like other volatile resources cannot be stored efficiently, therefore, managing such resource requires considerable attention. Such complex systems present a need for decisions that can streamline consumption, delay infrastructure investments, and reduce costs. When renewable power resources and the need for limiting harmful emissions are added to the equation, the search space for decisions becomes increasingly complex. As a result, the need for a comprehensive decision guidance system for electrical power resources consumption and productions becomes evident. In this dissertation, I formulate and implement a comprehensive framework that addresses different aspect of the electrical power generation and consumption using optimization models and utilizing collaboration concepts. Our solution presents a two-prong approach: managing interaction in real-time for the short-term immediate consumption of already allocated resources; and managing the operational planning for the long-run consumption. More specifically, in real-time, we present and implement a model of how to organize a secondary market for peak-demand allocation and describe the properties of the market that guarantees efficient execution and a method for the fair distribution of collaboration gains. We also propose and implement a primary market for peak demand bounds determination problem with the assumption that

  11. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan


    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  12. Developing New Alternative Energy in Virginia: Bio-Diesel from Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, Patrick [Old Dominion University


    . The positive economics of this process are influenced by the following: 1. the weight percent of dry algae in suspension that can be fed into the evaporator, 2. the alga species’ ability to produce a higher yield of biodiesel, 3. the isolation of valuable methoxylated by-products, 4. recycling and regeneration of methanol and TMAH, and 5. the market value of biodiesel, commercial agricultural fertilizer, and the three methoxylated by-products. The negative economics of the process are the following: 1. the cost of producing dried, ground algae, 2. the capital cost of the equipment required for feedstock mixing, reaction, separation and recovery of products, and reactant recycling, and 3. the electrical cost and other utilities. In this report, the economic factors and results are assembled to predict the commercialization cost and its viability. This direct conversion process and equipment discussed herein can be adapted for various feedstocks including: other algal species, vegetable oil, jatropha oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, and other TAG containing raw materials as a renewable energy resource.

  13. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR. (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L


    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  14. Polymerase chain reaction-based discrimination of viable from non-viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Giap Tan


    Full Text Available The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20–25 h at 37 °C, 22–25 h at 16 °C, and 23–27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h. The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan BAYKAL


    Full Text Available İklim değişikleri insanoğlunun günümüzde karşılaştığı en büyük sorunlardan biri olarak sayılmaktadır. Dünya’nın giderek artan enerji gereksinimleri küresel çevreyi tehlikeye atmaktadır. Ülkeler tarafından enerji üretmek için kullanılan fosilli yakıtlara olan bağımlılık, dünyanın iklimini tehdit etmektedir.  Fosilli yakıtlar tarafından üretilen enerjinin kullanımının yarattığı olumsuz etkiler, dünya ülkelerinin temiz ve yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarını geliştirmesi ve teşvik etmesinin gerekliliğini açıkça ortaya koymuştur. Dünyanın geleceği, karbondioksitin azaltılması ve temiz güç ile sürdürülebilirlik üzerinde yoğunlaşan alternatif enerjiye bağlıdır. Bu konular, çevresel olarak güvenli ve ekonomik olarak verimli olan alternatif enerji kaynaklarının geliştirilmesini ve kullanımını teşvik etmiştir. Bu çalışma çeşitli alternatif enerji kaynaklarını kapsayan verileri ve bu kaynakların uygulanması ile ilgili gelişmeleri gözden geçirecektir.- One of the greatest challenges facing humanity today has been identified as climate change. The world’s ever increasing energy requirements are endangering the global environment. The overall dependence on fossil fuels to generate power throughout the nations is threatening the climate across the planet. The negative effects created by the use of fossil fuel generated power have made it apparently clear that the nations of the world need to develop and promote clean and renewable energy sources.  The future of the Earth is dependent on the reduction of carbon dioxide and alternative energy that focuses on clean power and sustainability.  Together these issues have encouraged the development and the use of alternative energy that is environmentally safe and economically effective. This study presents and reviews data covering various alternative energy sources and the progress of their perspective applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan BAYKAL


    Full Text Available İklim değişikleri insanoğlunun günümüzde karşılaştığı en büyük sorunlardan biri olarak sayılmaktadır. Dünya’nın giderek artan enerji gereksinimleri küresel çevreyi tehlikeye atmaktadır. Ülkeler tarafından enerji üretmek için kullanılan fosilli yakıtlara olan bağımlılık, dünyanın iklimini tehdit etmektedir. Fosilli yakıtlar tarafından üretilen enerjinin kullanımının yarattığı olumsuz etkiler, dünya ülkelerinin temiz ve yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarını geliştirmesi ve teşvik etmesinin gerekliliğini açıkça ortaya koymuştur. Dünyanın geleceği, karbondioksitin azaltılması ve temiz güç ile sürdürülebilirlik üzerinde yoğunlaşan alternatif enerjiye bağlıdır. Bu konular, çevresel olarak güvenli ve ekonomik olarak verimli olan alternatif enerji kaynaklarının geliştirilmesini ve kullanımını teşvik etmiştir. Bu çalışma çeşitli alternatif enerji kaynaklarını kapsayan verileri ve bu kaynakların uygulanması ile ilgili gelişmeleri gözden geçirecektir.- One of the greatest challenges facing humanity today has been identified as climate change. The world’s ever increasing energy requirements are endangering the global environment. The overall dependence on fossil fuels to generate power throughout the nations is threatening the climate across the planet. The negative effects created by the use of fossil fuel generated power have made it apparently clear that the nations of the world need to develop and promote clean and renewable energy sources. The future of the Earth is dependent on the reduction of carbon dioxide and alternative energy that focuses on clean power and sustainability. Together these issues have encouraged the development and the use of alternative energy that is environmentally safe and economically effective. This study presents and reviews data covering various alternative energy sources and the progress of their perspective applications.

  17. Task 1 Report - Assessment of Data Availability to Inform Energy Planning Analyses: Energy Alternatives Study for the Lao People's Democratic Republic: Smart Infrastructure for the Mekong Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Katz, Jessica R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cardoso de Oliveira, Ricardo P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hayter, Sheila J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    In an effort to address concerns such as energy security, reliability, affordability, and other objectives, the Government of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is seeking to advance its expertise and experience in energy system analysis and planning to explore energy alternatives. Assessing the potential and alternatives for deploying energy technology options is often an early step - and, in most cases, an ongoing process - in planning for the development of the energy sector as a whole. Reliable and robust data are crucial to conducting these types of planning-related analyses in a transparent manner that builds confidence among power sector stakeholders and encourages investment in future energy project development and infrastructure opportunities. This report represents the first output of the Energy Alternatives Study for the Lao PDR (Energy Alternatives Study), a collaboration between Ministry of Energy and Mines and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the auspices of the Smart Infrastructure for the Mekong (SIM) program. The Energy Alternatives Study includes five tasks that build upon each other to meet the goal of the project. The report summarizes the availability, quality, and accessibility of data that serve as key inputs to energy planning activities for the power sector. The purpose of this data assessment is two-fold: 1. To facilitate the informed use of existing data by highlighting applications for these data as they relate to priority energy planning analyses; and 2. To inform future investments in energy data collection and management by identifying significant data gaps and providing guidance on how to fill these gaps.

  18. The influence of energy standardisation on the alternate Mediterranean diet score and its association with mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort. (United States)

    Shvetsov, Yurii B; Harmon, Brook E; Ettienne, Reynolette; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Boushey, Carol J


    The alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) score is an adaptation of the original Mediterranean diet score. Raw (aMED) and energy-standardised (aMED-e) versions have been used. How the diet scores and their association with health outcomes differ between the two versions is unclear. We examined differences in participants' total and component scores and compared the association of aMED and aMED-e with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. As part of the Multiethnic Cohort, 193 527 men and women aged 45-75 years from Hawaii and Los Angeles completed a baseline FFQ and were followed up for 13-18 years. The association of aMED and aMED-e with mortality was examined using Cox's regression, with adjustment for total energy intake. The correlation between aMED and aMED-e total scores was lower among people with higher BMI. Participants who were older, leaner, more educated and consumed less energy scored higher on aMED-e components compared with aMED, except for the red and processed meat and alcohol components. Men reporting more physical activity scored lower on most aMED-e components compared with aMED, whereas the opposite was observed for the meat component. Higher scores of both aMED and aMED-e were associated with lower risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Although individuals may score differently with aMED and aMED-e, both scores show similar reductions in mortality risk for persons scoring high on the index scale. Either version can be used in studies of diet and mortality. Comparisons can be performed across studies using different versions of the score.

  19. More efficient energy yield. Wet fermentation fixed bed fermenter as an alternative to dry fermentation; Effizientere Energieausbeute. Nassvergaerung im Festbettfermenter als Alternative zur Trockenvergaerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landwehr, Sandra [Borgmeier PR, Delmenhorst (Germany)


    The fermentation of biowaste as a solid can be used to generate energy in the form of biogas. In a research project supported by the Federal Government, the input-output relation between different methods was studied. A newly developed wet procedure in a fixed bed digester shows a much more efficient energy yield can be achieved with less effort.

