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Sample records for viability trypan blue

  1. CELL VIABILITY IN X-RAY IRRADIATED HUMAN LENS EPITHELIAL CELL (HLEC CULTURE BY USING TRYPAN BLUE EXCLUSION TEST

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    Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Cataract is one of major cause of blindness, 44% cases of blindness is due to cataract only. In developing countries such as India cataract is more common and it manifest earlier in life than the most developed countries of the world. Patients receiving therapeutic radiation may have developed cataracts as well as radiation retinopathy and optic nerve damage. In this study we are aimed to compare effects of X-ray irradiation on cell viability of HLEC (Human lens epithelial cell culture by using trypan blue dye exclusion test against the unexposed control HLEC culture. Total 20 cataract patients from Dept. of Ophthalmology of Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Nagpur were included in this study. The capsulorhexis sample from cataract surgery taken for study from eye OT. The capsulorhexis sample without any x-ray exposure taken as control. For culture of HLEC’s RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum used. The HLEC cultures were X-ray irradiated with increasing count of skull limit parameters of range 150kV, 250mAs and 50mA for 5sec using GE® 650 M.A. X-ray machine. The Trypan blue dye exclusion test was used to analyze cell viability. The slides were analyzed using Olympus® BX51 Research microscope with oil immersion and 100 were observed per sample. The cell viability was calculated using Epi info® (version 6.0, as subject means with standard deviation. Statistical significance will be defined at P≤0.001. Out of 100 cases the 12 were female and 8 were male. Mean age of both male and female patients were 62.45±3.18(SD. A positive linear correlation was found (r:0.819, p<0.001 between the No. of X-Ray exposure and death cells per 100 observed LECs.

  2. Histopathological analysis in experimental macular surgery with trypan blue.

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    Grisanti, S; Szurman, P; Tatar, O; Gelisken, F; Aisenbrey, S; Oficjalska-Mlynczak, J; Kaczmarek, R; Bartz-Schmidt, K U

    2004-09-01

    To analyse the effect of trypan blue on the retina in an experimental setting of macular surgery. Porcine eyes were used within 3 hours after death. The eyes were hemisected and the vitreous removed. Trypan blue (0.15%) was applied over the trephined posterior pole, whereas the rest of the eye cup was filled with a balanced salt solution (BSS). The dye and the BSS were removed after 1 minute and the complete eye cup irrigated and filled with fresh BSS. Both the treated and untreated retinas were illuminated with a standard surgical light pipe and source at maximum power for 10 minutes. Both the trypan blue exposed retina and the non-treated surrounding retina were processed for histology. Exposure of the retina to trypan blue for 1 minute, followed by illumination caused no histologically detectable damage compared to the controls. No microarchitectural disorganisation, cellular disruption, or affection of the vitreoretinal interface was detected. These findings indicate that a 1 minute exposure of trypan blue followed by illumination does not cause an acute morphologically detectable toxic effect on the porcine retina.

  3. Effect of Trypan Blue on Descemet Membrane Elasticity.

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    John, Thomas; Patel, Alpesh; Vasavada, Abhay; Singh, Man; Nath, Vandana; Cheng, Anny M S; Sheha, Hosam

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of trypan blue on the elastic property of Descemet membrane (DM) by atomic force microscopy. Human corneas (n = 10) were obtained from the Illinois Eye Bank (Chicago, IL). The DM was isolated and divided into two halves, one half was stained with ophthalmic trypan blue (Vision Blue, 0.06%, DORC International), whereas the unstained other half served as control. The DM samples were then tested using the atomic force microscope. Data were analyzed using the Hertz model for the evaluation of the Young modulus of elasticity. Atomic force microscopy showed higher cantilever deflection on trypan blue-stained DM compared with control, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Force-distance curve analysis also revealed a statistically significant increase in the Young modulus of elasticity in the trypan blue-stained samples (10.5 ± 1.4 kPa) compared with the control (5.8 ± 0.8 kPa), (P elasticity and consequently increase its stiffness. This may influence the graft adherence when used for endothelial keratoplasty.

  4. The Value Of Trypan Blue Dye In The Training Of Ophthalmology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the value of trypan blue dye in the training of resident doctors in ophthalmology to perform capsulotomy, on important step in cataract extraction. Eight resident were randomized into 2 groups of 4 each. One group used trypan blue while the other group did not. In the trypan blue group, ...

  5. Use of trypan blue dye during conversion of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty to penetrating keratoplasty.

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    Sharma, Namrata; Jhanji, Vishal; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Amiel, Howard; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2008-08-01

    We describe a technique that uses trypan blue dye to identify residual recipient corneal stroma and Descemet membrane (DM) during conversion of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). After the host cornea is dissected, trypan blue dye (0.06%) is used to highlight the remaining host corneal stroma and DM, if any. In 8 DALK procedures that had to be converted to PKP because of DM perforation, trypan blue staining identified remnants of DM and parts of the posterior corneal stroma in 7 eyes. Improved visualization of the residual host tissue enabled complete excision and an overall optimal recipient wound profile.

  6. Removing Trypan blue dye using nano-Zn modified Luffa sponge

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    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Cicek, Semra; Gungor, Azize Alayli

    2017-02-01

    This study has presented specific features that are examined to remove the Trypan blue dye from the waste using Luffa sponge (LS) and modified Luffa sponge with zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs). Peroxidase enzyme was obtained from Euphorbia amygdaloides plant and it was used with the green synthesis of Zn nanoparticles. Luffa sponge was used to be a support material for immobilized nanoparticles and it also used in remediation work. The obtained membrane forms, fibrous materials, (LS, ZnNPs-LS) were characterized with SEM and XRD. LS and ZnNPs-LS were employed as adsorbent to be used for the removal of Trypan blue dye from aqueous via batch studies. Measurements were made for the equilibrium, pH, temperature, concentration of dye with UV-visible spectrometer (590 nm; for Trypan blue dye). The optimum removal of Trypan blue dye was found at pH 7, the equilibrium was attained within 30 min. The thermodynamic properties ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 showed that adsorption of Trypan blue dye onto LS and ZnNPs-LS were spontaneous and endothermic. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models and the sorption process was described by the Langmuir isotherm with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 45.32 and 47.3 mg/g for LS and LS-ZnNPs at 303 ± 1 °K, respectively.

  7. Trypan blue as a fluorochrome for confocal laser scanning microscopy of arbuscular mycorrhizae in three mangroves.

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    Kumar, T; Majumdar, A; Das, P; Sarafis, V; Ghose, M

    2008-06-01

    Roots of three mangroves, Acanthus ilicifolius, Ceriops tagal and Excoecaria agallocha, collected from forests of the Sundarbans of India were stained with trypan blue to observe arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from rhizospheric soil, collected together with the root samples, also were stained for testing the suitability of the dye as a fluorochrome. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images were constructed. A. ilicifolius and E. agallocha exhibited "Arum" type colonization with highly branched arbuscules, whereas C. tagal showed "Paris" type association with clumped and collapsed arbuscules. We demonstrated that trypan blue is a suitable fluorochrome for staining arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores, fungal hyphae, arbuscules and vesicles, which presumably have a considerable amount of surface chitin. It appears that as the integration of chitin into the fungal cell wall changes, its accessibility to trypan blue dye also changes.

  8. Normal physiological and pathophysiological effects of trypan blue on the retinas of albino rabbits.

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    Heilweil, Gad; Komarowska, Izabela; Zemel, Esther; Loewenstein, Anat; Perlman, Ido

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether intravitreal injection of trypan blue is toxic to the retina of the albino rabbit. Sixteen albino rabbits were studied for the effects of intravitreal trypan blue (eight with 0.06% solution and eight with 0.15% solution). Saline was injected into the fellow control eye of all rabbits. The electroretinogram and visual evoked potentials were recorded from each rabbit at different time intervals after injection. The rabbits were killed at the termination of the follow-up period, and their retinas were prepared for histologic examination under light microscopy. In all rabbits, short-term follow-up showed significant reduction of ERG responses in the experimental eye, with the b-wave more affected than the a-wave. Partial to complete recovery was observed during follow-up. After 4 weeks, negligible ERG deficit was observed in the rabbits treated with 0.06% trypan blue, whereas significant ERG deficit was measured in rabbits tested by the 0.15% trypan blue. No differences in flash VEP responses between experimental and control rabbit eyes were found. Light microscopy showed no significant histologic effects in the retinas exposed to the 0.06% solution. Marked disorganization of all retinal layers was observed in areas close to the site of injection in the rabbits injected with the 0.15% solution. Trypan blue exerts transient physiological effects on the distal retina of the rabbit, but in concentrations of 0.15% it can induce permanent toxic effects. Therefore, caution should be used when using this dye in vitreoretinal surgery.

  9. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

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    Da-Un Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS, floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  10. Cell wall staining with Trypan Blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

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    Johannes eLiesche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  11. Trypan blue capsular staining to "find" the leading edge of a "lost" capsulorhexis.

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    de Waard, Peter W T; Budo, Camille J; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2002-08-01

    To describe an effective surgical technique to visualize an obscured leading edge of a capsulorhexis. Prospective, interventional case series. In six eyes of six patients in which the capsulorhexis was started but could no longer be seen during surgery, the anterior chamber was irrigated to remove all viscoelastic, and 0.3-ml trypan blue 0.06% was applied onto the anterior lens capsule to stain and visualize the leading edge of the capsulorhexis. In all patients, the leading edge of the capsulorhexis was quickly visualized by using the dye. No adverse reactions were observed up to 1 year after surgery. Trypan blue staining of the anterior lens capsule is an effective and apparently safe technique to "find" a "lost" capsulorhexis during surgery.

  12. Trypan blue dye enters viable cells incubated with the pore-forming toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus.

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    Seav-Ly Tran

    Full Text Available Trypan blue is a dye that has been widely used for selective staining of dead tissues or cells. Here, we show that the pore-forming toxin HlyII of Bacillus cereus allows trypan blue staining of macrophage cells, despite the cells remaining viable and metabolically active. These findings suggest that the dye enters viable cells through the pores. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that trypan blue may enter viable cells. Consequently, the use of trypan blue staining as a marker of vital status should be interpreted with caution. The blue coloration does not necessarily indicate cell lysis, but may rather indicate pore formation in the cell membranes and more generally increased membrane permeability.

  13. Electrochemical treatment of trypan blue synthetic wastewater and its degradation pathway

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    ANANTHA N. SUBBA RAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trypan blue (TB dye synthetic wastewater was treated in presence of chloride ions by electrochemical method. The effect of current density, pH, initial concentration of dye and supporting electrolyte on color and COD removal were investigated. The UV-Vis ab­sorption intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD, cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform- infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis were conducted to investigate the kinetics and degradation pathway of TB dye.

  14. Trypan blue/giemsa staining to assess sperm membrane integrity in salernitano stallions and its relationship to pregnancy rates.

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    Serafini, R; Longobardi, V; Spadetta, M; Neri, D; Ariota, B; Gasparrini, B; Di Palo, R

    2014-02-01

    Aim of this study was to test the reliability of Trypan blue/Giemsa staining to evaluate sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal intactness and morphology in stallion to verify whether it could be applied in vitro as useful tool for sperm fertilizing ability. Fertility data on inseminated mares were collected to evaluate the relationship of sperm quality to pregnancy rates. Forty-one ejaculates were collected from 3 stallions of Salernitano Horse Breed and evaluated for gross appearance, volume, visual motility and membrane integrity with Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and thirty-five mares were inseminated during the breeding season from April to July. Differences among stallions were found in volume, sperm concentration (p fertility differences were found among stallions with an average fertility per cycle of 44.6% and a pregnancy rate of 68.6%. Higher percentages of LSIA were found in the ejaculates used to inseminate mares that became pregnant vs those used in mares not pregnant (p < 0.05). The significance of LSIA as test variable to verify the reliability of Trypan blue/Giemsa staining was confirmed by Receiver operating characteristic ROC analysis and the sensitivity of the test was 85% at a cut-off value of 48% LSIA. Trypan blue-Giemsa showed to be an accurate method that can be applied on field to evaluate sperm membrane integrity and to identify poor-quality ejaculates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. 'Blue bubble' technique: an ab interno approach for Descemet separation in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using trypan blue stained viscoelastic device.

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    Livny, Eitan; Bahar, Irit; Hammel, Naama; Nahum, Yoav

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we examined a novel variant of 'big-bubble' deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using trypan-blue-stained viscoelastic device for the creation of a pre-descemetic bubble. Ten corneoscleral rims were mounted on an artificial anterior chamber (AC). The AC was filled with air through a limbal paracentesis. A Melles' triangulated spatula was inserted through the paracentesis, with its tip penetrating the AC, was then slightly retracted and pushed into the deep stroma above the roof of the paracentesis. A mixture of trypan blue and viscoelastic device (Healon, Abbott Medical Optics, Abbott Park, Illinois) was injected into this intra-stromal pocket using a 27-G cannula to create a pre-descemetic separation bubble. Bubble type and visualization of dyed viscoelastic device were noted. The method was later employed in three cases. In all 10 corneoscleral rims, the technique successfully created a visible pre-descemetic (type 1) bubble that could be expanded up to the predicted diameter of trephination. Subsequent trephination and the removal of corneal stroma were uneventful. In two out of four clinical cases, a type 1 bubble was created, while in two others, visco-dissection failed and dyed viscoelastic was seen in the AC. The presented technique holds promise of being a relatively easy to perform, predictable and well-controlled alternative for achieving a type 1 bubble during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgery. The trypan-blue-stained viscoelastic device facilitates proper visualization and control of the separation bubble and assists in identifying the penetrance to the separation bubble prior to removal of the stromal cap. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  16. Comparison of the in vitro toxicity of indocyanine green to that of trypan blue in human retinal pigment epithelium cell cultures.

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    Gale, Jeffrey S; Proulx, Alain A; Gonder, John R; Mao, Alexander J; Hutnik, Cindy M L

    2004-07-01

    To compare the in vitro toxicity of indocyanine green (ICG) to that of trypan blue (TB) in human retinal pigment epithelium cell cultures. The use of ICG and TB in macular hole surgery is discussed. In vitro cell biology experimental study. The ICG dye and TB were applied to ARPE-19, a commercially available human retinal pigment epithelium cell line. Cultures were established and maintained according to supplier protocols. The ICG dye, TB or Hank's balanced salt solution (controls) were then applied to the cells at varying concentrations and over various exposure periods. Fiberoptic light was also applied to cells to assess for the possibility of a potentiating phototoxic effect. Cell viability fractions were determined using a well-studied mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay. The TB was not toxic to the retinal pigment epithelium cell cultures at any concentration or over any period of exposure, whereas ICG dye demonstrated dose-dependent and exposure-dependent toxicity. The ICG dye was found to be toxic to the cells at all tested concentrations between 5.0 mg/ml (stock concentration, 26.1% cell survival) and 0.5 mg/ml (92.8% cell survival) over a 3-minute exposure. No toxicity to TB was seen at the stock concentration of 1.5 mg/mL. Addition of light to the cultures did not significantly alter cell viability with either dye. Long periods of exposure, 2 hours, 24 hours, and 72 hours, to minute concentrations of either dye did not produce significant cell death. Indocyanine green demonstrates more toxicity than TB to human retinal pigment epithelium cell cultures. This is independent of any phototoxic potentiating effect of fiberoptic light or solvent toxicity. A clinically useful concentration of 0.5-mg/ml ICG causes low cytotoxicity at 3 minutes' exposure (cell survival 92.8%) and shows no detectable toxicity at 1-minute exposure (cell survival 102%).

  17. Long-term results of trypan blue dye irrigation in the capsular bag to prevent posterior capsule opacification: A randomized trial.

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    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash; Hussain, Murtaza Saifuddin

    2017-12-01

    To study the effect of capsular bag irrigation of trypan blue dye (0.06%) on posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification. This was a randomized, trial conducted at a tertiary eye care center in central India. The study included 50 patients (100 eyes) with senile cataracts who were scheduled for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and were willing to undergo bilateral cataract surgery. One eye of each patient was randomized to one of two groups. The dye group received 0.2 ml of trypan blue injected in the capsular bag after cortical cleanup under air. The control group (other eye of the same patient) received 0.2 ml of balanced salt solution injected in a similar manner. PCO in the central 3 mm area of IOL optic was analyzed by a masked observer using an evaluation of PCO software computer analysis system at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. The average age of patients was 62.05 ± 6.22 in the dye group and 64.92 ± 7.16 years in the control group. The mean PCO score at 6 months was significantly lower in the dye group (0.10 ± 0.15) than in the control group (0.22 ± 0.30). There were no significant differences in the PCO scores between the two groups from 12 to 36 months. At the end of 3 years, eight eyes in the dye group and seven in the control group required YAG capsulotomy (P = 0.21). Capsular bag irrigation of trypan blue dye decreased the PCO score at 6 months, but it had no effect at 36 months.

  18. Long-term results of trypan blue dye irrigation in the capsular bag to prevent posterior capsule opacification: A randomized trial

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    Rajesh Subhash Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the effect of capsular bag irrigation of trypan blue dye (0.06% on posterior capsular opacification (PCO in eyes undergoing phacoemulsification. Methods: This was a randomized, trial conducted at a tertiary eye care center in central India. The study included 50 patients (100 eyes with senile cataracts who were scheduled for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL implantation and were willing to undergo bilateral cataract surgery. One eye of each patient was randomized to one of two groups. The dye group received 0.2 ml of trypan blue injected in the capsular bag after cortical cleanup under air. The control group (other eye of the same patient received 0.2 ml of balanced salt solution injected in a similar manner. PCO in the central 3 mm area of IOL optic was analyzed by a masked observer using an evaluation of PCO software computer analysis system at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: The average age of patients was 62.05 ± 6.22 in the dye group and 64.92 ± 7.16 years in the control group. The mean PCO score at 6 months was significantly lower in the dye group (0.10 ± 0.15 than in the control group (0.22 ± 0.30. There were no significant differences in the PCO scores between the two groups from 12 to 36 months. At the end of 3 years, eight eyes in the dye group and seven in the control group required YAG capsulotomy (P = 0.21. Conclusion: Capsular bag irrigation of trypan blue dye decreased the PCO score at 6 months, but it had no effect at 36 months.

  19. In vitro quantitative determination of ophthalmic irritancy by the chorioallantoic membrane test with trypan blue staining as alternative to eye irritation test.

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    Lagarto, A; Vega, R; Guerra, I; González, R

    2006-08-01

    The damage provoked by some substances on the chicken egg's chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is used as an alternative assay to determine ocular irritation. There is good prediction of the eye irritation when compared to the in vivo Draize method. Nevertheless, this assay has some limitations, such as subjectivity. Hagino et al. developed an objective evaluation technique using the amount of trypan blue absorbed at the site of treatment as an indicator of injury to the CAM. The present work was aimed at the determination of ocular irritation of 21 substances (chemicals and cosmetics). We used the spectrophotometric quantification by trypan blue staining of the damage produced on CAM, of fertile chicken eggs. Results were compared with the values obtained by the traditional Draize assay. We observed a good correlation (r=0.835; p<0.0001) between the amount of dye absorbed by the CAM and the Draize eye irritation test score. The r values were 0.688; p<0.05 for cosmetics and 0.925; p<0.0001 for chemicals. Three chemicals turned as false positive and one cosmetic substance as false negative. The CAM-TBS assay is inexpensive, simple and provides an in vitro alternative method to predict the damage that chemical substances or cosmetics can cause to the ocular structures.

  20. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

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    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  1. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

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    Harshad Lade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64% and COD (88% of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%, NADH-DCIP reductase (264% and laccase (275% proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  2. Evaluation of the safety of intracameral trypan blue injection on corneal tissue using oxidative stress parameters and apoptotic activity: an experimental study

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    Ali Akal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present experimental study aimed to investigate the effects of intracameral trypan blue (TB on oxidative stress parameters and apoptosis in corneal tissue. Methods: Thirty rats were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 rats each: the sham group (Group 1; control group (Group 2; and treatment group (Group 3. The control group was administered 0.01 cc of balanced salt solution. The treatment group was administered 0.006 mg/0.01 cc of TB. The total antioxidant status (TAS and total oxidant status (TOS in corneal tissue and blood were measured and the oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated. Finally, corneal tissue histopathology was evaluated using staining for caspase-3 and -8, and apoptotic activity was examined. Results: The TAS, TOS and OSI levels in the blood samples were not significantly different (p>0.05 for all. Compared with the sham and control groups, the TOS and OSI levels in corneal tissue were significantly different in the treatment group (p0.05. Immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and caspase-8 demonstrated higher apoptotic activity in the TB group than in the sham and control groups. Conclusion: The present study showed that intracameral TB injection is safe systematically but may be toxic to corneal tissue, as demonstrated using oxidative stress parameters and histopathological evaluation.

  3. Anterior capsule staining using 0.025% trypan blue in cataracts without red reflex Uso de azul tripano a 0,025% para corar a cápsula anterior em catarata sem reflexo

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    Eduardo Ferrari Marback

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the use of anterior capsule staining in cataracts without red reflex using a 0.025% trypan blue solution. Methods: Six eyes of 6 patients with cataracts without red reflex were submitted to phacoemulsification using a direct injection of 0.2 to 0.5 ml of 0.025% trypan blue in the anterior chamber previous to viscoelastic injection. All patients had an ophthalmologic examination prior to surgery, as well as pre and postoperative corneal endothelial cell count. Results: In all cases the capsule became stained with a faint blue color that enabled an adequate visibility of the flap during the continuous curvilinear anterior capsulotomy (CCC. There were no intra-or postoperative complications. The endothelial cell loss varied between 1.8% and 26.6% (mean 12.8%. Conclusion: Staining the anterior capsule with 0.025% trypan blue solution allows a good visibility of the capsular flap and facilitates the confection of CCC in cataracts without red reflex.

  4. Cell structure and percent viability by a slide centrifuge technique.

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    Fitzgerald, M G; Hosking, C S

    1982-01-01

    It was found that a slide centrifuge (Cytospin) preparation of a cell suspension allowed a reliable assessment of not only cell structure but also the percentage of non-viable cells. The non-viable cells appeared as "smear" cells and paralleled in number the cells taking up trypan blue. Direct experiment showed the unstained viable cells in a trypan blue cell suspension remained intact in a Cytospin preparation while the cells taking up trypan blue were the "smear" cells. The non-viability of the "smear" cells was confirmed by their inability to survive in culture. Images PMID:7040483

  5. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue and vesuvine dyes in the presence of blue light active photocatalyst of Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF: Central composite optimization and synergistic effect study.

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    Mosleh, S; Rahimi, M R; Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K

    2016-09-01

    An efficient simultaneous sonophotocatalytic degradation of trypan blue (TB) and vesuvine (VS) using Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF as a novel visible light active photocatalyst was carried out successfully in a continuous flow-loop reactor equipped to blue LED light. Ag3PO4/Bi2S3-HKUST-1-MOF with activation ability under blue light illumination was synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The effect of operational parameters such as the initial TB and VS concentration (5-45mg/L), flow rate (30-110mL/min), irradiation and sonication time (10-30min), pH (3-11) and photocatalyst dosage (0.15-0.35g/L) has been investigated and optimized using central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF). Maximum sonophotodegradation percentage (98.44% and 99.36% for TB and VS, respectively) was found at optimum condition set as: 25mg/L of each dye, 70mL/min of solution flow rate, 25min of irradiation and sonication time, pH 6 and 0.25g/L of photocatalyst dosage. At optimum conditions, synergistic index value was obtained 2.53 that indicated the hybrid systems including ultrasound irradiation and photocatalysis have higher efficiency compared with sum of the individual processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Risco de contaminação do corante azul de tripano após primeira utilização Risk of contamination of trypan blue dye after first use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Nigro Santiago Malta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar o potencial risco de contaminação do frasco de azul de tripano (AT depois de utilizado pela primeira vez e estocado em diferentes condições de temperatura e umidade, assim como identificar os possíveis fatores de contaminação, microrganismos mais freqüentemente envolvidos e simultaneamente avaliar as propriedades bacteriostáticas e bactericidas do corante. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo experimental, prospectivo, em que 30 frascos de AT foram divididos em três grupos (A: controle, B: armazenamento em geladeira e C: armazenamento em armário. O corante era aspirado e semeado em placas de ágar sangue e tubo de ágar Sabouraud. No grupo A o AT foi semeado apenas logo após a abertura dos frascos (tempo zero - T0, nos grupos B e C ocorreu semeadura nos T0, T1 (1 dia, T2 (2 dias, T7 (7 dias e T10 (10 dias após abertura dos frascos. No 10º dia os frascos dos grupos B e C também foram submetidos a um raspado do lado interno do frasco após abertura. Concomitantemente foi realizado teste de ação inibitória do corante AT para estudo da atividade bacteriostática e bactericida. RESULTADOS: As semeaduras realizadas no T0 não apresentaram contaminação. Entre os T1 e T10 mais o raspado houve apenas 1 frasco contaminado armazenado em geladeira. O microrganismo encontrado foi o Aspergillus niger. Foi comprovado que o corante não apresenta ação bactericida e bacteriostática para as bactérias testadas. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições do estudo não houve contaminação dos frascos armazenados em armário e 1 frasco (10% armazenado em geladeira apresentou contaminação após abertura e uso inicial. A fonte de contaminação talvez seja o lado externo do produto. O AT não apresenta propriedades bactericidas e bacteriostáticas para as bactérias testadas e na concentração utilizada.PURPOSE: To determine the potential risk of contamination of a trypan blue bottle (TB after first use and after being stored under different

  7. Comparison of Meldola's Blue Staining and Hatching Assay with Potato Root Diffusate for Assessment of Globodera sp. Egg Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Duncan; Zasada, Inga A; Ingham, Russell E

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based methods to test egg viability include staining with Meldola's Blue and/or juvenile (J2) hatching assays using potato root diffusate (PRD). These two methods have not been tested under identical conditions to directly compare their assessments of Globodera egg viability. Using two bioassay strategies, cysts from a Globodera sp. population found in Oregon were subjected to both viability assessment methods. In strategy one, intact cysts were first stained with Meldola's Blue (primary staining) and eggs were then transferred to PRD (secondary hatching). In the second strategy, intact cysts were exposed to PRD (primary hatching) and then unhatched eggs were transferred to Meldola's Blue (secondary staining). Two different cohorts of cysts were evaluated using these experimental strategies: cohort 1 was comprised of cysts produced on potato in the greenhouse that exhibited low hatch when exposed to PRD and cohort 2 consisted of field-collected cysts whose eggs yielded significant hatch when exposed to PRD. Percentage viability was calculated and is expressed as the number of hatched J2 or unstained eggs/total number of eggs within a cyst. With field-produced cysts, primary staining with Meldola's Blue and hatching with PRD produced similar viability estimates, with averages of 74.9% and 76.3%, respectively. In contrast, with greenhouse-produced cysts the two methods yielded much lower and unequal estimates 32.4% to 2.2%, respectively for primary hatching and staining methods. In addition, J2 hatch from unstained (viable) greenhouse-produced eggs was 13.7% after secondary exposure to PRD compared to 61.5% for field-produced eggs. The majority of eggs remaining unhatched after primary exposure to PRD (> 87%) stained with Meldola's Blue regardless of cyst cohort. Staining with Meldola's Blue provided a conservative assessment of egg viability compared to hatch assay with PRD regardless of diapause.

  8. Blue light induced free radicals from riboflavin in degradation of crystal violet by microbial viability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ji-Yuan; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Hsie, Zong-Jhe; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Chen, Chiing-Chang

    2017-09-01

    Crystal violet (CV) is applied in daily use mainly as a commercial dye and antimicrobial agent. Waste water containing CV may affect aquatic ecosystems. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is non-toxic and an essential vitamin required for the functions of the human body. Riboflavin is photosensitive to UV and visible light in terms of generating reactive oxygen species. This study investigated the potential application of blue light on riboflavin, so as to come up with an effective way of degrading CV during its treatment. Photosensitivity of CV leading to degradation in the presence of riboflavin was investigated by light intensity, exposure time, and irradiation dosage. The degradation of CV during riboflavin photolysis treatment was studied by a UV/vis spectrometry and chromatography. The effects of CV degradation on microbial viability are relevant when considering the influences on the ecosystem. This study proved that riboflavin photochemical treatment with blue light degrades CV dye by ROS formation. The riboflavin photolysis-treated CV solution appeared to be transparent during conformational transformations of the CV that was rearranged by free radical species generated from riboflavin photolysis. After riboflavin photolysis, colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined for each CV solution. CFU preservation was 85.2% for the CV dissolved riboflavin solution treated with blue light irradiation at 2.0mW/cm2 for 120min. Degradation of CV by riboflavin photochemical procedures can greatly reduce antimicrobial ability and serve as an environmental friendly waste water treatment method. Our results presented here concerning riboflavin photolysis in degradation of CV provide a novel technique, and a simple and safe practice for environmental decontamination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of a simple, non-toxic Alamar blue cell survival assay to monitor tomato cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byth, H A; Mchunu, B I; Dubery, I A; Bornman, L

    2001-01-01

    The Alamar Blue (AB) assay, which incorporates a medox indicator that changes colour or fluorescence in response to metabolic activity, is commonly used to assess quantitatively the viability and/or proliferation of mammalian cells and micro-organisms. In this study the AB assay was adapted for the determination of the viability of plant cells. Cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, L., with differing viabilities, served as the experimental model for a comparison of the AB assay with the conventional 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) viability assay. The AB assay showed a sigmoidal relationship between cell viability and AB reduction (as quantified by spectrofluorometry or spectrophotometry), which was similar to that obtained using the TTC assay. Both assays detected a significant reduction in cell viability after 48 h exposure to virulent Ralstonia solanacearum (biovar III), while the TTC assay, in addition, revealed cell proliferation in control cells from 24 to 72 h. The TTC assay detected cell proliferation over a wider range of cell densities, while the AB assay was more rapid and versatile whilst being non-toxic and thus allowing subsequent cell analysis.

  10. Multiple Applications of Alamar Blue as an Indicator of Metabolic Function and Cellular Health in Cell Viability Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersad, Sephra N.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the adverse effects of test compounds on living systems, detection of toxic thresholds, and expansion of experimental data sets to include multiple toxicity end-point analysis are required for any robust screening regime. Alamar Blue is an important redox indicator that is used to evaluate metabolic function and cellular health. The Alamar Blue bioassay has been utilized over the past 50 years to assess cell viability and cytotoxicity in a range of biological and environmental systems and in a number of cell types including bacteria, yeast, fungi, protozoa and cultured mammalian and piscine cells. It offers several advantages over other metabolic indicators and other cytotoxicity assays. However, as with any bioassay, suitability must be determined for each application and cell model. This review seeks to highlight many of the important considerations involved in assay use and design in addition to the potential pitfalls. PMID:23112716

  11. Monitoring of cell viability and cell growth in a hollow-fiber bioreactor by use of the dye Alamar Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckner, H; Jonuleit, T; Lemke, H D

    2001-06-01

    We describe a method for monitoring cell proliferation in a small-scale hollow-fiber bioreactor (culture volume: 1 ml) by use of the Alamar Blue dye. Alamar Blue is a non-fluorescent compound, which yields a fluorescent product after reduction, e.g. by living cells. In contrast to the MTT-assay, the Alamar Blue assay does not lead to cell death. However, when not removed from the cells, the Alamar Blue dye shows a reversible, time- and concentration-dependent growth inhibition as observed for the leukemic cell lines CCRF-CEM, HL-60 and REH. When applied in the medium compartment of a hollow-fiber bioreactor system, the dye is delivered to the cells across the hollow-fiber membrane, reduced by the cells and released from the cell into the medium compartment back again. Thus, fluorescence intensity can be measured in medium samples reflecting growth of the cells in the cell compartment. This procedure offers several advantages. First, exposure of the cells to the dye can be reduced compared to conventional culture in plates. Second, handling steps are minimized since no sample of the cells needs to be taken for readout. Moreover, for the exchange of medium, a centrifugation step can be avoided and the cells can be cultivated further. Third, the method allows discriminating between cell densities of 10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) of proliferating HL-60 cells cultivated in the cell compartment of the bioreactor. Measurement of fluorescence in the medium compartment is more sensitive compared to glucose or lactate measurement for cell counts below 10(6) cells/ml, in particular. We conclude that the Alamar Blue-assay combined with a hollow-fiber bioreactor offers distinct advantages for the non-invasive monitoring of cell viability and proliferation in a closed system.

  12. Antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine and Glutathione Increase the Viability and Proliferation of MG63 Cells Encapsulated in the Gelatin Methacrylate/VA-086/Blue Light Hydrogel System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Kai-Fung; Mar, Kwei; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lin, Yuan-Min

    2016-08-01

    Photoencapsulation of cells inside a hydrogel system can provide a suitable path to establish a gel in situ for soft tissue regeneration applications. However, the presence of photoinitiators and blue or UV light irradiation can result in cell damage and an increase of reactive oxygen species. We here evaluate the benefits of an antioxidant pretreatment on the photoencapsulated cells. We study this by evaluating proliferation and viability of MG63 cells, which we combined with a gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel system, using the photoinitiator, VA-086, cured with 440 nm blue light. We found that blue light irradiation as well as the presence of 1% VA-086 reduced MG63 cell proliferation rates. Adding a short pretreatment step to the MG63 cells, consisting of the antioxidant molecules N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and reduced glutathione (GSH), and optimizing the GelMA encapsulation steps, we found that both NAC and GSH pretreatments of MG63 cells significantly increased both proliferation and viability of the cells, when using a 15% GelMA hydrogel, 1% VA-086, and 1-min blue light exposure. These findings suggest that the use of antioxidant pretreatment can counteract the negative presence of the photoinitiators and blue light exposure and result in a suitable environment for photoencapsulating cells in situ for tissue engineering and soft tissue applications.

  13. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  14. Increased viability and resilience of haemolymph cells in blue mussels following pre-treatment with acute high-dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B. [Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    In an initial experiment, blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to a range of acute high doses of gamma radiation in the laboratory. Haemolymph was extracted and the haemocytes (blood cells) were scored for cell viability (% living cells) under a microscope, directly after irradiation (0.04, 0.4 or 4 Gy) and again after a subsequent treatment with hydrogen peroxide in vitro (final H{sub 2}O{sub 2} conc.: 0.2 μM). Cell viability in controls (0 Gy) was approximately 100% and no cell death was observable from radiation exposure alone. When treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} a decrease in cell viability was seen across all treatments, however this decrease in viability was reduced with increasing radiation pre-treatment (0 Gy = 53%; 0.04 Gy = 66%; 0.4 Gy = 75%; 4 Gy = 83%). To investigate the mechanism for this therapeutic effect observed, the experiment was repeated. Using mussels from a different location, the same, but more extensive method of irradiation (0[control], 0.04, 0.4 Gy, 5 or 40 Gy) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment was used. Additional haemolymph sub-samples were taken for analysis of catalase concentration. In this second experiment, viability of cells from controls was only 62%, indicating the mussels were in a poorer condition than those of the previous experiment. The lowest level of radiation exposure (0.04 Gy) further decreased the viability (56%). However, at higher doses the viability was increased compared to control, which then gradually declined with increasing dose (0.4 Gy = 75%; 5 Gy = 72%; 40 Gy = 65%). Catalase analysis demonstrated a complimentary pattern of activity of the antioxidant in the haemolymph, directly correlating with radiation dose (0 Gy = 0.2 U; 0.04 Gy = 0.1 U; 0.4 Gy = 1.3 U; 5 Gy = 0.9 U; 40 Gy = 0.1 Gy). Treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreased cell viability across all treatments, but no pattern between radiation treatments was discernable. The results indicate that an acute dose of radiation not only has negligible

  15. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT), using Toluidine blue O inhibits the viability of biofilm produced by Candida albicans at different stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Paula; Rosseti, Isabela Bueno; Carvalho, Moisés Lopes; da Silva, Bruna Graziele Marques; Alberto-Silva, Carlos; Costa, Maricilia Silva

    2017-12-05

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus producing both superficial and systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. It has been demonstrated that C. albicans ability to form biofilms is a crucial process for colonization and virulence. Furthermore, a correlation between the development of drug resistance and biofilm maturation at Candida biofilms has been shown. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a non-toxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PACT, using Toluidine Blue O (TBO) on the viability of biofilms produced by C. albicans at different stages of development. In this study, the effects of PACT on both biofilm formation and viability of the biofilm produced by C. albicans were studied. Biofilm formation and viability were determined by a metabolic assay based on the reduction of XTT assay. In addition, the morphology of the biofilm was observed using light microscopy. PACT inhibited both biofilm formation and viability of the biofilm produced by C. albicans. Furthermore, PACT was able to decrease the number of both cells and filamentous form present in the biofilm structure. This inhibitory effect was observed in both early and mature biofilms. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the potential of PACT (using TBO) as an effective antifungal therapy, including against infections associated with biofilms at different stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Trypsinization on Viability of Equine Chondrocytes in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Sutradhar, J. Park, G. Hong, S. H. Choi and G. Kim*

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypsin is an essential reagent for routine cell culture work. In the cultivation of mammalian cells, it has been extensively used for cell isolation from tissues or cell dislodging in subculturing. It may damage the cell membrane in contact of cells during long trypsinization. However, there is no specific report on time-dependent effect of trypsinization on cells. In the present study, we investigated the time dependent effects of trypsinization on equine chondrocytes. Cell viability after trypsinization with 0.25% trypsin-EDTA for 5 to 60 minutes was quantified by trypan blue exclusion assay, propidium iodide-Hoechst double staining, flow cytometry analysis and XTT assay. The results showed that trypsin-EDTA decreased the proliferation of equine chondrocytes depending on the exposure time of trypsinization. After 20 and 60 minutes of trypsinization, the cell membranes were strongly affected and the percentages of viable cells reduced to 91% and 85% respectively detected by trypan blue exclusion assay. Similar results were observed both in flow cytometric evaluation and propidium iodide-Hoechst double staining. The XTT assay result also showed decreased cell viability with the extended time of trypsinization. In order to minimize the time dependant cytotoxicity of trypsinization, as minimum as short time exposure is suggestive that maximizes live cell isolation from tissue as well as subculture of equine chondrocytes or other cells.

  17. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue; Viabilidade do dosimetro Fricke dopado com azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  18. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (p<0.05) and both presented the highest viability values. For MTT, the dragon's blood sap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (p<0.05). It was concluded that the dragon's blood sap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  19. Assessment of Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis promastigote viability after photodynamic treatment with aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto JG

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted through the bite of hematophagous insects of the genus Lutzomyia. This study aimed at testing in vitro the phototoxic effect of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4 on the viability of Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis. Stationary phase promastigote forms were treated with AlPcS4 at 1.0 µM and 10.0 µM and incubated for one hour. Then 659 nm laser was applied at 5 and 10 J/cm². Parasite viability was determined by differential count using the trypan blue dye exclusion method and by monitoring growth curves for nine days. Trypan blue exclusion assay showed a significant reduction of viable parasites compared to controls, L. major seemed more sensitive to the toxic effects of AlPcS4 in the dark. The most effective photodynamic therapy (PDT was obtained with AlPcS4 at 10.0 µM and 10 J/cm² whereas L. braziliensis showed the highest mortality rate after treatment.

  20. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective...

  1. Adiponectin Effect on The Viability of Human Endometrial Stromal Cells and mRNA Expression of Adiponectin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bohlouli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is one of the most important adipokines secreted from fattytissue that has a direct inhibitory effect on the development of cancer cells. Adiponectinplays an important role in human reproduction system and fertility of women. Adiponectinconcentration decreases in women with endometriosis and endometrial cancer.The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of adiponectin on humanendometrial stromal cell (HESC viability as well as mRNA expression of Adipo R1and Adipo R2 receptors.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eight endometrial biopsies weretaken and stromal cells were separated by enzymatic digestion and cell filtrations. Stromalcells of each biopsy were divided into four groups: control, 10, 100, and 200 ng/mladiponectin concentrations. The effect of adiponectin on viability of the normal HESCswas studied by trypan blue staining and the relative expression levels of Adipo R1 andR2 were analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and unpaired student’s t test andp<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Adiponectin decreased viability of normal human endometrial stromal cells ina dose and time dependent manner. Expression of Adipo R1 and Adipo R2 receptors didnot change in the presence of adiponectin.Conclusion: Adiponectin can directly influence the viability of HESCs and decreasetheir viability, but it didn’t change expression of adiponectin receptors.

  2. Postmortem morphology and viability of human Peyer's patches in distal ileum: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarino, Biagio; Di Vella, Giancarlo; Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Felicita; Tafaro, Angela; Piscitelli, Domenico; Casiello, Michela; Amati, Luigi; Jirillo, Emilio; Tattoli, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa contains a highly specialized immune system which plays a central role in the induction of immune reactions. In the small bowel, Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) is organized in lymphoid aggregates which are known as Peyer's Patches (PP). Even though human PP involvement in systemic immunity has been described, little is known about their anatomy and morphology and viability. The aim of this study was to examine PP according to their macroscopic anatomy, distribution and cell viability after death. Specimens from the distal ileum were obtained from 72 serial autopsy cases: PP were identified and, parts of them were analyzed for histological examination. Moreover, viability of recovered PP cells was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. Most of the PP (90%) were situated on the antimesenteric border of ileum, and the greatest density of PP occurred in the most distal segment. The number of PP varied with age, with the maximum number observed in 21- to 30-years old cadavers. Histological examination showed their remarkable architectural preservation at different post-mortem intervals (PMI), while the mucosal surface underwent autolysis. In 56% of cases PP cells were still viable, especially at PMI < 24 hours after death. These data confirm that human PP are still well preserved in a remarkable percentage of cadavers also several hours after death, and their availability may be helpful in various fields of research.

  3. Lethal effect of blue light-activated hydrogen peroxide, curcumin and erythrosine as potential oral photosensitizers on the viability of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Zakeri; Habiboallh, Ghanbari; Mahbobeh, Naderi Nasab; Mina, Zareian Jahromi; Majid, Zakeri; Nooshin, Arjmand

    2015-03-31

    Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been introduced as a new modality in oral bacterial decontamination. Current research aims to evaluate the effect of photodynamic killing of visible blue light in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, curcumin and erythrosine as potential oral photosensitizers on Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal bone loss and Fusobacterium nucleatum associated with soft tissue inflammation. Standard suspension of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were exposed to Light Emitting Diode (LED) (440-480 nm) in combination with erythrosine (22 µm), curcumin (60 µM) and hydrogen peroxide (0.3 mM) for 5 min. Bacterial samples from each treatment groups (radiation-only group, photosensitizer-only group and blue light-activated photosensitizer group) were subcultured onto the surface of agar plates. Survival of these bacteria was determined by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU) after incubation. RESULTS for antibacterial assays on P. gingivalis confirmed that curcumin, Hydrogen peroxide and erythrosine alone exerted a moderate bactericidal effect which enhanced noticeably in conjugation with visible light. The survival rate of P. gingivalis reached zero present when the suspension exposed to blue light-activated curcumin and hydrogen peroxide for 2 min. Besides, curcumin exerted a remarkable antibacterial activity against F. nucleatum in comparison with erythrosine and hydrogen peroxide (P=0.00). Furthermore, the bactericidal effect of visible light alone on P. gingivalis as black-pigmented bacteria was significant. Our result suggested that visible blue light in the presence of erythrosine, curcumin and hydrogen peroxide would be consider as a potential approach of PDT to kill the main gramnegative periodontal pathogens. From a clinical standpoint, this regimen could be established as an additional minimally invasive antibacterial treatment of plaque induced periodontal pathologies.

