Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel Russell
The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the teaching experiences of African American physical education teacher candidates in secondary physical education programs at urban schools. The research design was explanatory multiple-case study situated in positioning theory (Harré & van Langenhove, 1999). The participants were seven…
Dinkins, Elizabeth; Thomas, Kevin
This qualitative study examined the perspectives and experiences of ten African American students at a predominantly White institution to understand why students persisted or discontinued in the teacher preparation program. Findings indicate three predominant factors influence Black candidates' decision to complete or leave the program: the role…
Sato, Takahiro; Fisette, Jennifer; Walton, Theresa
Presently, most physical education teachers in the United States are White Americans and from middle class families. In fact, 83% of all teachers in public schools are White Americans, whereas approximately 10% of all African American teachers are representative of all teachers in the United States. A student might feel cultural dissonance that…
Fettich, Karla C; Chen, Eunice Y
Depressed mood in severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking candidates is influenced by obesity stigma, yet the strategies for coping with this stigma are less well understood. This study hypothesized that coping strategies are significantly associated with depressed mood above and beyond demographic factors and frequency of weight-related stigma, with specific coping strategies differing between racial groups. Severely obese, bariatric surgery-seeking adults (N = 234; 91 African Americans) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Stigmatizing Situations Inventory (SSI). Two hierarchical linear regressions were conducted separately for African Americans and whites. For both racial groups, age, sex, BMI, years overweight, annual income, and education level did not account for a significant portion of the variance in BDI scores. The frequency of stigmatizing situations and coping strategies significantly explained 16.4% and 33.2%, respectively, of the variance for whites, and 25.9% and 25%, respectively, for African Americans (P coping strategies. This suggests that efforts to reduce the deleterious effects of weight-related stigma need to focus both on reducing the frequency of stigmatization and on teaching effective coping strategies. These efforts also need to take into account the client's racial background.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...
Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Kumari, Meena; JinGo, Min; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D.G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G.P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N.M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; SolerArtigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; MariaCorsi, Anna; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Steven M.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Longstreth, Will T.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R.G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Radha Mani, K.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U.S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würz, Peter; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kranthi Kumar, M.J.; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Wong, Tien Y.; Shyong Tai, E.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn , Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher
The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10−8) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10−8). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10−6) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10−6) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3, P= 0.009; TBX3-TBX5, P= 0.03; and CSK-ULK3, P= 0.0004). These genetic loci represent the best evidence of genetic influences on SBP and DBP in AAs to date. More broadly, this work supports that notion that blood pressure among AAs is a trait with genetic underpinnings but also with significant complexity. PMID:21378095
Sanjay R Patel
Full Text Available Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15 in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study.Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1 gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10(-6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3 gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts.Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…
African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...
... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...
Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel
Although narcolepsy affects 0.02-0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Swapan K. Das
Full Text Available Recent studies in mice and human identified osteocalcin (OCN as a bone-derived hormone that modulates insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. OCN is synthesized by the bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP gene located in the well replicated region of type 2 diabetes (T2D linkage on chromosome 1q22. We resequenced BGLAP gene in 192 individuals with T2D and performed case-control studies in 766 Caucasian (461 T2D and 305 controls and 563 African American individuals (371 T2D and 192 controls. Metabolic effects of BGLAP variants were examined in 127 nondiabetic members of Caucasian T2D families and in 498 unrelated nondiabetic African American and Caucasian individuals. BGLAP expression was tested in transformed lymphocytes from 60 Caucasian individuals. We identified 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in African Americans, but observed only the two known SNPs in Caucasians. No SNP was associated with T2D. Promoter SNP rs1800247 was not associated with metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity (SI or fasting glucose in either population, but nonsynonymous SNP rs34702397 (R94Q was nominally associated with SI (uncorrected p = 0.05 and glucose-mediated glucose disposal (SG; uncorrected p = 0.03 in African Americans. No SNP altered measures of insulin secretion or obesity, nor was BGLAP expression associated with rs1800247. Our study was sufficiently powered to exclude BGLAP variants as a major risk factor (OR > 1.5 for T2D in Caucasians, but coding variants in exon 4 may alter glucose homeostasis and diabetes risk in African Americans.
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...
Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher
The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.
Large-Scale Candidate Gene Analysis in Whites and African Americans Identifies IL6R Polymorphism in Relation to Atrial Fibrillation The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) Project
Schnabel, Renate B.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Alkylbekova, Ermeg L.; Marcus, Gregory M.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Magnani, Jared W.; Wolf, Philip A.; Deo, Rajat; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Mehra, Reena; Levy, Daniel; Fox, Ervin R.; Arking, Dan E.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Young, Taylor R.; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Seshadri, Sudha; Farlow, Deborah N.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Wilson, James G.; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Alonso, Alvaro; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Heckbert, Susan R.
Background-The genetic background of atrial fibrillation (AF) in whites and African Americans is largely unknown. Genes in cardiovascular pathways have not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results-We examined a panel of approximately 50 000 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
Bailey, A. Peter
The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)
... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...
... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > ... African Americans had over twice the sudden infant death syndrome mortality rate as non-Hispanic whites, in ...
... Council: nationalMSsociety.org/African- AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but itâs still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle. Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 5/2/2017.
Wheeler, Steve D.
OBJECTIVE: The first six cases of hemicrania continua and episodica in African Americans are reported, differences from previous accounts noted, and important diagnostic features described. BACKGROUND: Hemicrania continua is an indomethacin responsive chronic daily headache. Mild to moderate daily headache is strictly unilateral, constant but fluctuating. Superimposed severe headache attacks occur, last seconds to days, and are associated with ipsilateral orbital-nasal autonomic dysfunction. RESULTS: Severe headache attacks are usually pulsatile, occur one to four times daily, and last 40 minutes to three days. Daily unilateral background headache was typically of a pressure, sharp, dull or pulling quality. Ipsilateral orbital-nasal autonomic symptoms were noted in all. Serious concomitant medical illnesses, e.g. coronary artery disease, diabetes, and hypertension, were frequent in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of hemicrania continua and episodica in African Americans and the second in persons of African descent in the world's literature. Late age of onset, frequent serious medical illnesses, and family history of migraine differentiate this series from previous reports. The lack of reports in African Americans most likely reflects misdiagnosis rather than true prevalence. Thus, whenever any patient presents with chronic daily unilateral headache, ipsilateral autonomic symptoms should be assessed during severe headache attacks, and an indomethacin trial considered. PMID:12408695
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD CONTRACTING...in the African American community in Nebraska and Mississippi. Family history of prostate and other cancers is being recorded with the purpose of...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36
Marion, Michelle S; Range, Lillian M
African American women have lower suicide rates than other women and men in the United States They may possess suicide buffers including social support, religiosity, negative attitudes regarding suicide acceptability, and African American culture. To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious problem-solving style. The identification of these factors may help in the assessment, prevention, and intervention of suicide for African American women and other women and men.
Petty, Cailisha L.
This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.
Trotter, Joe William, Jr.
Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)
Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes
This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…
GATES, GARY J.; Kastanis, Angel
An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. The rep...
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
Kristina Kočan Šalamon
Full Text Available The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are proclaiming their identity. Moreover, the paper presents the translation problems that emerge when attempting to transfer such a specific, even exotic, source culture into a target culture, like Slovene. The goal is to show to what extent contemporary African American poetry can successfully be translated into the Slovene language and to highlight the parts that inevitably remain lost in the translation process.
Full Text Available Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.
Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed
Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.
Iyer, Shoba; Perera, Frederica; Zhang, Bingzhi; Chanock, Stephen; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Deliang
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a class of chemicals common in the environment. Certain PAH are carcinogenic, although the degree to which genetic variation influences susceptibility to carcinogenic PAH remains unclear. Also unknown is the influence of genetic variation on the procarcinogenic effect of in utero exposures to PAH. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-studied PAH that is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Within our New York City-based cohort, we explored interactions between maternal exposure to airborne PAH during pregnancy and maternal and newborn haplotypes (and in one case, a single-nucleotide polymorphism) in key B[a]P metabolism genes on B[a]P-DNA adducts in paired cord blood samples. The study subjects included non-smoking African-American (n = 132) and Dominican (n = 235) women with available data on maternal PAH exposure, paired cord adducts and genetic data who resided in the Washington Heights, Central Harlem and South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City. We selected seven maternal and newborn genes related to B[a]P metabolism, detoxification and repair for our analyses: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTM3, GSTT2, NQO1 and XRCC1. We found significant interactions between maternal PAH exposure and haplotype on cord B[a]P-DNA adducts in the following genes: maternal CYP1B1, XRCC1 and GSTM3, and newborn CYP1A2 and XRCC1 in African-Americans; and maternal XRCC1 and newborn NQO1 in Dominicans. These novel findings highlight differences in maternal and newborn genetic contributions to B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, as well as ethnic differences in gene-environment interactions, and have the potential to identify at-risk subpopulations who are susceptible to the carcinogenic potential of B[a]P.
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)
Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.
Yao, Chang-Yuan; Ding, Gui-Jun
We study the generation of small neutrino masses from the dimension six effective operator at tree level and one-loop level, the neutrinos are assumed to be Dirac particles. We find out all possible tree and one-loop diagrams which lead to finite neutrino masses. The relevant mediator fields and the predictions for neutrino masses are presented. The lower order contributions to neutrino masses can be forbidden by introducing soft breaking Abelian symmetry or finite non-Abelian symmetry. The messengers inside the loop can be dark matter particles. The possible dark matter candidates and the corresponding constraints on the parameter α are analyzed for each model.
hereditary prostate cancer syndrome. This will be possible through the recruitment of a total of 800 African Americans who have been diagnosed with...community in Nebraska and Mississippi. Family history of prostate and other cancers is being recorded with the purpose of identifying any hereditary ...Omaha, their geographic area of most concentration in Nebraska. Information on prostate cancer predisposing genes in African Americans are partially
Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Bock, Cathryn H; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chen, Wei; Cote, Michele L; Artis, Amanda S; Van Dyke, Alison L; Land, Susan J; Harris, Curtis C; Pine, Sharon R; Spitz, Margaret R; Amos, Christopher I; Levin, Albert M; McKeigue, Paul M
Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case-control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = -4.33; P = 1.5 × 10⁻⁵) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = -4.82; P = 1.4 × 10⁻⁶). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.
Stewart, Tiffany A.; Owens, Delila; Queener, John E.; Reynolds, Cynthia A.
In this study, we examined racial identity and acculturative stress among 116 African American counselor education graduate students in Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited programs. Results indicated that racial identity and acculturative stress remain viable variables to take into…
Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ganuza, Zoila M.
Career development that adequately addresses the needs of multicultural students is important. The authors explored whether a constructivist career course might be a viable mechanism for improving career decision self-efficacy for 81 Asian American and African American college students. Results indicated significant increases in all 5 elements of…
Logue, Mark W; Schu, Matthew; Vardarajan, Badri N; Buros, Jacki; Green, Robert C; Go, Rodney C P; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O; Shatz, Rhonna; Borenstein, Amy; Cupples, L Adrienne; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Fallin, M Daniele; Baldwin, Clinton T; Farrer, Lindsay A
To evaluate the association of genetic variation with late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans, including genes implicated in recent genome-wide association studies of whites. We analyzed a genome-wide set of 2.5 million imputed markers to evaluate the genetic basis of AD in an African American population. Five hundred thirteen well-characterized African American AD cases and 496 cognitively normal African American control subjects. Data were collected from multiple sites as part of the Multi-Institutional Research on Alzheimer Genetic Epidemiology (MIRAGE) Study and the Henry Ford Health System as part of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease Among African Americans (GenerAAtions) Study. Several significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the region of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). After adjusting for the confounding effects of APOE genotype, one of these SNPs, rs6859 in PVRL2, remained significantly associated with AD (P = .0087). Association was also observed with SNPs in CLU, PICALM, BIN1, EPHA1, MS4A, ABCA7, and CD33, although the effect direction for some SNPs and the most significant SNPs differed from findings in data sets consisting of whites. Finally, using the African American genome-wide association study data set as a discovery sample, we obtained suggestive evidence of association with SNPs for several novel candidate genes. Some genes contribute to AD pathogenesis in both white and African American cohorts, although it is unclear whether the causal variants are the same. A larger African American sample will be needed to confirm novel gene associations, which may be population specific.
Thompson, Cynthia Lynn
The purpose of this comparative study was to determine to what degree the politically correct term, "African American" is being used in library literature and African American literature. Other terms examined were "Black,""Afro-American,""multicultural," and "cultural diversity." In addition, the…
Wells, Tesia Denis
This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…
Murray, Traci M
The purpose of the study is to clarify the concept of trust, identify its defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and apply to the healthcare experiences of African Americans. For African Americans, mistrust in the healthcare system is the result of unequal treatment that began in slavery. Fear and negative experiences engender a reluctance to trust healthcare providers, which contributes to health disparities. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to clarify the concept of trust. The concept was applied to African Americans' healthcare experiences with discussion of opportunities for trust building. Data support for concept development was done using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, and online reference sources. Literature review was guided by using the keyword trust. Further contextual explication was done by adding a review of literature from sociology and history regarding the evolution of African American mistrust of the U.S. healthcare system. The defining attributes of trust are dependence, willingness, and met expectations. Antecedents to trust include a need requiring the help of another and prior knowledge or experience. The consequence of trust is an evaluation of the congruence between expected and actual behaviors of the trusted person or thing. Literature review of the African American culture adds a dynamic aspect for nurses to consider when developing relationships in minority communities. Trust is the willingness to enter a dependent relationship to have the needs addressed, and is maintained by met expectations. Rebuilding trusting relationships between providers and African American patients is a vital step toward reducing health disparities. Murray. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin
In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.
Black, Helen K
This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stewart, Jennifer M
To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips
The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…
Looks at the current plight of the African-American male, exploring the role of the dominant culture, mass media, and low self-esteem. Describes a possible cure, citing five areas for action, calling for year-round school in some urban areas, exploring Afrocentric curricula, and considering rites of passage programs. (JB)
Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew
Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…
Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…
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... need to do a marathon.” Learn more: Family History and Heart Disease, Stroke Make the Effort to Prevent Heart Disease with Life's Simple 7 ® Learn more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke ...
Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.
Hare, Bruce R.
Uses a structural deterministic perspective to explain the overrepresentation of African-Americans in the lower levels of the American social system. Discusses the negative impact of racism, classism, and sexism on the Black family and the socialization of Black youth. Urges the formation of community coalitions to provide youth activities and to…
Hilliard, Asa G., III
This paper focuses on African education and socialization processes and how these have evolved and spread through the African cultural diaspora to other parts of the world, before, during, and after the slave trade and the colonial period. The history of education on the African continent is explored, followed by African American education, and…
Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.
Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…
Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…
Advocates moving the teaching and studying of race and technology in U.S. history beyond biographical inventories of African-American achievement. Recommends extending the study to include issues of culture, racial assumptions, and representation. Briefly examines ways in which issues of labor, consumption, and cultural change can be integrated…
Christy L Avery
Full Text Available The QT interval (QT is heritable and its prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. Most genetic studies of QT have examined European ancestral populations; however, the increased genetic diversity in African Americans provides opportunities to narrow association signals and identify population-specific variants. We therefore evaluated 6,670 SNPs spanning eleven previously identified QT loci in 8,644 African American participants from two Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE studies: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial. Of the fifteen known independent QT variants at the eleven previously identified loci, six were significantly associated with QT in African American populations (P≤1.20×10(-4: ATP1B1, PLN1, KCNQ1, NDRG4, and two NOS1AP independent signals. We also identified three population-specific signals significantly associated with QT in African Americans (P≤1.37×10(-5: one at NOS1AP and two at ATP1B1. Linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans assisted in narrowing the region likely to contain the functional variants for several loci. For example, African American LD patterns showed that 0 SNPs were in LD with NOS1AP signal rs12143842, compared with European LD patterns that indicated 87 SNPs, which spanned 114.2 Kb, were in LD with rs12143842. Finally, bioinformatic-based characterization of the nine African American signals pointed to functional candidates located exclusively within non-coding regions, including predicted binding sites for transcription factors such as TBX5, which has been implicated in cardiac structure and conductance. In this detailed evaluation of QT loci, we identified several African Americans SNPs that better define the association with QT and successfully narrowed intervals surrounding established loci. These results demonstrate that the same loci influence variation in QT
Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…
Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea
The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…
Thompson, Chalmer E.; And Others
Examined cultural mistrust and feelings concerning racism among African-Americans. Findings from 87 African-American and 70 Euro-American college students at predominantly Euro-American university suggest that African-American college students may report "paranoid" experiences that actually reflect normative, health reactions to racism. (Author/NB)
In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…
The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…
Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.
Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…
Smith, Eva C.
African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…
Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.
Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…
... indelible contributions to our Nation and our world. Throughout our history, African-American music has...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music... inspires us daily, giving voice to the human spirit. For many, including the African- American community...
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the... Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until 150... every color and creed. National African American History Month is a time to tell those stories of...
Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine
This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.
Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.
Holt, Yolanda Feimster
This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.
Inoue, Megumi; Pickard, Joseph G.; Welch-Saleeby, Patricia; Johnson, Sharon
This study utilizes a stress and coping framework which includes cognitive appraisal, personal and environmental resources, coping and stress to examine factors related to African-American caregivers’ breast cancer screenings, including mammograms, clinical examinations and self-examinations. Using data from the Black Rural and Urban Caregivers Mental Health and Functioning Study, we performed separate logistic regressions for each type of breast cancer screening. Results reveal that having a...
Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.
The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...
Trierweiler, Steven J; Neighbors, Harold W; Munday, Cheryl; Thompson, Estina E; Jackson, James S; Binion, Victoria J
The authors examined clinician race differences in symptom attribution patterns in diagnosing psychiatric inpatients from a low-income, African American community. Different decision models were applied to patients based on clinician race. African American clinicians diagnosed schizophrenia with higher odds than non-African American clinicians when they believed hallucinations were present and avoided that diagnosis with lower odds when they considered substance abuse issues. Non-African American clinicians usually related the attribution of negative symptoms to the diagnosis of schizophrenia while African American clinicians did not make this linkage. The study highlights the need for more detailed examination of cultural influences on diagnostic judgments. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Bonner, Fred A., II; Lewis, Chance W.; Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Hill-Jackson, Valerie; James, Marlon
This article focuses on the underrepresentation of African American males in gifted and talented programs, and offers a number of key recommendations to practitioners and researchers who seek viable strategies to circumvent this problem. Beyond the focus on underrepresentation, several additional topics for discussion are excogitated to provide a…
Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A
The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.
Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.
Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.
Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.
Epps, C H
The historically African American medical schools have been at the center of medical education for African American physicians in the United States since the Howard University College of Medicine opened in 1868. Although there were more than a dozen African American medical schools established during the next few decades, as propriety or church affiliated schools, only two survived the Flexner Report in 1910. Howard University (1868) and Meharry (1876) survived and trained generations of African Americans. These two schools educated approximately 85% of all African American physicians whereas the majority medical schools educated 15% for more than half of the twentieth century. As the result of a series of lawsuits filed by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, civil rights legislation and affirmative action programs, the numbers of the schools that now admitted African Americans increased and the total numbers of African American medical students increased when discrimination was prohibited in 1966. The percentage of African American medical students attending predominantly white institutions increased by 25% in 1948, by 47% in 1968, by 61% in 1983 and to 84% in 1990. Two additional predominantly African American medical schools were established: the Charles R. Drew Medical School, Los Angeles (affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles) in 1966, and Morehouse Medical School, Atlanta, which admitted its first class in 1978. Recent court decisions prohibiting schools from considering race as factor in admission and the end of affirmative action programs have resulted in a drop in total minority enrollment. The historically African American medical schools, that admitted approximately 15% of the African American medical students during the era of affirmative action programs, will see this percentage decrease as the majority institutions admit fewer African American medical students and minority students. In the United States
Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A
Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H
Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.
Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J
Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Birru, Mehret S
African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. Optimal health Web sites should include text written at low reading levels and appropriate cultural references. More research is needed to determine how African Americans with low literacy skills access, evaluate, prioritize, and value health information on the Internet. PMID:15471752
Townsend, Apollo; March, Alice L; Kimball, Jan
African Americans are twice as likely as Caucasian Americans to choose aggressive hospital treatment when death is imminent. Repeat hospitalizations are traumatic for patients and drain patient and health system resources. Hospice care is a specialized alternative that vastly improves patient quality of life at end-of-life. This study was conducted to determine if hospices partnering with African American churches to disseminate hospice education materials could increase utilization of hospice services by African Americans. Members of two African American churches (N = 34) participated in focus group discussions to elicit beliefs about hospice care. Focus group transcripts were coded and comments were grouped according to theme. Six themes were identified. Lack of knowledge about hospice services and spiritual beliefs emerged as the top two contributing factors for underutilization of hospice services. Study findings support partnerships between hospices and African American churches to provide hospice education to the African American community. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gillum, Richard F; Dodd, Kristen D
This book review analyzes the complex and profound impact active religious participation has on relationships and family outcomes among African Americans and Latinos. In Soul Mates, Wilcox and Wolfinger discuss the legacy of slavery and Jim Crow laws and the resulting devastating effects on African American and Latino families despite their high religious involvement. The authors make the case that many African American men are unlikely candidates for marriage or stable relationships due to trends of family instability driven by the declining income-power of working-class men as well as entry of more women into the labor force, government penalties for low-income couples, revolt against traditional values, increased access to birth control and abortion, and the persistence of discrimination and incarceration of minority men. The authors examine data from six national surveys as well as additional data from interviews, focus groups, ethnographic field work, and an extensive literature review. Wilcox and Wolfinger find evidence that when African American couples actively participate in Christian churches, the men are more likely to adhere to a "code of decency" which decreases street behaviors, such as binge drinking, having multiple sex partners, and having multi-partner fertility, which are known to inhibit family stability. This book will be helpful for health providers who would like to better understand and serve their African American and Latino patients. The findings suggest that health care providers can promote a healthy emotional environment for families by encouraging minority men to renew or maintain church involvement. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.
Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…
The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.
... the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws... the Civil War,'' invites us to reflect on 150 years since the start of the Civil War and on the... to deliver fundamental civil and human rights to African Americans, but African Americans would not...
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…
This article was prompted by observations in tutorial lectures on African American Literature and reports on a subsequent pilot study. It explores students' responses to African American Vernacular (AAV) as used in the novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker. A questionnaire was used to explore students' comprehension of ...
John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Rory Fraser; Viniece Jennings; Amadou Diop
The Sustainable Forestry and African American Land Retention Program is a comprehensive effort to address theÂ long-standing problem of underparticipation of African Americans in forest management. We conducted rapidÂ appraisal baseline research for pilot projects in this program in three Southern states using a carefully selectedÂ purposive sample to enhance our...
Mwachofi, Ari K.
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…
Johnson, James H., Jr.
Presents a geographical analysis of African American migration estimates compiled by the Census Bureau for the 1980-85 period. Argues that structural changes in employment opportunities and the housing affordability crisis in some of the nation's largest metropolitan areas are the dominant forces influencing current African American population…
Analyzes ethnographic case studies of three African-American student achievers attending desegregated urban high schools to determine the nature and consequences of the identity work of African-American youths in urban educational contexts. It describes their self-transformation through the use of contrasting strategies of self-negation,…
Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.
The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…
Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott
Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…
Adenika-Morrow, T. Jean
Two reasons African American females do not pursue science careers are the need for immediate employment and lack of tools to negotiate the racism and sexism that undermine their aspirations for success. This article describes intervention strategies in an Afrocentric school and a medical magnet school that encourage African American girls to…
Love, Keisha McGhee
African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…
Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon
For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…
...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The music of our...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians and...
... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of... lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our national conversation...
... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special tribute to their...
Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2010
In recognition of national African-American History Month, the Institute for Higher Education Policy wishes to highlight the trends and present-day experiences of African-American college students. Recognizing that the society benefits tremendously from an educated citizenry, there must be a renewed commitment to ensuring educational opportunity,…
When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…
Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie
Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…
Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming
Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…
Spirituality has been a major source of strength for African American women educators, who comprise a tiny fraction of college faculty and administrators. Spiritually connected people achieve self-realization by attaining oneness with humanity. Until African American women speak publicly about their spiritual experience, their contributions to…
Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A
This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women.
Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Kim Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary
The aim of this study was to explore how a rural African American faith community would address depression within their congregations and the community as a whole. A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 24 participants representing pastors, parishioners interested in health, and African American men who had experienced symptoms of depression in a community in the Arkansas Delta. The primary data sources for this qualitative research study were focus groups. Participants identified three key players in the rural African American faith community who can combat depression: the Church, the Pastor/Clergy, and the Layperson. The roles of each were identified and recommendations for each to address depression disparities in rural African Americans. The recommendations can be used to develop faith-based interventions for depression targeting the African American faith community. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Info Health Information Are You At Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know Are ... symptoms? Are African American men at risk for oral cancer? Yes, African American men are one of the ...
Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L
Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nelson, Kesha Marie
African-American baccalaureate nursing students have a limited persistence to graduation. This constructivist grounded theory study was designed to generate a substantive theory, emerged from these data, that explained and provided insight the African-American academic nurse leader's role in the persistence to graduation of African-American…
Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.
Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon
We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.
Worrall, Bradford B; Johnston, Karen C; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B
If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test where appropriate. A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke.
Bumpers, Harvey L; Tadros, Talaat; Gabram-Mendola, Sheryl; Rizzo, Monica; Martin, Mersadies; Zaremba, Nicole; Okoli, Joel
Phyllodes is a rare tumor accounting for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. Studies defining clinical predictors of malignant phyllodes (MP) are rare and inconsistent. Furthermore, MP occurrence in African American (AA) women has never been analyzed. This study will delineate clinical and pathologic features in AA patients that may reasonably predict the probability of malignancy. A retrospective study of clinical records was carried out for 50 AA patients diagnosed with phyllodes tumors (PT) and treated between 1982 and 2012. Patients' charts were analyzed regarding demographics, pathology findings, and treatment. The diagnosis of benign disease was made in 40 (78%), borderline in 3 (6%), and malignancy in 7 (14%) patients; however, 1 patient (2%) had mixed phyllodes with ductal carcinoma in situ. The mean age was significantly different for patients with benign disease (33 years) compared with those with malignancy (54 years; P < .001). The average tumor size was twice as large (11.8 vs 4.1 cm; P = .029) and mitoses were higher with 50% of MPs having greater than 5 per 10 high power fields. Although rare, nodal metastasis, ulceration, and multicentric disease occurred only in MP. Among AA patients with phyllodes tumors, those with malignant tumors were older and had larger tumors and higher mitotic indices than those with benign disease. AA patients also displayed some of the more rare features of advanced disease and presented with malignancy near the highest reported frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.
Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986
Full Text Available Obesity prevalence in United States (US adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs. However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA.To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system.We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO with wide range of BMI.Functional residual capacity (FRC and expiratory reserve volume (ERV decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV. However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC and residual volume (RV were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients.We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases.
Glenn, Betty L; Wilson, Kathleen P
HIV/AIDS is growing at a disproportional rate among African American adolescents. This trend has occurred despite the fact that 89% of schools have educational programs on HIV/AIDS. Barriers to effective HIV prevention may be related to a failure to develop educational programs based on the cultural competencies of vulnerable populations such as adolescents who are at risk for HIV. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore African American adolescent perceptions of vulnerability and resilience to HIV/AIDS within a cultural competency paradigm. A group of 8 adolescents at an African American church participated in a focus group to discuss vulnerability and resilience to HIV. To facilitate discussion, the adolescents developed collages from pictures in African American magazines. Content analysis was used to identify themes. The themes revealed were confidence, safe social activities, innocence, image, music/drug culture, and peer pressure.
Pugh, Sharon L; Garcia, Jesus
Reviews 12 nonfiction books submitted for the Carter G. Woodson Book Award that deal with the experiences of African Americans. Argues that many benefits can be reaped from the use of culturally pluralistic tradebooks in the language arts classroom. (RS)
Yancu, Cecile N; Farmer, Deborah F; Graves, Mara J; Rhinehardt, April; Leahman, Dee
African Americans typically underuse hospice care; this study explores their end of life attitudes. An iterative focus group strategy generated qualitative data using 4 baseline groups and 1 confirmatory focus group recruited from predominantly African American churches. Each group consisted of 8 to 14 adults. Investigators analyzed data for dominant themes, representatives from baseline groups returned to discuss the results. A total of 43 African Americans (male: 8 [18.6]; female: 35 [81.4]) participated in initial discussions, with 10 returning for follow-up. The prevailing theme was transitions; with life to death dominating discourse; other themes included curative to palliative care and acceptance of death as inevitable. Among African Americans, outreach efforts may be strengthened by reframing the dying process as the product of many transitions and reaching out to faith-based communities. © The Author(s) 2014.
... their communities to the artists whose harmonies and brush strokes captured hardships and aspirations... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact is...
Rajaram, Shireen S; Rashidi, Anahita
Muslims constitute a growing proportion of the African-American population. This paper explores the health practices, health behaviors, and code of ethics as informed by the Islamic religion within the context of African-American Muslim women's lives. An overview of the history of Islam in the world, and in the U.S., the main Islamic tenets, and the socio-cultural context of African-American Muslim women provides the broad framework for this paper. This information will be helpful in meeting the health needs of African-American Islamic women, within an outreach/community health promotion setting, within a clinical/hospital setting, or within a home care setting.
Factors Affecting African-American Counselors' Job Satisfaction: A National Study Cravor Jones (Abstract) The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that contributed to the job satisfaction of African American counselors (AAC). Although there are a variety of job satisfaction studies regarding mental health professionals, a literature review indicated research related to the job satisfaction of AACs was negligible. Knowing the factors that contribute to minorities' oc...
McDonald, Jasmine A.; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K; Troxel, Andrea B.; Shea, Judy A.; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes
Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-se...
Kailani, S H; Wright, J T
The evaluation and treatment of hypertension in the African-American patient with an elevated blood pressure presents a diagnostic challenge. We are less able to rely on young age and resistance to treatment as indications for more extensive evaluation of secondary causes of hypertension; thus, greater reliance on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment is required if we are to identify potentially treatable causes. The treatment of hypertension in the African-American patient also presents a therapeutic challenge. Thiazide diuretics remain the drugs of first choice for treating hypertension in the African-American hypertensive. The calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are attractive alternatives to thiazides in patients uncontrolled by or intolerant of thiazides or who have specific indications for these agents (eg, angina, severe diastolic dysfunction). Beta-blockers should not be denied to African-American hypertensives if indications for their use exist. Although beta-blockers may be less effective as monotherapy, 50% of African-American hypertensives can be so controlled. Resistance to beta-blockers may be eliminated by administering them with a diuretic. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), like CCBs, are well tolerated, but also lack long-term primary prevention data. As is the case with beta-blockers, ACEIs are less effective in African-American hypertensives when used as monotherapy. ACEIs have particular value in therapy for African-American hypertensives with concomitant congestive heart failure and may protect against progression of diabetic nephropathy. Finally, all hypertensives, especially African-American hypertensives, should have access to treatment prior to the development of end organ damage. The cost of early intervention is minimal compared with the economic consequences of neglect.
Marie N Fongwa
Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors
Poplack, Shana, Ed.
Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English…
Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A
Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable.
Coughlin, Steven S.; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S.; Smith, Selina A.
Purpose Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. Methods This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Results For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusions There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657
Contreras, G; Lenz, O; Pardo, V; Borja, E; Cely, C; Iqbal, K; Nahar, N; de La Cuesta, C; Hurtado, A; Fornoni, A; Beltran-Garcia, L; Asif, A; Young, L; Diego, J; Zachariah, M; Smith-Norwood, B
Poor outcomes have been reported in African Americans and Hispanics compared to Caucasians with lupus nephritis. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to identify independent predictors of outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis. In total, 93 African Americans, 100 Hispanics, and 20 Caucasians with a mean age of 28 +/- 13 years and an annual household income of 32.9 +/- 17.3 (in 1000 US dollars) were studied. World Health Organization (WHO) lupus nephritis classes II, III, IV, and V were seen in 9, 13, 52, and 26%, respectively. Important baseline differences were higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in African Americans compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (107 +/- 19, 102 +/- 15, and 99 +/- 13 mmHg, P lower hematocrit compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (29 +/- 5, and 31 +/- 6, and 32 +/- 7%, P lower annual household income (30.8 +/- 14.9, 33.1 +/- 15.9, and 42.2 +/- 29.3 in 1000 US dollars; P Lower prevalence of WHO class IV was seen in Caucasians (30%) compared to Hispanics (57%, P = 0.03) and African Americans (51%, P = 0.09). Development of doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease was higher in African Americans and Hispanics than in Caucasians (31, 18, and 10%; P Hispanics with lupus nephritis, and outcomes in these groups are worse than in Caucasians.
Full Text Available African American men face many socio-cultural, academic, and negative stressors that generate stress experiences and identity conflicts. These stressors, in turn, may lead to psychological pressures that negatively affect relationships that African American men have with African American women, children, other African American men, and the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that racial identity has on the development of psychological healthy coping strategies among African American males at a predominantly White university in the southeastern United States. The goal of the study was to see what factors helped young African American men at this institution succeed academically.
Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.
Stewart, April E.
The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…
Williams, Ishan C; Utz, Sharon W; Jones, Randy; Hinton, Ivora; Steeves, Richard; Alexander, Gina
Recruiting rural African Americans for research presents special problems because of cultural differences, the view of researchers as cultural "outsiders", and transportation problems. This paper reports successful strategies in recruiting rural African American adults with type 2 diabetes for research studies. The researchers tested recruitment strategies commonly used in research, such as flyers, advertisements in local newspapers and radio stations. The researchers also encouraged referrals from medical professionals. When recruitment goals were not met, the researchers modified strategies. Twenty-two rural African American participants were recruited and randomly assigned to culturally-tailored Group or Individual Diabetes Self Management Education (DSME). The latter included storytelling and an interactive learning approach. The key recruitment strategies involved spending time in the community, visits to churches, and flyers to key leaders in the Black community. Enrolling rural African Americans required cultural competence, careful planning, and time in the community. Recruiting for clinical research is challenging and more difficult when targeting minority members in rural settings. Research in diabetes care is needed with rural African Americans because of high rates of diabetes, and limited health care access for this population. Effective recruitment and retention strategies are needed to test interventions to reduce health disparities.
Despite improvements in many aspects of health, African American women experience early onset of disease and disability and increased mortality because of health disparities. African American women experience stress and health disadvantages because of the interaction and multiplicative effects of race, gender, class, and age. Sojourner Syndrome is an illustrative and symbolic representation that describes the multiple roles and social identities of African American women on the basis of historical referents and adaptive behaviors that fostered survival and resilience under oppressive circumstances. Adaptive behaviors also precipitated health risks due to chronic active coping. Weathering describes the cumulative health impact of persistent stress and chronic active coping that contributes to early health deterioration and increased morbidity, disability, and mortality in African American women. An emancipatory knowing nursing perspective provides a viewpoint from which to examine social injustices that create conditions for the excessive health burdens experienced by African American women and to frame nursing actions that create opportunities to promote health and eliminate health disparities.
Adams, Leslie B; Richmond, Jennifer; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Powell, Wizdom
Despite well-documented benefits of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, African Americans are less likely to be screened and have higher CRC incidence and mortality than Whites. Emerging evidence suggests medical mistrust may influence CRC screening disparities among African Americans. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize evidence investigating associations between medical mistrust and CRC screening among African Americans, and variations in these associations by gender, CRC screening type, and level of mistrust. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database, and EMBASE were searched for English-language articles published from January 2000 to November 2016. 27 articles were included for this review (15 quantitative, 11 qualitative and 1 mixed methods study). The majority of quantitative studies linked higher mistrust scores with lower rates of CRC screening among African Americans. Most studies examined mistrust at the physician level, but few quantitative studies analyzed mistrust at an organizational level (i.e. healthcare systems, insurance, etc.). Quantitative differences in mistrust and CRC screening by gender were mixed, but qualitative studies highlighted fear of experimentation and intrusiveness of screening methods as unique themes among African American men. Limitations include heterogeneity in mistrust and CRC measures, and possible publication bias. Future studies should address methodological challenges found in this review, such as limited use of validated and reliable mistrust measures, examination of CRC screening outcomes beyond beliefs and intent, and a more thorough analysis of gender roles in the cancer screening process.
Full Text Available Analysis of literature indicates that varying viewpoints about different elements which define contemporary African American Literature has been identified. Majority of the scholarly works on African American writing are built on foundation of culture, political oppression and the need to express their true needs. This paper explores the current trends in contemporary African American Literature by examining tenets in poetry, fiction and drama. Through the ages African American poetry, novels and drama can be considered to a chronicle documenting the struggles of a race which has been debated, debased and their humanity violated to the fight against oppression, social and political empowerment. From the views of this paper it can be concluded that the African American writing is not simply a reflection of the chain of events that took place but was a factor in change. Most of the writers and the works which have been highlighted in this essay have shown one primary theme: the use of literature as the means to voice their anger about social and economic repression. Keywords: s
Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.
Hasson, Rebecca E; Freedson, Patty S; Braun, Barry
African Americans are more insulin resistant than Caucasians. A single bout of moderate-intensity exercise reduces insulin resistance in sedentary Caucasian individuals. The impact of a single bout of exercise on insulin resistance has never been studied in African Americans. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of a single bout of exercise on insulin resistance in African-American women. Insulin resistance was assessed in 10 sedentary, over-weight or obese African-American women during a sedentary and exercise condition over a two-day period. During the sedentary condition, participants fasted overnight and sat quietly in the laboratory for 75 minutes. During the exercise condition, participants completed 75 minutes of brisk walking on a treadmill. Ninety minutes following each condition, participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Three-and-a-half hours later, subjects consumed a standardized meal [meal tolerance test (MTT)]. The insulin response to the OGTT was 18% lower (p=0.046), and insulin sensitivity was 18% higher (p=0.042) in the exercise condition compared to the sedentary condition. There were no differences between conditions following the MTT. These results indicate that overweight/obese, sedentary, insulin resistant African-American women had a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity from 75 minutes of brisk walking.