  20. Toward sustainable energy development in the Indian power sector: A critique of fifty years of power development in India and an analysis of sustainable energy alternatives (United States)

    Govindarajalu, Chandrasekhar

    At present, the Indian electric power sector (EPS) finds itself in a "triple bind," plagued by a severe resource crunch, adverse environmental impacts and unequal social access to energy services, and a poor record of technical performance in generation and distribution of electricity. The problems of the EPS are seen in this dissertation as manifestations of a larger crisis of unsustainable energy development, rooted in the political economy of power development in India. A theoretical framework is articulated based on a political economy approach constructed for this dissertation. The political economy framework is comprised of three elements: a materialization thesis that describes the core social relations in support of a specific political and economic structure; an institutionalization thesis that describes how these material relations are reproduced; and an ideology thesis which argues that a pervasive ideology exists making intelligible the existence of a particular form of political economy. From the vantage-point of this framework, and through a detailed examination of the political history of the power sector in India, the crisis in the Indian power sector is linked to the contradictions of what is termed as the "conventional model of energy development" (CMED) embraced by Indian planners at the time of independence. It is argued that the crisis in the EPS is caused by the intensive bureaucratization and technicization of the system, all but removing it from social and environmental evaluation. Current policy prescriptions for the Indian EPS, both Western as well as domestic, call for further strengthening the technocratic construct of the EPS. Privatization and restructuring experiments, underway in India, rather than breaking away from the existing approach, actually deepen the institutional hold of the CMED. Sustainable energy development (SED) is examined as an alternative to the CMED. The meaning and relevance of this concept in the context of the

  1. [Which alternative method to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for assessing body composition in overweight and obese adolescents?]. (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Boirie, Y; Meyer, M; Vermorel, M


    Professionals in charge of overweight and obese children and adolescents need a simple, reliable and precise method for assessing body composition. To compare body composition as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the skinfold thickness (SFT) method in overweight and obese adolescents, and to establish and validate new predictive equations of body composition from BIA measurements using DXA as standard method. Body composition was assessed in 143 obese adolescents (Z-score = 3.2 +/- 1.4) aged 12 to 17 years by DXA, BIA (RJL System, Analycor and Analycor XF models) and SFT (Siri and Slaughter's equations). New prediction equations of fat mass (FM) as assessed by DXA were computed from BIA measurements in a calibration group, and validated in an homologous group of subjects. Results. - The Bland-Altman test showed that compared to DXA, BIA underestimated FM by 2.8 +/- 2.0 kg and 2.3 +/- 2.1 kg using the RJL System and Analycor impedancemeter, respectively (P Siri's equation underestimated FM by 4.0 +/- 2.9 kg (P < 0.001). The alternative to the DXA method to assess FM was BIA with new prediction equations including gender, body weight, height(2)/resistance and reactance. DXA, BIA and the SFT method were not directly interchangeable. The SFT method was inadequate to assess body composition in overweight and obese adolescents. BIA and new prediction equations could be an alternative to the DXA method in overweight and obese adolescents.

  2. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model (United States)

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon


    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  3. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.


    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  4. Is Greenberg's "Macro-Carib" viable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike Gildea

    Full Text Available In his landmark work Language in the Americas, Greenberg (1987 proposed that Macro-Carib was one of the major low-level stocks of South America, which together with Macro-Panoan and Macro-Ge-Bororo were claimed to comprise the putative Ge-Pano-Carib Phylum. His Macro-Carib includes the isolates Andoke and Kukura, and the Witotoan, Peba-Yaguan, and Cariban families. Greenberg's primary evidence came from person-marking paradigms in individual languages, plus scattered words from individual languages collected into 79 Macro-Carib 'etymologies' and another 64 Amerind 'etymologies'. The goal of this paper is to re-evaluate Greenberg's Macro-Carib claim in the light of the much more extensive and reliable language data that has become available largely since 1987. Based on full person-marking paradigms for Proto-Cariban, Yagua, Bora and Andoke, we conclude that Greenberg's morphological claims are unfounded. For our lexical comparison, we created lexical lists for Proto-Cariban, Proto-Witotoan, Yagua and Andoke, for both Greenberg's 143 putative etymologies and for the Swadesh 100 list. From both lists, a total of 23 potential cognates were found, but no consonantal correspondences were repeated even once. We conclude that our greatly expanded and improved database does not provide sufficient evidence to convince the skeptic that the Macro-Carib hypothesis is viable

  5. Military Energy Alternatives Conference (United States)


    exchange device for a target 5.3-kWt (1.5-ton) lithium bromide absorption cycle. United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) Development of a in heat pump water heater applications ARRA for Cogeneration GE Global / UMD • Lithium bromide absorption • TRL 3 component test stand

  6. Coal, an alternative to nuclear power in Europe's energy future; Le charbon, alternative au nucleaire et avenir energetique de l'Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre [Institut d' etudes politiques de Paris, Sciences Po, 27 rue Saint-Guillaume, 75337 Paris Cedex 07 (France)


    The impending demise of nuclear power in several European countries and the projected strong increase in world energy requirements are placing coal in the forefront again. From being the primary energy source in the 19. century, coal is making a quite remarkable come-back in the 21. century with the advent of 'clean coal' and with its dominance in the energy mix of rapidly emerging countries such as China. New mines should open in Europe. In France, the last mine closed in 2004, but there is potential for new ones in the centre of France in areas such as Auvergne and Bourgogne, as well as Midi Pyrenees. These could create new jobs and reduce France's energy dependency. Far from the topical scenes of the past described in books such as Germinal, with its tips and misery, coal is again a promising energy source, with potential to satisfy a rising share of Europe's energy demand. (author)

  7. Cooperativism, a viable option in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Izquierdo Muciño


    Full Text Available There are a big number of successful cooperative societies that have survived to the worst ravages of economic politics that the country is currently living, including companies that originally were commercial enterprises. Therefore this becomes a living proof that thought this system, is possible to achieve an alternative economy, fairer and more inclusive where is possible to get out of the crisis that the county is facing.Received: 08.07.2013Accepted: 30.07.2013

  8. Parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Rodríguez


    Full Text Available El presente artículo científico presenta resultados del proceso llevado a cabo en el proyecto de investigación docente "Mecanismos de autorregulación en parejas viables que perduran en el tiempo". Se soporta en una mirada compleja de la psicología basada en una epistemología de la construcción. En el ámbito metodológico, se inscribe en los estudios de terapia familiar desde una perspectiva de la comunicación humana como un todo integrado. Participaron nueve parejas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: cinco o más años de convivencia, participación voluntaria, no presentar (ni haber presentado problemáticas especiales que ameriten intervención psicoterapéutica y la obtención de un porcentaje significativo en el uso de estrategias de comunicación asertiva en la resolución de conflictos. El método general utilizado fue el análisis de la comunicación en tarea de conversación. Los principales hallazgos señalan una estrecha relación entre el contexto de desarrollo de las parejas, la emergencia de códigos comunicacionales propios y la posibilidad de perdurar en el tiempo; también, se resalta el tipo de comunicación asertiva o constructiva, la construcción de valores como el respeto y la aceptación de las diferencias, y el deseo por vivir y construir bienestar común, como elementos constitutivos de su identidad como pareja.

  9. The Influence of Political Decisions upon the Evolution of Renewable Energy in Romania. Case Study: Aeolian Energy




    It is widely accepted the fact that the foreseeable effects of the climate changes will have a major impact on the environment, and the human activities, especially fossil fuel combustion, represents the main cause of global warming. Both climate changes and the raise of the world consumption of energy and the perspective of diminishing the mineral energy resources turn the renewable energy into the main viable alternative. Between the renewable resources, the wind (Aeolian) en...

  10. A comparative analysis of well-to-wheel primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions for the operation of alternative and conventional vehicles in Switzerland, considering various energy carrier production pathways (United States)

    Yazdanie, Mashael; Noembrini, Fabrizio; Dossetto, Lionel; Boulouchos, Konstantinos


    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of well-to-wheel (WTW) primary energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the operation of conventional and alternative passenger vehicle drivetrains. Results are determined based on a reference vehicle, drivetrain/production process efficiencies, and lifecycle inventory data specific to Switzerland. WTW performance is compared to a gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Both industrialized and novel hydrogen and electricity production pathways are evaluated. A strong case is presented for pluggable electric vehicles (PEVs) due to their high drivetrain efficiency. However, WTW performance strongly depends on the electricity source. A critical electricity mix can be identified which divides optimal drivetrain performance between the EV, ICEV, and plug-in hybrid vehicle. Alternative drivetrain and energy carrier production pathways are also compared by natural resource. Fuel cell vehicle (FCV) performance proves to be on par with PEVs for energy carrier (EC) production via biomass and natural gas resources. However, PEVs outperform FCVs via solar energy EC production pathways. ICE drivetrains using alternative fuels, particularly biogas and CNG, yield remarkable WTW energy and emission reductions as well, indicating that alternative fuels, and not only alternative drivetrains, play an important role in the transition towards low-emission vehicles in Switzerland.

  11. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation; Stromeffizienz und erneuerbare Energien - Wirtschaftliche alternative zu Grosskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nordmann, T. [TNC Consulting AG, Erlenbach (Switzerland)


    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  12. Glycerolysis with crude glycerine as an alternative 3 pretreatment for biodiesel production from grease trap 4 waste: Parametric study and energy analysis (United States)

    This study reports the use of crude glycerine from biodiesel production in the glycerolysis process and presents the associated parametric and energy analyses. The potential of glycerolysis as an alternative pretreatment method for high free fatty acid (FFA) containing fats, oils and greases (FOGs) ...

  13. Vocational-Technical Physics Project. The Alternator: I. Current Electricity, II. Magnets from Electricity, III. Electricity from Magnets, IV. Energy Conversion. Field Test Edition. (United States)

    Forsyth Technical Inst., Winston-Salem, NC.