  4. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin directly impairs cardiomyocyte viability and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Hensler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis where myocardial dysfunction is an important contributor to poor outcome. Here we study the effects of the GBS pore-forming beta-hemolysin/cytolysin (Bh/c exotoxin on cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, and calcium transients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to intact wild-type (WT or isogenic Deltabeta h/c mutant GBS, or to cell-free extracts from either strain, were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion and for apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Functionality of exposed cardiomyocytes was analyzed by visual quantitation of the rate and extent of contractility. Mitochondrial membrane polarization was measured in TMRE-loaded cells exposed to GBS beta h/c. Effects of GBS beta h/c on calcium transients were studied in fura-2AM-loaded primary rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Exposure of HL-1 cardiomyocytes to either WT GBS or beta h/c extracts significantly reduced both rate and extent of contractility and later induced necrotic and apoptotic cell death. No effects on cardiomyocyte viability or function were observed after treatment with Deltabeta h/c mutant bacteria or extracts. The beta h/c toxin was associated with complete and rapid loss of detectable calcium transients in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane polarization. These effects on viability and function were abrogated by the beta h/c inhibitor, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show a rapid loss of cardiomyocyte viability and function induced by GBS beta h/c, and these deleterious effects are inhibited by DPPC, a normal constituent of human pulmonary surfactant.. These findings have clinical implications for the cardiac dysfunction observed in neonatal GBS infections.

  5. Synthesis and anticancer activity of new flavonoid analogs and inconsistencies in assays related to proliferation and viability measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Alaina M; Lin, Huimin; Meadows, Gary G; Meier, G Patrick

    2014-08-01

    Flavonoids have been studied intensely for their ability to act as anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-aging agents and are often marketed as supplements related to their anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have primarily focused on the effects of polar natural flavonoids. We examined the activity of novel hydrophobic and lipophilic flavonols against human DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. All flavonol analogs were more active than the naturally occurring flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferide and galangin. The most potent analogs were 6.5-fold more active against DU-145 and PC-3 cells than quercetin and fell within the biologically relevant concentration range (low micromolar). We also evaluated the potential toxic effects of flavonol analogs on normal cells, an assessment that has frequently been ignored when studying the anticancer effects of flavonoids. During these analyses, we discovered that various metabolic and DNA staining assays were unreliable methods for assessing cell viability of flavonoids. Flavonoids reduce colorimetric dyes such as MTT and Alamar Blue in the absence of cells. We showed that flavonol-treated prostate cancer cells were stained less intensely with crystal violet than untreated cells at non-toxic concentrations. The trypan blue exclusion assay was selected as a reliable alternative for measuring cell viability.

  6. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  7. Hibiscus sabdariffa extractivities on cadmium-mediated alterations of human U937 cell viability and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the anthocyanin-rich extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyx on the viability of cadmium-treated U937 cells and cadmium-mediated activation of U937-derived macrophages. The macrophage cell line U937 was treated with cadmium (0.1 μ mol/L) and later incubated with the anthocyanin-rich extract and cell viability was assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form by treatment with phorbol 12, myristate 13, and acetate and incubated with cadmium (10 μ mol/L). The anthocyanin-rich extract was added to the cells later and subsequently, the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and catalase activity as indices for the activation of macrophages. It revealed that the anthocynanin-rich extract significantly (P sabdariffa possesses significant immunoprotective effect. These corroborate the immense reported antioxidant and medicinal potential of the calyces of the plant which could be exploited for pharmacological and neutraceutical advantages. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media.Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control; Group II: aloe vera (experimental; Group III: egg white (experimental]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated.Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0, followed by egg white (100.9±6.3 and milk (101.1±7.3.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk.

  9. Introducing Mammalian Cell Culture and Cell Viability Techniques in the Undergraduate Biology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowey-Dellinger, Kristen; Dixon, Luke; Ackerman, Kristin; Vigueira, Cynthia; Suh, Yewseok K; Lyda, Todd; Sapp, Kelli; Grider, Michael; Crater, Dinene; Russell, Travis; Elias, Michael; Coffield, V McNeil; Segarra, Verónica A

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate students learn about mammalian cell culture applications in introductory biology courses. However, laboratory modules are rarely designed to provide hands-on experience with mammalian cells or teach cell culture techniques, such as trypsinization and cell counting. Students are more likely to learn about cell culture using bacteria or yeast, as they are typically easier to grow, culture, and manipulate given the equipment, tools, and environment of most undergraduate biology laboratories. In contrast, the utilization of mammalian cells requires a dedicated biological safety cabinet and rigorous antiseptic techniques. For this reason, we have devised a laboratory module and method herein that familiarizes students with common cell culture procedures, without the use of a sterile hood or large cell culture facility. Students design and perform a time-efficient inquiry-based cell viability experiment using HeLa cells and tools that are readily available in an undergraduate biology laboratory. Students will become familiar with common techniques such as trypsinizing cells, cell counting with a hemocytometer, performing serial dilutions, and determining cell viability using trypan blue dye. Additionally, students will work with graphing software to analyze their data and think critically about the mechanism of death on a cellular level. Two different adaptations of this inquiry-based lab are presented-one for non-biology majors and one for biology majors. Overall, these laboratories aim to expose students to mammalian cell culture and basic techniques and help them to conceptualize their application in scientific research.

  10. A comparison of five treatment protocols for contaminated bone grafts in reference to sterility and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jennifer; Liu, Raymond W; Kean, Thomas J; Dennis, James E; Petersilge, William; Gilmore, Allison

    2011-03-02

    Occasionally, a bone graft or comminuted fracture fragment is dropped on the operating-room floor and becomes contaminated. The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal method for sterilizing this bone with the minimum sacrifice of cell viability. A set of discarded bone samples was taken from a series of twenty total knee arthroplasty operations. The bone samples were uniformly contaminated with use of a bacterial broth prepared from culture samples taken from the operating-room floor. The bone samples in each set underwent five different decontamination procedures. Specifically, one sample in each set was autoclaved and four other samples underwent mechanical agitation in normal saline solution, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, or 10% povidone-iodine (which was either left wet or was dried). Positive and negative controls were used for comparison. Ten sets were then cultured to determine sterility, and ten underwent live/dead trypan blue staining to determine cell viability. Autoclaving, chlorhexidine gluconate, and dry povidone-iodine sterilized all samples; wet povidone-iodine decontaminated four (40%) of ten samples; and saline solution sterilized none. While all decontamination methods reduced the cell count to some extent, autoclaving and chlorhexidine gluconate left no viable cells. When the cell counts were expressed as a percentage of the control value, dry povidone-iodine sterilization maintained significantly fewer live cells than controls (21%; p bone graft in povidone-iodine that is allowed to dry offers the best balance between complete sterilization of contaminated bone and maintenance of tissue viability.

  11. Metabolic activity of odontoblast-like cells irradiated with blue LED (455 nm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Leopoldina Fátima Dantas; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Turrioni, Ana Paula Silveira; de-Souza-Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri

    2016-01-01

    Blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) are frequently used in dentistry for light activation of resin-based materials; however, their photobiostimulatory effects have not yet been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blue LED (455 nm) on the metabolism of odontoblast-like cells MDPC-23. Energy doses of 2 and 4 J/cm(2) were used at 20 mW/cm(2) fixed power density. MDPC-23 cells were seeded at 10,000 cells/cm(2) density in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS). After 12 h, the culture medium was replaced with new DMEM supplemented with 0.5 % of FBS, and the cells were incubated for further 12 h. After that, single irradiation was performed to the culture, under selected parameters. Cell viability evaluations (Alamar Blue Assay, n = 12), number of viable cells (Trypan Blue Assay, n = 12), morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, n = 2), gene expression (n = 6) of alkaline phosphatase (Alp), collagen (Col-1a1), and dental matrix protein (Dmp-1) (quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)) were performed 72 h after irradiation. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA, and Tukey tests (p cell viability, while irradiation with 2 J/cm(2) reduced cell metabolism. None of doses affected the number of viable cells compared with the control group. The two energy doses downregulated the expression of Alp; however, expression of Col-1a1 and Dmp-1 had no alteration. Cells presented change in the cytoskeleton only when irradiated with 2 J/cm(2). In conclusion, the blue LED (455 nm) irradiation, under the evaluated parameters, had no biostimulatory effects on MDPC-23 cells.

  12. Coloración de azul de metileno como alternativa para determinar la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis Methylene blue test for the determination of viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Randazzo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar si la coloración con azul de metileno, de probada utilidad para demostrar la viabilidad de protoescólices de Echinococcus granulosus, puede evidenciar también la viabilidad de larvas libres de Trichinella spiralis. Para ello se utilizaron tres suspensiones de larvas de T. spiralis (M1, M2 y M3, las que fueron expuestas a diferentes condiciones y observadas a distintos tiempos: M1 se expuso a -30 °C y se observó a los 70 días; M2 a 80 °C durante 5 minutos y se observó inmediatamente, y M3 se mantuvo a 4 °C durante todo el experimento, como testigo del 100% de vitalidad. Cada suspensión contenía 500 estadios larvarios libres. Se emplearon 100 μl de solución de azul de metileno 1:10 000 en agua destilada, agregados a igual volumen de suspensión de larvas, y las muestras fueron observadas al microscopio óptico para evaluar la motilidad. Los resultados evidenciaron que cuando las larvas de T. spiralis estaban muertas (M1 y M2, el 100% se coloreaban totalmente de azul en su interior, y las estructuras internas, en relación con la capa quitinosa, aparecían retraídas y algunas fragmentadas. En la suspensión testigo M3 las larvas no se coloreaban, y como prueba adicional de viabilidad se pudo observar su típico movimiento en espiral en el 100% de ellas.The present research was carried out with the purpose of determining whether or not the methylene blue test could also evidence viability of free larvae of Trichinella spiralis, taking into account its usefulness in the determination of viability of protoscolices in Echinococcus granulosus. To this end, three T. spiralis larval suspensions (M1, M2 and M3 were used, each containing 500 free larval stages. A hundred μl of methylene blue solution 1:10000 in distilled water were added to 100 μl of the larval suspension. Larvae were observed under optical microscopy to evaluate motility. M1 was exposed to -30 °C and could be

  13. Influence of Arsenic (III, Cadmium (II, Chromium (VI, Mercury (II, and Lead (II Ions on Human Triple Negative Breast Cancer (HCC1806 Cell Cytotoxicity and Cell Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsdale F. Mehari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hazardous consequences of heavy metal ions (HMIs on human health necessitate the immediate need to probe fundamentally the interactions and cytotoxic effects of HMIs on humans. This study investigated the influence of five toxic HMIs (arsenic (As (III, cadmium (Cd (II, chromium (Cr (VI, mercury (Hg (II, and lead (Pb (II on human TNBC (HCC 1806 cell viability using optical microscopy, trypan blue dye-exclusion assays, and flow cytometry. The TNBC cells were exposed to varying concentrations of HMIs for 24 and 48 hours. We evaluated the influence of the concentrations and duration of HMIs exposure on TNBC cell viability. Light microscopy, cell viability assays, revealed that after 48-hour treatment of TNBC cells with 1 x 10-5 M of As (III, Cd (II, Hg (II, Cr (IV, and Pb (II resulted in cell viabilities of 23%, 34%, 35%, 56%, 91% respectively, suggesting that As (III has the greatest cytotoxicity (77% cell death while Pb (II showed the least (9% cell death. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that while Pb (II, As (III and Cr (IV had significant increases in cell death, Hg (II caused a G1 arrest. Together, this study revealed that HMIs cause a differential cytotoxic effect on TNBC cells and suggest that they may have very different genotoxic targets and implications in their mutagenic potential.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii: effects of {sup 60} Co ionizing radiation in the viability and infectivity, detected in vitro in LLC-MK2 cells and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Roberto M.; Almeida, Beatriz S.V.; Cardoso, Roselaine P.A.; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, promotes devasting disease in fetus and AIDS patients. The longlife immunity of natural infection is inefficient in eliminate tissue infective cysts. Few immunization programs were tested, mostly with attenuated strains. Ionizing radiation were used with successful in vaccine production, without reproductive ability with a relatively normal physiology until reproduction. Here, we tested several schedules of {sup 60} Co irradiation of tachzoites from RH strain of T. gondii, from peritoneal exudate or suspensions of LLC-MK2 infected cells, to optimize the viability and sterility of the irradiated agents. The tachzoites were exposed to 50, 100 and 200 Gy in a GammaCell 220 at 366 Gy/h. The viability was tested by motility, integrity and Trypan Blue dye exclusion. All irradiation schedules maintained a high (>90%) viability of the parasites. Dilutions were injected in C57Bl/6j mice with induction of specific antibodies, no clinical disease but uncertain sterility. Infection of LLC--MK2 cells showed that viable and reproductive parasites were often found in 50 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradiated cells, rarely found in 100 Gy irradied cells, with no growth occuring with 200 Gy irradiated tachzoites. Our data show that 200 Gy {sup 60} Co irradiation blocks the reproductive capacity without affecting the short term viability of tachzoites of T. gondii. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Analysis of the effect of cryoprotectant medium composition to viability of autologous hematopoietic cells collected by leukapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska-Skrzypczak, M; Kubiak, A; Bembnista, E; Matuszak, P; Komarnicki, M

    2014-10-01

    Cryopreservation of hematopoietic stem cells intended for autologous transplantation is a crucial element of the banking process. Although cryopreservation techniques are well known, improvement is needed. This study was designed to optimize cryopreservation to improve the quantitative and qualitative parameters of hematopoietic stem cells in the material intended for transplantation. We used available opportunities to provide the best quantitative and qualitative parameters of hematopoietic stem cell transplants processed in a closed system. Two hundred forty-eight products of hematopoietic stem cells collected by leukapheresis from patients with lymphoproliferative disorders create the basis of this report. The material was frozen in a controlled-rate freezer and stored in containers in the vapor phase of LN2 (-160°C). The composition of a cryoprotectant medium was modified. For freezing, 192 probes were used with a cryoprotective medium containing 20% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and enriched RPMI 1640. For 56 samples, we used 20% DMSO in autologous plasma harvested during leukapheresis. Products of hematopoietic stem cells and cryoprotectant medium were combined in a 1:1 ratio. The final number of nuclear cells did not exceed 2 × 10(8)/mL. Analysis was performed after thawing the probes. Viability of nuclear cells has been assessed using the microscopic technique after incubation in Trypan blue and the CD34+ cells by flow cytometry using the 7-aminoactynomycin D. A statistical analysis has been conducted using the Statistica program (StatSoft, Cracow, Poland). The results show that the application of autologous plasma is linked with higher viability of nuclear cells and CD34+ cells. Moreover, statistical analysis of the nuclear cells and CD34+ cells viability differs significantly between groups frozen using RPMI 1640 and autologous plasma (P < .05). To assess the viability of CD34+, cells frozen using RPMI 1640 results showed a large span of at 16.4% to 99

  16. Olive leaf extract activity against Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis - the in vitro viability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Nataša; Kopjar, Nevenka; Kraljić, Klara; Oršolić, Nada; Tomić, Siniša; Kosalec, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Olive leaf extract is characterized by a high content of polyphenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and their derivatives), which is associated with its therapeutic properties. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the antifungal activity of olive leaf extract against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and C. dubliniensis CBS 7987 strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract were determined by several in vitro assays. The extract showed a concentration depended effect on the viability of C. albicans with MIC value of 46.875 mg mL-1 and C. dubliniensis with MIC value 62.5 mg mL-1. Most sensitive methods for testing the antifungal effect of the extracts were the trypan blue exclusion method and fluorescent dye exclusion method while MIC could not be determined by the method according to the EUCAST recommendation suggesting that herbal preparations contain compounds that may interfere with this susceptibility testing. The fluorescent dye exclusion method was also used for the assessment of morphological changes in the nuclei of treated cells. According to the obtained results, olive leaf extract is less effective against the tested strains than hydroxytyrosol, an olive plant constituent tested in our previous study.

  17. Pitfalls of the MTT assay: Direct and off-target effects of inhibitors can result in over/underestimation of cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, A A; Dmitrenko, V V

    2015-12-15

    The MTT assay (to a less degree MTS, XTT or WST) is a widely exploited approach for measuring cell viability/drug cytotoxicity. MTT reduction occurs throughout a cell and can be significantly affected by a number of factors, including metabolic and energy perturbations, changes in the activity of oxidoreductases, endo-/exocytosis and intracellular trafficking. Over/underestimation of cell viability by the MTT assay may be due to both adaptive metabolic and mitochondrial reprogramming of cells subjected to drug treatment-mediated stress and inhibitor off-target effects. Previously, imatinib, rottlerin, ursolic acid, verapamil, resveratrol, genistein nanoparticles and some polypeptides were shown to interfere with MTT reduction rate resulting in inconsistent results between the MTT assay and alternative assays. Here, to test the under/overestimation of viability by the MTT assay, we compared results derived from the MTT assay with the trypan blue exclusion assay after treatment of glioblastoma U251, T98G and C6 cells with three widely used inhibitors with the known direct and side effects on energy and metabolic homeostasis - temozolomide (TMZ), a DNA-methylating agent, temsirolimus (TEM), an inhibitor of mTOR kinase, and U0126, an inhibitor of MEK1/2 kinases. Inhibitors were applied shortly as in IC50 evaluating studies or long as in studies focusing on drug resistance acquisition. We showed that over/underestimation of cell viability by the MTT assay and its significance depends on a cell line, a time point of viability measurement and other experimental parameters. Furthermore, we provided a comprehensive survey of factors that should be accounted in the MTT assay. To avoid result misinterpretation, supplementation of the tetrazolium salt-based assays with other non-metabolic assays is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Postpartum Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Postpartum care > Baby blues after pregnancy Baby blues after pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... tell your health care provider. What are the baby blues? Baby blues are feelings of sadness a woman ...

  19. Brilliant blue G-assisted peeling of the internal limiting membrane in macular hole surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naithani Prashant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling and gas tamponade is the surgery of choice for idiopathic macular holes. Indocyanine green and trypan blue have been extensively used to stain the ILM. However, the retinal toxicity of indocyanine green and non-uniform staining with trypan blue has necessitated development of newer vital dyes. Brilliant blue G has recently been introduced as one such dye with adequate ILM staining and no reported retinal toxicity. We performed a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling in six patients with idiopathic macular holes, to assess the staining characteristics and short-term adverse effects of this dye. Adequate staining assisted in the complete removal of ILM and closure of macular holes in all cases. There was no evidence of intraoperative or postoperative dye-related toxicity. Brilliant blue G appears to be safe dye for ILM staining in macular hole surgery.

  20. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.

  1. Staining ability and biocompatibility of brilliant blue G: preclinical study of brilliant blue G as an adjunct for capsular staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Enaida, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi; Kagimoto, Tadahisa; Ueno, Akifumi; Hata, Yasuaki; Kubota, Toshiaki; Goto, Yoshinobu; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and biocompatibility of brilliant blue G (BBG) for capsular visualization for continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis. The capsular staining ability of BBG was evaluated at graded concentrations of 10.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1, and 0.01 mg/mL in enucleated pig's eyes. The biocompatibility of BBG was assessed in rat's eyes for 2 months. The eyes were analyzed using light, fluorescence, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) was used to detect apoptotic cells, and endothelial cell counts were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The results were compared using indocyanine green and trypan blue. The BBG improved capsular visualization, and a complete capsulorrhexis could be performed. In the rat model, no apparent toxic effect was observed using biomicroscopy during 2 months. Histologically, BBG showed satisfactory biocompatibility. Apoptotic cell death of the endothelial cells was detected in only the trypan blue group. In contrast to BBG, indocyanine green and trypan blue showed degeneration of corneal endothelial cells using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The BBG contributed to better capsular visualization and caused no apparent complications to the corneal endothelium.Clinical Relevance The BBG is effective and safe capsular staining for continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis.

  2. Prussian Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Groups Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & ... Prussian blue work? Who can take Prussian blue? How is Prussian blue given? What are the side effects of Prussian blue? Where can I get Prussian ...

  3. Radiobiological Effectiveness of Ultrashort Laser-Driven Electron Bunches: Micronucleus Frequency, Telomere Shortening and Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Borghini, Andrea; Pulignani, Silvia; Baffigi, Federica; Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Koester, Petra; Cresci, Monica; Vecoli, Cecilia; Lamia, Debora; Russo, Giorgio; Panetta, Daniele; Tripodi, Maria; Gizzi, Leonida A; Labate, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Laser-driven electron accelerators are capable of producing high-energy electron bunches in shorter distances than conventional radiofrequency accelerators. To date, our knowledge of the radiobiological effects in cells exposed to electrons using a laser-plasma accelerator is still very limited. In this study, we compared the dose-response curves for micronucleus (MN) frequency and telomere length in peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to laser-driven electron pulse and X-ray radiations. Additionally, we evaluated the effects on cell survival of in vitro tumor cells after exposure to laser-driven electron pulse compared to electron beams produced by a conventional radiofrequency accelerator used for intraoperative radiation therapy. Blood samples from two different donors were exposed to six radiation doses ranging from 0 to 2 Gy. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for micronucleus induction was calculated from the alpha coefficients for electrons compared to X rays (RBE = alpha laser/alpha X rays). Cell viability was monitored in the OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell line using trypan blue exclusion assay at day 3, 5 and 7 postirradiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy). The RBE values obtained by comparing the alpha values were 1.3 and 1.2 for the two donors. Mean telomere length was also found to be reduced in a significant dose-dependent manner after irradiation with both electrons and X rays in both donors studied. Our findings showed a radiobiological response as mirrored by the induction of micronuclei and shortening of telomere as well as by the reduction of cell survival in blood samples and cancer cells exposed in vitro to laser-generated electron bunches. Additional studies are needed to improve preclinical validation of the radiobiological characteristics and efficacy of laser-driven electron accelerators in the future.

  4. CSN1S2 protein of goat milk inhibits the decrease of viability and increases the proliferation of MC3T3E1 pre-osteoblast cell in methyl glyoxal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirunil Chotimah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether the CNS1S2 protein of goat milk is able to inhibit the toxicity of methyl glyoxal (MG towards MC3T3E1 pre-osteoblast cells. Methods: At confluency, pre-osteoblast cells were divided into five groups which included control (untreated, pre-osteoblast cells exposed to 5 µmol/L MG, pre-osteoblast cells exposed to MG in the presence of CSN1S2 protein at doses of 0.025, 0.050, and 0.100 mg/L, respectively. Analysis of reactive oxygen species was done with 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorochrome. The proliferation and viability of MC3T3E1 cells were measured by trypan blue staining. Malondialdehyde analysis was done colorimetrically. Results: Cell's viabilities were significantly lower in MG+0.050 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk compared to MG group (P<0.05. MG+0.100 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk significantly increased the cells viability compared to MG group (P<0.05. The levels of proliferation were significantly higher in MG+0.100 mg/L CSN1S2 protein of goat milk compared to control group and all treatment groups, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusions: High dose of CSN1S2 protein of goat milk (0.100 mg/L in high MG environment inhibits the decrease of viability due to the increases of the proliferation of MC3T3E1 preosteoblast cell.

  5. Light emitting diode-generated blue light modulates fibrosis characteristics: fibroblast proliferation, migration speed, and reactive oxygen species generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalis, Andrew; Garcha, Manveer; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-02-01

    Blue light is part of the visible light spectrum that does not generate harmful DNA adducts associated with skin cancer and photoaging, and may represent a safer therapeutic modality for treatment of keloid scars and other fibrotic skin diseases. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that light-emitting diode (LED) red and infrared light inhibits proliferation of skin fibroblasts. Moreover, different wavelengths of light can produce different biological effects. Furthermore, the effects of LED blue light (LED-BL) on human skin fibroblasts are not well characterized. This study investigated the effects of LED-BL on human skin fibroblast proliferation, viability, migration speed, and reactive oxygen-species (ROS) generation. Irradiation of adult human skin fibroblasts using commercially-available LED-BL panels was performed in vitro, and modulation of proliferation and viability was quantified using the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, migratory speed was assessed using time-lapse video microscopy, and intracellular ROS generation was measured using the dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry assay. Statistical differences between groups were determined by ANOVA and Student's t-test. Human skin fibroblasts treated with LED-BL fluences of 5, 10, 15, 30, and 80 J/cm(2) demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent decreases in relative proliferation of 8.4%, 29.1%, 33.8%, 51.7%, and 55.1%, respectively, compared to temperature and environment matched bench control plates, respectively. LED-BL fluences of 5, 30, 45, and 80 J/cm(2) decreased fibroblast migration speed to 95 ± 7.0% (P = 0.64), 81.3 ± 5.5% (P = 0.021), 48.5 ± 2.7% (P < 0.0001), and 32.3 ± 1.9% (P < 0.0001), respectively, relative to matched controls. LED fluences of 5, 10, 30, and 80 J/cm(2) resulted in statistically significant increases in reactive oxygen species of 110.4%, 116.6%, 127.5%, and 130%, respectively, relative to bench controls. At the fluences

  6. Light Emitting Diode-Generated Blue Light Modulates Fibrosis Characteristics: Fibroblast Proliferation, Migration Speed, and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalis, Andrew; Garcha, Manveer; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Blue light is part of the visible light spectrum that does not generate harmful DNA adducts associated with skin cancer and photoaging, and may represent a safer therapeutic modality for treatment of keloid scars and other fibrotic skin diseases. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that light-emitting diode (LED) red and infrared light inhibits proliferation of skin fibroblasts. Moreover, different wavelengths of light can produce different biological effects. Furthermore, the effects of LED blue light (LED-BL) on human skin fibroblasts are not well characterized. This study investigated the effects of LED-BL on human skin fibroblast proliferation, viability, migration speed, and reactive oxygen-species (ROS) generation. Methods and Materials Irradiation of adult human skin fibroblasts using commercially-available LED-BL panels was performed in vitro, and modulation of proliferation and viability was quantified using the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, migratory speed was assessed using time-lapse video microscopy, and intracellular ROS generation was measured using the dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry assay. Statistical differences between groups were determined by ANOVA and Student s t-test. Results Human skin fibroblasts treated with LED-BL fluences of 5, 30, 45, and 80 J/cm2 demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent decreases in relative proliferation of 8.4%, 29.1%, 33.8%, 51.7%, and 55.1%, respectively, compared to temperature and environment matched bench control plates, respectively. LED-BL fluences of 5, 30, 45 and 80 J/cm2 decreased fibroblast migration speed to 95 ± 7.0% (p = 0.64), 81.3 ± 5.5% (p = 0.021), 48.5 ± 2.7% (p < 0.0001), and 32.3 ± 1.9% (p < 0.0001), respectively, relative to matched controls. LED fluences of 5, 10, 30, and 80 J/cm2 resulted in statistically significant increases in reactive oxygen species of 110.4%, 116.6%, 127.5%, and 130%, respectively, relative to bench controls. Conclusion At

  7. Effect of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide on viability and morphology of oak pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yuhui; Xu, Zhaojun; Fan, Erzhong; Li, Ying; Zhang, Luo

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) generated by excessive coal combustion and motor vehicle emissions are major air pollutants in the large cities of China. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of the exposure of oak pollens (Quercusmongolica) to several concentrations of NO2 or SO2. Pollen grains were exposed to 0.5 ppm to 5.0 ppm NO2 or SO2 for 4 hours and assessed for morphological damage by field emission scanning electron microscopy and for viability using the trypan blue stain. Morphological changes in pollen grains were also examined after contact with acid solutions at pH 4.0 to pH 7.0. Exposure to NO2 or SO2 significantly damaged pollen grains at all concentrations investigated, compared to exposure to air; with exposure to concentrations of 0.5 ppm to 2 ppm resulting in fissures or complete breaks in the exine and a concentration of 5 ppm resulting in complete breakdown and release of pollen cytoplasmic granules. Significantly greater amounts of pollen grain were damaged after exposure to SO2 (15.5-20.4%) than after exposure to NO2 (7.1-14.7%). Similarly, exposure to NO2 or SO2 significantly decreased the viability of pollen grains, compared with exposure to air; with SO2 being slightly more detrimental than NO2. Exposure to acid solutions also induced pollen damage, which appeared to be pH-dependent (from 24.6% at pH 6.0 to 55.8% at pH 4.0; compared to 3.8% at pH 7.0). Short-term exposure of oak pollen to high concentrations of SO2 or NO2 significantly increases their fragility and disruption, leading to subsequent release of pollen cytoplasmic granules into the atmosphere. These results suggest that heightened air pollution during the oak pollen season may possibly increase the incidence of allergic airway disease in sensitized individuals by facilitating the bioavailability of airborne pollen allergens. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  8. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  9. Effects of two plant growth regulators, indole-3-acetic acid and β-naphthoxyacetic acid, on genotoxicity in Drosophila SMART assay and on proliferation and viability of HEK293 cells from the perspective of carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Asuman; Kaya, Bülent; Savaş, Burhan; Topcuoğlu, Ş Fatih

    2011-10-01

    In this study, the mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth regulator naturally synthesized in plants but produced synthetically, and β-naphthoxyacetic acid (BNOA), a synthetic plant growth regulator widely used in agricultural regions, were investigated using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila wings. The effect of the same plant growth regulators against the proliferation and viability of a human immortalized embryonic kidney HEK293 cells which is at the early stage of carcinogenesis were also examined with MTT and trypan-blue exclusion assays. For the SMART assay, two different crosses were used: a standard and a high-bioactivation (HB) cross, involving the flare-3 and the multiple wing hairs markers. The HB cross involved flies characterized by an increased cytochrome P-450-dependent bioactivation capacity, which permits the more efficient biotransformation of promutagens and procarcinogens. In both crosses, the wings of the two types of progeny, inversion-free marker heterozygotes and balancer heterozygotes, were analyzed. The results show that IAA and BNOA are not mutagenic or recombinogenic in the wing cells of Drosophila. Furthermore, neither plant growth regulator affected the proliferation rate of HEK293 cells; however, both of them induced cell death at high concentrations.

  10. Efeito da nicotina na viabilidade e morfologia de fibroblastos: estudo in vitro Effect of nicotine on the viability and morphology of fibroblasts: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Esmeralda Traverso Martinez

    2002-09-01

    incubation period, cell viability was assessed by means of 0.4% trypan blue staining. Cell viability and morphology were assessed in an inverted microscope, by a single examiner, who was blind as to the experimental groups. The experiment was repeated 5 times. Regarding morphology, in the 1-hour conditioned group there was statistically significant difference between the control group and the group with the greatest dose of nicotine. These differences were also observed between the control group and all nicotine groups after 24 hours. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that more unviable cells were found in the groups exposed to nicotine, in comparison with the control group, both after 1 and 24 hours of conditioning (p < 0.05. Moreover, with increasing doses of nicotine there was a directly proportional increase in the number of unviable cells, both after 1 and 24 hours of exposure (p = 0.0053 and p = 0.00001, respectively. The conclusion of this study is that nicotine can alter, in vitro, the viability and morphology of fibroblasts in a manner proportional to the dose and time of exposure.

  11. Assessment of fungal viability after long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation combined with riboflavin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabuchi, Renata T; Carvalho, Fabio R S; Khan, Yasin A; Hirai, Flavio; Campos, Mauro S; McDonnell, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), a technique that combines riboflavin administration with long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation, was primarily developed to increase the biomechanical strength of collagen fibrils of the cornea to avoid the progression of keratoconus. Recently, this method has been proposed to treat selected cases of infectious keratitis. To test the protocol used for progressive keratoconus in infectious keratitis, Candida albicans, and Fusarium solani, strains were exposed to irradiation using a wavelength of 365 nm at a power density of 3 mW/cm(2) for 30 min in the presence of riboflavin photosensitizer. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of fungal viability used plate cultures and an automated trypan blue dye exclusion method respectively. Fungal cell diameter was also assessed in all groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the triplicate values of each experimental condition. Experimental findings of photodynamic therapy applied to the cell inactivation of both yeasts and filamentous fungi were compared with control groups. Qualitative results were corroborated with quantitative findings which showed no statistical significance between challenged samples (experimental groups) and the control group (p-value = 1). In comparison with a control group of live cells, statistical significance was observed when riboflavin solution alone had an effect on the morphologic size of filamentous fungi, while ultraviolet light irradiation alone showed a slight decrease in the cell structure of C. albicans. The impact of long-wave ultraviolet combined with riboflavin photosensitizer showed no antifungal effect on C. albicans and F. solani. The significant decrease in cell morphology of both filamentous fungi and yeasts submitted to photosensitizing riboflavin and exposure to ultraviolet light, respectively, may be promising in the development and standardization of alternatives for fungal cell

  12. Manutenção da viabilidade das células mononucleares de sangue periférico humano em extratos e formulações de própolis - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i1.8954 Maintenance of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell viability in propolis extracts and formulations - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i1.8954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Lucy Franco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo comparou-se a viabilidade das células mononucleares de sangue periférico (PBMCs humano quando mantidas em diferentes extratos e formulações de própolis. As PBMCs  (106 cels mL-1, provenientes de doadores saudáveis (n=5, foram estocadas a 20ºC nas diferentes soluções de própolis, assim como em solução salina balanceada de Hank’s (HBSS, utilizada como controle do experimento. A viabilidade celular foi determinada pelo método de exclusão com azul de Tripan. Quando incubadas por 1h, apenas dois extratos, denominados A70D e D70D, apresentaram desempenho satisfatório na manutenção da viabilidade celular, semelhante (p > 0,05 ao controle HBSS e diferindo estatisticamente (p  In this study a comparison was made of human mononuclear cell (PBMCs viability, when cells were kept in different propolis extracts and formulations. PBMCs (106 cell mL-1, obtained from healthy donors (n=5, were incubated at 20ºC in the different propolis solutions, as well as in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS, used as experimental control. The cell viability was analyzed by Trypan blue exclusion assay. When incubated for 1h, only two extracts, denominated A70D and D70D, showed appropriate results for maintaining cell viability. A70D and D70D showed better viability (p 0.05 from the HBSS control. A70D and D70D were tested in five dilutions in propylene glycol, over 24h, with analysis at 0, 30 minutes, 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24h. The most concentrated fractions showed the worst performance (p

  13. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  14. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  15. Manutenção da viabilidade das células mononucleares de sangue periférico humano em extratos e formulações de própolis = Maintenance of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell viability in propolis extracts and formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Casaroto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo comparou-se a viabilidade das células mononucleares de sangue periférico (PBMCs humano quando mantidas em diferentes extratos e formulações de própolis. As PBMCs (106 cels mL-1, provenientes de doadores saudáveis (n=5, foram estocadas a 20ºC nas diferentes soluções de própolis, assim como em solução salina balanceada de Hank’s (HBSS, utilizada como controle do experimento. A viabilidade celular foi determinada pelo método de exclusão com azul de Tripan. Quando incubadas por 1h, apenas dois extratos, denominados A70D e D70D, apresentaram desempenho satisfatório na manutenção da viabilidade celular, semelhante (p > 0,05 ao controle HBSS e diferindo estatisticamente (p In this study a comparison was made of human mononuclear cell (PBMCs viability, when cells were kept in different propolis extracts and formulations. PBMCs (106 cell mL-1, obtained from healthy donors (n=5, were incubated at 20ºC in the different propolis solutions, as well as in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS, used as experimental control. The cell viability was analyzed by Trypan blue exclusion assay. When incubated for 1h, only two extracts, denominated A70D and D70D, showed appropriate results for maintaining cell viability. A70D and D70D showed better viability (p 0.05 from the HBSS control. A70D and D70D were tested in five dilutions in propylene glycol, over 24h, with analysis at 0, 30 minutes, 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24h. The most concentrated fractions showed the worst performance (p < 0.05 in comparison with their original extracts, which remained close to 80% viability over 24h. Reduction in viability proportional to increase in concentration of formulations was observed. The results suggest that propolis solutions in appropriate concentrations may be used in future studies on alternatives to mediums routinely used in dental practice for storing avulsed teeth.

  16. Blue light-mediated inactivation of Enterococcus faecalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Giorgio; Wataha, John C; Girard, Myriam; Grad, Iwona; Schrenzel, Jacques; Lange, Norbert; Bouillaguet, Serge

    2013-05-01

    In dentistry, residual infection remains a major cause of failure after endodontic treatment; many of these infections involve Enterococcus faecalis. In the current study, we explored the possibility that blue light activated photosensitizers could be used, in principle, to inactivate this microbe as an adjunct disinfection strategy for endodontic therapy. Three blue light absorbing photosensitizers, eosin-Y, rose bengal, and curcumin, were tested on E. faecalis grown in planktonic suspensions or biofilms. Photosensitizers were incubated for 30 min with bacteria then exposed to blue light (450-500 nm) for 240 s. Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as a control. After 48 h, the viability of E. faecalis was estimated by measuring colony-forming units post-exposure vs. untreated controls (CFU/mL). Blue light irradiation alone did not alter E. faecalis viability. For planktonic cultures, blue light activated eosin-Y (5 μM), rose bengal (1 μM), or curcumin (5 μM) significantly (pfaecalis viability compared to exposure to the unirradiated photochemicals. For biofilm cultures, concentrations of light-activated eosin-Y, rose bengal, and curcumin of 100, 10, and 10 μM respectively, completely suppressed E. faecalis viability (p<0.05). Although the current results are limited to an in vitro model, they support further exploration of blue light activated antimicrobials as an adjunct therapy in endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Shira C Shafir; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months.

  18. Code Blue: The Blues as Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, W. Randolph

    1994-01-01

    Explores the basic features and background of "the blues" as a musical tool, or archetype, for understanding the universal condition of human suffering, for confronting diseases of disability and separation, and for coping or adapting to such suffering. Offers the blues as a method for looking at the spirit of human tragedy and…

  19. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  20. Rabbit model of intervertebral disc degeneration by external compression device characterized by X-ray, MRI, histology, and cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ismail

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate experimental animal models, which mimic the degenerative process occurring in human intervertebral disc (IVD breakdown and can be used for new treatment studies such as tissue engineering or disc distraction are lacking. We studied the external compression device that used by Kroeber et al to create intervertebral disc degeneration in rabbit model characterized by X-ray, MRI, Histology, and Cell Viability. Ten NZW rabbit were randomly assigned to one of five groups. Intervertebral disc VL4-L5 are compressed using an external loading device, 1.9 MPa. First group rabbit are loaded for 14 days, second loaded for 28 days, thirth group are loaded for 14 days, and unloaded for 14 days, fourth group loaded for 28 days and unloaded for 28 days. The fifth group, rabbits underwent a sham operation. Additional, rabbits were used as sample for cell viability study. In disc height : sample in group one have biggest decreasing of disc height, that is 23.9 unit. In MRI assessment, the worst grade is grade 3. In histological score, the worst group is group three (58.69, and the best is group 4 (45.69. Group one have the largest dead cell, that are 403.5, and the smallest is group four (124.75. Trypan blue staining showed that group four have better viable cell (91.1 compare than group three (86.4. The study conclude disc degeneration can be created by external axial loading for 14 days in rabbit intervertebral disc. Duration of 28 days unloading gave better result for cells to recover. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:199-207  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Keywords: Rabbit model –intervertebral disc degeneration- external compression device-X-ray, MRI, Histology, and Cell viabilty /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso

  1. Aspartic acid substitutions in monoamine oxidase-A reveal both catalytic-dependent and -independent influences on cell viability and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zelan; Satram-Maharaj, Tamara; Chaharyn, Bradley; Kuski, Kelly; Pennington, Paul R; Cao, Xia; Chlan, Jennifer; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2012-11-01

    Post-translational influences could underlie the ambiguous roles of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) in pathologies such as depression, cancer and Alzheimer disease. In support of this, we recently demonstrated that the Ca²⁺-sensitive component of MAO-A catalytic activity is inhibited by a pro-survival p38 (MAPK)-dependent mechanism. We substituted three aspartic acid (D) residues in human MAO-A that reside in putative Ca²⁺-binding motifs and overexpressed the individual proteins in the human HEK293 cell line. We assayed the overexpressed proteins for catalytic activity and for their influence on cell viability (using MTT conversion and trypan blue exclusion) and proliferation/DNA synthesis [using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation]. Innate MAO-A catalytic activity (and the capacity for generating hydrogen peroxide) was unaffected by the D61A substitution, but inhibited moderately or completely by the D248A and D328G substitutions, respectively. The Ca²⁺-sensitive activities of wild-type and D248A MAO-A proteins were enhanced by treatment with the selective p38(MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580, but was completely abrogated by the D61A substitution. Monoamine oxidase-A(D61A) was toxic to cells and exerted no effect on cell proliferation, while MAO-A(D248A) was generally comparable to wild-type MAO-A. As expected, the catalytic-dead MAO-A(D328G) was not cytotoxic, but unexpectedly enhanced both MTT conversion and BrdU staining. Variant-dependent changes in Bax and Bcl-2/Bcl-XL protein expression were observed. A different pattern of effects in N2-a cells suggests cell line-dependent roles for MAO-A. A catalytic-dependent mechanism influences MAO-A-mediated cytotoxicity, whereas a catalytic-independent mechanism contributes to proliferation. Context-dependent inputs by either mechanism could underlie the ambiguous pathological contributions of MAO-A.

  2. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Marinelli, Raúl Alberto, E-mail: rmarinel@unr.edu.ar

    2012-10-15

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p < 0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p < 0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+ 120%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (− 80%, p < 0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ► Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ► Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and increases ROS. ► Aquaporin

  3. Retinoids, retinoid analogs, and lactoferrin interact and differentially affect cell viability of 2 bovine mammary cell types in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Baumrucker, C R

    2010-07-01

    Two bovine mammary cell types (BME-UV1 and MeBo cells) were used to evaluate the effect of natural retinoids, retinoid analogs, and bovine lactoferrin (bLf) on cell viability in vitro. Experiments with Alamar Blue showed a linear relationship between fluorescence and cell viability index. The BME-UV1 cells exhibited twice the metabolic activity but required half the doubling time of the MeBo cells. The BME-UV1 cells were very sensitive to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) inhibition of cell viability (Pretinoid-induced inhibition of cell viability, depending on the type of bovine mammary cell studied.

  4. The viability of perilabyrinthine osteocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2012-01-01

    Bone remodeling is highly inhibited around the inner ear space, most likely by the anti-resorptive action of the inner ear cytokine osteoprotegerin (OPG) entering perilabyrinthine bone through the lacuno-canalicular porosity (LCP). This extracellular signaling pathway depends on the viability...

  5. Effects of blue light irradiation on human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Hidding, Sarah; Werners, Frauke B; Born, Matthias; Pallua, Norbert; Suschek, Christoph V

    2011-05-03

    Previous studies have reported that separately from UV-radiation also blue light influences cellular physiology in different cell types. However, little is known about the blue light action spectrum. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of blue light at distinct wavelengths (410, 420, 453, 480 nm) emitted by well defined light-emitting-diodes on viability, proliferation and antioxidative capacity of human dermal fibroblasts. We found that irradiation with blue light (410, 420 nm) led to intracellular oxidative stress and toxic effects in a dose and wavelength dependent manner. No toxicity was observed using light at 453 nm and 480 nm. Furthermore, blue light (410, 420, 453 nm) at low doses reduced the antioxidative capacity of fibroblasts. At non-toxic doses, irradiations at 410, 420 and 453 nm reduced proliferation indicating a higher susceptibility of proliferating fibroblasts to blue light. Our results show that blue light at different wavelengths may induce varying degrees of intracellular oxidative stress with different physiological outcome, which could contribute to premature skin photoaging. On the other hand, the use of blue light due to its antiproliferative and toxic properties may represent a new approach in treatment and prevention of keloids, hypertrophic scars and fibrotic skin diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  7. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  8. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  9. Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F.; Morris, S. M.; Terentjev, E. M.; Coles, H. J.

    2010-04-01

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric “bimesogenic” and “bent-core” materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  10. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  11. Blue Holes & Hurricanes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Levin

    2017-01-01

    A blue hole in the ocean is a striking sight. Fly over remote areas of the Caribbean Sea and you'll see shallow turquoise water stretching for miles, interrupted only by occasional sand bars and coral reefs...

  12. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  13. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been used for food for several centuries in Mexico and some African countries. They have been sold ... appear to reduce symptoms such as hot flashes. Obesity. Research on the effects of blue-green algae ...

  14. Methylene blue test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  15. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  16. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney van der Ree

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels for the endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus in Australia. The underpasses reduced, but did not completely remove, the negative effects of a road. The expected minimum population size of a "reconnected" population remained 15% lower than that of a comparable "undivided" population. We propose that the extent to which the risk of extinction decreases should be adopted as a measure of effectiveness of mitigation measures and that the use of population modeling become routine in these evaluations.