Gao, Sujuan; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Hall, Kathleen S.; Baiyewu, Olesegun; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Murrell, Jill R.; Gureje, Oye; Hake, Ann M.; Hendrie, Hugh C
Background To compare dementia incidence of African American and Yoruba cohorts age 70 or older enrolled in 1992 and 2001. Methods African Americans residing in Indianapolis and Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria without dementia were enrolled in 1992 and 2001 and evaluated every two to three years until 2009. The cohorts consist of 1440 African Americans, 1774 Yoruba in 1992 and 1835 African Americans and 1895 Yoruba in the 2001 cohorts age 70 or older. Results In African Americans, dementia and AD incidence rates were significantly lower in 2001 than 1992 for all age groups except the oldest group. The overall standardized annual dementia incidence rates were 3.6% (95% CI: 3.2–4.1%) in the1992 cohort and 1.4% (95% CI: 1.2–1.7%) in the 2001 cohort. There was no significant difference in dementia or AD incidence between the Yoruba cohorts. Conclusions Future research is needed to explore the reasons for the differential changes in incidence rates in these two populations. PMID:26218444
Spurlock, Wanda Raby; Cullins, Leah S
Despite significant advances in science, medicine, and technology African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than Caucasian women. There is a growing body of literature that describes strategies to improve breast cancer screening among African American women. However, data suggest that African American women, compared to Caucasian women, are less likely to participate in regular breast cancer screening. The belief that a diagnosis of cancer will result in death has been identified as a potential barrier to cancer screening in African American population groups. However, research examining the degree to which perceptions of fatalism influence breast cancer screening in culturally and ethnically diverse population groups is scant. This repot describes the outcomes of a study undertaken to examine relationships between perceptions of cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. Findings support the postulation that fatalism negatively influences health promoting practices such as breast cancer screening. However, contrary to prior research findings age was observed to be inversely associated with cancer fatalism.
Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E; Goldston, David B; Estroff, Sue E; Magan, Ifrah
Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers' parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers' parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers' residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families.
Dana L. Carthron
Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.
Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.
Advani, Pragati S; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Nguyen, Nga T; Fisher, Felicia D; Savoy, Elaine J; Cuevas, Adolfo G; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H
African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse consequences of behavioral risk factors for cancer relative to other ethnic groups. Recent studies have assessed how financial strain might uniquely contribute to engagement in modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer, but not among African Americans. The current study examined associations between financial strain and modifiable cancer risk factors (smoking, at-risk alcohol use, overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, and multiple risk factors) among 1,278 African American adults (age, 46.5 ± 12.6 years; 77% female) and explored potential mediators (stress and depressive symptoms) of those associations. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between financial strain and cancer risk factors. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, partner status, income, educational level, and employment status. Analyses involving overweight/obesity status additionally controlled for fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. Nonparametric bootstrapping procedures were used to assess mediation. Greater financial strain was associated with greater odds of insufficient physical activity (P risk factors (P financial strain with physical inactivity and multiple risk factors, respectively. Future interventions aimed at reducing cancer disparities should focus on African Americans experiencing higher financial strain while addressing their stress and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the temporal and causal relations between financial strain and modifiable behavioral cancer risk factors among African Americans. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Montgomery, LaTrice
This study examines the psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among youth. A total of 7,488 African American middle and high school students from 133 metropolitan private and public schools completed a survey assessing psychosocial factors associated with annual marijuana use. The PRIDE survey, a nationally recognized survey on substance use, was used to assess the frequency of marijuana use and the influence of psychosocial factors on marijuana use among African American students. Results indicated that 18.5% of African American youth used marijuana in the past year. Males were significantly more likely than females to report using marijuana. Engaging in risky behaviors, such as getting in trouble at school and with police and attending a party with alcohol and other drugs, were significantly correlated with annual marijuana use. Conversely, having multiple parent, teacher, and school protective factors reduced annual marijuana use in this population. Such findings may assist prevention specialists in developing interventions to reduce and prevent marijuana use.
Thornton, Michael C; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy
African American and Black Caribbean relations dominate research on interactions across black ethnic divides. Using National Survey of American Life data, we explore a different aspect of black interethnic attitudes: how close these groups feel toward Africans. African Americans and Black Caribbeans were largely similar in their feelings of closeness to Africans. For Black Caribbeans, younger and male respondents, those reporting higher levels of financial strain, living in the northeast and persons who immigrated to the United States at least 11 years ago, report feeling especially close to Africans. Being male was the only significant correlate among African Americans. The findings are discussed in relation to how race, ethnicity and national origin shape personal identities within the U.S. and their significance for intergroup perceptions. These broader issues warrant further consideration in light of assertions that race as a defining feature of American life and intergroup relations is obsolete.
Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia
Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.
Benjamin, Ludy T; Henry, Keisha D; McMahon, Lance R
Inez Beverly Prosser (ca. 1895-1934) was arguably the first African American woman to earn a doctorate in psychology. Her dissertation, completed in 1933, examined personality differences in black children attending either voluntarily segregated or integrated schools and concluded that black children were better served in segregated schools. This research was one of several studies in the 1920s and 1930s that was part of the debate on segregated schools as maintained in the United States under the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). This article examines the life and career of Prosser in the context of educational barriers and opportunities for African Americans in the early part of the twentieth century and explores the arguments that pitted African Americans against one another in determining how best to educate black children, arguments that eventually led to the desegregation decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cecilia S Obeng
Full Text Available There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore how African American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N=20, 10 in each group were conducted with African American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as WIC provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population.
Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M
Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.
Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.
Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Milapkumar; Barker, Narviar C; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta
Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood. It can become chronic or recurrent and lead to substantial impairment in an individual's ability to function. At this level, it is identified as major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression and MDD occur across all racial and ethnic groups. Although many depressed patients are treated in primary care, depression in these settings has been underdetected and undertreated. African Americans, especially, who suffer from depression are frequently underdiagnosed and inadequately managed in primary care due to patient, physician, and treatment setting factors. Patient factors include being poor, uninsured, restrictive insurance policies, biological-genetic vulnerability, nonresponsiveness to traditional pharmacological interventions, and stigma (i.e., attitudes and perceptions of mental illness). Physician factors include diagnosis and assessment, physician characteristics, physician bias, and culture; and treatment setting factors include systemic variables such as lack of or poor access to health care, racism, environment, and patient management. African Americans are less likely to receive proper diagnosis and treatment, more likely to have depression for long periods of time, and more likely to suffer greater disability from depression. Understanding patient, physician, and treatment setting factors as contributing barriers that impede effective diagnosis and treatment of depression and MDD in African Americans is critical to effective patient management and discovery. Greater African American participation in clinical research trials also is needed to effectively improve, diagnose, and treat depression in African Americans. This article examines depression among African Americans in the context of gender, culture, and psychosocial determinants, and their engagement in clinical trials.
Hendrie, Hugh C; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Lane, Kathleen A; Purnell, Christianna; Gao, Sujuan; Hake, Ann; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Gureje, Oye; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Murrell, Jill; Deeg, Mark A; Hall, Kathleen
High levels of homocysteine have been associated with increased risk for dementia although results have been inconsistent. There are no reported studies from the developing world including Africa. In this longitudinal study of two community-dwelling cohorts of elderly Yoruba and African Americans, levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate were measured from blood samples taken in 2001. These levels were compared in two groups, participants who developed incident dementia in the follow-up until 2009 (59 Yoruba and 101 African Americans) and participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal or in the good performance category at their last follow-up (760 Yoruba and 811 African Americans). Homocysteine levels were divided into quartiles for each site. After adjusting for age, education, possession of ApoE, smoking, and time of enrollment the higher quartiles of homocysteine were associated with a non-significant increase in dementia risk in the Yoruba (homocysteine quartile 4 vs. 1 OR: 2.19, 95% CI 0.95-5.07, p = 0.066). For the African Americans, there was a similar but non-significant relationship between higher homocysteine levels and dementia risk. There were no significant relationships between levels of vitamin B12 and folate and incident dementia in either site although folate levels were lower and vitamin B12 levers were higher in the Yoruba than in the African Americans. Increased homocysteine levels were associated with a similar but non-significant increase in dementia risk for both Yoruba and African Americans despite significant differences in folate levels between the two sites.
Jones, Carissa C; Bush, William S; Crawford, Dana C; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Schwartz, Ann G; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret R; Blot, William J; Chanock, Stephen J; Grogan, Eric L; Aldrich, Melinda C
Background: African Americans have the highest lung cancer mortality in the United States. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of germline variants influencing lung cancer survival have not yet been conducted with African Americans. We examined five previously reported GWAS catalog variants and explored additional genome-wide associations among African American lung cancer cases. Methods: Incident non-small cell lung cancer cases ( N = 286) in the Southern Community Cohort Study were genotyped on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall mortality. Two independent African American studies ( N = 316 and 298) were used for replication. Results: One previously reported variant, rs1878022 on 12q23.3, was significantly associated with mortality (HR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54-0.92). Replication findings were in the same direction, although attenuated (HR = 0.87 and 0.94). Meta-analysis had a HR of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.71-0.97). Analysis of common variants identified an association between chromosome 6q21.33 and mortality (HR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.66). Conclusions: We identified an association between rs1878022 in CMKLR1 and lung cancer survival. However, our results in African Americans have a different direction of effect compared with a prior study in European Americans, suggesting a different genetic architecture or presence of gene-environment interactions. We also identified variants on chromosome 6 within the gene-rich HLA region, which has been previously implicated in lung cancer risk and survival. Impact: We found evidence that inherited genetic risk factors influence lung cancer survival in African Americans. Replication in additional populations is necessary to confirm potential genetic differences in lung cancer survival across populations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1288-95. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Prather, Cynthia; Marshall, Khiya; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Williams, Kim; Eke, Agatha; O'Leary, Ann; Stratford, Dale
Microenterprise programs are widely used to improve health outcomes among women internationally. However, there is little information on applicability to American women living in poverty. We conducted formative research to identify activities that are viable and attractive, that may produce income to address some proportion of economic need and could be incorporated in the development of a micro-enterprise HIV-prevention intervention to reduce HIV/STD transmission among unemployed or underemployed African American women at risk for HIV. Focus groups were convened with young African American women and community leaders in two southern states. Interviews with women participating in the focus groups were also convened. Findings suggest an intervention should incorporate activities to increase self-esteem, enhance employability and job sustainability to decrease financial dependence. This research serves as the foundation for developing a novel approach to HIV prevention in the U.S. that may directly address poverty as a social determinant of health.
Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.
Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404
Eliason, M J
African American women's health has been neglected in the nursing and other health care literature, in spite of evidence that they are among the most vulnerable populations in the United States today. In this article, I highlight the health disparities between African American and European American women, discuss possible reasons for the disparities, and propose that nursing as a profession has been complicit in perpetuating the racism of health care and society. Although the focus is on nursing research and practice, it is likely that other health care disciplines perpetuate racism in similar ways.
Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A; Carlyle, Kellie E
Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African American women. Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.
Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380
This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…
Tate, William F., IV
The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is…
Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.
Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…
Using the Marxist concepts of alienation and estrangement in the reading of Ellison's Invisible Man, it argues that Ellison's fundamental project in this novel is to show how the skin colour of the African American makes him invisible and alienates him from the socioeconomic and socio-political structures of the American ...
Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl
The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…
O'Brien, Kathryn Mary
The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…
Benson, Kirsten F.
This qualitative study interviewed eight academically "at risk" African American athletes at a southeastern university with a major revenue-producing football program. Analysis suggested that the athletes' marginal academic performance was constructed in a system of interrelated practices engaged in by all the significant members of the academic…
Hahn, Ellen J.; Rado, Mary
Reports a study that examined African American parents' perceptions of their involvement with their Head Start children in an alcohol, tobacco, and other drug prevention program. The results provide information on barriers to and benefits of participation, cues to action, perceived threat, and contributing background variables. (SM)
Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A
Despite a growing literature on the influence of social support on mental health, little is known about the relationship between social support and specific psychiatric disorders for African Americans, such as PTSD. This study investigated the relationship between social support, negative interaction with family and 12-month PTSD among African Americans. Analyses were based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (n = 3315). Social support variables included emotional support from family, frequency of contact with family and friends, subjective closeness with family and friends, and negative interactions with family. Results indicated that emotional support from family is negatively associated with 12-month PTSD while negative interaction with family is predictive of 12-month PTSD. Additionally, a significant interaction indicated that high levels of subjective closeness to friends could offset the impact of negative family interactions on 12-month PTSD. Overall, study results converged with previously established findings indicating that emotional support from family is associated with 12-month PTSD, while, negative interaction with family is associated with increased risk of 12-month PTSD. The findings are discussed in relation to prior research on the unique association between social support and mental health among African Americans.
Hayes, Denise; Murry, Sherri
Yalom's group theory and Karenga's Afrocentric paradigm are integrated in a workshop for African American women via the topical themes of each workshop session, the developmental approach from a semistructured group to a process-oriented group, and the process of training a practicum student. A six-week, semi-structured self-esteem workshop was…
Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami
Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…
Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren
Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…
Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy
Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…
Kane, Justine M.
The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…
Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily
Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…
Lincoln, Karen D.; Chae, David H.
This study examines relationships among financial strain, unfair treatment, and martial satisfaction among African Americans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, findings indicated that social stressors that occur inside of the home (i.e., financial strain) as well as those experienced outside of the home (i.e., unfair treatment)…
Describes the Amistad Research Center housed at Tulane University which is a repository of primary documents on African-American history. Topics addressed include the development and growth of the collection; inclusion of the American Missionary Association archives; sources of support; civil rights; and collecting for the future. (LRW)
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
Strom, Robert D.; Amukamara, Humphrey; Strom, Shirley K.; Beckert, Troy E.; Moore, Elsie G.; Strom, Paris S.; Griswold, Dianne L.
Examines how African-American fathers of 10-14-year-olds view their assets and limitations as parents, and how children see the parental performance of their fathers. Independent variables entering the greatest effect on how both generations perceived parental success were: amount of time father and child spent together; having an adult at home…
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh
Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…
Lindo, Endia J.
This study examined what proportion of reading intervention experiments published in a sample of prominent, peer-reviewed education research journals evaluated the impact of the reading intervention on African American students. The last 10 years of articles from the "Reading Research Quarterly" and the "Journal of Educational Psychology" and all…
McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman
This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…
Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.
Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith
There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between race and body mass index (BMI) for African American women. Previously collected data from the National Survey of American Life Self-Administered Questionnaire, 2001-2003 (NSAL-SAQ) was analyzed for this study. The NSAL-SAQ dedicated a section to the exploration of group and personal identity, along with having anthropometric data and health habit questions to be able to conduct analyses for associations between the racial identity dimensions and obesity. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the constructs of racial identity on BMI comparing standardized coefficients (β) and R(2)adj values. Results indicated participants ascribing more to the stereotype of "Blacks giving up easily" (β = 0.527, p = .000) showed an increased BMI. Additionally, the negative stereotype of "Blacks being violent" (β = 0.663, p = .000) and "Blacks being lazy" (β = 0.506, p = .001) was associated with an increased BMI. Based on these finds high negative racial regard is associated with increased weight. This study contributes uniquely to the scientific literature, focusing on the construct of racial identity and obesity in African American women.
Davis, Cindy; Rust, Connie; Darby, Kathleen
Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer, particularly African-American women, face multiple barriers to survival. Although research exists regarding the unique barriers faced by African-American breast cancer survivors, there has been little research into the various coping needs or coping strategies used among African-American women. The purpose of this article is to provide information from an exploratory study of data investigating the coping skills of 30 African-American women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. Quantitative data was collected via a self-report questionnaire based on the pretest of the Breast Cancer Survivors Toolbox. The study sample was evaluated to determine overall coping skills followed by an analysis of individual categories of coping skills (e.g., communication, information seeking, negotiating, social support systems, cultural norms). Although limited by the non-random sampling technique and self-report, the results of the study support the need for further research regarding the use of interventions and strategies tailored to improve coping skills used by this population.
Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams
The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. © The Author(s) 2014.
A number of studies on female-authored African American literary works have focused on female writers' creative responses to male-authored representations of the tensions of racism, internal crisis of man-woman relationships and the challenges of empowering the black female character. Little attention has been paid to ...
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
Talleyrand, Regine M.
Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…
Profiles writer David Haynes, and discusses his four novels (an award-winning young adult book and three novels for the adult market). Concludes that Haynes' success as a novelist is due to his characters, a healthy dose of humor, and his realistic depiction of a wide range of African American characters without resorting to sensationalism or…
Epps, Sharon K.
Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…
Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey
Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…
Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.
This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…
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Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…
Paley, Karen Surman
The "Ebonics Resolution" was passed by the Oakland, California, school board in 1996. The proposal called for "imparting instruction to African-American students for the combined purposes of maintaining legitimacy and richness of such language...and to facilitate their acquisition and mastery of English language skills." The…
The author explores the challenges of teaching and learning African American history, a history fraught with uncomfortable implications about contemporary race relations and race-based inequalities. Drawing on various theories of anti-oppressive education, and using data from an ethnographic study conducted in one history classroom, the author…
Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Madsen, Jean A.
Examined how intergroup differences within suburban schools affected African American teachers' experiences. Organizational culture strongly influenced how whites treated their minority counterparts. Because the majority established norms, minorities were expected to comply with uniform sets of rules and regulations. Intergroup conflict arose…
Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia
A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…
Love, Elaine Roundtree
The purpose of this study was to investigate how families influence the career education and career awareness of African American students in grades K-3. Existing literature indicated that scholars have focused their attention on the career education of college level students and counselors working with students in high schools; however, research…
The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…
Its activities and successes constitute an eloquent testimony to the continued existence of pragmatic racial pan-Africanism.1 Furthermore, they show that like other “hyphenated-Americans”, African-Americans are still very interested in developments in their “ancestral home”, and are willing to partake in shaping such ...
Singer, John N.
This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…
Hammond, Bill, Ed.; Hoover, Mary Eleanor Rhodes, Ed.; McPhail, Irving Pressley, Ed.
This collection of original and previously published articles fills a critical need for professional literature that documents successful research-based practices and programs that teach African American children to read. Thoughtful commentary on historic and current issues, discussion of research-based best practices, and examples of culturally…
Wade, Jay C.
Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…
Barnes, Ann Smith; Kimbro, Rachel T
.... There is limited data on African Americans who have achieved successful long-term weight loss maintenance.To identify a large sample of African American adults who intentionally achieved clinically significant weight loss of 10...
This report is a program users manual for the Cycling in the African American Community (CAAC) safety training intervention. The CAAC safety training intervention was designed to nudge more African Americans, who are often beginning cyclists...
Black, Maureen M; Papas, Mia A; Bentley, Margaret E; Cureton, Pamela; Saunders, Alicia; Le, Katherine; Anliker, Jean; Robinson, Noni
This study sought to determine how dietary patterns, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and intention to lose weight were associated with body size among adolescent African-American mothers 1 year after delivery and with changes in body size over the next year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal self-reported measures were collected 1 year after delivery. Weight and height were collected 1 and 2 years after delivery. The subjects were 118 low-income, African-American adolescent mothers recruited after the birth of their first child. Multivariate analysis of covariance and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to examine predictors of body size 1 year after delivery and changes in body size over the next year. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, education, breastfeeding history, and intervention. One year after delivery, 33.0% of mothers were overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or =95th percentile) and 23.7% were at risk for overweight (BMI > or =85th and lose weight, chi(2)=10.8, Plose weight were not related to body size or increase in body size. One year after delivery, overweight among adolescent mothers was common and increased over time. Although nearly half of overweight mothers reported an intention to lose weight, their weight gain did not differ from that of other mothers, suggesting that they lack effective weight-loss behaviors, and may be good candidates for intervention. African-American adolescent mothers have high rates of overweight and snack consumption and may benefit from strategies to identify nutritious, palatable, affordable, and accessible alternatives to high-fat snack food.