    This vocational physics individualized instructional student module on the alternator consists of the four units: Current electricity, magnets from electricity, electricity from magnets, and energy conversion. Designed with a laboratory orientation, the units present explanations of the concepts and experiments. Laboratory data sheets,…

  14. Summary Report for National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) and Centro Para Prevencao da Poluicao (C3P) 2011 International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy (United States)

    Greene, Brian


    The C3P &. NASA International Workshop on Environment and Alternative Energy was held on November 15-18, 2011 at the European Space Agency (ESA)'s Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, The Netherlands. The theme of the workshop was "Global Collaboration in Environmental and Alternative Energy Strategies". The workshop was held at ESTEC's conference center. More than 110 individuals from eleven countries attended the workshop. For the first time since the inception of NASA-C3P workshops, a full day was dedicated to a student session. Fifteen students from around the globe gave oral presentations along with poster displays relating to the latest technologies in environmental and alternative energy strategies. Judges from NASA, C3P and ESA awarded plaques to the top three students. In addition to the students, thirty eight U.S. and international subject matter experts presented on the following general environmental-related topics: (1) Hazardous materials management and substitution in support of space operations (2) Emerging renewable and alternative energy technologies (3) Sustainable development and redevelopment (4) Remediation technologies and strategies The workshop also included a panel discussion on the topic of the challenges of operating installations across borders. Throughout the workshop, attendees heard about the scope of environmental and energy challenges that industry and governments face. They heard about technologies for increasing energy efficiency and increasing use of renewable energy. They learned about ways companies and government agencies are using materials, processes, goods and services in a manner more respectful with the environment and in compliance with health and safety rules. The concept of partnerships and their inherent benefits was evidenced throughout the workshop. Partnering is a key aspect of sustainability because sustainable development is complicated. Through formal presentations and side discussions, attendees

  15. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity (United States)

    Sakstein, Jeremy


    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  16. Alternative energy sources II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 5 - Geothermal power/energy program (United States)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    This volume examines the geothermal resource and geothermal energy utilization, and surveys regional energy programs worldwide. The particular papers presented on geothermal energy include those on the temperature indicators for geothermal use, geothermal drilling research in the United States, and geothermal energy and biofuel production in agriculture. Energy programs from India, Egypt, Turkey, Greece and Puerto Rico are reviewed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Widiarti


    Full Text Available The eco-friendly materials which have not commonly developed as energy storage alternative sources are solid electrolytes. Chitosan is one of the natural polymer potentially used as the material of solid electrolytes. The purpose of this study is to determine the conductivity value of chitosan polymer’s electrolytes-PVA-glutaraldehyde-NH4Br by varying amount of chitosan and ammonium bromide salt (NH4Br. The polymer electrolyte membrane was made using phase inversion method. Electrolyte polymer is made by mixing chitosan, PVA, glutaraldehyde, and NH4Br to become homogenous liquid and then printed it in petri dish. Polymer electrolyte with chitosan variation of 2; 2.4; 2.8 and 3.2 g has highest ionic conductivity of 1.4983 x 10-2 S/cm with the addition of 2.8 g that can be used as the optimum composition. The variations of salt (NH4Br were 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1 g has the highest ionic conductivity in the point of 2.4385 x 10-2 S/cm with the addition of 0.6 g. The characterization result of FTIR shows OH group at the wavenumber of 3362.02 cm-1, C-O group at 1740.43 cm-1, and C=N group at 1542.41 cm-1. Synthesized polymer can be used as a battery that has 0.43 V voltage.

  18. The use of nucleosides and arginine as alternative energy sources by coagulase-negative staphylococci in view of meat fermentation. (United States)

    Janssens, M; Van der Mijnsbrugge, A; Sánchez Mainar, M; Balzarini, T; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F


    The ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) to use alternative energy sources in meat may partially explain their occurrence in fermented meats. Of 61 CNS strains tested, all metabolized adenosine and inosine in a meat simulation medium (MSM). The ability to catabolize arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway varied between strains. All tested strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis possessed an arcA gene and showed ADI activity, whereas other species, such as Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus, did not. Arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), as in the positive control S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, were uncommon and only found in Staphylococcus xylosus 3PA6 (sausage isolate) and Staphylococcus chromogenes G222 (teat apex isolate). Monoculture experiments were performed in MSM with S. carnosus 833 and SS3-4, S. xylosus G211, and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and 2S7-4. At all pH values tested (5.3, 5.8, and 6.5), the strains of S. carnosus catabolized arginine faster than the strains of S. xylosus and S. epidermidis. Only at pH 6.5 could a low ADI activity be found for S. xylosus G211. Increased ADI activity occurred in the case of the ACME-positive S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, when compared to the ACME-negative S. epidermidis 2S7-4. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Binary zero-power sensors: an alternative solution for power-free energy-autonomous sensor systems (United States)

    Frank, Thomas; Gerlach, Gerald; Steinke, Arndt


    Energy-autarkic sensor systems use energy from their environment for operation and data transfer. This needs both an efficient energy harvesting strategy and an appropriate energy storage management but also ultra-low-power technologies for sensors, signal processing, and wireless signal transfer. Binary Zero-Power Sensors (BIZEPS) are threshold switches which take the switching energy directly from the quantity to be measured. Hence, they deliver the switching states "ON" and "OFF" without any additional electrical energy.

  20. Economic and Environmental Analysis of Cool Thermal Energy Storage as an Alternative to Batteries for the Integration of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources


    Anderson, Matthew John


    The balance of the supply of renewable energy sources with electricity demand will become increasingly difficult with further penetration of renewable energy sources. Traditionally, large stationary batteries have been used to store renewable energy in excess of electricity demand and dispatch the stored energy to meet future electricity demand. Cool thermal energy storage is a feasible renewable energy balancing solution that has economic and environmental advantages over utility scale stati...

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.


    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  2. Energy 2000. A reference projection and alternative outlooks for the European Community and the world to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmot, J.-F.; McGlue, D.; Valette, P.; Waeterloos, C.


    This book represents the first output from the energy systems analysis and modelling research programme funded by the Commission of the European Communities. It provides detailed and consistent energy projections on a country basis and at the level of the EC as a whole using the same methodological approach and harmonized energy data. Results are presented for each country in terms of primary energy source and energy demand by sector.

  3. Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a Foundation for a Viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on “Asouzu's Complementary Ontology as a foundation for a viable Ethic of the Environment”, posits that an ethic of the environment can be seen as viable if it considers the whole of reality as ontologically relevant. This point of view would free environmental ethics of anthropocentric bias and its attendant ...

  4. Implementation of the fuzzy theory in control of alternative energy generation system; Aplicacao da teoria fuzzy no controle de sistemas de geracao de energias alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], E-mail:; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail:


    This paper presents the application and use of a methodology based on fuzzy theory and simulates its use in intelligent control of a hybrid system for generating electricity, using solar energy, photovoltaic and wind. When using a fuzzy control system, it reached the point of maximum generation of energy, thus shifting all energy generated from the alternative sources-solar photovoltaic and wind, cargo and / or batteries when its use not immediately. The model uses three variables used for entry, which are: wind speed, solar radiation and loading the bank of batteries. For output variable has to choose which of the batteries of the battery bank is charged. For the simulations of this work is used MATLAB software. In this environment mathematical computational are analyzed and simulated all mathematical modeling, rules and other variables in the system described fuzzy. This model can be used in a system of control of hybrid systems for generating energy, providing the best use of energy sources, sun and wind, so we can extract the maximum energy possible these alternative sources without any prejudice to the environment. (author)

  5. Separation of viable and non-viable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seeds using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René


    -viable tomato seeds of two cultivars using chemometrics. The data exploration were performed by principal component analysis (PCA). Subsequently, viable and non-viable seeds were classified by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and interval PLS-DA (iPLS-DA). The indication of clustering...... of viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the PCA of each cultivar and the pooled samples. However, the PCA did not exhibit a pattern of separation among the early, normal and late germinated tomato seeds. The NIR spectral regions of 1160–1170, 1383–1397, 1647–1666, 1860–1884 and 1915–1940 nm were...... identified as important for classification of viable and non-viable tomato seeds by iPLS-DA. The sensitivity i.e. ability to correctly identify the positive samples and specificity i.e. ability to reject the negative samples of the (iPLS-DA) model on identified spectral regions for prediction of viable...

  6. 76 FR 28178 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 285 RIN 1010-AD71 Renewable... acquisition of an Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) renewable energy lease. We are taking this action because... for an OCS renewable energy lease, where BOEMRE is required to publish only a single notice. The final...

  7. 75 FR 72679 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 285 RIN 1010-AD71 Renewable... an Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) renewable energy lease. We are taking this action because the current regulations covering noncompetitive leasing of an OCS renewable energy lease and an unsolicited...

  8. 76 FR 8962 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a... (United States)


    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 285 RIN 1010-AD71 Renewable... acquisition of an Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) renewable energy lease. We are taking this action because the current regulations governing the noncompetitive acquisition of an OCS renewable energy lease initiated by...

  9. Counting project savings—an alternative way to monitor the results of a voluntary agreement on industrial energy savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abeelen, Christiaan; Harmsen, Robert; Worrell, Ernst


    In 2008, the Dutch voluntary agreements on industrial energy efficiency faced fundamental changes to their monitoring methodology. Where the old method was based on measuring the improvement of energy use per unit of production, the new method focuses on the energy savings from projects implemented

  10. Dutch energy scenarios evaluated : trends and implications. Drawing lessons form an ex-post evaluation of Dutch energy forecasts and presenting alternative forecasts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, Bieuwe


    SUMMARY During the 1970s, many energy scenarios about future energy demand and supply appeared. This can be attributed to various developments, like the increased environmental awareness, the oil crisis of the year 1973, and the introduction of the compu

  11. Alternative Auditing Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This presentation for the 2017 Energy Exchange in Tampa, Florida, offers information about advanced auditing technologies and techniques including alternative auditing approaches and considerations and caveats.