  17. Malthus, Boserup and population viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneuil, N

    1994-01-01

    The Malthus-Boserup explanatory framework is revisited from the point of view of viability theory. Instead of imposing a univocal relationship between population pressure and level of knowledge, the way technology will change is not determined, it is only constrained. This leads to regard any situation as associated to a set of reachable futures. When no possibility is left for systems to avoid extinction, systems are no longer viable. Hence, the control-phase space can be divided into regions corresponding to gradual danger or security. This point of view allows the introduction of ideas such as incentives to create or to use new knowledge, gives a role to the threatening power of Malthusian checks, and leaves space for a specific variety of behaviors. The Boserupian theme then appears indirectly, emerging from the constraints imposed by the inertia of technological change.

  18. Viability of telework at PROCEMPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzner, Maria Amelia de Mesquita

    2003-02-01

    At the end of the 20th century, telework appears as one of the modalities of flexible work, which is related to new organizational structures as well as to increasing use of technology. It revolutionizes the traditional ways of performing work. Its implementation creates a number of questions to be answered by the organizations and the individuals involved. This article presents a case study on the viability of implementing telework at Procempa (The Data Processing Company of the City of Porto Alegre). The case study analyzes the technical, organizational, psychological, legal, and labor union dimensions. As a result of this study, we can identify the organization's stage of readiness for telework, the conditions under which it would be implemented, and the specific issues of an implementation.

  19. Blue light (470 nm) effectively inhibits bacterial and fungal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, A J; Carter-Wientjes, C; Williams, K A; Bhatnagar, D

    2012-12-01

    Blue light (470 nm) LED antimicrobial properties were studied alone against bacteria and with or without the food grade photosensitizer, erythrosine (ERY) against filamentous fungi. Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM), Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) aliquots were exposed on nutrient agar plates to Array 1 (AR1, 0·2 mW cm(-2)) or Array 2 (AR2, 80 mW cm(-2)), which emitted impure or pure blue light (0-300 J cm(-2)), respectively. Inoculated control (room light only) plates were incubated (48 h) and colonies enumerated. The antifungal properties of blue light combined with ERY (11·4 and 22·8 μmol l(-1)) on Penicillium digitatum (PD) and Fusarium graminearum (FG) conidia were determined. Conidial controls consisted of: no light, room light-treated conidia and ERY plus room light. Light-treated (ERY + blue light) conidial samples were exposed only to AR2 (0-100 J cm(-2)), aliquots spread on potato dextrose agar plates, incubated (48 h, 30°C) and colonies counted. Blue light alone significantly reduced bacterial and FG viability. Combined with ERY, it significantly reduced PD viability. Blue light is lethal to bacteria and filamentous fungi although effectiveness is dependent on light purity, energy levels and microbial genus. Light from two arrays of different blue LEDs significantly reduced bacterial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus atrophaeus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) viabilities. Significant in vitro viability loss was observed for the filamentous fungi, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium graminearum when exposed to pure blue light only plus a photosensitizer. F. graminearum viability was significantly reduced by blue light alone. Results suggest that (i) the amount of significant loss in bacterial viability observed for blue light that is pure or with traces of other wavelengths is genus dependent and (ii) depending on fungal genera, pure blue light is fungicidal with or without a photosensitizer. © 2012 The Society for

  20. Use of fluorescent redox indicators to evaluate cell proliferation and viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of two cell viability test kits based on the use of redox indicators yielding fluorescent products, the AlamarBlue assay and a resazurin-based in vitro toxicology assay kit from Sigma, was compared in the present study. Cultures of human neonatal foreskin fibroblasts were exposed...... to equal concentrations of the two dye solutions in the cell culture media. The fluorescence intensities of the cell culture media obtained in response to cell proliferation with the two dyes showed a pronounced similarity. Both dyes were noncytotoxic to cell cultures with high initial cell densities...... components were tentatively identified as resazurin and resorufin. The AlamarBlue assay has gained wide application as a cell viability indicator that allows continuous monitoring of cell proliferation or cytotoxicity in human and animal cells, bacteria, and fungi, but no studies with the deliberate use...

  1. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  2. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  3. Blue light effect on retinal pigment epithelial cells by display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoung; Yun, Jieun; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Park, Sang-Il; Seo, Young-Jun; Park, Won-Sang; Chu, Hye Yong; Park, Keun Hong; Lee, Myung Yeol; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Kwak, Young-Shin; Jang, Young Pyo; Kang, Jong Soon

    2017-05-22

    Blue light has high photochemical energy and induces cell apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Due to its phototoxicity, retinal hazard by blue light stimulation has been well demonstrated using high intensity light sources. However, it has not been studied whether blue light in the displays, emitting low intensity light, such as those used in today's smartphones, monitors, and TVs, also causes apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells. We attempted to examine the blue light effect on human adult retinal epithelial cells using display devices with different blue light wavelength ranges, the peaks of which specifically appear at 449 nm, 458 nm, and 470 nm. When blue light was illuminated on A2E-loaded ARPE-19 cells using these displays, the display with a blue light peak at a shorter wavelength resulted in an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the reduction of cell viability and induction of caspase-3/7 activity were more evident in A2E-loaded ARPE-19 cells after illumination by the display with a blue light peak at a shorter wavelength, especially at 449 nm. Additionally, white light was tested to examine the effect of blue light in a mixed color illumination with red and green lights. Consistent with the results obtained using only blue light, white light illuminated by display devices with a blue light peak at a shorter wavelength also triggered increased cell death and apoptosis compared to that illuminated by display devices with a blue light peak at longer wavelength. These results show that even at the low intensity utilized in the display devices, blue light can induce ROS production and apoptosis in retinal cells. Our results also suggest that the blue light hazard of display devices might be highly reduced if the display devices contain less short wavelength blue light.

  4. The effects of alginate encapsulation on NIT-1 insulinoma cells: viability, growth and insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolotti, Alessia; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Facoetti, Angelica; Marsich, Eleonora; Nano, Rosanna

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of microencapsulated insulin-secreting cells is proposed as a promising therapy for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. In recent years, important advances have been made in the field of immunoisolation and many studies have shown that alginate provides some major advantages for encapsulation over other systems. Since it is known that the extracellular matrix influences the behaviour of encapsulated cells, the aim of the present work has been to study the consequences of encapsulation on some cell functions. For this purpose, cell growth and dynamics of insulin release of NIT-1 cells entrapped in alginate capsules compared with those exhibited by free NIT-1 cells were investigated by means of growth curves, assays, Trypan blue staining and ELISA test. All investigations performed allowed us to conclude that alginate-entrapped NIT-1 cells maintain their growth features and secretory functions although with some important differences. In particular, alginate encapsulation affects the cellular growth profile and causes the lost of time dependence of insulin secretion profile.

  5. Rv3351c, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene that affects bacterial growth and alveolar epithelial cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlicek, Rebecca L; Fine-Coulson, Kari; Gupta, Tuhina; Quinn, Frederick D; Posey, James E; Willby, Melisa; Castro-Garza, Jorge; Karls, Russell K

    2015-12-01

    Despite the interactions known to occur between various lower respiratory tract pathogens and alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), few reports examine factors influencing the interplay between Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and AECs during infection. Importantly, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the M. tuberculosis hbha and esxA gene products HBHA and ESAT6 directly or indirectly influence AEC survival. In this report, we identify Rv3351c as another M. tuberculosis gene that impacts the fate of both the pathogen and AEC host. Intracellular replication of an Rv3351c mutant in the human AEC type II pneumocyte cell line A549 was markedly reduced relative to the complemented mutant and parent strain. Deletion of Rv3351c diminished the release of lactate dehydrogenase and decreased uptake of trypan blue vital stain by host cells infected with M. tuberculosis bacilli, suggesting attenuated cytotoxic effects. Interestingly, an isogenic hbha mutant displayed reductions in AEC killing similar to those observed for the Rv3351c mutant. This opens the possibility that multiple M. tuberculosis gene products interact with AECs. We also observed that Rv3351c aids intracellular replication and survival of M. tuberculosis in macrophages. This places Rv3351c in the same standing as HBHA and ESAT6, which are important factors in AECs and macrophages. Defining the mechanism(s) by which Rv3351c functions to aid pathogen survival within the host may lead to new drug or vaccine targets.

  6. Analysis of Guard Cell Viability and Action in Senescing Leaves of Nicotiana glauca (Graham), Tree Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, R; Yera, R; Ortega, K; Tallman, G

    1985-09-01

    In an attempt to determine whether low epidermal conductances to water vapor diffusion of senescing leaves were caused by internal changes in guard cells or by factors external to guard cells, stomatal behavior was examined in intact senescing and nonsenescing leaves of Nicotiana glauca (Graham), tree tobacco, grown in the field or in an environmental chamber. Conductances of senescing leaves were 5 to 10% of the maximum conductances of nonsenescing leaves of the same plant, yet guard cell duplexes isolated from epidermal peels of senescing leaves developed full turgor in the light in solutions containing KCl, and sodium cobaltinitrite staining showed that K(+) accumulated as turgor developed. Ninety-five per cent of the guard cells isolated from senescing leaves concentrated neutral red and excluded trypan blue. Intercellular leaf CO(2) concentrations of senescing and nonsenescing leaves of chamber-grown plants were not significantly different (about 240 microliters per liter), but the potassium contents of adaxial and abaxial epidermes of senescing leaves taken from plants grown in the field were less than half those of nonsenescing leaves. We conclude that guard cells do not undergo the orderly senescence process that characteristically takes place in mesophyll tissue during whole-leaf senescence and that the reduced conductances of senescing leaves are produced by factors external to guard cells.

  7. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  8. Polo-like kinase 1 siRNA-607 induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-13

    Jul 13, 2011 ... Cell viability was measured using Trypan blue exclusion analysis as described in material and methods. Cell viability data are expressed as the percent viable cells out of the total number of cells. The error bar represents the standard error of three independent experiments. Plk1 mRNA is overexpressed in ...

  9. Code blue: seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Matthew T; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Noe, Katherine H; Sirven, Joseph I

    2011-06-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently perceive seizures as life threatening. If an event occurs on the hospital premises, a "code blue" can be called which consumes considerable resources. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of code blue calls for seizures and seizure mimickers. A retrospective review of a code blue log from 2001 through 2008 identified 50 seizure-like events, representing 5.3% of all codes. Twenty-eight (54%) occurred in inpatients; the other 22 (44%) events involved visitors or employees on the hospital premises. Eighty-six percent of the events were epileptic seizures. Seizure mimickers, particularly psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, were more common in the nonhospitalized group. Only five (17.9%) inpatients had a known diagnosis of epilepsy, compared with 17 (77.3%) of the nonhospitalized patients. This retrospective survey provides insights into how code blues are called on hospitalized versus nonhospitalized patients for seizure-like events. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Blue Baby Syndrome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climate change, water and soil pollution, environ- mental impacts of wastewater irrigation and soil nutrient management. Keywords. Cyanosis, hemoglobin, infants, methemoglobinemia, nitrate. Deepanjan Majumdar. Blue Baby Syndrome or Methemoglobinemia is caused by decreased ability of blood to carry oxygen, ...

  11. Defining the Blue economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith-Godfrey, S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MARITIME AFFAIRS: JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL MARITIME FOUNDATION OF INDIA, 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09733159.2016.1175131 Defining the Blue Economy S. Smith-Godfrey Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa...

  12. The Blue Baby Syndrome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. The Blue Baby Syndrome - Nitrate Poisoning in Humans. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 20-30. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Does the balanced scorecard support organizational viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Beeres, R.J.M.; Vriens, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we assess whether the balanced scorecard (BSC) supports the necessary functions for organizational viability. To this purpose, we use the viable system model (VSM) as a means to describe the functions required for organizational viability. Then we use the VSM as a template to assess

  14. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  15. Effect of magnetic nanoparticle heating on cortical neuron viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher J; Yuan, Yuan; Gilbert, Ryan J; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra

    2014-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are currently approved for use as an adjunctive treatment to glioblastoma multiforme radiotherapy. Radio frequency stimulation of the nanoparticles generates localised hyperthermia, which sensitises the tumour to the effects of radiotherapy. Clinical trials reported thus far are promising, with an increase in patient survival rate; however, what are left unaddressed are the implications of this technology on the surrounding healthy tissue. Aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles suspended in culture medium were applied to chick embryonic cortical neuron cultures. Cultures were heated to 37 °C or 45 °C by an induction coil system for 2 h. The latter regime emulates the therapeutic conditions of the adjunctive therapy. Cellular viability and neurite retraction was quantified 24 h after exposure to the hyperthermic events. The hyperthermic load inflicted little damage to the neuron cultures, as determined by calcein-AM, propidium iodide, and alamarBlue® assays. Fluorescence imaging was used to assess the extent of neurite retraction which was found to be negligible. Retention of chick, embryonic cortical neuron viability was confirmed under the thermal conditions produced by radiofrequency stimulation of iron oxide nanoparticles. While these results are not directly applicable to clinical applications of hyperthermia, the thermotolerance of chick embryonic cortical neurons is promising and calls for further studies employing human cultures of neurons and glial cells.

  16. [Blue light and eye health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light.

  17. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  18. Mechanism of H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress regulating viability and biocontrol ability of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Li, Boqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2015-01-16

    The use of antagonistic yeasts to control postharvest pathogens is a promising alternative to fungicides. The effectiveness of the antagonists against fungal pathogens is greatly dependent on their viability, which is usually mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the effects of H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of Rhodotorula glutinis and, using flow cytometric analysis, observed the changes of ROS accumulation and apoptosis in the yeast cells with or without H₂O₂ treatment. We found that the viability of R. glutinis decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner under H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress. Compared to the control, yeast cells exposed to oxidative stress exhibited more accumulation of ROS and higher levels of protein oxidative damage, but showed lower efficacy for biocontrol of Penicillium expansum causing blue mold rot on peach fruit. The results indicate that apoptosis is a main cause of the cell viability loss in R. glutinis, which is attributed to ROS accumulation under oxidative stress. These findings offer a plausible explanation that oxidative stress affects biocontrol efficacy of R. glutinis via regulating its viability and cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Near viability for fully nonlinear differential inclusions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina Căpraru; Alina Lazu

    2014-01-01

    .... We establish a viability result under Lipschitz hypothesis on F, that consists in proving the existence of solutions of the differential inclusion above, starting from a given set, which remain...

  20. Poxvirus viability and signatures in historical relics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCollum, Andrea M; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L; Davidson, Whitni B; Paddock, Christopher D; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries...

  1. Intraspecific variation in pollen viability, germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleaceae) cultivars 'Koroneiki', 'Mastoidis' and 'Kalamata' was studied with scanning electron microscopy to identify genotype- distinguishing characters that could be employed for morphological cultivar discrimination. Pollen viability and germination ...

  2. Effect of Twice-Daily Blue Light Treatment on Matrix-Rich Biofilm Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Lins de Sousa

    Full Text Available The use of blue light has been proposed as a direct means of affecting local bacterial infections, however the use of blue light without a photosensitizer to prevent the biofilm development has not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to determine how the twice-daily treatment with blue light affects the development and composition of a matrix-rich biofilm.Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans UA159 were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs for 5 days. The biofilms were exposed twice-daily to non-coherent blue light (LumaCare; 420 nm without a photosensitizer. The distance between the light and the sample was 1.0 cm; energy density of 72 J cm-2; and exposure time of 12 min 56 s. Positive and negative controls were twice-daily 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX and 0.89% NaCl, respectively. Biofilms were analyzed for bacterial viability, dry-weight, and extra (EPS-insoluble and soluble and intracellular (IPS polysaccharides. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy were used to check biofilm morphology and bacterial viability, respectively. When biofilms were exposed to twice-daily blue light, EPS-insoluble was reduced significantly more than in either control group (CHX and 0.89% NaCl. Bacterial viability and dry weight were also reduced relative to the negative control (0.89% NaCl when the biofilms were treated with twice-daily blue light. Different morphology was also visible when the biofilms were treated with blue light.Twice-daily treatment with blue light without a photosensitizer is a promising mechanism for the inhibition of matrix-rich biofilm development.

  3. Effect of Twice-Daily Blue Light Treatment on Matrix-Rich Biofilm Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Denise Lins; Lima, Ramille Araújo; Zanin, Iriana Carla; Klein, Marlise I; Janal, Malvin N; Duarte, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The use of blue light has been proposed as a direct means of affecting local bacterial infections, however the use of blue light without a photosensitizer to prevent the biofilm development has not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to determine how the twice-daily treatment with blue light affects the development and composition of a matrix-rich biofilm. Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans UA159 were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs for 5 days. The biofilms were exposed twice-daily to non-coherent blue light (LumaCare; 420 nm) without a photosensitizer. The distance between the light and the sample was 1.0 cm; energy density of 72 J cm-2; and exposure time of 12 min 56 s. Positive and negative controls were twice-daily 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 0.89% NaCl, respectively. Biofilms were analyzed for bacterial viability, dry-weight, and extra (EPS-insoluble and soluble) and intracellular (IPS) polysaccharides. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy were used to check biofilm morphology and bacterial viability, respectively. When biofilms were exposed to twice-daily blue light, EPS-insoluble was reduced significantly more than in either control group (CHX and 0.89% NaCl). Bacterial viability and dry weight were also reduced relative to the negative control (0.89% NaCl) when the biofilms were treated with twice-daily blue light. Different morphology was also visible when the biofilms were treated with blue light. Twice-daily treatment with blue light without a photosensitizer is a promising mechanism for the inhibition of matrix-rich biofilm development.

  4. Probiotic viability – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Sampo J. Lahtinen

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells, and therefore is also possible that also nonviable probiotics could have some health benefits. The eff...

  5. Use of methylene blue uptake for assessing cell viability of colony-forming microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemos Bicas, J.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    During the past few years, interest in microalgae has grown, mainly because of their potential for biofuel production. Botryococcus braunii, a green microalga that can accumulate more than half of its dry weight as hydrocarbons, is one of the most important examples. This microorganism grows in

  6. Effect of vital dyes on retinal pigmented epithelial cell viability and apoptosis: implications for chromovitrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha, Fernando M; Pons, Marianne; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Rodrigues, Eduardo B.; Maia, Mauricio; Marin-Castaño, Maria E; Farah, Michel Eid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate in vitro effect of vital dyes on toxicity and apoptosis in a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line. Methods ARPE-19 cells were exposed to brilliant blue-BriB, evans blue-EB, bromophenol blue-BroB, indocyanine green-ICG, infracyanine green-IfCG, light green-LG, fast green-FG, indigo carmine-IC and congo red-CR. BSS was used as the control. Five different concentrations and two times were tested. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay and apoptosis by Bax expression on western blot. Results All dyes significantly reduced cell viability after 3 minutes of exposure at all concentrations (pdyes exposure, except BriB; ICG had the highest Bax expression (pdye was BriB followed by LG, IfCG, FG, CR, IC, BroB, RB and ICG. ICG was toxic at all concentrations and exposure times tested. Moreover, BriB was the only dye that did not induce apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells. PMID:24022718

  7. Synthesis and radioiodination of di-iodo-Evan's blue via isotopic exchange reaction in the molten state and evaluation of the kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Azony, K.M. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry]|[Hot Lab. Center, Cairo (Egypt). Radioactive Isotopes and Generators Dept.; Bier, D.; Coenen, H.H. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Many aryl halides were synthesized from aryl amines such as iodo-trypan, iodo-methylene blue and iodo-toluidine. Methylene blue and toludine blue are phenothiazinium dyes and were used to localize parathyroid glands visually during surgery. Radioiodination of these compounds by using iodine-123 analogues for scintgraphic localization of parathyroids was reported. Radiolabelled dyes administered may also localize in tumor tissues. Evan's blue dye was used to study altered sarcolemmal permeability in dystrophic muscle fibers, and in animals to study muscular dystrophy. In this work Diiodo-Evan's blue was synthesized via Sandmeyer reaction and characterized by mass spectrum analysis. A procedure for labelling DIEB with Na{sup 131}I via isotopic exchange in molten medium was developed. The labelling conditions studied for the isotopic exchange of {sup 131}I-for-I in DIEB included the effect of temperature and solvents (melt of acetamide, benzoic and pivalic acid). Kinetic studies were performed to obtain [{sup 131}I] DIEB with more reliable reaction conditions. Quality control for the final product ([{sup 131}I] DIEB) was performed by HPLC. (orig.)

  8. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  9. Biocompatibility of brilliant blue G in a rat model of subretinal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Akifumi; Hisatomi, Toshio; Enaida, Hiroshi; Kagimoto, Tadahisa; Mochizuki, Yasutaka; Goto, Yoshinobu; Kubota, Toshiaki; Hata, Yasuaki; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of brilliant blue G (BBG) compared with those of indocyanine green (ICG) and trypan blue (TB) in a rat model of subretinal injection. Retinal detachment was produced by subretinal injection of the dyes. The biocompatibility of BBG (0.25 mg/mL) was evaluated over 2 months and 2 weeks by ophthalmic examinations. The eyes were enucleated and analyzed by light, fluorescence, as well as transmission electron microscopy. Apoptotic cell death was detected by TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling. The results were compared with those for ICG (5 mg/mL) and TB (1 mg/mL). ICG caused retinal degeneration and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell atrophy 2 weeks after subretinal injection. Apoptotic cell death was detected in the inner and outer nuclear layers and the RPE layer, especially the photoreceptors. TB caused less retinal degeneration, mainly in the area detached by the subretinal injection. BBG had no detectable toxic effects after 2 months and 2 weeks. Apoptotic cell death was detected in the ICG and TB groups, mainly in the photoreceptors. Subretinal injection of the dyes caused retinal cell degeneration at lower concentrations than those reported for intravitreous injection. However, subretinal injection of BBG at 0.25 mg/mL appeared to provide satisfactory biocompatibility.

  10. Three-dimensional modeling of blue jets and blue starters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor P. Pasko; Jeremy J. George

    2002-01-01

    .... Results from a three‐dimensional fractal model based on a phenomenological probabilistic approach to the modeling of streamer coronas indicate, in particular, that blue jets and blue starters can be formed by a fast (∼1 s) accumulation of ∼110...

  11. Viability analysis in biological evaluations: Concepts of population viability analysis, biological population, and ecological scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward; John R. Squires

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection strategies often rely on environmental impact assessments. As part of the assessment process biologists are routinely asked to evaluate the effects of management actions on plants and animals. This evaluation often requires that biologists make judgments about the viability of affected populations. However, population viability...

  12. Effect of air drying on bacterial viability: A multiparameter viability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nocker, A.; Fernández, P.S.; Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of desiccation on the viability of microorganisms is a question of great interest for a variety of public health questions and industrial applications. Although viability is traditionally assessed by plate counts, cultivation-independent methods are increasingly applied with the aim to

  13. Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San

    2010-01-01

    We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

  14. Probiotic viability – does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampo J. Lahtinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health.

  15. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  16. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    design is a possible approach to help overcoming the present stability issues of phycocyanin-based colorants. This thesis presents a process for cleavage of PCB from phycocyanin by solvolysis in alcohols as a first step towards the formulation of a new natural blue colorant. A pre-treatment dia......, and a set of differential equations, the model was able to predict the behaviour of the flux with a confidence level above 95 %. Three different methods of cleavage of PCB by solvolysis were evaluated in this study: conventional reflux, sealed vessel heated in an oil bath, and microwave assisted reaction...... mechanisms are suggested: a concerted E2 elimination, and a SN2 nucleophilic substitution. The stability essays on PCB showed that it is most stable when stored in dry form or in ethanol. PCB showed poor stability in water, although at moderately low temperatures and higher purity the degradation rates...

  17. The effect of glucocorticoids on tendon cell viability in human tendon explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Wai Ting; Chuen Fu, Sai; Man Lee, Kwong

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Previous studies on the culture of human tenocytes have shown that dexamethasone and triamcino-lone reduce cell viability, suppress cell proliferation, and reduce collagen synthesis. However, such cell cultures lack the extracellular matrix and three-dimensional structure of normal tendons, which affects their response to stimuli. We established a human tendon explant culture system and tested the effects of dexamethasone and triamcinolone on cell viability. Methods Primary human tendon explant cultures were prepared from healthy hamstring tendons. Tendon strips were harvested from hamstring tendons and cultured in 24-well plates in Dulbecco’s modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 2% fetal calf serum. The tendon explants were treated with 0 μM (control), 10 μM, or 100 μM dexamethasone sodium phosphate or 0 μM (control), 10 μM, or 100 μM triamcinolone acetonide in DMEM for 96 h. Cell viability was measured by Alamar blue assay before and after glucocorticoid treatment. Results Incubation with 10 μM and 100 μM dexamethasone reduced cell viability in human tendon explants by 35% and 45%, respectively, as compared to a 6% increase in the controls (p = 0.01, mixed-effects ANOVA). Triamcinolone at 10 μM and 100 μM reduced cell viability by 33% and 36%, respectively, as compared to a 9% increase in the controls (p = 0.07, mixed-effects ANOVA). Interpretation Human tendon explant cultures can be used to study the effects of glucocorticoids on human tendon. Dexamethasone and triamcinolone suppress the cell viability of human tendon in its natural 3-dimensional environment with matrix anchorage. Human tendon explant cultures provide a species-specific model for further investigation of the effects of glucocorticoids on the metabolism of the extracellular matrix of human tendon, and on its mechanical properties. PMID:19421908

  18. Comparison of the Viability of Cryopreserved Fat Tissue in Accordance with the Thawing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Hwang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdipose tissue damage of cryopreserved fat after autologous fat transfer is inevitable in several processes of re-transplantation. This study aims to compare and analyze the survivability of adipocytes after thawing fat cryopreserved at -20℃ by using thawing methods used in clinics.MethodsThe survival rates of adipocytes in the following thawing groups were measured: natural thawing at 25℃ for 15 minutes; natural thawing at 25℃ for 5 minutes, followed by rapid thawing at 37℃ in a water bath for 5 minutes; and rapid thawing at 37℃ for 10 minutes in a water bath. The survival rates of adipocytes were assessed by measuring the volume of the fat layer in the top layers separated after centrifugation, counting the number of live adipocytes after staining with trypan blue, and measuring the activity of mitochondria in the adipocytes.ResultsIn the group with rapid thawing for 10 minutes in a water bath, it was observed that the cell count of live adipocytes and the activity of the adipocyte mitochondria were significantly higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05. The volume of the fat layer separated by centrifugation was also measured to be higher, which was, however, not statistically significant.ConclusionsIt was shown that the survival rate of adipocytes was higher when the frozen fat tissue was thawed rapidly at 37℃. It can thus be concluded that if fats thawed with this method are re-transplanted, the survival rate of cryopreserved fats in transplantation will be improved, and thus, the effect of autologous fat transfer will increase.

  19. Melanoma and satellite blue papule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-07-01

    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis.

  20. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2 during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P0.06. Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P=0.037; however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P>0.12. Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours, normalizing after 24 hours.

  1. Viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus keratocytes after cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuefei; Stachon, Tanja; Wang, Jiong; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL) on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC) keratocytes, in vitro. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm(2)) during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P 0.06). Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P = 0.037); however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P > 0.12). Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours), normalizing after 24 hours.

  2. Blues fans and suicide acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, S

    2000-01-01

    Research has neglected the possible impact of the blues music subculture on suicide acceptability (SA). The sad themes in the blues may attract suicidal persons and reinforce their suicidal moods and attitudes. The present study performs the first test of the thesis that associates SA with being a blues fan. It uses data on a national sample of 961 adults drawn from the General Social Survey of 1993. The results of a multivariate logistic regression analysis found that blues fans were no more accepting of suicide than nonfans. However, blues fanship was found to have substantial indirect effects on SA through its influence on such factors as lowered religiosity levels, the most important predictor of SA. Race-specific analyses found more support for the model for whites than for African Americans.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of 3 photosensitizers activated with blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulit, Florence; Grad, Iwona; Manoil, Daniel; Simon, Stéphane; Wataha, John C; Filieri, Anna; Feki, Anis; Schrenzel, Jacques; Lange, Norbert; Bouillaguet, Serge

    2014-03-01

    Pulp repair is less likely to occur when dentin or pulpal tissue remains infected after caries excavation. Yet there are currently few options to kill residual bacteria without damaging resident cells. The current study has evaluated the effect of 3 blue light-activated chemicals on the viability of lactobacilli, odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23), undifferentiated pulp cells (OD21), and human embryonic stem cells (hESC H1). Bacteria were incubated for 15 minutes with curcumin, eosin Y, or rose bengal and then irradiated with blue light (240 seconds). Bacteria were labeled with LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability kit, and viability was assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cytotoxicity assays were performed on MDPC-23 cells, OD21, and hESC H1 cells grown in 24-well plates and exposed to the same photosensitizer-light combination. After 24 hours, cellular response was measured by using the methyl-thiazol-diphenyl-tetrazolium assay. Results were statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison intervals (α = 0.05). Bacterial viability was significantly reduced after exposure to different combinations of light and photosensitizers; mitochondrial activity of cultured cells remained unaffected when exposed to the same conditions, suggesting a good therapeutic index in vitro. Blue light-mediated disinfection is promising for the development of new treatment strategies designed to promote pulp repair after carious exposure. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic viability and marketing strategies of periwinkle species in twelve major markets across Rivers State Nigeria were investigated using structured questionnaires. The results indicated that marketing strategies are enroute, through harvesters (collectors), to wholesalers (those who purchase in small quantities ...

  5. Extending the viability of sea urchin gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, M A; Oppenheimer, S B

    1995-04-01

    The sea urchin is the material of choice for studying many early developmental events. Methods to extend the viability of sea urchin gametes have not received much attention, but it is well known that the eggs are easily damaged by freezing. This study was designed to extend the viability of Lytechinus pictus eggs and sperm without freezing. Gamete viability measurements were based on relative numbers of fertilized vs unfertilized eggs, percentage fertilization, and on observations of embryonic development. Results indicate that gametes can be stored longer and at lower temperatures than previously described. Sperm were consistently kept viable for at least 12 days with little decrease in viability when stored in glass test tubes or plastic petri dishes and submerged in ice inside a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. In one experiment, sperm stored in glass test tubes on ice remained viable up to 20 days after extraction. Eggs were maintained from 1 to 7 days, rather than the 1 day or so previously reported, when stored in glass test tubes submerged in ice in a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. Results of egg and sperm experiments varied at different times in the season. Such variations may be caused by seasonal cytoplasmic changes, population differences, or the time mature individuals were maintained unfed in aquaria prior to use. Results from this study should be useful for a variety of research, mariculture, and teaching applications in which sea urchin supplies are limited or when the same gamete population is required for subsequent experiments.

  6. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierson, J.C.; Beissinger, S.R.; Bragg, J.G.; Coates, D.J.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Sunnucks, P.; Schumaker, N.H.; Trotter, M.V.; Young, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand

  7. Assessment of myocardial viability using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [College of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    The potential for recovery of left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial revascularization represents a practical clinical definition for myocardial viability. The evaluation of viable myocardium in patients with severe global left ventricular dysfunction due to coronary artery disease and with regional dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction is an important issue whether left ventricular dysfunction may be reversible or irreversible after therapy. If the dysfunction is due to stunning or hibernation, functional improvement is observed. But stunned myocardium may recover of dysfunction with no revascularization. Hibernation is chronic process due to chronic reduction in the resting myocardial blood flow. There are two types of myocardial hibernation; 'functional hibernation' with preserved contractile reserve and 'structural hibernation' without contractile reserve in segments with preserved glucose metabolism. This review focus on the application of F-18 FDG and other radionuclides to evaluate myocardial viability. In addition the factors influencing predictive value of FDG imaging for evaluating viability and the different criteria for viability are also reviewed.

  8. Viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Mano, Renneth T; Ngongoni, Nobbert Takarwirwa

    2013-04-01

    Viability differences in smallholder dairy farming are a result of differences in access to markets and services. It is hypothesized that innovations that improve productivity and market linkages also improve returns and viability. The viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza was characterised by interviewing 52 households using semi-structured questionnaires. Information on demographics, production, marketing, livestock numbers, assets and constraints was obtained. Farmers were resource-constrained with differences in access to resources. The highly resourced farmers had higher milk output and numbers of livestock. Almost 40 % of the households were female-headed, and these dominated the poor category. Household sizes ranged from 4 to 13 persons. Milk off-take was low (3.7 ± 0.53 l/cow/day), due to various constraints. Only rich farmers had viable enterprises in purely financial terms. Per litre cost of milk was more than selling price (US$0.96) for most farmers except the relatively rich. Operating ratios were 1.7, 0.6, 1.4 and 1.1 for the poor, rich, sub-centre and milk collection centre farmers, respectively. This means incomes from the dairy activities did not cover costs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increases in total variable costs and labour reduced returns. Milk production and viability were influenced by access to resources and markets.

  9. Pollen viability in Quercus robur L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batos Branislava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of viability (germination rate and the length of pollen tubes of fresh pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. pollen grains was studied in vitro on a medium containing 15% sucrose. Spatial variability was studied by sampling fresh pollen grains from a total of thirteen trees at four different sites in the area of Belgrade (Košutnjak, Banovo Brdo, Ada Ciganlija and Bojčin Forest in a single year (2011. In order to assess temporal variability and determine the effects of climate change on a small time scale, we studied the viability of the pollen grains collected from one tree at the Banovo Brdo site in six different years (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2011 and 2012. Interindividual variability was tested on the pollen grains sampled from eight trees at Ada Ciganlija in 2004. The percentage values of the pollen grain germination rate and the pollen tube length showed no statistically significant differences between the sites. However, the studied characteristics of the pollen grain viability (germination rate and pollen tube length showed statistically significant differences in both temporal (between the pollen collection years and interindividual variability. This type of research makes a valuable contribution to pedunculate oak breeding programs through the identification of trees with stable production and a good quality of pollen. Furthermore, it can be important in defining the patterns of spatial, temporal and individual variability of pollen grain viability under the influence of climate factors, which are showing compelling changing trends from year to year.

  10. Analysis of Guard Cell Viability and Action in Senescing Leaves of Nicotiana glauca (Graham), Tree Tobacco 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, Richard; Yera, Ramon; Ortega, Kim; Tallman, Gary

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to determine whether low epidermal conductances to water vapor diffusion of senescing leaves were caused by internal changes in guard cells or by factors external to guard cells, stomatal behavior was examined in intact senescing and nonsenescing leaves of Nicotiana glauca (Graham), tree tobacco, grown in the field or in an environmental chamber. Conductances of senescing leaves were 5 to 10% of the maximum conductances of nonsenescing leaves of the same plant, yet guard cell duplexes isolated from epidermal peels of senescing leaves developed full turgor in the light in solutions containing KCl, and sodium cobaltinitrite staining showed that K+ accumulated as turgor developed. Ninety-five per cent of the guard cells isolated from senescing leaves concentrated neutral red and excluded trypan blue. Intercellular leaf CO2 concentrations of senescing and nonsenescing leaves of chamber-grown plants were not significantly different (about 240 microliters per liter), but the potassium contents of adaxial and abaxial epidermes of senescing leaves taken from plants grown in the field were less than half those of nonsenescing leaves. We conclude that guard cells do not undergo the orderly senescence process that characteristically takes place in mesophyll tissue during whole-leaf senescence and that the reduced conductances of senescing leaves are produced by factors external to guard cells. PMID:16664404

  11. True blue football fan: tattoo reaction confined to blue pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Corinne; Vun, Yin Yin; Spelman, Lynda; Muir, James

    2010-02-01

    A tattoo reaction which appeared solely on the blue pigment of a 6-month old red and blue football club tattoo of an ardent fan was investigated. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic and no other abnormality was detected on full physical examination. Histology revealed a florid sarcoidal granuloma reaction to blue pigment. Preliminary investigations for systemic sarcoidosis did not reveal any abnormality. The tattoo reaction flattened clinically with the institution of a short course of topical mometasone furoate 0.1% ointment and as the subject remained asymptomatic, close surveillance for the development of systemic sarcoidosis is to continue. The possibility of delayed type hypersensitivity is discussed.

  12. Monitoring cell growth, viability, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael; Spearman, Maureen; Braasch, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The accurate determination of cell growth and viability is pivotal to monitoring a bioprocess. Direct methods to determine the cell growth and/or viability in a bioprocess include microscopic counting, electronic particle counting, image analysis, in situ biomass monitoring, and dieletrophoretic cytometry. These methods work most simply when a fixed volume sample can be taken from a suspension culture. Manual microscopic counting is laborious but affords the advantage of allowing cell viability to be determined if a suitable dye is included. Electronic particle counting is a rapid total cell count method for replicate samples, but some data distortion may occur if the sample has significant cell debris or cell aggregates. Image analysis based on the use of digital camera images acquired through a microscope has advanced rapidly with the availability of several commercially available software packages replacing manual microscopic counting and viability determination. Biomass probes detect cells by their dielectric properties or their internal concentration of NADH and can be used as a continuous monitor of the progress of a culture. While the monitoring of cell growth and viability is an integral part of a bioprocess, the monitoring of apoptosis induction is also becoming more and more important in bioprocess control to increase volumetric productivity by extending bioprocess duration. Different fluorescent assays allow for the detection of apoptotic characteristics in a cell sample.Indirect methods of cell determination involve the chemical analysis of a culture component or a measure of metabolic activity. These methods are most useful when it is difficult to obtain intact cell samples. However, the relationship between these parameters and the cell number may not be linear through the phases of a cell culture. The determination of nucleic acid (DNA) or total protein can be used as an estimate of biomass, while the depletion of glucose from the media can be used

  13. No. 347-Obstetric Management at Borderline Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Noor Niyar N; Chari, Radha S; Dunn, Michael S; Jones, Griffith; Shah, Prakesh; Barrett, Jon F R

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective of this guideline was to develop consensus statements to guide clinical practice and recommendations for obstetric management of a pregnancy at borderline viability, currently defined as prior to 25+6 weeks. Clinicians involved in the obstetric management of women whose fetus is at the borderline of viability. Women presenting for possible birth at borderline viability. This document presents a summary of the literature and a general consensus on the management of pregnancies at borderline viability, including maternal transfer and consultation, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate, fetal heart rate monitoring, and considerations in mode of delivery. Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords: extreme prematurity, borderline viability, preterm, pregnancy, antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery. The results were then studied, and relevant articles were reviewed. The references of the reviewed studies were also searched, as were documents citing pertinent studies. The evidence was then presented at a consensus meeting, and statements were developed. The content and recommendations were developed by the consensus group from the fields of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Neonatology, Perinatal Nursing, Patient Advocacy, and Ethics. The quality of evidence was rated using criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology framework (reference 1). The Board of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada approved the final draft for publication. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology framework. The interpretation of strong and weak recommendations is described later. The Summary of Findings is available upon request. A multidisciplinary approach should be used in counselling women and families at borderline

  14. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  15. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  16. Viability of encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVI TRIANA

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 had advantages as probiotic digestive system cholesterol lowering Lactobacillus. Applying in industry, particular processing technique is necessary for gaining product that ready for marketing and consuming. Spray drying is common technique using in various food processing. High processing temperature, 100-200oC, for 3-10 second become the barrier because cells were under extreme temperature stress. Therefore, encapsulate was needed to protect the cells from those extreme conditions. Viability and survival rate of encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 have been investigated. The result showed that Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 that was encapsulated by 10% skim milk has higher viability than those by 5% skim milk, namely 72.37% and 51.69% respectively. Survival rate of encapsulated Lactobacillus cells will come to zero in 41.28 years. Therefore, encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 may use as probiotic agent.

  17. Comparative studies of cellular viability levels on 2D and 3D in vitro culture matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargotti, M; Lopez-Gonzalez, U; Byrne, H J; Casey, A

    2017-09-18

    In this study, the cellular viability and function of immortalized human cervical and dermal cells are monitored and compared in conventional 2D and two commercial 3D membranes, Collagen and Geltrex, of varying working concentration and volume. Viability was monitored with the aid of the Alamar Blue assay, cellular morphology was monitored with confocal microscopy, and cell cycle studies and cell death mechanism studies were performed with flow cytometry. The viability studies showed apparent differences between the 2D and 3D culture systems, the differences attributed in part to the physical transition from 2D to 3D environment causing alterations to effective resazurin concentration, uptake and conversion rates, which was dependent on exposure time, but also due to the effect of the membrane itself on cellular function. These effects were verified by flow cytometry, in which no significant differences in viable cell numbers between 2D and 3D systems were observed after 24 h culture. The results showed the observed effect was different after shorter exposure periods, was also dependent on working concentration of the 3D system and could be mediated by altering the culture vessel size. Cell cycle analysis revealed cellular function could be altered by growth on the 3D substrates and the alterations were noted to be dependent on 3D membrane concentration. The use of 3D culture matrices has been widely interpreted to result in "improved viability levels" or "reduced" toxicity or cellular "resistance" compared to cells cultured on traditional 2D systems. The results of this study show that cellular health and viability levels are not altered by culture in 3D environments, but their normal cycle can be altered as indicated in the cell cycle studies performed and such variations must be accounted for in studies employing 3D membranes for in vitro cellular screening.

  18. Yeast viability and concentration analysis using lens-free computational microscopy and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Alborz; Zhang, Yibo; Greenbaum, Alon; Guziak, Alex; Luong, Michelle; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Berg, Brandon; Ozkan, Haydar; Luo, Wei; Wu, Michael; Wu, Yichen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Research laboratories and the industry rely on yeast viability and concentration measurements to adjust fermentation parameters such as pH, temperature, and pressure. Beer-brewing processes as well as biofuel production can especially utilize a cost-effective and portable way of obtaining data on cell viability and concentration. However, current methods of analysis are relatively costly and tedious. Here, we demonstrate a rapid, portable, and cost-effective platform for imaging and measuring viability and concentration of yeast cells. Our platform features a lens-free microscope that weighs 70 g and has dimensions of 12 × 4 × 4 cm. A partially-coherent illumination source (a light-emitting-diode), a band-pass optical filter, and a multimode optical fiber are used to illuminate the sample. The yeast sample is directly placed on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor chip, which captures an in-line hologram of the sample over a large field-of-view of >20 mm2. The hologram is transferred to a touch-screen interface, where a trained Support Vector Machine model classifies yeast cells stained with methylene blue as live or dead and measures cell viability as well as concentration. We tested the accuracy of our platform against manual counting of live and dead cells using fluorescent exclusion staining and a bench-top fluorescence microscope. Our regression analysis showed no significant difference between the two methods within a concentration range of 1.4 × 105 to 1.4 × 106 cells/mL. This compact and cost-effective yeast analysis platform will enable automatic quantification of yeast viability and concentration in field settings and resource-limited environments.

  19. Photodynamic Effects of Pterin on HeLa Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denofrio, M. Paula; Lorente, Carolina; Breitenbach, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    cells (HeLa) and that these cells die upon UV-A irradiation of Ptr. Cell death was assessed using two tests: (1) the Rhodamine 123 fluorescence assay for mitochondrial viability and (2) the Trypan Blue assay for membrane integrity. The data suggest that, for Ptr-dependent photoinitiated cell death...

  20. Construction and evaluation of rats' tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following methods were employed to phenotype DC: 1) Observation of cell morphology; 2) Evaluation of cell viability using trypan blue staining; 3) Purity determination of DC through detection of specific markers OX-62; 4) Evaluation of mature state of DC via the determination of the expression of CD80 and CD86; ...

  1. 7-Piperazinethylchrysin inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PEC) on melanoma cell lines. Methods: Cell viability was analyzed by trypan blue exclusion assays and the cell cycle by flow cytometry using ModFit LT software. Specifically, cells were stained with propidium iodide (0.5 mg/mL) supplemented ...

  2. Evaluation of Code Blue Implementation Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Özütürk; Nalan Muhammedoğlu; Emel Dal; Berna Çalışkan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we aimed to emphasize the importance of Code Blue implementation and to determine deficiencies in this regard. Methods: After obtaining the ethics committee approval, 225 patient’s code blue call data between 2012 and 2014 January were retrospectively analyzed. Age and gender of the patients, date and time of the call and the clinics giving Code Blue, the time needed for the Code Blue team to arrive, the rates of false Code Blue calls, reasons for Code...