Felton, Teena M
Understanding Facilitators And Barriers To The Selection of Dietetics As A Major By African-American Students Teena M. Felton (ABSTRACT) Less than 5% of registered dietitians are African-American individuals. Little has been done to investigate reasons for the paucity of African-American professionals in the dietetics field. The specific aim of this study was, therefore, to explore facilitators and barriers to the selection of dietetics as a major by African-American students. ...
Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.
This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…
Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie
Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…
Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.
Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…
Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar
The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…
This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…
Green, Andre; Glasson, George
One of the most significant problems facing science education is the under-representation of African Americans in science related fields (Young, 2005). African American constitute a little more than 12% of the United States population. However, as recently as 1999 African Americans only comprised only 3.4% of persons working in science and…
Brown, Bryan A.
This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…
Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.
Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…
Reason, Robert D.
Study examined representation and salary differences related to gender for African American Senior Student Affairs Officers (SSAOs). Data from a national survey revealed gender and institutional size significantly affect mean SSAO salary for African American respondents. African American women SSAOs make significantly less than African American…
Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline
Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…
West, Nicole M.
The African American Women's Summit (AAWS) is a professional development program in the United States created by and for African American women in student affairs. This article reviews the evolution and structure of the AAWS. A discussion, grounded in Black feminist thought, is included relative to the impact of the AAWS on African American women…
Educators who neglect to adapt teaching strategies to different cognitive styles may be placing some students at risk. A literature review suggests that elements of African American culture heavily influence African American students' communicative and cognitive styles. Research indicates that African American cultural values are organized around…
Ward, Janie Victoria
Analyzes African-Americans narratives of interracial conflict. Concludes that issues of power and authority are imbedded in interracial interpersonal relationships. Explores themes of justice and care in the psychological development of African Americans and in the transmission of race-related morals and values in African-American culture. (DK)
Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.
Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge
Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…
Dixson, Dante D.; Roberson, Cyrell C. B.; Worrell, Frank C.
Grit, growth mindset, ethnic identity, and other group orientation are four psychosocial variables that have been associated with academic achievement in adolescent populations. In a sample of 105 high achieving African American high school students (cumulative grade point average [GPA] > 3.0), we examined whether these four psychosocial…
Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O; Rhodes, Warren A; Harper, P Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L
Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the efficacy of a hip-hop based substance use and HIV preventive intervention that targets African-American middle-school youth. The sample consists of 68 middle-school students who completed baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments. Findings suggest that students in the intervention group were significantly more likely to have higher knowledge of perception of drug risk and more knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared to students in the comparison group at the 6-month post-intervention assessment. Discussion is centered on implications of hip-hop as a viable approach for preventing substance use and HIV within a high-risk group.
Gardner, K R; Sapienza, C; Fisher, J O
Genetic and epigenetic variations may be an important contributer to altered eating behaviors in childhood which may lead to weight gain and obesity later in life. This study aimed to evaluate epigenetic as well as genetic associations with appetite in young children. Participants were 32 non-obese and 32 obese African-American children aged 5-6 years. Saliva was collected from each child, and RNA and DNA were extracted for analysis. Individuals were genotyped for eating- and obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in seven candidate genes (FTO, MAOA, SH2B1, LEPR, DNMT3B, BDNF and CCKAR), and DNA methylation levels were measured in the upstream promoter region of each. Transcript levels of MAOA and FTO were also assessed. The Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to assess the aspects of appetite. Child obesity was assessed using measured height and weight, and percent body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Food responsiveness was higher and satiety responsiveness was lower among obese than non-obese female children (P = 0.001 and P = 0.031), but did not differ among male children. Epigenetic analysis of the BDNF promoter revealed associations with altered satiety responsiveness among female children (P epigenetic associations with altered appetite among young African-American girls. © 2015 World Obesity.
Hawthorne, Dorothy J
This study was conducted to identify and describe symbolic themes of menarche. The qualitative case study design was used with a purposive sample of 30 participants (15 mothers and their 15 daughters) in answering 2 questions: (a) How do 9- and 10-year-old African American girls view the meaning of their menarcheal flow?, and (b) How do African American mothers view the meaning of menarche? Data were collected through interviews 2 to 5 days after completion of menarche. A cross-case comparison analysis of the interviews revealed 4 themes: (a) vaginal bleeding, (b) sexual maturation, (c) premenarcheal sexual activity, and (d) sexual payback to fathers. With the exception of the latter all themes were supported in earlier studies of Euro-American girls. These findings indicate the need for further research addressing self-concept at menarche, impact of menarche on family relationships, and views of fathers about sexual payback as a symbol of menarche.
Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M
This study explored trajectories of African American youths' academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths' academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem.
Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L
Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.
Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).
Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A
This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.
Labella, Madelyn H
The current paper systematically reviews empirical research on parental emotion socialization in African American families, addressing gaps in a literature that has historically focused on White middle class samples. Of the 1210 studies screened, 329 were inspected, 280 were excluded, and 49 were included. Studies addressed emotion-related beliefs and attitudes, emotion expressiveness, discussion of emotion, and responses to children's emotion. Mixed findings are interpreted in light of sociocultural factors. An emerging body of research suggests that the celebration and restriction of children's emotions coexist closely in African American families, perhaps reflecting the joint influence of traditional Afro-cultural values and the historical context of slavery and discrimination. Methodological issues are identified and future directions for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sampselle, Carolyn M; Harris, Vanessa; Harlow, Sioban D; Sowers, MaryFran
Little is known about factors that enhance midlife women's well-being and even less about whether these factors differ for African Americans and Caucasians. We conducted focus groups with 30 women, grouped by ethnicity and menopausal status. Women identified midlife as a time of opportunity for self-development. Pre/perimenopausal women expressed more fears about severe emotional changes than did their postmenopausal counterparts. These fears were in sharp contrast to the women's descriptions of enhanced self-esteem. Caucasian women were primarily concerned about menopause as a harbinger of physical aging and the ensuing disadvantage of divergence from society's ideal of a youthful appearance, while African American women viewed menopause as a normal, even welcome, part of life. A language of emancipation and awareness of gender bias were prominent in the women's stories regardless of menopausal status or race. Further study should assess the role that feminist insights may play in the well-being of midlife women.
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Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded. These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development. This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices. 51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated. The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes. Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices. Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.
Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded. These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development. This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices. 51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated. The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes. Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices. Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.
Goldbarg, Rosalyn Negrón; Brown, Emma J
One of the main unifying concepts of research examining gender variations in drug use behavior is the social network. Yet, research specifically focusing on how the social networks of these groups differ by gender is limited. Few studies have investigated the social networks of rural African Americans who use drugs. In this study, we compared the personal networks of 20 rural African-American men and women addicted to cocaine using social network analysis (SNA) methods. The data do not support strong assertions about gender differences in the personal networks of the study sample. However, the results of the study suggest that men tend to have more drug users in their networks than women, as well as less structurally cohesive networks. Women tend to include more men in their personal networks than men included women. Implications of the research results for network-based drug prevention intervention as well as the value of SNA methods for drug use research are discussed.
Proctor, Sherrie L; Truscott, Stephen D
This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what factors contributed to participants' attrition. Findings indicate that misalignment between participants' career aims and the practice of school psychology (as presented in the programs they left) contributed to attrition. Poor relationships with school psychology faculty and program cohort peers also played a role in participants' decisions to leave school psychology programs. Results offer a unique lens into racial issues in school psychology. Recommendations for faculty and others interested in preventing African Americans' attrition from school psychology graduate education are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metzl, Jonathan M
This commentary describes ways in which notions of African American men's "health" attained by individual choice-embedded in the notion that African American men should visit doctors or engage in fewer risky behaviors-are at times in tension with larger cultural, economic, and political notions of "health." It argues that efforts to improve the health of Black men must take structural factors into account, and failure to do so circumvents even well-intentioned efforts to improve health outcomes. Using historical examples, the article shows how attempts to identify and intervene into what are now called social determinants of health are strengthened by addressing on-the-ground diagnostic disparities and also the structural violence and racism embedded within definitions of illness and health. And, that, as such, we need to monitor structural barriers to health that exist in institutions ostensibly set up to incarcerate or contain Black men and in institutions ostensibly set up to help them.
Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms, did not mitigate the effects of stress, and was reduced in response to financial strain. Financial strain and traumatic events were associated with in...
Koochekpour, Shahriar; Buckles, Erick; Shourideh, Mojgan; Hu, SiYi; Chandra, Dhyan; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Attwood, Kristopher
The Androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the normal development of the prostate gland, in prostate carcinogenesis, and in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to advanced metastatic disease. African American (AA) men with PCa present with higher tumor volume, more advanced tumor stage, and higher Gleason score. This could be in part related to the AR expression or activity in the prostate tissue of AA men, or to unique mutations or polymorphisms of the AR. In Caucasian Americans...
Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Vogt, Molly T; Rubin, David A; Palermo, Lisa; Christianson, Lisa; Kang, James D; Nevitt, Michael C; Cauley, Jane A
Degenerative changes in the lumbar spine may result in a loss of spinal stability and subluxation of one vertebra relative to another. Cadaveric studies and clinical case series have suggested that listhesis may be much more common in African Americans than in whites. To determine the prevalence of lumbar spine listhesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) among African American women aged 65 years and older and the relationship of listhesis to low back pain, physical function and quality of life. Cross-sectional study. A total of 481 African American women aged 65 years and older who were enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. These women were recruited from population-based listings in Baltimore, MD, Minneapolis, MN, Pittsburgh, PA, and Portland, OR. Not applicable. Lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were digitized, and listhesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) was assessed at spinal levels L3-L4, L4-L5 and L5-S1. Usable data were obtained for 470 women. Listhesis was defined as present when the subluxation (antero or retro) was 3 mm or more. The overall prevalence of anterolisthesis was 58.3% and varied by spinal level (13.2% at L3-L4, 36.5% at L4-L5 and 29.6% at L5-S1). The prevalence increased with age but was lower among oophorectomized women and those currently on estrogen replacement therapy. Anterolisthesis was not associated (p>.05) with disc height nor was it related to back function. Retrolisthesis occurred in 4% of women and was associated with decreased disc height and an increased prevalence of spinal problems and walking problems. The prevalence of anterolisthesis among older African American women living in the community was two to three times greater than that found in white women of a similar age. This condition was not related to an increased frequency of back problems nor did it adversely affect general physical function. Retrolisthesis was relatively rare but was associated with decreased back function.
This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but itâs still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle. Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 5/2/2017.
Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A
To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Devereux Richard B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic root diameter is a clinically relevant trait due to its known relationship with the pathogenesis of aortic regurgitation and risk for aortic dissection. African Americans are an understudied population despite a particularly high burden of cardiovascular diseases. We report a genome-wide association study on aortic root diameter among African Americans enrolled in the HyperGEN study. We invoked a two-stage, mixed model procedure to jointly identify SNP allele and copy number variation effects. Results Results suggest novel genetic contributors along a large region between the CRCP and KCTD7 genes on chromosome 7 (p = 4.26 × 10-7; and the SIRPA and PDYN genes on chromosome 20 (p = 3.28 × 10-8. Conclusions The regions we discovered are candidates for future studies on cardiovascular outcomes, particularly in African Americans. The methods we employed can also provide an outline for genetic researchers interested in jointly testing SNP and CNV effects and/or applying mixed model procedures on a genome-wide scale.
Schademan, Alfred R.
Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have long been an intellectual resource for the African American community. HBCUs have provided and continue to provide an educational pathway for many Black students, particularly women who seek graduate and advanced degrees. However, despite the overwhelmingly positive presence of HBCU in the African American community, the academic training of students who graduate from HBCUs may be perceived as insufficient by predominantly White graduate institutions (PWIs). As a result, African American students who are not well integrated into their respective departmental communities and cultures at PW/is are likely to leave graduate school. Thus the continuing loss of talented people, potential research, role models for society, and the next generation of African American students in the fields of math, engineering, and the sciences (STEM) create a segregated and limited university environment. Studies in the field that attempt to provide insight in to experiences of underrepresented students are ultimately beneficial. However, often such studies do not address the process of adapting to the culture of a predominantly white institution (PWI), particularly within white and male dominated fields such as mathematics and the sciences. Research has also indicated that the first two years at a predominantly white graduate institution is the crucial transitional period for students of color, and it is this transitional moment in time that is the focus of this study. I consider how students make the transition from HBCU to majority institutions, and what impact this transition has on their persistence and commitment to their discipline. The limited amount of research that does address the experiences of minority doctoral students in math and science is usually coupled with the experiences of women. However, race and gender are not linear or additive. It cannot be assumed that the same factors that effect the under representation
King, LaGarrett Jarriel
African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…
Liu, Shijian; Wilson, James G; Jiang, Fan; Griswold, Michael; Correa, Adolfo; Mei, Hao
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been successful in identifying obesity risk genes by single-variant association analysis. For this study, we designed steps of analysis strategy and aimed to identify multi-variant effects on obesity risk among candidate genes. Our analyses were focused on 2137 African American participants with body mass index measured in the Jackson Heart Study and 657 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped at 8 GWAS-identified obesity risk genes. Single-variant association test showed that no SNPs reached significance after multiple testing adjustment. The following gene-gene interaction analysis, which was focused on SNPs with unadjusted p-valueobesity risk. Our study evidenced that obesity risk genes generated multi-variant effects, which can be additive or non-linear interactions, and multi-variant study is an important supplement to existing GWAS for understanding genetic effects of obesity risk genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W
Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Liao, Y; Ghali, J K; Berzins, L; Cooper, R S
No data exist comparing clinical and angiographic findings in large numbers of contemporary African-American and white patients from the same hospital. Limited angiographic data on African Americans were obtained from hospitals serving predominantly minority patients, making the valid African-American:white comparisons difficult. The study included 2,624 consecutive white and 1,793 African-American patients who had angiography for diagnostic evaluation of presumed coronary artery disease at the Louisiana State University Medical Center in Shreveport between 1990 and 1997. Compared to whites of the same sex, a greater proportion of African-American patients had a history of hypertension, stroke, and heart failure. African Americans also had significantly higher systemic and left ventricular pressure, lower ejection fraction, greater echocardiographic left ventricular mass index, and more concentric hypertrophy. The overall proportion of patients with normal or minimal stenosis of coronary artery (whites for both men and women. This difference was predominately found in men aged > or = 55 years or older. Except among older men, African-American patients with coronary heart disease had a similar distribution of 1-, 2-, 3-vessel disease and mean stenosis score compared to whites. In conclusion, a higher frequency of normal coronaries and less frequent coronary stenosis were found in older African-American men. The African-American:white differences in angiographic findings were minimal in younger men and in women. However, African Americans had worse clinical profiles than whites.
Powe, Barbara D; Ross, Louie; Wilkerson, Donoria; Brooks, Patrice; Cooper, Dexter
African American men present at later stages of testicular cancer and have higher mortality rates than Caucasian men. Lack of awareness, beliefs, and access to care may influence this disparity. Guided by the Powe fatalism model, this comparative study assessed knowledge of testicular cancer, perceived risk, and cancer fatalism among African American and Caucasian men who attended selected colleges and universities. Data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory, the Testicular Cancer Knowledge Survey, and the Perceived Cancer Risk Survey. The majority (n = 190) of men were African American (70%), and the remainder were Caucasian. African American men were significantly younger than Caucasian men. African American men also had lower testicular cancer knowledge scores, higher perceptions of cancer fatalism, and lower perceived risk for the disease. Rates of testicular cancer screening were low for all the men. Research should focus on further understanding the relationship between cancer fatalism and health-promoting behaviors among African American men.
Adams, K J; Swank, A M; Berning, J M; Sevene-Adams, P G; Barnard, K L; Shimp-Bowerman, J
This study investigated effects of an 8-wk, low-frequency and low-volume, supervised, progressive strength training program emphasizing free weight, multijoint movements on the muscular power, strength, endurance, and flexibility of African American women 44 to 68 yr of age. Nineteen sedentary African American women were randomly assigned to a strength training (ST) only group (N = 12; mean age, 51 yr) or a nonexercise control (C) group (N = 7; mean age, 52 yr). Maximal power, strength, absolute endurance, and flexibility were assessed before and after training. Subjects trained 2 d x wk(-1) using free weight (barbells and dumbbells) and machine (plate loaded) exercises for two to three sets of 8 to 10 repetitions on both primary and assistance exercises. Upper body power (medicine ball put distance) significantly increased statistically (P = 0.002), but gains possibly lacked practical significance because of measurement variation. Lower body power (peak watts on bicycle) experienced a small, nonsignificant increase in the ST group. Significant increases (P = 0.000) in 1RM muscle strength occurred in the ST group (leg press, +99.8%; bench press, +34.4%). Absolute endurance significantly increased (P = 0.000) in the ST group (leg press repetitions to failure at 70% pretest 1RM, +221%; bench press repetitions to failure at 50% pretest 1RM, +112%). Significant flexibility gains occurred in the ST group (sit-and-reach test, +8.2%; P = 0.017). No significant changes occurred in power, strength, absolute endurance, or flexibility in the C group. This study demonstrates that 8 wk of low-frequency, supervised, progressive strength training emphasizing free weight, multijoint movements can safely cause significant gains in muscle strength, absolute endurance, and flexibility in older African American women.
Barton, James C; Bertoli, Luigi F; Alford, Thomas J; Barton, J Clayborn; Edwards, Corwin Q
Primary iron overload in African Americans has been reported predominantly from autopsy studies. We characterized hepatic iron phenotypes in 83 African Americans who underwent liver biopsy during the interval 1990 to 1995. We tabulated pathology report form data, iron grades in hepatocytes (0-4) and Kupffer cells (0-3) and abnormal liver histology. Increased iron was defined as hepatocyte or Kupffer iron grades ≥ 2, respectively. Heavy iron was defined as hepatocyte iron grade 3 or 4. Primary iron overload was defined as the presence of grade 3 or 4 hepatocellular iron in the absence of evidence of chronic alcohol effect, viral hepatitis, steatosis, unexplained inflammation, chronic erythrocyte transfusion or chronic ingestion of iron supplements. There were 37 men and 46 women (mean age: 53 ± 15 [SD] years). We observed heavy ethanol consumption, 12.0%; viral hepatitis, 26.5%; steatosis without heavy ethanol consumption, 43.4%; inflammation, 45.6%; fibrosis, 26.2% and bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis, 29.4%. Logistic regression on bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis revealed positive associations with heavy ethanol consumption (P = 0.0410) and viral hepatitis (P = 0.0044). The 22 patients (26.5%) with increased iron had greater mean age, proportion of men and heavy ethanol consumption. Five patients had heavy iron staining, among whom were 3 women (mean age: 54 years) with primary iron overload. Two of the 3 women had cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. Among 83 adult African Americans who underwent liver biopsy, 3.6% had hepatic iron phenotypes consistent with primary iron overload.
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American.We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression.The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10% followed by adenoma patients (7.2% then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002. In the three groups of participants, older age (P<0.008 and heart failure (P<0.001 were significantly associated with higher risk of AF. After adjusting for these risk factors, CRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI:0.9-2.2, P = 0.2 and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI:0.7-1.6, P = 0.7 were not significantly associated AF compared to control group.AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.
Harmon, Quaker E; Laughlin, Shannon K; Baird, Donna D
Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF), is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic) scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid) and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number) and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3%) and fibroids (23.3%) were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.7 (0.5-1.1)] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.