  12. Use of off-axis injection as an alternative to geometrically merging beams in an energy-recovering linac (United States)

    Douglas, David R [York County, VA


    A method of using off-axis particle beam injection in energy-recovering linear accelerators that increases operational efficiency while eliminating the need to merge the high energy re-circulating beam with an injected low energy beam. In this arrangement, the high energy re-circulating beam and the low energy beam are manipulated such that they are within a predetermined distance from one another and then the two immerged beams are injected into the linac and propagated through the system. The configuration permits injection without geometric beam merging as well as decelerated beam extraction without the use of typical beamline elements.

  13. Impact of energy efficiency and alternative sources in the Brazilian electric matrix: scenarios 2005-2050; Impacto da eficiencia energetica e das fontes alternativas na matriz eletrica brasileira: cenarios 2005-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco A.; Gimenes, Andre L.V.; Fujii, Ricardo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; Furtado, Marcelo [Greenpeace Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Part of a worldwide initiative championed by Greenpeace International and EREC - European Renewable Energy Council, a partnership between Greenpeace Brazil and GEPEA/USP were established for producing two national alternative energy scenarios, as a blueprint for how to meet forthcoming Brazilian energy needs in a sustainable way. Such scenarios, one reflecting the views of GEPEA/USP and another the perceptions by Greenpeace, were both based on a reference scenario strongly drawing from the 'Plano Decenal 2006-2015' and the 'Plano Nacional de Energia 2030', both by the Ministry of Mines and Energy. From the alternative scenarios one may see that is feasible to satisfy the increasing Brazilian demand through the integrated deployment of alternative resources, Natural Gas fueled thermal power plants and energy conservation measures. To develop the Brazilian electricity energy base in such terms, however, is mandatory to conduct further debate on energy planning issues, conservation measures and alternatives resources concerns included. (author)

  14. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil. (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit


    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  15. A Study on Renewable Energy as a Sustainable Alternative for Ensuring Energy Security in Bangladesh and Related Socio-Economic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Mowdudur Rahman


    Full Text Available Deficiency in energy sector is a major problem, which can hinder the development workflow of any country. Being the eighth most populated country in the world with a total electricity generation of only about 5000 MW and consumption of 144 kWh per capita, Bangladesh is one of the most electricity-deprived countries around the globe. In addition, absence of adequate investment and mass people awareness is a major problem in this country. Therefore, it would be very difficult to achieve overall progress without ensuring energy security by utilizing the promising renewable energy sources. In order to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG, it is must for a third world country like Bangladesh to address the issue of energy deficiency promptly. In this context, renewable energy is the sustainable solution of energy security as well as social, environmental and economical problems. This paper summarizes the current energy scenario of Bangladesh, impacts of pollution from conventional energy sources, prospects of renewable energy development, and estimates the total investment required in Bangladesh to promote renewable energy sector by the year 2020.

  16. Identification of the Situation of Renewable Energy Alternatives in the Criteria known by private sector investors (Case study: Iran)


    Aslani, Alireza; Naaranoja, Marja; Antila, Erkki; Golbaba, Mostafa


    Due to the diversified potentials of renewable energies in Iran, exploitation deployment of these resources as cleaner energies is one of the suggested strategies to minimize the fossil fuel usage and reduce the environmental footprints. In this relate in order to have the application of renewable energy economically, the government tries to diffuse these resources pervasively by private sectors supporting. As investment behaviour depends on the investment risk, investors have obscurities and...

  17. Current progress and challenges in engineering viable artificial leaf for solar water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc D. Nguyen


    Full Text Available Large scale production of H2, a clean fuel, can be realized with just water and solar light energy by employing a viable energy conversion device called artificial leaf. In this tutorial review, we discuss on advances achieved recently and technical challenges remained toward the creation of such a leaf. Development of key components like catalysts for water electrolysis process and light harvester for harvesting solar energy as well as strategies being developed for assembling these components to create a complete artificial leaf will be highlighted.

  18. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole


    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau geothermal assessment is acquiring and interpreting comprehensive field data that can provide quantitative constraints on the recovery of heat from the Columbia River Basalts at depths greater than those currently tested by deep boreholes.

  19. Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation. (United States)

    Ryder, Oliver A; Onuma, Manabu


    Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. The prospects for incorporating collections of frozen viable cell cultures into efforts to characterize the genetic changes that have produced the diversity of species on Earth and contribute to new initiatives in conservation argue strongly for a global network of facilities for establishing and cryobanking collections of viable cells.

  20. Alternative energy: an escape from OPEP; Energias alternativas: uma fuga do sistema centralizador da OPEP com vistas as energias ecologicamente corretas, no ambito brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Ariela; Zaninho, Erica Cristina Leocardio [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil)


    In view of the constant increases in the price of the barrel of the oil, one became necessary to analyze alternatives to the dependence on the part of some countries, amongst them Brazil, in relation to this energy matrix. The present article argues the possibilities of escape of a system centralizer as the OPEP, detaching the renewable energies in its varied more flowing: ethanol, biomass, wind energy and photovoltaic solar energy. After to analyze these energies intently as well as the Brazilian potential in natural resources for development of the same ones, perceives it relevance of these energy matrices for the situation of ambient degradation for which the world has passed and arrives it the conclusion of that a coherent and sustainable planning is necessary that all transforms this potential into reality. An ecological conscience is necessary deep so that if it understands the importance of the implantation of such energy sources not only for the reduction of the costs for the country, but mainly to prevent that it advances world-wide ambient deterioration. (author.

  1. Degradation of selected industrial dyes using Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales under natural sun light as an alternative driving energy (United States)

    Shivaraju, H. P.; Midhun, G.; Anil Kumar, K. M.; Pallavi, S.; Pallavi, N.; Behzad, Shahmoradi


    Designing photocatalytic materials with modified functionalities for the utilization of renewable energy sources as an alternative driving energy has attracted much attention in the area of sustainable wastewater treatment applications. Catalyst-assisted advanced oxidation process is an emerging treatment technology for organic pollutants and toxicants in industrial wastewater. Preparation of visible-light-responsive photocatalyst such as Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales was carried out under mild sol-gel technique. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were characterized by powder XRD, SEM, FTIR, and optical and photocatalytic activity techniques. The Mg-doped TiO2 showed a mixed phase of anatase and rutile with an excellent crystallinity, structural elucidations, polyscales morphology, consequent shifting of bandgap energy and adequate photocatalytic activities under visible range of light. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were investigated for their efficiencies in the degradation of most commonly used industrial dyes in the real-time textile wastewater. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales showed excellent photocatalytic degradation efficiency in both model industrial dyes (65-95%) and textile wastewater (92%) under natural sunlight as an alternative and renewable driving energy.

  2. Bone age assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children: An alternative for X-ray?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); G.D.S. Ernst (Gesina); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica); M.H. Lequin (Maarten); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); J.J.M. Geelhoed (Miranda); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)


    textabstractObjective: The aim of the study was to validate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a method to assess bone age in children. Methods: Paired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and X-rays of the left hand were performed in 95 children who attended the paediatric

  3. The future of clean energy, from vision to a real alternative; Fremtidens rene energisystem, fra visjon til reelt alternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Research on environment-protecting and renewable energy has been a high national priority in recent years. Research in this field for the first time were brought together in one program when RENERGI was established in 2004. For nearly 10 years, RENERGI has been central to the public funding of energy research and, not least, helped a good structuring of competence building.(eb)

  4. The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of alternatives in residential construction in the United States (United States)

    Brad Upton; Reid Miner; Mike Spinney; Linda S. Heath


    Data developed by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials were used to estimate savings of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption associated with use of wood-based building materials in residential construction in the United States. Results indicate that houses with wood-based wall systems require 15-16% less total energy for non-heating/...

  5. "Gaa-Noodin-Oke" (Alternative Energy/Wind Power): A Curriculum Implementation on the White Earth Reservation (United States)

    Guzey, Siddika Selcen; Nyachwaya, James; Moore, Tamara J.; Roehrig, Gillian H.


    A wind energy focused curriculum for grades 4-8 was designed and implemented to promote the understanding of wind energy concepts with American Indian students. 57 students who participated in the 2009 summer program of the "Reach for the Sky" (RFTS) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) received the curriculum. The…

  6. Net energy production and emissions mitigation of domestic wastewater treatment system: a comparison of different biogas-sludge use alternatives. (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin


    Wastewater treatment systems are increasingly designed for the recovery of valuable chemicals and energy in addition to waste stream disposal. Herein, the life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation of a typical domestic wastewater treatment system were assessed, in which different combinations of biogas use and sludge processing lines for industrial or household applications were considered. The results suggested that the reuse of biogas and sludge was so important in the system's overall energy balance and environmental performance that it may offset the cost in the plant's installation and operation. Combined heat and power and household utilization were two prior options for net energy production, provided an ideal power conversion efficiency and biogas production. The joint application of household biogas use and sludge nutrient processing achieved both high net energy production and significant environmental remediation across all impact categories, representing the optimal tradeoff for domestic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Healing, Mental Energy in the Physics Classroom: Energy Conceptions and Trust in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Grade 10-12 Students (United States)

    Svedholm, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana


    Lay conceptions of energy often conflict with scientific knowledge, hinder science learning and scientific literacy, and provide a basis for ungrounded beliefs. In a sample of Finnish upper secondary school students, energy was attributed with features of living and animate beings and thought of as a mental property. These ontologically confused…

  8. The Global Energy Crisis: Today and Tomorrow. Developing Proactive Action Student Awareness and Understanding About Finite Fuels and Alternative Energy Sources in a Global Age. (United States)

    Peters, Richard O.