  3. Viability assessment of Ascaris suum eggs stained with fluorescent dyes using digital colorimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Magdalena; Zdybel, Jolanta; Próchniak, Marek; Osiński, Zbigniew; Karamon, Jacek; Kłapeć, Teresa; Cencek, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a method for the colorimetric evaluation of nematode eggs using appropriate instruments. The materials for the study were live and dead (inactivated) eggs of the Ascaris suum. Viability of the eggs was assessed using four different kits for fluorescent staining (for each technique, a series of photos were taken). Images of stained eggs were analysed using graphic software with RGB (red-green-blue) function. The viability of the eggs was assessed according to the relative positions of the distributions of colour intensities of live or dead eggs - distributions area's overlap index (DAOI), and distributions area's separation index (DASI) were calculated. Computer analysis of the intensity of green colour was not satisfactory. However, analysis of images in the spectrum of red colour proved useful for the effective differentiation between live or dead eggs. The best parameters were observed using the Annexin V FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit (DASI = 41 and 67). The investigation confirmed the usefulness of fluorescent dyes used in conjunction with digital analysis for the assessment of the viability of A. suum eggs. The use of computer software allowed a better objectivity of the assessment, especially in the case of doubtful staining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Photothermal effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the viability of BT-474 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hung-Tao; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chang, Hwan-You

    2013-03-01

    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) were conjugated to an antibody of BT-474 cancer cells (f-MWCNTs-ab), and the photothermal effect of the f-MWCNTs-ab for BT-474 cancer cell destruction was demonstrated. After near-infrared irradiation, the f-MWCNTs-ab were more capable of killing cancer cells and possessed higher cell specificity than f-MWCNTs. Quantitative results showed that the viability of the cancer cells was affected by the concentration of the f-MWCNTs-ab solution, irradiation time, and settling time after irradiation. The membrane impermeable fluorescence dye ethidium bromide was used to detect cell viability after near-infrared irradiation, and the results agreed with those obtained from the Alamar Blue cell viability assay. The EtBr fluorescence results suggest that the cell membrane, attached to f-MWCNTs-ab, was damaged after irradiation, which led to cell death and necrosis. Using confocal microscopy, a few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell, indicating the endocytosis effect. The results not only explain the improved efficiency of thermotherapy but also indicate that necrosis may result from protein denaturation attributing to the heated f-MWCNTs-ab in the cell. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  6. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  7. Blue light emitting diode induces apoptosis in lymphoid cells by stimulating autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Hwang, Hyosook; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Jeongil; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Minjoo; Lim, SeokTae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the induction of apoptotic cell death and autophagy by blue LED irradiation, and the contribution of autophagy to apoptosis in B cell lymphoma A20 and RAMOS cells exposed to blue LED. Irradiation with blue LED reduced cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death, as indicated by exposure of phosphatidylserine on the plasma outside membrane and fragmentation of DNA. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential increased, and apoptotic proteins (PARP, caspase 3, Bax, and bcl-2) were observed. In addition, the level of intracellular superoxide anion (O2(-)) gradually increased. Interestingly the formation of autophagosomes and level of LC3-II were increased in blue LED-irradiated A20 and RAMOS cells, but inhibited after pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), widely used as an autophagy inhibitor. Inhibition of the autophagic process by pretreatment with 3-MA blocked blue LED irradiation-induced caspase-3 activation. Moreover, a significant reduction of both the early and late phases of apoptosis after transfection with ATG5 and beclin 1 siRNAs was shown by the annexin V/PI staining, indicating a crucial role of autophagy in blue LED-induced apoptosis in cells. Additionally, the survival rate of mice irradiated with blue LED after injection with A20 cells increased compared to the control group. Our data demonstrate that blue LED irradiation induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated pathway, in conjunction with autophagy. Further studies are needed to elucidate the precise mechanism of blue LED-induced immune cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. "Metabolism of Odontoblast-like cells submitted to transdentinal irradiation with blue and red LED".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leopoldina de Fátima Dantas de; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Turrioni, Ana Paula Silveira; de-Souza-Costa, Carlos Alberto; Hebling, Josimeri

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluated the trans-dentinal effect of light emitting diodes (LEDs) irradiation on the metabolism of odontoblast-like cells. Seventy-two dentin discs (0.2mm thick) were obtained from human molar teeth. MDPC-23 cells (20,000 cells/disc) were seeded on the pulpal side of the discs using DMEM, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). After 12h, the culture medium was replaced with DMEM containing 0.5% FBS. After additional 12h, blue (455±10nm) or red (630±10nm) LEDs were used at irradiances of 80 and 40mW/cm(2), respectively, to irradiate the occlusal side of the discs. The energy doses were fixed at 2 or 4J/cm(2). Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), total protein production and collagen synthesis were evaluated 72h after irradiation. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Red light promoted proliferative effects at the energy dose of 4J/cm(2). Conversely, cell cultures irradiated with 2J/cm(2) emitted by the blue light showed reduced viability. ALP production was stimulated by red light in comparison with blue light at 4J/cm(2). Total protein production was reduced after exposure to blue light at 4J/cm(2), while no effect was observed on collagen production. Irradiation with red LED at 4J/cm(2) bio-stimulated the viability of odontoblast-like cells, whilst blue light had unfavorable effects on the cellular metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bonney's blue cystitis: a warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, T J; Chapple, C R; Payne, S D; Milroy, E J; Warwick, R T

    1989-03-01

    The instillation of diluted Bonney's blue into the bladder during gynaecological operations has been quite common practice over the last 50 years. Bonney's blue is composed of a 1:1 mixture of brilliant green and crystal violet dissolved in ethanol (90%) or industrial methylated spirit. Before insertion into the bladder this solution must be diluted with water to a 0.5% solution. Failure to do this will result in a severe inflammatory reaction within the bladder. The degree of resultant damage depends upon the duration of exposure. Persistent pain is a feature of this condition, although the other symptoms (frequency and urgency) may settle in time. Two cases of chemical cystitis resulting from the use of undiluted Bonney's blue are described to illustrate the possible consequences. Both patients were awarded 6-figure sums as compensation.

  10. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  11. SEPARATION OF X-BEARING BOVINE SPERM BY CENTRIFUGATION IN CONTINUOUS PERCOLL AND OPTIPREP DENSITY GRADIENT: EFFECT IN SPERM VIABILITY AND IN VITRO EMBRYO PRODUCTION SEPARAÇÃO DE ESPERMATOZOIDES PORTADORES DO CROMOSSOMO X BOVINO POR CENTRIFUGAÇÃO EM GRADIENTE DE DENSIDADE CONTÍNUO DE PERCOLL E OPTIPREP: EFEITO SOBRE A VIABILIDADE ESPERMÁTICA E NA PRODUÇÃO IN VITRO DE EMBRIÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Costa Lucio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to separate X-bearing bovine sperm by continuous Percoll and OptiPrep density gradients and to validate the sexing of resultant in vitro produced embryos by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Frozen/thawed sperm was layered on density gradients which were previously prepared in polystyrene tubes, 24 h before procedures and maintained at 4 °C. The tubes were centrifuged at 500 x g for 15 min at 22 °C. Supernatants were gently aspirated and the sperm recovered from the bottom of the tubes. Viability and integrity of sperm were evaluated by Trypan Blue/Giemsa stain. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were determined by in vitro production of embryos and PCR was performed for identification of the embryos’ genetic sex. No damage in viability and acrossomal integrity and in cleavage and blastocyst rates was found in the Percoll and OptiPrep treatment compared to the non-centrifuged group (P>0.05. The percentage of female embryos in the Percoll and OptiPrep group was 63.0 and 47.6%, respectively. The female embryos in control group were 48.7%. A sexual deviation in the Percoll density gradient was achieved without reduction of sperm viability and in vitro production rates.

    KEY WORDS: Bovine, centrifugation, in vitro production of embryos, PCR, X-bearing sperm.

    O objetivo deste estudo foi separar espermatozoides bovinos portadores do cromossomo X pela centrifugação em gradiente de densidade contínuo de Percoll e OptiPrep, e validar a sexagem pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR, dos embriões produzidos in vitro. Para a sexagem, espermatozoides descongelados foram depositados nos gradientes de densidade, previamente preparados, em tubos de poliestireno, 24 horas antes da sexagem e mantidos a 4°C. Centrifugou-se a 500 x g por quinze minutos a 22°C. Os sobrenadantes foram aspirados, e os espermatozoides recuperados do

  12. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.

    1999-04-12

    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  13. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  14. Baby blues: identification and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C H

    1990-01-01

    Transitory postpartum depressive syndrome or baby blues affects up to 80% of all newly delivered women. Baby Blues is so common it may be considered normal. While one of the more mild forms of depression after child birth, it can still be disruptive to the family unit. Both physiological and psychosocial factors contribute to the syndrome. Appropriate nursing assessment and intervention throughout the childbearing cycle can be very beneficial in helping families to understand and cope with the problem, as well as help prevent more serious depressive syndromes.

  15. Laponite blue: dissolving the insoluble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhnina, Marina M; Grewe, Tobias; Stoehr, Hardo; Kynast, Ulrich

    2012-10-15

    The neutral organic dye indigo forms an inorganic-organic hybrid material with nanoclays (see picture; blue circles on disks symbolizing indigo, spheres indicating liberated cations) and can thus be transferred into aqueous solution. Solids recovered from these solutions resemble the ancient Maya Blue pigment. The method can also be applied to other hydrophobic species and may open the gate for novel solution chemistry, including photonic and catalytic applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Testing a dual-fluorescence assay to monitor the viability of filamentous cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J; Hildreth, Michael B; Gu, Liping; Zhou, Ruanbao; Gibbons, William R

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous cyanobacteria are currently being engineered to produce long-chain organic compounds, including 3rd generation biofuels. Because of their filamentous morphology, standard methods to quantify viability (e.g., plate counts) are not possible. This study investigated a dual-fluorescence assay based upon the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit to quantify the percent viability of filamentous cyanobacteria using a microplate reader in a high throughput 96-well plate format. The manufacturer's protocol calls for an optical density normalization step to equalize the numbers of viable and non-viable cells used to generate calibration curves. Unfortunately, the isopropanol treatment used to generate non-viable cells released a blue pigment that altered absorbance readings of the non-viable cell solution, resulting in an inaccurate calibration curve. Thus we omitted this optical density normalization step, and carefully divided cell cultures into two equal fractions before the isopropanol treatment. While the resulting calibration curves had relatively high correlation coefficients, their use in various experiments resulted in viability estimates ranging from below 0% to far above 100%. We traced this to the apparent inaccuracy of the propidium iodide (PI) dye that was to stain only non-viable cells. Through further analysis via microplate reader, as well as confocal and wide-field epi-fluorescence microscopy, we observed non-specific binding of PI in viable filamentous cyanobacteria. While PI will not work for filamentous cyanobacteria, it is possible that other fluorochrome dyes could be used to selectively stain non-viable cells. This will be essential in future studies for screening mutants and optimizing photobioreactor system performance for filamentous cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  18. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  19. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  20. Deteksi Kerusakan DNA Spermatozoa Semen Segar dan Semen Beku Sapi Menggunakan Pewarnaan Toluidine Blue (DETECTION OF SPERM DNA DAMAGE INFRESH AND FROZEN SEMEN USING TOLUIDINE BLUE STAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Priyanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA integrity is very important in the success of fertilization and embryo development.Toluidine blue (TB is a sensitive staining to examine the chromatin structure of sperm. The aim of thisstudy was to detect the sperm DNA damage before and after freezing using TB. Semen was obtained fromeight superior bulls (two Brahman, two Ongole, two Simental and two Limosin belong to Lembang ArtificialInsemination Centre. Semen was collected twice a week using artificial vagina, then was evaluatedmacrocopically and microscopically after collected, including sperm motility, viability, plasma membraneintegrity (MI and acrosome intact (AI, sperm concentration, abnormality and sperm DNA integrity. Thesemen that been used in this study showed the total motility was more than 70%, sperm concentrationwas more than 1000x106, and the sperm abnormality was below 20%. The result showed that the qualityof semen after freezing processed was decreased significantly (P<0.05 on percentage of sperm motility,viability, MI and AI, whereas there was no different on DNA integrity (P>0.05. Sperm DNA integrity offresh and frozen semen were 93.91±4.77% and 92.06 ±2.41% respectively. The decrease of DNA integritywas low (1.84% compared to motility (28.3%, viability (21.6%, MI (14.1%, and AI (11.8%. In conclusion,toluidine blue can be used to detect of DNA damage and the freezing process will not decrease the DNAintegrity.

  1. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  2. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design.

  3. The relationship between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplaski, Mary K; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Mullen, Brendan; Garbens, Alaina; Jarvi, Keith A

    2015-05-14

    In humans, sperm DNA fragmentation rates have been correlated with sperm viability rates. Reduced sperm viability is associated with high sperm DNA fragmentation, while conversely high sperm viability is associated with low rates of sperm DNA fragmentation. Both elevated DNA fragmentation rates and poor viability are correlated with impaired male fertility, with a DNA fragmentation rate of >30% indicating subfertility. We postulated that in some men, the sperm viability assay could predict the sperm DNA fragmentation rates. This in turn could reduce the need for sperm DNA fragmentation assay testing, simplifying the infertility investigation and saving money for infertile couples. All men having semen analyses with both viability and DNA fragmentation testing were identified via a prospectively collected database. Viability was measured by eosin-nigrosin assay. DNA fragmentation was measured using the sperm chromosome structure assay. The relationship between DNA fragmentation and viability was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. From 2008-2013, 3049 semen analyses had both viability and DNA fragmentation testing. A strong inverse relationship was seen between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates, with r=-0.83. If viability was ≤50% (n=301) then DNA fragmentation was ≥ 30% for 95% of the samples. If viability was ≥75% (n=1736), then the DNA fragmentation was ≤30% for 95% of the patients. Sperm viability correlates strongly with DNA fragmentation rates. In men with high levels of sperm viability≥75%, or low levels of sperm viability≤ 30%, DFI testing may be not be routinely necessary. Given that DNA fragmentation testing is substantially more expensive than vitality testing, this may represent a valuable cost-saving measure for couples undergoing a fertility evaluation.

  4. Code Blue evaluation in children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kubra Evren; Ozdinc, Oktay Zeki; Yoldas, Suna; Goktay, Aylin; Dorak, Selda

    2016-01-01

    True alarm rate of the Code Blue cases is at a low level in the Dr. Behçet Uz Children's Hospital in İzmir. This study aims to analyse the use of the Code Blue alarm cases in the children's hospital. This retrospective clinical study evaluated the age and the gender of the cases, the arriving time of the Code Blue team, the date and time of the Code Blue Call, the reasons of the Code Blue Call, and the verification which were all obtained from the Code Blue forms of the hospital dated between January 2014 and January 2015. The data of 139 Code Blue cases' forms were investigated and was divided into two groups: before and after the education containing 88 and 51 cases, respectively. Conversive disorder (26% to 13%, Pode Blue cases were false calls with female greater than male (Pode that is to say pre-diagnosis team should be formed.

  5. Anti-proliferation effect of blue light-emitting diodes against antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianwei; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Etoh, Tsuyoshi; Akada, Junko; Fujishima, Hajime; Shiraishi, Norio; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Inomata, Masafumi

    2017-12-07

    Infection by Helicobacter pylori is implicated in a wide range of upper gastrointestinal diseases. Owing to the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori, the development of novel treatment modalities for antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection is a key priority. Blue light-emitting diodes (LED) may represent a unique option owing to their antimicrobial effect. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of blue LED against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Ten antibiotic-resistant strains and one sensitive H. pylori strain were used in this study. After irradiation by blue LED along time course, the viability of H. pylori was evaluated by enumerating colony forming units. Morphological changes in H. pylori were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Reductase activity was measured as an indicator of bacterial cellular activity. Total reactive oxygen species was monitored using fluorescence intensity and fluorescence microscope imaging. After irradiation by blue LED, the numbers of H. pylori in all the strains were significantly reduced compared to control group. The H. pylori exhibited a short rod-shaped morphology after irradiation; no such change was observed in H. pylori not exposed to blue LED. Re-irradiation of surviving strain after the initial irradiation also exhibited the same anti-proliferation effect. After blue LED irradiation, bacterial cellular activity was lower and total reactive oxygen species production was significantly higher in blue LED group, compared to that in control. Blue LED could be a new treatment to eradicate infection with antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential responses of nitrifying archaea and bacteria to methylene blue toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, A J; Urakawa, H

    2016-02-01

    Methylene blue, a heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound used to treat fish diseases in the ornamental fish aquaculture industry, is believed to impair nitrification as a side effect. However, very little is known about the toxicity of methylene blue to nitrifying micro-organisms. Here, we report the susceptibility of six bacterial and one archaeal ammonia-oxidizing micro-organisms to methylene blue within the range of 10 ppb to 10 ppm. Remarkably high susceptibility was observed in the archaeal species Nitrosopumilus maritimus compared to the bacterial species. Ammonia oxidation by Nitrosopumilus maritimus was inhibited 65% by 10 ppb of methylene blue. Of the bacterial species examined, Nitrosococcus oceani was the most resistant to methylene blue toxicity. For similar inhibition of Nitrosococcus oceani (75% inhibition), one thousand times more methylene blue (10 ppm) was needed. The examination of single cell viability on Nitrosomonas marina demonstrated that methylene blue is lethal to the cells rather than reducing their single cell ammonia oxidation activity. The level of susceptibility to methylene blue was related to the cell volume, intracytoplasmic membrane arrangement and the evolutionary lineage of nitrifying micro-organisms. Our findings are relevant for effectively using methylene blue in various aquaculture settings by helping minimize its impact on nitrifiers during the treatment of fish diseases. In the future, resistant nitrifiers such as Nitrosococcus oceani may be purposely added to aquaculture systems to maintain nitrification activity during treatments with methylene blue. The susceptibility of six bacterial and one archaeal nitrifying micro-organisms to methylene blue was tested. Remarkably high susceptibility was observed in the archaeal species compared to the bacterial species. The level of resistance to methylene blue was related to the cell volume, cytomembrane system and the taxonomic position of the nitrifying micro

  7. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blue cheese. 133.106 Section 133.106 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.106 Blue cheese. (a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set...

  8. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  9. Preliminary viability studies of fibroblastic cells cultured on microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds produced by chemical vapour deposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant materials used in orthopedics surgery have demonstrated some disadvantages, such as metallic corrosion processes, generation of wear particles, inflammation reactions and bone reabsorption in the implant region. The diamond produced through hot-filament chemical vapour deposition method is a new potential biomedical material due to its chemical inertness, extreme hardness and low coefficient of friction. In the present study we analysis two samples: the microcrystalline diamond and the nanocrystalline diamond. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties of the diamond samples by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell viability and morphology were assessed using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide, cytochemical assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results revealed that the two samples did not interfere in the cell viability, however the proliferation of fibroblasts cells observed was comparatively higher with the nanocrystalline diamond.

  10. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay......The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...

  11. Assessing the Viability of Tiger Subpopulations in a Fragmented Landscape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew Linkie; Guillaume Chapron; Deborah J. Martyr; Jeremy Holden; Nigel Leader-Williams

    2006-01-01

    .... This study aimed to provide such information for tigers in the Kerinci Seblat (KS) region, Sumatra, by identifying and assessing subpopulation viability under different management strategies. 2...

  12. Fault Detection and Isolation using Viability Theory and Interval Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaniee Zarch, Majid; Puig, Vicenç; Poshtan, Javad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of interval observers and viability theory in fault detection and isolation (FDI). Viability theory develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty. These methods can be used for checking the consistency between observed and predicted behavior by using simple sets that approximate the exact set of possible behavior (in the parameter or state space). In this paper, fault detection is based on checking for an inconsistency between the measured and predicted behaviors using viability theory concepts and sets. Finally, an example is provided in order to show the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  13. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of storage conditions on the viability of enteropathogenics bacteria in biobanking of human stools: Cases of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae O: 1.

  14. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  16. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  17. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas

    2010-10-11

    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  18. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

  19. Dying endothelial cells stimulate proliferation of malignant glioma cells via a caspase 3-mediated pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Ping; Smith, Luke; XIE, WANFU; Wang, Maode

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence has indicated that apoptotic cells have a compensatory effect on the proliferation of neighboring cells. However, the potential role of dying vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in glioma tumor proliferation remains unclear. In the present study, three glioma cell lines were cocultured with dying ECs under various conditions to evaluate the effect of dying ECs on tumor proliferation using alamarBlue and trypan blue assays to assess cell proliferation and viability, respectively...

  20. Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Postpartum Blues

    OpenAIRE

    ', Desfanita '; ', Misrawati '; ', Arneliwati '

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum blues (baby blues)is a sad condition which is faced by certain mothers after giving birth, every mothers has a tendency for having a postpartum blues (baby blues). The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which affect the postpartum blues syndrome. The analysis method of this study used a descriptive correlation design. The study was held in the state hospital of Riau (RSUD Arifin Achmad) and Petala Bumi hospital. A purposive sampling technigue. Was used in this study to...

  1. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  2. Honey is cytotoxic towards prostate cancer cells but interacts with the MTT reagent: Considerations for the choice of cell viability assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Sean D A; Baird, Sarah K

    2018-02-15

    Honey is a complex biological substance, consisting mainly of sugars, phenolic compounds and enzymes. Using five quick and accessible assays for measuring honey's cytotoxicity in vitro, we found honey is cytotoxic towards prostate cancer cells PC3 and DU145. However, the level of cell death varied with assay. The MTT assay was confounded by the reduction of the MTT reagent by honey's reducing sugars and phenolic compounds, and the lactate dehydrogenase assay was invalidated by honey oxidising the enzyme cofactor NADH. The sulforhodamine B assay gave valid results, but measures only protein content, providing no information about cell death in the remaining cells. The trypan blue assay and a microscope-based propidium iodide/Hoechst staining assay assess only late stage membrane permeability. However, the propidium iodide/Hoechst assay gives morphological information about cell death mechanism. A combination of the sulforhodamine B and propidium iodide/Hoechst assays would provide the most accurate quantification of honey cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Static Magnetic Field on the Rate of Proliferation and Viability in HeLa Cancer Cells and Normal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The increasing use of the electromagnetic devices in daily life leads to higher electromagnetic filed effects. The effects on the organic systems are contradictory and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different intensities and durations of the static magnetic fields on the living cells and their proliferation rate. Materials & Methods: In the applied study, two HeLa cancer cell lines and human fibroblast natural cells were studied. At first, the cells were cultured on DMEN medium. Three magnetic intensities (7, 14, and 21T and two durations (24 and 48h were used, and the cells were treated by static magnetic field. The living cell percentage and cell proliferation rate were assessed by MTT method. Trypan blue was used in staining. And an optical microscope was used in enumeration. Data was analyzed by Graphpad Prism 5 using one-way ANOVA. Findings: The higher the static magnetic field and the more the duration were, the lesser the percentage of living cells and cell proliferation, showing a significant reduction in the HeLa cancer cells, while it was insignificant in the fibroblast natural cells. The highest reduction in the living cell percentage and cell proliferation rate was in 48-hour 21T (p<0.05. Conclusion: The static magnetic field affects the HeLa cancer cells more than the fibroblast cells. The higher the field intensity and the more the duration are, the lesser the alive cell percentage and cell proliferation rate.

  4. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fany Colson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented.

  6. Properties of Open Clusters Containing Blue Stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Uk; Chang, Heon-Young

    2017-06-01

    The presence of blue stragglers pose challenges to standard stellar evolution theory, in the sense that explaining their presence demands a complex interplay between stellar evolution and cluster dynamics. In the meantime, mass transfer in binary systems and stellar collisions are widely studied as a blue straggler formation channel. We explore properties of the Galactic open clusters where blue stragglers are found, in attempting to estimate the relative importance of these two favored processes, by comparing them with those resulting from open clusters in which blue stragglers are absent as of now. Unlike previous studies which require a sophisticated process in understanding the implication of the results, this approach is straightforward and has resulted in a supplementary supporting evidence for the current view on the blue straggler formation mechanism. Our main findings are as follows: (1) Open clusters in which blue stragglers are present have a broader distribution with respect to the Z-axis pointing towards the North Galactic Pole than those in which blue stragglers are absent. The probability that two distributions with respect to the Z-axis are drawn from the same distribution is 0.2%. (2) Average values of log_{10}(t) of the clusters with blue stragglers and those without blue stragglers are 8.58 ± 0.232 and 7.52 ± 0.285, respectively. (3) The clusters with blue stragglers tend to be relatively redder than the others, and are distributed broader in colors. (4) The clusters with blue stragglers are likely brighter than those without blue stragglers. (5) Finally, blue stragglers seem to form in condensed clusters rather than simply dense clusters. Hence, we conclude that mass transfer in binaries seems to be a relatively important physical mechanism of the generation of blue stragglers in open clusters, provided they are sufficiently old.

  7. Sustained effects of blue light on Streptococcus mutans in regrown biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Berneron, Julie; Steinberg, Doron; Featherstone, John D B; Feuerstein, Osnat

    2016-04-01

    In prior studies, exposure of Streptococcus mutans in biofilm to blue light using high fluences of up to 680 J/cm(2) did not interfere with bacterial capability to reform an initial biofilm; however, a delayed antibacterial effect was observed. Our aim was to determine the sustained effecttts of blue light-emitting diode (LED) curing light on the pathogenicity of the newly formed biofilm. S. mutans were grown to form biofilm that was exposed to blue light (wavelengths, 460-480 nm) for 1, 3, and 7 min (equivalent to 37, 112, and 262 J/cm(2), respectively). Then, bacteria were suspended and allowed to regrow into new biofilms. The regrown biofilms were assessed for bacterial quantification by optical density (OD) measurement and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), bacterial viability and extracellular polysaccharide production by fluorescent staining using confocal scanning laser microscopy, acid production by bacteria (acidogenicity), and bacterial survival at low pH (aciduricity) using qPCR. Bacterial growth in the regrown biofilms was increased when samples were previously exposed to light; however, under the confocal microscopy, a higher proportion of dead bacteria and a reduction in polysaccharide production were observed. The acidogenicity from the regrown biofilm was lowered as fluences of light increased. The aciduricity of the regrown biofilm was decreased, meaning less growth of bacteria into biofilm in low pH with increasing fluences. Blue light has sustained effects on S. mutans bacteria grown into new biofilm. Although bacterial growth in biofilm increased, bacterial viability and virulence characteristics were impaired. The cariogenic potential over time of S. mutans previously exposed to blue light when grown on tooth surfaces is yet to be determined.

  8. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  9. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  10. Establishing guidelines to retain viability of probiotics during spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to systematically assess

  11. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated by field artificial ...

  12. Viability of dielectrophoretically trapped neuronal cortical cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Vulto, P; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico

    2001-01-01

    Negative dielectrophoretic trapping of neural cells is an efficient way to position neural cells on the electrode sites of planar micro-electrode arrays. The preservation of viability of the neural cells is essential for this approach. This study investigates the viability of postnatal cortical rat

  13. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit of biological material that is capable of...

  14. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated.

  15. Studies On Fermentation, Alcohol Production And Viability In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reverse was true in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Yeasts with high viability tended to have high alcohol production ability in the sucrose medium and vice-versa. KEY WORDS: Alcohol production; fermentation; induced mutants; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; viability. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ...

  16. The Economy and Democracy: Viability and Challenges for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Economy and Democracy: Viability and Challenges for Sustainable Democratisation in Nigeria. ... Economic and Policy Review ... the viability for developing sustainable democracy in Nigeria against the background of the country's enormous economic potentials and the economic reforms introduced following the ...

  17. Pollen viability and germination in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to assess pollen viability using the staining technique and in vitro germination with different concentrations of sucrose in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha mollissima, contributing to the knowledge of the reproductive biology and subsidizing their conservation, management and utilization. Pollen viability ...

  18. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Todd W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  19. Do Multiwell Plate High Throughput Assays Measure Loss of Cell Viability Following Exposure to Genotoxic Agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmik Mirzayans

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based assays in multiwell plates are widely used for radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity assessment with different mammalian cell types. Despite their relative ease of performance, such assays lack specificity as they do not distinguish between the cytostatic (reversible/sustained growth arrest and cytotoxic (loss of viability effects of genotoxic agents. We recently reported studies with solid tumor-derived cell lines demonstrating that radiosensitivity as measured by multiwell plate colorimetric (e.g., XTT and fluorimetric (e.g., CellTiter-Blue assays reflects growth arrest but not loss of viability. Herein we report similar observations with cancer cell lines expressing wild-type p53 (A549 lung carcinoma or mutant p53 (MDA–MB-231 breast carcinoma after treatment with the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Importantly, we show that treatment of cancer cells with concentrations of cisplatin that result in 50% effect (i.e., IC50 in multiwell plate assays trigger the emergence of growth arrested cells that exhibit highly enlarged morphology, remain viable and adherent to the culture dish, and metabolize the tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT to its formazan derivative. The emergence of markedly enlarged viable cells complicates the interpretation of chemosensitivity data obtained with multiwell plate high throughput assays. Relying solely on IC50 values could be misleading.

  20. Effect of temperature on immunocompetence of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Beaudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The blue mussel is a filter-feeding bivalve commonly used in ecotoxicological monitoring as a sentinel species. Due to climate change and the increase of temperature expected in marine environment, it is important to anticipate potential impacts on this species. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunocompetence of blue mussels acclimated to different temperatures and on the effects of increasing temperatures (5, 10 and 20°C. Different indices and gonad maturation stages were also determined throughout the experiments. Cell viability, phagocytosis, serum lysozyme activity and cyclooxygenase (COX activity were evaluated as immune parameters. The cellular immunity was also evaluated after hemocytes exposure to various cadmium concentrations in vitro. The results obtained demonstrate modulation of hemocyte viability and the ability of these cells to phagocytize in absence of contaminants. After the exposure to cadmium, hemocytes showed greater viability at 5°C while maintaining a higher phagocytic competence. In addition, the lysozyme activity stayed stable at all tested temperatures, contrary to that of COX, which increased when the mussels were maintained at 20°C. The evaluation of indices demonstrated no reduction of general conditions during all the experiment despite the increase of temperature and the reduction of the digestive gland weight. Moreover, the lack of food does not affect gonad maturation and the spawning process.

  1. [Hemodialysis improves the subendocardial viability ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Antonella; Sirico, Maria; Di Micco, Lucia; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2013-01-01

    The subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), a parameter introduced by Buckberg, represents a non-invasive measure of myocardial perfusion related to left ventricular work. AIM. The aim of this study was to verify if dialysis may determine modifications of SEVR and how these modifications are modulated in the 2-day interdialytic period. METHODS.We studied 54 subjects of mean age 6314 years and receiving dialysis for 3215 months. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, resistant hypertension and peripheral vascular diseases and intradialytic hypotension evidenced during the study dialysis session. Pulse wave velocity and SEVR assessments were performed during the third dialysis session of the week, before (pre-HD) and after (post-HD) dialysis, in 2-day interdialytic period after and at the beginning of the following dialysis session. RESULTS.Dialysis reduces PWV, in particular the tertile with the lowest PWV presents the highest percentage reduction (-26%) compared with the second and the third tertiles. In the same way, dialysis leads to an increase of SEVR and patients in the tertile with the highest SEVR values maintain high SEVR values during dialysis and in the interdialytic period. Patients with severe vascular calcifications present higher PWV value and lower SEVR value. CONCLUSIONS.The results of present study demonstrate that ultrafiltration improves PWV (with a mean reduction of 16%) and SEVR (increase of 13%) and that the severity of vascular calcifications influences the effect of ultrafiltration on these two parameters. More studies are certainly necessary to verify our findings. Considered the higher mortality of patients with higher SEVR, it would be important to understand if new dialytic strategies are needed in patients with higher PVW and lower SEVR values.

  2. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  3. A novel concentration and viability detection method for Brettanomyces using the Cellometer image cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniak, Brian; Bolton, Jason; Kuksin, Dmitry; Shahin, Suzanne M; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Brettanomyces spp. can present unique cell morphologies comprised of excessive pseudohyphae and budding, leading to difficulties in enumerating cells. The current cell counting methods include manual counting of methylene blue-stained yeasts or measuring optical densities using a spectrophotometer. However, manual counting can be time-consuming and has high operator-dependent variations due to subjectivity. Optical density measurement can also introduce uncertainties where instead of individual cells counted, an average of a cell population is measured. In contrast, by utilizing the fluorescence capability of an image cytometer to detect acridine orange and propidium iodide viability dyes, individual cell nuclei can be counted directly in the pseudohyphae chains, which can improve the accuracy and efficiency of cell counting, as well as eliminating the subjectivity from manual counting. In this work, two experiments were performed to demonstrate the capability of Cellometer image cytometer to monitor Brettanomyces concentrations, viabilities, and budding/pseudohyphae percentages. First, a yeast propagation experiment was conducted to optimize software counting parameters for monitoring the growth of Brettanomyces clausenii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, and Brettanomyces lambicus, which showed increasing cell concentrations, and varying pseudohyphae percentages. The pseudohyphae formed during propagation were counted either as multiple nuclei or a single multi-nuclei organism, where the results of counting the yeast as a single multi-nuclei organism were directly compared to manual counting. Second, a yeast fermentation experiment was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed image cytometric analysis method can monitor the growth pattern of B. lambicus and B. clausenii during beer fermentation. The results from both experiments displayed different growth patterns, viability, and budding/pseudohyphae percentages for each Brettanomyces species. The proposed

  4. Photothermal effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the viability of BT-474 cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hung-Tao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsung-Pao [Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chi-Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tai, Nyan-Hwa, E-mail: nhtai@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hwan-You, E-mail: hychang@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2 Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsin-chu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-03-01

    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) were conjugated to an antibody of BT-474 cancer cells (f-MWCNTs-ab), and the photothermal effect of the f-MWCNTs-ab for BT-474 cancer cell destruction was demonstrated. After near-infrared irradiation, the f-MWCNTs-ab were more capable of killing cancer cells and possessed higher cell specificity than f-MWCNTs. Quantitative results showed that the viability of the cancer cells was affected by the concentration of the f-MWCNTs-ab solution, irradiation time, and settling time after irradiation. The membrane impermeable fluorescence dye ethidium bromide was used to detect cell viability after near-infrared irradiation, and the results agreed with those obtained from the Alamar Blue cell viability assay. The EtBr fluorescence results suggest that the cell membrane, attached to f-MWCNTs-ab, was damaged after irradiation, which led to cell death and necrosis. Using confocal microscopy, a few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell, indicating the endocytosis effect. The results not only explain the improved efficiency of thermotherapy but also indicate that necrosis may result from protein denaturation attributing to the heated f-MWCNTs-ab in the cell. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer f-MWCNTs conjugated with anti-HER2 antibody by chemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kill breast cancer cells by using low dose f-MWCNTs-ab due to photothermal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use EtBr fluorescent to prove that the cell membrane was broken by heated f-MWCNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few f-MWCNTs-ab were detected in the cell indicating the endocytosis effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Necrosis may result from protein denaturation due to contact with the heated CNTs.

  5. Viability of Booby Offspring is Maximized by Having One Young Parent and One Old Parent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Drummond

    Full Text Available It is widely expected that the quality of offspring will vary with the age of their parents and that this variation should influence animals' choice of mates. However, theoretical predictions for age effects are contradictory and, to our knowledge, we do not know for any wild animal how the quality of offspring is affected by both parents' ages across their lifespans, or whether mothers' and fathers' ages interact. We tackled this question using long-term data on a highly philopatric, insular population of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii. In this species extra-pair paternity is most common in pairs of two young parents or two old parents, implying that these age combinations might prejudice offspring quality. Analysis of the viability of 3,361 offspring of parents up to 21 years old revealed that fledglings with two young parents or two old parents were least likely to become breeders, whereas fledglings with one young parent and one old parent were most likely to do so. For young parents of either sex, offspring viability increased with age of the other parent; for very old parents, it decreased. These effects could be mediated by parents flexibly modifying their investment in offspring in response to their own and their partners´ ages, but evidence for this was lacking. In 5,343 breeding attempts, although mothers' and fathers' ages independently affected four heavily care-dependent breeding traits at the clutch and nestling stages, their interaction did not affect any trait. The effects of parental age combinations on viability could also be mediated by genes: fledglings with one young parent and one old parent could benefit from greater heterozygosity or better genes.

  6. Evaluation of Code Blue Implementation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Özütürk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to emphasize the importance of Code Blue implementation and to determine deficiencies in this regard. Methods: After obtaining the ethics committee approval, 225 patient’s code blue call data between 2012 and 2014 January were retrospectively analyzed. Age and gender of the patients, date and time of the call and the clinics giving Code Blue, the time needed for the Code Blue team to arrive, the rates of false Code Blue calls, reasons for Code Blue calls and patient outcomes were investigated. Results: A total of 225 patients (149 male, 76 female were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.1 years. 142 (67.2% Code Blue calls occurred after hours and by emergency unit. The mean time for the Code Blue team to arrive was 1.10 minutes. Spontaneous circulation was provided in 137 patients (60.8%; 88 (39.1% died. The most commonly identified possible causes were of cardiac origin. Conclusion: This study showed that Code Blue implementation with a professional team within an efficient and targeted time increase the survival rate. Therefore, we conclude that the application of Code Blue carried out by a trained team is an essential standard in hospitals. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:204-8

  7. Fire Whirls, Vortex Breakdown(?), and Blue Whirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Elaine; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael

    2016-11-01

    As we were investigating the efficiency of fire-whirl burning on water, we observed the usual transformation of a pool fire to a fire whirl, and then suddenly, we saw the fire undergo a third transition. A blue cup appeared around the base of the fire whirl, surrounding the yellow flame, the yellow flame receded into the cup and finally disappeared. What remained was a small, rapidly spinning blue flame that burned until the fuel on the water was consumed. The blue whirl was shaped like a spinning cup, closed at the bottom near the water surface, and spreading in radius moving upwards towards the rim. Above the blue cup lip, there was a purple cone-shaped mist. The fuel was usually n-heptane, but at one point it was crude oil, and still the blue whirl formed naturally. The height of the fire whirl on the laboratory pan was larger than a half meter, and this evolved into a blue whirl about 4-8 cm high. Occasionally the blue whirl would become "unstable" and revert to a transitional state of blue cup holding a yellow flame. When the blue whirl formed, turbulence seemed to disappear, and the flame became quiet. We will show videos of how this happened and discuss the evolution of the fire whirl to the blue whirl in vortex-breakdown concepts. This work was supported by and EAGER award from NSF and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  8. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, José Cláudio Faria; Soares, Betania Maria; Alves, Orley Araújo; Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius Lucas; Sousa, Gerdal Roberto; Silveira, Lívio de Barros; Piancastelli, André Costa Cruz; Pinotti, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common agent of superficial mycosis of the skin and nails causing long lasting infections and high recurrence rates. Current treatment drawbacks involve topical medications not being able to reach the nail bed at therapeutic concentrations, systemic antifungal drugs failing to eradicate the fungus before the nails are renewed, severe side effects and selection of resistant fungal isolates. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been a promising alternative to conventional treatments. This study evaluated the in vitro effectiveness of toluidine blue O (TBO) irradiated by Light emitting diode (LED) in the reduction of T. rubrum viability. The fungal inoculums' was prepared and exposed to different TBO concentrations and energy densities of Light emitting diode for evaluate the T. rubrum sensibility to PDT and production effect fungicidal after photodynamic treatment. In addition, the profiles of the area and volume of the irradiated fungal suspensions were also investigated. A small reduction, in vitro, of fungal cells was observed after exposition to 100 µM toluidine blue O irradiated by 18 J/cm² Light emitting diode. Fungicidal effect occurred after 25 µM toluidine blue O irradiation by Light emitting diode with energy density of 72 J/cm². The analysis showed that the area and volume irradiated by the Light emitting diode were 52.2 mm² and 413.70 mm³, respectively. The results allowed to conclude that Photodynamic therapy using Light emitting diode under these experimental conditions is a possible alternative approach to inhibit in vitro T. rubrum and may be a promising new treatment for dermatophytosis caused by this fungus.

  9. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can...

  10. Melanoma and Satellite Blue Papule

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, A.; Arzberger, E; Massone, C.; Zalaudek, I.; Fink-Puches, R; Hofmann-Wellenhof, R

    2014-01-01

    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slo...

  11. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  12. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng

    2017-07-05

    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  13. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  14. Photodynamic therapy with Methylene Blue as photosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishisaka, Tsuyoshi (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan). Health Science Center); Ennyu, Hiroko; Takeno, Tetsu; Okura, Ichiro

    1993-07-01

    Availability of Methylene Blue as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy was investigated, and it was found that the HeLa cells incorporated with Methylene Blue was strongly damaged by the irradiation with laser light. Methylene Blue was effective for the irradiation of longer wavelength, which has the large tissue penetration depth. The possible reaction mechanism of the cell damage via photo-produced singlet oxygen is discussed. (author).

  15. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads

  16. Deteksi Kerusakan DNA Spermatozoa Semen Segar dan Semen Beku Sapi Menggunakan Pewarnaan Toluidine Blue (DETECTION OF SPERM DNA DAMAGE INFRESH AND FROZEN SEMEN USING TOLUIDINE BLUE STAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Priyanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sperm DNA integrity is very important in the success of fertilization and embryo development.Toluidine blue (TB is a sensitive staining to examine the chromatin structure of sperm. The aim of thisstudy was to detect the sperm DNA damage before and after freezing using TB. Semen was obtained fromeight superior bulls (two Brahman, two Ongole, two Simental and two Limosin belong to Lembang ArtificialInsemination Centre. Semen was collected twice a week using artificial vagina, then was evaluatedmacrocopically and microscopically after collected, including sperm motility, viability, plasma membraneintegrity (MI and acrosome intact (AI, sperm concentration, abnormality and sperm DNA integrity. Thesemen that been used in this study showed the total motility was more than 70%, sperm concentrationwas more than 1000x106, and the sperm abnormality was below 20%. The result showed that the qualityof semen after freezing processed was decreased significantly (P0.05. Sperm DNA integrity offresh and frozen semen were 93.91±4.77% and 92.06 ±2.41% respectively. The decrease of DNA integritywas low (1.84% compared to motility (28.3%, viability (21.6%, MI (14.1%, and AI (11.8%. In conclusion,toluidine blue can be used to detect of DNA damage and the freezing process will not decrease the DNAintegrity.

  17. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  18. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920). P Velasquez-Vottelerd, Y Anton, R Salazar-Lugo ...

  19. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  20. Maintaining yeast viability in continuous primary beer fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Côrte‐Real, Manuela; Vicente, António A

    2014-01-01

    .... This work was aimed at solving one of the most relevant obstacles to implementing ICT on a large scale in beer fermentations, namely the control of biomass and the maintenance of cell viability in a gas‐lift bioreactor...

  1. Desiccation-induced changes in viability, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-31

    Hendry et al., 1992) and A. saccharinum (Pukacka and Ratajczak, 2006) and intermediate seeds like Azadirachta indica (Varghese and. Naithani, 2002), Coffea Arabica (Dussert et al., 2006), indicating that loss of seed viability ...

  2. Femtosecond optical transfection of cells:viability and efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Stevenson; B. Agate; X. Tsampoula; P. Fischer; C. T. A. Brown; W. Sibbett; A. Riches; F. Gunn-Moore; K. Dholakia

    2006-01-01

    .... However, there remains no study into the true efficiency of this procedure. Here, we present a detailed analysis of transfection efficiency and cell viability for femtosecond optical transfection using a titanium sapphire laser at 800 nm...

  3. Equine ovarian tissue viability after cryopreservation and in vitro culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of several cryoprotective agents were compared using both slow-freezing and vitrification methods. Results indicate that the viability of ovarian tissue cells increases when DMSO (slow-freezing) and ethylene glycol (vitrification) are used....

  4. Approximate viability for nonlinear evolution inclusions with application to controllability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Benniche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate approximate viability for a graph with respect to fully nonlinear quasi-autonomous evolution inclusions. As application, an approximate null controllability result is given.