Fischer, Michael J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Greene, Tom; Lash, James P.
Low health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been associated with increased risk for hospitalization and death in ESRD. However, the relationship of HRQOL with outcomes in predialysis CKD is not well understood. We evaluated the association between HRQOL and renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in 1091 African Americans with hypertensive CKD enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial and cohort studies. Outcomes included CKD progression (doubling of serum creatinine/ESRD), CV events/CV death, and a composite of CKD progression or death from any cause (CKD progression/death). We assessed HRQOL, including mental health composite (MHC) and physical health composite (PHC), using the Short Form-36 survey. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between outcomes and five-point decrements in MHC and PHC scores using measurements at baseline, at the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or averaged from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). During approximately 10 years of follow-up, lower mean PHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death and CKD progression/death across all analytic approaches, but only time-varying and cumulative decrements were associated with CKD progression. Similarly, lower mean MHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death regardless of analytic approach, while only time-varying and cumulative decrements in mean MHC score was associated with CKD progression and CKD progression or death. In conclusion, lower HRQOL is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. PMID:24700865
Quaker E Harmon
Full Text Available Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women.The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests.Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring.Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.
Nouraie, Mehdi; Kansal, Vandana; Belfonte, Cassius; Ghazvini, Mohammad; Haidari, Tahmineh; Shahnazi, Anahita; Brim, Hassan; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Ashktorab, Hassan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American. We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10%) followed by adenoma patients (7.2%) then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002). In the three groups of participants, older age (PCRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI):0.9-2.2, P = 0.2) and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI):0.7-1.6, P = 0.7) were not significantly associated AF compared to control group. AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.
Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda
This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Thomas, Cecilia L
Through this qualitative study the author explores the resiliency processes demonstrated by older African American Hurricane Katrina survivors who relocated in the aftermath of the storm and were consequently faced with difficult challenges. In-depth interviews were used to assess the multidimensional characteristics of resiliency that enabled these older adults to deal with adversity. These findings highlight distinct processes reflecting resiliency: (a) Trusting in a higher power, and the importance of (b) living in the present, (c) activating resources, (d) creating community, and (e) doing for others. The author concludes this study with suggestions on how these findings may inform social work practice with older adults.
Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann
The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.
Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen; Walker, Jenelle R
A positive relationship exists between functional health and religion. We present an empirical definition of religion and describe the key elements of religious behavior, building a model that can be used to explore the presumed relationship between religion and health. Semi-structured interactive interviews were conducted with 22 participants over a 6-month period. Head Start programs and churches located in the inner city of a large metropolitan area. Twenty-two African American women were aged from 21 to 45. We focus on social relationships and propose that prophet-created religions mimic kinship relationships and encourage kinship-like cooperation between members.
Sample of Midlife Women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2007. 33(3): p. 269-277. 36. Bellisle , F ., et al., The Eating Inventory and Body Adiposity...higher education ( F (1,96) = 6.10, p = 0.015). As expected, African American women had significantly higher mean BMI, ( F (1,96) = 7.94, p = 0.006) and...11 body fat percentage, ( F (1,96) = 7.27, p = 0.008) than Caucasian women. Participants reported minimal symptoms of depression assessed by the Beck
Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.
This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women reported overall higher levels of marital satisfaction than African American women. The findings amply demonstrate the significance of ethnic diversi...
Willig, Amanda L.; Richardson, Brittany S.; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea
Intuitive Eating programs that improve self-efficacy and dietary habits could enhance glycemic control in African-American women with type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate how current eating practices and beliefs of African-American women living with diabetes aligned with intuitive eating concepts. African-American women with type 2 diabetes referred for diabetes education class in 2009–2012 were recruited for a qualitative study using focus groups for data collection. Ve...
O’Hara, Ross E.; Boynton, Marcella H.; Scott, Denise; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Williams, Carla; Covault, Jonathan
Despite evidence that African Americans are disproportionately affected by drinking to cope relative to European Americans, African-American college students’ drinking motives remain understudied. Additionally, most research has only examined between-person differences in drinking to cope as a predictor of alcohol use, ignoring within-person variability. In the current daily diary study of 462 African-American undergraduates from a historically Black university, associations between episode-s...
Heurtin-Roberts, S; Snowden, L; Miller, L
High levels of anxiety have long been reported for African Americans. Recent analyses of Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) data have failed to support this, although contemporary ethnographies have discussed important African American folk idioms of anxiety. This study compares ethnographically reported symptoms of anxiety in African Americans to those reported in the ECA data. A multivariate analysis of female African American and European American differences in comparable ECA and ethnographic symptoms was performed. Significant differences were found not in ethnicity but in education levels. Alternative interpretations are discussed. Methodological problems are discussed highlighting limitations of both household survey research, such as the ECA project, and ethnography.
Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...
Husky, Mathilde M; Kanter, Deborah A; McGuire, Leslie; Olfson, Mark
This study retrospectively reviews de-identified records from school-based mental health screening in a predominantly African American community. We compare participation rates, screening results, referrals to services and access to care of white and African American adolescents. Among those offered screening, 20.1% of white students (n = 297), and 28.8% of African American students (n = 499) were screened (χ(2) = 32.47, df = 1, P screening in school settings in predominantly African American communities.
Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.
Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Chaplin, William F.; Allegrante, John P.; Fernandez, Senaida; Diaz-Gloster, Marleny; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Objective To evaluate the effect of patients’ perceptions of providers’ communication on medication adherence in hypertensive African Americans. Methods Cross-sectional study of 439 patients with poorly-controlled hypertension followed in community-based healthcare practices in the New York metropolitan area. Patients’ rating of their providers’ communication was assessed with a perceived communication style questionnaire,while medication adherence was assessed with the Morisky self-report measure. Results Majority of participants were female, low-income, and had high school level educations, with mean age of 58 years. Fifty-five percent reported being nonadherent with their medications; and 51% rated their provider’s communication to be non-collaborative. In multivariate analysis adjusted for patient demographics and covariates (depressive symptoms, provider degree), communication rated as collaborative was associated with better medication adherence (β = -.11, p = .03). Other significant correlates of medication adherence independent of perceived communication were age (β = .13, p = .02) and depressive symptoms (β = -.18, p = .001). Conclusion Provider communication rated as more collaborative was associated with better adherence to antihypertensive medications in a sample of low-income hypertensive African-American patients. Practice Implications The quality of patient-provider communication is a potentially modifiable element of the medical relationship that may affect health outcomes in this high-risk patient population. PMID:19013740
Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen
Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. In this study, we examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the 2 groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Vowels produced by females were significantly longer than vowels produced by males for both AAE and WAE. African American speakers should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers.
Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A
Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.
Li, Susan Tinsley; Nussbaum, Karin M; Richards, Maryse H
The present study investigated risk and resilience processes in a sample of urban African-American youth. Risk and protective factors were assessed across ecological levels including individual, family and community. Both externalizing and internalizing symptomatology were included as measures of child adjustment. Youth and parental reports as well as various methods, such as the Experience Sampling Method, were used to capture the daily experiences of the adolescents from different perspectives. Poverty, hassles, and exposure to violence predicted higher rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Individual and family protective variables emerged as powerful sources of resilience. An inner sense of confidence and helpful family support were associated with reductions in the deleterious effects of community poverty. Two main patterns, protective-stabilizing and overwhelming-risk, seemed to characterize most of the risk by protective factor interactions. The present findings are important for understanding the complex experiences of urban youth and furthering the literature on sources of risk and protection for African-Americans.
Aronowitz, Teri; Ogunlade, Ijeoma Julie; Nwosu, Chizoba; Gona, Philimon N
African American girls ages 13-19 comprised nearly 3 out of 4 new cases of HIV in 2009. The goal of this study was to deliver a theoretically-driven intervention to test the feasibility for recruitment and retention of mother-daughter dyads. Twenty mother-daughter dyads were recruited from a community health center between February-April 2014. Comparisons were made between pre- and post-intervention scores using percent change. Twelve dyads (60%) completed the intervention. There were no demographic differences between completers and noncompleters. Notable post-intervention percent increases in scores were observed in the domains: Sexual knowledge (15%), confidence to talk (23.2%); and openness of sexual communication (26.4%). Our small-sized study showed promise in the intervention. Increasing sexual communication between African American mothers and daughters is likely to be sustainable over time and across relationships, and thus have a greater impact on HIV-prevention behaviors later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Landers, Amber J; Rollock, David; Rolfes, Charity B; Moore, Demietrice L
Attitudes toward police rarely are studied in investigations of race-related stress among communities of color. African American undergraduates (66 women, 35 men) rated the frequency and stressfulness of 83 general, college-related, race-related, and police-related events. Although respondents described police contacts as stressful, multivariate analyses of variance indicated that mean stress scores for nonpolice items were higher than for police items. Men reported significantly greater stressfulness of police contacts, and women reported slightly greater stressfulness of nonpolice situations. Further analyses confirmed significant differences in police contact stress scores as a function of the type of contacts (benign vs. malignant), gender of respondent (men greater than women), and frequency of contact. Limited differences were observed as a function of immediacy of contact (personal, witnessed, contacts of a loved one, or loved one telling of another person's contact) and individual differences in ethnic identity. No differences were observed as a function of general affective intensity. Results suggest that the stress associated with police contact is specific and distinct from other elements of African American life in this college student sample and thus underscores the need for research on the effects of such stress in less advantaged, community-based populations. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.
This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946
In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.
Doward, Jr, Oscar W
... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...
Doward, Jr, Oscar W
.... The War Department's recruitment, assessment, and induction practices in its preparation for the Great War are explored, and the impact of Jim Crow practices on the process of African American troop...
McMath, Cynthia Stewart
This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.
Chanda, Pritam; Yuhki, Naoya; Li, Man; Bader, Joel S; Hartz, Alex; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kao, W H Linda; Arking, Dan E
Imputation of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to a larger known reference panel of SNPs has become a standard and an essential part of genome-wide association studies. However, little is known about the behavior of imputation in African Americans with respect to the different imputation algorithms, the reference population(s) and the reference SNP panels used. Genome-wide SNP data (Affymetrix 6.0) from 3207 African American samples in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) was used to systematically evaluate imputation quality and yield. Imputation was performed with the imputation algorithms MACH, IMPUTE and BEAGLE using several combinations of three reference panels of HapMap III (ASW, YRI and CEU) and 1000 Genomes Project (pilot 1 YRI June 2010 release, EUR and AFR August 2010 and June 2011 releases) panels with SNP data on chromosomes 18, 20 and 22. About 10% of the directly genotyped SNPs from each chromosome were masked, and SNPs common between the reference panels were used for evaluating the imputation quality using two statistical metrics-concordance accuracy and Cohen's kappa (κ) coefficient. The dependencies of these metrics on the minor allele frequencies (MAF) and specific genotype categories (minor allele homozygotes, heterozygotes and major allele homozygotes) were thoroughly investigated to determine the best panel and method for imputation in African Americans. In addition, the power to detect imputed SNPs associated with simulated phenotypes was studied using the mean genotype of each masked SNP in the imputed data. Our results indicate that the genotype concordances after stratification into each genotype category and Cohen's κ coefficient are considerably better equipped to differentiate imputation performance compared with the traditionally used total concordance statistic, and both statistics improved with increasing MAF irrespective of the imputation method. We also find that both MACH and IMPUTE
Zhao, Yue; Chundury, Rao V; Blandford, Alexander D; Perry, Julian D
The zygomaticofacial/temporal/orbital nerve is a terminal branch of the zygomatic nerve and exits the orbit through zygomatic foramina. The nomenclature in the literature varies with some studies identifying all 3 foramina on the malar surface of the zygoma, while others describe each along different aspects of the zygoma. In this study, foramen on the malar surface of the zygoma is termed zygomatic foramen, and the authors describe anatomical variations in the position and number of these foramina in an African American population. Sixty-two African American skulls from the Hamann-Todd collection of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History were studied. The primary outcome was the number of zygomatic foramina on the malar surface of the zygomatic bone. Secondary outcomes included the location of foramina relative to the orbital rim and the frontozygomatic suture. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe measurements. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze measurements between left and right hemicrania. The average number of foramina was 1.98 ± 0.93. More foramina were found on the right (2.13 ± 0.98) when compared with the left (1.68 ± 0.79; p = 0.001). The average distance between the lateral-most and medial-most foramina was 9.7 ± 5.0 mm. The distance from the orbital rim to the lateral foramen was 8.4 ± 4.2 mm, and distance from the orbital rim to the medial foramen was 7.7 ± 2.1 mm. The frontozygomatic suture was 22.9 ± 3.9 mm from the lateral foramen and 27.9 ± 3.6 mm from the medial foramen. The locations of the foramina in relation to the frontozygomatic suture and orbital rim were consistent with other populations. However, in this African American population, more zygomatic foramina were noted compared with previously published results in Korean, Indian, Brazilian, and West Anatolian populations. Surgeons should be cognizant of zygomatic foramina in this population to reduce potential neurovascular complications.
Somerville-Midgette, Kristy Nicole
This transcendental phenomenological research study examined the perspectives and lived experiences of African-American female engineers related to the factors that led to their persistence to enter, persist through, and remain in the field. The study was guided by four research questions: (a) How do K-12 experiences shape African-American female engineers' decisions to enter the STEM field? (b) What persistence factors motivated African-American female engineers to enter the engineering profession? (c) What are the factors that shape African-American female engineers' persistence to progress through postsecondary engineering programs? (d) How do professional experiences shape African-American female engineers' persistence in the field? Cognitive interviewing techniques were used to validate data collection instruments. Interviews, focus groups, and timelines were used to collect data aimed at capturing the essence of the phenomenon of African-American engineers' persistence. The data was analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) phenomenological data analysis methods. The findings indicated that early academic experiences and achievement shaped participants' decision to enter the engineering field. Environmental factors, intrinsic motivation, support systems motivated participants to persist through postsecondary programs and to enter the engineering field. Further research is needed to examine the early academic experiences that encourage African-American females to enter engineering. In addition, research is needed to examine the barriers that lead to attrition of African-American females in engineering.
Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo
This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…
Fuller, Rhema; Harrison, C. Keith; Bukstein, Scott; Martin, Brandon E.; Lawerence, Malia; Parks, Cliff
The purpose of this article is to examine how the high school setting assisted the leadership development of African American males. Additionally, we explored how the leadership developed in high school was applied in the post-high school setting. We utilized purposeful sampling to identify and recruit African American male scholar-athletes (N =…
Piper, Annetra Patrece
African American and other students of color have continued to score lower than White students in many classrooms and on achievement tests in every subject, especially in reading. The purpose of this study was to explore if there is a relationship between a teacher's cultural responsiveness and their third grade African American students'…
Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Vandiver, Beverly J.
The authors examined whether Black racial identity cluster patterns, using Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores, were differentially associated with preference for African American culture and social distance from various cultural groups. African American college students (N = 351) completed the CRIS, an enculturation scale, and a social…
Harrell, Alma S.
"A race that is solely dependent upon another for its economic existences sooner or later dies," this quote by Marcus Garvey highlighted the need for African American communities to think about the importance of economic development. This message was also heard by African Americans as early as the 1700s. Not only was the message about…
Glover, Tina Marie
Changing trends within the mental health system treatment practices demand exploration of the cultural context of assessment and treatment of Black/African Americans. Culturally competent assessments include a realistic integration of historical context. Clinicians counseling Black/African Americans must be prepared to assess and address PTSD,…
Jenkins, Felysha L.
Despite the odds, African American women are achieving some success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists on the mechanisms that contribute to their persistence. This study contributes to understanding how African American women are successful in obtaining baccalaureate degrees…
Holmes, Kimberly Monique
The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…
Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris
The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…
Flowers, Lamont A.
Study applied the theory of representative bureaucracy to examine the representation of African American student affairs administrators in postsecondary institutions. Results showed African American student affairs administrators were underrepresented among student affairs administrators. Also, survey data showed that the percentage of African…
This quantitative survey questionnaires study compared the teacher-student interactions (TSI) and academic achievement of African-American and African immigrant undergraduate males. The academic achievement gap between different population groups provided the impetus for the study. While African Americans have been described as under-achievers in…
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann
Objective: To describe aspects of the social context that low-income, urban African American young women articulate as having influenced social messages they received during adolescence about pregnancy timing and childbearing. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 20 African American young women ages 18-22. Results: Findings clustered…
de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi
The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…
Cason, Nancy; And Others
An action research project designed and evaluated the effectiveness of an instructional strategy to improve the writing of all secondary students (particularly African-American males) in the Webster Groves, Missouri school district. The first year was devoted to an intensive study of African American culture and literature. A list of six…
Breland, Alfiee M.; Collins, Wanda; Damico, Karen Lowenstein; Steward, Robbie; King, Jennifer
This study surveys African Americans to assess perceptions of and life experiences with the issue of skin tone. Thirty-seven African American adults agreed to complete a survey packet and participate in a semi-structured focus group discussion. Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Skin…
Morris, Edward W.; Perry, Brea L.
School disciplinary processes are an important mechanism of inequality in education. Most prior research in this area focuses on the significantly higher rates of punishment among African American boys, but in this article, we turn our attention to the discipline of African American girls. Using advanced multilevel models and a longitudinal data…
Jordan, Diedria H.; Wilson, Camille M.
This article describes how African American students' success can be improved via the increased support of Black churches and their partnerships with public schools. Findings and implications from a comparative case study of two North Carolina churches that strive to educationally assist African American public school students are detailed. Both…
Beamon, Krystal K.
Collegiate sports have opened many doors for African American males. However, serious involvement in athletics has hampered the development of the group in several areas such as academic and occupational achievement. It has been alleged that universities exploit athletes, especially African American male athletes in football and basketball. This…
This study sought to improve our understanding of factors that influence the career paths of African American female school principals in North Carolina. Three pertinent research questions were addressed in this study: (1) What formative experiences influence the career path decisions of African American females who want to become school…
The service of blacks in the U.S. military can be traced back to the Revolutionary War. However, up to the end of World War I, African Americans in military branches were relegated to cooking and cleaning duties. As the United States prepared to enter World War II, pressure to admit African Americans into full service in the military increased due…
Alberti, Joseph Michael
African American students are often at odds with their education. Instead of being viewed as a place that can offer help, support, and a catalyst for social change, school is viewed by many African American boys as a place that does not recognize or understand their own lives, and where their knowledge and understandings of the world are not…
This study focuses on how social class affects the college experiences and outcomes for African American students in 4-year colleges and universities. Using a national, longitudinal data base, the findings indicate that low SES African American students have less contact with faculty, study less, are less involved with student organizations, work…
Alston, Chandra L.
The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…
Foster, Esau, II
The focus of this research investigation was to examine school attitudes and self-esteem among 48 African-American elementary school children. Based on achievement data on standardized testing, administered by a school district located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, African-American children were stratified in order to…
MARTINS, DAVID; AGODOA, LAWRENCE; NORRIS, KEITH C.
African Americans have a disproportionate burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which tends to have an earlier onset and a more rapid progression in this population. Many of the factors responsible for the rapid progression of CKD in African Americans are detectable by screening and are modifiable with prompt therapy. PMID:23027732
King, LaGarrett Jarriel
Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…
Although the trend of marital dissolution has diverged by education in recent decades, literature was not clear about whether African Americans experienced a significant educational difference in marital dissolution. This study hypothesized that educational differences within the African American community have emerged and that the growth in this…
This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate…
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…
Thompson, Loren Wright
The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…
Wasserberg, Martin J.