    Background information and a teaching strategy are provided to help students better understand the global energy crisis and learn to take action. An overview of the energy crisis includes a discussion of the unequal distribution of natural resources throughout the world, the finite nature of fossil fuels, and problems associated with the depletion…

  9. Elements of an Alternative to Nuclear Power as a Response to the Energy-Environment Crisis in India: Development as Freedom and a Sustainable Energy Utility (United States)

    Mathai, Manu V.


    Even as the conventional energy system is fundamentally challenged by the "energy-environment crisis," its adherents have presented the prospect of "abundant" and purportedly "green" nuclear power as part of a strategy to address the crisis. Surveying the development of nuclear power in India, this article finds that…

  10. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia) (United States)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.


    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  11. Energy and exergy analysis of alternating injection of oxygen and steam in the low emission underground gasification of deep thin coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Wolf, Karl Heinz; Rogut, Jan


    Recent studies have shown that by coupling the underground coal gasification (UCG) with the carbon capture and storage (CCS), the coal energy can be economically extracted with a low carbon footprint. To investigate the effect of UCG and CCS process parameters on the feasibility of the UCG....... Additionally, we show that the zero-emission conversion of unmineable deep thin coal resources in a coupled UCG-CCS process, that is not practical with the current state of technology, can be realized by increasing the energy efficiency of the carbon dioxide capture process....... to conduct an energy and exergy analysis of the UCG process. We study the effect of various process parameters on the efficiency of the UCG process, the zero-emission recovery factor of coal, and the total CO2 emission of the process. Moreover, we compare the alternating injection of air...

  12. Assessing the Energy and Emissions Implications of Alternative Population Scenarios Using a State-Level Integrated Assessment Model (United States)

    We use GCAM-USA to examine the sensitivity of energy demands and resulting pollutant emissions and health impacts to differing population projections. The population projections are based on future fertility, mortality, migration and education assumptions consistent with the five...

  13. Alternative cultivation systems for energy crops. Exploitation of phosphor and nitrogen in the cultivation of mixed fruits with leguminous plants under the conditions of drought stress; Alternative Anbausysteme fuer Energiepflanzen. Phosphor- und Stickstoffausnutzung im Mischfruchtanbau mit Leguminosen unter Trockenstressbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Stefanie; Eichler-Loebermann, Bettina [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Pflanzenbau


    Alternative cropping systems with an efficient utilization of resources are particularly interesting for energy cropping. The P- and N- uptake of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) of maize and sorghum (here called ''energy crops'') intercropped with legumes (substitutive, 50:50) under drought conditions were investigated in a eight week pot experiment. Yield, P- and N- uptake of all species and mixtures were significantly lower under drought conditions than when well watered. The yield and the P-uptake of the mixtures was lower than of the sole cropped energy crops when well watered, but comparable under water deficit with exception of the sorghum mixtures, which reached a lower yield than sole sorghum. Despite the lower N-fertilization the N-uptake of the mixtures was comparable to the sole cropped maize or sorghum when well watered, but under drought N uptake of the mixtures was decreased in comparison to sole cropping. Under drought conditions the N-uptake of maize and sorghum plants in mixtures was not decreased, while the N-uptake of the legumes decreased in comparison to the well watered treatment. This may be an evidence for the benefit of the non-legumes in the investigated intercropping system under drought conditions. (orig.)

  14. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa (United States)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt


    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a

  15. Cattle Cow Dung Use As An Alternative Energy Source And Organic Fertilizer Friendly Enviroment Village Kasang Districts Batang Anai Padang Pariaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Budaraga


    Full Text Available The increasing number of farmers will have a negative impact on the increase of waste generated. Waste from the farm can be either solid gas and liquid waste. Livestock waste can be processed to produce biogas as an alternative energy substitute for oil stove and organic fertilizers. The research objective is a know how the biogas production process in Kanagarian Kasang District of Batang Anai Padang Pariaman b know how to slug biogas applications in rice plants. The usefulness of this research would be useful to increase incomes of farmers especially in Kanagarian Kasang District of Batang Anai Padang Pariaman district on the field of alternative energy and the use of organic fertilizers and can support government programs to support the development of the field of energy and sustainable agricultural development. The research concludes that a The process of making digester system balloon is most appropriate at household level because they are cheap and the manufacturing process is that starting with the manufacturing process digester system balloon when the digester is ready followed by installation of biogas and biogas stove using secondhand goods. b sewage sludge biogas very well be used as organic fertilizer because it can be directly available for the plants and very good impact on the environment.

  16. Alternative-fueled truck demonstration natural gas program: Caterpillar G3406LE development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1990, the California Energy Commission, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and the Southern California Gas Company joined together to sponsor the development and demonstration of compressed natural gas engines for Class 8 heavy-duty line-haul trucking applications. This program became part of an overall Alternative-Fueled Truck Demonstration Program, with the goal of advancing the technological development of alternative-fueled engines. The demonstration showed natural gas to be a technically viable fuel for Class 8 truck engines.

  17. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control. (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A


    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  18. High resolution melt analysis (HRMA); a viable alternative to agarose gel electrophoresis for mouse genotyping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomsen, Nicole; Ali, Radiya G; Ahmed, Jehangir N; Arkell, Ruth M


    .... In contrast to the range of new technologies for mouse mutagenesis, genotyping methods have remained relatively static with alleles typically discriminated by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products...

  19. The Web-Lecture - a viable alternative to the traditional lecture format? (United States)

    Meibom, S.


    Educational research shows that students learn best in an environment with emphasis on teamwork, problem-solving, and hands-on experience. Still professors spend the majority of their time with students in the traditional lecture-hall setting where the combination of large classes and limited time prevents sufficient student-teacher interaction to foster an active learning environment. Can modern computer technology be used to provide "lecture-type" information to students via the World Wide Web? If so, will that help professors make better and/or different use of their scheduled time with the students? Answering these questions was the main motivation for the Extra-Solar Planet Project. The Extra-Solar Planet Project was designed to test the effectiveness of a lecture available to the student on the World Wide Web (Web-Lecture) and to engage the students in an active learning environment were their use the information presented in the Web-Lecture. The topic of the Web-Lecture was detection of extra-solar planets and the project was implemented into an introductory astronomy course at University of Wisconsin Madison in the spring of 2004. The Web-Lecture was designed to give an interactive presentation of synchronized video, audio and lecture notes. It was created using the eTEACH software developed at the University of Wisconsin Madison School of Engineering. In my talk, I will describe the project, show excerpts of the Web-Lecture, and present assessments of student learning and results of student evaluations of the web-lecture format.

  20. Peer-led prenatal breast-feeding education: a viable alternative to nurse-led education. (United States)

    Rempel, Lynn A; Moore, Katrina C J


    To evaluate a prenatal breast-feeding class developed and facilitated by peer Breast-feeding Buddies. Non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study comparing participants of the peer-led class (PLC) to those attending an established hospital-based breast-feeding nurse-led class (NLC). A brief questionnaire was completed immediately prior to the class, and telephone interviews were conducted approximately one week following the class, and one and six months post partum. 54 expectant mothers who registered for the community PLC and 55 expectant mothers who registered for the NLC. Breast-feeding intentions were measured at all time-points. Class evaluations, breast-feeding experiences, and breast-feeding support were measured at all post-class interviews. Both classes were considered worthwhile, but the PLC class was rated as more helpful and participants appreciated learning from the peers' personal experiences. Mothers taught by peers were more likely to access peer breast-feeding support. PLC participants initially decreased their prenatal breast-feeding duration intentions but had significantly stronger intentions to continue breast feeding at six months than did NLC mothers. A peer-led prenatal breast-feeding class is as effective as a traditional model of breast-feeding education and is a valuable tool to promote and support successful breast feeding. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Peer-led breast-feeding classes should be provided to enhance the accessibility of breast-feeding education and support for expectant mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biofiltration as a Viable Alternative for Air Pollution Control at Department of Defense Surface Coating Facilities (United States)


    their own, however, they have been labeled by the EPA as “ozone precursors” due to their proclivity to react with sunlight, heat and nitrogen oxide...authorized to perform major structural aircraft repairs, install aircraft modifications, and completely strip and paint entire aircraft (DoN, 2005a...effectiveness of cow and pig manure , wheat bran, and bagasse (fibrous material extracted from the juice of crushed stalks of sugar cane) (Chou and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Vasile Popescu


    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that has led some central banks reaching the zero lower bound of their interest rate to use unconventional monetary policy instruments, has brought to the forefront theacademic discussions on the shift from inflation targeting (IT to price level targeting. This paper provides a comparative analysis on IT strategy and targeting the price level, assesses the implications and highlights the challenges of an eventual transition to a new monetary policy strategy. Balancing the advantages (mainly better anchored inflation expectations and disadvantages (communication difficulties generated by following a potential price-level targeting strategy and the necessary prerequisites for its functionality (predictive agents, fully familiar with the implications of such a strategy and with complete confidence in themonetary authority has led us to the conclusion that there is no common acceptance that price level targeting strategy might replace the present IT framework.