  5. Methylthymol blue in Fricke gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, K. I.; Mequanint, K.

    2015-01-01

    The initial trial of methylthymol blue (MTB) as a chelator for ferric iron in Fricke gel dosimeters, used for three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry in cancer radiotherapy, is reported. MTB is a structural analogue of the conventionally used xylenol orange (XO); however, the absorbance spectrum of the ferric-MTB complex is shifted to higher wavelengths, which should allow for lower amount of light scattering during gel scanning. In this study, two gelatin substrates, two sources of XO and one source of MTB have been compared. The MTB- containing gels exhibited similar dose response and diffusion coefficient to the XO-containing gels at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (620 and 585 nm, respectively). In addition, the MTB gels gave an excellent dose response at 633 nm, which is an important wavelength that is already used with other 3D dosimeters.

  6. Blue code: Is it a real emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Serkan E; Onur, Ozge; Urgan, Oğuz; Denizbasi, Arzu; Akoglu, Haldun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrests in hospital areas are common, and hospitals have rapid response teams or "blue code teams" to reduce preventable in-hospital deaths. Education about the rapid response team has been provided in all hospitals in Turkey, but true "blue code" activation is rare, and it is abused by medical personnel in practice. This study aimed to determine the cases of wrong blue codes and reasons of misuse. This retrospective study analyzed the blue code reports issued by our hospital between January 1 and June 1 2012. A total of 89 "blue code" activations were recorded in 5 months. A "blue code" was defined as any patient with an unexpected cardiac or respiratory arrest requiring resuscitation and activation of a hospital alert. Adherence to this definition, each physician classified their collected activation forms as either a true or a wrong code. Then, patient data entered a database (Microsoft Excel 2007 software) which was pooled for analysis. The data were analyzed by using frequencies and the Chi-square test on SPSSv16.0. The patients were diagnosed with cardiopulmonary arrest (8), change in mental status (18), presyncope (11), chest pain (12), conversive disorder (18), and worry of the staff for the patient (22). Code activation was done by physicians in 76% of the patients; the most common reason for blue code was concern of staff for the patient. The findings of this study show that more research is needed to establish the overall effectiveness and optimal implementation of blue code teams.

  7. Instituting code blue drills in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Joy A

    2013-04-01

    A code blue in the OR is a low-volume, high-risk event. To be effective during a code blue event, perioperative personnel must be able to properly execute a response plan and perform seldom-used skills and procedures. I developed and implemented a code blue drill educational experience for OR staff members that included a review of code blue policy, how to use a defibrillator, and simulated code blue scenarios. In addition, I worked with educational facilitators to provide an assessment of the personnel who performed the simulated code blue drills to identify key learning opportunities, such as gaps in communication, poor performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ineffective delegation skills, and lack of assertiveness. One month after the educational experience, all team members passed an observed competency for responding to a code blue in a simulation laboratory. These results show the effectiveness of the educational experience as part of the code blue drills program in the hospital's main OR. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  9. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  10. Blue enhanced light sources: opportunities and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Natural daylight is characterized by high proportions of blue light. By proof of a third type of photoreceptor in the human eye which is only sensitive in this spectral region and by subsequent studies it has become obvious that these blue proportions are essential for human health and well being. In various studies beneficial effects of indoor lighting with higher blue spectral proportions have been proven. On the other hand with increasing use of light sources having enhanced blue light for indoor illumination questions are arising about potential health risks attributed to blue light. Especially LED are showing distinct emission characteristics in the blue. Recently the French agency for food, environmental and occupational health & safety ANSES have raised the question on health issues related to LED light sources and have claimed to avoid use of LED for lighting in schools. In this paper parameters which are relevant for potential health risks will be shown and their contribution to risk factors will quantitatively be discussed. It will be shown how to differentiate between photometric parameters for assessment of beneficial as well as hazardous effects. Guidelines will be discussed how blue enhanced light sources can be used in applications to optimally support human health and well being and simultaneously avoid any risks attributed to blue light by a proper design of lighting parameters. In the conclusion it will be shown that no inherent health risks are related to LED lighting with a proper lighting design.

  11. Contrasting cellular damage after Blue-IRIS and Femto-LASIK in cat cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Kaitlin T; Elkins, Noah; Brooks, Daniel R; Savage, Daniel E; MacRae, Scott; Ellis, Jonathan D; Knox, Wayne H; Huxlin, Krystel R

    2017-12-01

    Blue-intra-tissue refractive index shaping (Blue-IRIS) is a new approach to laser refractive correction of optical aberrations in the eye, which alters the refractive index of the cornea rather than changing its shape. Before it can be implemented in humans, it is critical to establish whether and to what extent, Blue-IRIS damages the cornea. Here, we contrasted the impact of -1.5 D cylinder refractive corrections inscribed using either Blue-IRIS or femtosecond laser in-situ keratomileusis (femto-LASIK) on corneal cell viability. Blue-IRIS was used to write a -1.5 D cylinder gradient index (GRIN) lens over a 2.5 mm by 2.5 mm area into the mid-stromal region of the cornea in six freshly-enucleated feline eyes. The same correction (-1.5 D cylinder) was inscribed into another four cat eyes using femto-LASIK. Six hours later, all corneas were processed for histology and stained for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and p-γ-H2AX to label damaged cells. In Blue-IRIS-treated corneas, no tissue was removed and TUNEL-stained cells were confined to the laser focal zone in the stroma. In femto-LASIK, photoablation removed 14 μm of anterior stroma, but in addition, TUNEL-positive cells clustered across the femto-flap, the epithelium at the flap edges and the stroma below the ablation zone. Keratocytes positive for p-γ-H2AX were seen adjacent to all Blue-IRIS focal zones, but were completely absent from femto-LASIK-treated corneas. Unlike femto-LASIK, Blue-IRIS attains refractive correction in the cornea without tissue removal and only causes minimal, localized keratocyte death within the laser focal zones. In addition, Blue-IRIS induced DNA modifications associated with phosphorylation of γ-H2AX in keratocytes adjacent to the laser focal zones. We posit that this p-γ-H2AX response is related to alterations in chromatin structure caused by localized changes in osmolarity, a possible mechanism for the induced

  12. A comparative study of the effects of different low-level lasers on the proliferation, viability, and migration of human melanocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; Kumar, Ashok; Ashour, Abdelkader E; AlGhamdi, Attieh A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different low-level laser therapies (LLLTs) of various wavelengths and energies on normal cultured human melanocytes. Various studies have shown the effects of LLLs on various types of cultured cells. Presently, little is known about the biological effects of LLLTs on melanocytes. Melanocytes were exposed to LLLT at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, or 5.0 J/cm(2) using a blue (457 nm), red (635 nm), or ultraviolet (UV) (355 nm) laser. Melanocyte viability, proliferation, and migration were monitored at 72 h after irradiation. The blue (P < 0.001) and red (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) lasers significantly enhanced viability at 0.5 to 2.0 J/cm(2), whereas the UV laser (P < 0.001) could significantly enhance viability only at 0.5 and 1.0 J/cm(2) compared with controls. The blue and red lasers also significantly enhanced the proliferation of the melanocytes at 0.5 to 2.0 J/cm(2) (P < 0.001), and the UV laser significantly enhanced proliferation at 0.5 to 1.5 J/cm(2) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) compared with controls. The blue laser significantly enhanced melanocyte migration at 0.5 to 4.0 J/cm(2) (P < 0.001 to P < 0.05), but the red (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) and UV (P < 0.001 to P < 0.05) lasers could significantly enhance such migration at 0.5 to 1.0 J/cm(2) and 0.5 to 2.0 J/cm(2), respectively, compared with controls. LLLT at low energy densities is able to significantly increase melanocyte viability, proliferation, and migration in vitro, and at higher energy densities, it gives non-stimulatory results. Additionally, the blue laser was the best among the three lasers. These findings might have potential application in vitiligo treatment in future.

  13. Methylene blue mediated photobiomodulation on human osteoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Gamze Bölükbaşı; Ak, Ayşe; Garipcan, Bora; Gülsoy, Murat

    2017-11-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are two major methods, which use light in medicine and dentistry. PBM uses low-level laser light to induce cell proliferation and activity. In contrast, PDT use laser light combined with a photosensitizer (PS) to cause cell death. Due to similar, not fully understood mechanisms and biphasic response of light, unexpected and complex outcomes may be observed. In the present study, the effect of 635 nm laser light, with power density 50 mW/cm2, at three different energy densities (0.5, 1, and 2 J/cm2 which last 10, 20, and 40 s, respectively) mediated by methylene blue (MB) on the human osteoblast cell line (ATCC-CRL-11372, Rockville, MD, USA) was investigated. Cell viability (MTT assay and acridine orange/propidium iodide staining) and proliferation (Alamar Blue assay) were assessed at 24, 48, and 72 h post irradiation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization (Alizarin Red staining) and gene expressions (RT-PCR analysis) were analyzed at 7th and 14th days after treatment. Five groups were formed as the control group (no MB, no irradiation), MB (only 0.05 μM MB), MB + 0.5 J/cm2, MB + 1 J/cm2, and MB + 2 J/cm2. Cell viability was decreased at 72 h (ANOVA; p proliferation does not seem to be effected by MB-mediated laser application, osteo-anabolic activity is altered. ALP activity was significantly increased at day 7 (ANOVA; p < 0.05) for MB-combined laser groups; on the other hand, mineralization was significantly decreased (ANOVA; p < 0.05) in all treatment groups. Alkaline phosphatase and collagen-I expressions were upregulated in MB + 2 J/cm2 group at 7th and 14th days, respectively. These results may contribute to the low-dose PDT researches and understanding PBM effects on osteoblast behavior but further studies are needed since inappropriate conditions may lead to undesirable results for both therapies.

  14. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  15. Tapered photonic crystal fibers for blue-enhanced supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper

    2012-01-01

    Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge.......Tapering of photonic crystal fibers is an effective way of shifting the blue edge of a supercontinuum spectrum down in the deep-blue. We discuss the optimum taper profile for enhancing the power in the blue edge....

  16. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2017-05-01

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  17. Skin discoloration with blue food coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, A J; Kuhn, R J; Petersen, T J

    2000-01-01

    To describe a pediatric patient who developed a clinical cyanotic appearance after receiving an excessive amount of blue food coloring. An 11-year-old white girl with cerebral palsy was admitted for unresolving aspiration pneumonia and dehydration. Antibiotics and intravenous fluids were administered. During the hospital course, enteral nutrition containing blue food coloring was also administered. Twelve hours after the start of enteral nutrition, the patient appeared cyanotic despite a regular respiratory rate and normal oxygen saturation. The pediatric code response team was called. Enteral nutrition was stopped and then restarted without blue food coloring. Over the next 24 hours, the cyanotic appearance resolved and no further complications developed. At our institution, blue food coloring is used with enteral nutrition for detecting aspiration of stomach contents. The dietary department supplies food coloring to each nursing unit in pint-sized medicine bottles. Nurses place an unstandardized amount of blue food coloring into each enteral nutrition bag. This child received an unspecified amount of FD&C Blue No. 1 food coloring. No toxicity studies exist for acute or human ingestion, but the National Academy of Sciences lists 363 mg/d of FD&C Blue No. 1 as a safe level for humans. We estimated this child ingested 780-3,940 mg of dye over a 12-hour period. This is the first known report of an adverse effect from blue food coloring. To prevent similar occurrences within our institution, the blue food coloring for tube feedings will be dispensed by the pharmacy department in standardized units.

  18. Brilliant blue in vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaida, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the preclinical effects of brilliant blue G (BBG) on the morphology and functions of the retina, and reports on a pilot study of BBG staining and subsequent peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) during vitreoretinal surgery. BBG solution was injected into rat eyes and investigated using light microscopy and electron microscopy, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, and electroretinography (ERG). No pathological changes were caused by the BBG intravitreous injection. Although electron microscopy revealed that high doses of BBG induced vacuolization in the inner retinal cells, there was no reduction in the amplitude of the ERG waves and no detectable toxic effects. In the primate eyes, the ILM was clearly visualized by BBG staining, and peeled off easily from the retina. In the clinical study, BBG improved visualization of the ILM, allowing peeling and surgery to be performed successfully on patients with various vitroretinal diseases. Improvement of postoperative visual acuity was obtained in most cases, and no adverse effects were observed postoperatively. In conclusion, BBG has low toxicity, high staining ability, and is easy to handle, making it a good candidate dye for visualizing vitreoretinal disease surgery without adverse effects.

  19. Importance of Donor Chondrocyte Viability for Osteochondral Allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, James L; Stannard, James P; Stoker, Aaron M; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2016-05-01

    Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation provides a biological treatment option for functional restoration of large articular cartilage defects in multiple joints. While successful outcomes after OCA transplantation have been linked to viable donor chondrocytes, the importance of donor cell viability has not been comprehensively validated. To use a canine model to determine the importance of donor chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation with respect to functional success of femoral condylar OCAs based on radiographic, gross, cell viability, histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical outcome measures. Controlled laboratory study. After approval was obtained from the institutional animal care and use committee, adult female dogs (N = 16) were implanted with 8-mm cylindrical OCAs from male dogs in the lateral and medial femoral condyles of 1 knee. OCAs were preserved for 28 or 60 days after procurement, and chondrocyte viability was quantified before implantation. Two different storage media, temperatures, and time points were used to obtain a spectrum of percentage chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation. A successful outcome was defined as an OCA that was associated with graft integration, maintenance of hyaline cartilage, lack of associated cartilage disorder, and lack of fibrillation, fissuring, or fibrous tissue infiltration of the allograft based on subjective radiographic, gross, and histologic assessments at 6 months after implantation. Chondrocyte viability ranged from 23% to 99% at the time of implantation. All successful grafts had >70% chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation, and no graft with chondrocyte viability <70% was associated with a successful outcome. Live-dead stained sections and histologic findings with respect to cell morphological features suggested that successful grafts were consistently composed of viable chondrocytes in lacunae, while grafts that were not successful were composed of nonviable

  20. [Vitamins C and E protect cultures of bovine lens epithelium from the damaging effects of blue light (430 nm) and UVA light (300-400 nm)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, U M; Müller, Y; Blüthner, K

    2001-02-01

    In 1992 Radlmaier showed that catalase can protect bovine lens epithelial cultures from blue light. The following experiments have the aim to examine, if vitamin C and E have protective functions, also. 367 cultures of bovine lens epithelial cells were incubated in Medium 199 added by 20% foetal calf serum FCS, by 125 I.U./ml penicillin, by 125 mg/ml Streptomycin, by 0.31 microgram/ml amphotericin B, by 2% L-Glutamin (200 mM), and by 1.25% Hepesbuffer. The incubation temperature was kept at 36 degrees C at a pCO2 of 5%. In order to avoid secondary morphologic alterations, we experimented only on the second to the third subculture. Light exposure followed three days after addition of the substances such as Cebion 500 (R) ad injection (6 mg/dl) and E-Vicotrat (R) ad injection (0.5 mg/dl). The blue light (420-430 nm, Draeger) was applied in a baby bed at 36 degrees C for four hours (1.1 mW/cm). The UV-A lamp was constructed and described by Heller [7]; at a wave length of 300-400 nm, the irradiation time was 10 minutes at 100 mW/cm2. In morphologic evaluation we looked for criteria such as cell diameter, cellular wall alterations, cellular inclusions and vacuoles. The cell count was done after staining with the vital dye trypan-blue in Neubauer's chamber. In statistic evaluation we used the pair comparison of Tuckey and Kruskall-Wallis-Test. After addition of 0.5 mg/ml vitamin E: In 89 cultures, morphologic evaluation and cell count showed a significant protection against light toxicity: After Uv-A-irradiation we counted 50% more living cells and after blue light 30% more. After addition of 6 mg/ml Cebion vitamin C: Morphologic evaluation and cell count of 223 cultures showed them also to be significantly protected: after irradiation by UV-A we counted 25% more and after exposition to blue light 15% more living cells. The demonstrated experiments significantly showed, that vitamin C and vitamin E can protect lens epithelial cultures from toxic stress by blue and by UV

  1. A Classification Method for Seed Viability Assessment with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time. The temperature curve of each seed during germination was plotted. Thirteen characteristic parameters extracted from the temperature curve were analyzed to show the difference of the temperature fluctuations between the seeds samples with different viability. With above parameters, support vector machine (SVM was used to classify the seed samples into three categories: viable, aged and dead according to the root length, the classification accuracy rate was 95%. On this basis, with the temperature data of only the first three hours during the germination, another SVM model was proposed to classify the seed samples, and the accuracy rate was about 91.67%. From these experimental results, it can be seen that infrared thermography can be applied for the prediction of seed viability, based on the SVM algorithm.

  2. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on mycelial development, spore viability and enzyme activity of Penicillium Roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Yamile; Acosta-Muñiz, Carlos; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Guerrero-Beltrán, José; Rodrigo-Aliaga, Dolores; Mujica-Paz, Hugo; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Sepulveda, David R

    2014-01-03

    This study investigated the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatments on mycelial development, spore viability, and total proteolytic and lipolytic activity of Penicillium roqueforti PV-LYO 10 D. Fungus growing in liquid medium was pressure-treated at 300, 400, and 500 MPa for 10 min at 20°C following seven days of incubation at 25°C and analyzed periodically up to day 9 after treatments to evaluate the effect on fungal growth. Mycelial mass of P. roqueforti was significantly affected at all pressure treatments evaluated, being 15.48%, 22.28%, 30.03%, and 12.53% lower than controls on day 1, 3, 6, and 9 after 300 MPa treatment, respectively. In a similar way, at 400 and 500 MPa, mycelial mass was 31.08% and 60.34% lower than controls one day after treatments and 49.74% and 80.85% lower on day 9, respectively. The viability of P. roqueforti spores decreased by 36.53% at 300 MPa, and complete inactivation took place at ≥400 MPa from an initial count of 7 log cfu/mL. Total proteolytic activity was not significantly affected at 300 MPa but was reduced by 18.22% at 400 MPa and by 43.18% at 500 MPa. Total lipolytic activity also decreased as the intensity of the pressure treatments increased. 21.69%, 39.12%, and 56.26% activity reductions were observed when treatments of 300, 400 and 500 MPa were applied, respectively. The results from this study show that pressure treatments are able to control growth, inactivate spores, and alter enzyme activity of P. roqueforti, which could be of interest in extending the shelf-life of blue-veined cheeses and other food products. © 2013.

  3. Tissue viability 2010 -2015:from good to great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jeanette; Ousey, Karen

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the challenges of the changing face of the NHS with specific relation to the challenges for community-based tissue viability services following the publication of government documents that identify the need to provide a quality service for all patients in health-care settings. Patients receiving care in the community is paramount to the success of the NHS going forward; service redesign, improvements in quality, outcome tracking, seamless discharge and patient satisfaction/responsibilities has been heralded as the core prerequisites of successful services. Tissue viability is a relatively young specialism, with most services being nurse led and established less than 15 years. It is argued that in order to continue to be successful as a specialism, tissue viability has to challenge traditional patient and nursing beliefs and values.

  4. Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Sara L.; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure due to coronary artery disease continues to increase, and it portends a worse prognosis than non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Revascularization improves prognosis in these high-risk patients who have evidence of viability; therefore, optimal assessment of myocardial viability remains essential. Multiple imaging modalities exist for differentiating viable myocardium from scar in territories with contractile dysfunction. Given the multiple modalities available, choosing the best modality for a specific patient can be a daunting task. In this review, the physiology of myocardial hibernation and stunning will be reviewed. All the current methods available for assessing viability including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging with single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography imaging and cardiac computed tomography will be reviewed. The effectiveness of the various techniques will be compared, and the limitations of the current literature will be discussed. PMID:21069458

  5. Viability of Lucilia sericata maggots after exposure to wound antiseptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, Georg; Napp, Matthias; Assadian, Ojan; von Podewils, Sebastian; Reese, Kevin; Hinz, Peter; Matiasek, Johannes; Spitzmueller, Romy; Humphreys, Paul; Jünger, Michael; Kramer, Axel

    2017-06-01

    After debridement and before dressing a wound with maggots of calliphorid flies, one frequently performed step is the application of antiseptics to the prepared wound bed. However, the concomitant application of antiseptic agents during maggot therapy is regarded controversial as antiseptics may interfere with maggots' viability. In this experimental in vitro study, the viability of fly maggots was investigated after exposure to various antiseptics frequently used in wound care. Here, we show that Lucilia sericata fly maggots can survive up to an hour's exposure to wound antiseptics such as octenidine, povidone-iodine or polihexanide. Concomitant short-term application of wound antiseptics together with maggots on wound beds is tolerated by larvae and does not impair their viability. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  7. Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light

    OpenAIRE

    Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

    2003-01-01

    Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

  8. Reciproc blue: the new generation of reciprocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Yared

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: This article introduces and describes the clinical technique with which the Reciproc® blue instrument is used, even without the need to create a glide path with manual files before using the mechanical instrument.

  9. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU; Alexandru, TASNADI

    2014-01-01

    .... Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy...

  10. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  11. Blue-light reception through quaternary transitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher Engelhard; Ralph P Diensthuber; Andreas Möglich; Robert Bittl

    2017-01-01

    .... Using electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectroscopy and site-directed spin labelling, we chart the structural transitions facilitating blue-light reception in the engineered light-oxygen-voltage (LOV...

  12. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  13. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  14. Economic viability of new launched school lunch programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate determinants for the viability of school lunch programmes with a zero-price start-up period. The study is based on a Danish pilot experiment, in which 38 schools were subsidized to provide free school lunch for all pupils during a two-month start...... activities related to the schools’ support and the users’ feeling of ownership, as well as internal professionalism and leadership in the implementation of the school lunch programme are important for the viability of the programme. Strong performance on the latter factors might to some extent compensate...... for the gap between cost and users’ willingness to pay for school lunches....

  15. Challenge testing of gametes to enhance their viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of survival mechanism that enables them to come through the process. The details of the mechanism remain unknown but, if identified, it could have immense potential as a new way to improve the viability of embryos produced by ART. However, few publications describe systematic ways to challenge test gametes...... and then to use the results as a basis for improving gamete viability. Furthermore, new methods to monitor the reactions of gametes to such challenge tests are needed. In the present review, these two issues are discussed, as are some of the conditions necessary before a challenge test protocol can be part...

  16. Population-specific life histories contribute to metapopulation viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J.; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration efforts can be improved by understanding how variations in life-history traits occur within populations of the same species living in different environments. This can be done by first understanding the demographic responses of natural occurring populations. Population viability analysis continues to be useful to species management and conservation with sensitivity analysis aiding in the understanding of population dynamics. In this study, using life-table response experiments and elasticity analyses, we investigated how population-specific life-history demographic responses contributed to the metapopulation viability of the Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) Subpopulations occupying different environments within a metapopulation have independent demographic responses and (2) advancing succession results in a shift from a demographic response focused on growth and fecundity to one dominated by stasis. Our results showed that reintroductions had a positive contribution to the metapopulation growth rate as compared to native populations which had a negative contribution. We found no difference in succession on the contribution to metapopulation viability. In addition, we identified distinct population-specific contributions to metapopulation viability and were able to associate specific life-history demographic responses. For example, the positive impact of Miller High Dunes population on the metapopulation growth rate resulted from high growth contributions, whereas increased time of plant in stasis for the State Park Big Blowout population resulted in negative contributions. A greater understanding of how separate populations respond in their corresponding environment may ultimately lead to more effective management strategies aimed at reducing extinction risk. We propose the continued use of sensitivity analyses to evaluate population-specific demographic influences on

  17. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Melcón, Mariana L.; Amanda J Cummins; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to...

  18. [The blue jars of Llivia's dispensary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarelle, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The Town Museum of Llivia, Spanish enclave in Eastern Pyrenees, displays a XVIIIth century dispensary transmitted by a lineage of pharmacists. Decorated plant boxes, Catalonian albarellos (jars) and original items: a reredos shaped toxic cabinet and typical blue albarellos can be seen there. The shape, type and inscriptions of these blue jars are considered through hypothesis about their origin, aesthetic justifications, and the historical and geographic conditions which may infer these specificities.

  19. Photodynamic therapy using methylene blue to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dennis; Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta; Oyafuso, Luiza Keiko; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Cardoso, João Luiz; Uchoa, Adjaci F; Tardivo, João Paulo; Baptista, Mauricio S

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to show the efficiency and underlying mechanism of action of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using methylene blue (MB) and non-coherent light sources to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Systemic treatment can cause severe side effects, and PDT using porphyrin precursors as sensitizers has been used as an alternative to treat CL. MB has been used under illumination or in the dark to treat a wide range of medical conditions, and it exhibits antimicrobial activity against protozoa and viruses. In in vitro tests, the cell viability (via a MTT colorimetric assay) of Leishmania amazonensis parasites was evaluated as a function of MB concentration. In in vivo experiments, we analyzed the treatment of two lesions from a patient with leishmaniasis. The patient received a low dose of pentavalent antimony (SbV), and one lesion was treated with PDT. We observed IC(50) decreases from 100 to 20 μM in response to PDT when MB was used in different concentrations in in vitro tests. Use of SbV in combination with the PDT protocol produced faster wound recovery when compared with the use of SbV alone. The in vitro experiments and the results from the clinical case suggest that the inexpensive PDT protocol that is based on MB and RL50® may be used to treat CL caused by L. amazonensis.

  20. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer chlorin e6 on viability, apoptosis, and proliferation of human corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Stachon, Tanja; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2013-04-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) may be a potential alternative in case of therapy-resistant infectious keratitis. PDI using the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) with high photosensitizing efficacy offers a valuable option, also for keratitis. The purpose of our study was to determine the impact of PDI with the photosensitizer Ce6 on viability, apoptosis, and proliferation of human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), in vitro. Human corneal endothelial cell line was cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 5 % fetal calf serum. HCECs cultures underwent illumination using red (670 nm) light for 13 min following exposure to 50-500 nM concentrations of Ce6 in the culture medium. Twenty-four hours after PDI, cell viability was evaluated by the Alamar blue assay, total DNA content of the cells and apoptosis using the APO-DIRECT Kit, and cell proliferation by the BrdU Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Using Ce6 or illumination only, we did not detect significant changes of cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation. Following PDI, viability and total DNA content of HCECs decreased significantly above 150 nM Ce6 concentration (P proliferation of endothelial cells decreased significantly (P proliferation, and also triggers apoptosis of HCECs in vitro. PDI using the photosensitizer Ce6 may be a potential treatment alternative in infectious keratitis. However, to avoid endothelial cell damage, the photosensitizer must not penetrate the endothelium.

  2. Impact of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer chlorin e6 on viability, apoptosis, and proliferation of human keratocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Stachon, Tanja; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2013-12-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) may be a potential alternative in cases of therapy-resistant infectious keratitis. The purpose of our study was to determine the impact of PDI using the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) on viability, apoptosis, and proliferation of human keratocytes, in vitro. Primary human keratocytes were isolated by digestion in collagenase (1 mg/ml) from human corneal buttons, and cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10 % FCS. Keratocyte cell cultures underwent illumination using red (670 nm) light for 13 min following exposure to 50 nM to 64 μM concentrations of Ce6 in the culture medium. Twenty-four hours after PDI, cell viability was evaluated by the Alamar blue assay, total DNA content of the cells and apoptosis using the APO-DIRECT Kit, and cell proliferation by the BrdU Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Using Ce6 or illumination only, we did not detect significant changes of cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation. Using illumination, viability of keratocytes decreased significantly above 100 nM (P proliferation at 250 nM Ce6 concentration (P = 0.01) and the percentage of apoptotic keratocytes increased significantly at 500 nM (P proliferation, and also triggers apoptosis of human keratocytes, in vitro.

  3. Observations Regardin Oocyte in Vitro Maturation after Recovery from Slaughter House Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Carabă

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The oocytes viability must be taken as an important selection parameter for successful in vitro cultivation. The ovaries were collected from the slaughterhouse and maintained at 4°C for 7 days. Fallowing cumulus -oocytes complexes recovery the viability was tested using two staining methods. For the first experiment we used 27 cumulus - oocytes complexes, stained with Neutral red and for the second experiment we used 11 cumulus - oocytes complexes stained with Trypan blue. Fallowing staining with Neutral red 23 cumulus - oocytes complexes were assessed as viable (were stained in red – enzymatic activity within the cells and for the Trypan blue staining 11 cumulus - oocytes complexes were assessed as viable (remained unstained – integers cellular membranes.

  4. The practice of investment viability appraisal in Akure, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the role played by valuers in choosing the right viability appraisal technique for an investment appraisal. Structured questionnaire was administered on Twenty one (21) registered and practicing Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Akure out of which fourteen (14) were retrieved and found good for ...

  5. Proof of Economic Viability of Blended Learning Business Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhmann, Carsten; Hohenberg, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on economically sustainable business models with respect to information technology is lacking in many aspects of proven approaches. In the following contribution the economic viability is valued based on a procedural model for design and evaluation of e-learning business models in the form of a case study. As a case study object a…

  6. Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Iain; Chiu, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to…

  7. Assessment of viability of microorganisms employing fluorescence techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, P.

    1996-01-01


    Viability assessment of microorganisms is relevant for a wide variety of applications in industry, including evaluation of inactivation treatments and quality assessment of starter cultures for beer, wine, and yoghurt production.

    Usually, the ability of microbial cells to

  8. Desiccation-induced changes in viability, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intermediate seeds of Mimusopsis elengi showed obvious membrane lipid peroxidation during desiccation. When the moisture content (MC) decreased from initial 41.8 to 6.1%, seed viability significantly decreased from 100 to 23%, consorted with activity changes of a few anti-oxidative enzymes. The activities of superoxide ...

  9. Banana nectar as a medium for testing pollen viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... A quick and reliable method for evaluating pollen quality is essential in a breeding program, especially in a crop such as banana that is characterized by high male and female sterility. In this study the germination and viability of banana pollen was evaluated in a sucrose solution and diluted banana nectar.

  10. Banana nectar as a medium for testing pollen viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick and reliable method for evaluating pollen quality is essential in a breeding program, especially in a crop such as banana that is characterized by high male and female sterility. In this study the germination and viability of banana pollen was evaluated in a sucrose solution and diluted banana nectar. Twenty banana ...

  11. Morphology and viability of castor bean genotypes pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selma Alves Silva Diamantino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the morphology and viability of the pollen of 15 genotypes of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. and to generate information that can assist in the selection of highly promising male parents for future use in genetic improvement programs aimed at producing seeds for oil extraction. Acetolysis and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphology of the pollen. The viability of the pollen grains was estimated by in vitro germination and colorimetric analysis (acetocarmine 2% and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride 1%. For the in vitro germination, pollen grains were grown in 10 types of solidified culture medium consisting of different concentrations of sucrose, boric acid, calcium nitrate, magnesium sulfate and potassium nitrate. The pollen grains had the following characteristics: medium size, isopolar and subspheroidal shape, radial symmetry, circular ambit, 3-colporate, elongated endoapertures, tectate exine and granulated sexine. The acetocarmine dye overestimated pollen viability. The media M5 and M8 were the most efficient at promoting the germination of pollen grains. The studied genotypes had high levels of viability and can therefore be used as male parents in genetic improvement programs.

  12. Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography: Detection of myocardial viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljkovic Milan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography in detection of myocardial viability. Background Vasodilation through low dose dipyridamole infusion may recruit contractile reserve by increasing coronary flow or by increasing levels of endogenous adenosine. Methods Forty-three patients with resting dyssynergy, due to previous myocardial infarction, underwent low-dose adenosine (80, 100, 110 mcg/kg/min in 3 minutes intervals echocardiography test. Gold standard for myocardial viability was improvement in systolic thickening of dyssinergic segments of ≥ 1 grade at follow-up. Coronary angiography was done in 41 pts. Twenty-seven patients were revascularized and 16 were medically treated. Echocardiographic follow up data (12 ± 2 months were available in 24 revascularized patients. Results Wall motion score index improved from rest 1.55 ± 0.30 to 1.33 ± 0.26 at low-dose adenosine (p Conclusion Low-dose adenosine stress echocardiography test has high diagnostic potential for detection of myocardial viability in the group of patients with left ventricle dysfunction due to previous myocardial infarction. Low dose adenosine stress echocardiography may be adequate alternative to low-dose dobutamine test for evaluation of myocardial viability.

  13. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-terms recoverability of enteropathogens is necessary for future epidemiological studies to screen stool samples when conditions do not permit immediate processing. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and the recoverability of three enteropathogens bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae O: 1 ...

  14. The viability of business data mining in the sports environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data mining can be viewed as the process of extracting previously unknown information from large databases and utilising this information to make crucial business decisions (Simoudis, 1996: 26). This paper considers the viability of using data mining tools and techniques in sports, particularly with regard to mining the ...

  15. Influence of gamma irradiation on pollen viability, germination ability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Effects of gamma radiation on vitality and competitive ability of Cucumis pollen. Euphytica, 32: 677-684. Yanmaz R, Ellialtıoglu S, Taner KY (1999). The effects of gamma irradiation on pollen viability and haploid plant formation in snake cucumber (Cucumis melo L. var. flexuosus Naud.). Acta Hort. 492:.

  16. Low-level waste vitrification contact maintenance viability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This study investigates the economic viability of contact maintenance in the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility, which is part of the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System. This document was prepared by Flour Daniel, Inc., and transmitted to Westinghouse Hanford Company in September 1995.

  17. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained from the Musa field ... Three different types of pollen were encountered viz, big, moderate and small pollens with corresponding big, moderate and small apertures and pores.

  18. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of bull spermatozoa diluted with commercial semen extender and two culture media stored at controlled room temperature (24 °C) for 72 hours. Two Nguni bulls were used for semen collection with the aid of an electro-ejaculator. After macroscopic evaluation ...

  19. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  20. Effect of pretreatments on seed viability during fruit development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies to identify the stage at which developing fruits of Irvingia gabonensis (var. excelsa and var. gabonensis), picked from standing trees and/or forest floors, attain maximum viability and germinability were conducted in two harvesting seasons in 2000 and 2001. Some pretreatment methods were used as a means of ...

  1. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After macroscopic evaluation, semen was pooled and aliquoted randomly into Triladyl, modified Ham's F10, and TCM-199 culture media, and then stored at 24 °C. Sperm motility parameters, morphology, and viability were analysed with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA) after 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The study was ...

  2. A comparison of assays measuring the viability of Legionella ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The relatively high prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing systems has been widely reported. Published reports indicate Legionella has a comparatively high resistance to chlorine and moreover has the ability to grow in phagocytic amoeba which could provide additional protection in chlorinated drinking water distribution systems. Copper-Silver (Cu-Ag) ionization treatment systems are commercially available for use in large building water systems to help control the risks from Legionella bacteria. The objectives of this study were to develop and optimize Legionella viability assays and use them to investigate the viability of Legionella bacteria after exposure to water treated with coppper and silver ions. Methods: Log phase L. pneumophila cells were used in all experiments and were generated by incubation at 35C for 48 hours in buffered yeast extract broth. Viability assays used included plating on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar to determine the number of culturable cells and treating cells with propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium monoazide (EMA) followed by quantitative PCR targeting mip gene of L. pneumophila. The qPCR viability assays were optimized using L. pneumophila inactivated by heat treatment at 65C for 60 min. The effectiveness of Cu-Ag ionization treatment was studied by inoculating L. pneumonia at 105 CFU/mL in water collected directly from a building water system that employed this technology and incubat

  3. Effect of salt hyperosmotic stress on yeast cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logothetis Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During fermentation for ethanol production, yeasts are subjected to different kinds of physico-chemical stresses such as: initially high sugar concentration and low temperature; and later, increased ethanol concentrations. Such conditions trigger a series of biological responses in an effort to maintain cell cycle progress and yeast cell viability. Regarding osmostress, many studies have been focused on transcriptional activation and gene expression in laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overall aim of this present work was to further our understanding of wine yeast performance during fermentations under osmotic stress conditions. Specifically, the research work focused on the evaluation of NaCl-induced stress responses of an industrial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae (VIN 13, particularly with regard to yeast cell growth and viability. The hypothesis was that osmostress conditions energized specific genes to enable yeast cells to survive under stressful conditions. Experiments were designed by pretreating cells with different sodium chloride concentrations (NaCl: 4%, 6% and 10% w/v growing in defined media containing D-glucose and evaluating the impact of this on yeast growth and viability. Subsequent fermentation cycles took place with increasing concentrations of D-glucose (20%, 30%, 40% w/v using salt-adapted cells as inocula. We present evidence that osmostress induced by mild salt pre-treatments resulted in beneficial influences on both cell viability and fermentation performance of an industrial wine yeast strain.

  4. Potential carbon credit and community expectations towards viability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents results of the potential carbon credit and community expectations towards viability of REDD+ projects in Ugalla- Masito ecosystem using a case of Ilagala and Karago villages whereby REDD+ is being piloted. Various data collection methods were employed and these included focused group discussion, ...

  5. Research Note on viability of herbicide and Hormone - treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responses and viability of acid scarified seeds of four tropical weeds to gibberellic acid and seven herbicides including Galex, Gramoxone, 2 - 4 D, Atrazine, Simazine, Roundup and Primextra in the Laboratory were investigated. The weeds used are Cassia occidentalis, Cassia obtusifolia Cassia hirtusa and ...

  6. Economic Viability of Deficit Irrigation in the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many arid regions of the world, population growth, groundwater depletion, and uncertain supplies have caused agricultural water to become increasingly scarce. Deficit irrigation (DI) provides a potential response to water scarcity, but no consensus exists on its economic viability. In this pape...

  7. Port viability for choice making among shipping companies in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the study of port viability for choice making among shipping companies in West Africa sub-region trade route was conducted. Discriminant analysis was used to ascertain the consistency of the attributes of ports that establish their overall attractiveness to the carriers. The critical valued port attributes deduced ...

  8. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAKA DANIEL

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... Long-terms recoverability of enteropathogens is necessary for future epidemiological studies to screen stool samples when conditions do not permit immediate processing. The aim of this study was to determine the viability and the recoverability of three enteropathogens bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica,.

  9. Relationships between cock semen viability and the fertility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CUT User

    Semen was collected from each cock following 5ASM, evaluated for semen viability and 0.05 mL diluted semen used to inseminate five hens per breed, in each experimental group. Significant differences in ejaculation rates and semen quality and quantity were recorded in the four breeds of cocks - with the HP cocks of the ...

  10. Optimizing cell viability in droplet-based cell deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Jan; Willem Visser, Claas; Henke, Sieger; Leijten, Jeroen; Saris, Daniël B F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241604443; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Karperien, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Biofabrication commonly involves the use of liquid droplets to transport cells to the printed structure. However, the viability of the cells after impact is poorly controlled and understood, hampering applications including cell spraying, inkjet bioprinting, and laser-assisted cell transfer. Here,

  11. Interactions between Plant Extracts and Cell Viability Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactions between Plant Extracts and Cell Viability. Indicators during Cytotoxicity Testing: Implications for. Ethnopharmacological Studies. Sze Mun Chan1, Kong Soo Khoo2 and Nam Weng Sit1*. 1Department of Biomedical Science, 2Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman,.

  12. Dormancy, activation and viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, N.V.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Interruption of dormancy to improve viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores is crucial for the application of stored starter cultures for fungal (tempe) production. We aimed to assess the extent of dormancy and factors that could result in activation. Whereas heat treatments were

  13. Influence of gamma irradiation on pollen viability, germination ability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    July 9th, 11th, 15th, 21st and 28th) and pollen age (0th and 1st days) on the pollen viability, germination ability and fruit and seed-set were investigated in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir.) and winter squash (Cucurbita maxima ...

  14. Environmental Stress and Pathogen Dynamics in the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Neigel, J.; Gelpi, C. G.

    2016-02-01

    The blue crab Callinectes sapidus is an ecologically and economically valuable species along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts of North America. Throughout its range, the blue crab encounters a diverse array of parasitic and pathogenic microorganisms that have episodic and occasionally severe impacts on population numbers and viability. This makes understanding factors that influence pathogen dynamics, such as host stress, an important priority. To explore the role of environmental stress on the susceptibility of blue crabs to pathogens we screened individuals collected during the summers of 2014 and 2015 for a number of infectious agents. We sampled three life stages (megalopae, juvenile, and adult) from multiple marsh and offshore locations in Louisiana. Duration of stressful environmental conditions at each location was quantified from hourly recordings provided by the Louisiana Coastwide Reference Monitoring System. Pathogenic microorganisms were detected in crabs from multiple locations and multiple years. Some of the variability in prevalence of infection can be explained by exposure to stressful extremes of temperature and salinity during summer months.

  15. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  16. POSTPARTUM BLUES PADA PERSALINAN DIBAWAH USIA DUA PULUH TAHUN

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniasari Pratiwi; Istiani Nur Chasanah; Sri Martuti

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum blues or baby blues is a feeling of sadness experienced by mothers after childbirth related to the baby. Postpartum blues is like an iceberg that is difficult to detect because there are still many people who do not understand about the event. Nevertheless, postpartum blues not being handled properly is one of the factors precipitating the occurrence of postpartum depression,  can be fatal for mother and baby. Postpartum blues more common in women who marry in their early age. Indo...

  17. Postpartum Blues pada Persalinan Dibawah Usia Dua Puluh Tahun

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Kurniasari; Chasanah, Istiani Nur; Martuti, Sri

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum blues or baby blues is a feeling of sadness experienced by mothers after childbirth related to the baby. Postpartum blues is like an iceberg that is difficult to detect because there are still many people who do not understand about the event. Nevertheless, postpartum blues not being handled properly is one of the factors precipitating the occurrence of postpartum depression, can be fatal for mother and baby. Postpartum blues more common in women who marry in their early age. Indo...

  18. Effect of sirolimus on urinary bladder cancer T24 cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Paula A; Ribeiro Eufemia; Botelho Pedro; Pinto-Leite Rosario; Santos Lucios

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sirolimus is recently reported to have antitumour effects on a large variety of cancers. The present study was performed to investigate sirolimus's ability to inhibit growth in T24 bladder cancer cells. Methods T24 bladder cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of sirolimus. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation inhibitory effect on T24 cell line. The viability of T24 cell line was determined by Trypan blue exclusion analysis. Results Sirolimus in...

  19. "Blue-Collar Blues" uurib töösuhteid uutes oludes / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    Tööproblemaatikat käsitlev näitus "Blue-Collar Blues" Tallinna Kunstihoones ja Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 31. jaanuarini 2010, kuraator Anders Härm. Lähemalt belgia-mehhiko kunstniku Francis Alys'e videost, austria kunstniku Oliver Ressleri ning venetsueela-saksa politoloogi Dario Azzelini videost "Viis tehast. Tööliste kontroll Venezuelas"

  20. "Blue and seven phenomena" among Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M

    1999-10-01

    To investigate color and number preferences in Japan, 586 university undergraduates (239 men and 347 women; M age = 20.9 yr.) were asked to name a color (Question 1), to name their preferred color (Question 2), and to name their preferred number between zero and nine (Question 3). The results showed that Japanese students chose blue (33.5%) or red (26.0%) when asked to name a color but that red was not chosen as frequently as blue as a preferred color (red: 11.1%, blue: 37.1%). Sex differences were found on both Questions 1 and 2 by chi-squared test. Black was chosen more by men, while pink was selected more by women. 22.5% subjects also selected the number seven, supporting Simon's observation of the "blue-seven phenomenon." The reasons given for the choice showed that seven was "a lucky number" and "represented happiness" among Japanese students. Four colors (blue, red, white, and black) accounted for 76.8% and 65.1% of responses to Questions 1 and 2, respectively, and odd numbers 68.4% for Question 3.