This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…
Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.
The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…
Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…
Swanson, Jane L.
The Strong Interest Inventory was completed by 189 female and 168 male African-American college students (20 percent response). Correlations among the General Occupational Theme scales supported the potential applicability of Holland's theory to African Americans, but highlighted gender differences. (SK)
Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.
Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…
Smith, Marisha R.
The purpose of this study was to identify contributing factors for academic success among African American male student athletes from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Life narrative analysis was used in this qualitative study. The researcher conducted in-depth individual interviews with 7 African American males who attended college on athletic…
Ransom, Brandi S.
This study explored what African American college students perceives as contributing to their Academic success. This study moved to determine what factors significantly influence or impact how African American college students advance in their academic journey, which was hypothesized as an important component related to academic success and degree…
Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza
African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…
Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.
This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…
African-American boys who receive exclusionary discipline (i.e. in- or out-of-school suspensions) are overrepresented at the elementary (kindergarten through fifth grade) level. Although African-American boys comprised only 15% of the population of this school, they accounted for 70% of the exclusionary discipline incidents. This…
This inquiry used reflective autobiographical research to reveal my beliefs, values, and practices of science teaching by using participatory action research with two students of my science tutoring organization. Also, I conducted an ethnographic inquiry using African-American teachers to understand how my early schooling experiences influenced my beliefs, values, and science practices. I collected data for this inquiry from three African-American teachers through interview-conversation that were videotaped and audiotaped. In addition, I audiotaped two African-American students' tutoring practices along with students' and researcher's journals. The findings indicate that African-American teachers during the school years 1942-1954 used families, churches, and communities to secure teaching resources to provide equal education for their African-American students who received limited resources from the board of education. Also indicated was how African-American teachers instilled in their African-American students a level of motivation that remained with some African-American students for their future endeavors. This researcher's beliefs/values similar to those of her segregated teachers emerged from this action research. Researcher's additional beliefs/values arose out of emerging technologies in teaching science. However, I, as the researcher, believe that the origin of my beliefs/values occurred during those segregated, public school experiences at Monitor Schools during the school years 1942-1954.
Edward C. Bush
Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.
Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen
African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…
Mehta, Sejal; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Goodman, Rachael
The purpose of this paper is to provide a strength-based discussion of the relationship between parenting values of low-income African Americans and the academic performance of their school-aged children. Using resilience theory as a framework (Seccombe, 2002), the authors suggest that African American parents in low-resourced communities have…
Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.
Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…
Lyons, James E.; Chesley, Joanne
The benefits and tradeoffs for African American professional educators and students resulting from the profound Brown v. Board of Education decision are discussed. Results show that the vast majority of respondents believed that Brown had benefited both African American educators and students.
Chandran, Urmila; Hirshfield, Kim M.; Bandera, Elisa V.
Objective While the role of nutrition, physical activity, and body size on breast cancer risk has been extensively investigated, most of these studies were conducted in Caucasian populations. However, there are well known differences in tumor biology and the prevalence of these factors between African American and Caucasian women. The objective of this paper was to conduct a review on the role of dietary factors, anthropometry, and physical activity on breast cancer risk in African American women. Design Twenty-six research articles that presented risk estimates on these factors in African American women and five articles involving non-US Black women were included in this review. Setting Racial disparities in the impact of anthropometric and nutritional factors on breast cancer risk Subjects African American and non-US Black women Results Based on the few studies that presented findings in African American women, an inverse association with physical activity was found for pre and postmenopausal African American women, while the association for anthropometric and other dietary factors, such as alcohol, was unclear. Studies assessing the effect by molecular subtypes in African American women were too few and based on sample sizes too small to provide definitive conclusions. Conclusions The effect of certain nutrition and lifestyle factors on breast cancer in African American is not starkly distinct from those observed in White women. However, there is an enormous need for further research on this minority group to obtain more confirmatory findings. PMID:22122844
Matthews, Alicia K.; Hughes, Tonda L.
Examines patterns of use of mental health services by African American lesbians and heterosexual women. Despite evidence of emotional distress, few African American lesbians or heterosexual women were currently in treatment. Results are consistent with other research on heterosexual women but differ from other reports on lesbian women. Discusses…
Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.
Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…
Diemer, Matthew A.
A study was designed to gain an understanding of the role of provider in the identity of African American males. Interviews were conducted with seven African American males at a western university. Participants equated being a man with the provider role and education was seen as the best way to ensure opportunities. Exploratory findings provide…
Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy
The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…
Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J
African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wid...
This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…
There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…
Conclusions: Our study showed use of Calcium channel blockers to have a protective effect against progression of diastolic dysfunction in this African American cohort. Identifying factors that can mediate disease progression is particularly important for hypertensive African Americans, who have significantly higher rates of developing disease complications such as diastolic heart failure.
Greer, Tawanda M.; Chwalisz, Kathleen
This study is an investigation of stress and coping among African American students at a predominantly White college/university (PWCU) and a Historically Black College/University (HBCU) and their relationship to academic performance. Participants were 203 African American students (101 from a mid-size predominantly White midwestern state…
Stolley, Melinda R; Sharp, Lisa K; Oh, April; Schiffer, Linda
Breast cancer survival rates are lower for African American women than for white women. Obesity, high-fat diets, and lack of regular physical activity increase risk for breast cancer recurrence, comorbid conditions, and premature death. Eighty-two percent of African American women are overweight or obese, partly because of unhealthy eating and exercise patterns. Although successful weight loss and lifestyle interventions for breast cancer survivors are documented, none has considered the needs of African American breast cancer survivors. This study assessed the feasibility and impact of Moving Forward, a culturally tailored weight loss program for African American breast cancer survivors. The study used a pre-post design with a convenience sample of 23 African American breast cancer survivors. The 6-month intervention was theory-based and incorporated qualitative data from focus groups with the targeted community, urban African American breast cancer survivors. Data on weight, body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity, social support, and quality of life were collected at baseline and at 6 months. After the intervention, we noted significant differences in weight, BMI, dietary fat intake, vegetable consumption, vigorous physical activity, and social support. This is the first published report of Moving Forward, a weight loss intervention designed for African American breast cancer survivors. Although a randomized trial is needed to establish efficacy, the positive results of this intervention suggest that this weight loss intervention may be feasible for African American breast cancer survivors. Lifestyle interventions may reduce the disparities in breast cancer mortality rates.
Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…
Shah, Meena; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Elston, Elizabeth; Hubbard, Stacy; Carson, Kristin
Objective: To examine serving size knowledge in African Americans and how it is related to body mass index (BMI). Design: Serving size knowledge of food commonly consumed by African Americans was assessed by asking the subjects to select the amount of food considered to be a single serving size by the United States Department of Agriculture and…
Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta
A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…
McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby
This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…
Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.
The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers.
Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.
Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…
Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta
This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…
Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…
Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.
This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…
Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…
Czujko, Roman; Nicholson, Starr
Physics and geoscience consistently rank near the bottom among all disciplines in their ability to attract and retain African American students. Before delving into these trends, it is important to establish a context for discussing the data and their implications. African Americans comprise 12.4% of the U.S. population, but their representation…
Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.
Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…
Chang, Yiting; Fine, Mark A.; Ispa, Jean; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth; Wolfenstein, Miriam
The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model that examined the extent to which cognitive readiness to parent, perceived difficult child temperament, observed parenting behaviors, and positive coping styles predicted parenting stress among young, low-income, first-time, African-American mothers. One hundred and twenty African-American,…
James E. Christensen; John F. Dwyer
The "marginality" explanation of differences between the outdoor recreation participation of African Americans and Whites was evaluated using demographic standardization of age, income, and education for a sample of African American and White Illinois residents. After standardization, African America/White differences in outdoor recreation participation were...
Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt
The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…
Paschal, Angelia M.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.; Hsiao, Tracy
Despite the growing body of research on the topic of adolescent parenthood, few studies have examined the perceptions and lived experiences of African American teen fathers. The primary aim of this study was to examine how this group defines and performs the father role. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African American fathers aged 14…
Stringer, Eddy W., III.
Data suggests that a significant loss of African American students from STEM majors occur between their freshmen and sophomore year. This attrition corresponds to the time period when students encounter the calculus sequence. For this reason, calculus persists as a serious barrier preventing African American students from entering STEM fields.…
Ajanaku, Femi I.; And Others
The work experience of the African-American woman is often overlooked. In this article, the development/underdevelopment model, usually applied to the depressed situation of the Third World, is used to assess the dynamics of race, class, and gender for African-American females in the labor market. (SLD)
More, Timothy; Taylor, David; Turner, Dion
Examines motivational factors associated with malt liquor consumption in African American youth. (Malt liquor is directly marketed to African-American youth.) Over 90% of respondents consumed alcohol in the past. Students viewed malt liquor commercials as being more associated with sex and power than were beer commercials. (MMU)
Baggerly, Jennifer; Parker, Max
African American boys face numerous challenges in society within the United States, including prejudice, discrimination, racism, economic hardship, limited access to support services, educational biases, and community violence. According to Pierce (1988), the psychic assault of subtle racism against African American boys erode their…
Morgan, Adrienne L.
The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…
Stiler, Gary; Allen, Lisa
The Carver Community Center in Evansville, Indiana, uses an academic enrichment program to support neighborhood students. The curriculum involves children in learning about African-American literary traditions and folk art. The Center's work is based on the premise that African-American children need to encounter the reality of history as in…
Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2005
On July 16, 2004, the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) convened a day-long forum of leaders in the African American museum community, as well as leaders in the museum community at large, to explore the evolving role of African American museums, their contributions, and their challenges. This report provides a synthesis of the July…
O'Neal, Anita J.
Mention the observance of African American History Month and the name Carter G. Woodson immediately comes to mind. Woodson, an educator, publisher, and historian, initiated the "Negro History Week" observance in 1926. Known as the "Father of Black History," Woodson believed that it was important for African Americans to know their history in…
Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli
This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…
Hill, LaBarron K.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Hughes, Joel W.
Experiences with racial discrimination may contribute to stress-induced blood pressure (BP) elevations among African Americans. It was reported that perceived racism was associated with ambulatory BP (ABP) during waking hours. This study examined perceived racism and ABP among 40 African American college students, who completed an ABP assessment…
Brittian, Aerika S.
This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher
Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…
This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…
Donelan, Richard W.
Africentric ideas about leaders and leadership have remained part of the African Diaspora's cultural underpinnings over time. Slavery experiences predispose the African-American community to reject strong, natural leadership. This article and accompanying poem recount stories about the African-American experience and profile some true leaders.…
Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah
Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…
Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.
This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…
This article discusses the process of incorporating spirituality and religion into the treatment of African American clients. It addresses religious diversity within the African American community. The roles of spirituality and religion as survival and coping mechanisms for overcoming racism, adversity, and loss are emphasized. The cases presented…
Grant, Cosette M.; Ghee, Sarah
This article is purposed with operationalizing the concept of mentoring as a nuanced approach and attempt to thwart the upward trajectories of African-American women in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). We struggled as African-American women to balance and decipher the various facets inherent in our respective roles--professor and doctoral…
Reeder, Matthew C.; Schmitt, Neal
In this study we investigated whether African American students at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) differ from African American students at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in academic motivation and judgment, and whether type of academic institution (HBCU, PWI) moderates relationships between these differences and…
Pugh, Sandra Lyniece
An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…
Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.
African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…
Baber, Lorenzo DuBois
The lack of postsecondary success for African American males has garnered significant attention from academic scholars and public policy leaders. While this scholarship provides a strong portrait on issues related to African American males, there are still significant gaps to be addressed. Most notably, current research tends to focus on students…
Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O
The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.
Full Text Available In most cases, African American poetry eschews traditional literary norms. Contemporary African American poets tend to ignore grammatical rules, use unusual typography on many occasions, include much of their cultural heritage in their poetry, and interweave musical elements into literary genres. The influence of such musical genres as jazz, blues, soul, and gospel, together with the dilemmas that occur for the translator, will be shown to great extent, since music, like black speech, is a major part of African American culture and literature. The translator will have to maintain the specific African American rhythm, blues adaptations and the improvisational language under the jazz impact. The paper presents the problems in translating post-1950 African American poetry into Slovene, and asks to what extent can one successfully transfer the musical elements within this poetry for the target culture? Inevitably, it will identify a share of elements that are lost in translation.
McCaskill, Gina M; Bolland, Kathleen A; Burgio, Kathryn L; Leeper, James
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new diabetes self-management instrument for older African-Americans 65 years of age and older. The Self-Care Utility Geriatric African-American Rating (SUGAAR) was developed using the American Diabetes Association's standards for the management of type 2 diabetes in older adults and cognitive interviews with older African-Americans. The instrument underwent extensive review by a panel of experts, two rounds of cognitive interviews, and a pilot test before it was administered in an interview format to 125 community-dwelling older African-Americans. The instrument demonstrated content validity and significant, but modest, convergent validity with items from an established diabetes self-management instrument. Social workers and health care professionals can use the SUGARR to assess diabetes self-management and to identify areas for education and support for older African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.
Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M
Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.
Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne
The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.
Miller, Shannon J
Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.
Baker, Cathy J; Palmer, Sheena D; Lee, Chia-Wen Vianne
African Americans suffer disproportionately from smoking-related morbidity and mortality and make more quit attempts but report less success in quitting. Smokers tend to identify more strongly with African American culture. Qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit perceptions toward smoking and intervention content. Seventy-one African American smokers recruited from community locations participated. The majority stated they would not use any cessation aids if trying to quit smoking, despite the availability of free nicotine replacement. Acculturative stress scores were significantly higher in younger participants and those with higher income. Higher African American acculturation did not predict smoking cessation intervention preference. Family and social relationships were cited as both reasons for wanting to quit and reasons for continuing to smoke. Based on these findings, interventions for urban African Americans should address household members continuing to smoke, social/family connections, stress management, and cultural identification in urban areas. © The Author(s) 2016.
Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne
The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.
Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann
In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.
Beard, Kenya V; Julion, Wrenetha A
The rise in undergraduate enrollment of African-American students has not translated into more African-American faculty members, although they could mentor minority students and promote an ethos that encourages their academic success. Discrimination against African-American faculty members continues, which could lessen their presence. This study explored the narratives of 23 African-American faculty members to determine if race still matters in nursing. A narrative approach grounded in social constructionism and critical race theory was used to illustrate the journey of African-American faculty into and throughout academia and to reveal factors related to decisions to enter and remain in academia. Most of the participants stated that they faced racial discrimination that tested their resilience and reinforced their commitment to the academy. Intentional actions and open discourse could strengthen institutional commitments to racial diversity and facilitate the recruitment and retention of racially diverse nursing faculties. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.
Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael
Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.
K. B. Holden
Full Text Available Gaining greater understanding about the various psychosocial, socio-cultural, and environmental factors that may influence experiences of depression among African American women (AAW helps elucidate how this mental illness impacts the lives of this population. Sixty-three adult AAW comprised the study’s convenience sample. Specifically, focus group cohorts inclusive of women from an academic institution, a primary healthcare clinic, and an urban community setting were conducted. Results indicated six (6 dominant common themes as issues that may increase risk for depression among diverse AAW. Similarities and differences about perspectives that contributed to depression were delineated among the three cohorts of AAW. These results are important for mental/behavioral health researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals that are engaged in the design and implementation of culturally centered and gender-specific prevention and intervention strategies targeted to AAW at risk for depression.
Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B
This study empirically identified types of African American families. Adolescents (N = 111) were assessed on family functioning. With cluster analytic methods, 3 types of families were identified. The cohesive-authoritative type was above average on parental education and income, averaged about 2 children, exhibited a high quality of family functioning and high self-esteem in adolescents. The conflictive-authoritarian type had average parental education and income, an average of 2.7 children, exhibited controlling and rigid discipline, and placed a high emphasis on achievement. The defensive-neglectful type was predominately headed by single mothers with below average education and income and averaged about 3 children. Such families displayed chaotic family processes, and adolescents tended to suffer from low self-esteem. The typology exhibited good reliability. The implications of the typology are discussed.
Hall, Naomi M; Lee, Anna K; Witherspoon, Daphne D
This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students' experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed.
McCabe, K M; Clark, R; Barnett, D
Examined the relations among family protective factors, stressful events, and behavioral adjustment of 64 African American 6th graders. The youths reported on family stressors, father-figure involvement, and kin support. Their primary caregivers reported on parenting, father-figure involvement, and family stressors. Teachers reported on child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Based on regression analyses, stress exposure associated positively with child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Parental warmth was associated negatively with shy or anxious behavior. Parental use of corporal punishment was associated positively with child acting out. For youth exposed to high numbers of family stressors, parental demandingness was associated negatively with child acting out and kin support was associated negatively with acting out and shy or anxious behavior, suggesting that these family factors partially shield children from the negative effects of stress.
Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F
African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys.
Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A
Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''
Holbrook, Jarita C.
The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of `astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.
Martins, Silvia S; Lee, Grace P; Kim, June H; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Storr, Carla L
Late adolescence represents a developmental risk period when many youth become involved in multiple forms of high-risk behaviors with adverse consequences. This study assessed the degree to which two such behaviors, adolescent sexual behaviors and gambling, were associated in a community-based sample with a large African-American presence. Data are derived from a cohort study. This study focuses on 427 African-American participants with complete information on gambling and sexual behaviors by age 18 (72% of original cohort). Gambling involvement and related problems were based on responses to the South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised for Adolescents. Several questions assessed sexual behaviors, including age of initiation. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for demographics, intervention status, impulsivity, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and alcohol and illegal drug use. Almost half of the sample (49%, n=211) had gambled at least once before age 18. More gamblers than non-gamblers had initiated sexual intercourse by age 18 (aOR: 2.29 [1.16, 4.52]). Among those who had initiated sexual activity, more gamblers than non-gamblers with high impulsivity levels at age 13 (vs. low impulsivity levels) had become pregnant or had impregnated someone. Among those who had initiated sexual activity by age 18, more male gamblers had impregnated someone by age 18 as compared to female gamblers becoming pregnant. Gambling and sexual behaviors often co-occur among adolescents. Such findings prompt the need for the inclusion of gambling, an often overlooked risky behavior, in behavioral prevention/intervention programs targeting adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robbins, J A; Qi, L; Garcia, L; Younger, J W; Seldin, M F
African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Exactly, 11,239 self-identified African American post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, "Pain Construct" measurements and covariate information. They answered five questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache and urinary. They also answered two questions which were used to derive a "Pain Construct", a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1-100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighbourhood socio-economic status, education and depression. In the unadjusted model of the five specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [β = -0.132, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -099 to -0.164; r = -0.075, 95% CI -0.056 to -0.093] and the adjusted models (β = -0.069 95% CI = -0.04 to -0.10). Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain, although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Rickford, John R; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10-15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not.
Steele, Sharon L; Lewis-Jack, Ometha
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. national figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. National figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
This study introduces two interventions designed to influence perceptions of cycling among African : Americans. Results from the 2001 National Household Transportation Survey reveal that African Americans : cycle at two-thirds the rate of White and H...