  3. Is repositioning of drugs a viable alternative in the treatment of tuberculosis? (United States)

    Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi


    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem because of the scarcity of new antibiotics effective against pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Extensively drug resistance is particularly worrying in tuberculosis (TB), since the causative bacteria have become resistant to almost all available first- and second-line drugs and resistance is a threat to achieving control of the disease. Development of new drugs is a lengthy and costly endeavour. This is a particular problem for antibiotics, usage of which is likely to be of limited duration, and is even more true of antibiotics whose use is restricted to the treatment of a disease, such as TB, that is considered to be 'poverty related', and for which the return on the investment is seen as non-attractive. In spite of this, there is an emerging pipeline of new drugs under development that hopefully will bring new anti-TB drugs to the market in the near future. The strategy of drug repurposing, finding new uses for existing approved medicines, has seen unexpected success in other medical areas. More than one blockbuster drug has originated from this strategy. And in the field of TB, there have been several examples in recent years of this approach leading to the use of drugs for which there is undeniable evidence of efficacy in the treatment of the disease, the best example being the fluoroquinolones, which were not developed originally to treat TB. This article reviews some examples of repurposing of drugs in the treatment of TB, newer candidates for repurposing for which there is already preliminary evidence of activity and possible new options that merit further investigation.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF CANCRINITE ZEOLITE DERIVATED FROM KAOLIN:A Viable Alternative to Reduce Environmetal Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Joel Schwanke


    Full Text Available The synthesis of cancrinite zeolite was accomplished by three types of kaolins called AD44, Mina and Reagen. These materials were used as aluminium and silicon sources in substitution of expensive reactants. The first two types are natural kaolin and the last one is a commercial. These clays were used in natural and calcinated (900ºC forms. The clays and the obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD specific superficial area (BET and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. The results showed that calcinated clays lead to cancrinite phases with higher cristallinity when compared with the natural clays. Different phases such as sodalite and mesophases between sodalite and cancrinite were formed too.

  5. Virtual shopping: A viable alternative to direct assessment of real life function? (United States)

    Greenwood, Kathryn E; Morris, Robin; Smith, Vanessa; Jones, Anna-Marie; Pearman, Douglas; Wykes, Til


    Real-life function is markedly impaired in schizophrenia and is an important outcome for interventions, but direct assessment is time consuming and resource intensive. Virtual reality (VR) enables assessment using simulation, akin to real life (RL), but allowing greater experimental control, reliability, and a more timely assessment. This study explores whether VR simulation predicts RL performance in supermarket shopping and how both relate to underlying cognitive abilities. Forty three people with DSM-IV schizophrenia were included in the study. Participants were required to shop for items using a self-directed search in both RL and VR. In each task, accuracy (number of correct items) and efficiency (time taken and number of aisles entered) were measured. IQ, executive function, working memory, spatial memory and social cognition were also assessed. Specific correlations were found between RL accuracy and VR accuracy, and between RL and VR efficiency measures. Multiple regression analyses indicated that VR efficiency measures contributed significant unique variance to RL efficiency outcomes, in addition to that explained by background cognitive measures, with a final model predicting 58% of variance in RL efficiency. VR functional shopping measures may enhance predictions of real life performance, over and above existing cognitive test procedures, and provide a more time-efficient method for evaluating real life outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Blended Learning Environment: A Viable Alternative for Special Needs Students (United States)

    Rivera, Jennifer Hall


    The traditional classroom provides a classical medium for educating students by allowing an open forum of communication between the pupil and teacher. The last twenty-five years have opened a new realm of possibilities in education through the use of technology and virtual supplemental resources, designed to engage learners in all academic levels.…

  7. Peer mentoring – is a virtual form of support a viable alternative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Gannon-Leary


    Full Text Available Support systems are vital for university entrants and one established means of support is peer mentoring, which has the potential to improve student engagement and retention. Peer mentoring models are generally based on face-to-face contact. However, given the increasing number of higher education institutions using social media, might online models be beneficial in a peer mentoring context? This article describes a literature review and case study that considers the advantages and disadvantages of three potential virtual models to facilitate a peer mentoring scheme. The case study, undertaken at Northumbria University, UK, involved an investigation of mentoring needs and current usage of electronic media where special attention is afforded to a diverse student body. The three models discussed are virtual learning environments (VLE, social networking sites and virtual worlds. We find that the VLE is established within institutions but lacks excitement; social networking is popular particularly with younger students but there may be resentment if this appears to be appropriated by the institution; whilst virtual worlds are unfamiliar to many students and require advanced skills to use successfully. Based on these findings the social networking model is now being run as a pilot study by business programmes at Northumbria University.

  8. Giant cervical lipoma excision under cervical epidural anesthesia: A viable alternative to general anesthesia. (United States)

    Singh, Ram Pal; Shukla, Aparna; Verma, Satyajeet


    The technique of Cervical Epidural Anesthesia (CEA) was first described by Dogliotti in 1933 for upper thoracic procedures. Administration of local anesthetic into cervical epidural space results in anesthesia of the neck, upper extremity, and upper thoracic region. CEA provides high-quality analgesia and anesthesia of above dermatomes and, at the same time, it has favorable effect on hemodynamic variable by blocking sympathetic innervation of the heart. CEA is not practiced routinely because of its potential complications. We selected this technique of CEA for excision of giant cervical lipoma on the back of the neck in an adult patient, as the patient was unwilling for general anesthesia. CEA was induced with 10 ml of 1% lignocaine-adrenaline mixture administered into C7-T1 space through 18G Tuohy needle. Our patient maintained vital parameters throught the procedure. The added advantage of epidural anesthesia was that the patient was awake and comfortable throughout the procedure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina NICOLAU


    Full Text Available In the past years, in the light of the economic turbulences all around the world, one of the most important ways to assure a competitive advantage is creating a strategic alliance. Such collaborative ventures between firms were developed as a response to the changes which have been happening to the world economy as increased competition, higher costs of developing new products, accelerated technological changes and, maybe the most important – the recent world economic crises. Being part of a strategic alliance creates competitive advantage for the companies by establishing their presence worldwide, by building up operating experience in overseas markets and gaining access to those national markets that were inaccessible before. At the same time, a strategic alliance means management commitment, special skills and forward planning for each company which takes part to an alliance.

  10. "Back-and-forth" as a viable alternative to the brain drain perspective, with Chinese examples


    Pedersen, P.; Lee, K.S.


    Dans la présente contribution, nous exposons les modèles de prise de décision de retourner au pays à l'issue d'études à l'étranger. L'analyse s'appuie sur les données qualitatives et quantitatives obtenues auprès d'étudiants de Taïwan qui ont mené des études aux Etats-Unis en sciences et en ingénierie. Nous passons en revue la littérature existante sur les processus de retour et présentons des examples de cas, enfin nous émettons quelques suggestions pouvant servir de base à de futures études...

  11. Methane Hydrates: More Than a Viable Aviation Fuel Feedstock Option (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.


    Demand for hydrocarbon fuels is steadily increasing, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise unabated with the energy demand. Alternate fuels will be coming on line to meet that demand. This report examines the recovering of methane from methane hydrates for fuel to meet this demand rather than permitting its natural release into the environment, which will be detrimental to the planet. Some background on the nature, vast sizes, and stability of sedimentary and permafrost formations of hydrates are discussed. A few examples of the severe problems associated with methane recovery from these hydrates are presented along with the potential impact on the environment and coastal waters. Future availability of methane from hydrates may become an attractive option for aviation fueling, and so future aircraft design associated with methane fueling is considered.

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.


    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  13. Geothermal heat pumps as one of possibilities of an alternative energy used for objects heating objects in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Ryška


    Full Text Available The use of geothermal energy for more localised energy requirements is becoming more apparent with the use of geothermal heat pumps. The use of heat from the upper portion of the earth's crust can be useful and efficient method of energy saving. At around 50 m below the earth's surface the ambient temperature fluctuates between around 8-12 oC. This heat can be used by being transferred to the surface via a loop system using a high-efficiency refrigerant type of material.These systems are also typically more efficient than gas or oil-fired heating systems. They are more energy efficient than air-source heat pumps because they draw heat from, or release heat to, the earth, which has moderate temperatures all the year, rather than to the air. Geothermal heat pumps use the relatively constant temperature of the ground or water several meters below the earth's surface as source of heating and cooling. Geothermal heat pumps are appropriate for retrofit or new homes, where both heating and cooling are desired. In addition to heating and cooling, geothermal heat pumps can provide domestic hot water. They can be used for virtually any home size or lot in any region of the Czech Republic.

  14. Fiscal 2000 survey report on rationalization project for international energy conservation, technological dissemination project for international energy conservation, and Green Helmet Project. Japan-China alternative energy seminar/waste disposal; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado taisaku jigyo, kokusai energy shohi koritsuka nado gijutsu fukyu jigyo, green helmet jigyo chosa hokokusho. Nicchu sekiyu daitai energy seminar haikibutsu shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper explains the Japan-China alternative energy seminar (February 28 and March 1, 2001, at Beijing). The purpose of the seminar is to introduce systematic and three-dimensional or land/sea/air measures for waste disposal including recycling in Japan, to provide guidance of measures in improving recognition and methods for waste disposal in China, and also to contribute to the dissemination and promotion of a model project for effectively utilizing waste heat from rubbish incineration, a project being implemented in Harbin City now. The activities of NEDO were introduced, with emphasis placed on a model program, called Green Aid Project, for managing heat from waste incineration. On the subjects of sustainable development, urban environment, and energy, the policy of China's tenth five-year plan was demonstrated, and the treatment of wastes in China was also explained. The present state of waste processing in Japan was introduced, as was its maintenance of the facilities. Concerning Japan's waste processing technologies and characteristics of the equipment, there were presented non-incineration processing including crushing/separating, RDF, compost, methane fermentation, etc.; incineration plants; and each of the technologies such as combustion, exhaust gas, ash treatment, use of remaining heat, and gasification melting. (NEDO)

  15. Energy security. Reflection about the challenges and the alternatives for Mexico; Seguridad energetica. Reflexion en torno a los retos y las alternativas para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgar, Lourdes; Velasco Ibarra, Enrique [Secretaria de Energia (Sener) (Mexico)


    The two current major topics of the international discussion are the energy security and the world warming. Since 2005, it is searched to go forward with regard to the design of the alternative policies, which at the same time make possible both to assure the energy supply and to restrict the emissions. Mexico, therefore, is appealed both to assume its international leadership to confront the challenges of being a country with a consumer profile. [Spanish] La seguridad energetica y el cambio climatico son hoy temas centrales del debate internacional. A partir de 2005, se busca avanzar en el diseno de politicas alternativas que permitan a la vez asegurar el abasto energetico y limitar las emisiones. Mexico esta llamado a asumir su liderazgo internacional y a enfrentar los desafios de pais con perfil de consumidor.