  1. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig A.; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2007-11-28

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 °C or held at 5 °C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 μm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMAwith DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  2. Fetal viability as a threshold to personhood. A legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterfy, A

    1995-12-01

    This essay opens with an examination of US laws concerning fetal viability as they apply to induced abortion, to a mother's right to refuse medical treatment necessary to save the life of a fetus, and to the rights to file suit for the wrongful death of unborn children. The history of abortion policies in the US is traced from the common law period of the early 19th century to the restrictive post-Civil War laws and the decisions of the Supreme Court in Roe vs. Wade, which upheld the constitutionality of previability abortions; Webster vs. Reproductive Health Services, in which the Court assigned viability to the 20th week of pregnancy and acknowledged that States could have a compelling previability interest in the fetus; and the Casey decision, which provided tolerance for limits on the availability of abortion before viability as long as the limits did not create an "undue burden" on the woman seeking the abortion. Courts dealing with the issue of compelling a mother to undergo medical treatment to save her fetus have been inconsistent as they balanced the state's interest in the fetus against the mother's rights to privacy. Judges have tended to err on the side of forcing the medical interventions, but the most recent trend is against this sort of judgement. In these cases, fetal viability has also served as a dividing line. The inconsistency of the legal system is illustrated by the fact that, whereas the fetus now has a legal existence, wrongful death actions entered on behalf of a nonviable fetus have often been denied although courts have been more willing to extend protection to fetuses in wrongful death tort cases than in abortion or medical intervention cases. Criminal law has a unique set of rules for dealing with fetuses as some states have broadened their definitions of "homicide" to include fetuses, even nonviable fetuses. Courts, however, are reluctant to enlarge criminal statutes on their own. While the central position given to the role of

  3. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  4. Cytotoxicity study of plant Aloe vera (Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul N Chandu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study has been to evaluate the in-vitro antitumor activity of Aloe vera extract of in cultured B16F10 melanoma cell line by measuring cell viability using "Trypan blue exclusion assay" method. Aim: To find out such kind of anticancer drug which is a cheap, safe, less toxic, and more potent drug compared to chemotherapy drug. Materials and Methods: In-vitro antitumor activity cell culture1, drug treatment (standard and test extract and Trypan blue exclusion assay growth and viability test 1 were used. Treatment of Aloe vera extract against B16F10 melanoma cell line, in all concentration range, showed decrease in percent cell viability, as compared to that of negative when examined by "Trypan blue exclusion assay". Results: In overall variation of test samples, Aloe vera extract showed its best activity in the concentration of 300 μg/ml, which was approximately equal to the activity of standard drug doxorubicin. Evaluation of in-vitro antitumor activity revealed that Aloe vera extract exhibits good cytotoxic activity. The best cytotoxic activity by Aloe vera was shown at 200 μg/ml concentration. Conclusion: The study of cytoprotection against normal cells by micronucleus assay has shown that the herbal extracts have less toxic effects to the normal blood lymphocytes, as compared to that of standard anticancer drug.

  5. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  6. Blue Energy North Sea Canal. Feasibility Study Blue Energy Plant along the North Sea Canal; Blue Energy Noordzeekanaal. Haalbaarheidsonderzoek Blue Energy centrale langs het Noordzeekanaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, C.M.; Bijlsma, A.C.; Hommes, S.

    2009-12-15

    This study offers insight in the potential of the North Sea Canal for energy extraction from salinity gradients (Blue Energy) and offers advice on the most suitable locations where the extraction can be conducted. Moreover, this project identifies the relevant actors and explores their responsibilities and interests. [Dutch] In deze verkenning wordt de potentie van het Noordzeekanaal voor energiewinning uit zoet-zout gradienten (Blue Energy) inzichtelijk gemaakt van en een advies gegeven over de meest geschikte locatie(s) waar deze winning plaats zou kunnen vinden. Verder worden in dit project de relevante actoren geidentificeerd en worden hun verantwoordelijkheden en belangen verkend.

  7. VIABILITY OF THE PROBIOTIC BACTERIA L. ACIDOPHILUS IN DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Koreňová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of health benefits have been claimed for probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus. Because of the potential health benefits, these organisms are increasingly incorporated into dairy foods. Viability of probiotic bacteria is important in order to provide health benefits. However, many studies have shown low viability of probiotics in market preparations. This study cover selective enumeration and survival of probiotic bacteria L. acidophilus in some dairy drinks. L. acidophilus was found in the range from 106 to 107 CFU.g-1 in five types of fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. Two investigated products were up to standard according to Regulation of Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Health of Slovak Republic.doi: 10.5219/147

  8. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W [eds.

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  9. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischaemic left ventricular (LV dysfunction can arise from myocardial stunning, hibernation, or necrosis. Imaging modalities have become front-line methods in the assessment of viable myocardial tissue, with the aim to stratify patients into optimal treatment pathways. Initial studies, although favorable, lacked sufficient power and sample size to provide conclusive outcomes of viability assessment. Recent trials, including the STICH and HEART studies, have failed to confer prognostic benefits of revascularisation therapy over standard medical management in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In lieu of these recent findings, assessment of myocardial viability therefore should not be the sole factor for therapy choice. Optimization of medical therapy is paramount, and physicians should feel comfortable in deferring coronary revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease with reduced LV systolic function. Newer trials are currently underway and will hopefully provide a more complete understanding of the pathos and management of ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

  10. Traffic networks as information systems a viability approach

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph covers a viability to approach to traffic management by advising to vehicles circulated on the network the velocity they should follow for satisfying global traffic conditions;. It presents an investigation of three structural innovations: The objective is to broadcast at each instant and at each position the advised celerity to vehicles, which could be read by auxiliary speedometers or used by cruise control devices. Namely, 1. Construct regulation feedback providing at each time and position advised velocities (celerities) for minimizing congestion or other requirements. 2. Taking into account traffic constraints of different type, the first one being to remain on the roads, to stop at junctions, etc. 3. Use information provided by the probe vehicles equipped with GPS to the traffic regulator; 4. Use other global traffic measures of vehicles provided by different types of sensors; These results are based on convex analysis, intertemporal optimization and viability theory as mathemati...

  11. Care at the edge of viability: medical and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haward, Marlyse F; Kirshenbaum, Nancy W; Campbell, Deborah E

    2011-09-01

    Decision-making for extremely immature preterm infants at the margins of viability is ethically, professionally, and emotionally complicated. A standard for prenatal consultation should be developed incorporating assessment of parental decision-making preferences and styles, a communication process involving a reciprocal exchange of information, and effective strategies for decisional deliberation, guided by and consistent with parental moral framework. Professional caregivers providing perinatal consultations or end-of-life counseling for extremely preterm infants should be sensitive to these issues and be taught flexibility in counseling techniques adhering to consistent guidelines. Emphasis must shift away from physician beliefs and behaviors about the boundaries of viability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics associated with regional health information organization viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Landefeld, John; Jha, Ashish K

    2010-01-01

    Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) will likely play a key role in our nation's effort to catalyze health information exchange. Yet we know little about why some efforts succeed while others fail. We sought to identify factors associated with RHIO viability. Using data from a national survey of RHIOs that we conducted in mid-2008, we examined factors associated with becoming operational and factors associated with financial viability. We used multivariate logistic regression models to identify unique predictors. We classified RHIOs actively facilitating data exchange as operational and measured financial viability as the percent of operating costs covered by revenue from participants in data exchange (0-24%, 25-74%, 75-100%). Predictors included breadth of participants, breadth of data exchanged, whether the RHIO focused on a specific population, whether RHIO participants had a history of collaborating, and sources of revenue during the planning phase. Exchanging a narrow set of data and involving a broad group of stakeholders were independently associated with a higher likelihood of being operational. Involving hospitals and ambulatory physicians, and securing early funding from participants were associated with a higher likelihood of financial viability, while early grant funding seemed to diminish the likelihood. Finding ways to help RHIOs become operational and self-sustaining will bolster the current approach to nationwide health information exchange. Our work suggests that convening a broad coalition of stakeholders to focus on a narrow set of data is an important step in helping RHIOs become operational. Convincing stakeholders to financially commit early in the process may help RHIOs become self-sustaining.

  13. Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) methanol extract on viability and apoptosis of human leukemic cell lines. ... bromide (MTT) assay at concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ug/mL of Allium sativum extract following 48-h treatment on U-937, Jurkat Clone E6-1 and K-562 cell lines. The mode of cell ...

  14. Viability and Indication of Pathogenic Microbes in the Environment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    viability of parasitic microbes can be clarified corrently only with consideration of the interaction of the organism with the environment and...adaptation to it. According to this school of thought, the stability of a causative agent in the environment is determined by the specific mechanism through...mechanism of transfer of the contaminating principle, the shorter the period during which the parasitic microbe is in the environment - i.e., the

  15. Effect of Isolation Techniques on Viability of Bovine Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sláma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected isolation methods on the viability of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils from the blood of healthy Holstein x Bohemian Red Pied crossbred heifers was evaluated. Two methods of neutrophil isolation were used: a neutrophil isolation on the basis of hypotonic erythrocyte lysis (in two variants: after the erythrocyte lysis proper, the cells were centrifuged at either 200 g or 1000 g, and b neutrophil isolation with FACS Lysing Solution as the lysing agent. The viability of the isolated neutrophils was evaluated on the basis of apoptosis and necrosis. The results obtained with flow cytometry (FCM suggest that, from the isolation techniques used, the method based on FACS Lysing Solution impaired the neutrophil viability least. After the application of this method, 5.36 ± 2.15% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 0.51 ± 0.12% were necrotic. In contrast, when the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis was used, the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils amounted to 42.14 ± 7.12% and 49.00 ± 14.70%, respectively, and 41.12 ± 5.55% and 36.91 ± 24.38% respectively of necrotic neutrophils (P < 0.01. This was also confirmed by the light microscopy. After the isolation with FASC Lysing Solution, 1.92 ± 1.74% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 1.05 ± 0.76% were necrotic, as distinct from after the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis where 9.43 ± 3.69% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 12.67 ± 4.74% of necrotic after centrifugation at 200 g, while 12.60 ± 4.35 were apoptotic and 14.96 ± 12.64% were necrotic after centrifugation at 1000 g. It follows from the above-mentioned data that hypotonic lysis is not a suitable method for the isolation of neutrophils, as the method itself markedly affects cell viability.

  16. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  17. MODERN TECHNIQUES OF CERVICAL INSTRUMENTATION IN IMMATURE SKELETON: VIABILITY ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Ayrana Soares; Silva, Luís Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da; Barros, Alderico Girão Campos de; Azevedo, Gustavo Borges Laurindo de; Naves, Cleiton Dias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study describes the use of materials for modern cervical instrumentation, evaluating its viability in children and adolescents, and the techniques used in different cases. The efficacy of the techniques was analyzed through improvement of pain, maintenance of cervical range of motion, recovery of craniocervical stability, bone consolidation, and spinal stenosis in the postoperative follow-up. Method: Retrospective study of the clinical and radiological parameters of 2...

  18. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  19. Rapid, portable and cost-effective yeast cell viability and concentration analysis using lensfree on-chip microscopy and machine learning

    KAUST Repository

    Feizi, Alborz

    2016-09-24

    Monitoring yeast cell viability and concentration is important in brewing, baking and biofuel production. However, existing methods of measuring viability and concentration are relatively bulky, tedious and expensive. Here we demonstrate a compact and cost-effective automatic yeast analysis platform (AYAP), which can rapidly measure cell concentration and viability. AYAP is based on digital in-line holography and on-chip microscopy and rapidly images a large field-of-view of 22.5 mm2. This lens-free microscope weighs 70 g and utilizes a partially-coherent illumination source and an opto-electronic image sensor chip. A touch-screen user interface based on a tablet-PC is developed to reconstruct the holographic shadows captured by the image sensor chip and use a support vector machine (SVM) model to automatically classify live and dead cells in a yeast sample stained with methylene blue. In order to quantify its accuracy, we varied the viability and concentration of the cells and compared AYAP\\'s performance with a fluorescence exclusion staining based gold-standard using regression analysis. The results agree very well with this gold-standard method and no significant difference was observed between the two methods within a concentration range of 1.4 × 105 to 1.4 × 106 cells per mL, providing a dynamic range suitable for various applications. This lensfree computational imaging technology that is coupled with machine learning algorithms would be useful for cost-effective and rapid quantification of cell viability and density even in field and resource-poor settings.

  20. Rapid, portable and cost-effective yeast cell viability and concentration analysis using lensfree on-chip microscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Alborz; Zhang, Yibo; Greenbaum, Alon; Guziak, Alex; Luong, Michelle; Chan, Raymond Yan Lok; Berg, Brandon; Ozkan, Haydar; Luo, Wei; Wu, Michael; Wu, Yichen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring yeast cell viability and concentration is important in brewing, baking and biofuel production. However, existing methods of measuring viability and concentration are relatively bulky, tedious and expensive. Here we demonstrate a compact and cost-effective automatic yeast analysis platform (AYAP), which can rapidly measure cell concentration and viability. AYAP is based on digital in-line holography and on-chip microscopy and rapidly images a large field-of-view of 22.5 mm2. This lens-free microscope weighs 70 g and utilizes a partially-coherent illumination source and an opto-electronic image sensor chip. A touch-screen user interface based on a tablet-PC is developed to reconstruct the holographic shadows captured by the image sensor chip and use a support vector machine (SVM) model to automatically classify live and dead cells in a yeast sample stained with methylene blue. In order to quantify its accuracy, we varied the viability and concentration of the cells and compared AYAP's performance with a fluorescence exclusion staining based gold-standard using regression analysis. The results agree very well with this gold-standard method and no significant difference was observed between the two methods within a concentration range of 1.4 × 105 to 1.4 × 106 cells per mL, providing a dynamic range suitable for various applications. This lensfree computational imaging technology that is coupled with machine learning algorithms would be useful for cost-effective and rapid quantification of cell viability and density even in field and resource-poor settings.

  1. Detection of viability of transplanted beta cells labeled with a novel contrast agent - polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Biao; Chen, Ying; Huang, Hai; Xie, Qiuping; Kang, Muxing; Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Chuanxin; Wu, Yulian

    2012-01-01

    Islets can be visualized on MRI by labeling with superparamagnetic contrast agent during the transplantation procedure. However, whether the signal intensity reflects the cell number and cellular viability has not been determined. We used a self-synthesized novel superparamagnetic contrast agent -polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PVP-SPIO) - to label β-TC-6 cells (a mouse insulinoma cell line) or primary islets with commercial Feridex as a control. The labeling efficiency of two agents was compared by Prussian blue staining, intracellular iron content determination and MR scanning. Cells were exposed to hypoxia, high-glucose or exogenous H₂O₂ stimulation before/after PVP-SPIO labeling. Normal and injured cells were also transplanted into renal subcapsule. A clinically used 3.0 T MR scan was performed in vitro and 24 h post-transplantation to investigate the correlation between cellular viability and signal. Our PVP-SPIO displayed superior biocompatibility and magnetic properties. All of the cells could be labeled at 100 µg/ml iron concentration after 24 h incubation. At 100 µg/ml iron concentration, 1 × 10⁵ β cells labeled with PVP-SPIO could already be visualized in vitro by MRI, less than the detection threshold of Feridex. There existed a linear correlation between the number of labeled cells and R₂ value on the T₂ -weighted images. The signal intensity and the intracellular iron content declined along with the decreased viability of labeled cells. There was also a significant difference in signal intensity between injured and normal labeled cells after transplantation. From these results, we concluded that PVP-SPIO possessed superior cell labeling efficiency, and β cells could be labeled without compromising viability and function. The signal intensity on MRI might be a useful predictor to evaluate the number and the viability of PVP-SPIO-labeled cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  3. Ca-Lignosulphonate and sclerotial viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTEO MONTANARI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignosulphonates, low cost by-products of the pulping process, have shown suppressive effects against some diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of 1.5% v/v calcium lignosulphonate (Ca-Ls amendment to two commercial potting mixes (peat + coconut fibres; PC; and municipal compost + peat + pumice; MCPP on the viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia was investigated. Sclerotia were buried in the Ca-Ls amended substrates for 30 days. Non-amended PC and MCPP, sterile sand and sterile PC with and without Ca-Ls were used as controls. The viability of sclerotia recovered from PC and MCPP amended with Ca-Ls was reduced by 50 and 42% respectively compared to control treatments. Ca-Ls amendment decreased sclerotial viability by enhancing the activity of the indigenous mycoparasitic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor spp. and Trichoderma spp. The biocontrol ability of Ca-Ls against sclerotia was due to the stimulation of microbial activity and is, therefore, strictly dependent on the microbial composition of the substrate.

  4. Viability studies of optically trapped T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Niall; Glass, David G.; Millington, Owain; Wright, Amanda J.

    2011-10-01

    We present a viability study of optically trapped live T cell hybridomas. T cells form an important part of the adaptive immune response system which is responsible for fighting particular pathogens or diseases. The cells of interest were directly trapped by a laser operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm and their viability measured as a function of time. Cell death was monitored using an inverted fluorescent microscope to observe the uptake by the cell of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide. Studies were undertaken at various laser powers and beam profiles. There is a growing interest in optically trapping immune cells and this is the first study that investigates the viability of a T cell when trapped using a conventional optical trapping system. In such experiments it is crucial that the T cell remains viable and trapping the cell directly means that any artefacts due to a cell-bead interface are removed. Our motivation behind this experiment is to use optical tweezers to gain a greater understanding of the interaction forces between T cells and antigen presenting cells. Measuring these interactions has become important due to recent theories which indicate that the strength of this interaction may underlie the activation of the T-cell and subsequent immune response.

  5. Nuclear cardiac imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slart, R H J A; Bax, J J; van der Wall, E E; van Veldhuisen, D J; Jager, P L; Dierckx, R A

    2005-11-01

    An important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy is the assessment of myocardial viability. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischaemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularisation. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using 201thallium, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc- tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularisation. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, such as attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and noninvasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification.

  6. Different effects of sonoporation on cell morphology and viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Zhen Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to investigate changes in cell morphology and viability after sonoporation. Sonoportion was achieved by ultrasound (21 kHz exposure on adherent human prostate cancer DU145 cells in the cell culture dishes with the presence of microbubble contrast agents and calcein (a cell impermeant dye. We investigated changes in cell morphology immediately after sonoporation under scanning electron microscope (SEM and changes in cell viability immediately and 6 h after sonoporation under fluorescence microscope. It was shown that various levels of intracellular calcein uptake and changes in cell morphology can be caused immediately after sonoporation: smooth cell surface, pores in the membrane and irregular cell surface. Immediately after sonoporation, both groups of cells with high levels of calcein uptake and low levels of calcein uptake were viable; 6 h after sonoporation, group of cells with low levels of calcein uptake still remained viable, while group of cells with high levels of calcein uptake died. Sonoporation induces different effects on cell morphology, intracellular calcein uptake and cell viability.

  7. Viability of various weed seeds in anaerobic conditions (biogas plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.; Hansen, J.

    1983-04-01

    Seeds from different weeds, Urtica urens L. (nettle), Solanum nigrum L. (nightshade), Avena fatua L. (wild oat-grass), Brassica napus L. (rape), Chenopodium album L. (goose-foot), were put into small polyester net bags, which were placed in biogas reactors containing cattle manure. These ''biogas reactors'' were placed at different temperatures . Net bags were taken out after 4.5, 10.5, 21.5, 38 and 53 days, and the seeds were tested for their viability by germination tests and the tetrazolium method. Concerning all seeds it was manifested that the viability decreased very steeply at 35degC. Most of the seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 2-5 days; Chenopodium album L seeds had a T/sub 50/ at 16 days. After 4.5 days it was not possible to find living Avena fatua L seeds. The decrease in viability was less steep at 20degC and even less steep at 2degC.

  8. Viability of lactobacillus acidophilus in various vaginal tablet formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli M.R.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The lactobacilli which are present in vaginal fluids play an important role in prevention of vaginosis and there are considerable interests in formulation of these friendly bacteria into suitable pharmaceutical dosage forms. Formulating these microorganisms for vaginal application is a critical issue as the products should retain viability of lactobacilli during formulation and also storage. The aim of this study was to examine the viability and release of Lactobacillus acidophilus from slow-release vaginal tablets prepared by using six different retarding polymers and from two effervescent tablets prepared by using citric or adipic acid. The Carbomer–based formulations showed high initial viablility compared to those based on HPMC-LV, HPMC-HV, Polycarbophil and SCMC polymers which showed one log decrease in viable cells. All retarding polymers in slow release formulations presented a strong bacterial release at about 2 h except Carbomer polymers which showed to be poor bacterial releasers. Although effervescent formulations produced a quick bacterial release in comparison with polymer based slow-release tablets, they were less stable in cold storage. Due to the strong chelating characteristic of citric acid, the viability was quickly lost for aqueous medium of citric acid in comparison with adipic acid based effervescent tablets.

  9. PET/SPECT imaging: From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert [Department of Surgery, Isala Clinics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, Gooitzen M. van [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijckx, Gert-Jan [Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com

    2010-04-15

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could improve selection of patients with a vulnerable plaque and evaluation of brain viability in ischemic stroke. Objective: To describe the current applications of PET and SPECT as a diagnostic tool in relation to ischemic stroke. Methods: A literature search using PubMed identified articles. Manual cross-referencing was also performed. Results: Several papers, all observational studies, identified PET/SPECT to be used as a tool to monitor systemic atheroma modifying treatment and to select high-risk patients for surgery regardless of the degree of luminal stenosis in carotid lesions. Furthermore, PET/SPECT is able to quantify the penumbra region during ischemic stroke and in this way may identify those patients who may benefit from timely intervention. Discussion: Functional imaging modalities such as PET/SPECT may become important tools for risk-assessment and evaluation of treatment strategies in carotid plaque vulnerability and brain viability. Prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/SPECT.

  10. Dormancy, activation and viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, N V; Nout, M J R

    2004-04-15

    Interruption of dormancy to improve viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores is crucial for the application of stored starter cultures for fungal (tempe) production. We aimed to assess the extent of dormancy and factors that could result in activation. Whereas heat treatments were unsuccessful, Malt Extract Broth (MEB) showed to be a good activation medium, with 80% of dormant spores being activated as measured by fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescent marker, compared with 11% with the control. Peptone and yeast extract but not glucose played an important role in activating dormant spores. Metabolically active (fluorescent) and swollen spores, followed by germ tubes were obtained after activation in MEB for 25 min., 2 and 4 h, respectively, at 37 degrees C. Simultaneously, some interesting transitions took place. Dormant spores represent 85-90% of the total spores at harvest and after drying. Their number decreased to 21-32% after activation with MEB with a concomitant increase of metabolically active spores. As a result of storage, some dormancy was lost, yielding an increase of active spores from 11.2% at harvest to 28.8% after 3 months storage. Levels of active spores were well correlated with their viability. By activation of dormant spores, their viability increased; levels of viable and active spores were maximum in 1 month old starter (61.7% and 75.9% of total spores, respectively) but gradually decreased with concomitant increase of the number of dead spores.

  11. Viability And Conidial Production Of Entomopathogenic Fungi Penicillium SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurariaty Agus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penicillium sp. order Eurotiales class Eurotiomycetes family Trichocomaceae is one of the entomopathogenic fungi that have the potential to be developed as biological control agent of pests.The study aims to determine the viability and spora production of Entomopathogenic fungi Penicillium sp. Experiments was conducted in Pests Identification and Biological Control laboratory Department of Plant Pest and Disease Faculty of Agriculture Hasanuddin University. The fungus Penicillium sp. cultured in a liquid medium and then added chitin as treatment and others without chitin. The spora viability of fungi was observed on 12th and 24th hours while spora production on 3nd 6th 9th and 12th days after application.The results showed that conidial viability of the fungus Penicillium sp. at 24 hours after application was higher if the medium given chitin than without chitin. The conidial production was higher if given chitin than without chitin. It was highest on 12th day reached 143.4 x 106 conidiaml if media given chitin and on 6th day if without chitin 0.50 x 106 conidiaml.

  12. Cell Viability in Arthroscopic Versus Open Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biant, Leela C; Simons, Michiel; Gillespie, Trudi; McNicholas, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an effective method of repair of articular cartilage defects. It is a 2-stage operation, with the second stage most commonly performed via mini-arthrotomy. Arthroscopic ACI is gaining popularity, as it is less invasive and may accelerate early rehabilitation. However, handling and manipulation of the implant have been shown to cause chondrocyte cell death. To assess the number and viability of cells delivered via an open versus arthroscopic approach in ACI surgery. Controlled laboratory study. Sixteen ACI surgeries were performed on young cadaveric knees by 2 experienced surgeons: 8 via mini-arthrotomy and 8 arthroscopically. Live and dead cells were stained and counted on implants after surgery. The cell number and viability were assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Surgery was timed from knife to skin until the end of cycling the knee 10 times after implantation of the cell-membrane construct. On receipt of cell membranes after transportation from the laboratory, ≥92% of the cells were viable. There were significantly more remaining cells (8.47E+07 arthroscopic vs 1.41E+08 open; P arthroscopic vs 37.34% open; P arthroscopic technique. Open surgery was of a significantly shorter duration (6 vs 32 minutes; P arthroscopic technique. The viability of cells delivered for ACI via an arthroscopic approach was 16 times less than via an open approach. The mini-arthrotomy approach is recommended until long-term clinical comparative data are available.

  13. Blue LED light exposure develops intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent cellular injuries in cultured bovine retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi-Ueda, T; Majima, H J; Watanabe, K; Ueda, T; Indo, H P; Suenaga, S; Hisamitsu, T; Ozawa, T; Yasuhara, H; Koide, R

    2013-10-01

    The effects of blue light emitter diode (LED) light exposure on retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells) were examined to detect cellular damage or change and to clarify its mechanisms. The RPE cells were cultured and exposed by blue (470 nm) LED at 4.8 mW/cm(2). The cellular viability was determined by XTT assay and cellular injury was determined by the lactate dehydrogenase activity in medium. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by confocal laser microscope image analysis using dihydrorhodamine 123 and lipid peroxidation was determined by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein-adducts immunofluorescent staining (HNE). At 24 h after 50 J/cm(2) exposures, cellular viability was significantly decreased to 74% and cellular injury was significantly increased to 365% of control. Immediately after the light exposure, ROS generation was significantly increased to 154%, 177%, and 395% of control and HNE intensity was increased to 211%, 359%, and 746% of control by 1, 10, and 50 J/cm(2), respectively. These results suggest, at least in part, that oxidative stress is an early step leading to cellular damage by blue LED exposure and cellular oxidative damage would be caused by the blue light exposure at even lower dose (1, 10 J/cm(2)).

  14. Blebbistatin, a myosin inhibitor, is phototoxic to human cancer cells under exposure to blue light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulich, Aliaksandr; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Juzenas, Petras

    2012-07-01

    Blebbistatin is a new inhibitor of cell motility. It is used to study dynamics of cytokinesis machinery in cells. However, the potential of this inhibitor as an anticancer agent has not been studied so far. Cytotoxicity of blebbistatin was evaluated in five human cell lines, FEMX-I melanoma, U87 glioma, androgen independent Du145 and androgen sensitive LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma, and F11-hTERT immortalized fibroblasts. Phototoxicity of blebbistatin was assessed in these cell lines after their exposure to a blue light (390-470 nm). Photostability of blebbistatin and its reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating properties were measured during irradiation with the blue light. Blebbistatin at a concentration range of 10-200 μmol/L was toxic to all studied cells. Toxic concentrations (TC) were about 10-25 μmol/L corresponding to TC10, 50-100 μmol/L to TC50 and 140-190 μmol/L to TC90. Only for the U87 glioma cells TC90 could not be measured as the highest studied concentration of 200 μmol/L gave around 70% toxicity. However, after exposure to the blue light blebbistatin exhibited phototoxicity on the cells, with a cytotoxicity enhancement ratio that was greatest for the FEMX-I cells (about 9) followed by LNCaP (5), Du145 (3), U87 (2) and F11-hTERT (1.7) cells. Blebbistatin inhibits cell motility and viability. Under exposure to the blue light blebbistatin exhibits photodynamic action on human cancer cells. During the irradiation blebbistatin oxidizes dihydrorhodamine 123 but not Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green. Our findings offer new possibilities for blebbistatin as a potential anticancer and photodynamic agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Drugs with anti-oxidant properties can interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Niraj; Stenson, Mary; Lawson, Joshua; Abeykoon, Jithma; Patnaik, Mrinal; Wu, Xiaosheng; Witzig, Thomas

    2017-02-27

    Cell viability assays such as Cell Titer Blue and Alamar Blue rely on the reducing property of viable cells to reduce the reagent dye to a product which gives a fluorescent signal. The current manufacture-recommended protocols do not take into account the possibility of the reagent substrate being reduced directly to the fluorescent product by drugs with an anti-oxidant property. After suspecting spurious results while determining the cytotoxic potential of a drug of interest (DOI) with known anti-oxidant property against a renal cell cancer (RCC) cell line, we aimed to establish that drugs with anti-oxidant property can indeed cause false-negative results with the current protocols of these assays by direct reduction of the reagent substrate. We also aimed to counter the same with a simple modification added to the protocol. Through our experiments, we conclusively demonstrate that drugs with anti-oxidant properties can indeed interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells. A simple modification in the protocol, as elaborated in the manuscript, can prevent spurious results with these otherwise convenient assays.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 27 February 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2017.18.

  16. Nanotubes based on monolayer blue phosphorus

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-07-08

    We demonstrate structural stability of monolayer zigzag and armchair blue phosphorus nanotubes by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The vibrational spectrum and electronic band structure are determined and analyzed as functions of the tube diameter and axial strain. The nanotubes are found to be semiconductors with a sensitive indirect band gap that allows flexible tuning.

  17. A Code Blue Answer to Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneycutt, Richy; Callahan, Barbara; Welch, Alexis

    2008-01-01

    Code Blue addresses the capacity challenges in healthcare training. This pilot, grant funded project, focuses on a holistic approach to selecting and educating career ready and capable students and training them to be confident and competent healthcare workers. Lessons learned from this project will be assessed and reviewed for replication.

  18. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus sp. effectively decolorized Reactive Blue and other structurally different synthetic dyes. Agitation was found to be an important parameter, while glucose (99%), sucrose (97%) and mannitol (98%) were the best carbon sources for the decolorization. Decolorization was effective in an acidic environment (pH 3).

  19. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues…

  20. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  1. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Melcón

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  2. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  3. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... This book, extensively illustrated and thoroughly referenced, will provide the source material for students, and experienced as well as new research workers should find it of great value. A series of short appendices summarize details of culture collections, media and some specialized aspects of growing blue-green algae.

  4. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF PRUSSIAN BLUE FORMATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN)6}x H2O) and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1) and high negative entropy of activation (-231 ...

  5. Biodecolorization and biodegradation of Reactive Blue by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Reactive Red (33%) and Coloron Violet (66%) were decolorized moderately.The dye Coloron Black (9%) was highly ... ues into river and lakes lead to higher biological oxygen demand (BOD) causing serious ... Reactive Red, Reactive Blue were purchased from Evergreen Ind- ustries, Ahmedabad, India.

  6. METHYLENE BLUE ADSORPTION FROM GLYCEROL SOLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α- goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the ...

  7. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  8. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  10. Blue-hazard-free Candlelight OLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Singh, Meenu; Su, Yu-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hao; He, Zhe-Kai

    2017-03-19

    A candlelight-style organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a human-friendly type of lighting because it is blue-hazard-free and has a low correlated color temperature (CCT) illumination. The low CCT lighting is deprived of high-energy blue radiation, and it can be used for a longer duration before causing retinal damage. This work presents the comprehensive protocols for the fabrication of blue-hazard-free candlelight OLEDs. The emission spectrum of the OLED was characterized by the maximum exposure time limit of the retina and the melatonin suppression sensitivity. The devices can be fabricated using dry and wet processes. The dry-processed OLED resulted in a CCT of 1,940 K and exhibited a maximum retinal exposure limit of 1,287 s at a brightness of 500 lx. It showed 2.61% melatonin suppression sensitivity relative to 480 nm blue light. The wet-processed OLED, where the spin coating is used to deposit hole injection, hole transport, and emissive layers, making fabrication fast and economical, produced a CCT of 1,922 K and showed a maximum retinal exposure limit of 7,092 at a brightness of 500 lx. The achieved relative melatonin suppression sensitivity of 1.05% is 86% and 96% less than that of the light emitting diode (LED) and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), respectively. Wet-processed blue-hazard-free candlelight OLED exhibited a power efficiency of 30 lm/W, which is 2 times that of the incandescent bulb and 300 times that of the candle.

  11. Population viability impacts of habitat additions and subtractions: A simulation experiment with endangered kangaroo rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species viability is influenced by the quality, quantity and configuration of habitat. For species at risk, a principal challenge is to identify landscape configurations that, if realized, would improve a population’s viability or restoration potential. Critical habitat patche...

  12. Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City, Philippine: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeninah Christia D. Borbon

    2016-01-01

    The research study on Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives aimed to assess the viability of this type of business using Thompson’s (2005...

  13. Pianure Blues: From the Dialect of the Plains to the English of the Blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nadiani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors describe a joint performance project called Pianure Blues, in which poems in Romagnolo dialect are transposed into English and performed as blues songs, and in which songs from the Anglo-American blues/roots/folk tradition are transposed and performed as poems in Romagnolo dialect – a process they have called ‘trans-staging’. A process in which they are writers and performers and, especially, translators; translators of each other’s voices, stories, landscapes, rhythms and sounds as they look for the bond between places, languages and traditions that seem very distant from each other but which find a common mood and poetic language, a common aesthetic, in their performances. The authors reflect on the creative process involved and on the significance of establishing an intersemiotic dialogue between a ‘minority’ dialect such as Romagnolo and a ‘global’ language such as English, and the blues, have become.

  14. Hubble's View of Little Blue Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of tiny, star-forming galaxy is the latest in a zoo of detections shedding light on our early universe. What can we learn from the unique little blue dots found in archival Hubble data?Peas, Berries, and DotsGreen pea galaxies identified by citizen scientists with Galaxy Zoo. [Richard Nowell Carolin Cardamone]As telescope capabilities improve and we develop increasingly deeper large-scale surveys of our universe, we continue to learn more about small, faraway galaxies. In recent years, increasing sensitivity first enabled the detection of green peas luminous, compact, low-mass (10 billion solar masses; compare this to the Milky Ways 1 trillion solar masses!) galaxies with high rates of star formation.Not long thereafter, we discovered galaxies that form stars similarly rapidly, but are even smaller only 330 million solar masses, spanning less than 3,000 light-years in size. These tiny powerhouses were termed blueberries for their distinctive color.Now, scientists Debra and Bruce Elmegreen (of Vassar College and IBM Research Division, respectively) report the discovery of galaxies that have even higher star formation rates and even lower masses: little blue dots.Exploring Tiny Star FactoriesThe Elmegreens discovered these unique galaxies by exploring archival Hubble data. The Hubble Frontier Fields data consist of deep images of six distant galaxy clusters and the parallel fields next to them. It was in the archival data for two Frontier Field Parallels, those for clusters Abell 2744 and MAS J0416.1-2403, that the authors noticed several galaxies that stand out as tiny, bright, blue objects that are nearly point sources.Top: a few examples of the little blue dots recently identified in two Hubble Frontier Field Parallels. Bottom: stacked images for three different groups of little blue dots. [Elmegreen Elmegreen 2017]The authors performed a search through the two Frontier Field Parallels, discovering a total of 55 little blue dots

  15. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Unraveling the Mystery of the Blue Fog: Structure, Properties, and Applications of Amorphous Blue Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2017-10-10

    The amorphous blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals, also known as the "blue fog," are among the rising stars in materials science that can potentially be used to develop next-generation displays with the ability to compete toe-to-toe with disruptive technologies like organic light-emitting diodes. The structure and properties of the practically unobservable blue phase III have eluded scientists for more than a century since it was discovered. This progress report reviews the developments in this field from both fundamental and applied research perspectives. The first part of this progress report gives an overview of the 130-years-long scientific tour-de-force that very recently resulted in the revelation of the mysterious structure of blue phase III. The second part reviews progress made in the past decade in developing electrooptical, optical, and photonic devices based on blue phase III. The strong and weak aspects of the development of these devices are underlined and criticized, respectively. The third- and-final part proposes ideas for further improvement in blue phase III technology to make it feasible for commercialization and widespread use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Monitoring viability of seeds in gene banks: developing software tools to increase efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the decline of seed viability is essential for effective long term seed storage in ex situ collections. Recent FAO Genebank Standards recommend monitoring intervals at one-third the time predicted for viability to fall to 85% of initial viability. This poster outlines the development of ...

  19. A roadmap towards habitable exoplanets by the Blue Dots Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2011-11-01

    This paper is an abridged version of the report produced by the Blue Dots initiative, whose activities include the elaboration of a roadmap towards the spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets. The full version of the Blue Dots report can be downloaded at http://www.blue-dots.net/spip.php?article105. While the roadmap will need to be updated regularly, it is expected that the methodology developed within Blue Dots will provide a durable framework for the elaboration of future revisions.

  20. Ecological genetics and evolution of the Large Blue butterfly – consequences of an extraordinary lifecycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line Vej

    The large blue butterflies (genus Maculinea) have received much attention from both scientists and the general public. The reason for this is their highly specialized life cycle that depends on the dual presence of a species specific larval food-plant and host-ant. The genus consists of at least...... in population viability – both in terms of colonizing new suitable habitats and by enabling gene flow among neighbouring populations. I estimated the effective dispersal of M. arion, which is considered a sedentary species. Interestingly, gene flow occurs over distances 15 times further than the maximum...... recorded dispersal distance, however this depends on the presence of interconnected sites. Habitat loss often leads to reductions in population sizes and increasing isolation of populations. Remaining populations will consequently be more vulnerable to stochastic demographic and environmental effects...

  1. Methylene Blue Protects Astrocytes against Glucose Oxygen Deprivation by Improving Cellular Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Gourav; Winters, Ali; Rich, Ryan M.; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes outnumber neurons and serve many metabolic and trophic functions in the mammalian brain. Preserving astrocytes is critical for normal brain function as well as for protecting the brain against various insults. Our previous studies have indicated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier and enhances brain metabolism. In addition, MB has been shown to be protective against neurodegeneration and brain injury. In the current study, we investigated the protective role of MB in astrocytes. Cell viability assays showed that MB treatment significantly protected primary astrocytes from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) & reoxygenation induced cell death. We also studied the effect of MB on cellular oxygen and glucose metabolism in primary astrocytes following OGD-reoxygenation injury. MB treatment significantly increased cellular oxygen consumption, glucose uptake and ATP production in primary astrocytes. In conclusion our study demonstrated that MB protects astrocytes against OGD-reoxygenation injury by improving astrocyte cellular respiration. PMID:25848957

  2. Methylene blue protects astrocytes against glucose oxygen deprivation by improving cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Gourav; Winters, Ali; Rich, Ryan M; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Yuan, Fang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes outnumber neurons and serve many metabolic and trophic functions in the mammalian brain. Preserving astrocytes is critical for normal brain function as well as for protecting the brain against various insults. Our previous studies have indicated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier and enhances brain metabolism. In addition, MB has been shown to be protective against neurodegeneration and brain injury. In the current study, we investigated the protective role of MB in astrocytes. Cell viability assays showed that MB treatment significantly protected primary astrocytes from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) & reoxygenation induced cell death. We also studied the effect of MB on cellular oxygen and glucose metabolism in primary astrocytes following OGD-reoxygenation injury. MB treatment significantly increased cellular oxygen consumption, glucose uptake and ATP production in primary astrocytes. In conclusion our study demonstrated that MB protects astrocytes against OGD-reoxygenation injury by improving astrocyte cellular respiration.

  3. Activin Receptor Signaling Regulates Prostatic Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Simon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutational changes coupled with endocrine, paracrine, and/or autocrine signals regulate cell division during carcinogenesis. The hormone signals remain undefined, although the absolute requirement in vitro for fetal serum indicates the necessity for a fetal serum factor(s in cell proliferation. Using prostatic cancer cell (PCC lines as a model of cancer cell proliferation, we have identified the fetal serum component activin A and its signaling through the activin receptor type II (ActRII, as necessary, although not sufficient, for PCC proliferation. Activin A induced Smad2 phosphorylation and PCC proliferation, but only in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conversely, activin A antibodies and inhibin A suppressed FBS-induced PCC proliferation confirming activin A as one of multiple serum components required for PCC proliferation. Basic fibroblast growth factor was subsequently shown to synergize activin A-induced PCC proliferation. Inhibition of ActRII signaling using a blocking antibody or antisense-P decreased mature ActRII expression, Smad2 phosphorylation, and the apparent viability of PCCs and neuroblastoma cells grown in FBS. Suppression of ActRII signaling in PCC and neuroblastoma cells did not induce apoptosis as indicated by the ratio of active/inactive caspase 3 but did correlate with increased cell detachment and ADAM-15 expression, a disintegrin whose expression is strongly correlated with prostatic metastasis. These findings indicate that ActRII signaling is required for PCC and neuroblastoma cell viability, with ActRII mediating cell fate via the regulation of cell adhesion. That ActRII signaling governs both cell viability and cell adhesion has important implications for developing therapeutic strategies to regulate cancer growth and metastasis.

  4. Non-disruptive measurement system of cell viability in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, F.; Nelsen, B. L.; Baselt, T.; Berger, T.; Wiele, M.; Prade, I.; Hartmann, P.

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient and oxygen transport, as well as the removal of metabolic waste are essential processes to support and maintain viable tissue. Current bioreactor technology used to grow tissue cultures in vitro has a fundamental limit to the thickness of tissues. Based on the low diffusion limit of oxygen a maximum tissue thickness of 200 μm is possible. The efficiency of those systems is currently under investigation. During the cultivation process of the artificial tissue in bioreactors, which lasts 28 days or longer, there are no possibilities to investigate the viability of cells. This work is designed to determine the influence of a non-disruptive cell viability measuring system on cellular activity. The measuring system uses a natural cellular marker produced during normal metabolic activity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a coenzyme naturally consumed and produced during cellular metabolic processes and has thoroughly been studied to determine the metabolic state of a cell. Measuring the fluorescence of NADH within the cell represents a non-disruptive marker for cell viability. Since the measurement process is optical in nature, NADH fluorescence also provides a pathway for sampling at different measurement depths within a given tissue sample. The measurement system we are using utilizes a special UV light source, to excite the NADH fluorescence state. However, the high energy potentially alters or harms the cells. To investigate the influence of the excitation signal, the cells were irradiated with a laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm and examined for cytotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a non-cytotoxic system that is applicable for large-scale operations during drug-tissue interaction testing.

  5. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  6. A simple method to measure cell viability in proliferation and cytotoxicity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Ricardo Carneiro; Lotufo, Mônica Andrade; Gagioti, Sonia Maria; Barros, Fabiana de Mesquita; Andrade, Priscila Maria

    2009-01-01

    Resazurin dye has been broadly used as indicator of cell viability in several types of assays for evaluation of the biocompatibility of medical and dental materials. Mitochondrial enzymes, as carriers of diaphorase activities, are probably responsible for the transference of electrons from NADPH + H+ to resazurin, which is reduced to resorufin. The level of reduction can be quantified by spectrophotometers since resazurin exhibits an absorption peak at 600 etam and resorufin at 570 etam wavelengths. However, the requirement of a spectrophotometer and specific filters for the quantification could be a barrier to many laboratories. Digital cameras containing red, green and blue filters, which allow the capture of red (600 to 700 etam) and green (500 to 600 etam) light wavelengths in ranges bordering on resazurin and resorufin absorption bands, could be used as an alternative method for the assessment of resazurin and resorufin concentrations. Thus, our aim was to develop a simple, cheap and precise method based on a digital CCD camera to measure the reduction of resazurin. We compared the capability of the CCD-based method to distinguish different concentrations of L929 and normal Human buccal fibroblast cell lines with that of a conventional microplate reader. The correlation was analyzed through the Pearson coefficient. The results showed a strong association between the measurements of the method developed here and those made with the microplate reader (r(2) = 0.996; p < 0.01) and with the cellular concentrations (r(2) = 0.965; p < 0.01). We concluded that the developed Colorimetric Quantification System based on CCD Images allowed rapid assessment of the cultured cell concentrations with simple equipment at a reduced cost.