Reese, Charles; Perry, Beth; Heywood, Jonathan; Bonner, Michael; Visconti, Richard P; Lee, Rebecca; Hatfield, Corey M; Silver, Richard M; Hoffman, Stanley; Tourkina, Elena
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of death in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Although SSc-related ILD is more common and severe in African Americans than in Caucasians, little is known about factors underlying this significant health disparity. The aim of this study was to examine the role that low expression of caveolin-1 might play in susceptibility to ILD among African Americans. Assays of monocyte migration toward stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) were performed using monocytes from Caucasian and African American healthy donors and patients with SSc. For fibrocyte differentiation studies, total peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated on fibronectin-coated plates. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Monocytes from healthy African American donors and those from patients with SSc had low caveolin-1 levels, enhanced migration toward the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1, and enhanced differentiation to fibrocytes. Enhanced migration and differentiation of monocytes from African Americans and patients with SSc appeared to be attributable to the lack of caveolin-1, because restoring caveolin-1 function using a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide inhibited these processes. Although they differed from monocytes from Caucasians, monocytes from both African Americans and patients with SSc were not identical, because SSc monocytes showed major increases from baseline in ERK, JNK, p38, and Smad2/3 activation, while monocytes from African Americans showed only limited ERK activation and no activation of JNK, p38, or Smad2/3. In contrast, SDF-1 exposure caused no additional ERK activation in SSc monocytes but did cause significant additional activation in monocytes from African Americans. African Americans may be predisposed to SSc-related ILD due to low baseline caveolin-1 levels in their monocytes, potentially affecting signaling, migration, and fibrocyte differentiation. The monocytes of
Payne, Richard; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha N.
Abstract Background: Experts and national organizations recommend that hospices work to increase service to African Americans, a group historically underrepresented in hospice. Objective: The study objective was to describe strategies among hospices in North and South Carolina to increase service to African Americans and identify hospice characteristics associated with these efforts. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey using investigator-developed scales to measure frequency of community education/outreach, directed marketing, efforts to recruit African American staff, cultural sensitivity training, and goals to increase service to African Americans. We used nonparametric Wilcoxon tests to compare mean scale scores by sample characteristics. Results: Of 118 eligible hospices, 79 (67%) completed the survey. Over 80% were at least somewhat concerned about the low proportion of African Americans they served, and 78.5% had set goals to increase service to African Americans. Most were engaged in community education/outreach, with 92.4% reporting outreach to churches, 76.0% to social services organizations, 40.5% to businesses, 35.4% to civic groups, and over half to health care providers; 48.0% reported directed marketing via newspaper and 40.5% via radio. The vast majority reported efforts to recruit African American staff, most often registered nurses (63.75%). Nearly 90% offered cultural sensitivity training to staff. The frequency of strategies to increase service to African Americans did not vary by hospice characteristics, such as profit status, size, or vertical integration, but was greater among hospices that had set goals to increase service to African Americans. Conclusions: Many hospices are engaged in efforts to increase service to African Americans. Future research should determine which strategies are most effective. PMID:26840854
Savoca, Margaret R.; Flint, Tara L.; Morton, Tiffany B.; Johnson, Lakeisha T.; Bell, Nancy M.; Aronson, Robert E.; Wallace, Debra C.
Although young African-American males are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American males. This study explored the activities of young African-American males to identif...
Danita Renae Potter; Esther H. Condon; Arlene J. Montgomery; Toni Sims Muhammad; Zina T. McGee
The purpose of this study was to explore and describe African American teen mothers’ perceptions of nurse caring behaviors during the postpartum period in a rural southern state. African Americans have unique cultural needs; thus, it is critical for the science of nursing to explore and describe African American teenage mothers’ perceptions of nurse caring behaviors during the postpartum period. By exploring and describing African American first-time teenage mothers’ perceptions of nurse cari...
Ray, Tiffany Monique
The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level
Alexandra Kredlow, M; Pineles, Suzanne L; Inslicht, Sabra S; Marin, Marie-France; Milad, Mohammed R; Otto, Michael W; Orr, Scott P
Skin conductance (SC) is a psychophysiological measure of sympathetic nervous system activity that is commonly used in research to assess conditioned fear responses. A portion of individuals evidence very low or unmeasurable SC levels (SCL) and/or response (SCR) during fear conditioning, which precludes the use of their SC data. The reason that some individuals do not produce measurable SCL and/or SCR is not clear; some early research suggested that race may be an influencing factor. In the current article, archival data from five fear conditioning samples collected from four different laboratories were examined to explore SCL and SCR magnitude in African American (AA) and non-African American (non-AA) participants. Across studies, the aggregate group difference for exclusion due to unmeasurable SCL or no measurable SCR to an unconditioned stimulus reflected a significant medium effect size (d = 0.54). Furthermore, 24.3% (range: 0-48.3%) of AA participants met SC exclusion criteria versus 14.3% (range: 4.3-24.2%) of non-AA participants. AA participants also displayed significantly lower SCL during habituation (d = 0.58). The low SC levels and responses in AA individuals and the consequent exclusion of their contributions to fear conditioning study results impacts the generalizability of findings across races. Given higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic anxiety in AA individuals, it is important that AA individuals not be excluded from fear conditioning research, which informs the treatment of anxiety and PTSD. Examination of the basis of very low SCL and/or SCR is a potentially informative direction for future research. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.
The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…
Twyman Hoff, Pamela
In African American culture competing value systems shape the definition and value of smartness. This article will explore African American "sayins" as a tool to transmit the counter-hegemonic cultural value of smartness. "Sayins," a facet of the African American oral tradition, are drawn from the deep structures of African…
Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David
The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…
A MOBILE DEVICE-BASED INTERVENTION TO REDUCE THE INFLUENCE OF SMOKING CUES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN CIGARETTE SMOKERS by...of Smoking Cues among African American Cigarette Smokers is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the...Reduce the Influence of Smoking Cues among African American Cigarette Smokers Cendrine Robinson, M.S., 2014 Thesis directed by: Dr. Andrew
Dinani, Thandiwe T.
African-American students represent 12% of the 14 million students enrolled in higher education institutions (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013). However, African-American students participate in study-abroad programs at a much lower percentage; African-American students represent 5% of the total number of students who study abroad…
Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.
African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…
Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.
Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…
Gardner, Keeba G.
This study will examine the relationship between career success outcomes of African American women and early familial factors, as well as personality traits. Using a cross-sectional case-control design. the study will use participants who self-identified as African American with two African American parents. They will be randomly selected from a…
Mosby, John R.
For many African American college students, the challenges to achieve academic success are overwhelming. The disproportionate number of African American male students enrolled in the community college system is of substantial concern because community colleges have not traditionally been successful in producing African American male graduates and…
Stiff, MaNesha M.
The purpose of this study was to identify the dynamics of mentoring relationships among African American women within the higher education profession. Utilizing a phenomenological research design, this researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American women who are mentors and/or mentees of an African American woman in the higher…
McCallum, Carmen M.
Large disparities exist among African Americans and other cultural groups in doctoral degree enrollment and degree attainment. To address this concern, scholars have focused on why African Americans do not pursue doctoral degrees. Although informative, this deficit perspective does not explain the factors that encourage African Americans to enroll…
Gardiner, Phillip S
Today, over 70% of African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, compared with 30% of White smokers. This unique social phenomenon was principally occasioned by the tobacco industry's masterful manipulation of the burgeoning Black, urban, segregated, consumer market in the 1960s. Through the use of television and other advertising media, coupled with culturally tailored images and messages, the tobacco industry "African Americanized" menthol cigarettes. The tobacco industry successfully positioned mentholated products, especially Kool, as young, hip, new, and healthy. During the time that menthols were gaining a large market share in the African American community, the tobacco industry donated funds to African American organizations hoping to blunt the attack on their products. Many of the findings in this article are drawn from the tobacco industry documents disclosed following the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. After a short review of the origins and growth of menthols, this article examines some key social factors that, when considered together, led to disproportionate use of mentholated cigarettes by African Americans compared with other Americans. Unfortunately, the long-term impact of the industry's practice in this community may be partly responsible for the disproportionately high tobacco-related disease and mortality among African Americans generally and African American males particularly.
Mwendwa, Denee T.; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C.; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C. Jules; Callender, Clive O.; Campbell, Alfonso L.
Background African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. Objective The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. Methods A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Conclusion Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity. PMID:21999035
Oh, Sam S; Du, Randal; Zeiger, Andrew M; McGarry, Meghan E; Hu, Donglei; Thakur, Neeta; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Galanter, Joshua M; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine Keiko; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A; Ford, Jean G; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Williams, Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Burchard, Esteban G
In the United States, Puerto Ricans and African Americans have lower prevalence of breastfeeding and worse clinical outcomes for asthma compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We hypothesize that the history of breastfeeding is associated with increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted and reduced asthma exacerbations in Latino and African American youths with asthma. As part of the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) Study and the Study of African Americans, asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE II), we conducted case-only analyses in children and adolescents aged 8-21 years with asthma from four different racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 426), Mexican Americans (n = 424), mixed/other Latinos (n = 255), and Puerto Ricans (n = 629). We investigated the association between any breastfeeding in infancy and FEV1% predicted using multivariable linear regression; Poisson regression was used to determine the association between breastfeeding and asthma exacerbations. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in African Americans (59.4%) and Puerto Ricans (54.9%) compared to Mexican Americans (76.2%) and mixed/other Latinos (66.9%; p asthma exacerbations (p = 0.03) in African Americans only. Breastfeeding was associated with higher FEV1% predicted in asthma and reduced number of asthma exacerbations in African American youths, calling attention to continued support for breastfeeding.
Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L
African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.
Lindsey, Michael A; Brown, Danica R; Cunningham, Michael
If African American boys are contemplating taking their lives at early ages, the hope for future generations is challenging at best. What is going on in African American communities that there is a lack of safe spaces for boys to express their emotions and to share their travails with supportive networks in lieu of ending their lives? The situation of African American boys (ages 5-11) committing suicide at higher levels-more than any other group-and the recent studies regarding the rising rates of suicide among African American adolescent boys (12 and older) call for greater reflection and more discourse around the mental health challenges faced by this group. We must identify the emotional and psychological reasons that underlie suicidal behaviors for African American boys and work to provide immediate intervention. Families, educators, and community workers play key roles in identifying signs of mental health challenges such as depression and connecting African American boys to mental health care services. In this article, the authors discuss specific ways to better support boys who exhibit early signs of depression and suicidal behavior. Topics discussed include (1) untreated depression among African American youth; (2) looking deeper at the reasons for untreated depression; (3) misunderstanding and denial of mental health challenges; (4) risk factors in schools; (5) harsh discipline practices; (6) low teacher expectations; and (7) disconnection from adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Zeno, Stacey A; Kim-Dorner, Su-Jong; Deuster, Patricia A; Davis, Jennifer L; Remaley, Alan T; Poth, Merrily
African Americans have a higher prevalence of and mortality rates from cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. One important risk factor for cardiovascular disease is poor cardiovascular fitness. We quantified associations between fitness and related primary risk factors for cardiovascular disease in healthy African Americans and Caucasians. Participants included African American (n = 91) and Caucasian (n = 51) men and women aged 18 to 45 years with a body mass index less than 38 kg/m2, fasting blood glucose less than 126 mg/dL, and blood pressure less than 140/90 mm Hg. Fitness, waist and hip circumference, percent body fat, fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. The majority of African Americans (57.1%) were low-fair fitness (Caucasians, 31.4%), and only 20.8% were good/high fitness (Caucasians, 39.2%). The number of cardiovascular disease risk factors increased with decreasing fitness, and CRP was negatively associated with fitness in both groups. Low fitness may characterize apparently healthy African Americans as at risk for cardiovascular disease. Including fitness as a risk factor may improve early identification of at-risk African Americans. Importantly, prescribing exercise as medicine and promoting regular physical activity to improve fitness is essential among African Americans.
Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart
SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination. PMID:22639552
Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk. PMID:27651918
Damali N Martin
Full Text Available African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity.Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors.The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the knowledge of current markers. Notably, pathways
Hall, C C
The criteria for beauty in the United States are primarily based on Caucasian European American, middle-class standards. African American women tend to vary greatly from these criteria. Though very few studies have been conducted on the body image of Black women in the United States, historically, the physical images portrayed of African American women in the United States have not been positive. Mental health practitioners must understand how these negative images may affect the body image and self-esteem of African American women. Therapeutic and community interventions are discussed.
Lee, E Bun
This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook.
Full Text Available Cultural groups often participate in traditions and activities surrounding food and eating, which contribute to group differences in maladaptive eating-related patterns and outcomes. This study explored the relationships between cultural attitudes and eating behaviors of young adult African American men and women. Endorsing a strong orientation on various dimensions of African American culture were related to less dieting, bulimic, and anorexic behaviors and attitudes. This study extended our knowledge of the ways in which cultural attitudes were related to the physical and mental health of African Americans and recognized the significance of individual differences within this group.
African American college students represent 1.3 million of the 14 million students currently enrolled in postsecondary institutions in the United States, but research specifically investigating or addressing the health status of these young people is rare. The author reviews the literature that has examined components of the social, mental, and physical health of African American college students. This literature review indicates a need for more information and for further research that specifically addresses health behaviors and practices of African American and other minority students. Health educators must recognize the importance of knowing about and understanding the mechanisms that support unhealthy as well as healthy behaviors in different cultural and ethnic groups.
Caldeira, Nathilee A.; Ruglass, Lesia M.; Gilbert, Louisa
African American women continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, yet there are few effective HIV prevention interventions that are exclusively tailored to their lives and that address their risk factors. Using an ecological framework, we offer a comprehensive overview of the risk factors that are driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic among African American women and explicate the consequences of ignoring these factors in HIV prevention strategies. We also recommend ways to improve HIV prevention programs by taking into consideration the unique life experiences of adult African American women. PMID:19372518
Barroso, Cristina S; Peters, Ronald Joseph; Johnson, Regina Jones; Kelder, Steven H; Jefferson, Troy
Focus groups, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, examined the beliefs and perceived norms regarding body image in a sample of urban African-American and Latino teenagers (N = 83, 18-19 years old) from Texas. Cultural eating (behavioral belief) explained the acceptance and tolerance of overweight. Popularity of hip-hop fashion and limited income explicated peer and familial normative beliefs, respectively. Thinness equated HIV infection in African-Americans (parental normative belief). Barriers to healthy eating and active living (control beliefs) included willpower, laziness, fast food, and excessive work. Findings can guide the development and implementation of culturally appropriate obesity interventions for African-American and Latino adolescents.
Boyden, Jackelyn Y; Kavanaugh, Karen; Issel, L Michele; Eldeirawi, Kamal; Meert, Kathleen L
A child's death is one of life's most difficult experiences. Little is known about the unique factors that influence the grief experience for bereaved African American parents. Through an integrative review of 10 publications, the authors describe the grief responses, outcomes, and implications for African American parents who experience the death of a child. Four themes emerged: (a) emotional response to loss; (b) factors that added to the burden of loss; (c) coping strategies; and (d) health consequences of grief. Healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers should be sensitive to the unique needs of African American parents following a child's death.
Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.
Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and B...
Middleton, Jeremy P; Bhagavathula, Anita P; Gaye, Bilkisu; Alvarez, Jessica A; Huang, Clifton S; Sauer, Cary G; Tenjarla, Gayathri; Schoen, Bess T; Kumar, Archana; Prasad, Mahadev; Okou, David T; Ifeadike, Walter C; Dhere, Tanvi A; Conneely, Karen N; Ziegler, Thomas R; Tangpricha, Vin; Kugathasan, Subra
Vitamin D deficiency and low bone mineral density (BMD) are complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among African Americans compared with whites. There are little data comparing differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations and BMD between African American and white children with Crohn disease (CD). We compared serum 25OHD concentrations of African American children with CD (n = 52) to white children with CD (n = 64) and healthy African American controls (n = 40). We also analyzed BMD using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry results from our pediatric CD population. African American children with CD had lower serum 25OHD concentrations (16.1 [95% confidence interval, CI 14.5-17.9] ng/mL) than whites with CD (22.3 [95% CI 20.2-24.6] ng/mL; P African Americans with CD and controls exhibited similar serum 25OHD concentration (16.1 [95% CI 14.5-17.9] vs 16.3 [95% CI 14.4-18.4] ng/mL; NS). African Americans with CD exhibited no difference in serum 25OHD concentration when controlling for seasonality, disease severity, and surgical history, although serum 25OHD concentration was significantly decreased in overweight children (body mass index ≥85%, P = 0.003). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that obese African American girls with CD had the lowest serum 25OHD concentrations (9.6 [95% CI 6.8-13.5] ng/mL). BMD was comparable between African American and white children with CD (z score -0.4 ± 0.9 vs -0.7 ± 1.2; NS). African American children with CD are more likely to have vitamin D deficiency compared with white children with CD, but have similar BMD. CD disease severity and history of surgery do not affect serum 25OHD concentrations among African American children with CD. African American children have low serum 25OHD concentrations, independent of CD, compared with white children. Future research should focus on how race affects vitamin D status and BMD in children with CD.
Coleman, Christopher Lance
Little is known about abuse experienced among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) who are 50 years and older. A series of focus groups were conducted to examine perspectives of seropositive African American MSM age 50 years and older who reported experiencing some form of psychological or physical abuse. Thirty African American MSM were divided into four focus groups and four themes emerged: "Fear Being Gay," "No One Else to Love Me," "Nowhere to Turn," and "Sexual Risk & Control." The data suggest there is a need to develop culturally tailored interventions for this population.
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female
Gidding, Samuel S.; Keith, Scott W.; Falkner, Bonita
Background African Americans (AA) have lower triglycerides (TG) and higher high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) than other ethnic groups yet they also have higher risk for developing diabetes mellitus despite the strong relationship of dyslipidemia with insulin resistance. No studies directly compare adolescents and adults with regard to relationships amongst dyslipidemia, C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and insulin resistance. Here we compare AA adolescents to adults with regard to the relationships of adiposity-related lipid risk markers (TG/HDL ratio and non HDL-C) with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA), and hsCRP. Methods Two cohorts of healthy AA were recruited from the same urban community. Participants in each cohort were stratified by TG/HDL ratio (based on adult tertiles) and non-HDL-C levels. BMI, WC, HOMA and hsCRP were compared in adolescents and adults in the low, middle and high lipid strata. Results Prevalence of TG/HDL ratio greater than 2.028 (high group) was 16% (44/283) in adolescents and 33% (161/484) in adults; prevalence of non HDL-C above 145 and 160 respectively was 8% (22/283) in adolescents and 12% (60/484) in adults. HsCRP values were lower and HOMA values were higher in adolescents (both p < 0.01). As both TG/HDL ratio and non HDL-C strata increased, BMI, WC, HOMA, and hsCRP increased in both adolescents and adults. In the high TG/HDL and non HDL-C groups, BMI and WC were similar in adolescents vs. adults (BMI 34 kg/m2 vs 32 kg/m2; WC 101 cm vs 101 cm). After adjusting for non-HDL-C and other covariates, a 2-fold increase in TG/HDL was associated with increases of 10.4% in hsCRP (95% CI: 1.1% – 20.5%) and 24.2% in HOMA (95% CI: 16.4% – 32.6%). Non-HDL-C was not significant in models having TG/HDL. Conclusions Elevated TG/HDL ratio is associated with similar inflammation and metabolic risk relationships in adolescent and adult African-Americans. PMID:26073396
Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M
Research on European and European American families suggests that parents' differential treatment of siblings has negative implications for youths' adjustment, but few studies have explored these dynamics in minority samples. This study examined parents' differential acceptance and conflict in a sample of mothers, fathers, and two adolescent siblings in 179 African American families who were interviewed on three annual occasions. In an effort to replicate findings from European and European American samples, we assessed the longitudinal associations between differential treatment and adolescent adjustment and tested three sibling characteristics (birth order, gender, and dyad gender composition) as potential moderators of these linkages. To illuminate the sociocultural context of differential treatment and its implications, we also explored parents' cultural socialization practices and experiences of financial stress as potential moderators of these links. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for average parent-child relationship qualities, decreases in parental acceptance and increases in parent-youth conflict over time-relative to the sibling-were associated with increases in youths' risky behavior and depressive symptoms. Links between differential treatment and adjustment were not evident, however, when mothers engaged in high levels of cultural socialization and in families under high financial stress. The discussion highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in family dynamics. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Papachristos, Andrew V; Wildeman, Christopher
We estimated the association of an individual's exposure to homicide in a social network and the risk of individual homicide victimization across a high-crime African American community. Combining 5 years of homicide and police records, we analyzed a network of 3718 high-risk individuals that was created by instances of co-offending. We used logistic regression to model the odds of being a gunshot homicide victim by individual characteristics, network position, and indirect exposure to homicide. Forty-one percent of all gun homicides occurred within a network component containing less than 4% of the neighborhood's population. Network-level indicators reduced the association between individual risk factors and homicide victimization and improved the overall prediction of individual victimization. Network exposure to homicide was strongly associated with victimization: the closer one is to a homicide victim, the greater the risk of victimization. Regression models show that exposure diminished with social distance: each social tie removed from a homicide victim decreased one's odds of being a homicide victim by 57%. Risk of homicide in urban areas is even more highly concentrated than previously thought. We found that most of the risk of gun violence was concentrated in networks of identifiable individuals. Understanding these networks may improve prediction of individual homicide victimization within disadvantaged communities.