  16. The constraints in managing a transition towards clean energy technologies in developing nations: reflection on energy governance and alternative policy options.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiam, D.R.; Moll, H.C.


    The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework stimulating a sustainable energy transition in developing nations. Based on the existing literature, we first index theoretical factors preventing deployment of low carbon technologies. After having identified these factors, we provide

  17. Consumer-behavorial analysis of alternate-energy adoption: the case of geothermal energy in New Mexico. Final report, 6/1/80-8/1/81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, P.; Pratt, E.; Michie, D.


    The overall objectives of the research described here are the determination of the market penetration prospects of geothermal energy in New Mexico and the identification of the key determinants of geothermal adoption by prospective consumers. The resources considered are intermediate temperature (65/sup 0/C less than or equal to T less than or equal to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal resources, and the applications examined are direct (non-electric) uses. In order to achieve the overall research objectives, four specific work tasks were undertaken: the design of a marketing research instrument for investigating prospects for the market penetration of geothermal energy; the implementation of the marketing research instrument through a pilot study of adoption behavior of prospective consumers of geothermal energy in the state of New Mexico; the identification and evaluation of market considerations which will affect the commercialization of direct geothermal applications within the state; and the design of a comprehensive marketing program to maximize the commercialization of geothermal energy in New Mexico.

  18. Experimental design for the optimization of propidium monoazide treatment to quantify viable and non-viable bacteria in piggery effluents. (United States)

    Desneux, Jérémy; Chemaly, Marianne; Pourcher, Anne-Marie


    Distinguishing between viable and dead bacteria in animal and urban effluents is a major challenge. Among existing methods, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR is a promising way to quantify viable cells. However, its efficiency depends on the composition of the effluent, particularly on total suspended solids (TSS)) and on methodological parameters. The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of three methodological factors (concentration of PMA, incubation time and photoactivation time) on the efficiency of PMA-qPCR to quantify viable and dead cells of Listeria monocytogenes used as a microorganism model, in two piggery effluents (manure and lagoon effluent containing 20 and 0.4 TSS, respectively). An experimental design strategy (Doehlert design and desirability function) was used to identify the experimental conditions to achieve optimal PMA-qPCR results. The quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes was mainly influenced by the concentration of PMA in the manure and by the duration of photoactivation in the lagoon effluent. Optimal values differed with the matrix: 55 μM PMA, 5 min incubation and 56 min photoactivation for manure and 20 μM PMA, 20 min incubation and 30 min photoactivation for lagoon effluent. Applied to five manure and four lagoon samples, these conditions resulted in satisfactory quantification of viable and dead cells. PMA-qPCR can be used on undiluted turbid effluent with high levels of TSS, provided preliminary tests are performed to identify the optimal conditions.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  20. The Evaluation and Testing of Various Bladeless Wind Turbine Designs for use as an alternative renewable energy source (United States)

    Agnew, Ian; Ray, Taylor


    Over the last two decades wind turbines have proven themselves globally as a reliable, renewable, and clean energy source. Even though wind turbines are simpler in design and do not pollute during operation as compared to conventional energy sources, many improvements can still be made. The design of a bladeless wind turbine offers potential improvements such as cost savings, reduction of operating noise level, simplification of the manufacturing process, reduction of maintenance costs, and incorporation of eco-friendly features. In order to analyze various turbine designs, a wind tunnel with a 30.3 cm x 29.1 cm test section was constructed at Georgia College. Several different wing sections are being evaluated in order to determine the turbine design and engineered for optimal aerodynamic efficiency over a Range of Reynolds numbers. Other factors like Pressure coefficients and overall drag profile of the designs will also be analyzed as well.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.


    Full Text Available Direct and indirect evaporative coolers with nozzles based on multi channel and multi layer polymeric structures are examined in the paper. Such coolers can be used in both independent and combined variants, as well as a part of solar drying-evaporative systems. Heat required for the regeneration of absorbent is provided with solar energy from flat solar collectors from polymeric materials.

  2. Turtles and culverts, and alternative energy development: an unreported but potentially significant mortality threat to the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) (United States)

    Lovich, J.E.; Ennen, J.R.; Madrak, S.; Grover, B.


    Culverts are often used to increase the permeability of roaded landscapes for wildlife, including turtles. Although the benefits of culverts as safe passages for turtles are well documented, under some conditions culverts can entrap them and cause mortality. Here we report a culvert-related mortality in the federally threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in California and offer simple recommendations to mitigate the negative effects of culverts for wildlife in general.

  3. Self-accelerated Universe Induced by Repulsive Effects as an Alternative to Dark Energy and Modified Gravities (United States)

    Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando


    The existence of current-time universe's acceleration is usually modeled by means of two main strategies. The first makes use of a dark energy barotropic fluid entering by hand the energy-momentum tensor of Einstein's theory. The second lies on extending the Hilbert-Einstein action giving rise to the class of extended theories of gravity. In this work, we propose a third approach, derived as an intrinsic geometrical effect of space-time, which provides repulsive regions under certain circumstances. We demonstrate that the effects of repulsive gravity naturally emerge in the field of a homogeneous and isotropic universe. To this end, we use an invariant definition of repulsive gravity based upon the behavior of the curvature eigenvalues. Moreover, we show that repulsive gravity counterbalances the standard gravitational attraction influencing both late and early times of the universe evolution. This phenomenon leads to the present speed up and to the fast expansion due to the inflationary epoch. In so doing, we are able to unify both dark energy and inflation in a single scheme, showing that the universe changes its dynamics when \\ddot{H}\\over H=-2 \\dot{H} , at the repulsion onset time where this condition is satisfied. Further, we argue that the spatial scalar curvature can be taken as vanishing because it does not affect at all the emergence of repulsive gravity. We check the goodness of our approach through two cosmological fits involving the most recent union 2.1 supernova compilation.

  4. Study of Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and grid power flow control Part C: a review of alternative structures

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Maestri, Sebastian; Retegui, Rogelio Garcia; Uicich, Gustavo; Benedetti, Mario; Carrica, Daniel


    In the framework of a Transfer line (TT2) Consolidation Programme, a number of studies on Energy cycling have been commissioned. Part of this work involves the study of different power electronic system topologies for magnet energy recovery. The key objective of the study is to find topologies and control strategies that result in the control of the peak power required from the power network as well as to recover the magnet energy into capacitor banks with controlled voltage fluctuation. In previous reports, the use of a boost front-end converter and two-quadrant (2Q) converter supplying DC link of a four-quadrant magnet supply were analyzed. From this analysis, different features and figures of merit were considered in order to compare the structures, which allowed to define some considerations that a proper topology should have. Consequently, these considerations were used to define some novel topologies. The previous topologies are briefly summarized, as a starting point to develop some novel struc...

  5. The metabolic ER stress sensor IRE1α suppresses alternative activation of macrophages and impairs energy expenditure in obesity. (United States)

    Shan, Bo; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chi; Xia, Zhixiong; Dai, Jianli; Shao, Mengle; Zhao, Feng; He, Shengqi; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Mingliang; Nan, Fajun; Li, Jia; Liu, Jianmiao; Liu, Jianfeng; Jia, Weiping; Qiu, Yifu; Song, Baoliang; Han, Jing-Dong J; Rui, Liangyou; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Yong


    Obesity is associated with metabolic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are key players orchestrating metabolic inflammation, and ER stress enhances macrophage activation. However, whether ER stress pathways underlie ATM regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we identified inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) as a critical switch governing M1-M2 macrophage polarization and energy balance. Myeloid-specific IRE1α abrogation in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice largely reversed high-fat diet (HFD)-induced M1-M2 imbalance in white adipose tissue (WAT) and blocked HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, WAT browning and energy expenditure were significantly higher in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice. Furthermore, IRE1α ablation augmented M2 polarization of macrophages in a cell-autonomous manner. Thus, IRE1α senses protein unfolding and metabolic and immunological states, and consequently guides ATM polarization. The macrophage IRE1α pathway drives obesity and metabolic syndrome through impairing BAT activity and WAT browning.

  6. Weighing the Risks of Nuclear Energy and Climate Change: Trust in Different Information Sources, Perceived Risks, and Willingness to Pay for Alternatives to Nuclear Power. (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka; Paloniemi, Riikka; Varho, Vilja


    We examined how individuals perceive nuclear energy in the context of climate change mitigation and how their perceptions are associated with trust in different risk information sources. We analyzed the interrelationships between trust, perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, perception of nuclear energy as an acceptable way to mitigate climate change, and willingness to pay (WTP) for alternatives to nuclear power. A nationwide survey (N = 967) collected in Finland was analyzed with structural equation modeling. The associations between trust and perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, and perception of nuclear power as a way to mitigate climate change varied by the type of information source. Political party support and other background variables were associated with trust in different information sources. The effect of trust in information sources on WTP was mediated by perceived risks and benefits. The results will increase our understanding of how individuals perceive nuclear energy as a way to cut CO2 emissions and the role of trust in different information sources in shaping nuclear risk perceptions and energy choices. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. The search for viable local government system in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...

  8. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for polymerase chain ...