  7. A simple method to measure cell viability in proliferation and cytotoxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carneiro Borra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resazurin dye has been broadly used as indicator of cell viability in several types of assays for evaluation of the biocompatibility of medical and dental materials. Mitochondrial enzymes, as carriers of diaphorase activities, are probably responsible for the transference of electrons from NADPH + H+ to resazurin, which is reduced to resorufin. The level of reduction can be quantified by spectrophotometers since resazurin exhibits an absorption peak at 600 ηm and resorufin at 570 ηm wavelengths. However, the requirement of a spectrophotometer and specific filters for the quantification could be a barrier to many laboratories. Digital cameras containing red, green and blue filters, which allow the capture of red (600 to 700 ηm and green (500 to 600 ηm light wavelengths in ranges bordering on resazurin and resorufin absorption bands, could be used as an alternative method for the assessment of resazurin and resorufin concentrations. Thus, our aim was to develop a simple, cheap and precise method based on a digital CCD camera to measure the reduction of resazurin. We compared the capability of the CCD-based method to distinguish different concentrations of L929 and normal Human buccal fibroblast cell lines with that of a conventional microplate reader. The correlation was analyzed through the Pearson coefficient. The results showed a strong association between the measurements of the method developed here and those made with the microplate reader (r² = 0.996; p < 0.01 and with the cellular concentrations (r² = 0.965; p < 0.01. We concluded that the developed Colorimetric Quantification System based on CCD Images allowed rapid assessment of the cultured cell concentrations with simple equipment at a reduced cost.

  8. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  9. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  10. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...

  11. Law and ethics at the border of viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, E F

    2006-06-01

    The Supreme Court of Texas in the case of Miller v. HCA announced a rule in 2003 (118 s.w. 3d 758) that a physician attending the delivery of a severely premature infant may provide life-sustaining treatment for that infant under 'emergent circumstances' as a matter of law without first obtaining parental consent. This paper examines issues of law and ethics relevant to decisions about infant resuscitation at the border of viability. It is argued that there is typically no emergency when infants are delivered at 23 weeks gestation, and parents should be asked for informed consent before resuscitation in the delivery room.

  12. The Viability of Small Banks in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    R. Alton Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Small banks have an important role in financing economic activity through their financial services for small businesses. There has been a sharp decline in the number of small banking organizations in the U.S. since the early 1980s. A continuation of this trend would raise important issues about access to financial services for small businesses. Data on the number of banks, their profits, and the distribution of consistent high and low earning banks tend to tell the same story about the viabil...

  13. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  14. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J

    1996-01-01

    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the fir...... of keratan sulphate proteoglycan suggested that approximately 1% of the total content was lost during the period. In conclusion, our current organ culture technique can maintain a viable keratocyte population for four weeks; a viable stroma can be grafted within this period....

  15. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    highlighted by high pressure optical spectroscopy whilst analogous x-ray diffraction experiments remain less frequent. By focusing on a class of blue-emitting π-conjugated polymers, polyfluorenes, this article reviews optical spectroscopic studies under hydrostatic pressure, addressing the impact of molecular......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...

  16. Blue green component and integrated urban design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Srđan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the hidden potential of blue green components, in a synergetic network, not as separate systems, like used in past. The innovative methodology of the project Blue Green Dream is presented through examples of good practice. A new approach in the project initiate thoughtful planning and remodeling of the settlement for the modern man. Professional and scientific public is looking for way to create more healthy and stimulating place for living. However, offered integrative solutions still remain out of urban and architectural practice. Tested technologies in current projects confirmed measurability of innovative approaches and lessons learned. Scientific and professional contributions are summarized in master's and doctoral theses that have been completed or are in process of writing.

  17. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and ‘Blue Recreation’ in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L.; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image (n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults. PMID:28587134

  18. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  19. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and 'Blue Recreation' in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-05-26

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image ( n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults.

  20. Cooperation Determinants in the Atlantic Blue Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Maritime and marine activities are getting significant attention from European policy as a domain that encompasses economic sectors of traditional relevance and new ones of fast growth. This short communication presents the results of a survey applied to maritime and marine organizations in Portugal, Spain, Ireland and United Kingdom. Innovation, human capital and social capital are dimensions that deserve attention in the creation and consolidation of the Blue economy. The empirical study us...

  1. Genetic heterogeneity among blue-cone monochromats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathans, J.; Maumenee, I.H.; Zrenner, E.; Sadowski, B.; Sharpe, L.T.; Lewis, R.A.; Hansen, E.; Rosenberg, T.; Schwartz, M.; Heckenlively, J.R.; Traboulsi, E.; Klingaman, R.; Bech-Hansen, N.T.; LaRoche, G.R.; Pagon, R.A.; Murphey, W.H.; Weleber, R.G.

    1993-11-01

    Thirty-three unrelated subjects with blue-cone monochromacy or closely related variants of blue-cone monochromacy were examined for rearrangements in the tandem array of genes encoding the red- and green-cone pigments. In 24 subjects, eight genotypes were found that would be predicted to eliminate the function of all of the genes within the array. As observed in an earlier study, the rearrangements involve either deletion of a locus control region adjacent to the gene array or loss of function via homologous recombination and point mutation. One inactivating mutation, Cy[sup 203]-to-Arg, was found in 15 probands who carry single genes and in both visual pigment genes in one subject whose array has two genes. This mutation was also found in at least one of the visual pigment genes in one subject whose array has multiple genes and in 2 of 321 control subjects, suggesting that preexisting Cys[sup 203]-to-Arg mutations constitute a reservoir of chromosomes that are predisposed to generate blue-cone-monochromat genotypes by unequal homologous recombination and/or gene conversion. Two other point mutations were identified: (a) Arg[sup 247]-to-Ter in one subject with a single red-pigment gene and (b) Pro[sup 307]-to-Leu in one subject with a single 5[prime] red-3[prime] green hybrid gene. The observed heterogeneity of genotypes points to the existence of multiple one- and two-step mutational pathways to blue-cone monochromacy. 28 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Reciproc blue: the new generation of reciprocation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan Yared

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This article introduces the Reciproc® blue system and describes the clinical technique with and without creating a glide path. Methodology: The concept of canal preparation with only one mechanical instrument used in reciprocation was introduced several years ago. Studies and clinical research have shown the efficiency and the safety of the Reciproc® instrument in the preparation of the majority of canals without creating a glide path, and in the retreatment procedure. Results: Rec...

  3. Resuscitation at the limits of viability--an Irish perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, R A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in neonatal care continue to lower the limit of viability. Decision making in this grey zone remains a challenging process. OBJECTIVE: To explore the opinions of healthcare providers on resuscitation and outcome in the less than 28-week preterm newborn. DESIGN\\/METHODS: An anonymous postal questionnaire was sent to health care providers working in maternity units in the Republic of Ireland. Questions related to neonatal management of the extreme preterm infant, and estimated survival and long-term outcome. RESULTS: The response rate was 55% (74% obstetricians and 70% neonatologists). Less than 1% would advocate resuscitation at 22 weeks, 10% of health care providers advocate resuscitation at 23 weeks gestation, 80% of all health care providers would resuscitate at 24 weeks gestation. 20% of all health care providers would advocate cessation of resuscitation efforts on 22-25 weeks gestation at 5 min of age. 65% of Neonatologists and 54% trainees in Paediatrics would cease resuscitation at 10 min of age. Obstetricians were more pessimistic about survival and long term outcome in newborns delivered between 23 and 27 weeks when compared with neonatologists. This difference was also observed in trainees in paediatrics and obstetrics. CONCLUSION: Neonatologists, trainees in paediatrics and neonatal nurses are generally more optimistic about outcome than their counterparts in obstetrical care and this is reflected in a greater willingness to provide resuscitation efforts at the limits of viability.

  4. Viability of Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast preserved by lyophilization and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arruda Moura Pietrowski, Giovana; Grochoski, Mayara; Sartori, Gabriela Felkl; Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    Hanseniaspora yeasts are known to produce volatile compounds that give fruity aromas in wine and fermented fruit. This study aimed to verify the feasibility of the Hanseniaspora uvarum strain that had been isolated and identified during a previous study and preserved by lyophilization and freezing at -80 °C (cryopreservation). This strain was assessed in relation to its macroscopic and microscopic morphology and for its ability to ferment apple must. After having been subjected to lyophilization and cryopreservation, viability was assessed in relation to these characteristics during 12 months of storage. The strain showed stable colonial features and its microscopic appearance was unchanged during all recoveries. The plate count results showed consistency in both processes. Regarding the fermentative capacity, the kinetic results showed 100% viability for the strain subjected to lyophilization, as well as for those preserved at -80 °C. These results demonstrate that the preservation methods used are compatible with the maintenance of the relevant characteristics of the strain for the period of evaluation of this study (12 months). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Improvement on The Ellis and Roberts Viability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With data sets of germination percent and storage time of seed lot of wheat and sorghum stored at three different storage temperature(t, °C with three different water content (m, % of seeds, together with data set of buckwheat and lettuce reported in literatures, the possibility that seed survival curve were transformed into line by survival proportion and the relationship that logarithm of average viability period (logp50 and standard deviation of seed death distribution in time (δwith t, m and interaction between t and m were analysed. Result indicated that survival proportion transformed seed survival curve to line were much easier than the probability adopted by Ellis and Roberts, and the most important factor affecting logp50 and δ of seed lot was interaction between t and m. Thus, Ellis and Roberts viability model were suggested to be improved as Ki=Vi-p/10K-CWT (t×m to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent unknown, a new model of Gi/G0=A-P/10K-CWT(t×m was constructed to predict longevity of seed lot with initial germination percent already known.

  6. A New Methodology for Evaluation of Nematode Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Rodrigo Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes infections are responsible for debilitating conditions and economic losses in domestic animals as well as livestock and are considered an important public health problem due to the high prevalence in humans. The nematode resistance for drugs has been reported for livestock, highlighting the importance for development of new anthelmintic compounds. The aim of the current study was to apply and compare fluorimetric techniques using Sytox and propidium iodide for evaluating the viability of C. elegans larvae after treatment with anthelmintic drugs. These fluorescent markers were efficient to stain larvae treated with ivermectin and albendazole sulfoxide. We observed that densitometric values were proportional to the concentration of dead larvae stained with both markers. Furthermore, data on motility test presented an inverse correlation with fluorimetric data when ivermectin was used. Our results showed that lower concentrations of drugs were effective to interfere in the processes of cellular transport while higher drugs concentrations were necessary in order to result in any damage to cell integrity. The methodology described in this work might be useful for studies that aim to evaluate the viability of nematodes, particularly for testing of new anthelminthic compounds using an easy, economic, reproducible, and no time-consuming technique.

  7. Economic viability of cerrado vegetation management under conditions of risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simão Corrêa da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is Brazil’s second largest biome, comprising about 388 municipalities in Minas Gerais state alone and serving as an important source of natural resources. A large share of the wood charcoal produced in Minas Gerais is sourced from Cerrado vegetation. The objective of this work is to assess the economic viability of Cerrado vegetation management for wood charcoal production, under conditions of risk. The study site is a fragment of Cerrado subjected to five levels of intervention as to basal area removal. For risk analysis, the Monte Carlo method was applied, using charcoal price, interest rate and land value as input variables, and using Net Present Value as output variable over an infinite planning horizon. It was concluded that introducing risk in the economic analysis of the various Cerrado management regimes helped provide additional information to that obtained by deterministic analysis, improving understanding and ensuring safety in decision-making about the economic viability of such regimes. For all treatments, the probability of VPL being negative increases with increasing cutting cycle lengths. For all treatments, the optimal cutting cycle is ten years. Treatments where a larger volume of wood was removed proved less prone to risks of economic inviability since they secure more revenue than treatments where less wood was removed.

  8. Cell viability and angiogenic potential of a bioartificial adipose substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvan, Anitha; Nguyen, Luong T H; Su, Yan; Teo, Wee Eong; Liao, Susan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chan, Ching Wan

    2015-06-01

    An implantable scaffold pre-seeded with cells needs to remain viable and encourage rapid angiogenesis in order to replace injured tissues, especially for tissue defect repairs. We created a bioartificial adipose graft composed of an electrospun 3D nanofibrous scaffold and fat tissue excised from New Zealand white rabbits. Cell viability and angiogenesis potential of the bioartificial substitute were examined during four weeks of culture in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium by immunohistochemical staining with LIVE/DEAD® cell kit and PECAM-1 antibody, respectively. In addition, a Matrigel® assay was performed to examine the possibility of blood vessels sprouting from the bioartificial graft. Our results showed that cells within the graft were viable and vascular tubes were present at week 4, while cells in a fat tissue block were dead in vitro. In addition, capillaries were observed sprouting from the graft into the Matrigel, demonstrating its angiogenic potential. We expect that improved cell viability and angiogenesis in the bioartificial substitute, compared to intact autologous graft, could potentially contribute to its survival following implantation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  10. Effect of various commercial buffers on sperm viability and capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Donà, Gabriella; Ambrosini, Guido; Bonanni, Guglielmo; Bragadin, Marcantonio; Cosmi, Erich; Clari, Giulio; Armanini, Decio; Bordin, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    A wide variety of sperm preparation protocols are currently available for assisted conception. They include density gradient separation and washing methods. Both aim at isolating and capacitating as much motile sperm as possible for subsequent oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four commercial sperm washing buffers on sperm viability and capacitation. Semen samples from 48 healthy donors (normal values of sperm count, motility, morphology, and volume) were analyzed. After separation (density gradient 40/80%), sperm were incubated in various buffers then analysed for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, viability, tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) labeling, and the acrosome reaction (AR). The buffers affected ROS generation in various ways resulting either in rapid cell degeneration (when the amount of ROS was too high for cell survival) or the inability of the cells to maintain correct functioning (when ROS were too few). Only when the correct ROS generation curve was maintained, suitable membrane reorganization, evidenced by CTB labeling was achieved, leading to the highest percentages of both Tyr-P- and acrosome-reacted-cells. Distinguishing each particular pathological state of the sperm sample would be helpful to select the preferred buffer treatment since both ROS production and membrane reorganization can be significantly altered by commercial buffers.

  11. Production and economic viability of feedlot beef cattle categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Batista dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized to evaluate the production and economic viability of finished beef cattle in feedlot in the Cerrado biome of Piauí State, Brazil. One hundred and fifty cattle -50 bulls (B with an body weight of 283.0 ± 20.82 kg, at 30 months of age; and 100 cull cows (CC with an body weight of 296.1 ± 17.80 kg, at 100 months of age- were used in a completely randomized design. The animal performance indicators for the evaluation of economic viability were initial age (months, slaughter age (months, was initial body weight (kg, final body weight (kg, daily feed intake (kg animal-1; kg kg-1 BW, diet cost (R$ kg-1 of diet, cost of kg produced (R$ kg-1 produced, and average price of the kg of meat for finishing (R$. The CC consumed more sorghum silage and concentrate than B (p < 0.05.There was a difference between the categories (p < 0.05 for gross revenue, balance, opportunity cost, and net revenue per animal, with higher values found for the steer category. The animal category did not affect the profitability of the system, although the bulls provided lower revenues than cull cows.

  12. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2010-02-23

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These "thermal fingerprints" vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of "virtual pea seeds," that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such "cooling" compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development.

  13. Effects of drinking desalinated seawater on cell viability and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarrão, Camila Longhi; Bachi, André Luis Lacerda; Mariano, Mario; Abel, Lucia Jamli

    2017-06-01

    Desalination of seawater is becoming an important means to address the increasing scarcity of freshwater resources in the world. Seawater has been used as drinking water in the health, food, and medical fields and various beneficial effects have been suggested, although not confirmed. Given the presence of 63 minerals and trace elements in drinking desalinated seawater (63 DSW), we evaluated their effects on the behavior of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic cells through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Our results showed that cell viability and proliferation in the presence of 63 DSW were significantly greater than in mineral water and in the presence of fetal bovine serum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 63 DSW showed no toxic effect on murine embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and murine melanoma (B16-F10) cells. In another assay, we also showed that pre-treatment of non-adherent THP-1 cells with 63 DSW reduces apoptosis incidence, suggesting a protective effect against cell death. We conclude that cell viability and proliferation were improved by the mineral components of 63 DSW and this effect can guide further studies on health effects associated with DSW consumption.

  14. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  15. Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A

    2005-06-01

    The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Cell viability decreased with increased exposure time and with exposure to shorter wavelengths of solar radiation. Cell survival also declined with decreasing cloud cover, solar zenith angle and ozone column depth. However, particulates in sewage increased the persistence of viable bacteria. Ultraviolet radiation doses over Rothera Point were highest during the austral summer. During this time, solar radiation may act to partially reduce the number of viable sewage-derived microorganisms in the surface seawater around Antarctic outfalls. Nevertheless, this effect is not reliable and every effort should be made to fully treat sewage before release into the Antarctic marine environment.

  16. A Review: The Probiotic Bacteria Viability under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Florina CALINOIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarized the current knowledge on probiotics and on the effects that different conditions have under this type of bacteria. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the survival rate/resistance or viability of different probiotic bacteria under several conditions, such as: processing, food composition, storage, freezing, thawing, refrigeration, temperature, oxygen, pH, gastrointestinal environment and package. Nowadays, the demand on probiotic functional foods is increasing rapidly, as the consumers became more aware about the potential health benefits, due to the fact that probiotics help in maintaining the balance and composition of intestinal flora and protect it from pathogens. A daily ingestion of 108–109 CFU ml−1 probiotic microorganisms is crucial in order to be able to demonstrate an effect in our organism, considering the dose and the effect of storage/gastrointestinal environments on the probiotic viability. Microencapsulation of probiotics in different polysaccharides was proven to be an ideal way to preserve and protect the cells from detrimental factors during processing, storage or resistance in the gastrointestinal transit, as many studies demonstrate it. There is a general interest in the improvement of the physical and mechanical stability of the polymers used in probiotics encapsulation, to ensure high population of probiotics not only in food during storage, but also after gastrointestinal digestion. Also, the carrier plays a very important role and should be carefully examined.

  17. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  18. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  19. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  20. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  1. Patent blue dye in lymphaticovenular anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yan Lin; Lim, Jane; Shim, Timothy W H; Naidu, Shenthilkumar; Ong, Wei Chen; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2009-08-01

    Lymphaticovenular anastomosis (LVA) has been described as a treatment of chronic lymphoedema. This microsurgical technique is new and technically difficult. The small caliber and thin wall lymphatic vessels are difficult to identify and easily destroyed during the dissection. We describe a technique of performing lymphaticovenular anastomosis with patent blue dye enhancement. Our patient is a 50-year-old lady who suffers from chronic lymphoedema of the upper limb after mastectomy and axillary clearance for breast cancer 8 years ago. Patent blue dye is injected subdermally and is taken up readily by the draining lymphatic channels. This allows for easy identification of their course. The visualisation of the lumen of the lymphatic vessel facilitates microsurgical anastomosis. The patency of the anastomosis is also demonstrated by the dynamic pumping action of the lymphatic within the vessels. Patent blue dye staining during lymphaticovenular anastomosis is a simple, effective and safe method for mapping suitable subdermal lymphatics, allowing for speedier dissection of the lymphatic vessels intraoperatively. This technique also helps in the confirmation of the success of the lymphaticovenular anastomosis.

  2. 'Blue Whale Challenge': A Game or Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhra, Richa; Baryah, Neha; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2017-11-11

    A bewildering range of games are emerging every other day with newer elements of fun and entertainment to woo youngsters. Games are meant to reduce stress and enhance the cognitive development of children as well as adults. Teenagers are always curious to indulge in newer games; and e-gaming is one such platform providing an easy access and quicker means of entertainment. The particular game challenge which has taken the world by storm is the dangerous "Blue Whale Challenge" often involving vulnerable teenagers. The Blue Whale Challenge is neither an application nor internet based game but the users get a link through social media chat groups to enter this "deadly" challenge game. This probably is the only game where the participant has to end his/her life to complete the game. The innocent teenagers are being targeted based on their depressed psychology and are coercively isolated from their social milieux on the pretext of keeping the challenges confidential. To add to the woes, no option is offered to quit the challenge even if the contender is unable to complete the challenge. Blue Whale Challenge in its sheer form could be seen as an illegal, unethical and inhumane endeavor in our present society. The present communication discusses the severe effects of the game on teenagers, the ethical concerns involved and the preventive measures necessary to curb it.

  3. Direct In Situ Viability Assessment of Bacteria in Probiotic Dairy Products Using Viability Staining in Conjunction with Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, M. A. E.; Gardiner, G. E.; McBrearty, S. J.; O'Sullivan, E. O.; Mulvihill, D. M.; Collins, J. K.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.; Ross, R. P.

    2001-01-01

    The viability of the human probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Bifidobacterium sp. strain UCC 35612 in reconstituted skim milk was assessed by confocal scanning laser microscopy using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability stain. The technique was rapid (diluent. PMID:11133474

  4. Postnatal blues: a risk factor for postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, C; Foreman, D; Cox, J

    2004-01-01

    Postnatal blues have been regarded as brief, benign and without clinical significance. However, several studies have proposed a link between blues and subsequent depression but have methodological problems. We report a prospective, controlled study of postpartum women with severe blues which uses systematically devised and validated instruments for that purpose which tests the hypothesis that severe blues increases the risk of depression in the six months following childbirth. 206 first-time mothers were recruited in late pregnancy. Blues status was defined using the Blues Questionnaire and those with severe blues and their controls who had no blues (matched for age, marital status and social class) were followed for 6 months with postal Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. RDC diagnoses were made following SADS-L interview at the end of the protocol. Backwards stepwise Cox regression analysis found severe blues and past history of depression to be independent predictors each raising the risk by almost 3 times. Depression in those with severe blues onset sooner after delivery and lasted longer. The difference was largely accounted for by major depression. Severe postpartum blues are identified as an independent risk factor for subsequent postpartum depression. Screening and intervention programs could be devised.

  5. Determination of carrageenan by means of photometric titration with Methylene Blue and Toluidine Blue dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kaniewska, Agnieszka; Lamkiewicz, Jan; Shyichuk, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A new approach to carrageenan quantitation was described. The method consists in titration of carrageenan solution by Methylene Blue dye or Toluidine Blue dye solution until a certain absorbance value. The optimal wavelengths are 660nm and 640nm when titrating with Methylene Blue dye and Toluidine Blue dye, respectively. Rectilinear calibration plots (R2>0.996) provide carrageenan determination in the concentration range from 2 to 60mg/L with relative standard deviation from 1 to 5%. The proposed method is simple and feasible in use due to optical dip probe providing in situ absorbance measurements. The proposed way of end-point recognition as pre-set voltage is applicable with any automatic titrator. The method was tested on model jelly dessert sachet. No interference was registered from typical ingredients of jellies such as sucrose, citric acid, sodium citrate, malic acid, potassium sorbate as well as blue colorant. The neutral polysaccharides such as guar gum and locust bean gum have insignificant interference when their content is fivefold as compared to that of carrageenan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Blue-Green Solutions in Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    With the ongoing urbanisation and increasing pressure for new housing and infrastructure, the nexus of developing compact, energy-efficient and yet liveable and sustainable cities is urgent to address. In this context, blue-green spaces and related ecosystem services (ES) are critical resources that need to be integrated in policy and planning of urban. Among the ES provided by blue-green spaces, regulating ES such as water retention and purification are particularly important in urban areas, affecting water supply and quality, related cultural ES and biodiversity, as well as cities potential to adapt to climate change. Blue-green infrastructure management is considered a sustainable way to reducing negative effects of urbanisation, such as decreasing flood risks, as well as adapting to climate change for example by controlling increasing flood and drought risks. Blue-green infrastructure management can for example create multifunctional surfaces with valuable environmental and social functions and generally handle greenways and ecological networks as important ecosystem service components, for example for stormwater regulation in a sustainable urban drainage system. The Norrström drainage basin (22,000 km2) is a large demonstrator for Blue-green infrastructure management. Both urbanisation and agriculture are extensive within this basin, which includes the Swedish capital Stockholm and is part of the fertile Swedish belt. Together, the relatively high population density combined with agricultural and industrial activities in this region imply large eutrophication and pollution pressures, not least transferred through storm runoff to both inland surface waters and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The ecosystems of this basin provide highly valued but also threatened services. For example, Lake Mälaren is the single main freshwater supply for the Swedish capital Stockholm, as well as a key nutrient retention system that strongly mitigates waterborne nutrient

  7. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace—gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS—GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC—ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm2 skin.

  8. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF S.AUREUS TO METHYLENE BLUE HAEMATOPORPHYRIN, PHTALOCYANINES PHOTODYNAMIC EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetelina Gueorgieva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many of oral diseases are caused by microorganisms. The emergence of antibioticresistant strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, stimulated a search for alternative treatments. Such an alternative method is photo-activated disinfection. The aim of this study is to compare the antimicrobial properties of four new photosensitizers - methylene blue, haematoporphyrin and new Ga, Zn- phtalocyanines after the laser radiation (630 nm against Staphylococcus aureus . Materials and methods: For the study gram-positive Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 1337 from collection of the Institute of Microbyology, Bulgarian Academy of Science is used. For PAD is used source of light which activates photosensitizer trough emission of visible light at a specific wavelength. Suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus was irradiated with diode laser (630 nm in the presence of methylene blue, haematoporphyrin and new Ga, Zn- phtalocyanines. There were two control groups: samples that were only treated with dye and samples that were exposed neither to the laser light nor to dye. Results: Reduction in the viability of Staphylococcus aureus was achieved with some of the photosensitizers and light associations. Conclusions: Photoactivated disinfection appears as an effective method of Staphylococcus aureus inactivation.

  9. Cytotoxicity and Effects on Cell Viability of Nickel Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jose E.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles are finding an increased use in biomedical applications and research. Nanobeads are widely used for cell separation, biosensing and cancer therapy, among others. Due to their properties, nanowires (NWs) are gaining ground for similar applications and, as with all biomaterials, their cytotoxicity is an important factor to be considered before conducting biological studies with them. In this work, the cytotoxic effects of nickel NWs (Ni NWs) were investigated in terms of cell viability and damage to the cellular membrane. Ni NWs with an average diameter of 30-34 nm were prepared by electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina templates. The templates were obtained by a two-step anodization process with oxalic acid on an aluminum substrate. Characterization of NWs was done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX), whereas their morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell viability studies were carried out on human colorectal carcinoma cells HCT 116 by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cell proliferation colorimetric assay, whereas the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) homogenous membrane fluorimetric assay was used to measure the degree of cell membrane rupture. The density of cell seeding was calculated to obtain a specific cell number and confluency before treatment with NWs. Optical readings of the cell-reduced MTT products were measured at 570 nm, whereas fluorescent LDH membrane leakage was recorded with an excitation wavelength of 525 nm and an emission wavelength of 580 - 640 nm. The effects of NW length, cell exposure time, as well as NW:cell ratio, were evaluated through both cytotoxic assays. The results show that cell viability due to Ni NWs is affected depending on both exposure time and NW number. On the other hand, membrane rupture and leakage was only significant at later exposure times. Both

  10. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide (EMA and propidium monoazide (PMA to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR, scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound

  11. Viability and proliferation of pluripotential cells delivered to tendon repair sites using bioactive sutures--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jeffrey; Korotkova, Tatiana; Smith, R Lane

    2011-02-01

    We evaluated the fate of pluripotential stem cells adherent to a suture carrier after being passed through tendon tissue in vitro. FiberWire suture segments were coated with poly-L-lysine (PLL) and a 2 × 10(6) C3H10T1/2 (a mouse embryo pluripotential cell line) cell suspension. The sutures were incubated for 7 days, passed through two 1-cm segments of acellularized rabbit Achilles tendons and tied (horizontal mattress). The repairs were frozen and sectioned (6 μm). The sections were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and a live/dead viability/cytotoxicity (calcein/ethidium homodimer) kit and examined with fluorescent microscopy to evaluate cell presence and viability. Alamar Blue was used in parallel to assess metabolic activity. PLL-coated sutures showed a 3-fold increase in fluorescence when compared with the phosphate-buffered saline-coated controls. At day 3, fluorescence was 2.2 times greater. At day 5, a 2-fold increase was found, and at day 8 there was no significant difference in values. Furthermore, after delivery of the cells into tendon, fluorescence readings for the samples (n = 19) showed 9450 compared with the positive control at 21,218. At 96 hours the mean was 27,609 compared with 34,850 for the positive control. The difference in fluorescence means at 48 hours and 96 hours were significant (p cells at the tendon repair site. Sutures seeded with pluripotential embryonic cells deliver cells to a tendon repair site. The cells deposited at the repair site survive the trauma of passage and remain metabolically active, as seen in staining and metabolic assay studies. Use of bioactive sutures leads to repopulation of the acellular zone surrounding sutures within the tendon. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Raman analysis of cobalt blue pigment in blue and white porcelain: A reassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaochenyang; Ma, Yanying; Chen, Yue; Li, Yuanqiu; Ma, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Changsui; Yang, Yimin

    2018-02-05

    Cobalt blue is a famous pigment in human history. In the past decade it is widely reported that the cobalt aluminate has been detected in ancient ceramics as blue colorant in glaze, yet the acquired Raman spectra are incredibly different from that of synthesised references, necessitating a reassessment of such contradictory scenario with more accurate analytic strategies. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were performed on under-glaze cobalt pigments from one submerged blue and white porcelain shard dated from Wanli reign (1573-1620CE) of Ming dynasty (1365-1644CE) excavated at Nan'ao I shipwreck off the southern coast of China. The micro-structural inspection reveals that the pigment particles have characteristics of small account, tiny size, heterogeneously distribution, and more importantly, been completely enwrapped by well-developed anorthite crystals in the glaze, indicating that the signals recorded in previous publications are probably not from cobalt pigments themselves but from outside thickset anorthite shell. The further spectromicroscopic analyses confirm this presumption when the accurate spectra of cobalt aluminate pigment and surrounding anorthite were obtained separately with precise optical positioning. Accordingly, we reassess and clarify the previous Raman studies dedicated to cobalt blue pigment in ancient ceramics, e.g. cobalt blue in celadon glaze, and in turn demonstrate the superiority and necessity of coupling spectroscopic analysis with corresponding structure observation, especially in the characterization of pigments from complicated physico-chemical environment like antiquities. Thus, this study promotes a better understanding of Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt blue pigments in art and archaeology field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Raman analysis of cobalt blue pigment in blue and white porcelain: A reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaochenyang; Ma, Yanying; Chen, Yue; Li, Yuanqiu; Ma, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Changsui; Yang, Yimin

    2018-02-01

    Cobalt blue is a famous pigment in human history. In the past decade it is widely reported that the cobalt aluminate has been detected in ancient ceramics as blue colorant in glaze, yet the acquired Raman spectra are incredibly different from that of synthesised references, necessitating a reassessment of such contradictory scenario with more accurate analytic strategies. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were performed on under-glaze cobalt pigments from one submerged blue and white porcelain shard dated from Wanli reign (1573-1620 CE) of Ming dynasty (1365-1644 CE) excavated at Nan'ao I shipwreck off the southern coast of China. The micro-structural inspection reveals that the pigment particles have characteristics of small account, tiny size, heterogeneously distribution, and more importantly, been completely enwrapped by well-developed anorthite crystals in the glaze, indicating that the signals recorded in previous publications are probably not from cobalt pigments themselves but from outside thickset anorthite shell. The further spectromicroscopic analyses confirm this presumption when the accurate spectra of cobalt aluminate pigment and surrounding anorthite were obtained separately with precise optical positioning. Accordingly, we reassess and clarify the previous Raman studies dedicated to cobalt blue pigment in ancient ceramics, e.g. cobalt blue in celadon glaze, and in turn demonstrate the superiority and necessity of coupling spectroscopic analysis with corresponding structure observation, especially in the characterization of pigments from complicated physico-chemical environment like antiquities. Thus, this study promotes a better understanding of Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt blue pigments in art and archaeology field.

  14. Protective effects of bilberry and lingonberry extracts against blue light-emitting diode light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Blue light is a high-energy or short-wavelength visible light, which induces retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) contain high amounts of polyphenols (anthocyanins, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins) and thus confer health benefits. This study aimed to determine the protective effects and mechanism of action of bilberry extract (B-ext) and lingonberry extract (L-ext) and their active components against blue light-emitting diode (LED) light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage. Methods Cultured murine photoreceptor (661 W) cells were exposed to blue LED light following treatment with B-ext, L-ext, or their constituents (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, trans-resveratrol, and procyanidin B2). 661 W cell viability was assessed using a tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using CM-H2DCFDA after blue LED light exposure. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and LC3, an ubiquitin-like protein that is necessary for the formation of autophagosomes, were analyzed using Western blotting. Caspase-3/7 activation caused by blue LED light exposure in 661 W cells was determined using a caspase-3/7 assay kit. Results B-ext, L-ext, NAC, and their active components improved the viability of 661 W cells and inhibited the generation of intracellular ROS induced by blue LED light irradiation. Furthermore, B-ext and L-ext inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB induced by blue LED light exposure. Finally, B-ext, L-ext, and NAC inhibited caspase-3/7 activation and autophagy. Conclusions These findings suggest that B-ext and L-ext containing high amounts of polyphenols exert protective effects against blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage mainly through inhibition

  15. Protective effects of bilberry and lingonberry extracts against blue light-emitting diode light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenjirou; Kuse, Yoshiki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Saori; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2014-04-02

    Blue light is a high-energy or short-wavelength visible light, which induces retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) contain high amounts of polyphenols (anthocyanins, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins) and thus confer health benefits. This study aimed to determine the protective effects and mechanism of action of bilberry extract (B-ext) and lingonberry extract (L-ext) and their active components against blue light-emitting diode (LED) light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage. Cultured murine photoreceptor (661 W) cells were exposed to blue LED light following treatment with B-ext, L-ext, or their constituents (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, trans-resveratrol, and procyanidin B2). 661 W cell viability was assessed using a tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using CM-H2DCFDA after blue LED light exposure. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and LC3, an ubiquitin-like protein that is necessary for the formation of autophagosomes, were analyzed using Western blotting. Caspase-3/7 activation caused by blue LED light exposure in 661 W cells was determined using a caspase-3/7 assay kit. B-ext, L-ext, NAC, and their active components improved the viability of 661 W cells and inhibited the generation of intracellular ROS induced by blue LED light irradiation. Furthermore, B-ext and L-ext inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB induced by blue LED light exposure. Finally, B-ext, L-ext, and NAC inhibited caspase-3/7 activation and autophagy. These findings suggest that B-ext and L-ext containing high amounts of polyphenols exert protective effects against blue LED light-induced retinal photoreceptor cell damage mainly through inhibition of ROS production and activation of

  16. Cosmological viability of theories with massive spin-2 fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koennig, Frank

    2017-03-30

    Theories of spin-2 fields take on a particular role in modern physics. They do not only describe the mediation of gravity, the only theory of fundamental interactions of which no quantum field theoretical description exists, it furthermore was thought that they necessarily predict massless gauge bosons. Just recently, a consistent theory of a massive graviton was constructed and, subsequently, generalized to a bimetric theory of two interacting spin-2 fields. This thesis studies both the viability and consequences at cosmological scales in massive gravity as well as bimetric theories. We show that all consistent models that are free of gradient and ghost instabilities behave like the cosmological standard model, LCDM. In addition, we construct a new theory of massive gravity which is stable at both classical background and quantum level, even though it suffers from the Boulware-Deser ghost.

  17. Ponatinib reduces viability, migration, and functionality of human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover-Proaktor, Ayala; Granot, Galit; Shapira, Saar; Raz, Oshrat; Pasvolsky, Oren; Nagler, Arnon; Lev, Dorit L; Inbal, Aida; Lubin, Ido; Raanani, Pia; Leader, Avi

    2017-06-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the prognosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. With the advent of highly efficacious therapy, the focus has shifted toward managing TKI adverse effects, such as vascular adverse events (VAEs). We used an in vitro angiogenesis model to investigate the TKI-associated VAEs. Our data show that imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib reduce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) viability. Pharmacological concentrations of ponatinib induced apoptosis, reduced migration, inhibited tube formation of HUVECs, and had a negative effect on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function. Furthermore, in HUVECs transfected with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), the effect of ponatinib on tube formation and on all parameters representing normal endothelial cell function was less prominent than in control cells. This is the first report regarding the pathogenesis of ponatinib-associated VAEs. The antiangiogenic effect of ponatinib, possibly mediated by VEGFR2 inhibition, as shown in our study, is another piece in the intricate puzzle of TKI-associated VAEs.

  18. Technical viability and development needs for waste forms and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, I.; Gould, T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this breakout session was to provide a forum to discuss technical issues relating to plutonium-bearing waste forms and their disposal facilities. Specific topics for discussion included the technical viability and development needs associated with the waste forms and/or disposal facilities. The expected end result of the session was an in-depth (so far as the limited time would allow) discussion of key issues by the session participants. The session chairs expressed allowance for, and encouragement of, alternative points of view, as well as encouragement for discussion of any relevant topics not addressed in the paper presentations. It was not the intent of this session to recommend or advocate any one technology over another.

  19. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  20. Reconstruction of boundary conditions from internal conditions using viability theory

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a method for reconstructing downstream boundary conditions to a HamiltonJacobi partial differential equation for which initial and upstream boundary conditions are prescribed as piecewise affine functions and an internal condition is prescribed as an affine function. Based on viability theory, we reconstruct the downstream boundary condition such that the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the prescribed initial and upstream conditions and reconstructed downstream boundary condition satisfies the internal value condition. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks with unknown capacity reductions. It is applied to urban traffic, to reconstruct signal timings and temporary capacity reductions at intersections, using Lagrangian sensing such as GPS devices onboard vehicles.

  1. Relationship between humidity and influenza A viability in droplets and implications for influenza's seasonality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yang

    Full Text Available Humidity has been associated with influenza's seasonality, but the mechanisms underlying the relationship remain unclear. There is no consistent explanation for influenza's transmission patterns that applies to both temperate and tropical regions. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ambient humidity and viability of the influenza A virus (IAV during transmission between hosts and to explain the mechanisms underlying it. We measured the viability of IAV in droplets consisting of various model media, chosen to isolate effects of salts and proteins found in respiratory fluid, and in human mucus, at relative humidities (RH ranging from 17% to 100%. In all media and mucus, viability was highest when RH was either close to 100% or below ∼50%. When RH decreased from 84% to 50%, the relationship between viability and RH depended on droplet composition: viability decreased in saline solutions, did not change significantly in solutions supplemented with proteins, and increased dramatically in mucus. Additionally, viral decay increased linearly with salt concentration in saline solutions but not when they were supplemented with proteins. There appear to be three regimes of IAV viability in droplets, defined by humidity: physiological conditions (∼100% RH with high viability, concentrated conditions (50% to near 100% RH with lower viability depending on the composition of media, and dry conditions (<50% RH with high viability. This paradigm could help resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the relationship between IAV viability in aerosols and humidity, and results in human mucus could help explain influenza's seasonality in different regions.

  2. Thermoforming of tracheal cartilage: viability, shape change, and mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yongseok; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Holden, Paul K; Chlebicki, Cara; Wong, Brian J F

    2008-10-01

    Trauma, emergent tracheostomy, and prolonged intubation are common causes of severe deformation and narrowing of the trachea. Laser technology may be used to reshape tracheal cartilage using minimally invasive methods. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the dependence of tracheal cartilage shape change on temperature and laser dosimetry using heated saline bath immersion and laser irradiation, respectively, (2) the effect of temperature on the mechanical behavior of cartilage, and (3) tissue viability as a function of laser dosimetry. Ex vivo rabbit trachea cartilage specimens were bent and secured around a cylinder (6 mm), and then immersed in a saline bath (45 and 72 degrees C) for 5-100 seconds. In separate experiments, tracheal specimens were irradiated with a diode laser (lambda = 1.45 microm, 220-400 J/cm(2)). Mechanical analysis was then used to determine the elastic modulus in tension after irradiation. Fluorescent viability assays combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were employed to image and identify thermal injury regions. Shape change transition zones, between 62 and 66 degrees C in the saline heating bath and above power densities of 350 J/cm(2) (peak temperatures 65+/-10 degrees C) for laser irradiation were identified. Above these zones, the elastic moduli were higher (8.2+/-4 MPa) than at lower temperatures (4.5+/-3 MPa). LSCM identified significant loss of viable chondrocytes within the laser-irradiation zones. Our results indicate a change in mechanical properties occurs with laser irradiation and further demonstrates that significant thermal damage is concurrent with clinically relevant shape change in the elastic cartilage tissues of the rabbit trachea using the present laser and dosimetry parameters. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Methylene Blue for Bronchopleural Fistula Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kenneth K; Nasim, Faria; Schiavo, Dante N; Nelson, Darlene R; Kern, Ryan M; Mullon, John J

    2017-09-20

    A bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a communication between the pleural space and the bronchial tree. BPFs are challenging to diagnose and are associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Sequential balloon occlusion is commonly used for localization of a BPF. We describe our experience with 4 cases of successful localization of the BPF by instillation of methylene blue into the pleural space through a pigtail catheter, with simultaneous bronchoscopic visualization of dye in the tracheobronchial tree. Two patients were treated with endobronchial valves and 3 had a surgical thoracic muscle flap placed.

  4. Maya Blue Paint: An Ancient Nanostructured Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose-Yacaman; Rendon; Arenas; Serra Puche MC

    1996-07-12

    Maya blue paint was often used in Mesoamerica. The origin of its color and its resistance to acids and biocorrosion have not been fully understood. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray microanalysis studies of authentic samples show that palygorskite crystals in the paint form a superlattice that probably occurs as a result of mixing with indigo molecules. An amorphous silicate substrate contains inclusions of metal nanoparticles encapsulated in the substrate and oxide nanoparticles on the surface. The beautiful tone of the color is obtained only when both the particles and the superlattice are present.

  5. THE BABY BLUES AND POSTNATAL DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryati Suryati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baby Bluesadalah depresi ringan yang terjadi pada ibu-ibu dalam masa beberapa jam setelah melahirkan, sampai beberapa hari setelah melahirkan, dan kemudian dia akan hilang dengan sendirinya jika diberikan pelayanan psikologis yang baik. Banyak para ibu-ibu setelah melahirkan mengalami emosi yang berlebihan dan merasa sangat sedih sekali, dan diiringi tangisan tanpa alasan yang jelas. Dalam masa ini tidak mungkin lagi kita akan melihat ibu tersenyum atau tertawa. Sebagian ibu merasa sangat khawatir, cemas, dan tegang. Masalah – masalah kecil saja jika tidak cepat diatasi pada masa hamil, atau sebelum melahirkan dapat menimbulkan Baby Blues.

  6. Blue running of the primordial tensor spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    We examine the possibility of positive spectral index of the power spectrum of the primordial tensor perturbation produced during inflation in the light of the detection of the B-mode polarization by the BICEP2 collaboration. We find a blue tilt is in general possible when the slow-roll parameter decays rapidly. We present two known examples in which a positive spectral index for the tensor power spectrum can be obtained. We also briefly discuss other consistency tests for further studies on inflationary dynamics.

  7. Analytical Research to Determine the effects of the Components of ONGABO on the Viability of HepG2 Cancer Cells by Using the Sovereign, Minister, Assistant and Courier Principle ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hun; Jun, Seung-Lyul; Hwang, Sung-Yeoun; Ahn, Seong-Hun

    2012-12-01

    This study used the basic principle of Oriental medicine, the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle () to investigate the effects of the component of ONGABO, which is composed of Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng), Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae tuber on the viability of HepG2 cells. Single and mixed extracts of the component of ONGABO were prepared by lypohilizing powder of Red Ginseng (6-year root from Kanghwa), Angelica Gigantis Radix, Schisandrae Fructus, Cuscuta Semen, Curcumae Tuber (from Omniherb Co., Ltd., Korea) at the laboratory of herbal medicine in Woosuk University and were eluted after being macerated with 100% ethanol for three days. The cell viability of HepG2 was determined by using an absorptiometric analysis with PrestoBlue (Invitrogen) reagent after the plate had been incubated for 48 hours. All of the experiments were repeated three times to obtain the average value and standard deviation. The statistical analysis was done and the correlation factor was obtained by using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and Origin 6.0 software. Although Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng) and Schisandrae Fructus did not enhance the viability of HepG2 cells, they were shown to provide protection of those cells. On the other hand, Angelica Gigantis Radix decreased the viability of HepG2 cells significantly, Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber had a small or no effect on the viability of HepG2 cells. In the sovereign, minister, assistant and courier principle (), Ginseng Radix (Red Ginseng) corresponds to the sovereign component because it provides cell protection effects, Angelica Gigantis Radix corresponds to minister medicinal because it kills cells, Schisandrae Fructus corresponds to the assistant medicinal to help red ginseng having cell protect effects. Cuscuta Semen and Curcumae Tuber correspond to the courier medicinal having no effect in cell viability in HepG2. We hope this study provides motivation for advanced research

  8. One a Blue-Collar Worker, Always a Blue-Collar Worker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Alice Heasley

    1978-01-01

    There are many blue-collar workers who aspire to work in the white-collar world. Work histories of employed adults from an industrial area of Baltimore who were classified as Realistic (based on the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory) show most adults are apparently unable to move out of this classification. (Author)

  9. Sustaining the land, people, and economy of the Blue Mountains: The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn Starr; James McIver; Thomas M. Quigley

    2000-01-01

    The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute approaches issues by deciding if a critical issue is one of information needs or of differing values. If a values issue, we arrange local forums for discussion; if an information issue, we disseminate available information, or undertake research projects as appropriate. One issue we have researched involving both values...