Brody, Gene H; Lei, Man-Kit; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E
This study was designed to determine whether living in a neighborhood in which poverty levels increase across adolescence is associated with heightened levels of allostatic load (AL), a biological composite reflecting cardiometabolic risk. The researchers also sought to determine whether receipt of emotional support could ameliorate the effects of increases in neighborhood poverty on AL. Neighborhood concentrations of poverty were obtained from the Census Bureau for 420 African American youth living in rural Georgia when they were 11 and 19 years of age. AL was measured at age 19 by using established protocols for children and adolescents. When youth were 18, caregivers reported parental emotional support and youth assessed receipt of peer and mentor emotional support. Covariates included family poverty status at ages 11 and 19, family financial stress, parental employment status, youth stress, and youths' unhealthful behaviors. Youth who lived in neighborhoods in which poverty levels increased from ages 11 to 19 evinced the highest levels of AL even after accounting for the individual-level covariates. The association of increasing neighborhood poverty across adolescence with AL was not significant for youth who received high emotional support. This study is the first to show an association between AL and residence in a neighborhood that increases in poverty. It also highlights the benefits of supportive relationships in ameliorating this association. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Lane, Kathleen A; Gao, Sujuan; Hui, Siu L; Murrell, Jill R; Hall, Kathleen S; Hendrie, Hugh C
The literature on the association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and mortality across ethnic and age groups has been inconsistent. No studies have looked at this association in developing countries. We used data from the Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia study to examine this association between APOE and mortality in 354 African-Americans from Indianapolis and 968 Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria. Participants were followed up to 9.5 years for Indianapolis and 8.7 years for Ibadan. Subjects from both sites were divided into 2 groups based upon age at baseline. A Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusting for age at baseline, education, hypertension, smoking history and gender in addition to time-dependent covariates of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and dementia was fit for each cohort and age group. Having ApoE epsilon4 alleles significantly increased mortality risk in Indianapolis subjects under age 75 (hazard ratio: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.19-3.35; p = 0.0089). No association was found in Indianapolis subjects 75 and older (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.45-1.10; p = 0.1238), Ibadan subjects under 75 (hazard ratio: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.40; p = 0.7782), or Ibadan subjects over 75 (hazard ratio: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.75; p = 0.3274).
Singh, Vibhuti; Deedwania, Prakash
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and certain population groups, such as South Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics, carry a disproportionately larger burden of CVD manifested as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and hypertension. Persons of these special populations experience approximately two- to threefold greater morbidity and mortality. Prevalence of risk factors, including dyslipidemia, overweight, and diabetes, is not only higher in these groups, but is also rising. The reasons for such disparity appear to be multifactorial and influenced by such factors as lifestyle, diet, culture, genetics, and suboptimal healthcare. Furthermore, because these minority populations are not significantly represented in major clinical trials, evidence-based management strategies for treatment and prevention of CVD are seriously lacking. Lately, however, several randomized trials of therapy for dyslipidemia to reduce cardiovascular events among these ethnic groups have been undertaken. Preliminary data suggest the need for stricter goals and increasingly aggressive therapy for these special populations, including administrative and educational interventions.
Begley, Elin; Crosby, Richard A; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve
Several recent studies have addressed the question of whether adolescent females who have sex with older partners have a greater risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition. The goal was to identify differences in STD prevalence and selected measures of behavioral risk between unmarried pregnant African American adolescent females reporting sex with older partners and those reporting sex with similar-age partners. Adolescents (n = 169) were recruited during their first prenatal visit. Adolescents completed a self-administered survey and a face-to-face interview and provided urine specimens for nucleic acid amplification assays. Approximately 65% of adolescents reported that their male sex partners were >/=2 years older, while 35% reported having similar-age male sex partners. In age-adjusted analyses, adolescents with older partners were four times more likely to test positive for chlamydia (P pregnant adolescents reporting older partners may be a priority for targeted delivery of partner services. More frequent screening for chlamydia may also be cost-effective for pregnant adolescents with older partners.
Danielle Taana Smith
Full Text Available This study assesses differences within the African American population with respect to internet activity. Using survey data, we find wide variations within the population. While some segments of African Americans are indeed less likely to perform certain activities on the internet, we note that certain segments of the African American population are reporting more internet activity than other racial groups. These ‘haves’ score high not just in comparison to their African American peers, but to the US American population as a whole. We suggest a move away from the digital divide/digital inequality models and a move towards thinking of greater or lesser Information and Communication Technology (ICT usage as conditioned by the instrumental needs of population groups. We term this a digital practice model.
Monique S. Roy
Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.
Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola; Carter, Sierra; Flowers, Kelci C
The purpose of this study was to examine whether specific religious coping styles and cultural worldview would be associated with thoughts of suicide given higher levels of stress in a community-based sample of African American adults. African American men and women (n = 134) completed measures of religious coping, cultural worldview, stressful life events, depression symptoms, and suicide ideation. Higher ratings of suicide ideation were observed for African Americans who endorsed a more self-directing religious coping style. The self-directing religious coping was more frequently endorsed by participants who identified with a more Eurocentric cultural worldview that espouses an individualist philosophy. Together, these findings provide some insight to how religious coping and culture are related to suicide vulnerability for African Americans who are not in clinical care.
Murray, Marsheena S; Neal-Barnett, Angela; Demmings, Jessica L; Stadulis, Robert E
Acting White is one of the most negative accusations an African American adolescent can receive from another. The accusation can either be made directly or indirectly. Research suggests that receiving the accusation may create distress for some African American adolescents. The current study examined the relationship between experiencing the acting White accusation, racial identity, and anxiety among African American adolescents. High school students completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Acting White Experiences Questionnaire (AWEQ). Results indicated that adolescents who both directly and indirectly experienced the AWA reported higher anxiety than those who only indirectly experienced the AWA. Additionally, adolescents who reported experiencing more indirect aspects of the accusation or being "bothered" more by the accusation reported higher levels of anxiety. Findings suggest that the acting White accusation may be a culturally relevant factor influencing anxiety among African American adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osborn, Robyn L; Forys, Kelly L; Psota, Tricia L; Sbrocco, Tracy
Research on the effects of weight cycling on health is mixed, strife with inconsistent definitions and the exclusion of African Americans. This study examined weight cycling prevalence among African American women prior to enrolling in a weight management program. Associations of weight cycling with physical and psychological health were conducted. Cross-sectional analysis. Community-based weight-management program. 167 overweight or obese treatment-seeking African American women. Weight cycling was examined in relation to physiological factors, including eating pathology, mood, self esteem, and physical health, specifically current weight, ideal weight, peak weight, and blood pressure. Weight cycling was prevalent (63%). Cyclers had higher current and peak weights (P<.01). Blood pressure did not differ between groups. Cyclers had higher drive for thinness, less body satisfaction, and less self-esteem for appearance (P<.05). African American women are at risk for weight cycling and it may be associated with greater weight and poorer measures of psychological health.
Vincent, Wilson; Peterson, John L.; Parrott, Dominic J.
The aim of the present study was to examine racial differences in women’s attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and to offer an understanding of these differences. Participants were 224 18–30 year old heterosexual African American (64%) and White (36%) female undergraduates from a large urban university in the southeastern United States. Participants completed measures of social demographics, sexual orientation, and sexual prejudice. Results showed that African American, relative to White, women endorsed more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Also, unlike White women, African American women reported more negative attitudes toward gay men than lesbians. Implications are discussed regarding differences in cultural contexts that exist between African American and White women. PMID:20161368
In African-American adolescents with persistent asthma, allergic profile predicted the likelihood of having poorly controlled asthma despite guidelines-directed therapies. Our results suggest that tree and weed pollen sensitization are independent risk factors for poorly controll...
Franklin, Monica D; Schlundt, David G; Wallston, Kenneth A
Health researchers struggle to understand barriers to improving health in the African-American community. The African-American church is one of the most promising venues for health promotion, disease prevention, and disparities reduction. Religious fatalism, the belief that health outcomes are inevitable and/or determined by God, may inhibit healthy behaviors for a subset of religious persons. This study reports the development and validation of the Religious Health Fatalism Questionnaire, a measurement tool for studying faith-related health beliefs in African-Americans. Participants included 276 members of seven predominantly African-American churches. Factor analysis indicated three dimensions: (1) Divine Provision; (2) Destined Plan; and (3) Helpless Inevitability. Evidence is presented for the reliability, convergent and predictive validity of the Religious Health Fatalism Questionnaire.
Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T
African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.
Linnan, Laura A; Reiter, Paul L; Duffy, Courtney; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S; Viera, Anthony J
This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting African American men in barbershops, assessing their physical activity, conducting physical measurements, and gauging their interest in barbershop-based health research...
Lane, Sandra D; Keefe, Robert H; Rubinstein, Robert A; Levandowski, Brooke A; Freedman, Michael; Rosenthal, Alan; Cibula, Donald A; Czerwinski, Maria
Since 1996, state legislators, members of the U.S. Congress, and more recently President George W. Bush, have called for the protection of monogamous, heterosexual marriage and the promotion of marriage among poor women. The thrust of this policy making is directed at African American families, among which female headship doubled between 1965 and 1990. This doubling is temporally associated with enacting the legislation directed toward the War on Drugs, which resulted in a tripling of the African American prison population. In Syracuse, New York, the swelling African American population behind bars has resulted in a skewed sex ratio, in which women significantly outnumber men. The authors use national, state, and local epidemiological, environmental, and ethnographic data to argue that the proliferation of marriage-promotion policies is heterosexist and blames African American women for demographic realities over which they have little control.
Brittian, Aerika S.
This article examines the development of African American adolescents’ identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents’ healthy development. Different personological theories of identity development were discussed, including Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Marcia’s theory of identity statuses. Developmental systems theory was used to further the literature on African American adolescents’ identity development, by integrating various views of identity development as they pertain to these youth. Furthermore, the formation of many aspects of identity may be an important coping and resilience process for such youth. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, including a consideration of the complexity of diversity that exists within the African American adolescent population, and a call for more longitudinal assessments of identity development is presented. PMID:23243325
Dale, Sannisha K; Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Klein, David J
African-Americans living with HIV show worse health behaviors (e.g. medication adherence) and outcomes (e.g. viral suppression) than do their White counterparts. In a 6-month longitudinal study, we investigated whether medical mistrust among African-American males with HIV (214 enrolled, 140 with longitudinal data) predicted lower electronically monitored antiretroviral medication adherence. General medical mistrust (e.g. suspicion towards providers), but not racism-related mistrust (e.g. belief that providers treat African-Americans poorly due to race), predicted lower continuous medication adherence over time (b=−.08, se=.04, p=.03). Medical mistrust may contribute to poor health outcomes. Intervention efforts that address mistrust may improve adherence among African-Americans with HIV. PMID:25293970
Hotchkins, Bryan K.
This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…
Moorman, Patricia G; Palmieri, Rachel T; Akushevich, Lucy; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M
.... Although prevalences of many ovarian cancer risk factors differ markedly between African Americans and whites, there has been little research on how the relative contributions of risk factors may...
Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L.
Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample – each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521
Oates, Christie S
The purpose of the present study was to identify whether there are unique biological, behavioral, psychological, and environmental factors specific to African- Americans that may promote the development of obesity...
Phelan, Catherine M
We have blood samples from 40 African-American men with prostate cancer and 30 ethnically-matched control healthy men with questionnaire data on demographics, general health and cancer family history...
Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.
February is Black History Month and time to celebrate the contributions of African Americans throughout history. This paper provides a selection of websites that can serve as starting points for learning and can be used all year long.
... classic literature. This legacy has only added luster to the brand of the United States, which has drawn... appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs that raise awareness and appreciation of African American...
Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Matthews, Derrick; Mohottige, Dinushika; Agyemang, Amma; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
...; however, few studies have examined this association among African-American men, who delay healthcare more often, define masculinity differently, and report higher levels of medical mistrust than non-Hispanic White...
Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria
Presents a high school history lesson based on the National Standards for United States History. Considers the effect of the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence on free and enslaved African Americans. (CFR)
Thomson, Nicole Renick; Zand, Debra H.
Studied the factor structure and other psychometric properties of S. Harter's (1988) Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents for 174 African American early adolescents. Findings yielded six conceptually relevant factors and also indicated gender differences in several domains. (SLD)
Cancer Health Disparity Among African-American Men PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harry Ostrer, M.D. RECIPIENT: Albert Einstein College of...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Albert Einstein College of Medicine Of Yeshiva University Bronx, NY 10461 9. SPONSORING
Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M.
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, ...
Fleming, Crystal; Lamont, Michele
This exploratory study makes a contribution to the literature on antiracism by unpacking the cultural categories through which everyday antiracism is experienced and practiced by extraordinarily successful African Americans. Using a phenomenological approach, we focus on processes of classification to analyze the criteria that members of the African American elite mobilize to compare racial groups and establish their equality. We first summarize results from earlier work on the antiracist str...
Cohen, Elisia L.
This study examines how a sample of African American women understands the uncertainties fundamental to cancer risk communication. Utilizing data from four focus groups, Problematic Integration (PI) theory is applied as an interpretive lens for illustrating their felt difficulties of talking openly about cancer and breast cancer in everyday life. The women describe worry about cancer and its prevalence among African American women; ambivalence and uncertainty; belief that what is not uncertai...
Cross the Water Blues: African American Music in Europe. Edited by Neil A. Wynn. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, "American Made Music Series", 2007.Pp. xii + 289. ISBN 9781604735468 Paper Some scholars might wonder if there is anything new to say about the history of the blues: this overlooked book will serve as a welcome answer. A collection of fifteen new essays, mostly by renowed European scholars, Cross the Water Blues: African American Music in Europe focuses on the birth, reco...
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.
Researchers have suggested that health disparities in African American women, including adverse birth outcomes, lupus, obesity, and untreated depression, can be explained by stress and coping. The Strong Black Woman/Superwoman role has been highlighted as a phenomenon influencing African American women’s experiences and reports of stress. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary conceptual framework for Superwoman Schema (SWS) by exploring women’s descriptions of the Superwoman ...
Dan A. Black; Seth G. Sanders; Taylor, Evan J.; Taylor, Lowell J.
The Great Migration—the massive migration of African Americans out of the rural South to largely urban locations in the North, Midwest, and West—was a landmark event in U.S. history. Our paper shows that this migration increased mortality of African Americans born in the early twentieth century South. This inference comes from an analysis that uses proximity of birthplace to railroad lines as an instrument for migration.
Josephine E. A. Boyington, PhD, MPH, RN; Lori Carter-Edwards, PhD, MPH; Mark Piehl, MD, MPH; Jeanne Hutson, MPH, RN, RD, CDE, BC-ADM; Debbe Langdon, RN, BSN, CDE; Shilpa McManus, MPH
Introduction The growing epidemic of childhood obesity has led to an increasing focus on strategies for prevention. However, little is known about attitudes and perceptions toward weight, diet, and physical activity among American youth, and particularly among young African American females. This pilot study sought to qualitatively explore cultural attitudes and perceptions toward body image, food, and physical activity among a sample of overweight African American girls. Methods We recruited...
Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Oh, April; Schiffer, Linda
Introduction Breast cancer survival rates are lower for African American women than for white women. Obesity, high-fat diets, and lack of regular physical activity increase risk for breast cancer recurrence, comorbid conditions, and premature death. Eighty-two percent of African American women are overweight or obese, partly because of unhealthy eating and exercise patterns. Although successful weight loss and lifestyle interventions for breast cancer survivors are documented, none has consid...
Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L.; Lobel, Marci
Based on prior research and theory, the authors constructed a multidimensional model of stress in African American women comprised of race-related, gender-related, and generic stress. Exposure to and appraisal of these three types of stress were combined into a higher-order global stress factor. Using structural equation modeling, the fit of this stress factor and its ability to predict distress symptoms were examined in 189 socioeconomically diverse African American women aged 21 to 78. Resu...
Barnes, Ann Smith; Kimbro, Rachel T
Interventions to address obesity and weight loss maintenance among African Americans have yielded modest results. There is limited data on African Americans who have achieved successful long-term weight loss maintenance. To identify a large sample of African American adults who intentionally achieved clinically significant weight loss of 10 %; to describe weight-loss and maintenance efforts of African Americans through a cross-sectional survey; to determine the feasibility of establishing a registry of African American adults who have successfully lost weight. African American volunteers from the United States ≥ 18 years of age were invited to complete a cross-sectional survey about weight, weight-loss, weight-loss maintenance or regain. Participants were invited to submit contact information to be maintained in a secure registry. Percentage of participants who achieved long-term weight-loss maintenance reporting various dietary and physical activity strategies, motivations for and social-cognitive influences on weight loss and maintenance, current eating patterns, and self-monitoring practices compared to African Americans who lost weight but regained it. Participants also completed the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Of 3,414 individuals screened, 1,280 were eligible and completed surveys. Ninety-percent were women. This descriptive analysis includes 1,110 women who lost weight through non-surgical means. Over 90 % of respondents had at least some college education. Twenty-eight percent of respondents were weight-loss maintainers. Maintainers lost an average of 24 % of their body weight and had maintained ≥ 10 % weight loss for an average of 5.1 years. Maintainers were more likely to limit their fat intake, eat breakfast most days of the week, avoid fast food restaurants, engage in moderate to high levels of physical activity, and use a scale to monitor their weight. Influences and practices differ among educated African American women
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0395 TITLE: Integrated Genomic Biomarkers to Identify Aggressive Disease in African Americans with Prostate Cancer...2015- 31 Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Genomic Biomarkers to Identify Aggressive Disease In African Americans with...the copy number assay. We have also started a manuscript exploring the effectiveness of a commonly used clinicopathologic predictor of prostate cancer
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.