  9. Comment: Towards a Viable Local Government Structure in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local governments are principally established for development at the grassroots and they must be structured in a manner that makes them viable and capable of achieving this purpose. The objective of this comment is to appraise the current local government structure under the Nigerian constitutional framework with a view ...

  10. Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic Trypanosoma vivax in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 1, 2009 ... Cultivation and multiplication of viable axenic. Trypanosoma vivax in vitro and in vivo. O. A. Idowu, A. B. Idowu, C. F. Mafiana and S. O. Sam-Wobo*. Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Accepted 13 April, 2006. Trypanosoma vivax was ...

  11. Detection of viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and virulent Shigella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 2, 2003 ... A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for the detection of low numbers of viable Vibrio cholerae and Shigella spp. cells in environmental and drinking water samples. Water samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched in a non-selective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for ...

  12. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie


    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  13. Where does the energy for hydrogen production come from? Status and alternatives. 3. ed.; Woher kommt die Energie fuer die Wasserstofferzeugung. Status und Alternativen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J.; Wurster, R.; Zerta, M.; Blandow, V.; Zittel, W. [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany)


    This brochure addresses and endeavours to find answers to the question as to the future availability of energy commodities. One point requiring clarification here is how long the production rates of crude oil, natural gas and coal will keep pace with and satisfy the rising demand. Particularly with regard to coal, it further needs to be clarified when, to what extent and for what period of time the separation and safe storage of carbon dioxide from fossil combustion will be possible, this being a prerequisite for the production of energy from coal. Then it needs to be clarified what contribution can realistically be expected from nuclear energy. The brochure also assesses the potentials of renewable energies for covering energy demand. It presents the cost reduction potentials in wind power and photovoltaics and the potential for producing motor fuels from renewable energy. Here it places a special emphasis on hydrogen. In conclusion it can be said that the downturn in oil production soon to be expected will leave a gap which can be closed neither by other fossil fuels nor by nuclear energy resources. On the other side, even though renewable energies will grow rapidly over the coming decades, their contribution will for some time yet be too small to be able to close this gap. This means that there is no way around making more efficient use of energy across all stages of production and use. It is also seen that biofuels will not keep the world moving as it is now and that hydrogen will therefore become a significant motor fuel. The use of hydrogen will only become dispensable if it proves possible to develop electromobiles with acceptable properties (storage density, service life, cold start behaviour, price). However, this appears improbable from today's perspective. One rollout strategy available at short term in Germany would be to use byproduct hydrogen from the chemical industry for the first vehicle fleets. Today, this hydrogen is mainly used thermally by

  14. The problem of psychopathology and phenomenology. What is viable and not viable in phenomenological psychiatry. (United States)

    Ramos-Gorostiza, Pablo; Adán-Manes, Jaime


    The epistemological underpinnings of psychiatric theory and practice have always been unstable. This reflects the essential contradiction existing between the task (the description and individuation of speech and behavior as psychopathological symptoms) and tools (semiotics). As a result of this contradiction, the history of psychiatry is one of permanent crisis in which there are moments of temporary stability as approaches that aim at organizing this mismatch between tasks and tools gain prevalence. However, these approaches can only offer a false sense of unity, consistency and progress. In this sense, a narrow perspective on a particular period may lead us to believe that psychiatry is just another medical specialty with its own specific theoretical framework like others. However, any such perspective overlooks the coexistence of different schools, disagreements, contradictions, global alternatives, etc. For a certain period of time, phenomenology was assumed to be as the solution for psychiatry’s internal contradiction. As we see it, phenomenology was only partially understood. Despite the great influence it exerted upon psychiatry worldwide, it finally fell into disuse as a mere empiricism. Husserl’s phenomenology was more thoroughly understood and better assimilated by other psychiatrists, and its influence has persisted to the present day. If we view phenomenology in its proper (Husserlian) sense, it is possible to understand psychopathology as a means of creating intelligibility and clarifying the uniqueness of psychiatry. On the other hand, if phenomenology is understood as a representational theory, it will eventually lead to an unavoidable relapse into psychologism, which has been the main path of psychiatry until now.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Benjamin Noumo Foko


    Full Text Available Cameroon is covered by about 20 million hectares of forests. Timber exploitation is the second source of external income after petroleum. Besides, Cameroon’s forest has several other functions. Yet the threat to the very existence and survival of this forest is rapidly increasing due to overexploitation by logging companies and for firewood. Despite its usefulness, a substantial volume of the wood felled by timber exploiters is abandoned as waste to rot. This waste can be used as firewood by households even for building and making of furniture by small-scale users like carpenters if they had access to it. This paper encourages the use of timber waste as an alternative to kerosene, which has become very expensive and unaffordable due to the general rise in the price of petroleum products in recent years. The overexploitation of forests can therefore be limited by putting the waste timber into use. It will go along to reduce freshly cut wood which is usually cut illegally and uncontrollably and which is a major source of depletion of forest resources. This project, once achieved will forever last because it will always generate revenue to the groups involve in the collection and the distribution of forest waste which will make money from sales even if they were to sell cheaper since the major cost is transportation and the waste wood is also cheap to obtain from the logging companies or even costless since they have less interest in it.

  16. Carbon black as an alternative cathode material for electrical energy recovery and transfer in a microbial battery. (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqin; Guo, Kun; Shen, Dongsheng; Feng, Huajun; Wang, Meizhen; Zhou, Yuyang; Jia, Yufeng; Liang, Yuxiang; Zhou, Mengjiao


    Rather than the conventional concept of viewing conductive carbon black (CB) to be chemically inert in microbial electrochemical cells (MECs), here we confirmed the redox activity of CB for its feasibility as an electron sink in the microbial battery (MB). Acting as the cathode of a MB, the solid-state CB electrode showed the highest electron capacity equivalent of 18.58 ± 0.46 C/g for the unsintered one and the lowest capacity of 2.29 ± 0.48 C/g for the one sintered under 100% N2 atmosphere. The capacity vibrations of CBs were strongly in coincidence with the abundances of C=O moiety caused by different pretreatments and it implied one plausible mechanism based on CB's surface functionality for its electron capturing. Once subjected to electron saturation, CB could be completely regenerated by different strategies in terms of electrochemical discharging or donating electrons to biologically-catalyzed nitrate reduction. Surface characterization also revealed that CB's regeneration fully depended on the reversible shift of C=O moiety, further confirming the functionality-based mechanism for CB's feasibility as the role of MB's cathode. Moreover, resilience tests demonstrated that CB cathode was robust for the multi-cycles charging-discharging operations. These results imply that CB is a promising alternative material for the solid-state cathode in MBs.

  17. Comparative study of the silica and cation geothermometry of the Malawi hot springs: Potential alternative energy source (United States)

    Dulanya, Zuze; Morales-Simfors, Nury; Sivertun, Åke


    Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world and one of the most densely populated in south-eastern Africa. Its major power source is hydro-electricity. During the past few years, the power generation capacity has been reduced, which has impacted negatively on the socio-economic development of the country. The country holds an enormous potential to generate geothermal energy due to the country's position within the Great African Rift valley. This could contribute to economic growth, poverty reduction and technological development in Malawi. The paper presents findings of research on comparisons between silica (quartz and chalcedony) and cation geothermometers (Na-K, Na-K-Ca and K-Mg) of hot springs in the Malawi Rift, in order to deduce the temperature at depth of selected hot springs. The saturation indices of most springs have a bearing on the geology of the areas where these hot springs are found. The Na-K geothermometers are, in general, higher than the Na-K-Ca geothermometer and the K-Mg geothermometer shows temperatures that are too low to be considered. The difference in the results between the different geothermometers may indicate shallow conditions of mixing with groundwater. Results also indicate that some hot springs have sufficient heat-generating capabilities and warrant further exploration work to assess their suitability for energy generation.

  18. Self-accelerated universe induced by repulsive effects as an alternative to dark energy and modified gravities

    CERN Document Server

    Luongo, Orlando


    The existence of current-time universe's acceleration is usually modeled by means of two main strategies. The first makes use of a dark energy barotropic fluid entering \\emph{by hand} the energy-momentum tensor of Einstein's theory. The second lies on extending the Hilbert-Einstein action giving rise to the class of extended theories of gravity. In this work, we propose a third approach, derived as an intrinsic geometrical effect of space-time, which provides repulsive regions under certain circumstances. We demonstrate that the effects of repulsive gravity naturally emerge in the field of a homogeneous and isotropic universe. To this end, we use an invariant definition of repulsive gravity based upon the behavior of the curvature eigenvalues. Moreover, we show that repulsive gravity counterbalances the standard gravitational attraction influencing both late and early times of the universe evolution. This phenomenon leads to the present speed up and to the fast expansion due to the inflationary epoch. In so d...

  19. Dark Energy: fiction or reality? (United States)

    Triay, Roland


    Is Dark Energy justified as an alternative to the cosmological constant Λ in order to explain the acceleration of the cosmic expansion? It turns out that a straightforward dimensional analysis of Einstein equation provides us with clear evidences that the geometrical nature of Λ is the only viable source to this phenomenon, in addition of the application of Ockham's razor principle. This contribution is primarily a review of the main stream in the interpretation of Λ because it is at the origin of such a research program.

  20. Dark Energy: fiction or reality?

    CERN Document Server

    Triay, Roland


    Is Dark Energy justified as an alternative to the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in order to explain the acceleration of the cosmic expansion ? It turns out that a straightforward dimensional analysis of Einstein equation provides us with clear evidences that the geometrical nature of $\\Lambda$ is the only viable source to this phenomenon, in addition of the application of Ockham's razor principle. This contribution is primarily a review of the main stream in the interpretation of $\\Lambda$ because it is at the origin of such a research program.