  10. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variation of Pollen Viability and Storability in Asparagus (Asparagus offcinalis L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ozaki, Yukio; Tashiro, Tomoko; Kurahashi, Tomoko; Okubo, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The optimal culture condition for evaluating pollen viability of asparagus was studied. Sucrose was an effective constituent of the media for raising pollen germination rate. The medium containing 30% sucrose, 0.01% borate and 3% agar was found to be optimum for assessing pollen viability. Effects of temperature and light conditions during in vitro culture on pollen germination rate were not recognized in the range of 20-30℃ in this investigation. Varietal difference of pollen viability and s...

  12. Hesperidin inhibits ovarian cancer cell viability through endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yali; Gao, Jinfang; De, Yinshan

    2017-01-01

    Hesperidin is a vitamin P flavonoid compound primarily present in citrus fruits. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hesperidin inhibits ovarian cancer cell viability via endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways. A2780 cells were treated with various doses of hesperidin for 6, 12 or 24 h, and the viability of A2780 cells was assessed using the MTT assay. Hesperidin decreased the viability of A2780 cells and increased cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner...

  13. Novel deep-blue emitting phosphorescent emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildknecht, C.; Ginev, G.; Kammoun, A.; Riedl, T.; Kowalsky, W.; Johannes, H.-H.; Lennartz, C.; Kahle, K.; Egen, M.; Geßner, T.; Bold, M.; Nord, S.; Erk, P.

    2005-10-01

    Currently, one of the most challenging applications for OLEDs is the full color display. The most energy-efficient way to realize light generation in OLEDs is by using phosphorescent emitters. Green and red emitters have already been demonstrated, but the search for blue emitting organic phosphorescent emitters with good color purity is still ongoing with arduous effort. Here we present our work with a new material developed at BASF which allows phosphorescent emission in the deep-blue spectral range. The emitter has an emission maximum at 400 nm, which gives CIE color coordinates of x = 0.16 and y = 0.06. An OLED device made with this new material shows a maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.5 %. The OLED was built in a three layer structure, with the emitting zone being a hybrid guest-host system. As host material we used the optically and electronically inert polymer poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Because of its lack of charge transport abilities we doped the host material with a high concentration of the triplet emitting material, i.e. the emitter itself is also used as charge transport material.

  14. Blue LEDs feasibility for tissue fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Denisov, Nikolay A.

    2000-04-01

    We considered the limited number of light-induced fluorescence applications for marketed ultra-bright blue LEDs where they can compete with versatile laser sources. Satisfactory optical output and miniature size as well as low power consumption of blue LEDs emitting at 470 nm allow to consider them as a promising alternatives to metal vapor or gas lasers used in many expires LIF applications. Available to authors LEDs form Hewlett-Packard, Micro Electronics Corp., Nichia Chemical Industries Ltd. and Toyoda Gosei Co. were tested to comply with demands to a tissue excitation source for portable spectroscopes. The optical performance of LEDs has shown that selected group of InGaN LEDs could be successfully used for that. The miniature illuminator that includes LED, focusing condenser, filter set and distal fiberoptic light concentrator was designed and tested in conjunction with portable CCD- equipped spectroscope. Operating in dark condition the proposed LED illuminator provides the level of fluorescence signal sufficient to detect spectral abnormalities in human Caucasian skin and excised gastrointestinal samples. All tissue autofluorescence data taken under LED illumination were compared with readings under He-Cd laser excitation and showed a good match. A new diagnostic designs based on LEDs were considered for clinical use.

  15. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  16. Protein requirement for Trichogaster lalius, blue variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protein requirement of juvenile Trichogaster lalius, blue variety. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (B1 = initial weight of 1.04±0.05 g and B2 = 1.36±0.02 g, with two replicates within each block and five treatments (230, 270, 310, 350 and 390 g CP/kg diet. The fish were fed to satiation, three times a day for 90 days. The study evaluated: survival rate, weight gain, final length, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, specific growth rate and condition factor. There was a linear effect of dietary protein levels for protein efficiency ratio, specific growth rate (positive linear effect and feed conversion ratio (negative linear effect. For weight gain, final length, feed intake and condition factor a quadratic effect of dietary protein levels was observed, with estimated values of 409.8, 366.2, 317.4 and 365.0 g CP/kg diet, to improve their performance parameters. Analysis of growth based on the length of the fish shows that 366.2 g of CP/kg diet meets the protein requirement of juvenile Trichogaster lalius, blue variety.

  17. Kinetics and mechanism of Prussian blue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Adhikamsetty

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of reaction between ferrocyanide and ferric ions under acidic conditions was studied at fixed ionic strength (0.1 M and (25 plus or minus 0.1 oC by using the stopped flow technique, under limiting conditions of [ferrocyanide] and with other reactants in excess. The reaction had first-order dependence on ferrocyanide, Fe(III and H+ ion concentrations and had negative salt effect. On the basis of the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism for the formation of soluble form of Prussian blue (KFe{Fe(CN6}x H2O and rate law are proposed. The activation parameters for the title reaction are estimated. A relatively low energy of activation (23 kJ mol-1 and high negative entropy of activation (-231 J K-1 mol-1 agree well with the proposed mechanism and configuration of complex ion leading to the formation of insoluble Prussian blue, Fe4{Fe(CN6}3 y H2O.

  18. A continuous curriculum for building code blue competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankouskas, T S

    2001-01-01

    Staff response to a code blue can be cultivated when a continuous curriculum for code blue competency is used. This curriculum details ongoing code blue education yet requires only small increments of time for the inservice classes. The curriculum, adaptable to any unit, consists of three components: a unit-specific orientation to emergency equipment; exercises in critical thinking and doing; and exercises in documentation.

  19. The Code Blue Experiences: Gains, Problems and Troubleshooting

    OpenAIRE

    Murat, Emin; Toprak, Selime; Doğan, Derya Buğur; Mordoğan, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The code blue, which is a professional resuscitation team organization, has an important role for the survival of patients with respiratory or/and cardiac arrest in the hospitals. This study was respectively designed to evaluate the affectivity, safety, significance, benefits and outcomes of the code blue implementation in accordance with quality policy of our hospitals. All the code blue calls were respectively reviewed over the period of d 2010 to 2012 years in the Malatya State Hospital th...

  20. Service design as an approach for recognizing blue ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Koskelo, Minna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to show that service design as an approach can be utilized for discovering new market space, referred as blue ocean and new business opportunities, and thus to show that service design can be seen as an approach for bringing the new logic for value creation into strategic level. From the field of strategic management the theory of blue ocean strategy was chosen for presenting the strategic outcome and further since there are similarities be-tween blue ocean strategy approach ...

  1. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  2. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model. Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without 1.00), respectively. Blue plus green phototherapy is as effective as blue phototherapy and it attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Combined blue and green spectra might be effective against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The viability of native microbial communities in martian environment (model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyova, Elena; Cheptcov, Vladimir; Pavlov, Anatolyi; Vdovina, Mariya; Lomasov, Vladimir

    For today the important direction in astrobiology is the experimental simulation of extraterrestrial habitats with the assessment of survivability of microorganisms in such conditions. A new task is to investigate the resistance of native microbial ecosystems which are well adapted to the environment and develop unique protection mechanisms that enable to ensure biosphere formation. The purpose of this research was to study the viability of microorganisms as well as viability of native microbial communities of arid soils and permafrost under stress conditions simulating space environment and martian regolith environment, estimation of duration of Earth like life in the Martian soil. The experimental data obtained give the proof of the preservation of high population density, biodiversity, and reproduction activity under favorable conditions in the Earth analogues of Martian soil - arid soils (Deserts of Israel and Morocco) and permafrost (East Siberia, Antarctica), after the treatment of samples by ionizing radiation dose up to 100 kGy at the pressure of 1 torr, temperature (- 50oC) and in the presence of perchlorate (5%). It was shown that in simulated conditions close to the parameters of the Martian regolith, the diversity of natural bacterial communities was not decreased, and in some cases the activation of some bacterial populations occurred in situ. Our results allow suggesting that microbial communities like those that inhabit arid and permafrost ecosystems on the Earth, can survive at least 500 thousand years under conditions of near surface layer of the Martian regolith. Extrapolation of the data according to the intensity of ionizing radiation to the open space conditions allows evaluating the potential lifespan of cells inside meteorites as 20-50 thousand years at least. In this work new experimental data have been obtained confirming the occurrence of liquid water and the formation of wet soil layer due to sublimation of ice when the temperature of the

  4. Monitoring the viability of citrus rootstocks seeds stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Alves de Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The citrus nursery tree is produced through the bud grafting process, in which rootstock is usually grown from seed germination. The objective of this research was to evaluate, in two dissimilar environmental conditions, the viability and polyembryony expression of five citrus rootstocks seeds stored in different periods under refrigeration. The rootstock varieties evaluated were: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb. cv. Limeira, Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. cv. Limeira, Citrumelo (P. trifoliata x C. paradisi Macf. cv. Swingle, Sunki mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq. cv. Catania 2. The experimental design was the randomized blocks in a 11 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme, evaluating from time zero to the tenth month of storage, the five varieties of rootstock in two environments: germination and growth B.O.D type chamber (Biological Oxygen Demand - Eletrolab Brand Model FC 122 at 25 °C; and greenhouse seedbed with partial temperature control (22 °C to 36 °C and humidity control (75-85%. The plot had 24 seeds in four replicates, using trays with substrate in greenhouse and Petri dishes with filter paper in B.O.D. chamber. The seed germination rate and polyembryony expression were evaluated monthly. It was concluded that Trifoliate and Citrumelo Swingle seeds can be stored for up to seven months, while Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Sunki seeds can be stored for up to ten months. The polyembryony expression rate was slightly higher when measured in greenhouse than in B.O.D. chamber and remained stable in both environments until the seventh month, from which dropped sharply. Citrumelo Swingle seeds expressed the highest polyembryony rate (18.8%, followed by Rangpur lime and Volkamer lemon (average value of 13.7%, Sunki (9.4% and Trifoliate (3.2%. Despite some differences among varieties, the viability of rootstock stored seeds can be monitored either in the greenhouse or in B

  5. Identifying genetic variants that affect viability in large cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakhamanesh Mostafavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of open questions in human evolutionary genetics would become tractable if we were able to directly measure evolutionary fitness. As a step towards this goal, we developed a method to examine whether individual genetic variants, or sets of genetic variants, currently influence viability. The approach consists in testing whether the frequency of an allele varies across ages, accounting for variation in ancestry. We applied it to the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA cohort and to the parents of participants in the UK Biobank. Across the genome, we found only a few common variants with large effects on age-specific mortality: tagging the APOE ε4 allele and near CHRNA3. These results suggest that when large, even late-onset effects are kept at low frequency by purifying selection. Testing viability effects of sets of genetic variants that jointly influence 1 of 42 traits, we detected a number of strong signals. In participants of the UK Biobank of British ancestry, we found that variants that delay puberty timing are associated with a longer parental life span (P~6.2 × 10-6 for fathers and P~2.0 × 10-3 for mothers, consistent with epidemiological studies. Similarly, variants associated with later age at first birth are associated with a longer maternal life span (P~1.4 × 10-3. Signals are also observed for variants influencing cholesterol levels, risk of coronary artery disease (CAD, body mass index, as well as risk of asthma. These signals exhibit consistent effects in the GERA cohort and among participants of the UK Biobank of non-British ancestry. We also found marked differences between males and females, most notably at the CHRNA3 locus, and variants associated with risk of CAD and cholesterol levels. Beyond our findings, the analysis serves as a proof of principle for how upcoming biomedical data sets can be used to learn about selection effects in contemporary humans.

  6. Tooth whitening evaluation of blue covarine containing toothpastes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Qiong; Sun, Jianing N; Philpotts, Carole J; Smith, Richard N; Joiner, Andrew; Ricketts, Stephen R; Naeeni, Mojgan; Tao, Danying

    2017-01-01

    ...; Bleaching; Perception; Aesthetics Abstract Objectives To measure the tooth whitening effects delivered immediately after brushing with silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine in vitro and in vivo...

  7. Tooth whitening evaluation of blue covarine containing toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Danying; Smith, Richard N; Zhang, Qiong; Sun, Jianing N; Philpotts, Carole J; Ricketts, Stephen R; Naeeni, Mojgan; Joiner, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    To measure the tooth whitening effects delivered immediately after brushing with silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine in vitro and in vivo. Salivary pellicle coated human extracted teeth were brushed with either a slurry of a toothpaste containing blue covarine (BC), a formulation containing an increased level of blue covarine (BC+) or a negative control toothpaste containing no blue covarine. The colour of the specimens were measured in vitro using either a Minolta chromameter or a VITA Easyshade spectrophotometer, before and after brushing and changes in CIELAB values and tooth Whiteness Index (WIO) values calculated. In a double-blind cross-over clinical study, subjects brushed with either BC or BC+ toothpaste and tooth colour changes were measured with a digital image analysis system. The in vitro studies demonstrated that toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a significantly (pbrushing with the BC+ toothpaste than with the BC toothpaste (WIO p=0.006; b* p=0.013). Toothpastes containing blue covarine gave a statistically significant reduction in tooth yellowness and improvement in tooth whiteness immediately after brushing in both in vitro and clinical studies. In addition, the higher concentration blue covarine toothpaste gave statistically significant greater tooth whitening benefits than the lower concentration blue covarine toothpaste. The silica-based toothpastes containing blue covarine evaluated in the current study gave tooth whitening benefits immediately after one brush. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of lecithin content blend with poly (L-lactic acid) on viability and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Zhonghua [Cardiac Surgery, First Hospital of Tsinghua University, No.6 Jiuxianqiao 1st Road, Beijing (China); Wu Qingyu, E-mail: wuqingyu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Cardiac Surgery, First Hospital of Tsinghua University, No.6 Jiuxianqiao 1st Road, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-01

    Lecithin constitutes a natural mixture of phospholipids and neutral lipids and plays critical roles in cellular membrane structure and cellular signaling. In this study, lecithin was blended with poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) for modifying the surface of PLLA because it might obtain appropriate hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. The modified PLLA films were manufactured using conventional solvent-casting technique. The hydrophilicity clearly increased with an increase of lecithin content in the polymer blends, as determined by measuring the water contact angle (WCA). The cytocompatibility and any potential cytotoxic effects were studied over 7 days by seeding mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the films of PLLA containing 0-15% lecithin (wt.%), in comparison with tissue culture plates (TCPs). Cell viability and proliferation were assessed using WST-8, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell morphology was studied by toluidine blue and propidium iodide staining. This results obtained above suggested that 5%lecithin-containing PLLA films could possess the optimal hydrophilicity, higher adhesion and proliferation of MSCs for a prolonged period and did not demonstrate any significant toxic effects to cells. The study showed that the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the modified PLLA were markedly improved by directly introducing lecithin into the polymer without the use of multiple synthetic steps. The information obtained should be useful for future research in vascular tissue engineering (VTE).

  9. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and ?Blue Recreation? in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Amber L.; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from camera...

  10. Model Blue Economy di Kawasan Asia Pasifik (Studi Kasus: Penerapan Model Blue Economy pada Industri Perikanan Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Faisyal; Cahayasari, Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    This research explains about blue economy models in Asia Pacific region, especially the implementation of the blue economy models in Indonesia fisheries industry. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum of economic cooperation countries of Asia Pacifik which aims to improve the welfare and economic growth has a vision of marine and fisheries which competitive and sustainable for community welfare. To realize the vision of marine and fisheries development implemented by blue econom...

  11. Impact of Vital Dyes on Cell Viability and Transduction Efficiency of AAV Vectors Used in Retinal Gene Therapy Surgery: An In Vitro and In Vivo Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Anna P; Patrício, Maria I; Barnard, Alun R; Orlans, Harry O; Hickey, Doron G; MacLaren, Robert E

    2017-07-01

    Treatment of inherited retinal degenerations using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors involves delivery by subretinal injection. In the latter stages, alteration of normal anatomy may cause difficulty in visualizing the retinotomy, retinal detachment extension, and vector diffusion. Vital dyes may be useful surgical adjuncts, but their safety and impact on AAV transduction are largely unknown. The effects of Sodium Fluorescein (SF), Membrane Blue (MB), and Membrane Blue Dual (DB) at a range of dilutions were assessed on human embryonic kidney cells in vitro using an AAV2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter at different multiplicities of infection. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to assess both cell viability and transduction efficiency. The effect on quantitative (q)PCR titer was determined. Balanced salt solution (BSS) or dilute DB (1:5 in BSS) were delivered subretinally into left/right eyes of C57BL/6J mice (n = 12). Retinal structure and function were analyzed by optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence, dark-and light-adapted full-field electroretinography. DB and MB were not toxic at any concentration tested, SF only when undiluted. The presence of dyes did not adversely affect the genomic titer. DB even increased the values, due to presence of surfactant in the formulation. AAV2-GFP transduction efficiency was not reduced by the dyes. No structural and functional toxic effects were observed following subretinal delivery of DB. Only undiluted SF affected cell viability. No effects on qPCR titer and transduction efficiency were observed. DB does not appear toxic when delivered subretinally and improves titer accuracy. DB may therefore be a safe and helpful adjunct during gene therapy surgery. This paper might be of interest to the retinal gene therapy community: it is a "bench to bedside" research paper about the potential use of dyes as a surgical adjunct during the gene therapy surgery. We have tested the potential toxicity and impact on

  12. A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strømme

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h−1, compared to 1.09 h−1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces.

  13. Using Bayesian Population Viability Analysis to Define Relevant Conservation Objectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Green

    Full Text Available Adaptive management provides a useful framework for managing natural resources in the face of uncertainty. An important component of adaptive management is identifying clear, measurable conservation objectives that reflect the desired outcomes of stakeholders. A common objective is to have a sustainable population, or metapopulation, but it can be difficult to quantify a threshold above which such a population is likely to persist. We performed a Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis (BMPVA using a dynamic occupancy model to quantify the characteristics of two wood frog (Lithobates sylvatica metapopulations resulting in sustainable populations, and we demonstrate how the results could be used to define meaningful objectives that serve as the basis of adaptive management. We explored scenarios involving metapopulations with different numbers of patches (pools using estimates of breeding occurrence and successful metamorphosis from two study areas to estimate the probability of quasi-extinction and calculate the proportion of vernal pools producing metamorphs. Our results suggest that ≥50 pools are required to ensure long-term persistence with approximately 16% of pools producing metamorphs in stable metapopulations. We demonstrate one way to incorporate the BMPVA results into a utility function that balances the trade-offs between ecological and financial objectives, which can be used in an adaptive management framework to make optimal, transparent decisions. Our approach provides a framework for using a standard method (i.e., PVA and available information to inform a formal decision process to determine optimal and timely management policies.

  14. MODERN TECHNIQUES OF CERVICAL INSTRUMENTATION IN IMMATURE SKELETON: VIABILITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrana Soares Aires

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study describes the use of materials for modern cervical instrumentation, evaluating its viability in children and adolescents, and the techniques used in different cases. The efficacy of the techniques was analyzed through improvement of pain, maintenance of cervical range of motion, recovery of craniocervical stability, bone consolidation, and spinal stenosis in the postoperative follow-up. Method: Retrospective study of the clinical and radiological parameters of 27 patients aged two to 16 years with cervical spine diseases. Results: Two patients had chronic dislocation in C1-C2, one had congenital axis spondylolisthesis, two had congenital dislocation in C1-C2, three had tumors, one had kyphosis after laminectomy, one had post-infection kyphosis, one had fracture, 11 were syndromic with instabilities, and five had congenital cervical scoliosis. As to surgical approaches, two patients were transorally operated, three by anterior approach, 15 by posterior approach, two by anterior and posterior approaches, and five were treated in three stages (anterior, posterior and anterior approaches. Regarding the technique of cervical stabilization, seven patients were treated by Goel-Harms technique, two received Goel’s facet distraction, and three, Wright translaminar screws. There were complications in four cases. Two patients in the instrumentation of C1 lateral mass due to poor positioning, one with cerebrospinal fluid fistula and one with surgical wound infection. Conclusion: Modern cervical instrumentation in pediatric patients is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of cervical instability.

  15. Viability and heat resistance of murine norovirus on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michiko; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-01-04

    Contaminated bread was the cause of a large-scale outbreak of norovirus disease in Japan in 2014. Contamination of seafood and uncooked food products by norovirus has been reported several times in the past; however the outbreak resulting from the contamination of bread products was unusual. A few reports on the presence of norovirus on bread products are available; however there have been no studies on the viability and heat resistance of norovirus on breads, which were investigated in this study. ce:italic>/ce:italic> strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, was inoculated directly on 3 types of bread, but the infectivity of MNV-1 on bread samples was almost unchanged after 5days at 20°C. MNV-1 was inoculated on white bread that was subsequently heated in a toaster for a maximum of 2min. The results showed that MNV-1 remained viable if the heating period was insufficient to inactivate. In addition, bread dough contaminated with MNV-1 was baked in the oven. Our results indicated that MNV-1 may remain viable on breads if the heating duration or temperature is insufficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Methods and applications of population viability analysis (PVA): a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wu, Jian-Guo; Kou, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Tian-Ming; Smith, Andrew T; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    With the accelerating human consumption of natural resources, the problems associated with endangered species caused by habitat loss and fragmentation have become greater and more urgent than ever. Conceptually associated with the theories of island biogeography, population viability analysis (PVA) has been one of the most important approaches in studying and protecting endangered species, and this methodology has occupied a central place in conservation biology and ecology in the past several decades. PVA has been widely used and proven effective in many cases, but its predictive ability and accuracy are still in question. Also, its application needs expand. To overcome some of the problems, we believe that PVA needs to incorporate some principles and methods from other fields, particularly landscape ecology and sustainability science. Integrating landscape pattern and socioeconomic factors into PVA will make the approach theoretically more comprehensive and practically more useful. Here, we reviewed the history, basic conception, research methods, and modeling applications and their accuracies of PVA, and proposed the perspective in this field.

  17. Adverse respiratory outcome after premature rupture of membranes before viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspyck, Eric; Bisson, Violene; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 24 weeks is an independent risk factor for poor outcome in preterm neonates. A retrospective comparative cohort study was conducted, including viable premature infants born between 25 and 34-weeks gestation. Each preterm case with early PPROM was matched with two preterm controls of the same gestational age at birth, sex and birth date and who were born spontaneously with intact membranes. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes for the overall population of preterm infants. Thirty-five PPROM cases were matched with 70 controls. Extreme prematurity (26-28 weeks) was an independent risk factor for composite perinatal adverse outcomes [odds ratio (OR) 43.9; p = 0.001]. Extreme prematurity (OR 42.9; p = 0.001), PPROM (OR 7.1; p = 0.01), male infant (OR 5.2; p = 0.02) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, OR 4.8; p = 0.04) were factors for composite respiratory adverse outcomes. Preterm premature rupture of membranes before viability represents an independent risk factor for composite respiratory adverse outcomes in preterm neonates. Extreme prematurity may represent the main risk factor for both composite respiratory and perinatal adverse outcomes. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Viability of microencapsulated Lactobacillus casei in synbiotic mayonnaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieu, M.D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, whey protein, maltodextrin and GOS (Galacto-oligosaccharides used as microencapsulating agents to protect Lactobacillus casei during spray-drying and mayonnaise storage. The morphology of microcapsules, pH charges, the survival rate during mayonnaise storage as well as survival in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and intestinal fluid (SIF was tested in this study. The results indicated that whey protein showed a protective effect better than maltodextrin during spray-drying. The particles showed spherical shape and typical concavity of all samples and encapsulating agents were not affected by the size and surface structure of particles. The pH charges were not significantly different in all mayonnaise samples in this test. The viability of free cell L. casei after 6 weeks storage was significant decrease about 4 log CFU/g compared to 1.55 to 3.27 log CFU/g in the mayonnaise samples containing microcapsules in which maltodextrin showed the lowest of L. casei survival rate. In SGF and SIF conditions, maltodextrin act as prebiotic sufficiently which do not need adding GOS. The combination of whey protein and maltodextrin in which maltodextrin plays a role as supporting agents for the spray-drying process as well as prebiotic potential, while whey protein with high buffer property which enhancing the survival rate of L. casie in low pH.

  19. Incorporating parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from model projections. We present a method for explicitly incorporating this source of uncertainty into population models to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is incorporated into the replication loop of the model and temporal variance is incorporated into the loop for time steps in the model. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that incorporated parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population models.

  20. Wastewater treatment to enhance the economic viability of microalgae culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, J C M; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Simões, M

    2013-08-01

    Microalgae culture is still not economically viable and it presents some negative environmental impacts, concerning water, nutrient and energy requirements. In this context, this study aims to review the recent advances on microalgal cultures in wastewaters to enhance their economic viability. We focused on three different culture concepts: (1) suspended cell systems, (2) cell immobilization, and (3) microalgae consortia. Cultures with suspended cells are the most studied. The nutrient removal efficiencies are usually high for wastewaters of different sources. However, biomass harvesting is difficult and a costly process due to the small cell size and lower culture density. On the other hand, the cell immobilization systems showed to be the solution for this problem, having as main limitation the nutrient diffusion from bulk to cells, which results in a reduced nutrient removal efficiency. The consortium between microalgae and bacteria enhances the growth of both microorganisms. This culture concept showed to be a promising technology to improve wastewater treatment, regarding not only nutrient removal but also biomass harvesting by bioflocculation. The aggregation mechanism must be studied in depth to find the process parameters that would lead to an effective and cheap harvesting process.

  1. Microscale Electro-Hydrodynamic Cell Printing with High Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiankang; Zhao, Xiang; Chang, Jinke; Li, Dichen

    2017-12-01

    Cell printing has gained extensive attentions for the controlled fabrication of living cellular constructs in vitro. Various cell printing techniques are now being explored and developed for improved cell viability and printing resolution. Here an electro-hydrodynamic cell printing strategy is developed with microscale resolution (95%). Unlike the existing electro-hydrodynamic cell jetting or printing explorations, insulating substrate is used to replace conventional semiconductive substrate as the collecting surface which significantly reduces the electrical current in the electro-hydrodynamic printing process from milliamperes (>0.5 mA) to microamperes (printed cells. The smallest width of the electro-hydrodynamically printed hydrogel filament is 82.4 ± 14.3 µm by optimizing process parameters. Multiple hydrogels or multilayer cell-laden constructs can be flexibly printed under cell-friendly conditions. The printed cells in multilayer hydrogels kept alive and gradually spread during 7-days culture in vitro. This exploration offers a novel and promising cell printing strategy which might benefit future biomedical innovations such as microscale tissue engineering, organ-on-a-chip systems, and nanomedicine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Tissue viability monitoring: a multi-sensor wearable platform approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Davidson, Alan; Buis, Arjan; Glesk, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    Health services worldwide are seeking ways to improve patient care for amputees suffering from diabetes, and at the same time reduce costs. The monitoring of residual limb temperature, interface pressure and gait can be a useful indicator of tissue viability in lower limb amputees especially to predict the occurrence of pressure ulcers. This is further exacerbated by elevated temperatures and humid micro environment within the prosthesis which encourages the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown. Wearable systems for prosthetic users have to be designed such that the sensors are minimally obtrusive and reliable enough to faithfully record movement and physiological signals. A mobile sensor platform has been developed for use with the lower limb prosthetic users. This system uses an Arduino board that includes sensors for temperature, gait, orientation and pressure measurements. The platform transmits sensor data to a central health authority database server infrastructure through the Bluetooth protocol at a suitable sampling rate. The data-sets recorded using these systems are then processed using machine learning algorithms to extract clinically relevant information from the data. Where a sensor threshold is reached a warning signal can be sent wirelessly together with the relevant data to the patient and appropriate medical personnel. This knowledge is also useful in establishing biomarkers related to a possible deterioration in a patient's health or for assessing the impact of clinical interventions.

  3. Viability of osteocytes in bone autografts harvested for dental implantology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, Bernard [CFI-College Francais d' Implantologie, 6 rue de Rome, 75008 Paris (France); Gaudin, Christine; Georgeault, Sonia; Mallet, Romain; Basle, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.chappard@univ-angers.f [INSERM, U 922-LHEA, Faculte de Medecine, 49045 Angers Cedex (France)

    2009-02-15

    Bone autograft remains a very useful and popular way for filling bone defects. In maxillofacial surgery or implantology, it is used to increase the volume of the maxilla or mandible before placing dental implants. Because there is a noticeable delay between harvesting the graft and its insertion in the receiver site, we evaluated the morphologic changes at the light and transmission electron microscopy levels. Five patients having an autograft (bone harvested from the chin) were enrolled in the study. A small fragment of the graft was immediately fixed after harvesting and a second one was similarly processed at the end of the grafting period when bone has been stored at room temperature for a 20 min +- 33 s period in saline. A net increase in the number of osteocyte lacunae filled with cellular debris was observed (+41.5%). However no cytologic alteration could be observed in the remaining osteocytes. The viability of these cells is known to contribute to the success of autograft in association with other less well-identified factors.

  4. Viability of Variable Generalised Chaplygin gas - a thermodynamical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, D

    2016-01-01

    The viability of the variable generalised Chaplygin gas (VGCG) model is analysed from the standpoint of its thermodynamical stability criteria with the help of an equation of state, $P = - \\frac{B}{\\rho^{\\alpha}}$, where $B = B_{0}V^{-\\frac{n}{3}}$. Here $B_{0}$ is assumed to be a positive universal constant, $n$ is a constant parameter and $V$ is the volume of the cosmic fluid. We get the interesting result that if the well-known stability conditions of a fluid is adhered to, the values of $n$ are constrained to be negative definite to make $ \\left(\\frac{\\partial P}{\\partial V}\\right)_{S} <0$ \\& $ \\left(\\frac{\\partial P}{\\partial V}\\right)_{T} <0$ throughout the evolution. Moreover the positivity of thermal capacity at constant volume $c_{V}$ as also the validity of the third law of thermodynamics are ensured in this case. For the particular case $n = 0$ the effective equation of state reduces to $\\Lambda$CDM model in the late stage of the universe while for $n <0$ it mimics a phantom-like cosmo...

  5. Evaluating the Viability of Mobile Learning to Enhance Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Macdonald

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative research project was conducted to test the viability of augmenting an e-learning program for workplace learners using mobile content delivered through smart phones. Ten learners taking a six week web-based e-learning course were given smart phones which enabled them to access approximately 70% of the course content, in addition to having access to the full course via a standard e-learning website. Mobile content was provided in a variety of forms, including text, audio and video files, a mobile multiple-choice quiz website, and links to streaming videos. Study participants who were regular users of mobile phones found the mobile learning materials to be user-friendly, offering increased convenience and flexibility. Use of the mobile content tended to increase as learners spent more time in their day away from locations where Internet-linked computers could be found. Video was found to be the most effective means of presenting content, followed by audio and text. The most promising role of mobile learning appears to be to augment rather than replace e-learning or blended learning.

  6. Demographic rates and population viability of black bears in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Clark, Joseph D.; Hooker, Michael J.; Lowe, Carrie L.; O'Connell-Goode, Kaitlin C.; Troxler, Jesse C.; Davidson, Maria M.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Chandler, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    observed 43 yearling litters for 33 females in the TRB and 21 yearling litters for 19 females in the TRC. The estimated number of cubs and number of yearlings produced per breeding adult female was 0.47 and 0.20, respectively, in the TRB and 0.32 and 0.18 in the TRC. On the basis of matrix projection models, asymptotic growth rates ranged from 1.053 to 1.078 for the TRB and from 1.005 to 1.062 for the TRC, depending on how we treated unresolved fates of adult females. Persistence probabilities estimated from stochastic population models based on telemetry data ranged from 0.997 to 0.998 for the TRC subpopulation depending on model assumptions and were >0.999 for the TRB regardless of model assumptions. We extracted DNA from hair collected at baited, barbed-wire enclosures in the TRB, UARB, and LARB to determine individual identities for capture-mark-recapture (CMR) analysis. We used those detection histories to estimate apparent survival (φ), per-capita recruitment (f), abundance (N), realized growth rate (λ), and long-term viability, based on Bayesian hierarchical modeling methods that allowed estimation of temporal process variance and parameter uncertainty. Based on 23,312 hair samples, annual N for females in the TRB ranged from 133 to 164 during 2006–2012, depending on year and how detection heterogeneity was modeled. Geometric mean of λ ranged from 0.996 to 1.002. In the UARB, we collected 11,643 hair samples from 2007 to 2012, from which estimates of N for females ranged from 23 to 43 during the study period, depending on detection heterogeneity model. The geometric mean of λ ranged from 1.038 to 1.059. Estimated N for females in LARB ranged from 69 to 96, and annual λ ranged from 0.80 to 1.11 based on 3,698 hair samples collected during 2010–2012, also depending on year and heterogeneity model. Probabilities of persistence over 100 years for the TRC and TRB based on stochastic matrix projection models that used vital rate estimates from telemetry data were

  7. Chemicals and lemon essential oil effect on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is considered to be one of the important target microorganisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. There is an urgent need to develop a suitable method for inhibiting or controlling the germination and outgrowth of A.acidoterrestris in acidic drinks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemicals used in the lemon industry (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and lemon essential oil as a natural compound, against a strain of A.acidoterrestris in MEB medium and in lemon juice concentrate. The results pointed out that sodium benzoate (500-1000-2000 ppm and lemon essential oil (0.08- 0.12- 0.16% completely inhibited the germination of A. acidoterrestris spores in MEB medium and LJC for 11 days. Potassium sorbate (600-1200 ppm was more effective to inhibit the growth of the microbial target in lemon juice than in MEB medium. The effect of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and essential oil was sporostatic in MEB and LJC as they did not affect spore viability.

  8. Effect of different carbon nanotubes on cell viability and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, Milena [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Gattia, Daniele Mirabile [Divisione nuovi materiali ENEA Casaccia (Italy); Bellucci, Stefano [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); De Bellis, Giovanni [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Micciulla, Federico [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Pastore, Roberto [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Tiberia, Alessandra [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Cerella, Claudia [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); D' Alessio, Maria [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Antisari, Marco Vittori [Divisione nuovi materiali ENEA Casaccia (Italy); Marazzi, Renzo [Divisione nuovi materiali ENEA Casaccia (Italy); Traversa, Enrico [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Magrini, Andrea [Cattedra Medicina del Lavoro, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Bergamaschi, Antonio [Cattedra di Medicina del Lavoro, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); Ghibelli, Lina [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a focus of intense research for their potential applications in multiple diverse applications, including innovative biomedical applications. Due to their very recent discovery, little information is available about the biocompatibility and toxicity of this new class of nanoparticle, and a systematic study on biological interference is lacking. Thus, we decided to explore the toxicity of three different types of carbon nanotube, differing in preparation (arc discharge versus catalysed chemical vapour deposition); size (10-50 versus 100-150 nm wide x 1-10 {mu}m long); contaminants (amorphous C, graphite, fullerenes or iron) and morphological type (multi-walled, MW, or single-walled, SW) on human leukemic U937 cells. We found that these carbon nanotubes exert a strong effect on the proliferation of the reporter U937 monocytic cell. However, these CNTs did not significantly affect the cell viability. These results show that CNTs, though not directly exerting a direct cytotoxic effect, are nonetheless able to deeply alter cell behaviour, and thus we recommend thorough analyses to limit health risk due to uncontrolled exposure.

  9. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is obviously a feature whose

  10. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass; Macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadar, Z.; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsoe Nielsen, H.; Ejbye Schmidt, J.

    2011-05-15

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth medium, light as energy source and they capture CO{sub 2} for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can be the well suited candidates as feedstock for biofuel production in the future. The aim of our studies is to examine the possibility producing liquid biofuel (ethanol and butanol) from macroalgaes. (Author)

  11. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device.

  12. Ultrasound promoted synthesis of Nile Blue derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, B Rama; Sampaio, Diogo M F; Silva, M M; Coutinho, Paulo J G; Gonçalves, M Sameiro T

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound irradiation was used for the first time towards the synthesis of new Nile Blue related benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides possessing isopentylamino, (2-cyclohexylethyl)amino and phenethylamino groups at 5-position of the heterocyclic system. The efficacy of sonochemistry was investigated with some of our earlier reported synthesis of benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides. This newer protocol proved competent in terms of reaction times and enhanced yields. Photophysical studies carried out in ethanol, water and simulated physiological conditions, revealed that emission maxima occurred in the range 644-656 nm, with high fluorescent quantum yields. Other attractive feature exhibited by these materials includes good thermal stability. These properties might be useful in the development of fluorescent probes for biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Blue native-gel electrophoresis proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Kelly; King, Adrienne; Bailey, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the mitochondrion in maintaining normal cellular physiology has long been appreciated. Recently there has been an upsurge in mitochondrial research due to increased recognition that a number of diseases are caused by defective functioning of this key intracellular organelle. Given this, along with advances made in proteomics technologies, the mitochondrion is clearly recognized as a top candidate for proteomics analysis. However, mitochondrial proteomics is not a trivial undertaking due to physicochemical properties that impair the resolution of inner mitochondrial membrane proteins when using conventional proteomic gel electrophoresis procedures. To circumvent such problems, many laboratories have adapted blue native-gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), a specialized type of native-gel electrophoresis, to generate high-resolution proteomic maps of the oxidative phosphorylation system. In this short overview the concepts and methods of BN-PAGE are presented, which demonstrate the power of using this complementary proteomics approach to identify alterations in the mitochondrial proteome that contribute to disease.

  14. Lidemburgo blues, a palavra para o ausente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Moreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem por objetivo trabalhar com o livro de poesias Lidemburgo blues, de Luís Carlos Patraquim, publicado em 1997 na cidade de Lisboa. A partir dessa obra, procurar-se-á se refletir sobre a produção poética do autor, destacando-se a sua condição de exercício imaginário que perpetra certa crise da representação. Ao verificar-se a vizinhança estabelecida pelos poemas com a temática da morte, percebe-se a ênfase no aspecto de falência que contamina a imagem poética, o que se revela como um estado de fendimento da escrita.Palavras-chave: Poesia contemporânea; Poesia de língua portuguesa; Poesia moçambicana; Ruína; Representação.

  15. Novel host materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohriegl, Peter; Wagner, Daniel; Schrögel, Pamela; Hoffmann, Sebastian T.; Köhler, Anna; Heinemeyer, Ute; Münster, Ingo

    2013-09-01

    We present two classes of host materials for blue phosphors. The first are carbazole substituted biphenyls 1-9. In these CBP-type materials the triplets are confined to one half of the molecules by using either twisted biphenyls or by a metalinkage of the carbazoles to the biphenyl. We obtained high triplet energies of 2.95-2.98 eV and high glass transition temperatures in the range of 100-120 °C. OLEDs were fabricated using the host material 6 and the carbene emitter Ir(dbfmi) with pure blue emission at 450 nm. The devices achieved an external quantum efficiency of 8.7% at 100 cd/m2 and 6.1% at 1000 cd/m2. MBPTRZ with an electron transporting biscarbazolyltriazine that is separated from the hole transporting carbazole by a non-conjugated, meta-linked biphenyl unit is an example for a bipolar matrix material. The excellent glass forming properties and the high Tg of 132 °C ensure morphological stability in OLEDs. The meta-linkage and the additional twist at the biphenyl unit, which is achieved by two methyl groups in the 2- and 2'-position of the biphenyl in MBPTRZ leads to a decoupling of the electron accepting and electron donating part and therefore to a high triplet energy of 2.81 eV. DFT calculations show a clear separation of the electron and hole transporting moieties. A phosphorescent OLED with MBPTRZ as host and FIrpic as emitter reached a maximum external quantum efficiency of 7.0%, a current efficiency of 16.3 cd/A and a power efficiency of 6.3 lm/W.

  16. Underwater Chaotic Lidar using Blue Laser Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Luke K.

    The thesis proposes and explores an underwater lidar system architecture based on chaotic modulation of recently introduced, commercially available, low cost blue laser diodes. This approach is experimentally shown to allow accurate underwater impulse response measurements while eliminating the need for several major components typically found in high-performance underwater lidar systems. The proposed approach is to: 1. Generate wideband, noise-like intensity modulation signals using optical chaotic modulation of blue-green laser diodes, and then 2. Use this signal source to develop an underwater chaotic lidar system that uses no electrical signal generator, no electro-optic modulator, no optical frequency doubler, and no large-aperture photodetector. The outcome of this thesis is the demonstration of a new underwater lidar system architecture that could allow high resolution ranging, imaging, and water profiling measurements in turbid water, at a reduced size, weight, power and cost relative to state-of-the-art high-performance underwater lidar sensors. This work also makes contributions to the state of the art in optics, nonlinear dynamics, and underwater sensing by demonstrating for the first time: 1. Wideband noise-like intensity modulation of a blue laser diode using no electrical signal generator or electro-optic modulator. Optical chaotic modulation of a 462 nm blue InGaN laser diode by self-feedback is explored for the first time. The usefulness of the signal to chaotic lidar is evaluated in terms of bandwidth, modulation depth, and autocorrelation peak-to-sidelobe-ratio (PSLR) using both computer and laboratory experiments. In laboratory experiments, the optical feedback technique is shown to be effective in generating wideband, noise-like chaotic signals with strong modulation depth when the diode is operated in an external-cavity dominated state. The modulation signal strength is shown to be limited by the onset of lasing within the diode's internal

  17. Evaluation of the viability of HL60 cells in contact with commonly used microchip materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, F.; ter Braak, Paulus Martinus; le Gac, Severine; Lüttge, Regina; Andersson, Helene; Vermes, I.; van den Berg, Albert; Jensen, K.F; Han, J.; Harrison, D.J.; Voldman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents beneficial data when deciding to perform cell experiments in lab-on- a-chip devices. The choice of material can influence the viability of mammalian cells. PDMS, precoated with serum or not, suits well for HL60 cells, demonstrating the best results in the viability experiments,

  18. Linking population viability, habitat suitability, and landscape simulation models for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Larson; Frank R., III Thompson; Joshua J. Millspaugh; William D. Dijak; Stephen R. Shifley

    2004-01-01

    Methods for habitat modeling based on landscape simulations and population viability modeling based on habitat quality are well developed, but no published study of which we are aware has effectively joined them in a single, comprehensive analysis. We demonstrate the application of a population viability model for ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus)...

  19. Sustainable model for financial viability of decentralized biomass gasifier based power projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palit, D.; Malhotra, R.; Kumar, Atul

    2011-01-01

    This paper made a modest attempt for designing a sustainable model for financial viability of biomass gasifier power projects for enhancing electricity access in India and other developing countries. For long term sustainability of distributed generation projects in remote rural areas, viability

  20. The effect of oestradiol-17β on the motility, viability and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of oestradiol-17β on the motility, viability and the acrosomal status of bull sperm. ... Pooled semen from Holstein bulls were incubated in the presence of 2, 4, and 8 μg E2/mL for 24 h. Semen was also incubated in ... on viability. Keywords: Bovine males, estradiol, acrosome, motility, spermatozoa, in vitro incubation ...